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1

Father Involvement: No Moms Allowed.  

Science.gov (United States)

A "Father's Day" was created to promote fathers' participation in a preschool class for physically handicapped and developmentally delayed children. Planning and actual implementation are described along with suggestions for making the day a success. (CL)

Hietsch, Doreen Gunther

1986-01-01

2

Welfare reform, fertility, and father involvement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recognizing that most poor families are single-parent families, the federal welfare reform law of 1996 emphasized the responsibility of both parents to support their children. In addition to strengthening the child support enforcement system, the law included several provisions designed to decrease childbearing outside of marriage and to promote two-parent families. This article focuses on the important role that fathers play in children's lives and how public policies have affected childbearing and father involvement. Key observations are: Compared with children living with both biological parents, children in father-absent families often have fewer economic and socioemotional resources from their parents, and do not fare as well on many outcome measures. Efforts to reduce the rising number of father-absent families by focusing on preventing unwanted pregnancy among unmarried women, especially teen girls, have met with some success; those programs seeking to alter adolescents' life opportunities in addition to providing education or family planning services appear to hold the most promise. Efforts to encourage greater father involvement by focusing almost exclusively on increasing absent parents' child support payments reap only minimal benefits for poor children because their absent parents often have few resources and little incentive to make support payments. To date, efforts to increase the emotional involvement of unmarried fathers with their children have produced disappointing results, but new research suggests that such programs can make a difference when targeting fathers at the time of a child's birth. Many children spend some time living away from their fathers, deprived of the financial and emotional resources they can provide. Because of the importance of fathers to child well-being, the authors conclude that new directions in research and public policies are needed to encourage greater father involvement across the wide diversity of family arrangements in society today. PMID:11980034

McLanahan, Sara S; Carlson, Marcia J

2002-01-01

3

Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Nonresident Father Involvement  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is the first to examine racial and ethnic diversity in nonresident father involvement for multiple domains of father involvement. Data come from a sample of 5,377 adolescents with nonresident fathers in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Add Health. In addition to contact, we explore more intensive types of involvement

King, Valarie; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Heard, Holly E.

2004-01-01

4

Another baby? Father involvement and childbearing in fragile families.  

Science.gov (United States)

An historic number of women in the United States have children outside of marriage, and with more than one father, yet little research has examined the association between family process and women's childbearing decisions. Using a subsample of unmarried women from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 2028), a study of primarily low-income unmarried parents, we conducted discrete-time survival analysis models to predict whether women had another child with the focal child's father (same-father birth) or with a new father (new-father birth). Father involvement was measured by engagement, indirect care, accessibility, and financial support. Overall, mothers who reported greater engagement and indirect care from the focal child's father were more likely to have a same-father birth even when he was not living in her home, and were also less likely to have a new-father birth. Further, mothers who reported greater accessibility and stable financial support from the focal child's nonresident father were also less likely to have a new-father birth. One pathway through which this may have occurred was that single mothers who perceived less indirect care and accessibility from the focal child's nonresident father were more likely to begin new romantic relationships. Indeed, whether or not the mother had a new romantic partner partially mediated the association between indirect care and a same-father birth and fully mediated the association between accessibility and a new-father birth, suggesting that one pathway linking father involvement to a new-father birth was through maternal repartnering. Clinical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:23244460

Kotila, Letitia E; Kamp Dush, Claire M

2012-12-01

5

Fathers' Involvement with Their Nonresident Children and Material Hardship.  

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Children in single-parent families, particularly children born to unmarried parents, are at high risk for experiencing material hardship. Previous research based on cross-sectional data suggests that father involvement, especially visitation, diminishes hardship. This article uses longitudinal data to examine the associations between nonresident fathers' involvement with their children and material hardship in the children's households. Results suggest that fathers' formal and informal child support payments and contact with their children independently reduce the number of hardships in the mothers' households; however, only the impact of fathers' contact with children is robust in models that include lagged dependent variables or individual fixed effects. Furthermore, cross-lagged models suggest that material hardship decreases future father involvement, but future hardship is not diminished by father involvement (except in-kind contributions). These results point to the complexity of these associations and to the need for future research to focus on heterogeneity of effects within the population. PMID:21822335

Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Garfinkel, Irwin

2011-03-01

6

Fathers' Involvement with Their Nonresident Children and Material Hardship  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Children in single-parent families, particularly children born to unmarried parents, are at high risk for experiencing material hardship. Previous research based on cross-sectional data suggests that father involvement, especially visitation, diminishes hardship. This article uses longitudinal data to examine the associations between nonresident fathers' involvement with their children and material hardship in the children's households. Results suggest that fathers' formal and informal child ...

Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Garfinkel, Irwin

2011-01-01

7

Understanding fatherhood in Greece: father's involvement in child care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study aims to depict a picture of Greek fathers concerning their involvement in family and child-centered tasks over the first year of the child. Eighty fathers from rural areas with low educational and occupational status and eighty fathers from urban districts with high educational and occupational status were asked to talk about their own perceptions of fatherhood and also their participation into two parenting commitments: (a preparations before and after the birth of the child and (b involvement in play with the child and a variety of daily child-care tasks. The results show that fathers in urban regions were more involved in these activities than their counterparts in rural areas. All fathers valued fatherhood as a pleasant experience. Many fathers, however, stated that child-rearing responsibilities cause them a lot of psychological strain. The results are discussed in relation to the division of roles between spouses in Greek families.

Maridaki-Kassotaki Katerina

2000-01-01

8

Reaching Out to Fathers: An Examination of Staff Efforts That Lead to Greater Father Involvement in Early Childhood Programs  

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Full Text Available In recent years, researchers and practitioners have become increasingly interested in father/male involvement in early childhood programs. However, few empirical studies have examined early childhood educators' efforts to involve fathers in such programs. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess early childhood educators' efforts to involve fathers and to determine which efforts lead to greater success at overall father involvement. Surveys were completed by 213 early childhood educators attending regional training events. Findings demonstrate that efforts are being made in a number of areas to increase father involvement. Multiple regression analysis revealed that three factors significantly accounted for early childhood educators' success at involving fathers: (1 including the father's name on the enrollment form, (2 sending written correspondence to fathers even if they live apart from their children, and (3 inviting fathers to the center to participate in educational activities with their children. Implications for practitioners are discussed.

Stephen Green

2003-01-01

9

Preconception and prenatal testing of biologic fathers for carrier status  

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The familial nature of genetic conditions often requires the testing of parents and other family members in order to determine the relationship of a genetic change to a clinical phenotype or to determine potential reproductive risks. When required as part of prenatal and preconceptional genetic testing services, time constraints and the costs and risks of alternatives to testing parents require that payers have established policies for how both maternal and paternal tests that inform fetal te...

Pletcher, Beth A.; Bocian, Maureen

2006-01-01

10

Reciprocal Longitudinal Relations between Nonresident Father Involvement and Adolescent Delinquency  

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Using a representative sample of low-income, primarily minority adolescents (N=647, aged 10-14 years at Wave 1), this study examined bidirectional longitudinal relations between nonresident father involvement, defined as contact and responsibility for children's care and behavior, and adolescent engagement in delinquent activities. Autoregressive…

Coley, Rebekah Levine; Medeiros, Bethany L.

2007-01-01

11

Child Support, Father–Child Contact, and Preteens’ Involvement with Nonresidential Fathers: Racial/Ethnic Differences  

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This study examined how child support, frequency of contact with children, and the relationship between nonresidential parents influenced preteens’ reports of the involvement of fathers and mothers in their life. Data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) that has followed the children of NLSY mothers from birth into their twenties. Results showed that increases in child support and in contact with the child over time after separation are linked to a better copare...

Hofferth, Sandra L.; Forry, Nicole D.; Peters, H. Elizabeth

2010-01-01

12

Father Involvement with Three-to-Four-Year Olds at Home: Giving Fathers a Chance  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined fathers' perceptions regarding their home-based activities (HBA) and the influence of fathers' demographic characteristics on their perceptions and practices at home. A total of 396 fathers completed a survey questionnaire describing their demographic information, perceptions and their practices regarding their…

Betawi, Iman Amy; Abdel Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil; AL Jabery, Mohammad. A.; Zaza, Haidar Ibrahim; Al-Shboul, Muhannad

2014-01-01

13

African American Fathers' Involvement in Home and Schools: An Interpretive Analysis of Their Beliefs and Experiences  

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The lack of research about Black fathers and their involvement with schools was the primary motivation for this mixed method dissertation study. This discourse provides a much-needed account of what the nature is of Black father's involvement with schools, why and how they do it, and how student performance is influenced by Black fathers'…

Jones, Tomashu

2012-01-01

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Black Father Involvement in Gifted Education: Thoughts from Black Fathers on Increasing/Improving Black Father-Gifted Teacher Partnerships  

Science.gov (United States)

Black fathers are important advocates in addressing the underrepresentation of Black students in gifted programs, as well as the achievement gaps between Black and White students. Black fathers increasingly understand the important role that Black mothers have traditionally played in supporting their gifted children's school experiences. As a…

Grantham, Tarek C.; Henfield, Malik S.

2011-01-01

15

The father at the bedside: patterns of involvement in the NICU.  

Science.gov (United States)

Father's involvement is important to child development, yet little is known about how fathers are involved with their newborns in neonatal intensive care. The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of fathers' involvement with their infants during hospitalization. Eighteen fathers of infants hospitalized were interviewed and asked to describe how they were involved with their infants. Interview, sociodemographic, and infant medical data were analyzed using cross-case analysis to describe patterns of involvement. Three patterns were identified. Equal to mother fathers perceived their involvement to be the same as the mothers'. They were intrinsically motivated, not working, and spent many hours daily with their infants. They engaged in skin-to-skin care and bathed their infants. Mother more important fathers viewed the mothers' role as more important. They were working, visited a few hours most days, and perceived their role as supporting the mothers. Reluctant fathers were reticent to become involved, described extrinsic sources of motivation, and were fearful of handling their infants. Not all fathers wish to be involved to the same extent with their infants. Nurses need to assess fathers' preferences and facilitate involvement to the extent that they feel comfortable. PMID:23360945

Feeley, Nancy; Sherrard, Kathyrn; Waitzer, Elana; Boisvert, Linda

2013-01-01

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THE EFFECTS OF FATHER INVOLVEMENT TRAINING ON FAMILY FUNCTIONING AND ADOLESCENTS’ PEER RELATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was twofold: (a to design and determine the effect of Father Involvement Training (FIT, which is based on social-cognitive theory principles, on family functioning in father-adolescent relationships, and (b to examine the effect of Father Involvement Training (FIT on the quality of the peer relationships of 9th grade high school students, whose fathers participated in the study. The sample was composed of twenty- six 9th grade students’ fathers. The 2x3 experimental design examined pre-training, post-training and six-month follow-up measurements of an experimental group and control group. Data were collected through Parent Success Indicator (PSI, Parent Adolescent Relationship Scale (PARS and Peer Relationship Scale (PRS. Data were analyzed by employing Mann Whitney U Test, Friedman Test, and Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test. The results revealed that the Father Involvement Training had significant effects on the father-child relationship and family functioning of experimental group’s fathers. The adolescents, whose fathers participated in the experimental group, had improved in close-relationship and sensitivity dimensions at the end of the study. However, the improvements were not maintained after the six months follow-up measurements. Lastly, there was a significant improvement in the trust and identification dimension of peer relationship levels of children whose fathers received the training compared to children whose fathers did not receive the training.

Ercan KOCAYÖRÜK

2009-01-01

17

Parental Depression, Relationship Quality, and Nonresident Father Involvement with Their Infants  

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The role of depression in nonresident fathers' involvement with their infant children is poorly understood. A three-factor model of father involvement was evaluated, and its association with parental relationship quality and depressive symptoms in both parents were tested. Data on 569 families from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study were used.…

Paulson, James F.; Dauber, Sarah E.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

2011-01-01

18

Creating Paths to Father Involvement: Lessons from Early Head Start. Issue Brief # 1  

Science.gov (United States)

A growing body of research shows that having an involved father enhances a child's well-being. This four-page issue brief, based on Mathematica's evaluation of the Early Head Start Fatherhood Demonstration, delineates lessons for policymakers and practitioners who are embarking on new efforts to increase fathers' involvement in Head Start and…

Burwick, Andrew; Bellotti, Jeanne

2005-01-01

19

Fathers’ emotional involvement with the neonate: impact of the umbilical cord cutting experience  

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Abstract Aims. This paper is a report on a study analysing the effect of the umbilical cord cutting experience on fathers’ emotional involvement with their infants. Background. Participation in childbirth offers an opportunity for father and mother to share the childbirth experience, so it is vital that midwives improve the fathers’ participation in this event. Design. A quasi-experimental study with a quantitative methodology was implemented. Methods. One hundred ...

Branda?o, S.; Figueiredo, B.

2012-01-01

20

Envolvimento paterno aos três meses de vida do bebê Fathers' involvement during the baby's third month  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou o envolvimento paterno aos três meses de vida do bebê. Foram entrevistados 38 pais primíparos, com idades entre 20 e 40 anos. Realizou-se uma análise de conteúdo baseada nas dimensões do conceito de envolvimento paterno: interação, acessibilidade e responsabilidade. Os pais revelaram envolverem-se nas atividades de cuidado, embora nem sempre de maneira rotineira. Também relataram preocupações e envolvimento nas decisões relativas aos cuidados, educação e saúde do bebê. Contudo, consideravam que sua participação estava aquém da ideal em função das restrições impostas pelo trabalho. Os resultados apontam para um aumento no envolvimento paterno nos primeiros meses do bebê e para a necessidade de apoio aos pais neste momento de transição familiar.This study investigated the involvement of fathers when their baby was three months old. Participants included 38 primiparous fathers with ages from 20 to 40 years. The fathers' interviews were content analyzed, based on three dimensions of father involvement: interaction, accessibility and responsibility. Fathers reported their involvement in many care activities, although not always routinely. They also mentioned worries and a much involvement in decisions related to care, education and baby's health. However, fathers considered their participation less than desired due to work-related time restrictions. These results indicated an increase in father involvement during the baby's third month and the need for emotional support for the fathers during this family transition.

Cesar Augusto Piccinini

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
21

Parenting as a “Package Deal”: Relationships, Fertility, and Nonresident Father Involvement Among Unmarried Parents  

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Fatherhood has traditionally been viewed as part of a “package deal” in which a father’s relationship with his child is contingent on his relationship with the mother. We evaluate the accuracy of this hypothesis in light of the high rates of multiple-partner fertility among unmarried parents using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a recent longitudinal survey of nonmarital births in large cities. We examine whether unmarried mothers’ and fathers’ subsequent relationship and parenting transitions are associated with declines in fathers’ contact with their nonresident biological children. We find that father involvement drops sharply after relationships between unmarried parents end. Mothers’ transitions into new romantic partnerships and new parenting roles are associated with larger declines in involvement than fathers’ transitions. Declines in fathersinvolvement following a mother’s relationship or parenting transition are largest when children are young. We discuss the implications of our results for the well-being of nonmarital children and the quality of nonmarital relationships faced with high levels of relationship instability and multiple-partner fertiliy. PMID:20355690

TACH, LAURA; MINCY, RONALD; EDIN, KATHRYN

2010-01-01

22

Impact of Father Involvement: A Closer Look at Indirect Effects Models Involving Marriage and Child Adjustment  

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In this article we present a framework for understanding the indirect effects of fathering on child development in the context of the marriage. We discuss three central pathways of influence: through relations between marital quality and fathering, through children's exposure to father expressions of marital discord, and through relations between…

Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark

2007-01-01

23

Parenting as a "package deal": relationships, fertility, and nonresident father involvement among unmarried parents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatherhood has traditionally been viewed as part of a "package deal" in which a father's relationship with his child is contingent on his relationship with the mother. We evaluate the accuracy of this hypothesis in light of the high rates of multiple-partner fertility among unmarried parents using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a recent longitudinal survey of nonmarital births in large cities. We examine whether unmarried mothers' and fathers' subsequent relationship and parenting transitions are associated with declines in fathers' contact with their nonresident biological children. We find that father involvement drops sharply after relationships between unmarried parents end. Mothers 'transitions into new romantic partnerships and new parenting roles are associated with larger declines in involvement than fathers' transitions. Declines in fathers' involvement following a mother's relationship or parenting transition are largest when children are young. We discuss the implications of our results for the well-being of nonmarital children and the quality of nonmarital relationships faced with high levels of relationship instability and multiple-partner fertility. PMID:20355690

Tach, Laura; Mincy, Ronald; Edin, Kathryn

2010-02-01

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Intervening with Teachers To Encourage Father Male Involvement in Early Childhood Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the impact of an intervention program targeted at teachers and designed to encourage father/male involvement in state-funded prekindergarten programs for at-risk children. Findings suggested that a significantly higher proportion of the parent involvement contacts and activities at the treatment site program involved

McBride, Brent A.; Rane, Thomas R.; Bae, Ji-Hi

2001-01-01

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NEW FATHER'S EXPERIENCES WITH THEIR OWN FATHERS AND ATTITUDES TOWARD FATHERING  

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Using the baseline father sample of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n=3,525), I consider how father type and presence and biological father involvement is associated with new father's attitudes toward fathering, testing the modeling and compensatory hypotheses. Results generally support the modeling hypothesis. Relative to new fathers who had a very involved coresidential father, men whose father was less involved are less likely to support the notion that fathers serve as au...

Guzzo, Karen Benjamin

2011-01-01

26

Non-Resident Father Involvement with Their Two-Year-Old Children: Findings from the ECLS-B  

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The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of non-residential father-child involvement with their children at age 2. This study utilized secondary analysis of data collected through the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort. Participants included 650 biological fathers who did not reside with their child at age 2. Significant…

Meece, Darrell

2013-01-01

27

An examination of dependence power, father involvement, and judgments about violence in an at-risk community sample of mothers.  

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Individuals sometimes remain in dysfunctional, and even violent, relationships due to a perceived dependence on a partner. We examined the influence of dependence power judgments (defined by a combined assessment of mother commitment, perceived father commitment, and perceived father alternatives) in a community sample of mothers potentially bound to a relationship with the father of her child. We also considered the influence of perceived father involvement in the child's life on judgments related to dependence power. Using a survey design with a sample of 100 mothers (age: 16-43, M = 29.16, SD = 7.17 years old) enrolled in a local Early Head Start/Head Start program, we observed that a mother's perceived father involvement was positively associated with judgments of her dependence power. Furthermore, we observed that her assessment of dependence power was negatively associated with her tolerance for both physical and psychological violence as well as the use of destructive child discipline tactics. PMID:21859752

Samp, Jennifer A; Abbott, Leslie

2011-12-01

28

Who are the fathers in Healthy Families Arizona? An examination of father data in at-risk families.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite substantial research documenting the importance of father-child relations, little is known about fathers in families considered at risk for child abuse, and this lack of information makes adequate targeting of fathers in interventions challenging. This research aims to provide information that will aid interventions in targeting fathers and addressing father-related family issues through: (a) providing descriptive information regarding fathers in families at risk for child abuse, and (b) examining aspects of family well-being relative to father involvement. Analyses were conducted on mother-report data in families eligible for the Healthy Families Arizona prevention program (N = 197). Results indicated that although only 15% of parents in the sample were married, 47% of families had resident fathers, and 77% of fathers had some contact with their new babies. Families with greater father involvement had better prenatal care, higher incomes, less maternal involvement in Child Protective Services, less physical domestic violence (DV), and greater maternal mental health reflected through less loneliness. These findings have implications for targeting nonresident as well as resident fathers in families at risk for child abuse and for exploring DV issues in families with noninvolved fathers. PMID:21729013

Shapiro, Alyson F; Krysik, Judy; Pennar, Amy L

2011-07-01

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Participación paterna en la experiencia del parto / Father involvement in childbirth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Recientes iniciativas, han promovido la participación de los padres en los cuidados tempranos de sus hijos. Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados de un programa de estímulo a la participación paterna en el parto. Se incluyeron padres de RN de término sanos, asignados aleatoriamente para par [...] ticipar en la experiencia del parto o control. Pacientes y Metodos: El protocolo incluyó: secado de la piel, corte de cordón umbilical, peso, estatura, y finalmente, entrega a la madre para el contacto piel a piel. Se evaluó frecuencia cardiaca (FC), respiratoria (FR) y temperatura una hora después. En el primer control ambulatorio, las madres completaron un cuestionario. 127 padres participaron en la experiencia del parto o control. Resultados: 62 asignados al protocolo y 65 al control. Ambos grupos de RN resultaron comparables. También los padres, en edad, escolaridad, ruralidad, y las madres, en primiparidad. Diferencias significativas: asistencia nocturna (37/62, 59,6% vs 10/65, 15,4%, p Abstract in english Introduction: Recent initiatives have promoted the participation of fathers in the early care of their children. Objective: To assess the results of a program to encourage parental involvement in childbirth. Parents of healthy term newborns were randomly allocated to participate either in the birth [...] experience or control. Patients and Methods: The protocol included: to dry the skin, umbilical cord cutting off, weight, height, and finally give him/her to the mother for the skin-to-skin contact. Heart rate (HR), respiratory (RR) and temperature were evaluated one hour later. In the first outpatient clinic assessment, mothers completed a questionnaire. 127 fathers participated either in the birth experience or control. Results: 62 followed the protocol and 65 the control. Both newborn groups were comparable. Also were fathers in age, education and rurality; mothers in primiparity. Significant differences: night care (37/62, 10/65 59.6% vs 15.4%, p

Hernán, Villalón U; Rosario, Toro G; Isidora, Riesco C; Mauricio, Pinto C; Cristián, Silva V.

2014-10-01

30

Parenting as a “Package Deal”: Relationships, Fertility, and Nonresident Father Involvement Among Unmarried Parents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fatherhood has traditionally been viewed as part of a “package deal” in which a father’s relationship with his child is contingent on his relationship with the mother. We evaluate the accuracy of this hypothesis in light of the high rates of multiple-partner fertility among unmarried parents using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a recent longitudinal survey of nonmarital births in large cities. We examine whether unmarried mothers’ and fathers’ subsequent relationshi...

Tach, Laura; Mincy, Ronald; Edin, Kathryn

2010-01-01

31

Nonresident Father Involvement With Children and Divorced Women's Likelihood of Remarriage.  

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Although remarriage is a relatively common transition, little is known about how nonresident fathers affect divorced mothers' entry into remarriage. Using the 1979-2010 rounds of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979, the authors examined the likelihood of remarriage for divorced mothers (N = 882) by nonresident father contact with children and payment of child support. The findings suggest that maternal remarriage is positively associated with nonresident father contact but not related to receiving child support. PMID:25414523

McNamee, Catherine B; Amato, Paul; King, Valarie

2014-08-01

32

Involving fathers in prevention of mother to child transmission initiatives – what the evidence suggests  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The current UNAIDS goal towards virtual ending or elimination of infants acquiring HIV by 2015 is perhaps the most achievable goal to date. Yet, models show that delivery of antiretroviral compounds alone will not suffice to achieve this goal, and a broader community-based approach to pregnancy, families and HIV is needed. Such an approach would highlight the important role of men in reproduction. Although early studies have shown it is cost-effective to include males, very few interventions have proceeded to involve men. Methods: This review utilized systematic review techniques to explore the literature on effective interventions for the inclusion of men in the prevention of HIV to infants. A key word search of literature sources generated 248 studies for hand sorting and interrogation. Of these, 13 were found to contain some information on involvement of males in some form of provision. Data were abstracted from these and form the basis of this review. Results: Background descriptive studies painted a picture of low male involvement, poor male inclusion and barriers to engagement at all stages. Yet, pregnancy intentions among men affected by HIV are high and the importance of fathers to family functioning – from relationships, through conception, pregnancy and parenting – is well established. Search strategies for interventions for males in HIV and pregnancy were used to generate studies of sufficient quality to inform strategies on the future of male involvement. Of the 317,434 papers on pregnancy and HIV, only 4178 included the term male (paternal or father. When these were restricted to intervention studies, only 248 remained for hand sorting, generating 13 studies of relevance for data extraction. The results show that all these interventions were concentrated around male partner HIV testing. In general, male partner testing was low and was amenable to change by offering voluntary counselling and testing (VCT information, providing couple-based testing facilities and encouraging male attendance. All interventions used indirect approaches to men via their pregnant spouse. Non-health facility (clinic or hospital-based provision (such as testing facilities in the community in bars and churches were more effective than healthcare facilities in attracting male participation. Conclusions: In conclusion, the review showed that approaches to men are limited to HIV testing with little innovative planning and provision for male treatment and care. As such, initiatives run the risk of alienating rather than including males. Direct approaches and the provision of male-specific facilities and benefits should be explored.

Natasha Croome

2012-07-01

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Confining Fatherhood: Incarceration and Paternal Involvement among Nonresident White, African American, and Latino Fathers  

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The authors examine the consequences of incarceration for nonresident White, Latino, and African American fathers' contact with children and their formal and informal child support agreements. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, they found that fathers' current incarceration presented serious obstacles to maintaining…

Swisher, Raymond R.; Waller, Maureen R.

2008-01-01

34

Exploring the impact of involving fathers in the treatment of their children: A study using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA  

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Full Text Available Although fathers have been shown to contribute uniquely to the development of psychopathology in children, they continue to be ignored in research and clinical work. Knowledge about the impact of involving fathers in their child’s treatment – for the child, couple and the family as a whole - is still sparse. The aim of this study was to explore parents’ experiences of having fathers involved in the treatment of their child. Parents, whose children had received cognitive behavioural therapy for an anxiety disorder, were interviewed about this topic. The participating parents had all been involved in the treatment of their child. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA was used to analyze the data in this study. Three higher order themes and 11 subthemes emerged from the six interview accounts. The three higher order themes were as follows: Strengthening the family system, empowerment of parents, and impact on partner relationship. Results indicated that parents’ experiences of the involvement of fathers to be beneficial not only on the child’s treatment but also on other aspects of family life. The parents reported that the family as a whole benefitted from the treatment and that the relationship between the parents was strengthened. A model was created to conceptualize these results.

Anna Elisabeth Iversen

2012-04-01

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Mothers' Reports of Nonresident Fathers' Involvement with Their Children: Revisiting the Relationship between Child Support Payment and Visitation  

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Nonresident fathers' financial support and time are both important to children's well-being, although the association between these two types of involvement is mixed in the literature. Using the 1994-2004 waves of the Current Population Survey-Child Support Supplement, this article examined the associations between mothers' reports of child…

Huang, Chien-Chung

2009-01-01

36

O envolvimento paterno no processo da amamentação: propostas de incentivo / Involving fathers in breast feeding: stimulus proposals  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: desvendar os eixos norteadores e, a partir deles, construir uma proposta de incentivo à participação do homem no processo da amamentação, identificando estratégias nas diversas fases de sua vida, desde criança até tornar-se pai. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo, exploratório e qualitativo, cujo [...] s eixos norteadores e a construção da proposta ocorreram a partir da análise das falas oriundas das entrevistas semiestruturadas realizadas com 17 casais, residentes na favela do Bode, Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. As falas foram interpretadas à luz da análise do conteúdo manifesto, ancoradas no referencial teórico - construção histórica, social e cultural da paternidade - para encontrar os eixos norteadores e subsídios à construção da proposta. RESULTADOS: os eixos norteadores encontrados foram família, escola e instituição de saúde, os quais subsidiaram a construção de uma proposta por meio da implantação do ambulatório de amamentação (consulta para família, do pré-natal aos seis meses de vida da criança) e da socialização de meninos e meninas pró-amamentação. Tal proposta consta de atividades para o envolvimento do pai no amamentar. CONCLUSÕES: os eixos norteadores apresentaram aspectos significativos que alijaram o homem do processo da amamentação. Por isso, a essência desta proposta construída foi servir de modelo de incentivo à participação do pai nessa prática, para se estruturar um programa de saúde a ser implementado nas escolas e instituições de saúde, como uma forma de transformar a cultura do amamentar, aumentando o período de duração da amamentação. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: to reveal the guiding influences and through these to draw up a proposal to stimulate the participation of men in breast feeding, identifying strategies at the various phases in a man's life, from childhood to fatherhood. METHODS: a descriptive, exploratory and qualitative study was carr [...] ied out, whose guidelines and proposals were based on examination of statements gathered in the course of semi-structured interviews conducted with 17 couples, living on the Bode favela, in Recife, in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The statements were interpreted using manifest content analysis, based on the theoretical notion of the historical, social and cultural construction of fatherhood, and subsequently used to determine the guiding influences and draw up proposals. RESULTS: the principal guiding influences were found to be the family, the school and the health unit, all of which help to draw up a proposal for the initiation of breast feeding at the outpatients clinic (during prenatal family consultations when the child is aged six months) and the socialization of male and female children in favor of breast feeding. This proposal includes activities that aim to involve the father in breast feeding. CONCLUSIONS: some significant features of the guiding influences tend to exclude men from the breast feeding process. The essence of this proposal is therefore to serve as a model for stimulating the participation of fathers in breast feeding and for building up a health program to be introduced in schools and health units, as a way of changing the culture of breast feeding and extending its duration.

Cleide Maria, Pontes; Aline Chaves, Alexandrino; Mônica Maria, Osório.

2009-12-01

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Psychopathological status, behavior problems, and family adjustment of Kuwaiti children whose fathers were involved in the first gulf war  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Following the end of the Gulf War that resulted in the liberation of Kuwait, there are no reports on the impact of veterans' traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on their children. We compared the severity of anxiety, depression, deviant behavior and poor family adjustment among the children of a stratified random sample of four groups of Kuwaiti military men, viz: the retired; an active -in-the-army group (AIA (involved in duties at the rear; an in-battle group (IB (involved in combat; and a prisoners -of- war (POWs group. Also, we assessed the association of father's PTSD/combat status and mother's characteristics with child psychosocial outcomes. Method Subjects were interviewed at home, 6 years after the war, using: the Child Behavior Index to assess anxiety, depression, and adaptive behavior; Rutter Scale A2 for deviant behavior; and Family Adjustment Device for adjustment at home. Both parents were assessed for PTSD. Results The 489 offspring (250 m, 239 f; mean age 13.8 yrs belonged to 166 father-mother pairs. Children of POWs tended to have higher anxiety, depression, and abnormal behavior scores. Those whose fathers had PTSD had significantly higher depression scores. However, children of fathers with both PTSD and POW status (N = 43 did not have significantly different outcome scores than the other father PTSD/combat status groups. Mother's PTSD, anxiety, depression and social status were significantly associated with all the child outcome variables. Parental age, child's age and child's level of education were significant covariates. Although children with both parents having PTSD had significantly higher anxiety/depression scores, the mother's anxiety was the most frequent and important predictor of child outcome variables. The frequency of abnormal test scores was: 14% for anxiety/depression, and 17% for deviant behavior. Conclusion Our findings support the impression that child emotional experiences in vulnerable family situations transcend culture and are associated with the particular behavior of significant adults in the child's life. The primacy of the mother's influence has implications for interventions to improve the psychological functioning of children in such families. Mental health education for these families has the potential to help those in difficulty.

Ohaeri Jude U

2008-05-01

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Parental Spanking and Subsequent Risk for Child Aggression in Father-Involved Families of Young Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined separate and combined maternal and paternal use of spanking with children at age 3 and children's subsequent aggressive behavior at age 5. The sample was derived from a birth cohort study and included families (n = 923) in which both parents lived with the child at age 3. In this sample, 44% of 3-year-olds were spanked 2 times or more in the past month by either parent or both parents. In separate analyses, being spanked more than twice in the prior month at age 3, by either mother or father, was associated with increased child aggression at 5 years. In combined analyses, there was a dose-response association; the greatest risk for child aggression was reported when both parents spanked more than twice in the prior month (adjusted odds ratio: 2.01; [confidence interval: 1.03-3.94]). Violence prevention initiatives should target and engage mothers and fathers in anticipatory guidance efforts aimed at increasing the use of effective and non-aggressive child discipline techniques and reducing the use of spanking. PMID:24019558

Lee, Shawna J; Taylor, Catherine A; Altschul, Inna; Rice, Janet C

2013-08-01

39

Desempenho acadêmico e autoconceito de escolares: contribuições do envolvimento paterno / Children's academic performance and self-concept: contributions of father involvement  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve por objetivo examinar as relações entre três formas do envolvimento paterno (a comunicação entre pai e filho; a participação do pai nos cuidados com o filho; a participação do pai nas atividades escolares, culturais e de lazer do filho) e dois aspectos do desenvolvimento infantil (a [...] utoconceito e desempenho acadêmico) de crianças que iniciam as atividades escolares. Participaram deste estudo 97 casais e seus filhos matriculados na 1ª ou 2ª série do Ensino Fundamental. Para avaliar o envolvimento paterno a partir de duas perspectivas diferentes, tanto os pais quanto as mães responderam à Avaliação do bem-estar pessoal e familiar e do relacionamento pai-filho - Versão Paterna. Para avaliar o desempenho acadêmico e o autoconceito, foram aplicados nas crianças o Teste de Desempenho Escolar e o Self-Description Questionnaire I. Observou-se que, quanto maior a frequência de comunicação entre pai e filho, a participação do pai nos cuidados com o filho e a participação do pai nas atividades escolares, culturais e de lazer do filho, maior o desempenho acadêmico e o autoconceito das crianças. Esses resultados são indicativos da importância do envolvimento paterno e apontam a necessidade de se realizarem intervenções educativas dirigidas aos homens. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among three types of fathering involvement (father-child communication, fathers' participation in caring for their child and fathers' participation in their child's school, cultural and leisure activities) and two aspects of a child's develo [...] pment (academic performance and selfconcept) among children in their first years of schooling. The participants were 97 fathers, mothers and their children, who were attending the first or second grade. To evaluate father involvement from two different perspectives, both the fathers and the mothers completed the Evaluation questionnaire about individual and family well-being and the parentchild relationship - Fathering Version. Children's academic performance and selfconcept were evaluated using the School Performance Test and the Self-Description Questionnaire I, respectively. The greater the frequency of father-child communication, of the fathers' participation in caring for their children, and in their children's school, cultural and leisure activities, the stronger the children's academic performance and the more positive their selfconcept. These results are indicative of the importance of fathers' involvement and point out the need for educational interventions specifically for men.

Fabiana, Cia; Elizabeth Joan, Barham; Anne Marie Germaine Victorine, Fontaine.

2012-12-01

40

Understanding fatherhood in Greece: father's involvement in child care / Compreendendo a paternidade na Grécia: o envolvimento do pai no cuidado de bebês  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo descreve o envolvimento do pai grego com a família e as tarefas de cuidados da criança, durante o seu primeiro ano de vida. Oitenta pais de zona rural, de nível educacional e status ocupacional baixos, e 80 pais de zona urbana, de nível educacional e status ocupacional altos, falar [...] am sobre as suas percepções de paternidade e de sua participação em duas das responsabilidades dos pais: (a) a preparação antes e após o nascimento de um bebê e (b) o envolvimento em brincadeiras e em uma variedade de tarefas rotineras de cuidados da criança. Os resultados mostram que os pais provenientes de áreas urbanas se envolviam mais nessas atividades que os pais de áreas rurais. Todos os pais valorizaram a paternidade como uma experiência agradável; muitos deles, entretanto, afirmaram que as responsabilidades de educar a criança causaram-lhes muita tensão psicológica. Os resultados são discutidos em relação à divisão de papéis entre o marido e a esposa, nas famílias gregas. Abstract in english The present study aims to depict a picture of Greek fathers concerning their involvement in family and child-centered tasks over the first year of the child. Eighty fathers from rural areas with low educational and occupational status and eighty fathers from urban districts with high educational and [...] occupational status were asked to talk about their own perceptions of fatherhood and also their participation into two parenting commitments: (a) preparations before and after the birth of the child and (b) involvement in play with the child and a variety of daily child-care tasks. The results show that fathers in urban regions were more involved in these activities than their counterparts in rural areas. All fathers valued fatherhood as a pleasant experience. Many fathers, however, stated that child-rearing responsibilities cause them a lot of psychological strain. The results are discussed in relation to the division of roles between spouses in Greek families.

Katerina, Maridaki-Kassotaki.

2000-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Familial Ainhum: A Case Report of Multiple Toe Involvement in a Father and Son, Staging of Ainhum with Insight into Different Types of Constricting Bands  

Science.gov (United States)

Ainhum, also known as dactylolysis spontanea, is a painful constriction of the base of the fifth toe, frequently followed by spontaneous amputation a few years later. The disease is often symmetrical on both the feet, but, occasionally, other toes are also affected and rarely the distal phalanx of the fifth finger. Pseudoainhum is a similar condition that occurs as a secondary event resulting from certain hereditary and nonhereditary diseases that lead to annular constriction of digits. We hereby present a case of familial ainhum in father and son with multiple toes affected, autoamputation, and more involvement of fourth toe than the fifth toe, which is a very rare finding.

Priya, BT; Suganthy, Rajakumari R; Manimegalai, M; Krishnaveni, A

2015-01-01

42

Patterns of nonresident father contact.  

Science.gov (United States)

We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (NLSY79) from 1979 to 2002 and the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (CNLSY) from 1986 to 2002 to describe the number, shape, and population frequencies of U.S. nonresident father contact trajectories over a 14-year period using growth mixture models. The resulting four-category classification indicated that nonresident father involvement is not adequately characterized by a single population with a monotonic pattern of declining contact over time. Contrary to expectations, about two-thirds of fathers were consistently either highly involved or rarely involved in their children's lives. Only one group, constituting approximately 23% of fathers, exhibited a clear pattern of declining contact. In addition, a small group of fathers (8%) displayed a pattern of increasing contact. A variety of variables differentiated between these groups, including the child's age at father-child separation, whether the child was born within marriage, the mother's education, the mother's age at birth, whether the father pays child support regularly, and the geographical distance between fathers and children. PMID:20355691

Cheadle, Jacob E; Amato, Paul R; King, Valarie

2010-02-01

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A EXPERIÊNCIA DE PAIS PARTICIPANTES DE UM GRUPO DE EDUCAÇÃO PARA SAÚDE NO PRÉ-NATAL / THE EXPERIENCE OF FATHERS PARTICIPANTS OF HEALTH EDUCATION GROUP IN PRENATAL CARE / LA EXPERIENCIA DE PADRES PARTICIPANTES DE UN GRUPO DE EDUCACIÓN EN SALUD EN LA ATENCIÓN PRENATAL  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de descrever a experiência de pais que participaram em um grupo de educação para a saúde realizado na assistência pré-natal. O grupo foi desenvolvido mediante a estratégia da pesquisa-ação em um hospital Universitário da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil e contou com a partic [...] ipação de oito gestantes e quatro maridos. Das entrevistas individuais feitas com os maridos, integralmente gravadas, transcritas e analisadas de forma indutiva e interpretativa, emergiram três categorias descritivas: a) A participação no grupo permitiu compartilhar das experiências de forma mais intensa, b) a participação no grupo permitiu melhor compreensão da mulher grávida e promoveu a qualidade do suporte oferecido a ela, c) o aprendizado e o desenvolvimento das técnicas corporais promoveram a integração do casal e entre os participantes no grupo. A participação ativa do pai nas atividades educativas da assistência pré-natal deve ser incentivada porque este medida produz benefícios para ele e, conseqüentemente, para sua família e a sociedade. Abstract in spanish Esta investigación tuvo el objetivo de describir la experiencia de padres que habían participado de un grupo de educación en salud realizado en la atención prenatal. El grupo fue desarrollado con empleo de la metodología de investigación-acción en el hospital Universitario de la ciudad de São Paulo, [...] Brasil y tuvo la participación de ocho embarazadas y cuatro acompañantes. De las entrevistas individuales hechas con los maridos, las que fueron completamente grabadas, transcritas y analizadas de forma inductiva e interpretativa, surgieron tres categorías descriptivas: a) La participación en el grupo permitió compartir las experiencias de forma más intensa, b) la participación en el grupo permitió mejorar la comprensión de la mujer embarazada y promovió la calidad en el soporte ofrecido a ella, c) el aprendizaje y el desarrollo de las técnicas corporales promovió la integración entre las parejas y entre los participantes del grupo. La participación activa de los padres en las actividades educativas del cuidado prenatal debe ser incentivada, pues esta medida produce beneficios para él y, consecuentemente, a su familia y la sociedad. Abstract in english The aim of this research was to describe the experience of fathers, participating in a health education group during prenatal care. An action research strategy was adopted to carry out the study and handle the group, at a University hospital, city of São Paulo, Brazil. The group was conformed by eig [...] ht pregnant women and four husbands. From the individual interviews carried out with the husbands, fully recorded, transcribed and analyzed in an inductive and interpretive way, three descriptive categories emerged from the experience: a) The participation in the group permitted to share the experiences in a more intensive way, b) the participation in the group permitted a better understanding of the pregnant woman and promoted the quality of support offered to her, c) the knowledge and the development of body techniques promoted the integration of the couples and among the participants of the group. The fathers´ active participation in the educational activities carried out in prenatal care should be encouraged to produce benefits for him and, consequently, to his family and the society.

Luciana, Magnoni Reberte; Luiza Akiko, Komura Hoga.

44

Patterns of Nonresident Father Contact  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (NLSY79) from 1979 to 2002 and the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (CNLSY) from 1986 to 2002 to describe the number, shape, and population frequencies of U.S. nonresident father contact trajectories over a 14-year period using growth mixture models. The resulting four-category classification indicated that nonresident father involvement is not adequately characterized by a single population with a monotonic pa...

Cheadle, Jacob E.; Amato, Paul R.; King, Valarie

2010-01-01

45

Chaotic Identities, Love and Fathering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fathers today are confronted with constantly changing ideas on theirrole as a parent. The old traditional forms of fathering i.e. the breadwinner and protector roles are being gradually replaced by a more reflexive role that places unconditional love from their children as a central theme in a new type of reflexive parenting. This article examines the role of fatherhood through the theoreticallens of reflexive modernity. It recognises that men are increasingly becoming dependant on their children for unconditional love and this is forcing men to become more involved in the lives of their own children. The theory of reflexive modernisation is applied to a group of 40 fathers from a post-industrial area of Britain to unravel the processes and practices being used in this “new” type of parenting. This research discovers that fathers in the 21st century have numerouspressures from changing ideas about what is a good or bad father, but in the final instance it is their individualised responses to these societal and personal circumstances which create a new reflexive type of fathering. This type of fathering is therefore created by general social changes within a reflexive modern society and also by personal choice.

Stephen Williams

2011-08-01

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Father identity changes and father movements  

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The aim of this article is to analyze the modes of expression of the contemporary father identity by discussing historical changes in the father identity and father movements in the U.S. and Western Europe, and by presenting the situation in Lithuania. In the beginning of the twentieth century the authority of the father began to falter because of the entrenchment of industrialized societies in the United States and Western Europe. The frustration of dictatorial regimes after World War II led...

Radz?iu?niene?, Lina

2010-01-01

47

Involvement of Nitric Oxide, Neurotrophins and HPA Axis in Neurobehavioural Alterations Induced by Prenatal Stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies suggest that negative emotions during pregnancy generate adverse effects on the cognitive, behavioural and emotional development of the descendants. The psychoneuroendocrine pathways involve the transplacentary passage of maternal glucocorticoids in order to influence directly on fetal growth and brain development.Nitric oxide is a gaseous neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the control of neural activity by diffusing into neurons and participates in learning and memory processes. It has been demonstrated that nitric oxide is involved in the regulation of corticosterone secretion. Thus, it has been found that the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is an endogenous inhibitor of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus and that nNOS in the hippocampus may participate in the modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity via GR.Neurotrophins are a family of secreted growth factors consisting of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and NT4. Although initially described in the nervous system, they regulate processes such as cell survival, proliferation and differentiation in several other compartments. It has been demonstrated that the NO-citrulline cycle acts together with BDNF in maintaining the progress of neural differentiation.In the present chapter, we explore the interrelation between nitric oxide, glucocorticoids and neurotrophins in brain areas that are key structures in learning and memory processes. The participation of this interrelation in the behavioural and cognitive alterations induced in the offspring by maternal stress is also addressed. PMID:25287536

Maur, Damian G; Pascuan, Cecilia G; Genaro, Ana M; Zorrilla-Zubilete, Maria A

2015-01-01

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Envolvimento paterno durante o nascimento dos filhos: pai "real" e "ideal" na perspectiva materna / Paternal involvement during their children's birth: mother's perspective of 'real' and 'ideal' father  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O pai é a fonte de apoio materno mais importante durante a transição decorrente do nascimento de filhos. Este estudo objetiva descrever a percepção de 45 mulheres grávidas e 42 mães com bebês de até seis meses sobre a participação e apoio paterno, durante a gestação e nascimento de filhos. A coleta [...] de dados consistiu da aplicação, às mães, de um questionário de caracterização do sistema familiar e de uma entrevista semiestruturada, visando obter informações sobre o pai "real" e o "ideal". Os resultados mostram que, apesar de os pais serem percebidos como pouco participativos, as mães estavam satisfeitas com o seu envolvimento. Os dados sugerem que é necessário estimular a participação do pai, por ocasião do nascimento de filhos. Abstract in english The father is a major figure on mother's support network during childbirth transition. This study aims to report father's participation and support during the pregnancy and the birth of their children, according to the point of view of 45 pregnant women and 42 women with six-month-old children. Data [...] was collected through the administration of a family questionnaire and a semi-structured interview answered by the mothers in order to get information about the "real" and the "ideal" father. The results show that, although the mothers were satisfied with the fathers' role in family life, they thought fathers were not as participative as they should be. Data suggest that it is necessary to stimulate father's participation during childbirth.

Maria Auxiliadora, Dessen; Maíra Ribeiro de, Oliveira.

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Celebrating Fathers as a Resource in Early Child Care Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

In many child care programs, father involvement is still not on a par with that of mothers. For these programs, "parent" typically means "mother". There are a host of possible reasons for this difference, including fathers' work schedules, a belief that child care is a mother's domain, and fathers feeling unwelcome or out of place in the child…

Parlakian, Rebecca; Rovaris, J. Michael

2009-01-01

50

Prenatal diagnosis  

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Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment) and molecular (DNA mutation analysis) tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessa...

Ozge Ozalp Yuregir; Selim Buyukkurt; Filiz Koc; Ayfer Pazarbasi

1981-01-01

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The role of FISH in prenatal diagnosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

FISH provides a cytogenetic technique which is useful in defining de novo translocations, deletions, insertions, and marker chromosomes in prenatal diagnosis. While the cytogenetic interpretation may be improved with FISH, it may not resolve questions concerning prognosis and options which are genetic counseling issues. Two recent cases illustrate this. Case 1 involved a 45,X/46,X,+mar karyotype from amniocentesis. 22/50 cells had 46,X/46,X+mar; 28/50 cells had 45,X. The marker was smaller than a G. C banding did not confirm this as a Y. The father`s peripheral blood study was normal and his Y did not resemble the marker. It appeared likely that the marker was a structurally abnormal Y since male external genitalia were detected by fetal ultrasound. FISH using alpha- and classical (DYZ1/DYZ3) satellite Y-specific probes did not identify the marker as a Y. Case 2 was a fetus which had a de novo translocation 46,XX,t(3;11)(q26.3;q21) by amniocentesis and confirmed by UBS. FISH for the number 3 and 11 chromosomes confirmed this rearrangement. The parents were advised of the risk associated with a de novo balanced translocation. The possible prognosis for these two different fetuses was not changed by the FISH analysis. FISH, while helpful, is only one aspect of the studies done to provide more accurate genetic counseling to parents; the pregnancy/family history, fetal ultrasound, other possible prenatal studies and pregnancy outcome from perspective studies compose other important aspects that are not mutually exclusive.

Kulch, P.; Crandall, B.F.; Hsi, C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)

1994-09-01

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O envolvimento do pai na gravidez/parto e a ligação emocional com o bebé / Father’s involvement in pregnancy/childbirth and the emotional bond with the baby / La participación del padre en el embarazo/parto y el vínculo emocional con el bebé  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Enquadramento: a ligação emocional entre pai e filho é determinante na transição para a paternidade e no desenvolvimento do bebé. Objetivos: pretendemos verificar se existe relação entre as variáveis sóciodemográficas, o envolvimento na gravidez ou o corte do cordão umbilical com a ligação emocional [...] do pai com o bebé. Metodologia: efetuámos um estudo transversal, quantitativo de caráter descritivo analítico. Aplicámos um questionário e a escala bonding validada para a população Portuguesa (Figueiredo et al., 2005), em três momentos diferentes (durante o trabalho de parto, no 1º e no 3º dia após o parto) a 222 pais, entre novembro de 2010 e janeiro de 2011. Resultados: verificámos que a idade (entre 25 e 40 anos), o acompanhamento da grávida às consultas de vigilância da gravidez, o acompanhamento da grávida nos preparativos para o nascimento do bebé, a leitura de informação sobre o bebé em desenvolvimento, o envolvimento na gravidez e o corte do cordão umbilical influenciam positivamente a ligação emocional do pai com o bebé. Conclusão: os resultados apontam para uma melhoria na ligação afetiva entre o pai e o bebé se os profissionais de saúde promoverem o envolvimento do pai na gravidez e no parto. Abstract in spanish Marco: el vínculo emocional entre padre e hijo es crucial en la transición hacia la paternidad y el desarrollo del bebé.Objetivos: pretendemos verificar si existe una relación entre las variables sociodemográficas, la participación en el embarazo o el corte del cordón umbilical y el vínculo emociona [...] l entre el padre y el bebé. Metodología: se realizó un estudio transversal, cuantitativo, de corte descriptivo-analítico. Se aplicó un cuestionario y la escala de Bonding validado para la población portuguesa (Figueiredo et al., 2005), en tres momentos diferentes (durante el parto, durante el primer y el tercer día después del parto) a 222 padres, entre noviembre 2010 y enero de 2011. Resultados: se comprobó que la edad (entre 25 y 40 años), el acompañamiento con la mujer embarazada alas citas para la vigilancia del embarazo, el acompañamiento de la mujer embarazada en los preparativos para el nacimiento del bebé, la lectura de información sobre el desarrollo del bebé, la participación en el embarazo y el corte del cordón umbilical influyen positivamente en el vínculo emocional entre el padre y el bebé. Conclusión: los resultados indican una mejora en el vínculo emocional entre el padre y el bebé siempre y cuando los profesionales de la salud promuevan la participación del padre durante el embarazo y el parto. Abstract in english Background: the emotional bond between father and child is crucial in the transition to parenthood and the baby’s development. Objectives: our intention was to verify if there is a relationship between sociodemographic variables, involvement in the pregnancy or cutting the umbilical cord with the em [...] otional bond between father and baby. Methodology: we performed a cross-sectional, quantitative study descriptive and analytical in nature. We administered a questionnaire and the Bonding scale validated for the Portuguese population (Figueiredo et al., 2005), at three different times (during labour, on the 1st and 3rd days after birth) to 222 parents between November 2010 and January 2011. Results: We found that age (between 25 and 40 years), accompanying the pregnant woman to appointments for pregnancy surveillance, monitoring of the pregnancy in preparation for the birth of the baby, reading information about the developing baby involvement in the pregnancy and cutting the umbilical cord positively influence the emotional bond between father and baby. Conclusion: the results indicate an improvement in the emotional bond between father and baby if health professionals promote fathersinvolvement during pregnancyand childbirth.

João Rui Duarte Farias, Nogueira; Manuela, Ferreira.

2012-12-01

53

Envolvimento paterno da gestação ao primeiro ano de vida do bebê / Father involvement from pregnancy to the infant´s first year of life / Participación paterna desde el embarazo hasta el primer año de vida del bebé  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo longitudinal analisou o envolvimento paterno por meio de um estudo de casos coletivos com seis casais primíparos entrevistados na gestação, aos três e 12 meses do bebê. A análise qualitativa dos dados se baseou no conceito de envolvimento paterno e no enfoque psicodinâmico, revelando ser [...] em os modelos familiares de parentalidade aspectos muito influentes no envolvimento dos pais. Por outro lado, a ausência de uma matriz de apoio e as percepções das mães sobre o desempenho do marido como pai não pareceram influenciar diretamente o nível de envolvimento com o bebê. Percebeu-se que os pais continuavam seguindo modelos tradicionais de paternidade quanto à acessibilidade e à responsabilidade, centrando-se no papel de provedor financeiro. O engajamento dos pais foi maior em atividades lúdicas do que nos cuidados do filho, pois para cuidados parecia lhes faltarem modelos efetivos. São discutidas as influências intergeracionais e do discurso sobre o "novo pai" na prática da paternidade. Abstract in spanish Este estudio longitudinal analizó la participación paterna por medio de un estudio de casos colectivos con seis parejas primíparas entrevistadas en la gestación, a los tres y a los 12 meses de vida del bebé. El análisis cualitativo de los datos se basó en el concepto de participación paterna y en el [...] enfoque psicodinámico, revelando los modelos familiares de parentalidad como aspectos muy influyentes en la participación de los padres. Por otro lado, la ausencia de una matriz de apoyo, así como las percepciones de las madres sobre el desempeño del esposo como padre, no parecieron influir directamente en el nivel de participación con el bebé. Se observó que los padres aún estaban siguiendo los modelos tradicionales de la paternidad en cuanto a la accesibilidad y responsabilidad, centrándose en el papel de proveedor financiero. El compromiso de los padres fue mayor en las actividades lúdicas que en los cuidados al hijo, por los que parecía carecer de modelos efectivos. Se discuten las influencias intergeneracionales y del discurso sobre el "nuevo padre" en la práctica de la paternidad. Abstract in english This longitudinal study examined the parental involvement through a collective case study with six primiparous couples interviewed in the last trimester of pregnancy, at three and 12 months of baby's life. A qualitative analysis of the data, based on father involvement as well as in psychodynamic ap [...] proach, revealed the familiar models of parenting had important influences in the father involvement. On the other hand, the absence of a support matrix, as well as the perceptions of mothers on the performance of their husbands as fathers, did not seem to directly influence the level of father involvement with the baby. It seems that the parents were still following traditional models of fatherhood in relation to accessibility and accountability, focusing on their role as financial provider. The involvement of parents was higher in recreational activities than in child care for which it seemed lacking effective models. We discuss intergenerational and discourse influences on the "new father" in the practice of fatherhood.

Luciana, Castoldi; Tonantzin Ribeiro, Gonçalves; Rita de Cássia Sobreira, Lopes.

2014-06-01

54

Prenatal nicotine is associated with reduced AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated rises in calcium within the laterodorsal tegmentum: a pontine nucleus involved in addiction processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite huge efforts from public sectors to educate society as to the deleterious physiological consequences of smoking while pregnant, 12-25% of all babies worldwide are born to mothers who smoked during their pregnancies. Chief among the negative legacies bestowed to the exposed individual is an enhanced proclivity postnatally to addict to drugs of abuse, which suggests that the drug exposure during gestation changed the developing brain in such a way that biased it towards addiction. Glutamate signalling has been shown to be altered by prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) and glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter within the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT), which is a brainstem region importantly involved in responding to motivational stimuli and critical in development of drug addiction-associated behaviours, however, it is unknown whether PNE alters glutamate signalling within this nucleus. Accordingly, we used calcium imaging, to evaluate AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated calcium responses in LDT brain slices from control and PNE mice. We also investigated whether the positive AMPA receptor modulator cyclothiazide (CYZ) had differential actions on calcium in the LDT following PNE. Our data indicated that PNE significantly decreased AMPA receptor-mediated calcium responses, and altered the neuronal calcium response to consecutive NMDA applications within the LDT. Furthermore, CYZ strongly potentiated AMPA-induced responses, however, this action was significantly reduced in the LDT of PNE mice when compared with enhancements in responses in control LDT cells. Immunohistochemical processing confirmed that calcium imaging recordings were obtained from the LDT nucleus as determined by presence of cholinergic neurons. Our results contribute to the body of evidence suggesting that neurobiological changes are induced if gestation is accompanied by nicotine exposure. We conclude that in light of the role played by the LDT in motivated behaviour, the cellular changes in the LDT induced by exposures to nicotine prenatally, when combined with alterations in other reward-related regions, could contribute to the increased susceptibility to smoking observed in the offspring. PMID:25362989

McNair, L F; Kohlmeier, K A

2014-11-01

55

Human prenatal diagnosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advances in the field of prenatal diagnosis have been rapid during the past decade. Moreover, liberal use of birth control methods and restriction of family size have placed greater emphasis on optimum outcome of each pregnancy. There are many prenatal diagnostic techniques of proven value; the risks, including false negatives and false positives, are known. With the rapid proliferation of new and experimental techniques, many disorders are potential diagnosable or even treatable; however, risk factors are unknown and issues relating to quality control have not been resolved. These problems are readily appreciated in the dramatic new techniques involving recombinant DNA, chorion villus sampling, and fetal surgery. Unfortunately, clinicians may not appreciate the difficulties that may also be encountered in the more mundane prenatal diagnostic tests such as ultrasonography or enzymatic testing. The aim of this volume is to clarify and rationalize certain aspects of diagnosis, genetic counseling, and intervention. New and experimental techniques are presented in the light of current knowledge.

Filkins, K.; Russo, J.F.

1985-01-01

56

Comparisons of Levels and Predictors of Mothers' and Fathers' Engagement with Their Preschool-Aged Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-report data from 112 two-parent families were used to compare levels and predictors of four types of mothers' and fathers' engagement with their preschool-aged children: socialisation, didactic, caregiving, and physical play. Mothers were more involved than fathers in socialisation, didactic, and caregiving, whereas fathers were more involved

Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kotila, Letitia E.; Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N.; Bower, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

57

District nurses' experiences of meeting first-time fathers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Early contact with both parents is important for children and it is important to reach out to both mothers and fathers through parental education groups. Parent education program for fathers can lead to more fathers taking parental leave and becoming more involved in the care of their children. A lot of men lack support from the community after the birth of their child. The aim of this study was to illustrate district nurses’ experiences of meeting first-time fathers. Nine district nurses w...

Moberg Nystro?m, Annica; Sedin, Sofia

2011-01-01

58

Prenatal Virilization Associated with Paternal Testosterone Gel Therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transdermal testosterone gels are used in the treatment of hypoandrogenism of males. Virilization due to exposure to testosterone gels has been reported in children resulting in a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warning about secondary exposure to these products. At present, we are unaware of prenatal virilization associated with unintentional testosterone gel exposure. We report prenatal virilization in a female infant due to secondary maternal exposure to the father's testoste...

Anisha Patel; Rivkees, Scott A.

2010-01-01

59

76 FR 36853 - Father's Day, 2011  

Science.gov (United States)

...Proclamation 8690--Father's Day, 2011 Presidential...of June 17, 2011 Father's Day, 2011 By...ultimate gift and an incredible responsibility. Every day, fathers across our country...a priority. Last year on Father's...

2011-06-22

60

A novel mutation identified in PKHD1 by targeted exome sequencing: guiding prenatal diagnosis for an ARPKD family.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a rare hereditary renal cystic disease involving multiple organs, mainly the kidney and liver. Parents who had an affected child with ARPKD are in strong demand for an early and reliable prenatal diagnosis to guide the future pregnancies. Here we provide an example of prenatal diagnosis of an ARPKD family where traditional antenatal ultrasound examinations failed to produce conclusive results till 26th week of gestation. Compound heterozygous mutations c.274C>T (p.Arg92Trp) and c.9059T>C (p.Leu3020Pro) were identified using targeted exome sequencing in the patient and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Further, the mother and father were revealed to be carriers of heterozygous c.274C>T and c.9059T>C mutations, respectively. Molecular prenatal diagnosis was performed for the current pregnancy by direct sequencing plus linkage analysis. Two mutations identified in the patient were both found in the fetus. In conclusion, compound heterozygous PKHD1 mutations were elucidated to be the molecular basis of the patient with ARPKD. The newly identified c.9059T>C mutation in the patient expands mutation spectrum in PKHD1 gene. For those ultrasound failed to provide clear diagnosis, we propose the new prenatal diagnosis procedure: first, screening underlying mutations in PKHD1 gene in the proband by targeted exome sequencing; then detecting causative mutations by direct sequencing in the fetal DNA and confirming results by linkage analysis. PMID:25153916

Xu, Yan; Xiao, Bing; Jiang, Wen-Ting; Wang, Lei; Gen, Hong-Quan; Chen, Ying-Wei; Sun, Yu; Ji, Xing

2014-11-01

 
 
 
 
61

Fathers of children with disabilities: stress and life satisfaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the role of fathers within families continues to evolve, understanding how these changes impact life satisfaction is needed. This is especially relevant for fathers who have children with disabilities; therefore, this study sought to understand the group differences between fathers of children with and without disabilities. A survey design was used that involved 85 fathers of children with disabilities and 121 fathers of children without disabilities. Analyses indicated that fathers of children with disabilities experienced greater stress in daily parenting hassles, family life events and changes, parenting stress and health stress. In comparison, fathers with children who did not have disabilities had a higher level of coping and greater satisfaction with life. A path-analysis model based on family stress theory indicated that whether or not fathers had children who were disabled was a major contributor to life satisfaction followed by parenting stress and stress from family life events and changes. These findings provide implications for future research and practice. PMID:22281940

Darling, Carol A; Senatore, Natalie; Strachan, John

2012-10-01

62

Prenatal Parenthood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, we discuss the intuitive knowledge mothers have of their unborn baby. We propose a shift in focus from caregivers’ merely providing information to first listening to pregnant mothers as they share their intuitive knowledge of their baby. This approach enables mothers and fathers or partners to know they are already parents to their unborn baby and empowers them to get in touch with their baby’s presence and who he or she is during pregnancy. This intuitive knowledge may b...

O’leary, Joann; Warland, Jane; Parker, Lynnda

2011-01-01

63

An updated and expanded meta-analysis of nonresident fathering and child well-being.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since Amato and Gilbreth's (1999) meta-analysis of nonresident father involvement and child well-being, nonmarital childbirths and nonresident father involvement both have increased. The unknown implications of such changes motivated the present study, a meta-analytic review of 52 studies of nonresident father involvement and child well-being. Consistent with Amato and Gilbreth, we found that positive forms of involvement were associated with benefits for children, with a small but statistically significant effect size. Amounts of father-child contact and financial provision, however, were not associated with child well-being. Going beyond Amato and Gilbreth, we analyzed the associations between different types of fathering and overall child well-being, and between overall father involvement and different types of child well-being. We found that nonresident father involvement was most strongly associated with children's social well-being and also was associated with children's emotional well-being, academic achievement, and behavioral adjustment. The forms of father involvement most strongly associated with child well-being were involvement in child-related activities, having positive father-child relationships, and engaging in multiple forms of involvement. Moderator analyses demonstrated variation in effect sizes based on both study characteristics and demographic variables. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy and practice. PMID:23978321

Adamsons, Kari; Johnson, Sara K

2013-08-01

64

O impacto da interrupção da gravidez por mal formação congénita: a perspectiva do pai / The interruption of pregnancy due to congenital malformation: the father`s perspective  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os avanços das técnicas de diagnóstico pré-natal, tornaram possível a identificação de alguns problemas de saúde do feto in-útero, e a determinação do risco da sua ocorrência, deixando aos pais a liberdade e responsabilidade de decidir acerca da saúde do feto, muito antes do seu nascimento. A comple [...] xidade de tais decisões coloca os casais numa encruzilhada, em que qualquer dos caminhos escolhidos marcará as suas vidas. As vivências do progenitor masculino têm sido quase ignoradas pelos investigadores, pelo que a experiência do pai continua a ser muito pouco conhecida. O presente estudo pretende conhecer e compreender os significados atribuídos pelo Pai à experiência de interrupção da gravidez, por anomalia fetal. Para isso recorremos a uma metodologia qualitativa (Grounded Theory). A amostra é constituída por 12 homens cujas esposas interromperam a gravidez no serviço de obstetrícia do Hospital S. Marcos em Braga. Os resultados apontam a interrupção de gravidez por malformação congénita, como uma experiência emocionalmente intensa, com um intenso envolvimento dos pais ao longo do processo. A tomada de decisão representou a confrontação de dúvidas e incertezas, de sentimentos ambivalentes e de dilemas morais, como consequência do investimento na gravidez e da relação afectiva que já existia com o feto. Os pais tendem a desvalorizar os seus sentimentos e as suas necessidades de apoio, centrando as suas preocupações na companheira. Os profissionais de saúde, na opinião dos pais, não só demonstram pouca sensibilidade face aos seus sentimentos e necessidades como constituem um obstáculo ao envolvimento do pai ao longo do processo. A partilha desta experiência com a esposa e o apoio mútuo entre o casal fortaleceu a relação. Os projectos de nova gravidez evidenciam a busca de um novo sentido de vida para estes pais. Estes resultados enfatizam a necessidade de um olhar mais atento sobre o impacto que este acontecimento tem na vida do pai e da importância dos profissionais de saúde neste processo. Abstract in english The development of prenatal diagnosis techniques have made possible the identification of some health problems in the inborn baby and the determination of the risk of such occurrence, leaving parents with the choice and responsibility of deciding about the fetus’ health long before the birth. The co [...] mplexity of such decisions places the couple in a crossroad and any of the chosen roads will impact their lives forever. The father´ s experience has been neglected by researchers and, as a result, their experience is not well known. This study aims to understand the meanings fathers give to the pregnancy interruption, due to congenital malformation, of their baby. A qualitative analysis was used (grounded theory). The sample includes 12 men whose wives terminated their pregnancy in the obstetric service of S. Marcos Hospital in Braga. Results show that pregnancy interruption due to congenital malformation is a very intense emotional experience, with a great involvement of fathers during the entire process. The decision making process required a confrontation of doubts and uncertainties, ambivalent feelings and moral dilemmas, as a consequence of the investment on the pregnancy and the emotional relationship that was already established with the baby. Fathers tend not to value their need for support, and centred all their worries on their mates. Health professionals, in their opinion, show low sensibility towards their feelings and needs and are seen as barriers to their involvement through the process. Sharing their experience with their mates and mutual support between the couple strengthen the marital relationship. The project of a new pregnancy revealed the search for a new meaning in these fathers’ lives. These results show the need to look in depth into the impact of this life event on the father´ s life and the role of health professionals in the process.

Lucília, Sousa; M. Graça, Pereira.

65

PRENATAL DIAGNOSTICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pregnancy is an exquisite period of life rich in physical and emotional changes. The beginning of new life is exciting not only for future parents but also for the doctor following and supervising the development and growth of a new human being up to its birth after forty weeks of pregnancy. There are many questions, fears and concerns which rise over and over again during this long but also short period of time. However, the consoling truth is that pregnancy has never been as safe as nowadays. Never before in the history of obstetrics have the babies had so many chances to be born alive and healthy. Unnecessary fears can make pregnancy an upsetting event. To prevent it, pregnant woman should be educated and advised on the possibilities of modern prenatal medicine and directed to choose the best ways of prenatal medicine to solve their dilemmas. The aim of this paper was to help pregnant woman and her doctor to find the appropriate treatment in every single case.

Slavica Loncar

2008-04-01

66

Teen Childbearing, Single Parenthood, and Father Involvement  

Science.gov (United States)

... Lichter, D.T. (2007). Marriage patters among unwed mothers: Before and after PRWORA (NPC Working Paper Series 07-13). Ann Arbor, MI: National ... 2012, from http://npc.umich.edu/ publications/u/working_paper07-13.pdf. ... D.R. (2007). When Unwed Mothers Marry: The Marital and Cohabiting Partners of Midlife ...

67

Using video feedback to improve early father-infant interaction: a pilot study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Preventive interventions with parents of infants have tended to focus on mothers. Recent research focused on fathers suggests that their involvement in interventions might enhance effectiveness. One effective approach with mothers is the brief, home-based Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting (VIPP). This paper is a report of a pilot study of VIPP with fathers to assess its feasibility. Five fathers were recruited from an existing longitudinal study of parents. The primary...

Lawrence, Pj; Davies, B.; Ramchandani, Pg

2013-01-01

68

Fathers' behaviors and children's psychopathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The psychological literature on how fathers' behaviors may be related to children's psychopathology has grown substantially in the last three decades. This growth is the result of research asking the following three overarching questions: (1) what is the association between family structure, and particularly biological fathers' non-residence, and children's psychopathology, (2) what is the association between fathers' parenting and children's psychopathology, and (3) what is the association between fathers' psychopathology and children's psychopathology. The three broad theoretical perspectives relevant to this literature are the standard family environment model, the passive genetic model, and the child effects model. The evidence from studies comparing the first two models seems to suggest that the origin of the association between parental divorce and children's emotional and behavioral problems is largely shared environmental in origin, as is the association between resident fathers' parenting and children's emotional and behavioral problems, according to studies comparing the standard family environment model with the child effects model. However, research needs to compare appropriately all theoretical perspectives. The paper discusses this, and also points to the importance of considering theory-driven specificity in modeling effects. PMID:20149945

Flouri, Eirini

2010-04-01

69

Social work and fathers: child support and fathering programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years social welfare policies and practices have increasingly addressed men's roles as fathers. The landmark welfare reform legislation, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) (P.L. 104-193), contains significant revisions in child support legislation. Rapid growth has occurred in the number of social services programs working with fathers. This article introduces social workers to these policy and practice initiatives. Through a critical review of research and descriptive programmatic material, this article considers the mixed implications of these policy and practice interventions for family well-being and recommends future directions for policy and practice. PMID:12718417

Curran, Laura

2003-04-01

70

African-American Fathers’ Perspectives on Their Children’s Health Education: A Qualitative, Exploratory Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: To investigate African-American fathers’ (AAF) perceptions regarding the applicability and need for their involvement as a health connection for their children and describe how participating fathers’ behavior was affected by their attitudes, knowledge, and perceptions of their influence on their children’s health.

Odum, Mary; Smith, Matthew Lee; Mckyer, E. Lisako J.

2014-01-01

71

Prenatal diagnosis for paediatricians  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Ontario, approximately 140,000 women deliver newborn infants each year. Of these women, 60,000 to 70,000 have multiple marker screening, 10,000 undergo amniocentesis or chorion villus sampling and virtually all have at least one prenatal ultrasound. Multiple marker screening is not used in every province and territory; however, amniocentesis and prenatal ultrasound are used throughout Canada. Most paediatric patients will have been exposed to some form of prenatal diagnosis. If an abnormal...

Summers, Anne

2003-01-01

72

My father and my family  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In what proved to be his last paper, Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg gives some autobiographical information about his family tree, relatives, ancestors, and descendents and where the name Ginzburg comes from. A major part of V L Ginzburg's memoir is about his father - making up for what he considered to be a 'somewhat neglected' filial duty. (from the history of physics)

73

Using video feedback to improve early father–infant interaction: A pilot study  

Science.gov (United States)

Preventive interventions with parents of infants have tended to focus on mothers. Recent research focused on fathers suggests that their involvement in interventions might enhance effectiveness. One effective approach with mothers is the brief, home-based Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting (VIPP). This paper is a report of a pilot study of VIPP with fathers to assess its feasibility. Five fathers were recruited from an existing longitudinal study of parents. The primary outcome was acceptability, assessed using a semi-structured questionnaire after completion of the intervention. All fathers completed all sessions of the intervention. Fathers rated the intervention as having had a significant impact on their understanding of their child’s thoughts and feelings, and as having improved their communication and relationship with their baby. Fathers’ feedback was generally positive. The flexibility to conduct sessions at home (or at fathers’ places of work) and the flexible timing of sessions were identified as fundamental to successful delivery. The results of this pilot study are encouraging, as VIPP with fathers was feasible. In light of the modest sample size, and the use of a non-clinical sample, the intervention must be evaluated with larger, clinical samples to evaluate its efficacy with fathers. PMID:22434935

Davies, Beverley; Ramchandani, Paul G.

2013-01-01

74

Using video feedback to improve early father-infant interaction: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preventive interventions with parents of infants have tended to focus on mothers. Recent research focused on fathers suggests that their involvement in interventions might enhance effectiveness. One effective approach with mothers is the brief, home-based Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting (VIPP). This paper is a report of a pilot study of VIPP with fathers to assess its feasibility. Five fathers were recruited from an existing longitudinal study of parents. The primary outcome was acceptability, assessed using a semi-structured questionnaire after completion of the intervention. All fathers completed all sessions of the intervention. Fathers rated the intervention as having had a significant impact on their understanding of their child's thoughts and feelings, and as having improved their communication and relationship with their baby. Fathers' feedback was generally positive. The flexibility to conduct sessions at home (or at fathers' places of work) and the flexible timing of sessions were identified as fundamental to successful delivery. The results of this pilot study are encouraging, as VIPP with fathers was feasible. In light of the modest sample size, and the use of a non-clinical sample, the intervention must be evaluated with larger, clinical samples to evaluate its efficacy with fathers. PMID:22434935

Lawrence, Peter J; Davies, Beverley; Ramchandani, Paul G

2013-01-01

75

Latent profiles of nonresidential father engagement six years after divorce predict long-term offspring outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined profiles of nonresidential father engagement (i.e., support to the adolescent, contact frequency, remarriage, relocation, and interparental conflict) with their adolescent children (N = 156) 6 to 8 years following divorce and the prospective relation between these profiles and the psychosocial functioning of their offspring, 9 years later. Parental divorce occurred during late childhood to early adolescence; indicators of nonresidential father engagement were assessed during adolescence, and mental health problems and academic achievement of offspring were assessed 9 years later in young adulthood. Three profiles of father engagement were identified in our sample of mainly White, non-Hispanic divorced fathers: Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict, Low Involvement/Moderate Conflict, and High Involvement/High Conflict. Profiles differentially predicted offspring outcomes 9 years later when they were young adults, controlling for quality of the mother-adolescent relationship, mother's remarriage, mother's income, and gender, age, and offspring mental health problems in adolescence. Offspring of fathers characterized as Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict had the highest academic achievement and the lowest number of externalizing problems 9 years later compared to offspring whose fathers had profiles indicating either the highest or lowest levels of involvement but higher levels of conflict. Results indicate that greater paternal psychosocial support and more frequent father-adolescent contact do not outweigh the negative impact of interparental conflict on youth outcomes in the long term. Implications of findings for policy and intervention are discussed. PMID:24484456

Modecki, Kathryn Lynn; Hagan, Melissa J; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene A

2015-01-01

76

Exploring the Group Prenatal Care Model: A Critical Review of the Literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Few studies have compared perinatal outcomes between individual prenatal care and group prenatal care. A critical review of research articles that were published between 1998 and 2009 and involved participants of individual and group prenatal care was conducted. Two middle range theories, Pender’s health promotion model and Swanson’s theory of caring, were blended to enhance conceptualization of the relationship between pregnant women and the group prenatal care model. Among the 17 resear...

Thielen, Kathleen

2012-01-01

77

Influências das condições de trabalho do pai sobre o relacionamento pai-filho Influences father's work conditions on father-child relationship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo identificar as condições de trabalho que influenciam no envolvimento do pai com seu filho. Participaram deste estudo 58 pais que tinham um filho na 5a ou 6a série do Ensino Fundamental. Os pais preencheram o questionário "Avaliação das condições de trabalho e do envolvimento do pai com seu filho - versão paterna". As medidas das condições de trabalho apresentaram correlações significativas com a satisfação do pai em relação ao seu desempenho familiar. Esta escala, por sua vez, estava positivamente correlacionada com as medidas do envolvimento do pai com seu filho. Assim, a relação entre as condições de trabalho e o envolvimento do pai com seu filho foi mediada pela satisfação do pai com seu desempenho familiar. Tais resultados demonstram a necessidade de identificar e alterar as normas e condições de trabalho que restringem as oportunidades para os pais participarem das rotinas familiares.The aim of this study was to identify the work conditions that influence father-child relationship. A total of 58 fathers, whose child was at fifth or sixth grade, participated in this study. The fathers completed the questionnaire "Evaluation of work conditions and involvement of the father with his child - Paternal version". The measures of work conditions presented significant correlations with father's satisfaction concerning his family performance. This scale, in turn, presented correlations with the measures of father-child involvement. Therefore, the relation between work conditions and father-child involvement was mediated by the satisfaction of the father with his family performance. These results indicate the need to identify and alter the work rules and conditions, which restrict fathers' opportunities to participate in their family routines.

Fabiana Cia

2006-12-01

78

Prenatal Genetic Counselling  

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Genetic concerns and indications for prenatal diagnosis are first recognized by the family physician. Review of personal, pregnancy and family history may indicate concerns beyond that of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis is still the most frequently used modality for prenatal diagnosis, but detailed ultrasound is valuable for structural abnormalities, and chorionic villus sampling is now being tested as an alternative to amniocentesis.

Mcgillivray, Barbara C.

1986-01-01

79

Surrogacy commissioning fathers and HIV  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Surrogacy is not regulated by a single legal instrument only, nor is confirmation of a surrogacy agreement by the High Court an unqualified green light for the surrogacy process to proceed. In the context of the HIV status of the commissioning father, whose gametes are to be used for the conception [...] of the child in pursuance of a surrogacy agreement, the intended in vitro fertilisation of the surrogate mother may only take place on condition that the commissioning father, and his semen, have been tested for HIV; that he has consented to his HIV status being made available to the surrogate mother, and if he is HIV-positive, that sperm washing will be used to minimise the risk of infection and that the surrogate mother has been informed of his HIV status, and given her informed consent.

D W, Jordaan.

2014-01-01

80

Mental health of foster children: do biological fathers matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

The high prevalence of mental health problems in foster children is well-documented (e.g., Armsden, Pecora, Payne, & Szatkiewicz, 2000; Tarren-Sweeney, 2008). From an ecological perspective, it can be expected that several factors in different systems (e.g., foster child, foster family, biological parents, and community) influence foster children's behavioral problems. Mainly, the influence of pre-care experiences, such as a history of maltreatment (Oswald, Heil, & Goldbeck, 2010), and in-care experiences, such as the number of out-of-home placements (Newton, Litrownik, & Landsverk, 2000), is investigated and confirmed. Although the body of research on predictive factors of foster children's behavioral problems is growing (McWey, Acock, & Porter, 2010), the possible influence of one important party is being neglected: biological fathers. This is remarkable given the central role of birth parents in family foster care (O'Donnell, 2001), and even more striking given the growing evidence of the influence of fathers on developmental outcomes of children (Lamb, 2010). This study reports on the involvement of birth fathers during foster care placement of their child and their association with the foster child's well-being. First, we review the literature on the influence of parents on foster children's mental health and discuss the limited research on fathers' involvement. Next, the results of our study are presented and discussed. PMID:24843953

Vanschoonlandt, Femke; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Van Holen, Frank; De Maeyer, Skrällan; Andries, Caroline

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

A Prospective Three Generational Study of Fathers’ Constructive Parenting: Influences from Family of Origin, Adolescent Adjustment, and Offspring Temperament  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This prospective, intergenerational study considered multiple influences on 102 fathers’ constructive parenting of 181 children. Fathers in the second generation (G2) were recruited as boys on the basis of neighborhood risk for delinquency and assessed through early adulthood. The fathers’ parents (G1) and the G2 mothers of G3 also participated. A multiagent, multimethod approach was used to measure G1 and G2 constructive parenting (monitoring, discipline, warmth, and involvement), G2 pos...

Kerr, David C. R.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Pears, Katherine C.; Owen, Lee D.

2009-01-01

82

T.F. Torrance and the Consensus Patrum: a reformed, evangelical, and ecumenical reconstruction of the Church Fathers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis offers a constructive engagement with T.F. Torrance’s theological reading of the patristic tradition. It argues that Torrance reconstructs the Fathers into a Consensus Patrum, or “Consensus of the Fathers” consisting of catholic/ecumenical themes and figures. Torrance’s consensus is a creative attempt to produce a Reformed and evangelical version of the consensus which involves significant changes to both standard readings of the Fathers in other approaches ...

Radcliff, Jason Robert

2013-01-01

83

The expectations of fathers concerning care provided by midwives to the mothers during labour  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Midwives have been criticised for neglecting the expectations and needs of fathers. They either ignore the fathers or pressure them into becoming more involved than they would choose, if allowed to provide support to the mothers during labour. Whilst midwives are providing woman-centred care, it is [...] important that they remember to involve the fathers in decision-making and to acknowledge their role, expectations and needs, because the birth of a child is one of the most important events in a person's lifetime. This study focused on fathers' expectations of the care provided to mothers by the midwives during labour. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study design was utilised. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with fathers about the care provided to their partners or wives by midwives. Data were then analysed with an open descriptive method of coding that is appropriate for qualitative research. The results of the interviews were subsequently positioned within a holistic health-promotive nursing theory that encompassed body, mind and spirit. The results revealed that fathers saw the provision of comfort and support as the two main aspects for mothers in labour that they expected from midwives. The findings were that midwives should improve their communication skills with the mothers, as well as with the fathers if they are available. Fathers expected midwives to encourage them to accompany the mother during labour and to facilitate bonding between father, mother and baby. The results of this study should assist midwives to provide holistic quality care to mothers and fathers during labour.

Malmsey L.M., Sengane; Anna G.W., Nolte.

84

Social Networks and the Communication of Norms About Prenatal Care in Rural Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many normative beliefs are shared and learned through interpersonal communication, yet research on norms typically focuses on their effects rather than the communication that shapes them. This study focused on interpersonal communication during pregnancy to uncover (a) the nature of pregnancy-related communication and (b) normative information transmitted through such communication. Results from interviews with pregnant women living in rural Mexico revealed limited social networks; often, only a woman's mother or the baby's father were consulted about prenatal care decisions. However, women also indicated that communication with others during pregnancy provided important normative information regarding prenatal care. First, most referents believed that women should receive prenatal care (injunctive norm), which was conceptualized by participants as biomedical, nonmedical, or a blend of both. Second, family members often received prenatal care, whereas friends did not (descriptive norms). These findings highlight the key role of personal and social networks in shaping personal pregnancy-related beliefs and behaviors. PMID:25116348

Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Cruz, Shannon; Lapine, Peter

2014-08-12

85

Fathers experiences of parental care after divorce  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This narrative study explores the terrain of South African fathers experiences of parental care after divorce. A war metaphor enabled the writing of this narrative. I began the expedition with surveying the terrain in which fathers fight for their parental rights. The map takes us to the political, social and statistical arenas which converge to make for a complex picture for fathers to exercise their parental rights and responsibilities in the aftermath of divorce. The journey continu...

Wybourn, Adele

2008-01-01

86

Working fathers in Europe: earning and caring?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A common conception of modern fatherhood is that there has to be a trade off between being a financial provider or an active carer. This briefing, drawing on an analysis of large-scale European survey data, which is both longitudinal and comparative, explores the possibility that a father’s success and commitment as a financial provider does not necessarily prevent a similar commitment to the caring and nurturing aspects of fathering (Marsiglio 1995). In this study, earnings of co-residenti...

Smith, Alison

2007-01-01

87

Invasive Prenatal Testing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Invasive prenatal diagnosis is a major diagnostic tool which is used in modern obstetrical care. A synopsis of these techniques is provided to assist the family practitioner in providing this information to his patients.

Hunter, A.

1988-01-01

88

Twins abused by their father  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is an important public health problem that recurs unless it is recognized early and protection measures are implemented timely. Multidisciplinary collaboration of related professionals is of paramount importance in assessing and managing cases of child abuse and neglect. The father of the twins presented in this paper, who was employed in odd jobs as the sole bread-winner of his family of five and abused his wife also physically abused his twin children under one year of age. Although the physicians reported these children to law enforcement, the family concealed the abuse and neither the physicians nor the law enforcement reported this family to child protective services. As a consequence, a picture of recurrence of abuse with a cumulative negative medico-social outcome was observed. Since the mother declined to testify on the father abusing his children during the court proceedings, the father returned to the family after a brief incarceration. Child protective measures were established only after the forensic medicine physician interfered with the proceedings on a voluntary basis. This presentation aimed at reviewing the risk factors related to abuse and associated findings and assessment steps of abuse. In addition, these cases confirmed that every child abuse case that is missed by physicians and mismanaged legally or from child protection perspective has the potential to lead to severe, chronic abuse. Therefore, it is important that the family, law, medicine, and social services should collaborate in diagnosis and management of these cases. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 346-50

Celal

2011-12-01

89

F-IF Your Father  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Let $F$ assign to each student in your math class his/her biological father. Explain why $F$ is a function. Describe conditions on the class that would...

90

Low-Income Noncustodial Fathers: A Child Advocate's Guide to Helping Them Contribute to the Support of Their Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The correlation between a noncustodial father and child poverty suggests that father involvement and support are critical pieces of the puzzle for reducing child poverty. Regular child support provides an income supplement to families leaving welfare and can prevent families' initial descent into poverty. This issue brief is intended to introduce…

Feeley, Theresa J.

91

Annotation: Children's Relationships with Their Nonresident Fathers  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The frequency of parental separation means that increasing numbers of children have fathers who live in different households from mother-and-child; the significance of contact and relationships between children and their nonresident fathers for children's adjustment is receiving growing attention. Lessons from this research are…

Dunn, Judy

2004-01-01

92

PARENTING A CHILD WITH A DISABILITY: AN EXAMINATION OF RESIDENT AND NON-RESIDENT FATHERS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Children with disabilities often require more extensive family involvement and greater paternal support than other children. Yet these children are the children least likely to live with their fathers. This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 from the United States to examine the association between child disability and resident and non-resident biological fathers’ supportiveness, relationship, and monitoring of their children. Regression analyses indicate si...

Shandra, Carrie L.; Hogan, Dennis P.; Spearin, Carrie E.

2008-01-01

93

Prenatal studies of a family with 4p- mosaicism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mosaicism for an autosomal structural abnormality is rare. Only two cases have been reported for mosaicism involving a deletion of the short arm of number 4 chromosome (one prenatal and one postnatal). We report mosaicism for 4p- in the amniocyte cultures from a G3P2 41-year-old patient who had amniocentesis for advanced maternal age. Chromosome analysis of amniotic cultures by in situ and flask methods in Chang-supplemented McCoy`s medium revealed a mosaic karyotype, 46,XX/46,XX,del(4)(p13) with 15 (62.5%) and 9 (37.5%) metaphases, respectively. Parental blood chromosome studies yielded a paternal mosaic karyotype with 2 out of 98 cells (2%) exhibiting a deletion in the short arm of number 4 chromosome (46,XX,del(4)(p13)) as seen in the fetus. After genetic counseling, the family decided to terminate the pregnancy. Studies of fetal tissue confirmed the amniocentesis results for 4p- mosaicism (18.3%). Cytogenetic studies in father confirmed mosaicism for 4p- in fibroblast cultures from skin (2%). In none of the blood or skin fibroblast cultures was there evidence of a spontaneous fragile site at 4p13. However, cytogenetic studies of peripheral blood under conditions of folate deprivation (medium 199) showed a fragile site at 4q13 in 30% of the metaphases and 4p- cells are absent. The coincidence of the breakpoints and folate-induced fragile site in 4p- may be related phenomena in this family.

Pulijaal, V.; Ben-Yishay, M.; Nitowsky, H.M. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

1994-09-01

94

The Classically-Enhanced Father Protocol  

CERN Document Server

The classically-enhanced father protocol is an optimal protocol for a sender to transmit both classical and quantum information to a receiver by exploiting preshared entanglement and a large number of independent uses of a noisy quantum channel. We detail the proof of a quantum Shannon theorem that gives the three-dimensional capacity region containing all achievable rates that the classically-enhanced father protocol obtains. Points in the capacity region are rate triples consisting of the classical communication rate, the quantum communication rate, and the entanglement consumption rate of a particular coding scheme. The classically-enhanced father protocol is more general than any other protocol in the family tree of quantum Shannon theoretic protocols. Several previously known quantum protocols are now child protocols of the classically-enhanced father protocol. Interestingly, the classically-enhanced father protocol gives insight for constructing optimal classically-enhanced entanglement-assisted quantum...

Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

2008-01-01

95

The parenting role of African American fathers in the context of urban poverty.  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study examines low-income African American fathers' perceptions of their parenting role and the strategies they employ to bring up children in poor urban neighborhoods. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 36 fathers who had contact with their children at least twice a month. Men in the study expressed conventional views of their fathering roles as provider, nurturer, and teacher, but placed the most emphasis on "being there" for their children, as their financial circumstances limited other forms of involvement. Many fathers felt their circumstances to be exacerbated by a hostile child-support system. They desired to teach their children alternatives to the negative practices and values they saw in their urban neighborhoods and to have the skills to prosper in mainstream society. Overall, the findings suggest that many low-income urban fathers already desire to be responsible fathers but see themselves as limited by material and structural challenges. Services and policies that promote the economic stability of low-income fathers are recommended. PMID:23914131

Threlfall, Jennifer M; Seay, Kristen D; Kohl, Patricia L

2013-01-01

96

Sonographic characterization of the prenatal development of the elephant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Elephants have the longest pregnancy of all mammals, with an average gestation of around 660 days (Meyer et al. , 2004). The processes involved in prenatal development are therefore of special interest. In the past, research on the prenatal development of the elephant relied mainly on foetal specimens collected during culling actions in South Africa, which took place in the period between 1964 - 1995. Observations concerning implantation, placentation, development of the extraembryonic org...

Drews, Barbara

2010-01-01

97

Fathers' occupation and pregnancy outcome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Findings from a survey of 56,067 women in Montreal on maternal occupation and pregnancy outcome have been reported. Paternal occupation recorded in the same survey was analysed for spontaneous abortion in 24 occupational groups retaining the six main sectors of maternal occupation and allowing, by means of logistic regression, for seven potentially confounding variables. In only one of the 24 fathers' occupational groups was there a statistically significant excess of spontaneous abortions-mechanics, repairers, and certain assemblers (O/E = 1.10, 90% CI = 1.02-1.20); subdivision of this group suggested that this excess was mainly attributable to the large group of motor vehicle mechanics (O/E = 1.17). No significant excess of known chromosomally determined defects was found in any of the 24 occupational groups. An association of developmental defects was found with food and beverage processing (18 defects observed compared with 8.02 expected; p < 0.05); however, there was no specificity in type of food, beverage, or congenital defect, and no obvious explanatory mechanism. (author)

98

Some founding fathers of physics  

Science.gov (United States)

In the rise of early modern science, Christian concepts were crucially important in shaping men's thoughts about the world. An endemic 'conflict' between science and religion has been wrongly predicted on a few isolated, if dramatic, examples (notably those of Galileo and Darwin), when men of science were persecuted by elements of the organised Church. This thesis has been nourished from time to time by anti-clerical groups in various countries. The implausibility of such a 'conflict thesis' is indicated by the large numbers of leading scientists from the seventeenth to the twentieth centuries who have cheerfully professed a Christian faith. The generation and use of scientific theories have never been unconditioned by social and cultural forces, and these have often included those that one can label 'religion'. Whereas science owes many of its fundamental attributes to the Judaeo-Christian religion, such a dependence is now often forgotten, or at least relegated to the subconscious. The persistence of a Christian belief in some form among many physical scientists has continued to this day. The author is concerned to indicate, very briefly, this same tendency in the lives and work of five of the most notable founding fathers of physics.

Russell, Colin A.

1987-01-01

99

Father--The Other Partner: A Survey of Current Knowledge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews research studies regarding the father's role in child development and indicates that theoretical perspectives on father-child relationships are incomplete. According to recent research, the father's role noticeably influences child development. Changing sex roles do not appear to have influenced most Australian fathers to share caregiving…

Riach, Lorraine

1981-01-01

100

Different options for prenatal testing for Huntington's disease using DNA probes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The discovery of DNA markers closely linked to the gene for Huntington's disease (HD) has allowed development of predictive and prenatal testing programmes for HD. This report describes four different approaches to prenatal testing for HD which have arisen during a pilot predictive and prenatal testing program in British Columbia, Canada. In the first approach (exclusion testing), the at risk parent cannot or prefers not to learn of his/her HD status. Two other approaches involve definitive t...

Fahy, M.; Robbins, C.; Bloch, M.; Turnell, R. W.; Hayden, M. R.

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Mechanisms of prenatal radiation effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prenatal irradiation may lead to a stop in the development, death, teratogenic effects, growth disorders, functional disturbances, tumour induction, and hereditary defects. The effects on the conceptus mainly depend on the time of exposure relative to conception, dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. It is assumed that lethal and teratogenic effects as well as growth disorders are the result of a multicellular mechanism involving a threshold-type of dose-response relationship. Cancer initiation and mutagenesis are believed to be uni-cellular processes occurring at random in single cells. The absence of a threshold dose is assumed as a working hypothesis. Cell death, migration disturbances, and disorientation of neuronal processes are assumed as mechanisms responsible for mental retardation. (orig.)

102

Noninvasive screening for prenatal genetic diagnosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the last two decades a number of methods of prenatal diagnosis have become available and have been used either in laboratory research or in routine genetic counselling. Despite the effectiveness of invasive sampling procedures in diagnosing genetic disorders, their use involves some risk. The advantage of noninvasive methods is that they provide an opportunity to make a genetic diagnosis without risk, and therefore are applicable for use in mass screening programmes. This article revie...

Simpson, J. L.

1995-01-01

103

Interactive Reading Experiences of African American Fathers and Social Fathers and Their 4- and 5-Year-Old Children  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to investigate the patterns of book choice and interaction during book reading sessions of six African American fathers and social fathers and their 4- to 5-year-old children. The fathers/social fathers selected and read aloud expository text, narrative text, and poetry to their children while…

Jackson, Clarissa R.

2012-01-01

104

Nonresident Fathers Can Make a Difference in Children's School Performance. Issue Brief.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using data from the 1996 National Household Education Survey (NHES:96), this issue brief looks at the involvement of nonresident fathers in terms of how such involvement affects student performance in grades K-12. In the NHES, resident parents reported on whether nonresident parents who had had contact with their children in the past year had…

Nord, Christine Winquist

105

Eugenesia y diagnóstico prenatal / Eugenics and prenatal diagnosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El uso del diagnóstico prenatal en la práctica de la genética médica ha hecho que se recuerden teorías eugenésicas. Se realizó una revisión histórica de este término y se relacionó con el uso del diagnóstico prenatal (DPN) y el aborto selectivo a la luz de los conocimientos bioéticos actuales. [...] Abstract in english The use of the prenatal diagnosis in the practice of medical genetics has led us to remember eugenic theories. A historical review of this term was made and it was connected with the use of prenatal diagnosis (PND) and selective abortion in the light of the present bioethical knowledge. [...

Rosa María, González Salvat; Ignacio, González Labrador.

2002-08-01

106

Eugenesia y diagnóstico prenatal Eugenics and prenatal diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El uso del diagnóstico prenatal en la práctica de la genética médica ha hecho que se recuerden teorías eugenésicas. Se realizó una revisión histórica de este término y se relacionó con el uso del diagnóstico prenatal (DPN y el aborto selectivo a la luz de los conocimientos bioéticos actuales.The use of the prenatal diagnosis in the practice of medical genetics has led us to remember eugenic theories. A historical review of this term was made and it was connected with the use of prenatal diagnosis (PND and selective abortion in the light of the present bioethical knowledge.

Rosa María González Salvat

2002-08-01

107

Human prenatal diagnosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis

108

Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of MYH7 non-compaction cardiomyopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on two prenatal ultrasound diagnoses of left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) associated with mutation of the cardiac ?-myosin heavy chain gene (MYH7). LVNC is characterized by a trabecular meshwork and deep intertrabecular myocardial recesses communicating with the left ventricular cavity. Clinical features range from non-penetrant disease in adult carriers to heart failure, arrhythmia and thromboembolism. Both cases showed cardiomegaly on prenatal ultrasound examinations, with features indicating non-compaction of the myocardium apparent in the third trimester. Mutations in the MYH7 gene were identified postnatally in each case in both the proband and the father. One infant underwent surgical mitral valvuloplasty and a mechanical valve implant later; in the other, left ventricular function was unimpaired at birth. Cardiac function in both cases remained stable at last follow-up. These cases highlight the importance of prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of LVNC and the need for cardiologic and molecular testing of first-degree relatives who may be unknown carriers of an MYH7 mutation. PMID:22859017

Hoedemaekers, Y M; Cohen-Overbeek, T E; Frohn-Mulder, I M E; Dooijes, D; Majoor-Krakauer, D F

2013-03-01

109

Congenital dacryocystocele: prenatal MRI findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Congenital dacryocystocele can be diagnosed prenatally by imaging. Prenatal MRI is increasingly utilized for fetal diagnosis. To present the radiological and clinical features of seven fetuses with congenital dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI. The institutional database of 1,028 consecutive prenatal MR examinations performed during a period of 4 years was reviewed retrospectively. The cases of congenital dacryocystocele were identified by reading the report of each MRI study. The incidence of dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI was 0.7% (n=7/1,028). The dacryocystocele was bilateral in three fetuses. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 31 weeks. The indication for prenatal MRI was the presence or the suspicion of central nervous system abnormality in six fetuses and diaphragmatic hernia in one. Dacryocystocele was associated with an intranasal cyst in six of ten eyes. Prenatal sonography revealed dacryocystocele in only two of seven fetuses. Of eight eyes with postnatal follow-up, four did not have any lacrimal symptoms. Prenatal MRI can delineate congenital dacryocystocele more clearly and in a more detailed fashion than ultrasonography. Presence of dacryocystocele was symptomatic in only 50% of our patients, supporting that prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele might follow a benign course. (orig.)

Yazici, Zeynep [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Uludag University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey); Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Rubio, Eva I.; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Linam, Leann E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Yazici, Bulent [Uludag University, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey)

2010-12-15

110

Exploring the group prenatal care model: a critical review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies have compared perinatal outcomes between individual prenatal care and group prenatal care. A critical review of research articles that were published between 1998 and 2009 and involved participants of individual and group prenatal care was conducted. Two middle range theories, Pender's health promotion model and Swanson's theory of caring, were blended to enhance conceptualization of the relationship between pregnant women and the group prenatal care model. Among the 17 research studies that met inclusion criteria for this critical review, five examined gestational age and birth weight with researchers reporting longer gestations and higher birth weights in infants born to mothers participating in group prenatal care, especially in the preterm birth population. Current evidence demonstrates that nurse educators and leaders should promote group prenatal care as a potential method of improving perinatal outcomes within the pregnant population. PMID:23997549

Thielen, Kathleen

2012-01-01

111

Exploring the Group Prenatal Care Model: A Critical Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies have compared perinatal outcomes between individual prenatal care and group prenatal care. A critical review of research articles that were published between 1998 and 2009 and involved participants of individual and group prenatal care was conducted. Two middle range theories, Pender’s health promotion model and Swanson’s theory of caring, were blended to enhance conceptualization of the relationship between pregnant women and the group prenatal care model. Among the 17 research studies that met inclusion criteria for this critical review, five examined gestational age and birth weight with researchers reporting longer gestations and higher birth weights in infants born to mothers participating in group prenatal care, especially in the preterm birth population. Current evidence demonstrates that nurse educators and leaders should promote group prenatal care as a potential method of improving perinatal outcomes within the pregnant population. PMID:23997549

Thielen, Kathleen

2012-01-01

112

Structural chromosomal mosaicism and prenatal diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

True structural chromosomal mosaicism are rare events in prenatal cytogenetics practice and may lead to diagnostic and prognostic problems. Here is described the case of a fetus carrying an abnormal chromosome 15 made of a whole chromosome 2p translocated on its short arm in 10% of the cells, in association with a normal cell line. The fetal karyotype was 46,XX,add(15)(p10).ish t(2;15)(p10;q10)(WCP2+)[3]/46,XX[27]. Pregnancy was terminated and fetus examination revealed a growth retardation associated with a dysmorphism including dolichocephaly, hypertelorism, high forehead, low-set ears with prominent anthelix and a small nose, which were characteristic of partial trisomy 2p. Possible aetiologies for prenatal mosaicism involving a chromosomal structural abnormality are discussed. PMID:14974115

Pipiras, E; Dupont, C; Chantot-Bastaraud, S; Siffroi, J P; Bucourt, M; Batallan, A; Largillière, C; Uzan, M; Wolf, J P; Benzacken, B

2004-02-01

113

Dilemas bioéticos del diagnóstico prenatal / Bioethical dilemmas of prenatal diagnosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El desarrollo del diagnóstico prenatal ha modificado radicalmente el manejo de los embarazos y de los resultados perinatales. Con este trabajo se pretende identificar los principales dilemas bioéticos del diagnóstico prenatal de los defectos congénitos en la provincia Artemisa. Se realizó un estudio [...] observacional, descriptivo. Los criterios para la indicación del proceder, el aborto selectivo, estatus moral del feto se identifican entre los conflictos bioéticos del diagnóstico prenatal. Se concluye que los principios generales de la bioética deben servir de base para el análisis y la solución de los dilemas que han surgido en el campo del diagnóstico prenatal y que el desarrollo tecnológico no puede cambiar los principios bioéticos, ni los valores humanos de los profesionales de la salud pública. Abstract in english The development of the prenatal diagnosis has radically modified the handling of pregnancies and of perinatal results. An observational, descriptive study is carried out with the objective of identifying the main bioethical dilemmas of prenatal diagnosis of congenital defects Artemisia. Approaches f [...] or indicating procedures, the selective abortion, and the fetus moral status are identified among the bioethical conflicts of the prenatal diagnosis.It is concluded that the general bioethics principles should serve as base for analysis and solution of these dilemmas, which have arisen in the field of prenatal diagnosis. Additionally it is concluded that technological development cannot change bioethical principles, neither human values of health professionals.

Lázaro, López Baños; Zonia, Fernández Pérez; Luis Gustavo, García Baños; Zenia, García Cartaya.

2013-09-01

114

Social behavior of offspring following prenatal cocaine exposure in rodents: a comparison with prenatal alcohol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure(PCEalters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models,a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PCE on social behaviors involving conspecifics in animal models. Social relationships are critical to the developing organism; maternally-directed interactions are necessary for initial survival. Juvenile rats deprived of play behavior, one of the earliest forms of non-mother directed social behaviors in rodents, show deficits in learning tasks and sexual competence. Social behavior is inherently conmplex. Because the emergence of appropriate social skills involves the interplay between various conceptual and biological facets of behavior and social information, it may be a particularly sensitive measure of prenatal insult. The social behavior surveyed include social interactions, play behavior/fighting, scent marking and aggressive behavior in the offspring, as well as aspects of maternal behavior. The goal is to determine if there is a consensus of results in the literature with respect to PCE and social behaviors, and to discuss discrepant findings in terms of exposure models, the paradigms and dependent variables, as well as housing conditions, and the sex and age of the offspring at testing. As there is increasing evidence that deficits in social behavior may be sequelae of developmental exposure alcohol, we compare changes in social behaviors reported for prenatal alcohol with those reported for prenatal cocaine. Shortcomings in the both literatures are identified and addressed in an effort to improve the translational value of future experimentation.

SonyaKrishnaSobrian

2011-11-01

115

Ethics of prenatal ultrasound.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenatal ultrasound has opened new opportunities to examine, diagnose and treat the fetus, but these advances bring with them ethical dilemmas. In this chapter, I address the ethical principles that need to be considered when treating both mother and fetus as patients, and how these can be applied in practice. In particular, ultrasound practitioners have an ethical duty to maintain their theoretical knowledge and practical skills to ensure they advise parents correctly. I also discuss the ethical issues in carrying out intrauterine therapy, ultrasound-related research, and termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality. PMID:24374013

Howe, David

2014-04-01

116

Prenatal vitamins: what is in the bottle?  

Science.gov (United States)

Nearly all obstetricians routinely prescribe prenatal vitamins to their pregnant patients at the time of the first prenatal visit. Many times, patients' understanding of the health benefits of prenatal vitamins differs substantially from that of the prescribing physician. The following is a review of the most common ingredients found in prenatal vitamins and their purported health benefits. PMID:25503111

Duerbeck, Norman B; Dowling, David D; Duerbeck, Jillinda M

2014-12-01

117

Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review

118

77 FR 37259 - Father's Day, 2012  

Science.gov (United States)

...the well-being of our children and the strength of our...or adoptive, they teach us through the encouragement...a blessing with their children that stands among our...guiding hand of a caring adult. All of us have a stake...between fathers and their children. Today, we...

2012-06-21

119

Associations Between Father Absence and Age of First Sexual Intercourse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Children (N = 14–21 years) raised without a biological father in the household have earlier average ages of first sexual intercourse than children raised in father-present households. Competing theoretical perspectives have attributed this either to effects of father absence on socialization and physical maturation, or to nonrandom selection of children predisposed for early sexual intercourse into father absent households. Genetically informative analyses of the children of sister dyads su...

Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige; Turkheimer, Eric; Hulle, Carol A.; D’onofrio, Brian M.; Brooks-gunn, Jeanne; Rodgers, Joseph L.; Emery, Robert E.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

2009-01-01

120

Prenatal screening and diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Ireland there is no accepted national policy on the provision of prenatal screening and diagnosis and the availability of such tests is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess contemporary practice patterns of consultant obstetricians, specialist registrars in obstetrics and gynaecology and general practitioners regarding prenatal screening and diagnosis. A questionnaire was mailed to all 130 consultant obstetricians and gynaecologists, all 38 specialist registrars and to a random sample of 600 general practitioners, extracted from their database by the Irish College of General Practitioners. Data from the returned questionnaires was analysed using SPSS V.12.10. (SPSS inc., Chicago, IL). Overall 768 questionnaires were distributed with a response rate of 48% (371). Seventy five percent of respondants felt that patient demand for screening and diagnosis of fetal abnormalities has significantly increased compared with 5 years ago. Seventy two percent of respondants felt that detailed ultrasound examination of the fetus should be provided to all obstetric patients, irrespective of risk factors. However only 10% of respondants routinely discuss screening for fetal aneuploidy with antenatal patients. All agreed that depending on the particular patient, both invasive diagnostic and non-invasive screening tests should be available to patients. While it is reassuring that the majority of obstetricians support routine sonographic screening for fetal anatomy, there is a lack of consensus and knowledge regarding contemporary approaches to screening for fetal aneuploidy. PMID:17491543

Lynch, C M; Malone, F D

2007-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

The role of nonperpetrating fathers in Munchausen syndrome by proxy: a review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) is a psychiatric condition and form of child abuse in which a caregiver, usually a mother, induces illness in a child to gain attention for herself. Because children that are abused by a MSBP perpetrator are likely to be hospitalized multiple times, it is important for the nurse to know warning signs and symptoms of MSBP. Of particular interest is the role of the child's parent that is not involved in the abuse, usually the father. This article presents a review of literature on MSBP, focusing on the role of the nonperpetrating fathers. PMID:22703679

Morrell, Briyana; Tilley, Donna Scott

2012-08-01

122

Prenatal care effectiveness and utilization in Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impact of prenatal care use on birth outcomes has been understudied in South American countries. This study assessed the effects of various measures of prenatal care use on birth weight (BW) and gestational age outcomes using samples of infants born without and with common birth defects from Brazil, and evaluated the demand for prenatal care. Prenatal visits improved BW in the group without birth defects through increasing both fetal growth rate and gestational age, but prenatal care visi...

Wehby, George L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Lopez-camelo, Jorge S.; Ohsfeldt, Robert L.

2009-01-01

123

Associations between Father Absence and Age of First Sexual Intercourse  

Science.gov (United States)

Children raised without a biological father in the household have earlier average ages of first sexual intercourse than children raised in father-present households. Competing theoretical perspectives have attributed this either to effects of father absence on socialization and physical maturation or to nonrandom selection of children predisposed…

Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige; Turkheimer, Eric; Van Hulle, Carol A.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Rodgers, Joseph L.; Emery, Robert E.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

2009-01-01

124

Father-Infant Interactions Are Enhanced by Massage Therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined the impact of fathers giving massages to their infants, ages 3 to 14 months, for 15 minutes prior to their daily bedtime for 1 month. Found that fathers who had massaged their infants were more expressive and showed more enjoyment and more warmth during floor-play interactions with their infants than did fathers in the wait-list control…

Cullen, Christy; Field, Tiffany; Escalona, Angelica; Hartshorn, Kristin

2000-01-01

125

Fathers' child feeding practices: a review of the evidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite their expanding role in child rearing, fathers are underrepresented in child feeding research. To address this knowledge gap and encourage father-focused research, this review compiles child feeding research that has included fathers and (i) documents characteristics of studies assessing fathers' feeding practices including study design, setting, recruitment strategies, participant characteristics, theoretical models utilized and measures of child feeding, (ii) outlines general patterns in fathers' feeding practices along with similarities and differences in mothers' and fathers' feeding practices, (iii) summarizes evidence on child and parent correlates of fathers' feeding practices and (iv) generates future research recommendations. A literature review of relevant articles published up to February 2014 was conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they: (i) included fathers, or primary male caregivers, of children 2-18 years of age, (ii) measured fathers' child feeding practices or perceived role in child feeding through objective (e.g., meal observations) or subjective (i.e., fathers' self-report) methods, (iii) analyzed and presented data on fathers separately from mothers and (iv) were published in a peer reviewed journal in the English language. Twenty studies met eligibility criteria. Few studies included an operational definition of "father". Samples were generally small and focused on white, well-educated fathers, cohabiting with the child's mother. Most studies utilized self-report measures of child feeding practices that have not been validated specifically for use with fathers. Pressuring children to eat was a common feeding strategy adopted by fathers. Some differences were noted in mothers' and fathers' feeding practices; fathers were generally less likely to monitor children's food intake and to limit access to food compared with mothers. Child adiposity and a range of child and parent characteristics were associated with fathers' feeding practices. The literature on fathers' child feeding practices is scant. This review consolidates what is known to date and highlights focal areas for future research including the need to recruit diverse samples of fathers and utilize measures validated for use with fathers. PMID:24667152

Khandpur, Neha; Blaine, Rachel E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Davison, Kirsten K

2014-07-01

126

An Exploration of Aspects of Boundary Ambiguity among Young, Unmarried Fathers during the Prenatal Period  

Science.gov (United States)

This research represents an exploration of patterns of boundary ambiguity among poor, young, unmarried men and their reproductive partners. Interviews were conducted with men and their partners during the third trimester of pregnancy. Interviews focused on patterns of men's physical and psychological presence in relationships with their partners…

Leite, Randall

2007-01-01

127

Diagnóstico prenatal del Síndrome EEC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de diagnóstico prenatal ecográfico del Síndrome EEC (Ectrodactilia, Displasia Ectodérmica y Labio y Paladar Hendidos, en una familia con tres generaciones de afectados.

Torres G.

2001-06-01

128

Prenatal Screening Methods for Aneuploidies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aneuploidies are a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is the most common indication for invasive prenatal diagnosis. Initially, screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high-risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. New research is now focusing on non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal circu...

Dey, Madhusudan; Sharma, Sumedha; Aggarwal, Sumita

2013-01-01

129

Ethical considerations in prenatal diagnosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prenatal diagnostic testing raises a number of important ethical issues, some related to diagnostic testing in general and others related to the special circumstances of pregnancy. These issues are most effectively addressed in the context of a broader understanding of the goals of prenatal diagnosis. Our dual obligations--to the pregnant woman and to the fetus--have an important influence on the goals of testing. Testing seldom leads to treatment beneficial to the fetus, but more often can b...

Gates, E. A.

1993-01-01

130

Prenatal assessment of foot deformity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) and other skeletal abnormalities can be diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound scan. If diagnosed, clinicians should be cautiously optimistic with the parents, particularly if the talipes diagnosed is isolated and not associated with other foetal abnormalities. There is no correlation between the prenatal appearance of the foot and the state of the foot at birth, nor with the necessity for surgical intervention. PMID:16198512

Barry, Matthew

2005-10-01

131

She said, he said: Comparing mothers' and fathers' reports on the non-resident father's contact with his children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Analyses of contact frequency between non-resident fathers and children have often been based on samples of non-resident fathers or resident mothers only. It is well established that non-resident fathers tend to report more contact than the resident mothers do, but it is less clear if it matters which parent we ask, when the aim is to explore predictors of father-child contact. Objective: We wish to add to the literature on predictors of father-child contact, espe...

Ragni Hege Kitterød; Jan Lyngstad

2014-01-01

132

Familial lambdoid craniosynostosis between father and son.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lambdoid craniosynostosis is an uncommon condition, with an incidence of 1 per 33,000 live births. Its etiopathology remains controversial. Although many forms of syndromic and nonsyndromic craniosynostosis demonstrate an inherited pattern, few articles have reported lambdoid craniosynostosis in the same family. In this article, we report lambdoid synostosis in a father and son. A case review is performed. A full-term male infant was delivered by cesarean delivery because of failure to progress. He presented at 3 years of age with right unilateral lambdoid craniosynostosis with facial asymmetry and lateral deviation of his jaw, with occlusal abnormality. At presentation, the father reported skull surgery during his infancy for unilateral lambdoid craniosynostosis. Review of the computed tomographic scan of the child demonstrated a plagiocephalic appearance of the calvarium with frontal bossing and a fusion of the lambdoid suture on the right sides. The brain parenchyma showed no abnormality. The review of his father's surgical record from 33 years ago and of his computed tomographic scan ordered by our team confirmed the diagnosis of previous lambdoid craniosynostosis. Only 2 previous cases of familial isolated lambdoid craniosynostosis have been previously described in literature. Although the genetic basis has been established for many types of craniosynostosis, the etiopathogenesis of isolated lambdoid synostosis has not yet been established. We report the third case of inherited unilateral lambdoid craniosynostosis. The genetic pathogenesis of lambdoid craniosynostosis will be discussed. PMID:18520419

Kadlub, Natacha; Persing, John A; da Silva Freitas, Renato; Shin, Joseph H

2008-05-01

133

Breast cancer patients with lobular cancer more commonly have a father than a mother diagnosed with cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between lobular breast cancer and family history is not clear. The aim of the study was to possibly identifying new hereditary patterns predisposing for cancer in the different histopathologic subtypes of breast cancer, with focus on patients with lobular breast cancer and cancer in their first degree relatives. Methods In 1676 consecutive breast cancer patients detailed family history of cancer was related to histopathologic subtype of breast cancer. Results Patients with lobular breast cancer were found to be significantly positively associated with having a father diagnosed with cancer, OR 2.17 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.37-3.46. The finding persisted after excluding breast cancer in the family. Ductal breast cancer was associated with having a mother diagnosed with cancer. There was a significant association between lobular breast cancer and having a father with prostate cancer, OR 2.4 (CI 1.1-5.3. The occurrence of having a father with prostate cancer for lobular breast cancer patients was higher in the younger patient group, OR 2.9 (CI 1.1-7.8, and was still high but lost statistical significance in the older patient group, OR 1.9 (CI 0.5-7.4. The association between lobular breast cancer and a father remained significant after excluding fathers with prostate cancer, OR 1.94 (CI 1.20-3.14. Other commonly occurring tumor types in the father included sarcoma and leukemia. Conclusion We propose that lobular breast cancer is associated with having a father diagnosed with cancer, most commonly prostate carcinoma. Since the association remained after excluding family history of breast cancer, the association seems independent of classical breast cancer heredity. The association with a father diagnosed with cancer also remained after removing prostate cancer, indicating an independence from prostate cancer as well. The reason for this association is genetically unclear, but could involve sex-specific imprinting.

Ellberg Carolina

2011-11-01

134

The expectations of fathers concerning care provided by midwives to the mothers during labour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Midwives have been criticised for neglecting the expectations and needs of fathers. They either ignore the fathers or pressure them into becoming more involved than they would choose, if allowed to provide support to the mothers during labour. Whilst midwives are providing woman-centred care, it is important that they remember to involve the fathers in decision-making and to acknowledge their role, expectations and needs, because the birth of a child is one of the most important events in a person’s lifetime. This study focused on fathers’ expectations of the care provided to mothers by the midwives during labour. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study design was utilised. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with fathers about the care provided to their partners or wives by midwives. Data were then analysed with an open descriptive method of coding that is appropriate for qualitative research. The results of the interviews were subsequently positioned within a holistic health-promotive nursing theory that encompassed body, mind and spirit. The results revealed that fathers saw the provision of comfort and support as the two main aspects for mothers in labour that they expected from midwives. The findings were that midwives should improve their communication skills with the mothers, as well as with the fathers if they are available. Fathers expected midwives to encourage them to accompany the mother during labour and to facilitate bonding between father, mother and baby. The results of this study should assist midwives to provide holistic quality care to mothers and fathers during labour.

Opsomming

Vroedvroue word daarvan beskuldig dat hulle nie voldoen aan die verwagtinge en behoeftes van die vaders nie. Vaders word, óf deur hulle geïgnoreer, óf druk word op hulle uitgeoefen om meer betrokke te raak as waarmee hulle gemaklik is, indien hulle wel toegelaat word om moeders te ondersteun tydens die kraamproses. Vroedvroue verskaf moeder-gesentreerde sorg, maar dit is nogtans belangrik dat hulle onthou om die vaders te betrek in die besluitneming en hulle rol, verwagtinge en behoeftes te erken omdat die geboorte van ‘n kind een van die belangrikste gebeurtenisse in hulle lewens is. Die studie het gefokus op vaders se verwagtinge van die sorg wat verskaf word aan moeders tydens kraam. ‘n Kwalitatiewe, eksploratiewe, beskrywende en kontekstuele navorsingsontwerp is gebruik. Data is ingesamel deur in-diepte onderhoude met vaders te voer oor die sorg wat aan hul vroue of metgeselle tydens die kraamproses verskaf word deur vroedvroue. Data is daarna geanaliseer deur ‘n oop beskrywende metode te gebruik wat toepaslik is vir kwalitatiewe navorsing. Die resultate van die onderhoude is vervolgens geposisioneer binne ‘n holistiese, gesondheids-bevorderende teorie wat verwys na liggaam, psige en gees. Die resultate toon dat gemak en ondersteuning die twee hoofkategorieë is wat verskaf moet word deur vroedvroue aan moeders tydens die kraamproses. Die ander kategorieë wat aangedui word in die resultate, is dat vroedvroue hulle onderlinge kommunikasievaardighede moet verbeter, asook hul kommunikasie met die moeders en vaders indien laasgenoemde beskikbaar is. Die vaders het van vroedvroue verwag om hulle aan te moedig om moeders by te staan tydens die kraamproses en om binding tussen vader, moeder en baba aan te moedig.

How to cite this article: Sengane, M.L.M. & Nolte, A.G.W., 2012, ‘The expectations of fathers concerning care provided by midwives to the mothers during labour’, Health SA Gesondheid 17(1, Art.#527, 10 pages. http://dx.doi. org/10.4102/hsag.v17i1.527

Anna G.W. Nolte

2012-02-01

135

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Prenatal Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of prenatal stress on psychopathology has been observed in many animal and human studies. In many studies, stress during prenatal period has been shown to result in negative feedback dysregulation and hyperactivity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Prenatal stres also may cause increased risk of birth complications, startle or distress in response to novel and surprising stimuli during infancy; lower Full Scale IQs, language abilities and attention deficiency in period of 3-5 years; increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, anxiety symptoms, depressive disorder and impulsivity during adolescence. Additionally, timing of prenatal stress is also important and 12-22 weeks of gestation seems to be the most vulnerable period. The results underline the need for early prevention and intervention programs for highly anxious women during pregnancy. Administration of prenatal stress monitoring to public health programs or removing pregnant women who have been exposed to life events such as natural disaster, terror attack to secure areas that provide basic needs may be crucial.

M. Genco Usta

2012-03-01

136

Fathers and Maternal Risk for Physical Child Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study set out to examine father-related factors predicting maternal physical child abuse risk in a national birth cohort of 1,480 families. In-home and phone interviews were conducted with mothers when index children were 3 years old. Predictor variables included the mother–father relationship status; father demographic, economic, and psychosocial variables; and key background factors. Outcome variables included both observed and self-reported proxies of maternal physical child abuse r...

Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong; Lee, Shawna J.; Waldfogel, Jane; Rathouz, Paul J.

2009-01-01

137

The role of the father in the development of psychosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In psychoanalysis, fathering has not received much analytical at­tention and only little is known about the actual impact of paternity on the development of certain psychopathology. This paper seeks to carefully examine and critically discuss the impact of fathering on psychotic individuals. It elaborates on the importance of the father in the healthy development of the children, as well as on the consequences that his absence entails for their psyche. Drawing on a Lacanian analytical ...

Avramaki Elissavet; Tsekeris Charalambos

2011-01-01

138

Diagnóstico prenatal del pie bot / Prenatal diagnosis of clubfoot  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. El pie bot es una de las anomalías músculo- esqueléticas congénitas más frecuentes. La utilización de la ecografía para la detección prenatal del pie bot ha avanzado rápidamente en la última década, pero las publicaciones han presentado una gran variabilidad de opiniones en cuanto a la [...] eficacia del método, la asociación con otras patologías y la necesidad de realizar amniocentesis para análisis del cariotipo. Objetivos. Analizar en qué porcentaje de pacientes se realizó diagnóstico prenatal del pie bot, evaluar la opinión de las madres al respecto y aclarar algunos conceptos revisando la bibliografía disponible a la fecha. Métodos. Se analizó retrospectivamente un grupo de 54 pacientes consecutivos con diagnóstico de pie bot tratados en el período enero 2008-junio 2010. Se documentaron el número de ecografías realizadas durante el embarazo, el tipo de ecografía realizada (2D, 3D o 4D) y la semana de gestación al momento del diagnóstico. Las madres fueron encuestadas a fin de conocer su opinión con respecto al diagnóstico prenatal de esta deformidad. Resultados. Se realizaron 3,2 ecografías promedio durante el embarazo (r, 1-7). En el 25% (13/52) de los casos se realizó diagnóstico prenatal. El diagnóstico fue realizado en 7 casos con ecografía 2D, en 4 con 3D y en 2 con 4D, y en promedio se efectuó a la semana 22 (r, 20-28). En ningún paciente se llevó a cabo diagnóstico temprano, en 12 fue tardío y en 1 muy tardío. Conclusión. El diagnóstico prenatal permite a los padres de prepararse psicológicamente y asesorarse sobre la patología. En nuestra serie, el 90,4% se mostró a favor de conocer previamente el diagnóstico. Abstract in english Introduction. Clubfoot is one of the most frequent congenital musculoskeletal anomalies. The use of ultrasound for prenatal detection of clubfoot has advanced rapidly in the last decade, but publications report a great variability in opinions regarding the effectiveness of the method, the associatio [...] n with other diseases and the need to perform amniocentesis analysis of the karyotype. Objectives. To analyze the percentage of patients with prenatal diagnosis of clubfoot, evaluate mothers' opinion on this issue, and clarify some concepts by reviewing the literature available to date. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed a group of 54 consecutive patients diagnosed with clubfoot treated from January 2008 to June 2010. We documented the number of ultrasounds performed during pregnancy, type of ultrasound (2D, 3D or 4D) and the gestational week at diagnosis. Mothers were surveyed to ascertain their opinion with regard to prenatal diagnosis. Results. An average of 3.2 ultrasounds was performed during pregnancy (r, 1-7). Prenatal diagnosis was performed in 25% of cases (13/52 patients). Diagnosis was performed in 7 cases with 2-D ultrasound in 4 with 3-D and in 2 with 4-D. Diagnosis was performed on average at week 22 (r, 20- 28). No patient was diagnosed early, 12 were diagnosed late and 1 very late. Conclusion. Prenatal diagnosis gives parents the opportunity for psychological preparation and counseling regarding clubfoot. In our series, 90.4% supported prenatal diagnosis.

Julio Javier, Masquijo; Silvio, Marchegiani; Victoria, Allende.

2011-12-01

139

Diagnóstico prenatal del pie bot Prenatal diagnosis of clubfoot  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción. El pie bot es una de las anomalías músculo- esqueléticas congénitas más frecuentes. La utilización de la ecografía para la detección prenatal del pie bot ha avanzado rápidamente en la última década, pero las publicaciones han presentado una gran variabilidad de opiniones en cuanto a la eficacia del método, la asociación con otras patologías y la necesidad de realizar amniocentesis para análisis del cariotipo. Objetivos. Analizar en qué porcentaje de pacientes se realizó diagnóstico prenatal del pie bot, evaluar la opinión de las madres al respecto y aclarar algunos conceptos revisando la bibliografía disponible a la fecha. Métodos. Se analizó retrospectivamente un grupo de 54 pacientes consecutivos con diagnóstico de pie bot tratados en el período enero 2008-junio 2010. Se documentaron el número de ecografías realizadas durante el embarazo, el tipo de ecografía realizada (2D, 3D o 4D y la semana de gestación al momento del diagnóstico. Las madres fueron encuestadas a fin de conocer su opinión con respecto al diagnóstico prenatal de esta deformidad. Resultados. Se realizaron 3,2 ecografías promedio durante el embarazo (r, 1-7. En el 25% (13/52 de los casos se realizó diagnóstico prenatal. El diagnóstico fue realizado en 7 casos con ecografía 2D, en 4 con 3D y en 2 con 4D, y en promedio se efectuó a la semana 22 (r, 20-28. En ningún paciente se llevó a cabo diagnóstico temprano, en 12 fue tardío y en 1 muy tardío. Conclusión. El diagnóstico prenatal permite a los padres de prepararse psicológicamente y asesorarse sobre la patología. En nuestra serie, el 90,4% se mostró a favor de conocer previamente el diagnóstico.Introduction. Clubfoot is one of the most frequent congenital musculoskeletal anomalies. The use of ultrasound for prenatal detection of clubfoot has advanced rapidly in the last decade, but publications report a great variability in opinions regarding the effectiveness of the method, the association with other diseases and the need to perform amniocentesis analysis of the karyotype. Objectives. To analyze the percentage of patients with prenatal diagnosis of clubfoot, evaluate mothers' opinion on this issue, and clarify some concepts by reviewing the literature available to date. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed a group of 54 consecutive patients diagnosed with clubfoot treated from January 2008 to June 2010. We documented the number of ultrasounds performed during pregnancy, type of ultrasound (2D, 3D or 4D and the gestational week at diagnosis. Mothers were surveyed to ascertain their opinion with regard to prenatal diagnosis. Results. An average of 3.2 ultrasounds was performed during pregnancy (r, 1-7. Prenatal diagnosis was performed in 25% of cases (13/52 patients. Diagnosis was performed in 7 cases with 2-D ultrasound in 4 with 3-D and in 2 with 4-D. Diagnosis was performed on average at week 22 (r, 20- 28. No patient was diagnosed early, 12 were diagnosed late and 1 very late. Conclusion. Prenatal diagnosis gives parents the opportunity for psychological preparation and counseling regarding clubfoot. In our series, 90.4% supported prenatal diagnosis.

Julio Javier Masquijo

2011-12-01

140

Post-pubescent to mature fathers: increase in progeny quality?  

Science.gov (United States)

In the mouse, offspring born from mature fathers exhibit better behavioural performances (for spontaneous activity in both sex and learning capacity in males) than those born from post-pubescent fathers. These behavioural variations are not accompanied by other obvious modifications. They could correspond to what has been observed in man relating to the results in a psychometric test undergone by male progeny born from very young to mature fathers. These data and those which show a decrease in mental performance in rats and human males born from mature to senescent fathers suggest the participation of some genetic factors in these phenomena. PMID:9512228

Auroux, M; Nawar, N N; Naguib, M; Baud, M; Lapaquellerie, N

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Impact of Father Absence: III. Problems of Family Reintegrating Following Prolonged Father Absence.  

Science.gov (United States)

A three-phase, longitudinal study at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, D.C., of family problems with prolonged father absence indicates that there is (1) continuing family growth beyond the situational crisis, (2) active re-examination of roles and values, and (3) heightened awareness of family strength and resourcefulness during the…

Baker, Stewart L.; and others

142

Supporting Fathers in a NICU: Effects of the HUG Your Baby Program on Fathers’ Understanding of Preterm Infant Behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

Fathers of preterm babies in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are under stress. Lack of knowledge about a preterm infant’s behavior challenges new fathers who may be required to make decisions about the hospitalized infant, to update concerned family and friends, and to provide support to the mother while she recovers from giving birth. The NICU nurses have the opportunity to support and guide these new fathers, although no previous research has confirmed how to do so effectively. This study confirmed that using The HUG Your Baby DVD and family-friendly educational program with fathers of preterm babies in a NICU increased fathers’ knowledge of infant behavior and, as previous research suggests, is likely to boost fathers’ confidence and to promote the parent–child relationship and strengthen the family unit. PMID:24421604

Kadivar, Maliheh; Mozafarinia, Seyedeh Maryam

2013-01-01

143

Update on prenatal care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many elements of routine prenatal care are based on tradition and lack a firm evidence base; however, some elements are supported by more rigorous studies. Correct dating of the pregnancy is critical to prevent unnecessary inductions and to allow for accurate treatment of preterm labor. Physicians should recommend folic acid supplementation to all women as early as possible, preferably before conception, to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Administration of Rho(D) immune globulin markedly decreases the risk of alloimmunization in an RhD-negative woman carrying an RhD-positive fetus. Screening and treatment for iron deficiency anemia can reduce the risks of preterm labor, intrauterine growth retardation, and perinatal depression. Testing for aneuploidy and neural tube defects should be offered to all pregnant women with a discussion of the risks and benefits. Specific genetic testing should be based on the family histories of the patient and her partner. Physicians should recommend that pregnant women receive a vaccination for influenza, be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria, and be tested for sexually transmitted infections. Testing for group B streptococcus should be performed between 35 and 37 weeks' gestation. If test results are positive or the patient has a history of group B streptococcus bacteriuria during pregnancy, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered to reduce the risk of infection in the infant. Intramuscular or vaginal progesterone should be considered in women with a history of spontaneous preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or shortened cervical length (less than 2.5 cm). Screening for diabetes should be offered using a universal or a risk-based approach. Women at risk of preeclampsia should be offered low-dose aspirin prophylaxis, as well as calcium supplementation if dietary calcium intake is low. Induction of labor may be considered between 41 and 42 weeks' gestation. PMID:24506122

Zolotor, Adam J; Carlough, Martha C

2014-02-01

144

Fathering and Attachment in the USA and Taiwan: Contextual Predictors and Child Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined connections between fathering context (stress, social support, and fathers' internal working models), fathering dimensions, children's attachment to fathers, and children's social-emotional and academic outcomes within two culturally diverse samples in the USA and Taiwan. Participants included 274 fathers and their eight- to…

Newland, Lisa A.; Coyl, Diana D.; Chen, Hui-Hua

2010-01-01

145

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital dacryocystocele.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital bilateral dacryocystocele was diagnosed prenatally by ultrasonography in 3 female fetuses at 32.5 weeks gestation. After birth, first baby developed respiratory distress and was treated with endoscopic marsupialization of the cysts; the second baby had no respiratory symptoms and had spontaneous resolution of the cysts without surgery. The last one was expected to have a left dacryocystocele in US but the clinical examination after birth showed a bilateral lesion, with predominance on the right side and underwent an endoscopic marsupialization for nasal obstruction. Prenatal diagnosis with ultrasonography facilitated the education of the mothers and staff and helped minimize the risk of potential complications. PMID:23411136

Bachelard-Serra, Mathilde; Chau, Cécile; Farinetti, Anne; Roman, Stéphane; Triglia, Jean-Michel; Nicollas, Richard

2013-05-01

146

"Like an uncle but more, but less than a father"--Irish children's relationships with nonresident fathers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although previous research has highlighted the importance of the quality of nonresident father-child relationships for children's well-being, little is known about children's perspectives on what underpins feelings of closeness to their nonresident fathers. This qualitative study explored the processes that facilitate or constrain children's feelings of closeness to their nonresident fathers. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 27 children (ages 8 to 17) who had grown up in a single-mother household, where fathers were nonresident from early in the child's life. Findings revealed the fragility of children's ties with their nonresident fathers and the risk that nonresidence from the outset placed upon these relationships. Children's experiences of closeness to fathers were related to perceptions of their fathers' commitment to their relationship and his obligation to his parenting role, and to a sense of connection to and familiarity with their fathers. It was a challenge for children to feel connected to their fathers when contact arrangements were detached from caregiving activities and precluded immersion in each other's daily lives. Lack of effort on the part of fathers to maintain contact or failure to keep arrangements constrained children's feelings of closeness and gave rise to feelings of disappointment and anger. Children demonstrated their capacity to act as agents within their families as they made sense of these relationships for themselves and accepted or rejected their father as a person who could play a meaningful role in their lives. The implications of the findings for promoting positive relationships with nonresident fathers are discussed. PMID:22563704

Nixon, Elizabeth; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane

2012-06-01

147

Impact of psychosocial risk factors on prenatal care delivery: a national provider survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate providers' perspectives regarding the delivery of prenatal care to women with psychosocial risk factors. A random, national sample of 2,095 prenatal care providers (853 obstetricians and gynecologists (Ob/Gyns), 270 family medicine (FM) physicians and 972 midwives) completed a mailed survey. We measured respondents' practice and referral patterns regarding six psychosocial risk factors: adolescence (age ?19), unstable housing, lack of paternal involvement and social support, late prenatal care (>13 weeks gestation), domestic violence and drug or alcohol use. Chi square and logistic regression analyses assessed the association between prenatal care provider characteristics and prenatal care utilization patterns. Approximately 60 % of Ob/Gyns, 48.4 % of midwives and 32.2 % of FM physicians referred patients with psychosocial risk factors to clinicians outside of their practice. In all three specialties, providers were more likely to increase prenatal care visits with alternative clinicians (social workers, nurses, psychologists/psychiatrists) compared to themselves for all six psychosocial risk factors. Drug or alcohol use and intimate partner violence were the risk factors that most often prompted an increase in utilization. In multivariate analyses, Ob/Gyns who recently completed clinical training were significantly more likely to increase prenatal care utilization with either themselves (OR 2.15; 95 % CI 1.14-4.05) or an alternative clinician (2.27; 1.00-4.67) for women with high psychosocial risk pregnancies. Prenatal care providers frequently involve alternative clinicians such as social workers, nurses and psychologists or psychiatrists in the delivery of prenatal care to women with psychosocial risk factors. PMID:24740719

Krans, Elizabeth E; Moloci, Nicholas M; Housey, Michelle T; Davis, Matthew M

2014-12-01

148

The comparative study of the impact of antenatal training care infants to fathers and couple on the fathers' participations after birth.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The comparative study of the impact of antenatal training care infants to fathers and couple on the fathers' participations. Objectives: Increasing number of working mothers and changes in viewpoints on fathers’ roles in families has increased fathers’ participations. Fathers’ participation is his broad, positive and active participation in different stages of children’s life. Wives possess the main role in enhancing and limiting father’s participation. Fathers and couples require training to define father’s role in infant care and the significance of his role in infant’s health and foundation of family. Therefore, the present study is done to determine the impact of training couples and fathers how to take care of infants on the rate of father’s participation to take care of infants after birth. Method: the study was done as a clinical trial in three groups, on 150 people in hygienic- clinical centers of Medical University of Mashhad. Fathers of training group and couples of training group took part in two training sessions of infant care in weeks 35 to 37 of pregnancy. The questionnaires of role of father’s training in infant care were filled by mothers in three groups and were analyzed by SPSS software (version 18 and ANOVA with repeated measure, Bonferroni tests. Findings: role of fathers’ participation in infants care in father’s training group and couple training group than control group increased significantly. (p=0/0003 Results: training fathers and couples before birth will enhance rate of their participation in infant care. Key words: fathers’ participation, care of infant, training.

mahin Tafzoli

2013-12-01

149

Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Non-invasive modalities to assess the ongoing pregnancy may assist the clinician to identify risk factors requiring additions or alteration to routine prenatal care. These modalities include pedigree analysis, maternal serum alphafetoprotein screening, fetal ultrasonography, and Doppler ultrasound. These methods should be used when there are appropriate clinical indications and awareness of their limitations.

Mcgillivray, Barbara C.

1988-01-01

150

Behavioral and genetic correlates of the neural response to infant crying among human fathers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although evolution has shaped human infant crying and the corresponding response from caregivers, there is marked variation in paternal involvement and caretaking behavior, highlighting the importance of understanding the neurobiology supporting optimal paternal responses to cries. We explored the neural response to infant cries in fathers of children aged 1-2, and its relationship with hormone levels, variation in the androgen receptor (AR) gene, parental attitudes and parental behavior. Although number of AR CAG trinucleotide repeats was positively correlated with neural activity in brain regions important for empathy (anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus), restrictive attitudes were inversely correlated with neural activity in these regions and with regions involved with emotion regulation (orbitofrontal cortex). Anterior insula activity had a non-linear relationship with paternal caregiving, such that fathers with intermediate activation were most involved. These results suggest that restrictive attitudes may be associated with decreased empathy and emotion regulation in response to a child in distress, and that moderate anterior insula activity reflects an optimal level of arousal that supports engaged fathering. PMID:24336349

Mascaro, Jennifer S; Hackett, Patrick D; Gouzoules, Harold; Lori, Adriana; Rilling, James K

2014-11-01

151

Young fathers and their experiences of forming families  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The male partners of teenage mothers are often ignored or portrayed negatively. This briefing outlines a study that set out to see what could be learned about fathers’ roles by interviewing young couples who were committed to learned about fathers’ roles by interviewing young couples who were committed to each other and their baby.

Ross, Nicola; Church, Stephanie; Hill, Malcolm; Seaman, Peter; Roberts, Tom

2009-01-01

152

Fathers' Roles in the Process of Talent Development  

Science.gov (United States)

In the process of children's talent development, fathers have been largely ignored compared to mothers who are mostly identified as the initial and primary influence for their children. Though modern fathers are becoming more engaged in childrearing and interacting more with their children and changes in family systems lead to new challenges and…

Lee, Seon-Young

2010-01-01

153

The impact of father absence on adolescent separation-individuation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors compared separation-individuation and psychological separation from fathers of 25 adolescent boys who were living with both biological parents with that of 25 boys who were living with their biological mothers in homes in which the fathers did not reside. The results showed that the boys in the 2 groups did not differ on measures of separation-individuation and that the quality of the mother-son relationship mediated several of the assessed separation-individuation manifestations. The authors' initial data analysis with regard to psychological separation showed that boys who lived in homes in which the father was a nonresident were more separated on 2 of the 4 dimensions assessed; however, when controlled for quality of mother-son and father-son relationship, these differences were not significant. The frequency of father contact in homes in which the father did not reside was positively correlated with healthy separation but negatively correlated with functional, attitudinal, and emotional independence from the father. The results of the study support the importance of the quality of a child's relationship with his or her mother and father as a mediator of several dimensions of the separation-individuation process. PMID:12895011

Jones, Kim A; Kramer, Teresa L; Armitage, Tracey; Williams, Keith

2003-02-01

154

Interparental Relations, Maternal Employment, and Fathering in Mexican American Families  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined independent and interactive relations between the interparental relationship and maternal employment in predicting fathering within low-income, Mexican American two-parent families (N = 115). Interparental conflict was negatively related to quality fathering, and these relations were noted only for single-earner families. The…

Formoso, Diana; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Barrera, Manuel, Jr.; Dumka, Larry E.

2007-01-01

155

Father Contributions to Cortisol Responses in Infancy and Toddlerhood  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study is one of the first prospective examinations of longitudinal associations between observed father caregiving behaviors and child cortisol reactivity and regulation in response to emotional arousal. Observations of father and mother caregiving behaviors and child cortisol levels in response to challenges at 7 months and 24 months…

Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Barnett, Melissa; Granger, Douglas A.; Blair, Clancy; Cox, Martha J.

2011-01-01

156

Relationships Between Fathers' Reported and Observed Behaviors with Daughters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparisons between observed behaviors of fathers in a structured interaction situation with their five-year-old daughters and their reported behaviors as obtained from an interview are studied. Several consistencies and some differences were found. Consistencies occurred more often in fathers' helping and demanding behaviors, as well as in their…

Osofsky, Joy D.

157

Child Support Obligations and Low-Income Fathers  

Science.gov (United States)

Using the 1994-1998 waves of the Current Population Survey--Child Support Supplement (N = 5,387), the aims of this study are to document child support obligation rates of nonresident fathers, to examine the effect of the obligation rate on child support compliance, and to calculate the trade-off between fathers' financial responsibility and…

Huang, Chien-Chung; Mincy, Ronald B.; Garfinkel, Irwin

2005-01-01

158

Increasing Outreach, Connection, and Services to Low-Income Non-Custodial Fathers: How Did We Get Here and What Do We Know  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper documents a model for outreaching, connecting, and serving low-income, ethnically diverse, non-custodial fathers. Men are engaged “where they are” by building their strengths and addressing their needs. The Male Involvement Network’s (MIN) collaborative model was created in Connecticut to help fathers become positive and healthy role models by increasing their attachment to their children and families (Smith, 2003). This clinically informed, case management model addresses th...

Gordon, Derrick M.; Hunter, Bronwyn; Woods, Lakeesha N.; Tinney, Barbara; Bostic, Blannie; Malone, Sherman; Kimbro, Germano; Greenlee, Dolores; Fabish, Sarah; Harris, Kenneth; Smith, Amos

2012-01-01

159

Public health nurse observations of behavioral characteristics of fathers who contribute to the emotional instability of mothers, as presented in cases of infant abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to look at the understanding and perceptions of public health nurses (PHNs related to behavioral characteristics of fathers that contribute to emotional instability in mothers by reviewing abuse cases involving infants and very young children. A qualitative descriptive design was applied to the data analysis, based on a semi-structured interview administered to three experienced PHNs who had been in charge of maternal and child health services for at least five years at a public health department or health center; with the data obtained in the interview narratives analyzed. In the observations of the experienced PHNs, the behavioral characteristics of fathers who are instigators of child abuse can be classified into five categories, fathers who are: “Talking to others about marital problems without attempting to solve these by themselves”, “Working on learning about childcare seeking to correct childcare methods”, “Taking the initiative in childcare at cross purposes with mothers”, “Stressing the effort they (the fathers put into childcare”, and “Failing to notice the own family situation and problems”. The findings of the study suggest the necessity for PHNs to understand fathers, to be aware of the difficulty of building a supportive relationship with fathers, and to improve skills enabling the PHNs to help fathers form good relationships with other family members.

Izumi Ueda

2013-07-01

160

Síndrome de Moebius, comunicación interventricular asociado a exposición prenatal a misoprostol / Moebius syndrome, ventricular septal defect due to prenatal exposure to misoprostol  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El síndrome o secuencia de Moebius se caracteriza por la afectación del nervio facial y nervio abducens y puede estar asociado a defectos congênitos orofaciales y de las extremidades. Adicionalmente en las dos últimas décadas se han reortada una posible asociación con exposición prenat [...] al a misoprostol. Objetivo: Presentar un caso de síndrome de Moebius con cardiopatía compleja (comunicación interventricular y pseudocoartación de aorta) asociado a exposición prenatal a misoprostol. Caso clínico: Paciente de 5 años quien consulta por antecedente de retardo en el desarrollo psicomotor, anomalías craneofaciales, cardiacas y de las extremidades, con antecedente de exposición prenatal a misoprostol, a quien se le diagnóstica síndrome de Moebius. Conclusiones: Aunque la etiología de este síndrome no es clara, un mecanismo fisiopatológico involucrado es el de la hipoxia que puede ser secundario a la exposición prenatal a misoprostol. Abstract in english Introduction: Moebius syndrome/sequence is characterized by facial and abducens nerve damage and may be associated with congenital orofacial and limb defects. Additionally, in the last two decades, a possible association with prenatal exposure to misoprostol has been reported. Objective: To present [...] a case of Moebius Syndrome with complex heart disease (ventricular septal defect and pseudocoarctation of the aorta) associated with prenatal exposure to misoprostol. Case report: A 5 year old patient diagnosed with Moebius Syndrome who consulted specialists due to psychomotor retardation, craniofacial, heart and limb defects, and with a history of prenatal exposure to misoprostol is presented. Conclusions: Although the etiology of this syndrome is not clear, hypoxia is a pathophysiological mechanism involved, which can be secondary to prenatal exposure to misoprostol.

Harry, Pachajoa L; Carolina, Isaza de L.

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

The Constitutionality of a Biological Father's Recognition as a Parent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the increased recognition afforded to biological fathers as legal parents, the Children's Act 38 of 2005 still does not treat fathers on the same basis as mothers as far as the automatic allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned. This article investigates the constitutionality of the differential treatment of fathers in this respect, given South Africa's international obligations, especially in terms of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, to ensure that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing of their child. After a brief consideration of the constitutionality of the mother's position as parent, the constitutionality of the father's position is investigated, firstly, with reference to Section 9 of the Constitution and the question of whether the differentiation between mothers and fathers as far as the allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, amounts to unfair discrimination. The inquiry also considers whether the differentiation between committed fathers (that is, those who have shown the necessary commitment in terms of Sections 20 and 21 of the Children's Act to acquire parental responsibilities and rights and uncommitted fathers may amount to discrimination on an unspecified ground. Since the limitation of the father's rights to equality may be justifiable, the outcomes of both inquiries are shown to be inconclusive. Finally, the legal position of the father is considered in relation to the child's constitutional rights – the rights to parental care and the right of the child to the paramountcy of its interests embodied in Section 28 of the Constitution. While there appears to be some justification for the limitation of the child's right to committed paternal care, it is submitted that an equalisation of the legal position of mothers and fathers as far as the automatic acquisition of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, is not only justified but imperative if the constitutional rights of children are to be advanced and protected.

A Louw

2010-12-01

162

The constitutionality of a biological father's recognition as a parent  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Despite the increased recognition afforded to biological fathers as legal parents, the Children's Act still does not treat fathers on the same basis as mothers as far as the automatic allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned. This article investigates the constitutionality of [...] the differential treatment of fathers in this respect, given South Africa's international obligations, especially in terms of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, to ensure that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing of their child. After a brief consideration of the constitutionality of the mother's position as parent, the constitutionality of the father's position is investigated, firstly, with reference to Section 9 of the Constitution and the question of whether the differentiation between mothers and fathers as far as the allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, amounts to unfair discrimination. The inquiry also considers whether the differentiation between committed fathers (that is, those who have shown the necessary commitment in terms of Sections 20 and 21 of the Children's Act to acquire parental responsibilities and rights) and uncommitted fathers may amount to discrimination on an unspecified ground. Since the limitation of the father's rights to equality may be justifiable, the outcomes of both inquiries are shown to be inconclusive. Finally, the legal position of the father is considered in relation to the child's constitutional rights - the rights to parental care and the right of the child to the paramountcy of its interests embodied in Section 28 of the Constitution. While there appears to be some justification for the limitation of the child's right to committed paternal care, it is submitted that an equalisation of the legal position of mothers and fathers as far as the automatic acquisition of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, is not only justified but imperative if the constitutional rights of children are to be advanced and protected.

A, Louw.

163

Congenital mesoblastic nephroma and ovarian cyst. Prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mesoblastic nephroma is the most common solid renal tumor observed in newborns. the ultrasound study discloses a solid mass that can not be distinguished from Wilms' tumor or adrenal neuroblastoma. A case is presented involving a 37-week-old fetus in which ultrasound study revealed a solid renal mass and a cyst located in the abdominal cavity. The prenatal diagnosis was mesoblastic nephroma and ovarian cyst. Surgery performed after the birth of the infant confirmed both diagnosis. (Author) 10 refs

164

Maternal Decisions Regarding Prenatal Diagnosis: Rational Choices or Sensible Decisions?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The premise underlying prenatal testing is that knowing the health status of the fetus will enable expectant parents to make rational reproductive decisions. Accordingly, rational-choice perspectives have informed both counselling protocols and the majority of investigations into the psychological processes involved in making decisions about testing and selective abortion. However, because conditions inherent in the testing situation may not adhere to the basic assumptions of rational choice ...

Lawson, Karen L.; Pierson, Roger A.

2007-01-01

165

Prenatal MRI Findings of Polycystic Kidney Disease Associated with Holoprosencephaly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) and polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are genetically heterogeneous anomalies which can make up part of various syndromes or chromosomal anomalies. Due to the rapid lethality prognosis, early and precise prenatal diagnosis would be of great value. This case report describes extensive PKD involvement, already present in utero, in a patient with HPE and subdural effusion visible by MR imaging. The detailed anatomic information obtained by the MR imaging can guide the surgical planning and can aid antenatal counseling

166

Prenatal Investigation of a Familial Partial Monosomy 10q  

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Objective: To present the clinical, cytogenetic and molecular findings of a prenatal study of a familial partial monosomy 10q. Distal 10q deletions are rare and the majority are terminal deletions involving bands 10q25 and 10q26. Patients typically present with facial dysmorphism, postnatal growth retardation, developmental and mental retardation, genitourinary anomalies and digital anomalies. Methods: Conventional cytogenetic analysis in metaphases obtained by chorionic villi long term cu...

Silva, Marisa; Marques, Ba?rbara; Brito, Filomena; Ferreira, Cristina; Furtado, Jose?; Ventura, Catarina; Nunes, Luis; Kay, Teresa; Caetano, Paula; Correia, Hildeberto

2012-01-01

167

Surrogate pregnancy: a guide for Canadian prenatal health care providers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Providing health care for a woman with a surrogate pregnancy involves unique challenges. Although the ethical debate surrounding surrogacy continues, Canada has banned commercial, but not altruistic, surrogacy. In the event of a custody dispute between a surrogate mother and the individual(s) intending to parent the child, it is unclear how Canadian courts would rule. The prenatal health care provider must take extra care to protect the autonomy and privacy rights of the surrogate. There is l...

Reilly, Dan R.

2007-01-01

168

FUNCTIONAL CONSEQUENCES OF PRENATAL METHYLMERCURY EXPOSURE: EFFECTS ON RENAL AND HEPATIC RESPONSES TO TROPHIC STIMULI AND ON RENAL EXCRETORY MECHANISMS  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of prenatal exposure to methylmercury on the functional development of renal and hepatic response systems was examined in the developing rat. Methylmercury produced an elevation of basal activity of renal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, an enzyme involved in regulation ...

169

Why women want prenatal ultrasound in normal pregnancy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objectives To investigate women's reasons for requesting prenatal ultrasound in the absence of clinical indications. Methods A postal questionnaire was completed by 370 pregnant women with no apparent obstetric risk factors, who had expressed a desire to have ultrasound scanning in their current pregnancy. The women were asked to indicate, from a list of 12 items, their three most important reasons for wanting scanning. Ninety per cent of the women were in the first trimester of pregnancy, and 10% in the second trimester. Results The items most frequently identified as important reasons for ultrasound were to check for fetal abnormalities (60% of women) to see that all was normal (55%) and for own reassurance (44%). Lower income was related to wanting to see the baby (P=0.028) and wanting an ultrasound picture (P=0.017); higher income was related to checking that all was normal (P=0-003) and for own reassurance (P=0.015). Women in their first pregnancy were more likely to want themselves and the father to see the baby (P=0.001); women who had given birth previously were more likely to want reassurance (P=0.002), as were women with a previous miscarriage or induced abortion. Women who believed that the presence of fetal trisomy justifies abortion or who would vote for free abortion were more likely to want to know about abnormalities (P<0.001 and P<0.004, respectively). Women in the second trimester were more likely to want to check for abnormalities (P=0.047) than those in the first trimester. Conclusions It would appear that women in normal pregnancy have specific reasons for wanting prenatal ultrasound that are influenced by sociodemographic, obstetric and attitudinal factors

Gudex, Claire; Nielsen, Bentt LØwe

2006-01-01

170

Prenatal diagnosis of a fetus with a cryptic translocation 4p;18p and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS).  

Science.gov (United States)

Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome (WHS) is caused by distal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4 and is characterized by growth deficiency, mental retardation, a distinctive, 'greek-helmet' facial appearance, microcephaly, ear lobe anomalies, and sacral dimples. We report a family with a balanced chromosomal translocation 4;18(p15.32;p11.21) in the father and an unbalanced translocation resulting in partial monosomy 4 and partial trisomy 18 in one living boy and a prenatally diagnosed male fetus. Both showed abnormalities consistent with WHS and had in addition aplasia of one umbilical artery. Karyotyping of another stillborn fetus revealed a supernumerary derivative chromosome der(18)t(4;18)(p15.32;p11.21) of paternal origin and two normal chromosomes 4. The umbilical cord had three normal vessels. A third stillborn fetus with the same balanced translocation as the father had a single umbilical artery and hygroma colli. PMID:10694689

Kohlschmidt, N; Zielinski, J; Brude, E; Schäfer, D; Olert, J; Hallermann, C; Coerdt, W; Arnemann, J

2000-02-01

171

Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

Howard Cuckle

2014-05-01

172

Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

2012-08-15

173

Fetal Cervical Neuroblastoma: Prenatal Diagnosis  

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Neuroblastoma is the most frequent extracranial solid tumor in childhood, but it is seldom diagnosed prenatally. It usually presented with adrenal masses. Presentation of other localization is extremely rare. We report a case of cervical neuroblastoma identified at 20 weeks of gestational age. This is the third case diagnosed antenatally on neck region in the literature. Additionally, it is the first case that extended to the brain. We also discussed the literature for cervical neuroblastoma ...

Amp In Dilmen, G. Amp L.; Amp Ur Dilmen, U.; Mustafa Seven; Sibel Hakverdi; Hatice Tatar Aksoy; Amp Zelmansur, Ismail G.

2011-01-01

174

Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23–37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

175

Prenatal diagnosis of laryngotracheoesophageal clefts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven infants with laryngotracheoesophageal (LTE) clefts who had abnormal prenatal fetal sonographs were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate the antenatal scan characteristics, clinical features at presentation and associated malformations. The prenatal scans demonstrated polyhydramnios, lung cysts and an absent stomach in all. The mode of delivery was by emergency lower segment cesarean section for fetal distress, in all 7 babies. The mean gestational age at delivery was 36 weeks (range 33-38) and intrauterine growth retardation was seen in 4 neonates. A combination of endoscopy, surgery and autopsy confirmed LTE cleft type 4 in 5 patients, type 3 and type 2 in a patient each. Esophageal atresia and lower pouch tracheoesophageal fistula was present in all. Agastria was seen in 4 and microgastria in 3 children. Lung abnormalities were seen in all 7 infants and they included congenital lung cysts (4 patients), absent lung lobulation (3 patients), bronchogenic cysts (2 patients), cystic adenomatoid malformation (1 patient) and bronchoesophageal fistula (1 patient). The mortality was 86% and the sole survivor had a LTE cleft type 2 which was successfully repaired. The diagnosis of LTE cleft must be considered if a prenatal scan demonstrates the triad of: (1) polyhydramnios; (2) absent stomach, and (3) presence of lung cyst. This should lead to a detailed postnatal evaluation and early diagnosis of this uncommon anomaly resulting in early counseling and suitable management. PMID:9430204

Samuel, M; Burge, D M; Griffiths, D M

1997-01-01

176

Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of omphalocele  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect at the midline characterized by herniation of abdominal contents and covered by peritoneum and amnion. The aim of this paper is to present a case of omphalocele with gestational age of 23 weeks and prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography. Using ultrasound diagnosis in a patient inquest made 40 years of age in the second trimester (gestational age 23 weeks) showed a level of the anterior fetal echogenic image that sticks through the abdominal wall and then locate the cord umbilical. Stomach is seen displaced and loss of normal anatomy of the abdominal circumference. Genetic counseling was conducted at the Municipal Center for Genetics of Manzanillo. Pathologically the fetus presented short and wide neck, low-set ears, defect omphalomesenteric of ductal closure, hernia sac occupied by the caudate lobe of the liver and gallbladder bed, wide base heart dissection showing cava-cava absence of interventricular septum was observed pulmonary valve stenosis most dilation of supravalvular pulmonary artery, large defect and aorta intraventricular septum ride, which speaks in favor of a heart rate troncoconal fallop trilogy over the omphalocele. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is an efficient and reliable method for prenatal diagnosis of omphalocele

177

Prenatal diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cystic fibrosis is the most common autosomal recessive genetic disorder in the Caucasian population (1:2000-1:4000) (Warwick, W. J. (1978) Helv. Paediatr. Acta 33, 117-125). This defect is characterized by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency and abnormally high perspiration electrolytes in most patients (Talamo et al. (1985) In: The metabolic basis of inherited diseases, pp. 1887-1917). The elevated electrolyte level provides the most reliable diagnostic test for cystic fibrosis homozygotes. Although prospects for cystic fibrosis patients have improved, genetically homozygous cystic fibrosis is effectively a lethal disease. Because of the seriousness of the disease, many families with one affected child desire a prenatal diagnosis when a second pregnancy occurs. Despite extensive research, the biochemical basis of cystic fibrosis remains unknown. Secondary effects on microvillar enzymes allow second trimester diagnosis (17-18 weeks of gestation (Brock, D. H. J. (1983) Lancet II, 941-943). First trimester prenatal diagnosis for cystic fibrosis became possible with DNA technology. Application of polymorphic marker loci to problems of prenatal diagnosis and carrier-testing is discussed. PMID:2651551

Kampmann, W; Mathy, L; Grzeschik, K H; Driesel, A j; Bartholomé, K; Neugebauer, M; Olek, K

1989-03-01

178

Father’s and their children`s life goals in the context of Self-Determination Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the similarities and differences in goals valuation in father’s and children’s life. According to the motivative Self-Determination Theory (Deci, Ryan, 2000 the aspirations were divided into two groups: external goals (i.e. finance, power, fame and internal goals (i.e. affiliation and prosocial goals. The results suggest that teens, unlike their fathers, estimate higher affiliation goals. The report also shows (in both groups relations between three categories of goals: prosocial, close relationships and self- acceptance.

Ewa Wojtowicz

2013-05-01

179

Prenatal immune challenge is an environmental risk factor for brain and behavior change relevant to schizophrenia: Evidence from MRI in a mouse model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: Maternal infection during pregnancy increases risk of severe neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism, in the offspring. The most consistent brain structural abnormality in patients with schizophrenia is enlarged lateral ventricles. However, it is unknown whether the aetiology of ventriculomegaly in schizophrenia involves prenatal infectious processes. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that there is a causal relationship between prenatal immune ch...

Li, Qi; Cheung, Charlton; Wei, Ran; Hui, Edward S.; Feldon, Joram; Meyer, Urs; Chung, Sookja; Chua, Siew E.; Sham, Pak C.; Wu, Ed X.; Mcalonan, Grainne M.

2009-01-01

180

The Cappadocian fathers on slave management  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this article is to investigate the views of the three Cappadocian fathers, namely Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nyssa, and Gregory of Nazianzus, on how to manage slaves. The article approaches slaveholding as a habitus. Firstly, Basil of Caesarea's views are examined. Basil's views on sla [...] ve management were based on the principle that slaves should still remain obedient and submissive to their masters, but that masters should treat their slaves justly. He especially discusses slave management as the management of wealth and sexuality. Secondly, Gregory of Nazianzus's views, especially from his testament, highlighted the importance of managing slaves after death. It is also a window into the realities of clerics and churches managing slancient treatise against mastery and the viceves. Finally, Gregory of Nyssa's fourth homily on Ecclesiastes can be described as the ancienttreatise against mastery and the vice of pride, since this is the angle from which he criticises slave management. The homily is indeed proof that ancient authors were able to think outside the habitus of Roman slaveholding.

Chris L, de Wet.

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
181

Prenatal care effectiveness and utilization in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of prenatal care use on birth outcomes has been understudied in South American countries. This study assessed the effects of various measures of prenatal care use on birth weight (BW) and gestational age outcomes using samples of infants born without and with common birth defects from Brazil, and evaluated the demand for prenatal care. Prenatal visits improved BW in the group without birth defects through increasing both fetal growth rate and gestational age, but prenatal care visits had an insignificant effect on BW in the group with birth defects when adjusting for gestational age. Prenatal care delay had no effects on BW in both infant groups but increased preterm birth risk in the group without birth defects. Inadequate care versus intermediate care also increased LBW risk in the group without birth effects. Quantile regression analyses revealed that prenatal care visits had larger effects at low compared with high BW quantiles. Several other prenatal factors and covariates such as multivitamin use and number of previous live births had significant effects on the studied outcomes. The number of prenatal care visits was significantly affected by several maternal health and fertility indicators. Significant geographic differences in utilization were observed as well. The study suggests that more frequent use of prenatal care can increase BW significantly in Brazil, especially among pregnancies that are uncomplicated with birth defects but that are at high risk for low birth weight. Further research is needed to understand the effects of prenatal care use for pregnancies that are complicated with birth defects. PMID:19282483

Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Castilla, Eduardo E; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S; Ohsfeldt, Robert L

2009-05-01

182

The Relationship Between Father-Absence and Encopresis  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of the literature on encopresis shows strong emphasis on father-absence as a dominant factor. Other characteristics of patients and their families are listed, and theoretical considerations discussed. (MS)

Schaengold, Marilyn

1977-01-01

183

A Comparison of Swedish and U.S. Fathers' Self-Reported Use of Parental Discipline.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interviewed two samples (pairwise matched on sex and age of child and fathers' education) of fathers from Sweden and the United States about parental discipline with their 38- to 66-5month-olds. Found that, compared with U.S. fathers, Swedish fathers displayed a range of disciplining approaches from punitive reprimands to restrictive control…

Jutengren, Goran; Palmerus, Kerstin

2002-01-01

184

The Meaning of Fatherhood as Perceived by Turkish Police Fathers and Their Young Children  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to provide insight and understanding of Turkish police fathers' and their young children's conceptualizations of fatherhood. Data for the present study came from 21 police fathers and their 4-to-6 year old children. We asked the participant fathers to respond to a broad question of "What kind of father

Ozgun, Ozkan; Ciftci, Munire Aydilek; Erden, Sule

2013-01-01

185

Responsiveness of cerebral and hepatic cytochrome P450s in rat offspring prenatally exposed to lindane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to low doses of lindane has been shown to affect the ontogeny of xenobiotic metabolizing cytochrome P450s (CYPs), involved in the metabolism and neurobehavioral toxicity of lindane. Attempts were made in the present study to investigate the responsiveness of CYPs in offspring prenatally exposed to lindane (0.25 mg/kg b. wt.; 1/350th of LD50; p. o. to mother) when challenged with 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) or phenobarbital (PB), inducers of CYP1A and 2B families or a sub-convulsant dose of lindane (30 mg/kg b. wt., p. o.) later in life. Prenatal exposure to lindane was found to produce an increase in the mRNA and protein expression of CYP1A1, 1A2, 2B1, 2B2 isoforms in brain and liver of the offspring at postnatal day 50. The increased expression of the CYPs in the offspring suggests the sensitivity of the CYPs during postnatal development, possibly, to low levels of lindane, which may partition into mother's milk. A higher increase in expression of CYP1A and 2B isoenzymes and their catalytic activity was observed in animals pretreated prenatally with lindane and challenged with MC (30 mg/kg, i. p. x 5 days) or PB (80 mg/kg, i. p. x 5 days) when young at age (approx. 7 weeks) compared to animals exposed to MC or PB alone. Further, challenge of the control and prenatally exposed offspring with a single sub-convulsant dose of lindane resulted in an earlier onset and increased incidence of convulsions in the offspring prenatally exposeulsions in the offspring prenatally exposed to lindane have demonstrated sensitivity of the CYPs in the prenatally exposed offspring. Our data assume significance as the subtle changes in the expression profiles of hepatic and cerebral CYPs in rat offspring during postnatal development could modify the adult response to a later exposure to xenobiotics

186

Exploring fathers’ perceptions of parenting a child with Asperger syndrome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores Irish fathers’ perceptions of parenting a child with Asperger syndrome (AS). Ethical approval was granted by the service provider, and Husserlian phenomenological approach facilitated the exploration. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews of nine fathers in the West region of Ireland. Data were transcribed and analysed using Colaizzi’s (1978) method. The study highlighted that parenting a child with AS is an arduous task, but while there...

O Halloran, Maeve; Sweeney, John; Doody, Owen

2013-01-01

187

Sleep Patterns and Fatigue in New Mothers and Fathers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to describe the sleep patterns and fatigue of both mothers and fathers before and after childbirth. The authors used wrist actigraphy and questionnaires to estimate sleep and fatigue in 72 couples during their last month of pregnancy and 1st month postpartum. Both parents experienced more sleep disruption at night during the postpartum period as compared to the last month of pregnancy. Compared to fathers, with their stable 24-h sleep patterns over time, mothers ...

Gay, Caryl L.; Lee, Kathryn A.; Lee, Shih-yu

2004-01-01

188

Father-daughter relationships during girls’ adolescence in urban China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Contextualization Contemporary Chinese families are experiencing tremendous changes, with the adoption of economic reform and the implementation of the one-child-per-family policy. These changes are inevitably leading to changing parent-child relationships in families, especially for girls’ relationships with their parents. The paper is to research girls’ and fathers’ perceptions of father-daughter relationships among two cohorts of girls aged 13/14 and aged 16/17. It will se...

Qiong Xu

2009-01-01

189

Quiste broncogénico, diagnóstico prenatal / Bronchogenic cyst, prenatal diagnosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. El quiste broncogénico es una estructura quística limitada por epitelio bronquial de incidencia desconocida, pocas veces diagnosticado en el período neonatal. Caso clínico. Feto con masa quística en hemitórax izquierdo arriba de la silueta cardiaca con sospecha diagnóstica de hernia di [...] afragmática izquierda vs enfermedad adenomatoidea quística con base a ultrasonido prenatal. Al nacimiento, recién nacido femenino de término eutrófico, con peso de 3 030 g, talla 49 cm, calificación de Apgar de 8-9 en tiempos convencionales. La radiografía antero posterior y lateral de tórax confirmaron masa mediastinal izquierda, arriba de la silueta cardiaca, la tomografía axial computada corroboró la presencia de masa quística en mediastino hacia el lado izquierdo a nivel de T4 y T5. Se sometió a toracotomía izquierda para resección de quiste de 3 x 3 cm adherido a pared antero lateral izquierda de la tráquea, no tenía comunicación con ésta. El reporte histopatológico fue de quiste broncogénico. Se egresó al sexto día de vida, sin complicaciones. Conclusiones. El diagnóstico prenatal y la confirmación postnatal inmediata del quiste broncogénico permitió el tratamiento oportuno, lo que previene complicaciones pulmonares posteriores. Abstract in english Introduction. The bronchogenic cyst is a cystic structure limited by bronchial epithelium the incidence is unknown and it is not very often diagnosed in the neonatal period. Case report. Fetus with cystic mass in the left hemithorax above the cardiac silhouette with suspicion of the left diaphragmat [...] ic hernia vs cystic adenomatoid disease based on prenatal ultrasound.At birth female eutrofic term newborn with birth weight of 3 030 g, length 49 cm, Apgar 8-9.The AP and lateral chest x ray confirmed a left mediastinal mass, above the cardiac silhouette, a CT scan confirmed the presence of a cystic mass in the left mediastinum at the level of T4 and T5.A left thoracotomia was performed to remove the 3 by 3 cm cyst adhered the left antherolateral wall of the trachea. There was no communication with it The histopathologic report was positive for a bronchogenic cyst.The patient was discharged on day 6 with no complications. Conclusions. The prenatal diagnosis and the immediate postnatal confirmation of the bronchogenic cyst allowed for a prompt treatment, preventing further complications.

Claudia Angélica, Quezada-Salazar; Mario, Navarrete-Arellano.

2005-06-01

190

Pai syndrome: challenging prenatal diagnosis and management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pai syndrome is a rare disorder that includes midline cleft lip, pericallosal lipoma and cutaneous polyp of the face. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis using sonography and MRI. We emphasize the importance of facial examination with prenatal association of midline cleft lip and pericallosal lipoma in making the diagnosis of Pai syndrome. (orig.)

Blouet, Marie [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Belloy, Frederique [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); Jeanne-Pasquier, Corinne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Pathology, Caen (France); Leporrier, Nathalie [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Genetics, Caen (France); Benoist, Guillaume [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Pole Femmes-Enfants, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Caen (France)

2014-09-15

191

Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

2011-01-01

192

Improved prenatal detection of chromosomal anomalies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Prenatal screening for karyotype anomalies takes place in most European countries. In Denmark, the screening method was changed in 2005. The aim of this study was to study the trends in prevalence and prenatal detection rates of chromosome anomalies and Down syndrome (DS) over a 22-year period.

FrØslev-Friis, Christina; Hjort-Pedersen, Karina

2011-01-01

193

Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2002-09-15

194

Pakistani mothers' and fathers' experiences and understandings of the diagnosis of Down syndrome for their child.  

Science.gov (United States)

Down syndrome (DS) is a relatively common chromosomal condition, which can be diagnosed prenatally. However, little is known about the diagnosis of the condition in developing countries. This qualitative study explored parents' experiences of the diagnosis of DS in Pakistan. Fifteen mothers and fifteen fathers of children with DS had semi-structured interviews, which were analysed using thematic analysis. All the parents received their child's diagnosis after birth, ranging from the postnatal period to 7 years of age. Parents recalled receiving little or no information at the time of diagnosis, leading to misunderstandings about the cause and nature of their child's condition. Some parents referred to their child being "Mongol" and were unaware of "Down syndrome" as the more appropriate term for the condition. Use of such terms for DS restricted parents' ability to source further information about the condition. Many parents showed poor understanding of the aetiology and prognosis of the condition. Improved training for healthcare professionals in recognising key features of DS in the neonatal period or in early childhood could enable earlier diagnosis of the condition. In addition, provision of accurate information in a sensitive manner following diagnosis could enable parents to optimise their child's well-being. PMID:25081228

Ahmed, Kiran Jan; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Jafri, Hussain S; Raashid, Yasmin; Ahmed, Shenaz

2015-01-01

195

Introducing WISECONDOR for noninvasive prenatal diagnostics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noninvasive prenatal testing is a relatively new screening method for the detection of fetal chromosome abnormalities using next-generation sequencing (NGS) of fetal DNA in maternal blood. Recently, the introduction of a new tool called WIthin SamplE COpy Number aberration DetectOR (WISECONDOR) marked a new era in prenatal screening. WISECONDOR detects copy number aberrations at a resolution that is almost comparable to classic karyotyping and requires only shallow sequencing, making noninvasive prenatal screening cost-effective. This emphasizes the role of NGS in the daily clinical practice of prenatal diagnosis and will require reorganization of clinical genetics laboratories to accommodate NGS. For prenatal diagnostics, WISECONDOR introduces an exciting development that will substantially improve the information provided to pregnant couples regarding their fetus's wellbeing. PMID:24831532

Straver, Roy; Sistermans, Erik A; Reinders, Marcel J T

2014-06-01

196

Prenatal radiation doses from radiopharmaceuticals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiopharmaceutical administration with diagnostic or therapeutic purpose during pregnancy implies a prenatal radiation dose. The dose assessment and the evaluation of the radiological risks become relevant due to the great radiosensitivity of the fetal tissues in development. This paper is a revision of the available data for estimating fetal doses in the cases of the more frequently used radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine, taking into account recent investigation in placental crossover. The more frequent diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were analyzed according to the radiation doses implied. (author)

197

Prenatal exposition on ionizing radiations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sessions on Prenatal Exposition on Ionizing Radiations was organized by the Argentine Radioprotection Society, in Buenos Aires, between 8 and 9, November 2001. In this event, were presented papers on: biological effects of ionizing radiation; the radiation protection and the pregnant woman; embryo fetal development and its relationship with the responsiveness to teratogens; radioinduced delayed mental; neonatal irradiation: neurotoxicity and modulation of pharmacological response; pre implanted mouse embryos as a model of uranium toxicity studies; hereditary effects of the radiation and new advances from the UNSCEAR 2001; doses estimation in embryo

198

Single umbilical artery. Prenatal detection of concurrent anomalies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenatal sonographic findings were reviewed in 30 fetuses with a single umbilical artery (SUA) to determine the reliability of ultrasound for detecting concurrent anomalies. Additional anomalies were identified in 15 fetuses, including 3 fetuses with minor anomalies and 12 fetuses with major or multiple concurrent anomalies. Minor anomalies observed in 3 fetuses included 1 case each of pelvic kidney, unilateral absent kidney, and mild cerebral ventricular dilatation. Major abnormalities detected in 12 fetuses involved a variety of organ systems and included cardiac defects, holoprosencephaly, skeletal dysplasia, hydrocephalus, omphalocele, hydrothorax, enlarged cisterna magna, and diaphragmatic hernia. Clinical and pathologic correlation showed that all fetuses were correctly categorized regarding the presence of other anomalies; none of the 15 fetuses in whom an SUA was considered an isolated finding had a significant anomaly at birth. Chromosome abnormalities were found in 6 of 12 fetuses with major abnormalities but in none of the 18 remaining fetuses. We conclude that prenatal ultrasound can reliably identify major concurrent anomalies in fetuses with SUA. In the absence of additional anomalies, prenatal detection of SUA should not alter obstetric management. PMID:2051544

Nyberg, D A; Mahony, B S; Luthy, D; Kapur, R

1991-05-01

199

Prenatal diagnosis and management in fetuses with cystic hygromata colli.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on 45 fetuses with prenatally diagnosed bilateral cystic hygromata colli by ultrasound. Two of the 45 cases involved a twin pregnancy with only one fetus showing hygromata colli. In 2 cases there was only isolated hygromata colli. The other 43 cases showed the signs of non-immune hydrops fetalis. The cytogenetic findings were: 9 fetuses with Turner syndrome, 1 fetus with Turner mosaicism, 1 fetus with trisomy 18, 6 fetuses with trisomy 21, 12 fetuses with normal karyotype, and 16 fetuses with a failed chromosome culture. In fetuses with Turner syndrome and normal karyotype the sonographic findings were similar: massive bilateral hygromata colli, substantial fluid accumulations in skin and body cavities, oligohydramnios and intra-uterine growth retardation. In the cases with trisomy 21, the relative size of the hygromata colli was smaller. Intra-uterine growth retardation and oligohydramnios were not observed. The sole survivor of our group (elective pregnancy interruption: 30 cases; intra-uterine death: 14 cases) (karyotype: 46,XY) presented sonographically with massive ascites, a moderate cystic hygroma, and appropriate fetal development, and a normal amniotic fluid quantity. These findings are analysed in order to provide recommendations for prenatal diagnosis, prenatal management and genetic counselling of the couples concerned. PMID:3068081

Gembruch, U; Hansmann, M; Bald, R; Zerres, K; Schwanitz, G; Födisch, H J

1988-12-01

200

Prenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa anomalies: An overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ultrasonography of the central nervous system is an integral part of a prenatal scan, and the development of imaging technologies has led to better diagnostic possibilities. Posterior fossa anomalies have traditionally been divided into Dandy Walke malformation, Dandy Walker variation and megacisterna magna, but this approach, due to diversity of the extensive number of possible disorders covered by this classification, unables accurate prognosis and therefore adequate counselling. An alternative approach to the classification of posterior fossa anomalies is to divide them into agenesis of the vermis, which could be partial or complete, cerebellar hypoplasia, pontocerebellar hypoplasia and cerebellar atrophy. Different ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imagining of appearances of the posterior fossa anomalies in prenatal period are discussed in the article, as well as possible syndromes and prognosis of different entities. Diversity of anomalies of the central nervous system, and in particular, subtle differences in prenatal appearances of posterior fossa anomalies, which may have major impact on the prognosis, demand a multidisciplinary approach that encompasses two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound scan, magnetic resonance imaging, infectious diseases and metabolic disorders work-ups as well as individual approach to every case involving of a team of experts in the field of perinatology, radiology, paediatrics, neurology and genetics.

Novakov-Miki? Aleksandra

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Prenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa anomalies--an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultrasonography of the central nervous system is an integral part of a prenatal scan, and the development of imaging technologies has led to better diagnostic possibilities. Posterior fossa anomalies have traditionally been divided into Dandy Walke malformation, Dandy Walker variation and megacisterna magna, but this approach, due to diversity of the extensive number of possible disorders covered by this classification, unables accurate prognosis and therefore adequate counselling. An alternative approach to the classification of posterior fossa anomalies is to divide them into agenesis of the vermis, which could be partial or complete, cerebellar hypoplasia, pontocerebellar hypoplasia and cerebellar atrophy. Different ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imagining of appearances of the posterior fossa anomalies in prenatal period are discussed in the article, as well as possible syndromes and prognosis of different entities. Diversity of anomalies of the central nervous system, and in particular, subtle differences in prenatal appearances of posterior fossa anomalies, which may have major impact on the prognosis, demand a multidisciplinary approach that encompasses two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound scan, magnetic resonance imaging, infectious diseases and metabolic disorders work-ups as well as individual approach to every case involving of a team of experts in the field of perinatology, radiology, paediatrics, neurology and genetics. PMID:19623847

Novakov-Miki?, Aleksandra; Koprivsek, Katarina; Luci?, Milos; Belopavlovi?, Zoran; Stoji?, Sinisa; Sekuli?, Slobodan

2009-01-01

202

Prenatal and postnatal depression among low income Brazilian women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Postnatal depression is a significant problem affecting 10-15% of mothers in many countries and has been the subject of an increasing number of publications. Prenatal depression has been studied less. The aims of the present investigation were: 1 to obtain information on the prevalence of prenatal and postnatal depression in low income Brazilian women by using an instrument already employed in several countries, i.e., the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; 2 to evaluate the risk factors involved in prenatal and postnatal depression in Brazil. The study groups included 33 pregnant women interviewed at home during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and once a month during the first six months after delivery. Questions on life events and the mother's relationship with the baby were posed during each visit. Depressed pregnant women received less support from their partners than non-depressed pregnant women (36.4 vs 72.2%, P<0.05; Fisher exact test. Black women predominated among pre- and postnatally depressed subjects. Postnatal depression was associated with lower parity (0.4 ± 0.5 vs 1.1 ± 1.0, P<0.05; Student t-test. Thus, the period of pregnancy may be susceptible to socio-environmental factors that induce depression, such as the lack of affective support from the partner. The prevalence rate of 12% observed for depression in the third month postpartum is comparable to that of studies from other countries.

V.A. Da-Silva

1998-06-01

203

Prenatal and postnatal depression among low income Brazilian women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Postnatal depression is a significant problem affecting 10-15% of mothers in many countries and has been the subject of an increasing number of publications. Prenatal depression has been studied less. The aims of the present investigation were: 1) to obtain information on the prevalence of prenatal [...] and postnatal depression in low income Brazilian women by using an instrument already employed in several countries, i.e., the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS); 2) to evaluate the risk factors involved in prenatal and postnatal depression in Brazil. The study groups included 33 pregnant women interviewed at home during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and once a month during the first six months after delivery. Questions on life events and the mother's relationship with the baby were posed during each visit. Depressed pregnant women received less support from their partners than non-depressed pregnant women (36.4 vs 72.2%, P

V.A., Da-Silva; A.R., Moraes-Santos; M.S., Carvalho; M.L.P., Martins; N.A., Teixeira.

1998-06-01

204

Developmental effects of prenatal irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is the result of a symposium which was organised jointly by the WHO and the department for nuclear biology of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung (Society for Radiation- and Environmental Research) Neuherberg; the Institut fuer Strahlenhygiene (Institute for Radiation Hygiene) of the Federal Board of Health (Bundesgesundheitsamt), Neuherberg and the working group ''Radiation Biology'' in the ''Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft'' and took place in Neuherberg near Munich from the 26.-28. November 1980. Subjects dealt with the lectures were: Developmental disturbances caused by prenatal exposure to either external radiation or incorporation of radionuclides in the organism of the mother. Based on the prenatal radiation effects already known new experiences and new knowledge were reported on and show new consequences on peri- and postnatal development. Radiation effects of incorporated radionuclides include also questions of the biokinetics of radioactive substances at present the emphasis lies on diaplacental penetration. Questions of synergetic effects of radiation and diaplacentally penetrating chemical substances were discussed on the symposium as well. These subjects were also extensively dealt with in a panel discussion. (orig./MG)

205

Diagnóstico prenatal de catarata congénita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La catarata congénita (CC) es una patología poco frecuente en nuestro medio frente a los países en desarrollo donde constituye la etiología más frecuente de ceguera infantil. La prevención de deterioro visual debido a esta patología es parte del programa de la OMS cuyo objetivo es la eliminación de [...] ceguera evitable en el año 2020. Presentamos el caso de una gestante en la que el diagnóstico prenatal se realizó en la ecografía morfológica. Si somos capaces de realizar este diagnóstico podremos evitar el deterioro precoz de la función visual del recién nacido. Así, la identificación de ambos cristalinos debe de formar parte de las estructuras a reconocer de forma obligada en la ecografía morfológica. Abstract in english Congenital cataract is a rare disease in our environment opposite developing countries where it is the most frequent etiology of childhood blindness. Prevention of visual impairment due to this pathology is a part of the WHO programme whose objective is the elimination of avoidable blindness by the [...] year 2020. We present the case of a pregnant woman that prenatal diagnosis was made on mid- trimester ultrasound. If we are able to perform this diagnosis, we will be able to prevent early deterioration of visual function of the newborn. Thus, identification of both crystalline should be part of the structures to recognize in the mid- trimester ultrasound.

Elena, De Diego Allué; Ricardo, Savirón Cornudella; Mercedes, Odriozola Grijalba; Diego, Lerma Puertas; Tanit, Corbacho Garza; M. Aranzazu, Pérez Íñigo.

206

Prenatal stress and neonatal rat brain development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic or repeated stress during human fetal brain development has been associated with various learning, behavioral, and/or mood disorders, including depression in later life. The mechanisms accounting for these effects of prenatal stress are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal stress on early postnatal brain development, a disturbance of which may contribute to this increased vulnerability to psychopathology. We studied the effects of prenatal stress on fetal growth, stress-induced corticosterone secretion, brain cell proliferation, caspase-3-like activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein content in newborn Fischer 344 rats. In addition to a slight reduction in birth weight, prenatal stress was associated with elevated corticosterone levels (33.8%) after 1 h of maternal deprivation on postnatal day 1, whereas by postnatal day 8 this pattern was reversed (-46.5%). Further, prenatal stress resulted in an approximately 50% decrease in brain cell proliferation just after birth in both genders with a concomitant increase in caspase-3-like activity within the hippocampus at postnatal day 1 (36.1%) and at postnatal day 5 (females only; 20.1%). Finally, brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein content was reduced in both the olfactory bulbs (-24.6%) and hippocampus (-28.2%) of prenatally stressed male offspring at postnatal days 1 and 5, respectively. These detrimental central changes observed may partly explain the increased susceptibility of prenatally stressed subjects to mood disorders including depression in later life. PMID:16242847

Van den Hove, D L A; Steinbusch, H W M; Scheepens, A; Van de Berg, W D J; Kooiman, L A M; Boosten, B J G; Prickaerts, J; Blanco, C E

2006-01-01

207

Apoio paterno ao aleitamento materno: uma revisão integrativa / Fathers support on breastfeeding: an integrative review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Identificar, na literatura científica, publicações sobre a participação do pai ou companheiro no aleitamento materno. FONTES DE DADOS: Realizou-se uma revisão integrativa no período de 1995 a 2010, utilizando-se os unitermos "pai" e "aleitamento materno" nas bases de dados LILACS, SciELO, [...] BDENF e PubMed/MEDLINE. Os dados obtidos foram organizados em três categorias: o pai como suporte para a amamentação; percepções paternas sobre a amamentação; e o impacto da intervenção educativa sobre aleitamento para os pais. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Foram identificadas 44 publicações que mostraram que o apoio social, profissional e familiar foi imprescindível para o sucesso do aleitamento materno. O pai foi destacado como suporte fundamental pela forte influência na decisão da mulher em amamentar e na sua continuidade. Contudo, a participação do pai exibe sentimentos ambivalentes: competitividade com a mãe vs. proteção; exclusão vs. aumento do vínculo familiar; apoio vs. preconceitos. Os profissionais de saúde, apontados como referência na busca de informações, mostram-se despreparados para atender aos pais. CONCLUSÕES: Foram encontradas várias produções científicas ressaltando a relevância do apoio paterno para o sucesso do aleitamento materno. Contudo, a maioria das pesquisas apresenta abordagem descritiva, havendo poucos estudos com intervenções educativas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify publications regarding the role of the father or partner in the breastfeeding practice. DATA SOURCE: An integrative review of the literature was performed searching for articles published between 1995 and 2010, using the key-words "father" and "breastfeeding" in following data [...] bases: LILACS, SciELO, BDENF e PubMed/MEDLINE. Data were organized in three categories: the supporting role of the father on breastfeeding; paternal perceptions about breastfeeding; and the impact of educational intervention on breastfeeding for parents. DATA SYNTHESIS: 44 articles showed that social, professional and family support is vital to successful breastfeeding. The father was highlighted as crucial supporter due to his strong influence over women´s decision to breastfeed and to maintain breastfeeding. However, the involvement of the father presents evasive patterns: competition with the mother vs. protection, exclusion vs. increase strength in the family relationships, support vs. prejudices. Health professionals were reported as reference sources of education, however they were shown as unprepared to assist the parents. CONCLUSIONS: Several studies on the theme of paternal support were found in the literature, which highlights its importance for successful breastfeeding. However, most of the research had a descriptive approach and there were few studies on educational interventions.

Bruna Turaça, Silva; Luciano Borges, Santiago; Joel Alves, Lamonier.

208

Prenatal genetic diagnosis by chorionic villus sampling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prenatal diagnosis of severe congenital disease with termination of affected pregnancies is an accepted part of the contemporary practice of clinical genetics. First-trimester prenatal tissue sampling has been studied for years with various results. The key to success in sampling came with the application of ultrasound to guide the sampling procedure. The use of the Portex catheter or canula for sampling is the most common method today. There are other variations available and under trial by European investigators. All of these methods appear to have a high rate of success in obtaining prenatal tissue with a low rate of immediate complications. The author discusses how the sampling is done

209

The role of the father in the development of psychosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In psychoanalysis, fathering has not received much analytical at­tention and only little is known about the actual impact of paternity on the development of certain psychopathology. This paper seeks to carefully examine and critically discuss the impact of fathering on psychotic individuals. It elaborates on the importance of the father in the healthy development of the children, as well as on the consequences that his absence entails for their psyche. Drawing on a Lacanian analytical framework, it is argued that, nowadays, the paternal figure has significantly lost its previous status. The gradual extinction of the paternal function, within the contemporary cultural environment, is mainly because of important social and legal changes in the familial structure, such as the increase of single-parent families and the legalization of the adoption of children by gay couples.

Avramaki Elissavet

2011-01-01

210

Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor  

Science.gov (United States)

A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

Smith, Desmond J. (Oakland, CA); Rubin, Edward M. (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01

211

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung: A case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation is one of a rare congenital malformation usually unilateal in volving a part of lobe or a whole lobe of the fetal lung, characterized by excessive growing of terminal respiratory element. We made a prenatal diagnosis in a case of congenital cystic adenomdtoid malformation with diffuse bilateral involvement, Stocker Type III which is associated with fetal hydrops

212

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung: A case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation is one of a rare congenital malformation usually unilateal in volving a part of lobe or a whole lobe of the fetal lung, characterized by excessive growing of terminal respiratory element. We made a prenatal diagnosis in a case of congenital cystic adenomdtoid malformation with diffuse bilateral involvement, Stocker Type III which is associated with fetal hydrops

Shin, Hyun Ja; Shin, M. J.; Yoo, Y. J.; Park, J. M.; Kim, J. R. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1990-12-15

213

Development of Swallowing and Feeding: Prenatal through First Year of Life  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of feeding and swallowing involves a highly complex set of interactions that begin in embryologic and fetal periods and continue through infancy and early childhood. This article will focus on swallowing and feeding development in infants who are developing normally with a review of some aspects of prenatal development that provide…

Delaney, Amy L.; Arvedson, Joan C.

2008-01-01

214

Prenatal cannibalism in an insect  

Science.gov (United States)

Host selection and infection strategies of parasitoids often correlate with high parental investment and low numbers of progeny. In this study, we investigate how additional internal mechanisms might shape brood size and fitness of the offspring. Emblemasoma auditrix is a parasitoid fly in which about 38 larvae hatch simultaneously in utero. After host location, a single larva is deposited into the host, where it rapidly develops and pupates after about 5 days. The search for hosts can take several weeks, and during that time, the larvae arrest their development and remain in the first larval instar. Nevertheless, the larvae increase in weight within the uterus, and this growth correlates to a decrease in the number of larvae, although no larvae are deposited. Thus, our data indicate a first case of prenatal cannibalism in an invertebrate with larvae feeding on each other within the uterus of the adult.

de Vries, Thomas; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

2007-06-01

215

[Prenatal diagnosis of vasa previa].  

Science.gov (United States)

Vasa previa are umbilical vessels which run along the fetal membranes over or near the internal cervical os. Unprotected by the umbilical cord or placenta these vessels most often originate from velamentous insertion, low-lying and/or bilobated placenta. Ante- or intrapartum rupture of fetal membranes can provoke laceration of vasa previa causing painless vaginal bleeding with rapid fetal exsanguination and demise. Reduction of associated perinatal morbidity and mortality depends entirely on accurate antenatal diagnosis. In this review we present two cases of prenatally diagnosed vasa previa with successful perinatal outcome. An outline of the major sonographic markers and criteria used in the ultrasound diagnosis and differential diagnosis, as well as a step-by-step algorithm of the ultrasound examination in cases with suspected vasa previa is proposed. PMID:19230262

2008-01-01

216

Parent-infant cosleeping : fathers' roles and perspectives.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dyadic co-sleeping (mother-baby) is a common strategy for night-time infant care in the majority of world cultures. Triadic co-sleeping (mother-father-baby) is less common, although still widely practised cross-culturally. This paper examines triadic co-sleeping in an opportunistic sample of parents from the North Tees region of England, and explores fathers' expectations and experiences of sleeping with their babies. Using a prospective study design, 36 sets of parents, pre- and post-natally...

Ball, H. L.; Hooker, E.; Kelly, P. J.

2000-01-01

217

Cervantes: father of Don Quixote and son of a dentist.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the works of Cervantes, one can observe a detailed knowledge of dental matters. Although some of his biographers think that this is the result of the very broad cultural knowledge of this distinguished Spanish writer, the authors of this paper think differently. Having studied and analyzed many documents referring to the Cervantes family, especially those which dealt with the strong influence the teachings of Cervantes' father had on his son, we have reached the conclusion that his father must have been a 16th Century dentist. PMID:16861285

del Valle, Antonio; Romero, Martín

2006-08-01

218

Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure Linked with Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2012 In the latest findings from an ongoing study of the effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on child development, primary caregivers reported more signs of increased emotionality, anxiety, and depression in exposed nonexposed children at ages 3 and ...

219

[Ebstein's anomaly. Prenatal diagnosis with bidimensional echocardiography].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors comment on the signs found in utero in a case of Ebstein anomaly, by obstetrics and cross-sectional ultrasonography. They emphasize the possibilities and interest of these techniques in other prenatal diagnostic problems. PMID:6529035

Ardura, J; Mulas, M L; Tejeiro, M

1984-12-01

220

Prenatal Depression Effects and Interventions: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review covers research on the negative effects of prenatal depression and cortisol on fetal growth, prematurity and low birthweight. Although prenatal depression and cortisol were typically measured at around 20 weeks gestation, other research suggests the stability of depression and cortisol levels across pregnancy. Women with Dysthymia as compared to Major Depression Disorder had higher cortisol levels, and their newborns had lower gestational age and birthweight. The cortisol effects ...

Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-reif, Maria

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

CARDIOPATÍAS CONGÉNITAS CON DIAGNÓSTICO PRENATAL: SEGUIMIENTO  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objetivo: Seguimiento de las cardiopatías congénitas con diagnóstico prenatal. Método: Se analizan todas las cardiopatías con diagnóstico prenatal que ingresaron al Centro de Referencia Perinatal Oriente (CERPO) entre Abril 2003 y Junio 2005. Se realiza seguimiento postnatal y se compara el pronóstico con la experiencia previamente reportada en la literatura. Resultados: Se detectaron 94 cardiopatías congénitas de las cuales 76,6% correspondían a pacientes referidas desde otras regi...

Susana Aguilera P; Juan Guillermo Rodríguez A; Gabriela Enríquez G; Ximena Vascopé M.; Oscar Pizarro R; Ramón Almuna V.

2006-01-01

222

Barriers to prenatal care in Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: In Europe, it is sometimes assumed that few barriers to prenatal care exist because extensive programs of health insurance and initiatives to promote participation in prenatal care have been established for many decades. METHODS: A case-control study was performed in ten European countries (Austria, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Postpartum interviews were conducted between 1995 and 1996. A total of 1283 women with inadequate prena...

Delvaux, T.; Buekens, P.; Godin, I.; Boutsen, M.

2001-01-01

223

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital lung malformations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital lung anomalies has increased in recent years as imaging methods have benefitted from technical improvements. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate typical imaging findings of a wide spectrum of congenital lung anomalies on prenatal US and MRI. Moreover, we propose an algorithm based on imaging findings to facilitate the differential diagnosis, and suggest a follow-up algorithm during pregnancy and in the immediate postnatal period. (orig.)

Alamo, Leonor; Gudinchet, Francois; Meuli, Reto [Centre Hospitaliere Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Unit of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Reinberg, Olivier [Centre Hospitaliere Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Department of Pediatric Surgery, Lausanne (Switzerland); Vial, Yvan; Francini, Katyuska [Centre Hospitaliere Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Osterheld, Maria-Chiara [Centre Hospitaliere Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Department of Pathology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

2012-03-15

224

Análise descritiva do pai da criança com deficiência mental / Descriptive analysis of the father of a mentally disabled child  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A interação pai-criança deficiente merece atenção e precisa de mais investigações. Este estudo descreveu características dos pais de crianças com deficiência mental, com idade entre dois e quatro anos, quanto a stress, empoderamento (processo pelo qual os familiares obtêm acesso a conhecimentos, hab [...] ilidades e recursos que os capacitam a ganhar controle positivo de suas vidas, bem como melhorar a qualidade de seus estilos de vida), apoio social e qualidade do ambiente. Treze pais responderam aos seguintes instrumentos: Questionário de Caracterização do Sistema Familiar, Questionário de Recursos e Stress na forma resumida, Guia Geral de Transcrição dos Dados de Entrevista, Entrevista de Caracterização do Papel do Pai na Educação da Criança com Deficiência Mental, Escala de Empoderamento da Família, Escala de Senso de Competência Parental e Observação Domiciliar para Medida do Ambiente - Primeira Infância. Os resultados indicaram pais com baixo nível socioeconômico e de escolaridade, papel tradicional, presença de stress, autoestima adequada e porcentagens elevadas de empoderamento, além de ambiente domiciliar pobre em estimulação à criança. Os participantes se classificaram como bons pais e figuras importantes na vida das crianças, despendendo muitas horas de interação com elas. Percebe-se a necessidade de estudos com diferentes metodologias e de envolvimento do pai nos serviços profissionais para seus filhos. Abstract in english The interaction between a father and his disabled child deserves attention and needs further investigation. This study described characteristics of the fathers of mentally disabled children, aged between two and four years old, in terms of stress, empowerment, social support and quality of the envir [...] onment. Thirteen fathers answered the following tools: Characterization of Family System Questionnaire, Questionnaire on Resources and Stress - Short Form, General Guide to Transcription of Interview Data, Interview in respect of the Characterization of the Role of the Father in the Education of the Mentally Disabled Child, Family Empowerment Scale, Parent Sense of Competence Scale and Early Childhood - The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment. Results pointed to fathers of low socio-economic and educational levels, traditional role, presence of stress, adequate self-esteem and high percentages of empowerment, while the home environment failed to stimulate the child. The participants ranked themselves as good fathers and important figures in the child's life, spending many hours interacting with the child. It can be seen that there is a need for further studies using different methodologies as well as for the father's involvement in professional services for their children.

Nancy Capretz Batista da, Silva; Ana Lúcia Rossito, Aiello.

2009-12-01

225

Characterization of the cognitive impairments induced by prenatal exposure to stress in the rat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have previously shown that male rats exposed to gestational stress exhibit phenotypes resembling what is observed in schizophrenia, including hypersensitivity to amphetamine, blunted sensory gating, disrupted social behavior, impaired stress axis regulation, and aberrant prefrontal expression of genes involved in synaptic plasticity. Maternal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse cognitive outcomes among children, as well as an increased risk for developing schizophrenia, which is characterized by significant cognitive deficits. We sought to characterize the long-term cognitive outcome of prenatal stress using a preclinical paradigm, which is readily amenable to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Rats exposed to repeated variable prenatal stress during the third week of gestation were evaluated using a battery of cognitive tests, including the novel object recognition task, cued and contextual fear conditioning, the Morris water maze, and iterative versions of a paradigm in which working and reference memory for both objects and spatial locations can be assessed (the ‘Can Test’. Prenatally stressed males were impaired relative to controls on each of these tasks, confirming the face validity of this preclinical paradigm and extending the cognitive implications of prenatal stress exposure beyond the hippocampus. Interestingly, in experiments where both sexes were included, the performance of females was found to be less affected by prenatal stress compared to that of males. This could be related to the finding that women are less vulnerable than men to schizophrenia, and merits further investigation.

JulieA.Markham

2010-11-01

226

Difficulties in the hemodynamic assessment of the newborn with prenatally treated congenital diaphragmatic hernia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a malformation with a diverse clinical picture. Its severity can be assessed prenatally using the lung area to head circumference ratio (LHR). LHR lower than 1 as associated with high mortality is an indication for prenatal treatment involving occlusion of fetal trachea. Before such treatment other congenital malformations must be excluded. Assessment of circulatory system in these patients is difficult. Heart is compressed by viscera in the thorax that decreases blood return to the left atrium, and structures of the left heart may be smaller than in healthy fetuses. The echocardiographic picture may be similar to some congenital defects of the left heart. Differentiation between structural and functional cardiac abnormalities is difficult but essential for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions in the most severe type of CDH. The authors present problems with interpretation of hemodynamic disturbances in a neonate with prenatally diagnosed and treated severe CDH. PMID:25153261

Maroszy?ska, Iwona; Nied?wiecka, Marta; Fortecka-Piestrzeniewicz, Katarzyna; Guzowski, Jerzy; ?arkowska-Szaniawska, Alicja; Makowiecka, El?bieta; Nowakowska, Dorota

2015-02-01

227

Prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal anomaly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the ultrasonographic characteristic of a rare malformation comples, Cloacal anomaly on prenatal ultrasonography. From March 1991 to July 2001, eight cases with the persistent cloaca (4 cases in female and 1 case in male) and cloacal exstrophy (3 cases) diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound examination were included, and all of them were pathologically confirmed by autopsy. One radiologist retrospectively analyzed the prenatal sonographic images, including the urinary bladder, kidney, pelvic cyst, abdominal wall defect and amount of amniotic fluid. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was established at 21.8 ± 7.8 weeks of gestation. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of the persistent cloaca were absent bladder (n=2), distended bladder (n=2) and small thick bladder (n=1). Sonography of the kidney showed normal (n=2), hydronephrosis (n=1), dysplasia (n=1) and unilateral hydronephrosis with absent contralateral kidney (n=1). Four fetuses showed septated pelvic cyst; three fetuses, oligohydramnios. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal exstrophy included absent bladder (n=3), normal kidney (n=1), hydronephrosis (n=1) and absent kidney (n=1). All fetuses with cloacal exstrophy had abdominal wall defect while two of them had oligohydramnios. A prenatal diagnosis of persistent cloaca can be confidently made when there is septated pelvic cyst combined oligohydramnios, sediments within the cyst and intraluminal calcifications. Cloacal exstrophy should be incications. Cloacal exstrophy should be included in diagnosis if there is a low abdominal wall defect with absent urinary bladder.

228

Prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal anomaly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the ultrasonographic characteristic of a rare malformation comples, Cloacal anomaly on prenatal ultrasonography. From March 1991 to July 2001, eight cases with the persistent cloaca (4 cases in female and 1 case in male) and cloacal exstrophy (3 cases) diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound examination were included, and all of them were pathologically confirmed by autopsy. One radiologist retrospectively analyzed the prenatal sonographic images, including the urinary bladder, kidney, pelvic cyst, abdominal wall defect and amount of amniotic fluid. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was established at 21.8 {+-} 7.8 weeks of gestation. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of the persistent cloaca were absent bladder (n=2), distended bladder (n=2) and small thick bladder (n=1). Sonography of the kidney showed normal (n=2), hydronephrosis (n=1), dysplasia (n=1) and unilateral hydronephrosis with absent contralateral kidney (n=1). Four fetuses showed septated pelvic cyst; three fetuses, oligohydramnios. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal exstrophy included absent bladder (n=3), normal kidney (n=1), hydronephrosis (n=1) and absent kidney (n=1). All fetuses with cloacal exstrophy had abdominal wall defect while two of them had oligohydramnios. A prenatal diagnosis of persistent cloaca can be confidently made when there is septated pelvic cyst combined oligohydramnios, sediments within the cyst and intraluminal calcifications. Cloacal exstrophy should be included in diagnosis if there is a low abdominal wall defect with absent urinary bladder.

Song, Mi Jin [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2002-09-15

229

African-American Fathers’ Perspectives on Their Children’s Health Education: A Qualitative, Exploratory Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To investigate African-American fathers’ (AAF) perceptions regarding the applicability and need for their involvement as a health connection for their children and describe how participating fathers’ behavior was affected by their attitudes, knowledge, and perceptions of their influence on their children’s health. Methods: This exploratory study gathered data via semi-structured focus groups (n?=?3) and thematically analyzed it utilizing a grounded theory approach. Participants included AAF (n?=?20) with a mean age of 37?years (SD 11.79), with at least one child between 6 and 18?years old. Results: Four major themes were revealed: (1) appropriate health education for participants’ children (should first and foremost be delivered by parents); (2) participants’ paternal health-related guidance approach (reactive, rather than proactive); (3) participants’ perceived influences on health-related communication with their children (gender roles, efficacy constraints); and (4) paternal definitions of health (most often associated with diet). Conclusion: Understanding AAFs’ perceived and desired role in their children’s health edification can inform initiatives that actively engage these men, and nurture their level of involvement, to promote positive health behaviors among their children; this is necessary to realize their potential to actively improve the health of their children, families, and communities. PMID:25538938

Odum, Mary; Smith, Matthew Lee; McKyer, E. Lisako J.

2014-01-01

230

An outcome study of a program for noncustodial fathers: Program impact on child support payments, visitation, and the coparenting relationship  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of a noncustodial fathers program on fathers' child support payments, visitation, and his coparenting relationship with the custodial mother. Research has documented the decline in father's participation in child rearing once he is out of the home and the deleterious effects of father absence on children's development. Forty noncustodial fathers participated in a 10-week program designed to encourage noncustodial fathers increased...

Bailey, Claron Everett

1998-01-01

231

The Relationship between Father Residency and a Child's ADHD Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a commonly diagnosed neuropsychological disorder among school-aged children. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between father residency status and children's symptoms of ADHD using a large, nationally representative and community-based sample. To achieve this…

Sulak, Tracey N.; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Frederick, Karen

2012-01-01

232

Occupational exposures among fathers of children with Wilms tumor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An occupation-and-exposure linkage system was utilized to perform an epidemiologic case-control study of paternal occupation and Wilms tumor in offspring. The first part of the study was designed to test the hypothesis that paternal lead (Pb) exposure is a risk factor for Wilms tumor in offspring. The second part of the study was an exploratory analysis that sought to generate possible etiologic hypotheses about other paternal exposures in the workplace in relation to Wilms tumor. Calculation of odds ratios indicated that there was no statistical difference in the frequency of occupational exposure to Pb, Pb alkyls, and Pb salts for fathers of children with Wilms' tumor and fathers of controls, a finding that contrasts sharply with the results of the one previously reported study in this area. In the exploratory phase of the study, case fathers were found more likely to have been exposed to boron, while control fathers were found more likely to have encountered insecticides, acetylene, o-chlorobenzylidene, oil orange ss, and diethylene glycol; the differences were statistically significant. Troublesome methodologic problems, including exposure misclassification, sample size, and multiple comparisons, are discussed.

Wilkins, J.R.; Sinks, T.H. Jr.

1984-06-01

233

Fathers' Participation in the Domestic Activities of Everyday Life  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the data from the multi-purpose survey on household "Time Use" conducted by Istat (the Italian National Statistical Institute) in 2002-2003 and the data from this same survey conducted in 1988-1989 will be analysed with the purpose of describing the fathers' daily participation in the domestic activities and of highlighting the…

Romano, Maria Clelia; Bruzzese, Dario

2007-01-01

234

Observations of a Father: My Son Has Spina Bifida.  

Science.gov (United States)

The author reviews his experiences as the father of a child with spina bifida, a congenital problem in which the spine is not completely enclosed. He recounts his feelings upon first finding out about the condition and his son's subsequent surgeries and crises. (CL)

Remmel, Carl L.

1982-01-01

235

Child support and non-resident fathers' contact with their children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents a theoretical model of a non-resident fathers child support and contact with his child, which combines the public good treatment of child-expenditure with trade in father-child contact-time. The model provides predictions concerning the effects of fathers income and binding child support orders on contact. Using new data from the British Household Panel Survey on frequency of contact of non-resident fathers with their dependent children, there is evidence that, among middle...

Prof John Ermisch

2008-01-01

236

Marriage and its Purposes in the Opinion of Western Church Fathers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The author describes the opinions of the Church Fathers on marriage and its purposes. The question is did some of the Church Fathers condemn matrimony. The answer is no. Some of the Church Fathers emphasized the disadvantages of the matrimony which was seen as an opposite site to the virginity or widows’ state. Moreover, these negative definitions was sometimes connected with the philosophical opinions oh the Church Fathers. Negative or positive image of marriage was also a c...

Delimata, Ma?gorzata

2008-01-01

237

Coercive and Prosocial Fathering, Antisocial Personality, and Growth in Children's Post-Divorce Noncompliance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study employed multiple methods including direct observation of fathering behaviors and child noncompliance to better address our understanding of the quantity and quality of divorced father contact. A weighted county sample of 230 divorced-father families with a focal child aged 4 to 11 years was employed to test whether fathers' antisocial personality (ASP) moderated effects of monthly contact with children in predicting children's observed noncompliance over 18 months. Latent growth mo...

Degarmo, David S.

2010-01-01

238

Fathers under fire: the revolution in child support enforcement in the USA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the shadow of rising divorce and non-marital birth rates, nearly two-thirds of all American children today will live apart from at least one of their parents, usually the father. Clearly this astonishing proportion of non-resident fathers has serious implications for the economic, employment, and educational status of mothers and the development and wellbeing of children. But according to the authors of Fathers Under Fire, a more comprehensive perspective on non-resident fathers - understa...

Garfinkel, Irwin; Mclanahan, Sara; Meyer, Daniel; Seltzer, Judith

1998-01-01

239

Women's and care providers' perspectives of quality prenatal care: a qualitative descriptive study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been given to the adequacy of prenatal care use in promoting healthy outcomes for women and their infants. Adequacy of use takes into account the timing of initiation of prenatal care and the number of visits. However, there is emerging evidence that the quality of prenatal care may be more important than adequacy of use. The purpose of our study was to explore women's and care providers' perspectives of quality prenatal care to inform the development of items for a new instrument, the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire. We report on the derivation of themes resulting from this first step of questionnaire development. Methods A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 pregnant women and 40 prenatal care providers recruited from five urban centres across Canada. Data were analyzed using inductive open and then pattern coding. The final step of analysis used a deductive approach to assign the emergent themes to broader categories reflective of the study's conceptual framework. Results The three main categories informed by Donabedian's model of quality health care were structure of care, clinical care processes, and interpersonal care processes. Structure of care themes included access, physical setting, and staff and care provider characteristics. Themes under clinical care processes were health promotion and illness prevention, screening and assessment, information sharing, continuity of care, non-medicalization of pregnancy, and women-centredness. Interpersonal care processes themes were respectful attitude, emotional support, approachable interaction style, and taking time. A recurrent theme woven throughout the data reflected the importance of a meaningful relationship between a woman and her prenatal care provider that was characterized by trust. Conclusions While certain aspects of structure of care were identified as being key dimensions of quality prenatal care, clinical and interpersonal care processes emerged as being most essential to quality care. These processes are important as they have a role in mitigating adverse outcomes, promoting involvement of women in their own care, and keeping women engaged in care. The findings suggest key considerations for the planning, delivery, and evaluation of prenatal care. Most notably, care should be woman-centred and embrace shared decision making as an essential element.

Sword Wendy

2012-04-01

240

¿Cómo se llamaba el padre? // What is the father`s name?  

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Full Text Available Está a punto de estrenarse en cine, o quizás ya se estrenó en otras latitudes, la versión cinematográfica del último libro de Cormack McCarthy: La carretera. Galardonado con el Pulitzer por este último libro y conocido entre los lectores casuales gracias a su anterior novela: No country for old men, llevada al cine de forma impecable por los hermanos Cohen, McCarthy sorprende dejando ver que a lo largo de su obra, en particular en La carretera, aparece una pregunta por el padre. Tema que de continuo tratan los psicoanalistas, desafortunadamente no con la belleza con que lo hace el poeta. La obra de McCarthy es otro de los tantos ejemplos en los que la literatura enseña al psicoanálisis. // The premiere is ready or maybe it was showed in other latitudes the Cormack Mccarthy movie version of his last book: The Road. This last book won the Pulitzer Prize, also known among the casual readers for his previous novel: No country for old men, impeccable movie version by Cohen brothers. Along his work McCarthy surprise allowing to see, especially in The Road, a question for the father. Subject usually worked by the psychoanalysts, unfortunately, not with the same beauty that the poet does it. McCarthy’s work is other among many examples where the literature teaches to psychoanalysis.

Alexander Cruz Aponasenko

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Diagnóstico prenatal de ciclopía asociada con trisomía 13 / Prenatal diagnosis of cyclopia associated to trisomy 13  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta un caso de ciclopía con diagnóstico prenatal por ecografía bidimensional y tridimensional, a quien se le realizó cordocentesis, el cariotipo en sangre fetal con bandeo G mostró trisomía 13 libre, las características fenotípicas se confirmaron al examen físico del recién nacido. Se hace u [...] na revisión de la literatura de ciclopía asociada con la trisomía 13 y se destacan aspectos de importancia en la ecografía prenatal. Abstract in english A cyclopia case with prenatal diagnosis by two dimensional and three dimensional ecography is presented, chordocentesis was realized, the chariotype in fetal blood with G banding presented trisomy 13. Phenotypic characteristics prenatally found where confirmed with the physical examination of the ne [...] wborn. A revision to the literature about cyclops associated with trisomy 13 was made, and important aspects in prenatal diagnosis were highlighted.

Harry, Pachajoa; Katherine, Tabares; Juan Carlos, Quintero; Wilmar, Saldarriaga; Carolina, Isaza.

2008-03-30

242

Case report: prenatal diagnosis of Hb Hammersmith [?42(CD1)Phe?Ser; HBB: c.128T?>?C] in a family with an adult male patient.  

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Hb Hammersmith [?42(CD1)Phe???Ser; HBB: c.128T?>?C] is a rare, unstable hemoglobin (Hb) variant. In this case report, we describe another male case of Hb Hammersmith. A 39-year-old male had hemolytic anemia, cyanosis and splenomegaly since 6 months after birth. He passed the disease allele to his daughter, a 3-year-old girl, who also had hemolytic anemia and splenomegaly. This mutation was not identified in the parents and two brothers of the father. Early prenatal diagnosis was performed in the second pregnancy in this family. This is the first case of Hb Hammersmith in an adult male patient. PMID:24471820

Li, Ru; Wang, Ting; Xie, Xing-Mei; Li, Dong-Zhi

2014-01-01

243

Stress in Fathers of Moderately and Late Preterm Infants: A Randomised Controlled Trial  

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The atypical behaviour of preterm infants can elicit stress in fathers and influence their ability to perceive and interpret infants' cues. This study investigated whether fathers of moderately and late preterm infants were more stressed than fathers of term infants. In a randomised controlled trial, we also studied the effect of the Mother-Infant…

Ravn, Ingrid Helen; Lindemann, Rolf; Smeby, Nina Aarhus; Bunch, Eli Haugen; Sandvik, Leiv; Smith, Lars

2012-01-01

244

Coercive and Prosocial Fathering, Antisocial Personality, and Growth in Children's Postdivorce Noncompliance  

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To better understand quantity and quality of divorced father contact, a weighted county sample of 230 divorced fathers with a child aged 4-11 years was employed to test whether fathers' antisocial personality (ASP) moderated effects of monthly contact with children in predicting children's observed noncompliance. Eighteen-month latent growth…

DeGarmo, David Scott

2010-01-01

245

A Waitlist-Controlled Trial of Behavioral Parent Training for Fathers of Children with ADHD  

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Fathers, in general, have been underrepresented in studies of parent training outcome for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a behavioral parent training program developed expressly for fathers. The present investigation randomly assigned 55 fathers of children…

Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Yu, Jihnhee; Gangloff, Brian; Buck, Melina; Linke, Stuart; Gormley, Matthew; Gera, Shradha

2012-01-01

246

Father-Child Contact after Separation: The Influence of Living Arrangements  

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Following divorce or separation, father-child contact is deemed an important influence on child development. Previous research has explored the impact of sociodemographic and attitudinal factors on the amount of contact between fathers and their children following a union dissolution. This article revisits this important question using fathers'…

Swiss, Liam; Le Bourdais, Celine

2009-01-01

247

Associations between Individual and Family Level Characteristics and Parenting Practices in Incarcerated African American Fathers  

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We investigated the reported parenting practices of fifty incarcerated African American fathers. Fathers were interviewed using hypothetical vignettes adapted from the Parenting Dimensions Inventory (PDI) and received scores on two parenting practices: responsive and restrictive. Father's individual level (education and length of time spent…

Modecki, Kathryn L.; Wilson, Melvin N.

2009-01-01

248

Paternal Work Stress and Latent Profiles of Father-Infant Parenting Quality  

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The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine the implications of fathers' experiences of work stress for paternal behaviors with infants across multiple dimensions of parenting in a sample of fathers living in nonmetropolitan communities (N = 492). LPA revealed five classes of fathers based on levels of social-affective…

Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cox, Martha J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

2011-01-01

249

Implementation of an electronic genomic and family health history tool in primary prenatal care.  

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"The Pregnancy and Health Profile," (PHP) is a free genetic risk assessment software tool for primary prenatal providers that collects patient-entered family (FHH), personal, and obstetrical health history, performs risk assessment, and presents the provider with clinical decision support during the prenatal encounter. The tool is freely available for download at www.hughesriskapps.net. We evaluated the implementation of PHP in four geographically diverse clinical sites. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted for patients seen prior to the study period and for patients who used the PHP to collect data on documentation of FHH, discussion of cystic fibrosis (CF) and hemoglobinopathy (HB) carrier screening, and CF and HB interventions (tests, referrals). Five hundred pre-implementation phase and 618 implementation phase charts were reviewed. Documentation of a 3-generation FHH or pedigree improved at three sites; patient race/ethnicity at three sites, father of the baby (FOB) race/ethnicity at all sites, and ancestry for the patient and FOB at three sites (P?phase patients at one site (8% vs. 48%, P?prenatal clinics. Future evaluation of the PHP should include testing in a larger number of clinical environments, assessment of additional performance measures, and evaluation of the system's overall clinical utility. PMID:24616345

Edelman, Emily A; Lin, Bruce K; Doksum, Teresa; Drohan, Brian; Edelson, Vaughn; Dolan, Siobhan M; Hughes, Kevin S; O'Leary, James; Galvin, Shelley L; Degroat, Nicole; Pardanani, Setul; Feero, W Gregory; Adams, Claire; Jones, Renee; Scott, Joan

2014-03-01

250

Prenatal Care Services in Aydin Province  

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Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care in Aydin province. It was a cross-sectional study. 195 women (pregnant/women at postpartum period living in the Aydin province participated in the study. Cluster and simple random sampling method was used in the selection of women from 10 health centers (one rural-one urban health station each. Data obtained by face to face interview technique. Turkey Demografic Health Survey criteria were used for evaluation of the quantity of prenatal care as ?sufficient? or ?insufficient? and quality of prenatal care was scored as ?1-2?(bad, ?3-4?(moderate and ?5-6?(good. Chi-square, Mann Whitney-U and t tests were used for analysis. One fifth of each pregnant women who were in last trimester and 11.3% of women in postpartum period stated that they were not followed up by an health personnel during pregnancy. One third of pregnant women who were in last trimester and 58.5% of women in postpartum period said they weren?t visited by an health personnel in the first trimester. Besides, quality points of prenatal care were found low, both in pregnant women and women in post partum period. It was found that living in urban areas, high education level and presence of social security effected getting adequate prenatal care. The quality and quantity of prenatal care was found less than expected in Aydin province which is located in the western region of Turkey. It is necessary that, health personnel must be more sensitive to convey ?adequate? prenatal care especially women who are living in rural areas, who have low educational level and who have no social security. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(2.000: 137-141

Erdal BESER

2007-04-01

251

Prenatal Care Services in Aydin Province  

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Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care in Aydin province. It was a cross-sectional study. 195 women (pregnant/women at postpartum period living in the Aydin province participated in the study. Cluster and simple random sampling method was used in the selection of women from 10 health centers (one rural-one urban health station each. Data obtained by face to face interview technique. Turkey Demografic Health Survey criteria were used for evaluation of the quantity of prenatal care as ?sufficient? or ?insufficient? and quality of prenatal care was scored as ?1-2?(bad, ?3-4?(moderate and ?5-6?(good. Chi-square, Mann Whitney-U and t tests were used for analysis. One fifth of each pregnant women who were in last trimester and 11.3% of women in postpartum period stated that they were not followed up by an health personnel during pregnancy. One third of pregnant women who were in last trimester and 58.5% of women in postpartum period said they weren?t visited by an health personnel in the first trimester. Besides, quality points of prenatal care were found low, both in pregnant women and women in post partum period. It was found that living in urban areas, high education level and presence of social security effected getting adequate prenatal care. The quality and quantity of prenatal care was found less than expected in Aydin province which is located in the western region of Turkey. It is necessary that, health personnel must be more sensitive to convey ?adequate? prenatal care especially women who are living in rural areas, who have low educational level and who have no social security. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(2: 137-141

Erdal BESER

2007-04-01

252

Prenatal diagnosis of homozygous ?-thalassemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An in vitro test for the prenatal diagnosis of homozygous ?-thalassaemia and its application is described. The basic methodology consists in obtaining a minute specimen of placental blood by blind aspiration or foetoscopy at the 18th to 20th week of gestation, incubating a sample in the presence of 3H-leucine, separating the labelled globin chains by chromatography on sodium carboxymethyl cellulose microcolumns with 8M urea-mercaptoethanol and measuring the radioactivity associated with the ?- and ?-chains. The ?/(pre-?+?) radioactivity ratio is used as an index of adequacy of ?-chain synthesis, a value greater than 0.07 being taken as indicative of freedom from disease and a value less than 0.03 indicative of homozygous ?-thalassaemia. From 350 women seeking the test, 344 samples were tested; 269 were judged normal or heterozygous, 75 homozygous for ?-thalassaemia. Four false negatives were identified, 3 having given borderline ?/(pre-?+?) ratios. Complications leading to foetal loss fell from 16% over the first year's experience to 8% over the second and 5% over the third. The test is now judged suitable for general use and is indeed being so used

253

Paternal Involvement in the Statutory Assessment of Special Educational Needs  

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There are manifold benefits of parental involvement in a child's education, but there is evidence of gender imbalances in parental involvement. This article describes research into fathers' involvement with educational psychologists (EPs) working with children undergoing statutory assessment. A content analysis of children's files from one…

Hart, Robert

2011-01-01

254

Prenatal and postnatal prevalence of Turner's syndrome: a registry study.  

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OBJECTIVE--To study prevalence of Turner's syndrome in Denmark and to assess validity of prenatal diagnosis. DESIGN--Study of data on prenatal and postnatal Turner's syndrome in Danish Cytogenetic Central Register. SUBJECTS--All registered Turner's syndrome karyotypes (100 prenatal cases and 215 postnatal cases) during 1970-93. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Prevalence of Turner's syndrome karyotypes among prenatally tested fetuses and Turner's syndrome among liveborn infants. RESULTS--Among infant g...

Gravholt, C. H.; Juul, S.; Naeraa, R. W.; Hansen, J.

1996-01-01

255

GIANT HEPATIC CYSTS: PRENATAL FINDINGS AND UNCOMMON POSTNATAL OUTCOME  

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With modern prenatal imaging, liver cysts are being diagnosed more often. Although large cysts are usually asymptomatic, they may present as an abdominal emergency requiring surgery in the first weeks of life. We report a series of 3 patients with prenatal diagnosis of isolated cystic liver lesions diagnosed at 22, 31 and 33 weeks of gestational age. The hepatic origin of the cysts was confirmed prenatally by a MRI in 2 cases, with visualization of a normal gallbladder. The prenatal course wa...

Sauvat, F.; Harper, L.; Cuillier, F.; Abossolo, T.; Alessandri, J. L.; Michel, J. L.

2012-01-01

256

Prenatal Diagnosis of Chromosome Abnormalities: A 13-Year Institution Experience  

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Objective: To analyze trends in screening and invasive prenatal diagnosis of chromosome abnormalities (CA) over a 13-year period and correlate them to changes in the national prenatal screening policy. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed Down syndrome (DS) screening tests and fetal karyotypes obtained by prenatal invasive testing (IT) in our fetal medicine unit between January 1999 and December 2011. Results: A total of 24,226 prenatal screening tests for DS and 11,045 invasive procedures ha...

Carmen Comas; Mónica Echevarria; María Ángeles Rodríguez; Ignacio Rodríguez; Bernat Serra; Vincenzo Cirigliano

2012-01-01

257

[Prenatal stress in farm animals: a survey].  

Science.gov (United States)

Some housing conditions and practices in livestock husbandry may be stressful for the animals and may impair their welfare.This is of particular relevance for pregnant dams, because it is known from rodents and primates that prenatal stress (i. e. stress experienced by the mother with impact on the fetal ontogeny) may have long-lasting effects on growth, health and behaviour of the offspring. This review gives a survey of current research on prenatal stress and its consequences in farm animals. In comparison to the well-studied rodent model there are differences in placental structure and prenatal ontogeny. However, the research reveals that also in farm animals prenatal stress can lead to an impairment of growth, immune function, behaviour and stress reactivity in the offspring. Maternal glucocorticoids are discussed as potential mediators and it has been demonstrated that the effects on the offspring depend on the nature of the stressor as well as on its time and duration during gestation. Because prenatal stress in farm animals may be a source of economic and welfare problems by reason of reduced vitality and well-being of the offspring, suggestions for future work in this field of research are made. PMID:19350805

Gräbner, Maria; Kanitz, Ellen; Otten, Winfried

2009-01-01

258

Cultural negotiation and fatherhood for first and second generation Korean immigrant fathers  

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Applying three concepts from the life course perspectives (time and place, human agency, and linked lives), this study explores (1) how first- (G1) and second-generation (G2) Korean immigrant fathers in the United States develop cultural identities as Koreans and/or Americans, (2) how they create a package deal of fatherhood, and (3) how father-son relationships change overtime. Using qualitative interview data with 20 G1 fathers and 15 G2 fathers, I found that G1 and G2 fathers defined thems...

Kwon, Young In

2005-01-01

259

Prenatal stress and its effects on the fetus and the child: possible underlying biological mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many prospective studies have shown that if a mother is depressed, anxious or stressed while pregnant, this increases the risk for her child having a wide range of adverse outcomes including emotional problems, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or impaired cognitive development. Although genetics and postnatal care clearly affect these outcomes, evidence for a prenatal causal component also is substantial. Prenatal anxiety/depression may contribute 10-15 % of the attributable load for emotional/behavioural outcomes.The mechanisms underlying these changes are just starting to be explored. One possible mediating factor is increased exposure of the fetus to cortisol, as has been shown in animal studies. However, the human hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis which makes cortisol functions differently in human pregnancy from in most animals. The maternal HPA axis becomes gradually less responsive to stress as pregnancy progresses. And there is only a weak, if any, association between a mother's prenatal mood and her cortisol level, especially later in pregnancy. Cytokines are alternative possible mediators. An additional explanation is that stress or anxiety causes increased transfer of maternal cortisol across the placenta to the fetus. The placenta plays a crucial role in moderating fetal exposure to maternal factors and presumably in preparing the fetus for the environment in which it is going to find itself. There is some evidence in both rat models and in humans that prenatal stress can reduce placental 11?-HSD2, the enzyme which metabolises cortisol to inactive cortisone. The level of cortisol in the amniotic fluid, surrounding the baby in the womb, has been shown to be inversely correlated with infant cognitive development. However, several other biological systems are likely to be involved. Serotonin is another possible mediator of prenatal stress induced programming effects on offspring neurocognitive and behavioural development. The role of epigenetic changes in mediating alterations in offspring outcome following prenatal stress is likely to be important and starting to be explored. PMID:25287545

Glover, Vivette

2015-01-01

260

Criminality and the 2D:4D Ratio: Testing the Prenatal Androgen Hypothesis.  

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A decade old theory hypothesizes that brain exposure to androgens promotes involvement in criminal behavior. General support for this hypothesis has been provided by studies of postpubertal circulating levels of testosterone, at least among males. However, the theory also predicts that for both genders, prenatal androgens will be positively correlated with persistent offending, an idea for which no evidence currently exists. The present study used an indirect measure of prenatal androgen exposure-the relative length of the second and fourth fingers of the right hand (r2D:4D)-to test the hypothesis that elevated prenatal androgens promote criminal tendencies later in life for males and females. Questionnaires were administered to 2,059 college students in Malaysia and 1,291 college students in the United States. Respondents reported their r2D:4D relative finger lengths along with involvement in 13 categories of delinquent and criminal acts. Statistically significant correlations between the commission of most types of offenses and r2D:4D ratios were found for males and females even after controlling for age. It is concluded that high exposure to androgens during prenatal development contributes to most forms of offending following the onset of puberty. PMID:24013770

Ellis, Lee; Hoskin, Anthony W

2015-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Least explored factors associated with prenatal smoking.  

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Poor pregnancy and birth outcomes are major problems in the United States, and maternal smoking during pregnancy has been identified as one of the most preventable risk factors associated with these outcomes. This study examines less explored risk factors of smoking among underserved African American pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at an outpatient obstetrics-gynecology clinic of an inner-city university hospital in Virginia from March 2009 through January 2011 in which pregnant women (N = 902) were interviewed at their first prenatal care visit. Survey questions included items related to women's sociodemographic characteristics as well as their pregnancy history; criminal history; receipt of social services; child protective services involvement; insurance status; and history of substance abuse, domestic violence, and depression. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to calculate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals depicting the relationship between these factors and smoking during pregnancy. The analysis reported that maternal age [OR = 1.08, 95 % CI = 1.05-1.12], less than high school education [OR = 4.30, 95 % CI = 2.27-8.14], unemployed [OR = 2.33, 95 % CI = 1.35-4.04], criminal history [OR = 1.66, 95 % CI = 1.05-2.63], receipt of social services [OR = 2.26, 95 % CI = 1.35-3.79] alcohol use [OR = 2.73, 95 % CI = 1.65-4.51] and illicit drug use [OR = 1.97, 95 % CI = 1.04-3.74] during pregnancy were statistically significant risk factors associated with smoking during pregnancy. In addition to the well known risk factors, public health professionals should be aware that criminal history and receipt of social services are important factors associated with smoking during pregnancy. Social service providers such as WIC and prisons and jails may offer a unique opportunity for education and cessation interventions during the preconception or interconception period. PMID:22903305

Masho, Saba W; Bishop, Diane L; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Varner, Sara B; White, Shannon; Svikis, Dace

2013-09-01

262

Perlman syndrome: report, prenatal findings and review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perlman syndrome is a rare overgrowth syndrome characterized by polyhydramnios with neonatal macrosomia, nephromegaly, distinctive facial appearance, renal dysplasia, nephro-blastomatosis, and predisposition to Wilms tumor (WT). We report on a newborn with prenatal sonographic signs of Perlman syndrome, large fetal ascites, nephromegaly and macrosomia. The clinical course was marked by neonatal distress, renal failure and refractory hypoxemia leading to death at 2 days of life. Renal histologic examination showed bilateral nephroblastomatosis. Genetic or epigenetic alterations of the 11p15 region (involved in the BWS), including mutation of the CDKN1C gene were excluded. No mutation of the GPC3 gene was identified. We review the 28 patients who have been reported with Perlman syndrome. The prognosis of Perlman syndrome is poor with a high neonatal mortality rate. Among the infants who survived beyond the neonatal period, 64% developed a WT and all had a developmental delay. Fetal macrosomia, ascites and polyhydramnios are frequent manifestations. Clinical overlaps with other overgrowth syndromes particularly Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome have been emphasized. Perlman syndrome is considered as an autosomal recessive condition. We review 19 patients from seven sibships with parental consanguinity in two families only. The other cases were sporadic. The 28 reported patients had only 10 unaffected sibs. The low percentage of consanguinity among parents is also puzzling for a rare recessive condition. The molecular basis of Perlman syndrome is unknown. (Epi)genetic anomalies of 11p15 and mutations in GPC3 were not studied in most of the previous reports. PMID:18780370

Alessandri, Jean-Luc; Cuillier, Fabrice; Ramful, Duksha; Ernould, Sandrine; Robin, Stéphanie; de Napoli-Cocci, Stefan; Rivière, Jean-Pierre; Rossignol, Sylvie

2008-10-01

263

New genetic testing in prenatal diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Determining a genetic diagnosis prenatally permits patients to make informed reproductive decisions and to be counseled about possible fetal outcomes. Therefore, it is important for the provider to be aware of the spectrum of genetic conditions and to use appropriate testing modality to obtain specific diagnosis. This article reviews genetic techniques available for prenatal diagnosis such as preimplantation genetic testing, chromosomal microarray, non-invasive prenatal screening, and next-generation sequencing. Chromosomal microarray has emerged as the first diagnostic test for evaluation of multiple congenital anomalies and developmental delay as most of the next-generation sequencing methods do not detect copy-number variants (CNVs). Exome sequencing and whole genome sequencing are time-consuming, so if this needs to be done to obtain an accurate genetic diagnosis, allow sufficient time. PMID:24315623

Babkina, Natalia; Graham, John M

2014-06-01

264

Control prenatal vs resultado obstétrico perinatal / Prenatal care vs obstetric outcome perinatal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La cobertura del control prenatal, calidad, y atención del parto se refleja en la resolución obstétrica como en la morbi-mortalidad del binomio madre-hijo. Esta investigación aborda el problema del impacto de los controles prenatales sobre el resultado obstétrico y perinatal. Objetivo: conocer el im [...] pacto del control prenatal sobre los resultados obstétricos obtenidos. Material y método: mediante un estudio de cohortes reconstruidas en una población obtenida azarosamente por conglomerados diarios en el transcurso del mes de junio (2010), se obtuvieron 419 puérperas. El material de investigación fue el binomio madre-hijo. Algunas variables estudiadas fueron: edad, control prenatal, número de consultas, peso, talla, tensión arterial, medición fondo uterino, forma de término del embarazo, peso del producto, sexo, apgar, destino del producto, complicaciones maternas, etc. Se utilizo en el programa estadístico Riesgo® y Primer® obteniéndose el RR, RR con intervalo de confianza al 95%. Resultados. Se analizaron 395 productos mayores de 20 semanas y 35 menores, de los productos mayores de 20 semanas (f=355) tuvieron sus madres control prenatal (89.87%) y 40 no lo tuvieron (10.13%), las distocias fueron más frecuentes en las madres con control prenatal, X²=7.73 RR=1.45 IC95% 1.11-1.90, las complicaciones maternas tuvieron proporciones similares en madres con y sin control prenatal X² = 0.0091RR=0.96, diferencia de proporciones p=0.899, la enfermedad hipertensiva del embarazo fue la complicación mas frecuente (74.6% de ellas) sin haber diferencia entre las madres que tuvieron o no control prenatal X² =0.0010. Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos señalan que en este grupo estudiado, en particular, la presencia del control prenatal no representó un factor que ayude a una resolución obstétrica y perinatal favorable, excepto en la prevención de la macrosomía. Abstract in english The coverage of prenatal care, quality and delivery care is reflected in the resolution as obstetric morbidity andmortality of mother and child. This research addresses the issue of the impact of prenatal care on the obstetric and perinatal outcome. Objective: To determine the impact of prenatal car [...] e on obstetric out comes achieved. Material and method: using a reconstructed cohort study in a population cluster randomly obtained daily duringthe month of June (2010), 419 were women in labour. The research material was the mother-child. Some ofthe studied variables were age, prenatal care, number of visits, weight, height, blood pressure, fundalmeasurement, method of pregnancy termination, product weight, sex, apgar, destination of the product, maternal complications, etc. It was used in the statistical program Primer® Risk® obtaining the RR, RR with aconfidence interval of 95%. Results: 395 products were analysed over 20 weeks and 35 children, of the goods over 20 weeks (f = 355) mothers had prenatal care (89.87%) and 40 did not have it (10.13%), dystocia were more common in mothers with prenatal care, X² = 7.73 RR = 1.45 95% CI 1.11-1.90, maternal complications were similar proportions in mothers with and without prenatal X² = 0.0091 RR = 0.96, difference in proportions p = 0.899, hypertensive disease of pregnancy was the most frequent complication (74.6% of them) without difference between themothers had no prenatal care or X² = 0.0010. Conclusion: Our results indicate that in this particular group studied, the presence of prenatal care is not afactor that helps an obstetric resolution and favourable perinatal, except for the macrosomia prevention.

R.M., Rico Venegas; V.M., Ramos Frausto; P.C., Martínez.

2012-07-01

265

Premisas éticas en el diagnóstico prenatal de defectos congénitos en Cuba / Ethical premises in the prenatal diagnosis of congenital defects in Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito de este trabajo es presentar una propuesta de premisas éticas para la práctica del diagnóstico prenatal de defectos congénitos. Se realizó un estudio sistemático, profundo y crítico sobre el tema y sobre los resultados de investigaciones realizadas en población cubana y los derivados de [...] talleres realizados con la participación de especialistas de la Red Nacional de Genética Médica; para su elaboración se tuvieron en cuenta los principios éticos más universalmente aceptados y recomendados por la OMS y otros organismos internacionales, así como las resoluciones y leyes cubanas relacionadas con este tema. Se presentan normativas generales, sobre el diagnóstico prenatal y el aborto selectivo, el asesoramiento genético y el revelado de información; esta propuesta se complementa con otras normativas propias de la investigación científica y relacionadas con el consentimiento informado, las investigaciones que involucran pacientes, aspectos de la ética profesional y de las publicaciones científicas. Estas normativas en su conjunto conforman las premisas éticas que garantizan el respeto a los derechos y a la dignidad de las personas que son atendidas en los servicios de asesoramiento genético y diagnóstico prenatal y formarán parte de un manual para la provisión de servicios en la red de genética médica de Cuba. Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to submit a proposal of ethical premises for prenatal diagnosis of congenital defects. An in-depth systematic and critical study was conducted on the topic and on the results of research works carried out with the Cuban population and those of workshops where the Nati [...] onal Network of Medical Genetics experts participated. For their preparation, the universally accepted ethical principles that are recommended by WHO and other international bodies, as well as the Cuban resolutions and laws in this regard were all taken into account. Some general standards on prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion and on the approach to genetic counseling and the disclosure of information were presented. This proposal was supplemented with other standards inherent to the scientific research, since during prenatal diagnosis practice, some research works can emerge, the results of which may be published, that is, informed consent, research involving patients, ethical aspects of scientific publications and professional ethics elements. These standards are the ethical premises that guarantee the respect to the rights and to the dignity of those persons who are served by the genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis services, and will be part of a manual for the provision of services in the medical genetic network of Cuba.

Iris Andrea, Rojas Betancourt; Arianne, Llamos Paneque; Beatriz, Marcheco Teruel.

2013-12-01

266

Premisas éticas en el diagnóstico prenatal de defectos congénitos en Cuba / Ethical premises in the prenatal diagnosis of congenital defects in Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito de este trabajo es presentar una propuesta de premisas éticas para la práctica del diagnóstico prenatal de defectos congénitos. Se realizó un estudio sistemático, profundo y crítico sobre el tema y sobre los resultados de investigaciones realizadas en población cubana y los derivados de [...] talleres realizados con la participación de especialistas de la Red Nacional de Genética Médica; para su elaboración se tuvieron en cuenta los principios éticos más universalmente aceptados y recomendados por la OMS y otros organismos internacionales, así como las resoluciones y leyes cubanas relacionadas con este tema. Se presentan normativas generales, sobre el diagnóstico prenatal y el aborto selectivo, el asesoramiento genético y el revelado de información; esta propuesta se complementa con otras normativas propias de la investigación científica y relacionadas con el consentimiento informado, las investigaciones que involucran pacientes, aspectos de la ética profesional y de las publicaciones científicas. Estas normativas en su conjunto conforman las premisas éticas que garantizan el respeto a los derechos y a la dignidad de las personas que son atendidas en los servicios de asesoramiento genético y diagnóstico prenatal y formarán parte de un manual para la provisión de servicios en la red de genética médica de Cuba. Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to submit a proposal of ethical premises for prenatal diagnosis of congenital defects. An in-depth systematic and critical study was conducted on the topic and on the results of research works carried out with the Cuban population and those of workshops where the Nati [...] onal Network of Medical Genetics experts participated. For their preparation, the universally accepted ethical principles that are recommended by WHO and other international bodies, as well as the Cuban resolutions and laws in this regard were all taken into account. Some general standards on prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion and on the approach to genetic counseling and the disclosure of information were presented. This proposal was supplemented with other standards inherent to the scientific research, since during prenatal diagnosis practice, some research works can emerge, the results of which may be published, that is, informed consent, research involving patients, ethical aspects of scientific publications and professional ethics elements. These standards are the ethical premises that guarantee the respect to the rights and to the dignity of those persons who are served by the genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis services, and will be part of a manual for the provision of services in the medical genetic network of Cuba.

Iris Andrea, Rojas Betancourt; Arianne, Llamos Paneque; Beatriz, Marcheco Teruel.

2013-12-01

267

Fathers, daughters, and self-objectification: does bonding style matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

As women are exposed to objectification and the "male gaze," they self-objectify, which predicts negative psychological outcomes. Given the centrality of the "male gaze," positive father/child relationships may have a buffering effect. In this study, women (N=447) completed a survey measuring paternal bonding (care and overprotection), self-objectification, negative eating attitudes, and depression. Women were categorized into four groups based on bonding style. Analyses indicated an interaction such that women who reported high care and low overprotection reported the fewest negative eating attitudes. A path model was tested for each group. The fit of the high care/high overprotection group's model significantly differed from that of the high care/low overprotection group. The relationships between body surveillance and shame as well as between shame and negative eating attitudes were stronger in the former group. These findings suggest that caring but overprotective fathers may exacerbate the negative effects of body surveillance and shame. PMID:25194310

Miles-McLean, Haley; Liss, Miriam; Erchull, Mindy J

2014-09-01

268

The human brain. Prenatal development and structure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

Marin-Padilla, Miguel

2011-07-01

269

Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of Majewski syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Majewski syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short ribs, polydactyly, short limbs, and a cleft lip. A 26-year-old woman with no family history of genetic diseases presented at 31 weeks' menstrual age with preterm labor and underwent prenatal sonography to screen for fetal anomalies. Sonography revealed a small thorax, markedly short ribs, micromelia, polydactyly, a cleft lip, dolichocephaly, and severe oligohydramnios. The other structures appeared normal. The most likely diagnosis was Majewski syndrome. Vaginal breech delivery was allowed to proceed. The 1,850-g male newborn died of respiratory failure shortly after birth. The postnatal appearance and radiographs confirmed the prenatal diagnosis. PMID:12116111

Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Tongsong, Theera; Wanapirak, Chanane; Chanprapaph, Pharuhas

2002-06-01

270

Prenatal Dopamine and Neonatal Behavior and Biochemistry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Depressed pregnant women (N=126) were divided into high and low prenatal maternal dopamine (HVA) groups based on a tertile split on their dopamine levels at 20 weeks gestation. The high versus the low dopamine group had lower CES-D scores, higher norepinephrine levels at the 20 week gestational age visit and higher dopamine and serotonin levels at both the 20 the 32 week gestational age visits. The neonates of the mothers with high versus low prenatal dopamine levels also had higher dopamine ...

Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-reif, Maria; Figueiredo, Barbara; Deeds, Osvelia; Ascencio, Angela; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia

2008-01-01

271

Lone-father families in Canada, 1971-1996  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available EnglishDemographers and sociologists have paid considerable attention to thesituation of lone-parent families. However, until recently, almost all of this work has focused onfamilies headed by a lone mother. This paper seeks to fill an important gap in our knowledge of familychange by examining the growth and characteristics of lone-father families in Canada. Using data fromthe public-use microfiles (PUMFs of the census, the paper shows that the number of lone-fatherfamilies has increased significantly in recent years, and that lone fathers are now younger and morelikely to have become lone fathers through marital breakdown. The results also suggest that while lone-father families are not as economically disadvantaged as lone-mother families, income levels lag wellbehind those of two-parent families and have, in relative terms, declined in recent years.FrenchLes démographes et sociologues se sont beaucoup attardés à la situation desfamilles monoparentales. Cependant, jusqu'à récemment, l'ensemble de cetravail ciblait surtout les mères seules. Cet article cherche à combler la brèchede notre connaissance des changements dans la famille en examinantl'augmentation du nombre de pères seuls au Canada et les caractéristiques de cesfamilles. Grâce aux données des microfilms à usage public du recensement,l'article illustre que le nombre de pères seuls a considérablement augmenté aucours des dernières années, que les pères seuls sont plus jeunes et que leursituation résulte vraisemblablement de la rupture de leur mariage. Les résultatsindiquent aussi que bien que les familles dont le père est monoparental ne soientpas aussi défavorisées que les familles dont la mère est monoparentale, lesniveaux de revenu accusent un certain retard par rapport aux famillesbiparentales et qu'ils ont relativement baissé au cours des dernières années.

McQuillan, Kevin

2001-01-01

272

Dreams from my father: uma proposta de tradução  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O presente trabalho de projecto consiste numa tradução comentada do capítulo catorze da obra Dreams From My Father, de Barack Obama (Obama 2008a). Para enquadrar a reflexão sobre o processo de tradução, foi necessário proceder-se a uma investigação selectiva no âmbito dos Estudos de Tradução, que permitiu perceber e fundamentar melhor as decisões tomadas antes e durante o processo tradutório. Assim, este trabalho abordada várias propostas teóricas: a teoria do polissistema de ...

Cerqueira, Ana Filipa Dias Pires

2011-01-01

273

Smoking Habits: Like Father, Like Son, Like Mother, Like Daughter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze data from the 1994-2002 waves of the British Household Panel Survey to explore the influence of parental smoking habits on their children's smoking decisions. In order to account for the potential endogeneity of parental smoking habits we use instrumental variable methods. We find that mothers play a crucial role in determining their daughters' smoking decisions, while fathers' smoking habits are transmitted primarily to their sons.

Loureiro, Maria L.; Sanz-de-galdeano, Anna; Vuri, Daniela

2006-01-01

274

After domestic abuse: children's perspectives on contact with fathers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Contact between children and their fathers following parental separation is a sensitive and controversial subject. This is especially so where there has been a history of domestic abuse before parental separation. This briefing outlines the findings of a Master’s thesis that aimed to gain children’s perspectives on this issue. Key findings included: 1. Children were acutely aware of the domestic abuse that had occurred and of the impact it had on their and their mother’s relati...

Morrison, Fiona

2009-01-01

275

Child Support Enforcement and Fathers’ Contributions to Their Nonmarital Children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the total package of child support that mothers receive from the nonresident fathers of their children, by focusing on three components of total support: formal cash, informal cash, and in-kind support. Using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this article considers how contributions change over time and the effects of child support enforcement on these contributions. Findings suggest that total cash support received drops precipitously over the first 15 month...

Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Garfinkel, Irwin

2010-01-01

276

Fathers of the Nation: Barack Obama Addresses Nelson Mandela  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay analyzes Barack Obama’s Nelson Mandela Memorial speech together with other seminal texts of Obama’s political and personal creed, such as his book Dreams from My Father (1995 and his speech “A More Perfect Union” (2008. This reading becomes helpful to understand Mandela’s transnational power, which Obama uses to comment on the United States by comparing Madiba to other American “fathers of the nation.” Thus, he uproots Mandela’s from a specifically South African legacy, expands his figure, and addresses him as a transnational father of his own nation, whose power, influence, and example transcend South African borders. As a consequence of this enlargement and transnational validation of Mandela’s figure, the speech delivered at the Memorial becomes an occasion to tackle American past and future, while the memory of Madiba and his driving example in Obama’s life serve to reinforce previous positions conveyed in other discourses by the American President, such as the “A More Perfect Union” speech delivered in Philadelphia in 2008.

Elisa Bordin

2014-11-01

277

Fathers' sensitive parenting and the development of early executive functioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using data from a diverse sample of 620 families residing in rural, predominately low-income communities, this study examined longitudinal links between fathers' sensitive parenting in infancy and toddlerhood and children's early executive functioning, as well as the contribution of maternal sensitive parenting. After accounting for the quality of concurrent and prior parental care, children's early cognitive ability, and other child and family factors, fathers' and mothers' sensitive and supportive parenting during play at 24 months predicted children's executive functioning at 3 years of age. In contrast, paternal parenting quality during play at 7 months did not make an independent contribution above that of maternal care, but the links between maternal sensitive and supportive parenting and executive functioning seemed to operate in similar ways during infancy and toddlerhood. These findings add to prior work on early experience and children's executive functioning, suggesting that both fathers and mothers play a distinct and complementary role in the development of these self-regulatory skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25347539

Towe-Goodman, Nissa R; Willoughby, Michael; Blair, Clancy; Gustafsson, Hanna C; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Cox, Martha J

2014-12-01

278

Parental involvement after separation/divorce / O envolvimento parental após a separação/divórcio  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the ecological-contextual model and on the concept of parental involvement, this article proposes to discuss the parental practices of separated/divorced fathers and mothers towards their children. In order to do so, 234 subjects (117 fathers/117 mothers with children at school were interviewed via the Parental Practices Inventory. Such instrument evaluated the parental involvement in 5 areas: affective involvement, didactic involvement, social involvement, disciplinary involvement and, responsibility. The results showed greater maternal involvement with children after the divorce: direct (care, interaction and indirect (monitoring, preoccupation. The cohabitation with the mother revealed itself as a significant variable associated to her greater involvement with activities in the private/domestic environment while fathers had greater involvement in the public/social space. Contextual characteristics (cohabitation, frequency of visits and characteristics of the parents (occupation, education, affective and conjugal issues showed to be strongly associated with the parental involvement after divorce.

Luciana Suárez Grzybowski

2010-01-01

279

Enfermagem obstétrica no acompanhamento pré - natal / The obstetric nursing in the prenatal consultation / La enfermería obstétrica en el acompañamiento prenatal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Consiste em um relato de experiência acerca de um projeto de pesquisa iniciado em agosto de 1997, envolvendo docentes do Departamento Materno-infantil da Faculdade de Enfermagem da UERJ e profissionais do Centro Municipal de Saúde do Rio de Janeiro da S.M.S./RJ. Tem por objetivo, descrever o process [...] o de inserção da Consulta de Enfermagem de Pré-natal no conteúdo da graduação, bem como sua estruturação e implantação no referido Centro Municipal de Saúde. Esse trabalho propõe rever também, o modelo biomédico das consultas, a fim de proporcionar reflexões e rupturas de paradigmas, e com isso auxiliar no aprendizado e na ampliação do acompanhamento de pré-natal no Rio de Janeiro. Abstract in spanish Consiste en un relato de experiencia sobre un proyecto de investigación que empezó en agosto de 1997 e involucra profesores del Departamento Materno-infantil de la Facultad de Enfermería de la UERJ y profesionales del Centro Municipal de Salud de Rio de Janeiro. Tiene como objetivo describir el proc [...] eso de la inserción de las Consultas de Enfermería de Prenatal en los contenidos programáticos del curso, así como su estructuración e implantación en el referido Centro Municipal de Salud. Ese trabajo propone una revisión en el modelo biomédico de las consultaciones para proporcionar rupturas de paradigmas y con eso auxiliar el aprendizaje y ampliar el acompañamiento prenatal en Rio de Janeiro. Abstract in english This study consists of a report about a research project which started in August, 1997. The project involved teachers from the maternal- paediatrics department with Faculdade de Enfermagem - UERJ (Nursing Faculty with State University of Rio de Janeiro) and professionals from the municipal health ce [...] nter in Rio de Janeiro - SMS/RJ. The introduction of prenatal nursing consultation as a new subject in the nursing graduation course, as well as its formation, and implementation in the referred municipal health center is reported in this paper. This study also proposers a review of the current biomedical consultation model, in order to motivate reflection, break paradigms, and increase the prenatal consultation process in Rio de Janeiro.

Lucia Helena Garcia, Penna; Jane Márcia, Progianti; Luiza Mara, Correa.

1999-09-01

280

Social behavior of offspring following prenatal cocaine exposure in rodents: a comparison with prenatal alcohol  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) alters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models, a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of ...

SonyaKrishnaSobrian; Robertholson, R.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Protocol Development — Guidelines Regarding Trials Involving Potentially Teratogenic Agents in Men and Women of Reproductive Potential  

Science.gov (United States)

For trials involving potentially teratogenic agents, it may be appropriate to include a statement in the protocol document and in the informed consent that it is strongly recommended that women avoid pregnancy and men avoid fathering children while receiving treatment.

282

Prenatal cocaine but not prenatal malnutrition affects foster mother-pup interactions in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The separate and combined effects of prenatal cocaine exposure and malnutrition on mother-pup interactions in rats were assessed daily from postnatal day 2 to day 21. Sprague-Dawley dams were fed a diet of low protein content (6% casein), an isocaloric diet of adequate protein content (25% casein, control), or a laboratory chow diet prior to mating and throughout pregnancy. Within each diet group, rats received either cocaine injections (30 mg/kg IP two times per week prior to mating and then 30 mg/kg SC daily from days 3 to 18 of pregnancy) or saline injections. Litters were fostered on the day of birth to control mothers (i.e., nondrug-exposed dams fed the control or chow diet). Foster mothers fed the 25% casein diet showed increased contact with cocaine-exposed pups compared with nondrug-exposed pups in the second postnatal week but lower levels as the pups approached weaning. Passive nursing was increased in dams caring for prenatally malnourished, cocaine-exposed pups compared with those caring for similar pups with no drug exposure. Chow-fed mothers did not differ in their behavior towards pups with or without prenatal cocaine treatment. Prenatal cocaine and malnutrition independently compromised birth weight and various reflexive milestones but the attainment of physical milestones was affected only by prenatal cocaine. There were no additive effects of the two prenatal insults on any measure of mother-pup interaction or pup development. PMID:8552007

Tonkiss, J; Shumsky, J S; Shultz, P L; Almeida, S S; Galler, J R

1995-01-01

283

Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events comparison with the effects of prenatal dexamethasone  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed gestationally by chronic mild stress (CMS, a variable schedule of different stressors) or dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid, i.e., a pharmacological stressor) was tested for reactivity by testing their acoustic startle response (ASR). Two subsets of offspring were tested. One was experimentally naïve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring that had been blood sampled 3 months previously. In conclusion, similarity of the effects of maternal gestational exposure to aregular stress schedule and of exposure to a synthetic glucocorticoid suggests that maternal glucocorticoids may be a determining factor for changes in the regulatory mechanisms of the acoustic startle response. Further, a single aversive life event showed capable of changing the reactivity of prenatally stressed offspring, whereas offspring of dams going through a less stressful gestation was largely unaffected by this event. This suggests that circumstances dating back to the very beginning of life affect the individual's sensitivity towards experiences in life after birth. The prenatal environment may thus form part of the explanation of the considerable individual variation in the development of psychopathology.

Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B

2005-01-01

284

Ethical Considerations in Prenatal Sex Selection  

Science.gov (United States)

Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…

Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

2005-01-01

285

Effect of brain prenatal irradiations (review)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tendency of intellectual deficiency and emotion disturbance among children which were irradiated in womb was found. Study of the risk of endogenic psychic disorder development and, first of all, schizophrenia in pre-natally irradiated children, as a result of Chernobyl catastrophe, is of special interest. 256 refs., 1 tab

286

Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

2009-01-01

287

Prenatal diagnosis of covered cloacal exstrophy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present the case of a prenatally diagnosed covered cloacal exstrophy in a female fetus and potential differential diagnoses within the exstrophy-epispadias complex. While on prenatal ultrasound, low-set umbilicus, omphalocele, diastasis of the pubic rami, split vulva and left-sided renal agenesis were suggestive of classic cloacal exstrophy, the presence of bladder filling and the missing characteristic elephant trunk appearance of the usually prolapsing terminal ileum suggested the diagnosis of covered cloacal exstrophy. Besides urogenital anomalies, the fetus presented with an additional small muscular ventricular septal defect. Postnatal presentation showed an omphalocele with a low-set umbilicus and a directly inferior positioned large everted (exstrophic) bladder plate with low positioned ureteric orifices. The external genitalia impressed with rudimentary vulvae and hemiclitorises. An imperforate anus was present, yet bowel movements were passed shortly after birth through a small vesicointestinal fistula positioned at the lower vesical trigone. We conclude that prenatal diagnosis of covered cloacal exstrophy can be made if bladder filling is present during prenatal ultrasound, although the bladder might become exstrophic during later gestation. PMID:25096248

Mallmann, Michael R; Reutter, Heiko; Müller, Andreas; Boemers, Thomas M; Geipel, Annegret; Berg, Christoph; Gembruch, Ulrich

2014-01-01

288

Prenatal immunologic predictors of postpartum depressive symptoms: a prospective study for potential diagnostic markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

In postpartum depression (PPD), immunologic changes have been proposed to be involved in the disease pathology. The study evaluates the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune response over the course of late pregnancy and postpartum period and their association with the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. Furthermore, prenatal immunologic markers for a PPD were investigated. Hundred pregnant women were included. At 34th and 38th week of pregnancy as well as 2 days, 7 weeks and 6 months postpartum, immune parameters (neopterin, regulatory T cells, CXCR1, CCR2, MNP1 and CD11a) were measured by flow cytometry/ELISA, and the psychopathology was evaluated. We found that regulatory T cells were significantly increased prenatal (p=0.011) and postnatal (p=0.01) in mothers with postnatal depressive symptoms. The decrease in CXCR 1 after delivery was significantly higher in mother with postnatal depressive symptoms (p=0.032). Mothers with postnatal depressive symptoms showed already prenatal significantly elevated neopterin levels (p=0.049). Finally, regulatory T cells in pregnancy strongly predict postnatal depressive symptoms (p=0.004). The present study revealed that prenatal and postnatal immunologic parameters are associated with postpartum depressive symptoms in mothers. In addition, we found immune markers that could eventually be the base for a biomarker set that predicts postnatal depressive symptoms already during pregnancy. PMID:24595743

Krause, Daniela; Jobst, Andrea; Kirchberg, Franka; Kieper, Susann; Härtl, Kristin; Kästner, Ralph; Myint, Aye-Mu; Müller, Norbert; Schwarz, Markus J

2014-10-01

289

Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy: current status and future prospects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for aneuploidy using cell-free DNA in maternal plasma is revolutionizing prenatal screening and diagnosis. We review NIPT in the context of established screening and invasive technologies, the range of cytogenetic abnormalities detectable, cost, counseling and ethical issues. Current NIPT approaches involve whole-genome sequencing, targeted sequencing and assessment of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) differences between mother and fetus. Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of NIPT for Down and Edwards syndromes, and possibly Patau syndrome, in high-risk women. Universal NIPT is not cost-effective, but using NIPT contingently in women found at moderate or high risk by conventional screening is cost-effective. Positive NIPT results must be confirmed using invasive techniques. Established screening, fetal ultrasound and invasive procedures with microarray testing allow the detection of a broad range of additional abnormalities not yet detectable by NIPT. NIPT approaches that take advantage of SNP information potentially allow the identification of parent of origin for imbalances, triploidy, uniparental disomy and consanguinity, and separate evaluation of dizygotic twins. Fetal fraction enrichment, improved sequencing and selected analysis of the most informative sequences should result in tests for additional chromosomal abnormalities. Providing adequate prenatal counseling poses a substantial challenge given the broad range of prenatal testing options now available. PMID:23765643

Benn, P; Cuckle, H; Pergament, E

2013-07-01

290

Enhanced feminine sexual behavior and infertility in female rats prenatally treated with an antiestrogen.  

Science.gov (United States)

An attempt to elucidate the possible role of prenatal estrogen on the development of feminine sexual behavior and reproductive function was made by treating females with the antiestrogen CI628 prenatally on days 13-19. Control females were prenatally treated with saline or remained untreated. The animals were delivered by caesarian section on day 22 of pregnancy and placed with foster mothers whose newborn pups had been previously removed. Intact peripubertal females in each treatment group were observed for several reproductive measures, including the capacity to become pregnant. Other females were ovariectomized in adulthood and treated with estradiol benzoate (EB) (1, 1.5, 2 or 4 micro g/rat) and 0.5 mg progesterone and tested for receptivity, proceptivity and sexual partner preference. Two weeks after the completion of these tests, the females were injected daily for 7 days with 0.25 mg testosterone and tested for sexual partner preference and mounting behavior. The results obtained showed accelerated vaginal opening, and infertility in the antiestrogen-treated intact females and enhanced receptivity and proceptivity in response to 1 micro g EB in the antiestrogen ovariectomized females. Sexual partner preference and mounting behavior did not differ between groups. These results suggest an involvement of prenatal estrogen on the development of female reproductive function, but not on behavioral differentiation. PMID:12914588

Vega Matuszczyk, Josefa

2003-07-01

291

Prenatal exposure to gamma/neutron irradiation: Sensorimotor alterations and paradoxical effects on learning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of prenatal exposure on gamma/neutron radiations (0.5 Gy at about the 18th day of fetal life) were studied in a hybrid strain of mice (DBA/Cne males x C57BL/Cne females). During ontogeny, measurements of sensorimotor reflexes revealed in prenatally irradiated mice (1) a delay in sensorial development, (2) deficits in tests involving body motor control, and (3) a reduction of both motility and locomotor activity scores. In adulthood, the behaviour of prenatally irradiated and control mice was examined in the open field test and in reactivity to novelty. Moreover, their learning performance was compared in several situations. The results show that, in the open field test, only rearings were more frequent in irradiated mice. In the presence of a novel object, significant sex x treatment interactions were observed since ambulation and leaning against the novel object increased in irradiated females but decreased in irradiated males. Finally, when submitted to different learning tasks, irradiated mice were impaired in the radial maze, but paradoxically exhibited higher avoidance scores than control mice, possibly because of their low pain thresholds. Taken together, these observations indicate that late prenatal gamma/neutron irradiation induces long lasting alterations at the sensorimotor level which, in turn, can influence learning abilities of adult mice

292

Prenatal diagnosis of 4p and 4q subtelomeric microdeletion in de novo ring chromosome 4.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ring chromosomes are unusual abnormalities that are observed in prenatal diagnosis. A 23-year-old patient (gravida 1, para 0) referred for amniocentesis due to abnormal maternal serum screening result in the 16th week of second pregnancy. Cytogenetic analysis of cultured amniyotic fluid cells revealed out ring chromosome 4. Both maternal and paternal karyotypes were normal. Terminal deletion was observed in both 4p and 4q arms of ring chromosome 4 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). However deletion was not observed in the WHS critical region of both normal and ring chromosome 4 by an additional FISH study. These results were confirmed by means of array-CGH showing terminal deletions on 4p16.3 (130?kb) and 4q35.2 (2.449?Mb). In the 21th week of pregnancy, no gross anomalia, except two weeks symmetric growth retardation, was present in the fetal ultrasonographic examination. According to our review of literature, this is the first prenatal case with 4p and 4q subtelomeric deletion of ring chromosome 4 without the involvement of WHS critical region. Our report describes the prenatal case with a ring chromosome 4 abnormality completely characterized by array-CGH which provided complementary data for genetic counseling of prenatal diagnosis. PMID:24455347

Akbas, Halit; Cine, Naci; Erdemoglu, Mahmut; Atay, Ahmet Engin; Simsek, Selda; Turkyilmaz, Aysegul; Fidanboy, Mehmet

2013-01-01

293

Prenatal Sonographic Findings of Polysplenic Syndrome  

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We report 6 cases of polysplenic syndrome diagnosed on prenatal sonography. The mean menstrual age at the time of presentation was 275 weeks (range 184 to 38 weeks). All cases were examined using level-II prenatal sonography. The sonographic findings of polysplenic syndrome were retrograde analyzed and compared to the autopsy or postnatal findings. Polysplenia was detected in 5 cases on the prenatal sonography. Associated cardiovascular anomalies were detected in all 6 cases, all of which had more than one anomaly, namely complete atrioventricular septal defect in two cases, double outlet right ventricle combined with rudimentary LV or mitral atresia in two cases and VSD and ASD in one case each. There were three cases of interrupted IVC with azygous continuation of the posterior thorax. Bradycardia was observed in 2 cases, one of which showed AV dissociation of rhythm. Visceral abnormalities were present in all cases and there were combined anomalies such as echogenic bowel, pelviectasia, horseshoe kidney, and posterior neck cystic hygroma and fetal hydrops. Four cases terminated pregnancy. The autopsy results of 2 cases were comparable to those of the prenatal sonography, however autopsies were not performed in 2 cases. One fetus near term was delivered and the baby subsequently underwent heart surgery and was still alive at the last follow-up. The remaining one case was lost to follow-up. If multiple fetal anomalies, including complex heart disease and polysplenia, are detected in the prenatal sonography, a diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome can be made. IVC interruption with azygous continuation can also be helpful in the diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome, and this can be observed by detecting the double vessel of the posterior thorax

Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Suh, Jeong Soo [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ho [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2004-09-15

294

Prenatal Sonographic Findings of Polysplenic Syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report 6 cases of polysplenic syndrome diagnosed on prenatal sonography. The mean menstrual age at the time of presentation was 275 weeks (range 184 to 38 weeks). All cases were examined using level-II prenatal sonography. The sonographic findings of polysplenic syndrome were retrograde analyzed and compared to the autopsy or postnatal findings. Polysplenia was detected in 5 cases on the prenatal sonography. Associated cardiovascular anomalies were detected in all 6 cases, all of which had more than one anomaly, namely complete atrioventricular septal defect in two cases, double outlet right ventricle combined with rudimentary LV or mitral atresia in two cases and VSD and ASD in one case each. There were three cases of interrupted IVC with azygous continuation of the posterior thorax. Bradycardia was observed in 2 cases, one of which showed AV dissociation of rhythm. Visceral abnormalities were present in all cases and there were combined anomalies such as echogenic bowel, pelviectasia, horseshoe kidney, and posterior neck cystic hygroma and fetal hydrops. Four cases terminated pregnancy. The autopsy results of 2 cases were comparable to those of the prenatal sonography, however autopsies were not performed in 2 cases. One fetus near term was delivered and the baby subsequently underwent heart surgery and was still alive at the last follow-up. The remaining one case was lost to follow-up. If multiple fetal anomalies, including complex heart disease and polysplenia,ing complex heart disease and polysplenia, are detected in the prenatal sonography, a diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome can be made. IVC interruption with azygous continuation can also be helpful in the diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome, and this can be observed by detecting the double vessel of the posterior thorax

295

“L’homme qui n’élève pas ses enfants ne devrait pas être appelé un père” ? Les tendances du discours sur la paternité et le dilemme paternel au Japon “The Man who Doesn’t Raise his Child Shouldn’t Be Called a Father”? The Trends of Discourse on Fatherhood and Father’s Dilemma in Japan  

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Full Text Available La paternité japonaise a longtemps été caractérisée par un engagement professionnel exacerbé et une absence marquée au niveau familial. Cependant, le contexte économique et politique récent a induit certains changements dans la manière d’appréhender la paternité. Il est ainsi possible d’identifier trois types de positionnements dans les discours récents relatifs à la paternité au Japon : 1 le père “pourvoyeur”, garantissant les ressources économiques nécessaires aux besoins des enfants, 2 le père “socialisateur”, encadrant ses enfants dans l’apprentissage des normes sociales, 3 le père “soigneur”, aidant ses enfants pour ce qu’ils ne peuvent faire. Il n’est pas facile pour les pères de trouver un équilibre par rapport aux responsabilités que ces trois approches supposent. Les codes professionnels valorisant “l’homme dominant” et les carences du système d’encadrement des enfants obligent de nombreux pères à s’investir énormément dans leur vie professionnelle tandis que de nombreuses mères restent à la maison. Les réactions des pères face à cette situation sont variées. Certains valorisent une division genrée des responsabilités parentales et se consacrent pleinement à leur travail. D’autres articulent travail et famille tandis que l’épouse reste à la maison. D’autres, enfin, optent pour une articulation travail/famille impliquant les deux membres du couple, redéfinissant ainsi la signification de la masculinité.Japanese fatherhood has been characterized as preoccupation with work and alienation from family. However, Japan’s recent political and economic conditions have brought about changes and diversification in fatherhood. We can recognize three types of father’s responsibilities in recent discourses on fatherhood in Japan : 1 “provider,” supplying necessary economic resources for the growth of children, 2 “socializer,” supporting children to learn social norms and good manners, 3 “carer,” helping children by doing what children cannot do. It is difficult for fathers to keep a balance between the responsibility as a provider and as a socializer/carer. Male-dominant employment practices and insufficient child-support systems force many fathers to work very long and many mothers to stay home. Fathers’ reactions to the conflict are various. Some affirm gender division of parental responsibilities and justify their insufficient involvement in childcare. Some take a responsibility as a sole provider and make an effort to get involved in childcare as much as possible. Some try to juggle work and childcare and build egalitarian relationship with his wife, rethinking the meaning of masculinity.

Futoshi Taga

2011-03-01

296

Coercive and Prosocial Fathering, Antisocial Personality, and Growth in Children's Post-Divorce Noncompliance  

Science.gov (United States)

The study employed multiple methods including direct observation of fathering behaviors and child noncompliance to better address our understanding of the quantity and quality of divorced father contact. A weighted county sample of 230 divorced-father families with a focal child aged 4 to 11 years was employed to test whether fathers' antisocial personality (ASP) moderated effects of monthly contact with children in predicting children's observed noncompliance over 18 months. Latent growth models obtained significant individual differences in levels of noncompliance and growth rates. ASP significantly moderated the beneficial impact of fathers' monthly contact. Fathers' observed parenting practices significantly predicted levels but not growth rates. Parenting did not account for the effect of Contact × ASP suggesting both environmental and potentially genetic influences on child adjustment. Findings were robust across boys and girls and age levels. Implications for preventive intervention are discussed. PMID:20438456

DeGarmo, David S.

2009-01-01

297

Maternal Re-Partnering and New-Partner Fertility: Associations with Nonresident Father Investments in Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research suggests that paternal re-partnering and new-partner fertility are associated with decreased nonresident father investments in children. Few studies, however, have examined the influence of maternal re-partnering and new-partner births on nonresident father investments. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine associations of maternal re-partnering (through cohabitation or marriage with a new partner) and new-partner births with nonresident father visitation and child support payments. Results suggest that maternal re-partnering is associated with a decrease in both yearly father-child contact and child support received by the mother. New-partner fertility for mothers who are co-residing with a partner is associated with an additional decrease in monthly father-child contact, but does not have an additional influence on yearly father-child contact or child support receipt. PMID:22581998

Berger, Lawrence M; Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R

2012-02-01

298

Mothers and fathers do not accurately report each other’s psychopathology  

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Full Text Available It is unclear whether information obtained from a one parent can be used to infer the other parent’s history of psychopathology. Two hundred and one parental dyads were asked to complete psychiatric interviews. Based on maternal report, non-participating husbands/ fathers had higher rates than participating fathers of psychiatric illness. For fathers who did participate, maternal report did not match direct interview of paternal psychopathology with sensitivities less than 0.40 and positive predictive values of 0.33 to 0.74. Psychopathology may be over-represented among fathers who do not participate in research. Mother report of paternal symptoms is not an effective proxy. Alternative methods need to be developed to: i improve father participation or ii identify psychiatric status in fathers who do not participate in research projects.

Sharon K. Hunter

2012-07-01

299

Brain plasticity of rats exposed to prenatal immobilization stress  

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Full Text Available Aim. This histochemical and immunohistochemical study was aimed at examining the brain cellular structures of newborn rats exposed to prenatal immobilization (IMO stress. Methods. Histochemical method on detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity and ABC immunohistochemical technique. Results. Cell structures with radial astrocytes marker GFAP, neuroepithelial stem cell marker gene nestin, stem-cells marker and the hypothalamic neuroprotective proline-rich polypeptide PRP-1 (Galarmin, a natural cytokine of a common precursor to neurophysin vasopressin associated glycoprotein have been revealed in several brain regions. Conclusions. Our findings indicate the process of generation of new neurons in response to IMO and PRP-1 involvement in this recovery mechanism, as PRP-1-Ir was detected in the above mentioned cell structures, as well as in the neurons and nerve fibers.

Badalyan B. Yu.

2011-10-01

300

The features of human heart internal relief structure in prenatal ontogenesis  

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We have reviewed the development of internal relief of 101 human hearts during prenatal ontogenesis. It was used a macroscopic, immunohystochemical research methods, which enabled us to trace the processes of vessel’s development, proliferation of cardiac wall cells, heteromorphy of its structure in various stages of development. The data indicate the involvement of cardiogel, primary cardiomyocytes, as well as mesenchymal cells in the development and statement of the structural components,...

Savenkova ?.?.; Kozlov S.V.; Indzhykulyan ?.?.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Prenatal Aneuploidies Computerized Screening (SCA TEST): a pilot study on 1000 women  

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The SCA-TEST, Prenatal Aneuploidies Screening, is an innovating program with very articulated and differentiated calculation potentials. It is a software which allows executing a sequence-like rational screening involving the ultrasound study of the first and second trimester. The program enables to execute a complete and different- levels combined screening, through very sophisticated mathematic analysis methods. In particular, it enables to make: a first trimester screening combining it wit...

Sacco, Alessandro; Coco, Claudio; Mangiafico, Lucia; Cignini, Pietro; Tiezzi, Alessandra; Giorlandino, Claudio

2007-01-01

302

Experiences of community health nurses regarding father participation in child health care  

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Traditionally child health care (CHC) has been an arena where mothers and nurses meet, but in recent years fathers are entering CHC with increasing frequency. The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ experiences of fathers’ participation in CHC. Nine Swedish nurses working in CHC were interviewed and asked to give a description of their experiences from meetings with fathers in CHC. Phenomenology according to Giorgi was used for the analysis and the essence of the findings was that f...

Alehagen, Siw; Ha?gg, Monica; Kale?n-enterlo?v, Maria; Johansson, Annakarin

2011-01-01

303

The parenting role of African American fathers in the context of urban poverty  

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This qualitative study examines low-income African American fathers’ perceptions of their parenting role and the strategies they employ to bring up children in poor urban neighborhoods. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 36 fathers who had contact with their children at least twice a month. Men in the study expressed conventional views of their fathering roles as provider, nurturer, and teacher, but placed the most emphasis on “being there” for their children, as...

Threlfall, Jennifer M.; Seay, Kristen D.; Kohl, Patricia L.

2013-01-01

304

Maternal Re-Partnering and New-Partner Fertility: Associations with Nonresident Father Investments in Children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research suggests that paternal re-partnering and new-partner fertility are associated with decreased nonresident father investments in children. Few studies, however, have examined the influence of maternal re-partnering and new-partner births on nonresident father investments. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine associations of maternal re-partnering (through cohabitation or marriage with a new partner) and new-partner births with nonresident father visitat...

Berger, Lawrence M.; Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R.

2012-01-01

305

Fathers' sense of security during the first postnatal week-A qualitative interview study in Sweden.  

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BACKGROUND: father's sense of security in the early postnatal period is important for the whole family. An instrument, which measures Parents' Postnatal Sense of Security (the PPSS instrument), is under development. OBJECTIVE: to explore and describe factors, which influence fathers' sense of security during the first postnatal week. METHODS: an explorative design with a qualitative approach was used. Thirteen fathers from three hospital uptake areas in Southern Sweden were interv...

Persson, Eva-kristina; Fridlund, Bengt; Kvist, Linda; Dykes, Anna-karin

2011-01-01

306

Frequency of XY Sperm Increases with Age in Fathers of Boys with Klinefelter Syndrome  

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With increasing availability of drugs for impotence and advanced reproductive technologies for the treatment of subfertility, more men are fathering children at advanced ages. We conducted a study of the chromosomal content of sperm of healthy men aged 24–57 years to (a) determine whether father’s age was associated with increasing frequencies of aneuploid sperm including XY, disomy X, disomy Y, disomy 21, and sperm diploidy, and (b) examine the association between the frequencies of diso...

Lowe, Xiu; Eskenazi, Brenda; Nelson, David O.; Kidd, Sharon; Alme, Angela; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

2001-01-01

307

Negotiating Work/Life Balance : The Experience of Fathers and Mothers in Ireland  

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Working arrangements are still not sufficiently flexible to enable parents to manage their roles as workers and as carers and there remains a dearth of flexible working arrangements and work-life balance policies especially for fathers. This paper examines the degree of work/life balance among fathers, and mothers, employed in 5 major Irish organisations surveyed in 2002. It concentrates on the access to, and takes up of, flexible working time and leave arrangements by fathers and mothers and...

Eileen Drew; Gwen Daverth

2011-01-01

308

Negotiating Work/Life Balance : the Experience of Fathers and Mothers in Ireland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Working arrangements are still not sufficiently flexible to enable parents to manage to fulfil their roles as workers and as carers and there remains a dearth of flexible working arrangements and work-life balance policies especially for fathers. This paper examines the degree of work/life balance among fathers, and mothers, employed in 5 major Irish organisations surveyed in 2002. It concentrates on the access to, and take up of, flexible working time and leave arrangements by fathers and mo...

Drew, Eileen Patricia

2007-01-01

309

Father Figures in the Novels of Jane Austen  

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Full Text Available Miniaturist as Jane Austen is, she has depicted the life of a few families. In her letter to her niece, Anna Austen, she writes: "three or four families in a country village is the very thing to work on"(Chapman's Edition, 1970, P.10. Jane’s knowledge about these families is, in no way shallow. It is rich in variation and contrasts. Jane Austen is a great novelist due to the universal significance of her novels. This universal significance is achieved in two ways. First, she creates living characters; she penetrates beneath the surface to the underlying principles of personality. She has a full understanding of human psychology and this enables her to draw intricate and complex natures. She lays bare not only the processes of their minds but also those of the heart. Second, she considers them impartially and shows them compounded both of faults and virtues like human beings. They have a universal significance; they are not national types, but representatives of essential human nature. They reveal the weaknesses and virtues of human nature in every age and country. There has been insufficient attention focused on Jane Austen’s father figures: how she created characters and what character types and father figures emerge in the full range of her stories. Characters are centre front in her stories, many of which are chiefly fine vignettes, and in Austen's theoretical statements she has consistently stressed the importance of character creation. The objective of this research is to shed light on those father figures who are the heads of the central families in Jane’s six novels.

Adli Odeh

2011-06-01

310

[The placebo effect: is the wish father to the thought?].  

Science.gov (United States)

The placebo effect remains an interesting topic for research. Recently, a systematic review estimated the percentage of responders after various placebo interventions in studies assessing prophylactic treatment for migraine. The authors report that after oral, pharmacologic placebos, 22% of patients reported an attack frequency reduction of > 50% and that after sham acupuncture, this percentage was 38%. In this commentary the methodological issues of the paper are discussed, and the conclusion is that in research into placebo effects the wish might be father to the thought. PMID:25027219

de Craen, A J M Ton

2014-01-01

311

Lesbian mothers, gay fathers, and their children: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a variety of families headed by a lesbian or gay male parent or same-sex couple. Findings from research suggest that children with lesbian or gay parents are comparable with children with heterosexual parents on key psychosocial developmental outcomes. In many ways, children of lesbian or gay parents have similar experiences of family life compared with children in heterosexual families. Some special considerations apply to the context of lesbian and gay parenting: variation in family forms, children's awareness of lesbian and gay relationships, heterosexism, and homophobia. These issues have important implications for managing clinical work with children of lesbian mothers or gay fathers. PMID:15956875

Tasker, Fiona

2005-06-01

312

Children fathered by men treated for testicular cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Children fathered by 27 testicular cancer patients treated with radiotherapy, 25 treated with chemotherapy, and 57 control men (46 community control and 11 Stage I testicular cancer patients) were examined for evidence of congenital malformations. The proportion of malformations in children in the treatment group did not differ from that in children in the control group or from incidence rates for malformations in the general population. Our results suggest that treatment for testicular cancer should not constitute a reason for advising termination of pregnancy, although numbers were too few to detect a relative risk smaller than 3.2. More observations are needed to provide a definite answer. (author)

313

Family Dynamics of the Stay-at-Home Father and Working Mother Relationship.  

Science.gov (United States)

A phenomenological qualitative study was utilized to explore family dynamics in stay-at-home father and working mother households. A total of 20 working mothers were asked to describe family interactions and daily routines with regard to their stay-at-home father and working mother dynamic. All participants were married, heterosexual women with biological children ages 1 to 4 and who worked outside the home and the father stayed home as primary caretaker and did not contribute financially. The study indicated that the family dynamic of a working mother and stay-at-home father provided a positive parent-child relationship, enhanced parenting cohesion, and enhanced quality time. PMID:25204589

Rushing, Cassie; Powell, Lisa

2014-09-01

314

Predictors of parenting stress among gay adoptive fathers in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors examined correlates of parenting stress among 230 gay adoptive fathers across the United States through an Internet survey. As with previous research on adoptive parents, results showed that fathers with less social support, older children, and children who were adopted at older ages reported more parenting stress. Moreover, gay fathers who had a less positive gay identity also reported more parenting stress. These 4 variables accounted for 33% of the variance in parenting stress; effect sizes were medium to large. Our results suggest the importance of social support and a positive gay identity in facilitating successful parenting outcomes among gay adoptive fathers. PMID:21688901

Tornello, Samantha L; Farr, Rachel H; Patterson, Charlotte J

2011-08-01

315

A systematic review of neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and postnatal organophosphate pesticide exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural and residential use of organophosphate (OP) pesticides has increased in recent decades after banning some persistent pesticides. Although there is evidence of the effects of OPs on neurodevelopment and behaviour in adults, limited information is available about their effects in children, who might be more vulnerable to neurotoxic compounds. This paper was aimed at analysing the scientific evidence published to date on potential neurodevelopmental and behavioural effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to OPs. A systematic review was undertaken to identify original articles published up to December 2012 evaluating prenatal or postnatal exposure to OPs in children and effects on neurodevelopment and/or behaviour. Articles were critically compared, focusing on the methodology used to assess exposure and adverse effects, as well as potential contributing factors that may modify both exposure and outcomes, such as genetic susceptibility to certain enzymes involved in OPs metabolisation (e.g. paraoxonase-1) and gender differences. Twenty articles met the inclusion criteria, 7 of which evaluated prenatal exposure to OPs, 8 postnatal exposure and 5 both pre- and postnatal exposure. Most of the studies evaluating prenatal exposure observed a negative effect on mental development and an increase in attention problems in preschool and school children. The evidence on postnatal exposure is less consistent, although 2 studies found an increase in reaction time in schoolchildren. Some paraoxonase-1 polymorphisms could enhance the association between OPs exposure and mental and psychomotor development. A large variability in epidemiological designs and methodologies used for assessing exposure and outcome was observed across the different studies, which made comparisons difficult. Prenatal and to a lesser extent postnatal exposure to OPs may contribute to neurodevelopmental and behavioural deficits in preschool and school children. Standardised methodologies are needed to allow results to be better compared and to perform a quantitative meta-analysis before drawing any final conclusions. PMID:24291036

González-Alzaga, B; Lacasaña, M; Aguilar-Garduño, C; Rodríguez-Barranco, M; Ballester, F; Rebagliato, M; Hernández, A F

2014-10-15

316

BACs-on-Beads technology: a reliable test for rapid detection of aneuploidies and microdeletions in prenatal diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The risk of fetal aneuploidies is usually estimated based on high resolution ultrasound combined with biochemical determination of criterion in maternal blood, with invasive procedures offered to the population at risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a new rapid aneuploidy screening test on amniotic fluid (AF) or chorionic villus (CV) samples based on BACs-on-Beads (BoBs) technology and to compare the results with classical karyotyping by Giemsa banding (G-banding) of cultured cells in metaphase as the gold standard technique. The prenatal-BoBs kit was used to study aneuploidies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y as well as nine microdeletion syndromes in 321 AF and 43 CV samples. G-banding of metaphase cultured cells was performed concomitantly for all prenatal samples. A microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was also carried out in a subset of samples. Prenatal-BoBs results were widely confirmed by classical karyotyping. Only six karyotype findings were not identified by Prenatal-BoBs, all of them due to the known limitations of the technique. In summary, the BACs-on-Beads technology was an accurate, robust, and efficient method for the rapid diagnosis of common aneuploidies and microdeletion syndromes in prenatal samples. PMID:24795887

García-Herrero, Sandra; Campos-Galindo, Inmaculada; Martínez-Conejero, José Antonio; Serra, Vicente; Olmo, Inés; Lara, Coral; Simón, Carlos; Rubio, Carmen

2014-01-01

317

Gypenosides Protected the Neural Stem Cells in the Subventricular Zone of Neonatal Rats that Were Prenatally Exposed to Ethanol  

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Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD can cause severe mental retardation in children who are prenatally exposed to ethanol. The effects of prenatal and early postnatal ethanol exposure on adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been investigated; however, the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on the subventricular zone (SVZ have not. Gypenosides (GPs have been reported to have neuroprotective effects in addition to other bioactivities. The effects of GPs on neural stem cells (NSCs in the FASD model are unknown. Here, we test the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on the neonatal SVZ, and the protection potential of GPs on NSCs in FASD rats. Our results show that prenatal ethanol exposure can suppress the cell proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the neonatal SVZ and that GPs (400 mg/kg/day can significantly increase the cell proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells inhibited by ethanol. Our data indicate that GPs have neuroprotective effects on the NSCs and can enhance the neurogenesis inhibited by ethanol within the SVZ of neonatal rats. These findings provide new evidence for a potential therapy involving GPs for the treatment of FASD.

Lun Dong

2014-11-01

318

Prenatal Care for Teens: Taking Care of You and Your Baby  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual And Reproductive Health 23414 Teen Pregnancy Prenatal Care forTeens Prenatal Care forTeens htmPrenatalTeens Find out how teens can help ensure a healthy pregnancy. 310395 InteliHealth 2009-07- ...

319

Paternal Depression and Risk for Child Neglect in Father-Involved Families of Young Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To examine the association of paternal depression with risk for parental neglect of young children. Study design: The sample was derived from a birth cohort study of 1,089 families in which both biological parents resided in the home when the target child was 3- and 5-years old. Prospective analyses examined the contribution of paternal…

Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

2012-01-01

320

Parental Spanking and Subsequent Risk for Child Aggression in Father-Involved Families of Young Children  

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This study examined separate and combined maternal and paternal use of spanking with children at age 3 and children's subsequent aggressive behavior at age 5. The sample was derived from a birth cohort study and included families (n = 923) in which both parents lived with the child at age 3. In this sample, 44% of 3-year-olds were spanked 2 times or more in the past month by either parent or both parents. In separate analyses, being spanked more than twice in the prior month at age 3, by eith...

Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Altschul, Inna; Rice, Janet C.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Couple-oriented prenatal HIV counseling for HIV primary prevention: an acceptability study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of the 2.5 million new adult HIV infections that occurred worldwide in 2007 were in stable couples. Feasible and acceptable strategies to improve HIV prevention in a conjugal context are scarce. In the preparatory phase of the ANRS 12127 Prenahtest multi-site HIV prevention trial, we assessed the acceptability of couple-oriented post-test HIV counseling (COC and men's involvement within prenatal care services, among pregnant women, male partners and health care workers in Cameroon, Dominican Republic, Georgia and India. Methods Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used: direct observations of health services; in-depth interviews with women, men and health care workers; monitoring of the COC intervention and exit interviews with COC participants. Results In-depth interviews conducted with 92 key informants across the four sites indicated that men rarely participated in antenatal care (ANC services, mainly because these are traditionally and programmatically a woman's domain. However men's involvement was reported to be acceptable and needed in order to improve ANC and HIV prevention services. COC was considered by the respondents to be a feasible and acceptable strategy to actively encourage men to participate in prenatal HIV counseling and testing and overall in reproductive health services. Conclusions One of the keys to men's involvement within prenatal HIV counseling and testing is the better understanding of couple relationships, attitudes and communication patterns between men and women, in terms of HIV and sexual and reproductive health; this conjugal context should be taken into account in the provision of quality prenatal HIV counseling, which aims at integrated PMTCT and primary prevention of HIV.

Kamkamidze George

2010-04-01

322

Prenatal Echocardiographic Diagnosis of Double Aortic Arch.  

Science.gov (United States)

A double aortic arch is a congenital anomaly, associated with the formation of a vascular ring which can cause varying degrees of airway compression. This can be subclinical or clinical in the form of acute stridor, severe respiratory compromise, or symptoms of chronic airway compression. An accurate diagnosis of double aortic arch can be made prenatally by fetal echocardiography. In this report we describe two infants, with normal karyotypes, in whom a prenatal diagnosis of double aortic arch was made at our fetal cardiology centre, between July 2012 and August 2013. The diagnosis was confirmed postnatally by 2D echocardiography and cardiac MRI. The presence of a right aortic arch should prompt more careful evaluation to exclude a double aortic arch. Postnatal assessment should comprise echocardiography, cross sectional imaging in the form of cardiac MRI/CT. Bronchoscopy may be considered to exclude subclinical airway compression and reduce potential long term respiratory sequelae. PMID:24817195

Hunter, Lindsey; Callaghan, Nicky; Patel, Krupali; Rinaldi, Louise; Bellsham-Revell, Hannah; Sharland, Gurleen

2014-05-10

323

Cardiopatías congénitas: diagnóstico prenatal y seguimiento  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Valorar la capacidad diagnóstica y el seguimiento de las cardiopatías congénitas con diagnóstico prenatal realizadas en el Centro de Referencia Perinatal Oriente (CERPO). Método: Se analizan todas las cardiopatías congénitas con diagnóstico prenatal que ingresaron al CERPO entre abril 2003 [...] y diciembre de 2011. Se realiza seguimiento postnatal, se evalúa la concordancia entre el diagnóstico pre y postnatal, y se compara el pronóstico con la experiencia previamente reportada en la literatura. Resultados: Se detectaron 568 cardiopatías congénitas, el 53% correspondían a pacientes referidas desde otras regiones del país. En relación a la edad materna y paterna el 28% y el 35% tenían 35 años o más, respectivamente. De las 568 cardiopatías congénitas controladas, el 75% fueron pesquisadas con la ecocardiografía por visión de 4 cámaras y el 25% por visión de tractos de salida. La concordancia entre la ecocardiografía prenatal y postnatal fue de 87%. Los diagnósticos más frecuentes correspondieron a comunicación interventricular, síndrome de hipoplasia ventricular izquierdo, arritmias y canal aurículoventricular. Se detectaron 60 cromosomopatías, 8 síndromes genéticos y 145 malformaciones extracardiacas asociadas. Se pudo realizar seguimiento de sobrevida al año en 390 pacientes, la sobrevida global en este grupo (excluidas las aneuploidías incompatibles con la vida) alcanzó un 44%. Conclusión: Existe una alta tasa de diagnóstico prenatal de cardiopatías congénitas a nivel terciario, con un 87% de concordancia entre ecocardiografía pre y postnatal. La sobrevida global de pacientes con cardiopatías congénitas fue de 44% al año de seguimiento. Por las características territoriales de nuestro país debiera contarse con más centros de referencia perinatal, al menos en las zonas norte y sur del país. Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic and follow-up congenital heart disease with prenatal diagnosis performed in the Centro de Referencia Perinatal Oriente (CERPO). Method: We analyzed all the congenital heart disease with prenatal diagnosis admitted to CERPO between April 2003 and December 2011. P [...] ostnatal follow-up is performed, evaluating the correlation between pre and postnatal diagnosis and prognosis compared with the experience previously reported in the literature. Results: We detected 568 congenital heart diseases of which 53% were patients referred from other regions of the country. In relation to maternal and paternal age, 28% and 35% were 35 years or older, respectively. From 568 controlled congenital heart diseases, 75% could be researched to ultrasound echocardiography 4-chamber view and 25% per-view outflow tracts. The correlation between prenatal and postnatal echocardiography in this series was 87%. The most frequent diagnosis was interventricular communication, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, arrhythmias and atrioventricular canal. In this series we detected 60 chromosomal, 8 genetic syndromes and 145 extracardiac malformations. Follow-up could be performed one year survival in 390 patients, overall survival in this group (excluding aneuploidies with life incompatibility) reached 44%. Conclusion: There is a high rate of prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease at the tertiary level, with 87% concordance between pre-and postnatal echocardiography. Overall survival of patients with congenital heart disease is 44% at one year. For the territorial characteristics of our country should be counted more perinatal referral centers, at least in the north and south.

Carla, Mayorga H; Juan Guillermo, Rodríguez A; Gabriela, Enríquez G; Jaime, Alarcón R; Constanza, Gamboa W; Daniela, Capella S; Daniela, Fischer F.

2013-10-01

324

[Prenatal chromosome findings in sonographically conspicuous fetuses].  

Science.gov (United States)

A retrospective evaluation of 463 prenatal chromosome analyses in a total of 375 patients with suspicious ultrasound findings, revealed a high rate of severe chromosomal abnormalities (16%). The highest risk for an abnormal karyotype was found after sonographic detection of hygroma colli. Abnormal chromosome counts were also frequently found in fetuses with omphaloceles, duodenal atresia and hydrops fetalis, as well as in presence of intrauterine growth retardation and/or anomalies of the amniotic fluid volume. The anomalies mentioned above are, therefore, an urgent indication for a prenatal chromosome analysis. The technical improvements of ultrasound machines and growing experience of operators will lead to an increasing importance of sonography as a method for the identification of pregnancies, that are at high risk for chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:2055396

Rezai, K; Holzgreve, W; Schloo, R; Tercanli, S; Horst, J; Miny, P

1991-03-01

325

A Prenatal Case Report with Patau Syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, prenatal diagnosis and elective pregnancy termination have affected the reported birth prevalence of trisomies. Trisomy 13, or Patau syndrome, represents the third autosomic trisomy in order of frequency, after trisomy 21 (Down syndrome and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome, with a prevalence at birth estimated as between 1:12000 and 1:29000. In this study, we are presenting the results of cytogenetic analysis and clinic assessment in fetus of a woman at 22 weeks gestation, who were referred to our genetic diagnostic laboratory with abnormal triple test result, omphalosel and hydrocephaly. We performed the cordocentesis and pedigree analysis. We found a karyotype (47,XY,+13 in fetus. Because individuals of the family didn’t want, we were not followed the pregnancy prognosis for the mother and the fetus. We were recommending to the prenatal diagnosis for their further pregnancies.

Mahmut Balkan

2008-01-01

326

Prenatal Diagnosis of Gollop-Wolfgang Complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gollop-Wolfgang Complex (GWC) is a rare form of skeletal disorder characterized by the association of bifid femur, tibial agenesis and ectrodactyly with a frequently asymmetric pattern that was firstly described in 1980 by Gollop. The pathogenesis of this condition is not yet clearly understood. A few cases have been reported to date either with or without additional anomalies such as heart defects and caudal midline anomalies . Prenatal diagnosis of tibial agenesis and femur bifurcation has been described in few cases . The authors describe a GWC case that was diagnosed prenatally in the third pregnancy of a healthy nonconsaguineous couple. The diagnosis was confirmed at birth and managed with conservative treatment at one year follow up. PMID:25302853

Leonardo, Caforio; Gaetano, Pagnotta; Anita, Romiti; Alessandra, Familiari; Fabrizio, Donati; Pietro, Bagolan

2014-10-10

327

Quantifying the adequacy of prenatal care: a comparison of indices.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: In spite of the widespread use of prenatal care utilization indices in the scientific literature, little attention has been given to the extent to which these indices are comparable. This investigation contrasts the way five indices classified cases into categories of prenatal care use. METHODS: From the 1989-1991 South Carolina Public Use data files, single live births to resident mothers were selected for analysis (N = 169,082). Five prenatal care indices were compared: (a) the ...

Alexander, G. R.; Kotelchuck, M.

1996-01-01

328

Prenatal HIV tests. Routine testing or informed choice?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To examine how prenatal care providers responded to a new provincial policy of offering HIV testing to all prenatal patients, and to determine factors associated with self-reported high testing rates. DESIGN: Cross-sectional mailed survey. SETTING: Outpatient practices in three Ontario health-planning regions. PARTICIPANTS: Prenatal care providers: 784 family physicians, 200 obstetricians, and 103 midwives were sent questionnaires and were eligible to participate. MAIN OUTCOME MEAS...

Guenter D; Kaczorowski J; Carroll J; Sellors J

2003-01-01

329

Improving universal prenatal screening for human immunodeficiency virus.  

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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of implementation of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) educational intervention on universal screening for HIV in a prenatal clinic setting. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, frequencies of offering and acceptance of HIV testing were compared before and after an educational intervention performed by an HIV-focused nurse. The records of 293 women seeking prenatal care before the intervention and 206 women seeking prenatal care after the intervent...

Anderson, Brenna L.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Landers, Daniel V.

2004-01-01

330

The Evolution of Altruistic Preferences: Mothers versus Fathers.  

Science.gov (United States)

What can evolutionary biology tell us about male-female differences in preferences concerning family matters? Might mothers be more solicitous toward offspring than fathers, for example? The economics literature has documented gender differences-children benefit more from money put in the hands of mothers rather than fathers, for example-and these differences are thought to be partly due to preferences. Yet for good reason family economics is mostly concerned with how prices and incomes affect behavior against a backdrop of exogenous preferences. Evolutionary biology complements this approach by treating preferences as the outcome of natural selection. We mine the well-developed biological literature to make a prima facie case for evolutionary roots of parental preferences. We consider the most rudimentary of traits-sex differences in gamete size and internal fertilization-and explain how they have been thought to generate male-female differences in altruism toward children and other preferences related to family behavior. The evolutionary approach to the family illuminates connections between issues typically thought distinct in family economics, such as parental care and marriage markets. PMID:23976890

Alger, Ingela; Cox, Donald

2013-09-01

331

Malformations and maturation disturbances after prenatal irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Risk estimates for prenatally exposed humans in view to malformations and maturation disturbances are incomplete despite numerous single cases being described. In this situation support from animal data has necessarily to be taken into consideration. Outlines of recent knowledge in the field of experimental radioembryology will be given. Possibilities and limits of the transfer of animal data to man will be discussed and correlated with new medical evaluations. The discussions are focussed on developmental defects of the central nervous system. (orig.)

332

Prenatal immunotoxicant exposure and postnatal autoimmune disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reports in humans and rodents indicate that immune development may be altered following perinatal exposure to immunotoxic compounds, including chemotherapeutics, corticosteroids, polycyclic hydrocarbons, and polyhalogenated hydrocarbons. Effects from such exposure may be more dramatic or persistent than following exposure during adult life. For example, prenatal exposure to the insecticide chlordane or to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[(italic)a(/italic)]pyrene produces what appear...

Holladay, S. D.

1999-01-01

333

Targeting prenatal emergency preparedness through childbirth education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lack of emergency preparedness planning remains problematic for families, but there is a special concern for prenatal women and families. This article proposes childbirth education as one avenue through which nurses can engage families to prepare for a disaster. Template guides and references are included for community-specific emergency preparedness education for childbearing families. Critical issues unique to childbearing women and newborns related to evacuation, sheltering, birthing in place, and mental health are addressed. PMID:20629935

Giarratano, Gloria; Sterling, Yvonne M; Orlando, Susan; Mathews, Pamela; Deeves, Gretchen; Bernard, Marirose L; Danna, Denise

2010-01-01

334

Prenatal Antecedents of Newborn Neurological Maturation  

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Fetal neurobehavioral development was modeled longitudinally using data collected at weekly intervals from 24- to -38 weeks gestation in a sample of 112 healthy pregnancies. Predictive associations between 3 measures of fetal neurobehavioral functioning and their developmental trajectories to neurological maturation in the 1st weeks after birth were examined. Prenatal measures included fetal heart rate variability, fetal movement, and coupling between fetal motor activity and heart rate patte...

Dipietro, Janet A.; Kivlighan, Katie T.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Rubin, Suzanne E.; Shiffler, Dorothy E.; Henderson, Janice L.; Pillion, Joseph P.

2010-01-01

335

Bronchopulmonary sequestration: prenatal diagnosis with clinicopathologic correlation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A patient was referred at 21 weeks' gestation for evaluation of an echogenic mass in the fetal right chest. Color-doppler sonography facilitated the diagnosis of a bronchopulmonary sequestration. Clinicopathologic correlation was possible after termination at 2.3 weeks' gestation. Pathologic examination confirmed the prenatal diagnosis and demonstrated the systemic vascular supply seen on color-doppler sonography. Color doppler is a useful adjunct in the sonographic evaluation of the fetus with an echogenic chest mass. PMID:7827281

Morin, L; Crombleholme, T M; Louis, F; D'Alton, M E

1994-10-01

336

Screening para parto pretérmino en control prenatal  

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La frecuencia de nacimientos pretérminos no ha disminuido en los últimos 30 años, por el contrario observamos que en muchos lugares ha aumentado. El método de screening ideal debería tener: elevada sensibilidad, alto valor predictivo negativo (VPN), costo equilibrado e intervención apropiada ante el resultado positivo. No está claro qué componente del control prenatal (CP) hay que mejorar (si existe alguno) para disminuir el parto prematuro (PP). Ninguna int...

Valenti, Eduardo A.

2004-01-01

337

Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic tetrasomy 18p  

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To report the case of a prenatally detected de novo mosaic tetrasomy 18p where a combination of different methodologies was used,including conventional cytogenetics and molecular genetics techniques. METHOD: Molecular rapid aneuploidy diagnosis, by quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR), conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). RESULTS:Amniocentesis was performed at 22 + 5 gestational weeks, on a 37-year-old woman, due to ultrasound dete...

Silva, Marisa; Geraldes, Maria Ce?u; Ferreira, Cristina; Marques, Ba?rbara; Furtado, Jose?; Ventura, Catarina; Cohen, Alvaro; Correia, Hildeberto

2013-01-01

338

Follow-up studies in prenatal medicine  

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With the availability of prenatal diagnostics in the last century, the fetus became a patient. Obstetricians looked togheter with neonatologist and pediatric surgeons, who in the past needed to treat sick neonates, for an earlier moment of treatment. An example of such a shift towards an earlier moment of treatment is the treatment of fetal tachycardia. Allready in utero medication can be given to the fetus transplacentally or direct fetally. In order to convert the tachycardia...

Nagel, He?le?ne Theodora Catharina

2007-01-01

339

Prenatal findings and neonatal immature gastric teratoma  

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Immature teratoma of the stomach in the neonate is extremely rare.1,2 This report outlines a case of giant immature teratoma of the stomach, which was detected by prenatal ultrasonography in the third trimester as an echogenic mass contiguous with the stomach bubble. It increased from 4.5 cm in diameter to 7 cm between 34 and 37 weeks gestation. The baby was delivered by elective caesarean section at 37 weeks gestation. Neonatal imaging highlighted a differential diagnosis of nephroblastoma, ...

Akram, Misbah; Ravikumar, Nandini; Azam, Muhammad; Corbally, Martin; Morrison, John J.

2009-01-01

340

Prenatal care in the family health estrategy  

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Full Text Available Objective: to study the prenatal care offered in Sao Goncalo do Amarante city based on information from SIAB, SISPRENATAL, SINASC, SINANNET and SIM. Method: this is about a descriptive study, from quantitative approach, performed with 632 pregnant women enrolled from January 2007 to December 2008. The sample was obtained by sense, using the entire study population. Data were collected from information systems: SIAB, SISPRENATAL, SINASC, SINANNET and SIM, recorded in a standard form and analyzed according to criteria established by PHPN. The study was approved by the Ethics in Research Committee of the Federal University of Ceará/UFC (protocol number 241/07. Results: it was observed that 86,8% of women began prenatal care in first trimester of pregnancy in 2008, the coverage of immunization against tetanus reached 98,4%, there was detection of syphilis and seropositivity for HIV, resulting in the adoption of remedial measures and resulting in avoidable neonatal infection. Conclusion: the district has good adequacy of prenatal care, based primarily on prevention and health promotion.

Hélcia Carla dos Santos Pitombeira, Liana Mara Rocha Teles, Jamile de Souza Pacheco Paiva, Maysa Oliveira Rolim, Lydia Vieira Freitas, Ana Kelve de Castro Damasceno

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Urinary biomarkers in prenatally diagnosed unilateral hydronephrosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The introduction of prenatal ultrasonography as a screening method entails an increasing number of infants diagnosed with prenatal hydronephrosis. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction accounts for 35% of prenatal hydronephrotic cases. Urinary tract obstruction that occurs during early kidney development affects renal morphogenesis, maturation and growth, and in the most severe cases this will ultimately cause renal insufficiency. A major challenge in the clinical management of these patients is to preserve renal function by selection of the 15%-20% who require early surgical intervention, leaving those for whom watchful waiting may be appropriate because of spontaneous resolution/stabilization without significant loss of renal function. Today, this requires medical surveillance, including repetitive invasive diuretic renograms relying on arbitrary threshold values, and therefore there is a need for non-arbitrary, non-invasive urinary biomarkers that may be used as predictors for renal structural changes and/or decreasing renal function, and thereby provide the surgeon with more clear indications for surgical intervention. In this review, we summarize the currently well-known facts about urinary biomarkers in ureteropelvic junction obstruction concerning renal function, and we also suggest potential novel urinary biomarkers.

Madsen, Mia Gebauer; NØrregaard, Rikke

2011-01-01

342

Diagnóstico pré-natal das genodermatoses / Prenatal diagnosis of genodermatoses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O diagnóstico pré-natal está indicado para algumas genodermatoses graves, como a epidermólise bolhosa distrófica recessiva e a epidermólise bolhosa juncional. A biópsia de pele fetal foi introduzida em 1980, mas não pode ser realizada antes da 15a semana de gestação. A análise do DNA fetal é método [...] preciso e pode ser realizado mais precocemente na gestação. No entanto, deve-se conhecer a base molecular da genodermatose, e é essencial determinar a mutação e/ou marcadores informativos nas famílias com criança previamente afetada. O DNA fetal pode ser obtido pela biópsia da vilosidade coriônica ou amniocentese. O diagnóstico genético pré-implantação tem surgido como alternativa que dispensa a interrupção da gestação. Essa técnica, que envolve fertilização in vitro e teste genético do embrião. vem sendo realizada para genodermatoses em poucos centros de referência. A ultra-sonografia é exame não invasivo, mas tem uso limitado no diagnóstico pré-natal de genodermatoses. A ultrasonografia tridimensional geralmente estabelece o diagnóstico tardiamente na gestação, e há apenas relatos anedóticos de diagnóstico pré-natal de genodermatoses usando esse método. Abstract in english Prenatal diagnostic testing is indicated for some severe genodermatoses, such as recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and junctional epidermolysis bullosa. Fetal skin biopsy was introduced in 1980, but it cannot be performed before 15th gestational week. Fetal DNA analysis is a precise method [...] and can be performed earlier in pregnancy. However, the molecular basis of the genodermatoses must be known and it is essential to determine the gene mutations and/or informative markers in the families with a previously affected child. Fetal DNA can be obtained by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is an alternative approach obviating the need for termination of pregnancy. It involves in vitro fertilization and genetic testing of embryos. However, this technique has been performed for genodermatoses in only a few reference centers. Ultrasonography is a non-invasive test, but has a limited use in prenatal diagnosis of genodermatoses. Tridimensional ultrasonography usually establishes diagnosis late in pregnancy and there are only anecdotal reports of prenatal diagnosis of genodermatoses using this method.

Maria Carolina de Abreu, Sampaio; Zilda Najjar Prado de, Oliveira; Javier, Miguelez.

2007-08-01

343

Diagnóstico pré-natal das genodermatoses Prenatal diagnosis of genodermatoses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O diagnóstico pré-natal está indicado para algumas genodermatoses graves, como a epidermólise bolhosa distrófica recessiva e a epidermólise bolhosa juncional. A biópsia de pele fetal foi introduzida em 1980, mas não pode ser realizada antes da 15a semana de gestação. A análise do DNA fetal é método preciso e pode ser realizado mais precocemente na gestação. No entanto, deve-se conhecer a base molecular da genodermatose, e é essencial determinar a mutação e/ou marcadores informativos nas famílias com criança previamente afetada. O DNA fetal pode ser obtido pela biópsia da vilosidade coriônica ou amniocentese. O diagnóstico genético pré-implantação tem surgido como alternativa que dispensa a interrupção da gestação. Essa técnica, que envolve fertilização in vitro e teste genético do embrião. vem sendo realizada para genodermatoses em poucos centros de referência. A ultra-sonografia é exame não invasivo, mas tem uso limitado no diagnóstico pré-natal de genodermatoses. A ultrasonografia tridimensional geralmente estabelece o diagnóstico tardiamente na gestação, e há apenas relatos anedóticos de diagnóstico pré-natal de genodermatoses usando esse método.Prenatal diagnostic testing is indicated for some severe genodermatoses, such as recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and junctional epidermolysis bullosa. Fetal skin biopsy was introduced in 1980, but it cannot be performed before 15th gestational week. Fetal DNA analysis is a precise method and can be performed earlier in pregnancy. However, the molecular basis of the genodermatoses must be known and it is essential to determine the gene mutations and/or informative markers in the families with a previously affected child. Fetal DNA can be obtained by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is an alternative approach obviating the need for termination of pregnancy. It involves in vitro fertilization and genetic testing of embryos. However, this technique has been performed for genodermatoses in only a few reference centers. Ultrasonography is a non-invasive test, but has a limited use in prenatal diagnosis of genodermatoses. Tridimensional ultrasonography usually establishes diagnosis late in pregnancy and there are only anecdotal reports of prenatal diagnosis of genodermatoses using this method.

Maria Carolina de Abreu Sampaio

2007-08-01

344

CARDIOPATÍAS CONGÉNITAS CON DIAGNÓSTICO PRENATAL: SEGUIMIENTO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Seguimiento de las cardiopatías congénitas con diagnóstico prenatal. Método: Se analizan todas las cardiopatías con diagnóstico prenatal que ingresaron al Centro de Referencia Perinatal Oriente (CERPO entre Abril 2003 y Junio 2005. Se realiza seguimiento postnatal y se compara el pronóstico con la experiencia previamente reportada en la literatura. Resultados: Se detectaron 94 cardiopatías congénitas de las cuales 76,6% correspondían a pacientes referidas desde otras regiones del país. La edad gestacional promedio al diagnóstico fue de 32 semanas. La principal causa de derivación correspondió a sospecha en examen obstétrico ultrasonográfico de rutina (72% de los casos. En esta serie se detectaron 10 anomalías cromosómicas y 14 casos presentaron malformaciones extracardíacas asociadas. Los diagnósticos más frecuentes correspondieron a síndrome hipoplasia ventricular izquierdo y ventrículo único, cardiopatías de difícil tratamiento y elevada mortalidad. La sobrevida global alcanzó un 46,1%, cifra similar a estudios internacionales previamente reportados. La sobrevida fue mejor en pacientes con malformaciones cardíacas únicas, que en pacientes que presentaron malformaciones más severas. Conclusión: Es importante mejorar el diagnóstico de cardiopatías ductus dependientes aisladas para mejorar la sobrevida en estos grupos de pacientesObjective: Follow up of congenital heart disease with prenatal diagnosis. Method: We analyzed all the congenital heart disease with prenatal diagnosis referred to the Centro de Referencia Perinatal Oriente (CERPO, between April 2003 and June 2005. We followed up after birth in terms of its prognosis and it was compared with previous reports. Results: 94 congenital heart diseases were diagnosed, 76.6% of these patients was referred from others regions of the country. The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 32 weeks. In 72% the reason for referral was suspicion of congenital heart disease on routine obstetric ultrasound examination. 10 patients presented chromosomal abnormalities and 14 were associated with others extracardiac malformations. The most frequent diagnosis was hypoplastic left heart syndrome and single ventricle, both complex malformations with difficult treatment and high mortality. The global survival rate reached a 46.1%, similar to previously reported studies. The survival rate was higher in patients with a single cardiac malformation than in patients with complex malformations. Conclusion: It is important to improve the prenatal diagnosis of ductus dependent isolated cardiac abnormalities in order to improve the survival in this group of patients

Susana Aguilera P

2006-01-01

345

CARDIOPATÍAS CONGÉNITAS CON DIAGNÓSTICO PRENATAL: SEGUIMIENTO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Seguimiento de las cardiopatías congénitas con diagnóstico prenatal. Método: Se analizan todas las cardiopatías con diagnóstico prenatal que ingresaron al Centro de Referencia Perinatal Oriente (CERPO) entre Abril 2003 y Junio 2005. Se realiza seguimiento postnatal y se compara el pronósti [...] co con la experiencia previamente reportada en la literatura. Resultados: Se detectaron 94 cardiopatías congénitas de las cuales 76,6% correspondían a pacientes referidas desde otras regiones del país. La edad gestacional promedio al diagnóstico fue de 32 semanas. La principal causa de derivación correspondió a sospecha en examen obstétrico ultrasonográfico de rutina (72% de los casos). En esta serie se detectaron 10 anomalías cromosómicas y 14 casos presentaron malformaciones extracardíacas asociadas. Los diagnósticos más frecuentes correspondieron a síndrome hipoplasia ventricular izquierdo y ventrículo único, cardiopatías de difícil tratamiento y elevada mortalidad. La sobrevida global alcanzó un 46,1%, cifra similar a estudios internacionales previamente reportados. La sobrevida fue mejor en pacientes con malformaciones cardíacas únicas, que en pacientes que presentaron malformaciones más severas. Conclusión: Es importante mejorar el diagnóstico de cardiopatías ductus dependientes aisladas para mejorar la sobrevida en estos grupos de pacientes Abstract in english Objective: Follow up of congenital heart disease with prenatal diagnosis. Method: We analyzed all the congenital heart disease with prenatal diagnosis referred to the Centro de Referencia Perinatal Oriente (CERPO), between April 2003 and June 2005. We followed up after birth in terms of its prognosi [...] s and it was compared with previous reports. Results: 94 congenital heart diseases were diagnosed, 76.6% of these patients was referred from others regions of the country. The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 32 weeks. In 72% the reason for referral was suspicion of congenital heart disease on routine obstetric ultrasound examination. 10 patients presented chromosomal abnormalities and 14 were associated with others extracardiac malformations. The most frequent diagnosis was hypoplastic left heart syndrome and single ventricle, both complex malformations with difficult treatment and high mortality. The global survival rate reached a 46.1%, similar to previously reported studies. The survival rate was higher in patients with a single cardiac malformation than in patients with complex malformations. Conclusion: It is important to improve the prenatal diagnosis of ductus dependent isolated cardiac abnormalities in order to improve the survival in this group of patients

Susana, Aguilera P; Juan Guillermo, Rodríguez A; Gabriela, Enríquez G; Ximena, Vascopé M; Oscar, Pizarro R; Ramón, Almuna V.

346

Dads Who Do Diapers: Factors Affecting Care of Young Children by Fathers  

Science.gov (United States)

Although many fathers today spend more time with children than was the case in the past, physical care of young children remains primarily mothers' work. Yet some fathers claim that they do work traditionally seen as the "mother's job" every day. Using subsample data from the male respondent file of the National Survey of Family Growth 2002 (n =…

Yoshida, Akiko

2012-01-01

347

Where's Papa? Fathers' Role in Child Care. Population Trends and Public Policy No. 20.  

Science.gov (United States)

Men are taking a more active role in child care. By 1991, 20% of preschool children were cared for by their fathers while their mothers worked outside the home--an increase since 1988, when only 15 percent of preschoolers were cared for by their fathers. This report summarizes the latest findings on child care arrangements of mothers who work…

O'Connell, Martin

348

Exploring the Role of Filipino Fathers: Paternal Behaviors and Child Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Using data collected from an urban Southern Visayan province during the Summer of 2006, this study examines a sample of 133 Filipino fathers to consider potential relationships between father behaviors and child outcomes. Increased paternal psychological control predicts increased problematic child outcomes, with sons being more affected than…

Harper, Scott E.

2010-01-01

349

Adolescent Girls' Perspectives on Their Relationship with Their Nonresident Fathers  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an increase in the number of fathers who do not reside with their children, which signifies changes in patterns of family interaction with implications for father-daughter attachment. Using attachment, self-efficacy, and psychosocial theories as framework, the purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to explore how girls'…

Francis, Andrea Ann Marie

2012-01-01

350

Fathers’ Emotional Intelligence and Their Response towards Their Children’s Behaviors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Emotional intelligence (EI measures one’s “common sense” and ability to get along with others. The EI construct is a rather novel concept with little empirical support, particularly, in relation to the link between father’s EI and that of his child’s behavior. The specific objective of this research is to determine the relationship between fathers’ EI and their pleasure-anger responses to children’s behavior. The present study was carried out among 107 fathers of Iranian students in the Iranian primary school located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The students were clustered in three different age groups, 8, 9, and 10 years old. Data were collected using the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I adult version (Bar- on EQ-I, 1997 and Parent Affect Test (PAT, Linehan and Egen, 1983. Pearson’s correlation indicated that fathers with high EI displayed more positive responses to children’s behavior in comparison to the fathers with low EI. In addition, fathers with low EI displayed more anger responses to children’s behavior in comparison to the fathers with high EI.

Mojgan Mirza

2010-07-01

351

The Odd Man Out: How Fathers Navigate the Special Education System  

Science.gov (United States)

Research about parent experiences with the special education system is largely dominated by the perspectives of mothers. Using purposeful sampling techniques, we interviewed 20 active fathers about their experiences navigating the special education system. All the fathers described three primary roles they experienced, including acting as a…

Mueller, Tracy Gershwin; Buckley, Pamela C.

2014-01-01

352

What about the Dads: A Case Study of Young Fathers of Babies Born to Adolescent Mothers  

Science.gov (United States)

Adolescent pregnancy remains a persistent societal problem. Both teenage mothers and the fathers of their babies are unprepared for parenthood and often drop out of school, take low-paying jobs, and never complete their education. Fathers of babies born to adolescent mothers are a critical but often forgotten component of the adolescent pregnancy…

Scholl, Marilyn Faris

2012-01-01

353

Attachment to Mothers and Fathers during Middle Childhood: Associations with Child Gender, Grade, and Competence  

Science.gov (United States)

Attachment relationships of first, third, and fifth graders with their mothers and fathers, and their associations with self-perceived and teacher-rated competence, were investigated. Children rated their attachment security with mothers and fathers using the Kerns security scale. Children's perceptions of academic and peer competence were…

Diener, Marissa L.; Isabella, Russell A.; Behunin, Melissa G.; Wong, Maria S.

2008-01-01

354

Nonresident Father Visitation, Parental Conflict, and Mother's Satisfaction: What's Best for Child Well-Being?  

Science.gov (United States)

Study examines interrelationship of nonresident father visitation, parental conflict over the visitation, and mother's satisfaction with the visitation. Data from the National Survey of Families and Households determined that children were least well off in families where mothers were dissatisfied with high levels of father contact. (Author/JDM)

King, Valarie; Heard, Holly E.

1999-01-01

355

Poor Single Mothers with Young Children: Mastery, Relations with Nonresident Fathers, and Child Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Using data from two waves of a short-term longitudinal study, the authors examined the impact of maternal socioeconomic conditions (education, employment, and income) and family processes (quality of mother-father relations, frequency of nonresident fathers' contacts with their children, and mothers' parenting stress) at time (T) 1 on maternal…

Jackson, Aurora P.; Choi, Jeong-Kyun; Franke, Todd M.

2009-01-01

356

Nonresident Fathers and Children: Parents' New Unions and Frequency of Contact  

Science.gov (United States)

Children often lose contact with their biological fathers after their parents separate and form new families. Using detailed longitudinal data on family transitions made by mothers and fathers after separation, the authors examine whether and how changes in the family trajectories of both biological parents affect frequency of contact that…

Juby, Heather; Billette, Jean-Michel; Laplante, Benoit; Le Bourdais, Celine

2007-01-01

357

Nonresident Fathers and Children's Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis showed that fathers' payment of child support was positively associated with measures of children's well-being. The frequency of contact with nonresident fathers was not related to child outcomes in general. Reports that feelings of closeness and authoritative parenting were positively associated with children's academic success and…

Amato, Paul R.; Gilbreth, Joan G.

1999-01-01

358

Love, Loss, and Learning: The Experiences of Fathers Who Have Children Diagnosed with Schizophrenia  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to give voice to fathers of young adult children diagnosed with schizophrenia within the past 10 years. A qualitative, phenomenological method was used to explore and describe the fathering experiences of the 6 volunteer participants. The findings suggest that mental health professionals should recognize the…

Wiens, Sandra E.; Daniluk, Judith C.

2009-01-01

359

Maternal Relationships and Nonresidential Father Visitation of Children Born outside of Marriage  

Science.gov (United States)

Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 781), I examined how father visitation for children born outside of marriage is affected by subsequent maternal relationship formation, focusing on the timing, type, and stability of maternal relationships. Results showed that fathers were most likely to have not seen their child…

Guzzo, Karen Benjamin

2009-01-01

360

Increased frequency of reproductive health problems among fathers of boys with hypospadias  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Some studies have suggested an association between paternal subfertility and hypospadias among their sons, although the association has not been systematically investigated. We therefore compared male reproductive health among a group of fathers of boys with hypospadias and a group of fathers to normal children.

Asklund, Camilla; JØrgensen, Niels

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

The Father-Child Activation Relationship and Internalising Disorders at Preschool Age  

Science.gov (United States)

The activation relationship is a new theorisation of father-child attachment that places the emphasis on exploration and openness to the world. This study, which was the first to employ the Preschool Risky Situation and which used a convenience sample of 51 father-child dyads, confirmed the hypothesis of an association between the activation…

Gaumon, Sebastien; Paquette, Daniel

2013-01-01

362

Anticipatory Grief Reactions in Fathers of Preterm Infants Hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Entering the state of fatherhood combined with the birth of a preterm neonate puts fathers' mental health at risk. Paying attention to fathers as a major supporter for mothers is essential. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate anticipatory grief reactions among fathers with premature infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care unit. Methods: The current descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 fathers with premature infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care unit in hospitals of Tabriz (Iran) during 2011. Fathers were selected using convenience sampling method. Data was collected using a valid and reliable anticipatory grief scale which rated items as 0-3. Results: All fathers reported anticipatory grief reactions. The mean score of items was 1.47. The most common reactions were unremitting mental engagement with the infant and feeling of sadness. Irritability and feeling of anger were reported to be less severe. The least important reactions were related physical reactions such as disorders of sleep and appetite and feeling of guilt. Conclusion:Fathers experience anticipatory grief after the birth of premature infants and their hospitalization in neonatal intensive care unit. Therefore, it is essential for the health care providers to pay more attention to cognitive and emotional reactions of fathers. PMID:25276713

Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Valizadeh, Leila; Rahiminia, Elaheh; Ranjbar Kochaksaraie, Fatemeh

2013-01-01

363

A qualitative study of mothers' and fathers' experiences of routine ultrasound examination in Sweden.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: to conceptualise mothers’ and fathers’ thoughts and feelings before, during and after the routine ultrasound examination during the second trimester of pregnancy. Design, setting and participants: a grounded theory study. Two to four weeks after their ultrasound examination, 22 Swedish mothers and 22 fathers were interviewed in their homes. Findings: the basic social process was confirmation of a new lif...

Ekelin, Maria; Crang Svalenius, Elizabeth; Dykes, Anna-karin

2004-01-01

364

Father absence due to migration and child illness in rural Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little research to date has assessed the importance of the presence of fathers in the household for protecting child health, particularly in developing country contexts. Although divorce and non-marital childbearing are low in many developing countries, migration is a potentially important source of father absence that has yet to be studied in relation to child health. This study utilizes prospective, longitudinal data from Mexico to assess whether father absence due to migration is associated with increased child illness in poor, rural communities. Rural Mexico provides a setting where child illness is related to more serious health problems, and where migration is an important source of father absence. Both state- and individual-level fixed effects regression analyses are used to estimate the relationship between father absence due to migration and child illness while controlling for unobserved contextual and individual characteristics. The state-level models illustrate that the odds of children being ill are 39% higher for any illness and 51% higher for diarrhea when fathers are absent compared with when fathers are present in the household. The individual-level fixed effects models support these findings, indicating that, in the context of rural Mexico, fathers may be important sources of support for ensuring the healthy development of young children. PMID:19699568

Schmeer, Kammi

2009-10-01

365

Bidirectional Longitudinal Relations between Father-Child Relationships and Chinese Children's Social Competence during Early Childhood  

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Using a two-year and three-wave cross-lagged design with a sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined bidirectional longitudinal relations between father-child relationships and children's social competence. The results of structural equation modeling showed bidirectional effects between father-child conflict and social…

Zhang, Xiao

2013-01-01

366

Relations between Mattering to Step- and Non-Residential Fathers and Adolescent Mental Health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the relations between perceptions of 133 early adolescents in stepfamilies concerning how much they mattered to their stepfathers and nonresidential biological fathers and adolescents' mental health problems. Mattering to nonresidential biological fathers significantly negatively predicted mother-, teacher-, and youth-reported internalizing problems. Mattering to stepfathers significantly negatively predicted youth-reported internalizing and stepfather- and youth- reported...

Schenck, Clorinda E.; Braver, Sanford L.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Saenz, Delia; Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Fabricius, William V.

2009-01-01

367

Fetal blood sampling in prenatal diagnosis of thalassemia at late pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fetal blood sampling is a procedure that involves the drawing of a blood sample from the umbilical vein of the umbilical cord, which can be performed after 18 weeks gestation. Fetal blood sampling is a preferable method for prenatal diagnosis of thalassemia in second trimester or late pregnancy. Additionally, it is suggested to be performed in cases in which mosaicisms are identified by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS), areas where DNA analysis is not available, and when mutations of the parents are not known. Laboratory steps regarding prenatal diagnosis by fetal blood sampling were summarized, including the ensuring of fetal origin, determination of red blood cell parameters, fetal hemoglobin analysis, and finally fetal DNA analysis. The objective of this review is to present an overview of procedures in terms of benefits, laboratory interpretations, and some limitations. PMID:24851565

Karnpean, Rossarin

2014-04-01

368

The features of human heart internal relief structure in prenatal ontogenesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have reviewed the development of internal relief of 101 human hearts during prenatal ontogenesis. It was used a macroscopic, immunohystochemical research methods, which enabled us to trace the processes of vessel’s development, proliferation of cardiac wall cells, heteromorphy of its structure in various stages of development. The data indicate the involvement of cardiogel, primary cardiomyocytes, as well as mesenchymal cells in the development and statement of the structural components, which form the internal relief of the heart chambers. The process of heart wall’s delamination is a separate morphological mechanism. Delamination plates are embryo material for the formation of tendinous chords, papillary muscles and muscle trabecula. Process of forming of the internal structures of relief occurs during the prenatal period of 5-20 weeks ontogenesis. One of the first parts of the heart, in which the process of papillary-trabecular apparatus forming occurs, is the atrium’s wall.

Savenkova ?.?.

2008-01-01

369

Negotiating Work/Life Balance : The Experience of Fathers and Mothers in Ireland  

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Full Text Available Working arrangements are still not sufficiently flexible to enable parents to manage their roles as workers and as carers and there remains a dearth of flexible working arrangements and work-life balance policies especially for fathers. This paper examines the degree of work/life balance among fathers, and mothers, employed in 5 major Irish organisations surveyed in 2002. It concentrates on the access to, and takes up of, flexible working time and leave arrangements by fathers and mothers and explores the impact of such arrangements on their careers and their attitudes towards work/life balance. Parents were asked about their actual and preferred childcare arrangements. The majority of fathers were able to rely upon the provision of care by the mother in their own home (an option that was available to only a small proportion of mothers. The paper concludes by discussing the kinds of work/life balance interventions/measures sought by fathers and mothers.

Eileen Drew

2011-03-01

370

Coercive and prosocial fathering, antisocial personality, and growth in children's postdivorce noncompliance.  

Science.gov (United States)

To better understand quantity and quality of divorced father contact, a weighted county sample of 230 divorced fathers with a child aged 4-11 years was employed to test whether fathers' antisocial personality (ASP) moderated effects of monthly contact with children in predicting children's observed noncompliance. Eighteen-month latent growth models obtained significant individual differences in levels of noncompliance and growth rates. ASP significantly moderated beneficial impact of fathers' monthly contact. Fathers' observed parenting practices significantly predicted noncompliance levels but not growth. Parenting did not account for the effect of Contact x ASP, suggesting both environmental and potentially genetic influences on child adjustment. Findings were robust across boys and girls and age levels. Implications for preventive intervention are discussed. PMID:20438456

DeGarmo, David Scott

2010-01-01

371

Including Men in Prenatal Health: The Potential of e-Health to Improve Birth Outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Background: The U.S. infant mortality rate is the highest in the developed world, and disparity impacts underserved populations. Traditional maternal health focuses on women, excluding men from information affecting family health. Scholars advocate including men in prenatal health to reduce infant mortality, a proven strategy in developing nations. This study explored the role of U.S. men in prenatal health, barriers to involvement, and the use of e-health. Special attention was given to health literacy; research indicates e-health is effective in educating low health-literate audiences. Materials and Methods: This study interviewed men with an average age of 33 years (n=32). The sample was 38% Hispanic, 28% African American, 28% white, and 6% multiracial. Participants were asked about pregnancy health and used a pregnancy-related e-health application on a tablet computer. Participants provided opinions on content, ease of use of the tablet, and willingness to use similar applications. Results: Men believe it is important to be involved in pregnancy to help ensure healthy births. Most use mobile devices and computers for health information and found the application to be useful and interesting. Most concluded they would use a similar application to learn about pregnancy. Health literacy had minimal impact on participants' use of the tablet and information. Conclusions: This study explored the role men play in prenatal health, a promising avenue toward better birth outcomes. Using e-health is an opportune approach-it can reach men unavailable to attend prenatal programs because of work or feeling unwelcome at programs deemed "only for women." PMID:25489723

Mackert, Michael; Guadagno, Marie; Donovan, Erin; Whitten, Pamela

2014-12-01

372

Daily sperm production : Application in studies of prenatal exposure to nanoparticles in mice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigated the influence of maternal airway exposure to nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (TiO2, UV-Titan) and carbon black (CB, Printex90), on male reproductive function in the two following generations. Time-mated C57BL/6J mice were exposed by inhalation to UV-Titan, or by intratracheal instillation with Printex90. Body and testicle weight, sperm content per g testicular parenchyma and daily sperm production (DSP) were assessed. The protocol for assessment of DSP was optimized for application in mice (C57BL/6J) and the influence of different parameters was studied. Maternal particulate exposure did not affect DSP statistically significantly in the F1 generation, although TiO2 tended to reduce sperm counts. Overall, time-to-first F2 litter increased with decreasing sperm production. There was no effect on sperm production in the F2 generation originating after TiO2 exposure. F2 offspring, whose fathers were prenatally exposed to Printex90, showed lowered sperm production. Furthermore, we report statistically significant differences in sperm production between mouse strains.

Kyjovska, Zdenka Orabi; Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner

2013-01-01

373

Memory and Brain Volume in Adults Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on memory and brain development was investigated in 92 African-American, young adults who were first identified in the prenatal period. Three groups (Control, n = 26; Alcohol-related Neurodevelopmental Disorder, n = 36; and Dysmorphic, n = 30) were imaged using structural MRI with brain volume calculated for…

Coles, Claire D.; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Chen, Xiangchuan; Kable, Julie A.; Johnson, Katrina C.; Hu, Xiaoping

2011-01-01

374

A Prospective Three Generational Study of Fathers' Constructive Parenting: Influences from Family of Origin, Adolescent Adjustment, and Offspring Temperament  

Science.gov (United States)

This prospective, intergenerational study considered multiple influences on 102 fathers' constructive parenting of 181 children. Fathers in the 2nd generation (G2) were recruited as boys on the basis of neighborhood risk for delinquency and assessed through early adulthood. The fathers' parents (G1) and the G2 mothers of G3 also participated. A…

Kerr, David C. R.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Pears, Katherine C.; Owen, Lee D.

2009-01-01

375

Causes and outcome of prenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydronephrosis is the most common abnormal finding in the urinary tract on prenatal screening with ultrasonography (U/S. Hydronephrosis may be obstructive or non-obstructive; obstructive lesions are more harmful to the developing kidneys. The aim of the study was to evaluate the causes of renal pelvic dilatation and the outcome of postnatal treatment in infants with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally with U/S. We prospectively studied 67 (60 males newborns with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally and confirmed postnatally with U/S from Sept. 2005 to Oct. 2007. The patients were allocated to three groups based on the mea-surement of the anteroposterior renal pelvic diameter (APRPD in transverse plane: mild (6-9.9 mm, moderate (10-14.9 mm and severe (> 15 mm hydronephrosis. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG was obtained in all of the patients to rule out vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. In cases with negative VUR, Diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA scan with diuretic renography was performed to detect ureteropelvic joint obstruction (UPJO. Twenty two cases (32.8% had mild, 20 (29.9% had moderate, and 25 (37.3% had severe hydronephrosis. The causes of hydroneph-rosis were VUR (40.2%, UPJO (32.8%, posterior urethral valves (PUVs (13.4 %, and transient hydronephrosis (13.4 %. The lesion was obstructive in 37 (55.2% infants. Totally, 33 (49.2% patients with hydronephrosis (9 mild, 9 moderate, and 15 severe subsequently developed com-plications such as UTI and renal insufficiency, or required surgery. Associated abnormalities were observed in 15 (22.4% patients. We conclude that every newborn with any degree of hydro-nephrosis should be assessed postnatally for specific diagnosis and treatment.

Ahmadzadeh Ali

2009-01-01

376

Brain fibronectin expression in prenatally irradiated mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Activation of gene transcription by radiation has been recently demonstrated in vivo. However, little is known on the specificity of these alterations on gene transcription. Prenatal irradiation is a known teratogen that affects the developing mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Altered neuronal migration has been suggested as a mechanism for abnormal development of prenatally irradiated brains. Fibronectin (FN), an extracellular glycoprotein, is essential for neural crest cell migration and neural cell growth. In addition, elevated levels of FN have been found in the extracellular matrix of irradiated lung. To test whether brain FN is affected by radiation, either FN level in insoluble matrix fraction or expression of FN mRNA was examined pre- and postnatally after irradiation. Mice (CD1), at 13 d of gestation (DG), served either as controls or were irradiated with 14 DG, 17 DG, or 5,6, or 14 d postnatal. Brain and liver were collected from offspring and analyzed for either total FN protein levels or relative mRNAs for FN and tubulin. Results of prenatal irradiation on reduction of postnatal brain weight relative to whole are comparable to that reported by others. Insoluble matrix fraction (IMF) per gram of brain, liver, lung, and heart weight was not significantly different either between control and irradiated groups or between postnatal stages, suggesting that radiation did not affect the IMF. However, total amounts of FN in brain IMF at 17 DG were significant FN in brain IMF at 17 DG were significantly different (p < .02) between normal (1.66 ± 0.80 ?g) and irradiated brains (0.58 ± 0.22 ?g). FN mRNA was detectable at 13, 14, and 17 DG, but was not detectable at 6 and 14 d postnatal, indicating that FN mRNA is developmentally regulated. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

377

Supernumerary marker chromosomes management in prenatal diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess the practical usefulness of array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) when supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs) are detected during prenatal diagnosis, we retrospectively studied SMC management in our laboratory before a-CGH availability. In this 11-year study, SMCs were observed in 20/16,810 routine karyotypes (0.12%). Their chromosomal origin, ascertained in 13 cases, remained elusive in seven using conventional cytogenetics and FISH. In the literature, most of SMCs (2/3) are easily identified through conventional cytogenetics and targeted FISH, and in these cases a-CGH would have been unneeded. This technique would have been less helpful in nine cases, that is, bisatellited SMC, isochromosomes and translocation derivatives. On the other hand, a-CGH would have been helpful for the 11 remaining cases. It would have improved diagnostic accuracy of six SMC whom chromosomal origin was ascertained by cytogenetics and FISH and for which prognosis was only based on literature and ultrasonographic data. Among five unidentified SMCs, a-CGH would have been more reassuring for four heterochromatic SMCs than normal ultrasonography alone and would have characterized the unidentified case associated with malformations that was interrupted. However potential pitfalls should be outlined. Using high level resolution chip expose to polymorphism detection and misinterpretation, a very sensitive problem in prenatal diagnosis. Moreover, low grade mosaicism could remain undetectable with this technique, leading to erroneous conclusions. Wisest use of a-CGH should be a complementary approach in prenatal management of SMC. It is specifically appropriate when SMC interpretation remains equivocal and only indirectly based on mode of inheritance, literature data and ultrasonography. PMID:18925665

Gruchy, Nicolas; Lebrun, Marine; Herlicoviez, Michel; Alliet, Jacques; Gourdier, Dominique; Kottler, Marie-Laure; Mittre, Hervé; Leporrier, Nathalie

2008-11-01

378

Sensory Processing Disorder in a Primate Model: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study of Prenatal Alcohol and Prenatal Stress Effects  

Science.gov (United States)

Disrupted sensory processing, characterized by over- or underresponsiveness to environmental stimuli, has been reported in children with a variety of developmental disabilities. This study examined the effects of prenatal stress and moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure on tactile sensitivity and its relationship to striatal dopamine system…

Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Gajewski, Lisa L.; Larson, Julie A.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Converse, Alexander K.; DeJesus, Onofre T.

2008-01-01

379

Dyssegmental dysplasia in siblings: Prenatal ultrasonic diagnosis  

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Two cases of dyssegmental dysplasia (type Silverman-Handmaker) in siblings are presented. The first-born died at the age of 3 months and the second fetus was followed during pregnancy with ultrasound examinations. In the 20th week of gestation marked shortening of the extremities was found; a female infant showing the same radiologic bony malformations as the firstborn was born by cesarean section. These cases support the autosomal recessive inheritance and demonstrate the possibility of prenatal diagnosis in this type of micromelic dwarfism. (orig.)

Andersen, P.E. Jr.; Hauge, M.; Bang, J.

1988-01-01

380

Prenatal diagnosis of the Meckel syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenatal diagnosis of the Meckel syndrome was made at 20 weeks of gestation from the findings of a biparietal diameter smaller than expected for gestational age, a grossly raised amniotic fluid alphafetoprotein level and a rapid growth of foetal macrophages after 20 hours culture. Termination at 23 weeks of gestation resulted in a male foetus with an occipital encephalocele, microcephaly, polydactyly, and bilateral polycystic kidneys. This case report emphasies the importance for genetic counselling of delineating the Meckel syndrome from the multifactorial cases of neural tube defects, and also illustrates, at least in some cases, that the syndrome can be diagnosed in utero. PMID:83212

Nevin, N C; Thompson, W; Davison, G; Horner, W T

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Dyssegmental dysplasia in siblings: Prenatal ultrasonic diagnosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two cases of dyssegmental dysplasia (type Silverman-Handmaker) in siblings are presented. The first-born died at the age of 3 months and the second fetus was followed during pregnancy with ultrasound examinations. In the 20th week of gestation marked shortening of the extremities was found; a female infant showing the same radiologic bony malformations as the firstborn was born by cesarean section. These cases support the autosomal recessive inheritance and demonstrate the possibility of prenatal diagnosis in this type of micromelic dwarfism. (orig.)

382

Prenatal Imaging of Occipital Encephaloceles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: This retrospective study aims to describe systematically the fetal cerebral MR morphology in cases with occipital meningoencephaloceles using standard and advanced fetal MRI techniques. Material and Methods: The 1.5-tesla MR examinations (T1- and T2-weighted imaging, echo planar imaging, EPI, diffusion-weighted imaging, DWI) of 14 fetuses with occipital/parietal meningoencephaloceles were retrospectively analyzed for the classification of anatomic characteristics. A diffusion tensor sequence was performed in 5 cases. Results: In 9/14 cases the occipital lobes were entirely or partially included in the encephalocele sac. Typical features of Chiari III malformation were seen in 6/14 cases. The displaced brain appeared grossly disorganized in 6/14. The brainstem displayed abnormal 'kinking'/rotation (3/14), a z-shape (1/14) and/or a molar tooth-like configuration of the midbrain (3/14). Tractography revealed the presence and position of sensorimotor tracts in 5/5 and the corpus callosum in 3/5. DWI was helpful in the identification of a displaced brain (in 8/9). EPI visualized the anatomy of draining cerebral veins in 7/9 cases. Clinical (9/14) and MRI (7/14) follow-up data are presented. Discussion: Encephaloceles show a wide range of morphological heterogeneity. Fetal MRI serves as an accurate tool in the visualization of brainstem, white matter pathway and cerebral venous involvement and facilitates the detection of specific underlying syndromes such as ciliopathies. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25358260

Kasprian, Gregor J; Paldino, Michael J; Mehollin-Ray, Amy R; Shetty, Anil; Williams, Jennifer L; Lee, Wesley; Cassady, Chris I

2014-10-29

383

Parental Involvement and Children's School Achievement: Evidence for Mediating Processes  

Science.gov (United States)

This study used path analytic techniques and an ecological framework to examine the association between children's perceptions of their parents' educational involvement, children's personal characteristics, and their school achievement. Fathers' academic pressure was predictive of lower achievement, whereas mothers' encouragement and support…

Rogers, Maria A.; Theule, Jennifer; Ryan, Bruce A.; Adams, Gerald R.; Keating, Leo

2009-01-01

384

The experience of black fathers concerning support for their wives/partners during labour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this article was to describe the experience of black fathers concerning support for their wives/partners during labour. The research design entailed an exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study that was contextual to clinical nursing. A phenomenological approach to nursing research was utilized, whereby unstructured interviews were conducted with ten black fathers. Two groups of black fathers were purposively selected for the study. Group 1 consisted of fathers who provided support to their wives/partners during labour and Group 2 consisted of fathers who did not provide support during labour. A literature control was undertaken to verify and recontextualize data. The results indicate that most of the fathers in Group 1 experienced negative feelings of nervousness, helplessness and anxiety due to lack of information concerning childbirth. These were coupled with positive feelings such as excitement, overwhelming delight and a sense of miracle. Most of the fathers in Group 2 expressed a feeling of wanting to be there. Lack of information, fear and cultural factors were identified as stumbling blocks. Conclusions drawn from the study included positive attitudes that needed to be enhanced as well as negative attitudes that needed counteracting. The guidelines were based on overcoming the following: cultural taboos; lack of knowledge and fears concerning childbirth; lack of interest in childbirth; and childbirth being regarded as a woman’s department.

M.L. Sengane

2009-09-01

385

Scores on the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale for father--toddler dyads.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fathers of 49 Canadian children (ages 13 to 24 months) were observed interacting with their child at home using the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS). Consensus ratings from two observers were used in the analysis. Compared with the NCATS reference data for 164 mothers of similar ethnicity and marital status with similar-aged children, mothers were more responsive than fathers in the interactions. Mothers had significantly higher scores on the overall Total NCATS score, on the Total Parent score, and on the Parent Contingency score than the fathers. In contrast, children were more responsive to fathers than mothers. Children interacting with their fathers had significantly higher Total Child scores and higher Child Contingency scores than those interacting with their mothers. Maternal and paternal age and education were not correlated to scores on the NCATS. Implications for practitioners are discussed and the results are compared to a study of mothers and fathers interacting with children ages 2 to 12 months old in which the observations were measured by the NCATS. Results suggest that NCATS cutoff scores used to identify mothers in need of intervention should be used with caution for father--toddler interactions. PMID:11285103

Harrison, M J; Magill-Evans, J; Sadoway, D

2001-01-01

386

Divorced fathers' proximity and children's long-run outcomes: evidence from Norwegian registry data.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the link between divorced nonresident fathers' proximity and children's long-run outcomes, using high-quality data from Norwegian population registers. We follow (from birth to young adulthood) each of 15,992 children born into married households in Norway in the years 1975-1979 whose parents divorced during his or her childhood. We observe the proximity of the child to his or her father in each year following the divorce and link proximity to educational and economic outcomes for the child in young adulthood, controlling for a wide range of observable characteristics of the parents and the child. Our results show that closer proximity to the father following a divorce has, on average, a modest negative association with offspring's outcomes in young adulthood. The negative associations are stronger among children of highly educated fathers. Complementary Norwegian survey data show that highly educated fathers report more post-divorce conflict with their ex-wives as well as more contact with their children (measured in terms of the number of nights that the child spends at the father's house). Consequently, the father's relocation to a more distant location following the divorce may shelter the child from disruptions in the structure of the child's life as they split time between households and/or from post-divorce interparental conflict. PMID:21691929

Kalil, Ariel; Mogstad, Magne; Rege, Mari; Votruba, Mark

2011-08-01

387

La estimulación prenatal: Resultados relevantes en el periparto / Prenatal stimulation: Results in the peripartum period  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Durante el proceso gestacional, el estrés prolongado y las preocupaciones que genera este período pueden alterar el desarrollo y la función del hemisferio derecho; de ahí la importancia que se atribuye a los distintos programas de estimulación temprana dirigido a las mujeres gestantes. Objetivos: De [...] terminar los resultados perinatales en el momento del parto de las mujeres que recibieron el programa de estimulación prenatal. Material: Se realizó un estudio experimental en cinco áreas de salud del municipio de Cienfuegos (Cuba) para identificar los resultados perinatales en el momento del parto y de las mujeres que recibieron el programa de estimulación prenatal. Metodología: Se efectuó una muestra intencional de la totalidad del universo, correspondiente a una n = 200 embarazadas, entre las 20 y las 28 semanas de gestación. Las variables estudiadas fueron la duración del trabajo del parto, el peso del recién nacido, el apgar al nacimiento, el tipo de parto y la opinión que las mujeres estudiadas tenían sobre el programa. Resultados: En el 36% de la población estudiada, el trabajo del parto fue menor de 6 horas. En el 67,5%, el recién nacido tuvo un peso comprendido entre 2.500 y 3.000 gramos y para el 96,5% de los hijos de las madres estimuladas, el apgar al nacer fue evaluado entre 8 y 9. En el 68,5% de las mujeres que recibieron el programa de estimulación, su parto fue eutócico y el 96% de las mujeres participantes está satisfecha con el programa recibido. Conclusiones: Se ha demostrado que estos nuevos programas de estimulación prenatal son bien aceptadas por la embarazada. Abstract in english During pregnancy, the prolonged stress and worry felt by mothers can alter the development and function of the right brain hemisphere. For this reason, importance is given to prenatal stimulation programs for pregnant women. Objectives: To determine the perinatal results in the moment of childbirth [...] in mothers who had participated in prenatal stimulation programs. Material. An experimental study was conducted in five health districts in the town of Cienfuegos (Cuba) with a view to identifying the perinatal results at the moment of childbirth in women that had participated in prenatal stimulation programs. Methodology: The study consisted of an intentional sampling of all of the subjects (n = 200 women who were 20-28 weeks pregnant). The variables studied were the following: duration of labor, baby's birth weight, Apgar score at birth, type of childbirth, and opinion of the subjects about the prenatal stimulation program. Results: Of the population sample, 36% of the subjects gave birth in less than six hours; 67.5% had babies weighing 2,500-3,000 grams; and 96.5% had babies whose Apgar scores were between 8 and 9. Finally, 68.5% of the subjects had natural childbirths and 96% were satisfied with the prenatal stimulation program. Conclusions. The results obtained showed that these new prenatal stimulation programs were well received by the subjects in this study.

M. J., Aguilar Cordero; M., Vieite Ravelo; C. A., Padilla López; N., Mur Villar; M., Rizo Baeza; C. I., Gómez García.

2102-21-01

388

La estimulación prenatal: Resultados relevantes en el periparto Prenatal stimulation: Results in the peripartum period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Durante el proceso gestacional, el estrés prolongado y las preocupaciones que genera este período pueden alterar el desarrollo y la función del hemisferio derecho; de ahí la importancia que se atribuye a los distintos programas de estimulación temprana dirigido a las mujeres gestantes. Objetivos: Determinar los resultados perinatales en el momento del parto de las mujeres que recibieron el programa de estimulación prenatal. Material: Se realizó un estudio experimental en cinco áreas de salud del municipio de Cienfuegos (Cuba para identificar los resultados perinatales en el momento del parto y de las mujeres que recibieron el programa de estimulación prenatal. Metodología: Se efectuó una muestra intencional de la totalidad del universo, correspondiente a una n = 200 embarazadas, entre las 20 y las 28 semanas de gestación. Las variables estudiadas fueron la duración del trabajo del parto, el peso del recién nacido, el apgar al nacimiento, el tipo de parto y la opinión que las mujeres estudiadas tenían sobre el programa. Resultados: En el 36% de la población estudiada, el trabajo del parto fue menor de 6 horas. En el 67,5%, el recién nacido tuvo un peso comprendido entre 2.500 y 3.000 gramos y para el 96,5% de los hijos de las madres estimuladas, el apgar al nacer fue evaluado entre 8 y 9. En el 68,5% de las mujeres que recibieron el programa de estimulación, su parto fue eutócico y el 96% de las mujeres participantes está satisfecha con el programa recibido. Conclusiones: Se ha demostrado que estos nuevos programas de estimulación prenatal son bien aceptadas por la embarazada.During pregnancy, the prolonged stress and worry felt by mothers can alter the development and function of the right brain hemisphere. For this reason, importance is given to prenatal stimulation programs for pregnant women. Objectives: To determine the perinatal results in the moment of childbirth in mothers who had participated in prenatal stimulation programs. Material. An experimental study was conducted in five health districts in the town of Cienfuegos (Cuba with a view to identifying the perinatal results at the moment of childbirth in women that had participated in prenatal stimulation programs. Methodology: The study consisted of an intentional sampling of all of the subjects (n = 200 women who were 20-28 weeks pregnant. The variables studied were the following: duration of labor, baby's birth weight, Apgar score at birth, type of childbirth, and opinion of the subjects about the prenatal stimulation program. Results: Of the population sample, 36% of the subjects gave birth in less than six hours; 67.5% had babies weighing 2,500-3,000 grams; and 96.5% had babies whose Apgar scores were between 8 and 9. Finally, 68.5% of the subjects had natural childbirths and 96% were satisfied with the prenatal stimulation program. Conclusions. The results obtained showed that these new prenatal stimulation programs were well received by the subjects in this study.

M. J. Aguilar Cordero

2012-12-01

389

Prenatal MRI in correlation with ultrasound  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Fetal MRI is an already established method in prenatal imaging, with complementary to US role. Most common considerations for fetal MRI are CNS anomalies and urogenital anomalies. Practically, the most frequent indication is ultrasonographically established ventriculomegaly. We introduce our experience in fetal MRI, presenting the distribution of pathological findings and our protocols. We have examined 33 fetuses for a 3-year period. Among these 13 cases were affected by CNS anomalies (neural tube defects, Dandy-Walker, cerebellar hypoplasia, agenesis of corpus callosum, aqueductal atresia, etc.), 11 fetuses are affected by urogenital anomalies (pieloureteral stenosis, VUR, renal agenesis, etc.), 5 with other pathology (congenital tumor, ovarian cysts, etc.) and 4 are normal fetuses. The findings in most interesting cases are reviewed; in some of them we present imaging-pathological correlation and/or follow up imaging. Main advantages of fetal MRI over US consist of acquiring objective and reproducible images, giving the opportunity of multiple expert-leveled reviews; exceptionally high detail concerning CNS-anatomy; additional confidence in excluding presence of concomitant anomalies; independence from calavarial ossification and maternal obesity. Ultrasound remains the main tool for prenatal imaging. MRI has similar sensitivity and higher specificity, thus serving as an arbitrage method and improving accuracy about outcome prognosisout outcome prognosis

390

Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM of the lung is a rare pulmonarylesion. The prognosis is variable ranging from perinatal death to spontaneous in uteroregression, with no neonatal morbidity. We present a case of CCAM diagnosed at 23 weeks'gestation using results of prenatal sonograms. Both prenatal Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional sonograms revealed multiple cystic lesions at the right lower lung field.Regular serial antenatal sonograms revealed the fetus had persistent right lower lung multicystlesions but had no hydrops fetalis or associated congenital anomalies. The results of theantenatal 50 g glucose diabetic screen at 24 weeks' gestation were normal. A live male babywas vaginally delivered smoothly at 40 weeks' gestation. Body weight was 4170 g. Apgarscores were 7 at 1 minute and 8 at 5 minutes. The newborn had no signs of respiratory distressat birth. Postnatal chest computed tomography (CT also revealed multiple fluid-filledcysts in the right lower lobe compatible with congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation.Because of the potential risk of perinatal death, repeated lung infection and malignantchange of CCAM, the newborn received right lower lung lobectomy 1 week after delivery.Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of CCAM type II. The recovery was smooth postoperativelyand the baby still receives regular follow-up. We emphasize the importance of prenataldiagnosis of CCAM and early removal of the congenital cystic lesions of the lung toachieve a good outcome.

Yaw-Ren Hsu

2004-01-01

391

NON-INVASIVE PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS: A REVIEW  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aneuploidies are one of the important causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Initially screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. Recently, various methods including non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT by analysis of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA in maternal blood has shown promise for highly accurate detection of common fetal autosomal trisomies. Incorporating these new non-invasive technologies into clinical practice will impact the current prenatal screening paradigm for fetal aneuploidy, in which genetic counselling plays an integral role. The advantage of the technique being elimination of risks such as miscarriage associated with invasive diagnostic procedures. But then this new technique has its own set of technical limitations and ethical issues at present and further research is required before implementation. Data was obtained through a literature search via Pubmed and Google as well as detailed search of our library database.

Madhusudan Dey, Sumita Agarwal and Sumedha Sharma

2013-04-01

392

Prenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of Acardiac Twins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was performed to present the prenatal sonographic findings and the associated abnormalities of acardiac twins. Seven cases of acardiac twins were reviewed retrospectively. Prenatal ultrasonography was performed in all patients at a gestational age between 12 and 27 weeks (mean 17.6 weeks). Autopsy was performed in four cases. The sonographic and autopsy findings were reviewed to report the associated abnormalities of the acardiac and donor fetuses. The diagnosis of acardiac twins was made on the basis of ultrasonography (n=6) or autopsy (n=1). The associated abnormalities of the acardiac fetuses were single umbilical artery (SUA) (n=5), abdominal wall defect (n=4), club feet (n=4), scoliosis (n=1), cleft lip and palate (n=1), digital anomaly (n=1), and umbilical cord cyst (n=1). In four of the donor fetuses, sonographic abnormalities were found. Autopsy was performed in three of the four cases to reveal hydropic change (n=2), diaphragmatic hernia (n=1) and multiple structural abnormalities of interventricular septal defect, polydactyly, club feet and SUA (n=1). Intrauterine fetal death occurred in five donors and follow-up was lost in the remaining two. Meticulous sonography enables the diagnosis of acardiac twins at an early gestational age and can reveal the associated abnormalities of the donor fetus as well as the acardiac fetus

Kim, Jeong Ah; Song, Mi Jin [Cheil General Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2006-09-15

393

Diagnóstico prenatal de onfalocele mediante ultrasonografía / Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of omphalocele  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El onfalocele es un defecto de la pared abdominal a nivel de la línea media caracterizado por la herniación de contenido abdominal y recubierto por peritoneo y amnios. El objetivo de esta comunicación es presentar un caso de onfalocele con edad gestacional de 23 sem y su diagnóstico prenatal por ult [...] rasonografía. Mediante diagnóstico ecográfico en una pesquisa realizada a una paciente de 40 años de edad en el segundo trimestre (edad gestacional de 23 semanas), mostró a nivel de la pared anterior fetal imagen ecogénica que protruye a través de la pared abdominal y a continuación se localiza el cordón umbilical. Se observó estómago desplazado y pérdida de la anatomía normal de la circunferencia abdominal. Se realizó asesoramiento genético en el Centro Municipal de Genética de Manzanillo. Anatomopatológicamente el feto presentó cuello corto y ancho, orejas de implantación baja, defecto del cierre del conducto onfalomesentérico, saco herniario ocupado por el lóbulo cuadrado del hígado y lecho vesicular, corazón con base ancha que muestra a la disección cava-cava, ausencia de tabique interventricular, estenosis de la válvula pulmonar y dilatación supravalvular de la arteria pulmonar, defecto amplio del tabique intraventicular y aorta cabalgada, lo que habla a favor de una cardiopatía troncoconal del tipo trilogía de Fallop, más el onfalocele. El diagnóstico prenatal por ultrasonografía es un método eficaz y fiable para el diagnóstico prenatal de onfalocele. Abstract in english Omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect at the midline characterized by herniation of abdominal contents and covered by peritoneum and amnion. The aim of this paper is to present a case of omphalocele with gestational age of 23 weeks and prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography. Using ultrasound diagno [...] sis in a patient pesquiza made 40 years of age in the second trimester (gestational age 23 weeks) showed a level of the anterior fetal echogenic image that sticks through the abdominal wall and then locate the cord umbilical. Stomach is seen displaced and loss of normal anatomy of the abdominal circumference. Genetic counseling was conducted at the Municipal Center for Genetics of Manzanillo. Anatomopatolágicamente the fetus presented short and wide neck, low-set ears, defect omphalomesenteric of ductal closure, hernia sac occupied by the caudate lobe of the liver and gallbladder bed, wide base heart dissection showing cava-cava absence of interventricular septum was observed pulmonary valve stenosis most dilation of supravalvular pulmonary artery, large defect and aorta intraventricular septum ride, which speaks in favor of a heart rate troncoconal fallop trilogy over the omphalocele. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is an efficient and reliable method for prenatal diagnosis of omphalocele.

Luskenia, del Río Romero; Nadia, Blanco Figueredo; Zulay, Rodríguez Domínguez.

2014-06-01

394

Provincial prenatal record revision: a multiple case study of evidence-based decision-making at the population-policy level  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a significant gap in the knowledge translation literature related to how research evidence actually contributes to health care decision-making. Decisions around what care to provide at the population (rather than individual level are particularly complex, involving considerations such as feasibility, cost, and population needs in addition to scientific evidence. One example of decision-making at this "population-policy" level involves what screening questions and intervention guides to include on standardized provincial prenatal records. As mandatory medical reporting forms, prenatal records are potentially powerful vehicles for promoting population-wide evidence-based care. However, the extent to which Canadian prenatal records reflect best-practice recommendations for the assessment of well-known risk factors such as maternal smoking and alcohol consumption varies markedly across Canadian provinces and territories. The goal of this study is to better understand the interaction of contextual factors and research evidence on decision-making at the population-policy level, by examining the processes by which provincial prenatal records are reviewed and revised. Methods Guided by Dobrow et al.'s (2004 conceptual model for context-based evidence-based decision-making, this study will use a multiple case study design with embedded units of analysis to examine contextual factors influencing the prenatal record revision process in different Canadian provinces and territories. Data will be collected using multiple methods to construct detailed case descriptions for each province/territory. Using qualitative data analysis techniques, decision-making processes involving prenatal record content specifically related to maternal smoking and alcohol use will be compared both within and across each case, to identify key contextual factors influencing the uptake and application of research evidence by prenatal record review committees. All study participants will be required to give written informed consent prior to participating in data collection. Conclusion This study will advance knowledge in the field of evidence-based decision-making by illustrating the complex interaction of contextual factors and evidence on health policy decision-making by provincial-level committees. By increasing the transparency of decision-making within provincial prenatal record committees, this study will help inform more effective strategies for enhancing the integration of best-practice evidence into prenatal records.

Olson Joanne

2008-12-01

395

Five year study of prenatal testing for Huntington's disease: demand, attitudes, and psychological assessment.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adult predictive and prenatal testing programmes for Huntington's disease (HD) in Canada have been available since 1986. However, the demand for prenatal testing and the reasons why some people choose not to have the prenatal test for this late onset disorder have not been well documented. In addition, the knowledge and attitudes of adult predictive testing candidates and their partners about prenatal testing are not well known nor are the psychological effects of prenatal testing well unders...

Adam, S.; Wiggins, S.; Whyte, P.; Bloch, M.; Shokeir, M. H.; Soltan, H.; Meschino, W.; Summers, A.; Suchowersky, O.; Welch, J. P.

1993-01-01

396

Inadequate utilization of prenatal care in two Brazilian birth cohorts  

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Full Text Available Data for two birth cohorts from two Brazilian municipalities, Ribeirão Preto in 1994 and São Luís in 1997/1998, were used to identify and compare factors associated with inadequate utilization of prenatal care and to identify factors capable of explaining the differences observed between the two cities. Prenatal care was defined as adequate or inadequate according to the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were used to compare differences in the inadequacy of prenatal care utilization. The percentage of inadequacy was higher in São Luís (34.6% than in Ribeirão Preto (16.9%. Practically the same variables were associated with inadequacy in both cities. Puerperae with lower educational level, without a companion or cohabiting, who delivered in public health units, younger than 20 years, multiparae and smokers, with low family income presented higher percentages of inadequate prenatal care utilization. However, the effects of some variables differed between the two cities. The risk for inadequate use of prenatal care was higher for women attended in the public health sector in São Luís and for cohabiting women in Ribeirão Preto. The effect of the remaining factors studied did not differ between cities. The category of admission accounted for 57.0% of the difference in the inadequate use of prenatal care between cities and marital status accounted for 45.3% of the difference. Even after adjustment for all variables, part of the difference in the inadequacy of prenatal care utilization remained unexplained.

L.C. Coimbra

2007-09-01

397

Gender differences in the effect of adult amphetamine on cognitive functions of rats prenatally exposed to methamphetamine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychostimulants have been shown to affect brain regions involved in the process of learning and memory consolidation. It has been shown that females are more sensitive to the effects of drugs than males. The aim of our study was to investigate how prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure and application of amphetamine (AMP) in adulthood would affect spatial learning of adult female and male rats. Mothers of the tested offspring were exposed to injections of MA (5mg/kg) or saline (SA) throughout the entire gestation period. Cognitive functions of adult rats were evaluated in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) tests. Adult offspring were injected daily with AMP (5mg/kg) or SA through the period of MWM testing. Our data from the MWM tests demonstrates the following. Prenatal MA exposure did not change the learning ability of adult male and female rats. However, AMP administration to adult animals affected cognitive function in terms of exacerbation of spatial learning (increasing the latency to reach the hidden platform, the distance traveled and the search error) only in female subjects. There were sex differences in the speed of swimming. Prenatal MA exposure and adult AMP treatment increased the speed of swimming in female groups greater than in males. Overall, the male subjects showed a better learning ability than females. Thus, our results indicate that the adult AMP treatment affects the cognitive function and behavior of rats in a sex-specific manner, regardless of prenatal exposure. PMID:24786327

Macúchová, E; Nohejlová, K; Slamberová, R

2014-08-15

398

Ambiguous genitalia: what prenatal genetic testing is practical?  

Science.gov (United States)

Concern for ambiguous genitalia or chromosome-phenotype discordance detected in a prenatal setting has increased over the last two decades. Practitioners faced with this prenatal finding have a variety of genetic tests available to them; however, it is unclear to what extent prenatal testing for disorders of sex development (DSD) is useful or practical. We undertook a retrospective review of the medical records of 140 individuals evaluated through the DSD clinic at Seattle Children's Hospital with birthdates from 01/01/1994 through 08/16/2011 to determine the rate of prenatal detection of ambiguous genitalia in individuals with DSD, what prenatal diagnostic workup was undertaken, and the postnatal outcome, including whether a postnatal genetic diagnosis was confirmed. Of all 140 subjects, 34 (24%) were identified prenatally. The most common postnatal diagnoses were penoscrotal hypospadias with transposition of the scrotum with no known genetic cause (24/140; 17%) and 21-hydroxylase deficiency (20/140; 14%). Apart from these, no single diagnosis comprised more than a few cases. Prenatal diagnostic testing varied widely, from no tests to multiple molecular tests with amniotic fluid hormone concentrations. In the absence of other fetal anomalies or growth retardation on ultrasound, prenatal karyotype with fluorescence in situ hybridization for the SRY gene is the most useful test when ambiguous genitalia is suspected. Further prenatal testing for Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome in 46,XY individuals and congenital adrenal hyperplasia in 46,XX individuals may be considered. However, targeted molecular testing for rare DSD conditions in the absence of a family history of DSD has a low yield. PMID:22581420

Adam, Margaret P; Fechner, Patricia Y; Ramsdell, Linda A; Badaru, Angela; Grady, Richard E; Pagon, Roberta A; McCauley, Elizabeth; Cheng, Edith Y; Parisi, Melissa A; Shnorhavorian, Margarett

2012-06-01

399

Paternal Involvement and Fetal Morbidity Outcomes in HIV/AIDS: A Population-Based Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prior research indicates that infants with absent fathers are vulnerable to unfavorable fetal birth outcomes. HIV is a recognized risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. However, the influence of paternal involvement on fetal morbidity outcomes in women with HIV remains poorly understood. Using linked hospital discharge data and vital statistics records for the state of Florida (1998-2007), the authors assessed the association between paternal involvement and fetal growth outcomes (i.e., low birth weight [LBW], very low birth weight [VLBW], preterm birth [PTB], very preterm birth [VPTB], and small for gestational age [SGA]) among HIV-positive mothers (N = 4,719). Propensity score matching was used to match cases (absent fathers) to controls (fathers involved). Conditional logistic regression was employed to generate adjusted odds ratios (OR). Mothers of infants with absent fathers were more likely to be Black, younger (HIV-positive mothers with absent paternal involvement during pregnancy had elevated risks for adverse fetal outcomes (LBW: OR = 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.60; VLBW: OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.05-2.82; PTB: OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.13-1.69; VPTB: OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.13-2.90). Absence of fathers increases the likelihood of adverse fetal morbidity outcomes in women with HIV infection. These findings underscore the importance of paternal involvement during pregnancy, especially as an important component of programs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. PMID:23913897

Alio, Amina P; Mbah, Alfred K; Shah, Krupa; August, Euna M; Dejoy, Sharon; Adegoke, Korede; Marty, Phillip J; Salihu, Hamisu M; Aliyu, Muktar H

2015-01-01

400

Yoga and massage therapy reduce prenatal depression and prematurity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighty-four prenatally depressed women were randomly assigned to yoga, massage therapy or standard prenatal care control groups to determine the relative effects of yoga and massage therapy on prenatal depression and neonatal outcomes. Following 12 weeks of twice weekly yoga or massage therapy sessions (20 min each) both therapy groups versus the control group had a greater decrease on depression, anxiety and back and leg pain scales and a greater increase on a relationship scale. In addition, the yoga and massage therapy groups did not differ on neonatal outcomes including gestational age and birthweight, and those groups, in turn, had greater gestational age and birthweight than the control group. PMID:22464118

Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Medina, Lissette; Delgado, Jeannette; Hernandez, Andrea

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
401

Yoshio Nishina father of modern physics in Japan  

CERN Document Server

Yoshio Nishina not only made a great contribution to the emergence of a research network that produced two Nobel prize winners, but he also raised the overall level of physics in Japan. Focusing on his roles as researcher, teacher, and statesman of science, Yoshio Nishina: Father of Modern Physics in Japan analyzes Nishina''s position in and his contributions to the Japanese physics community.After a concise biographical introduction, the book examines Nishina''s family, his early studies, the creation of RIKEN, and the greater Japanese physics community in the early twentieth century. It then focuses on Nishina''s work at the Cavendish Laboratory and at the University of Göttingen as well as his more fruitful research at Niels Bohr''s Institute of Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen. The book also describes the establishment of the Nishina Laboratory at RIKEN, the collaboration between its experimentalists and theoreticians, and the cosmic ray research of its scientists. The last two chapters discuss Nishina'...

Kim, Dong-Won

2007-01-01

402

Familial Multiple Basal Cell Carcinoma (Gorlin's Syndrome): A Case Report of a Father and Son.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gorlin syndrome is a rare familial disorder characterized by numerous basal cell carcinomas along with facial and skeletal findings. Here, we report a father and son case, presented with features of Gorlin syndrome. PMID:24249904

Nikam, Balkrishna; Kshirsagar, Ashok; Shivhare, Pratik; Garg, Amitoj

2013-11-01

403

Falling Further Behind? Child Support Arrears and Fathers' Labor Force Participation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines how child support arrears affect fathers' labor force participation. It relies on longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study. Findings from analyses of these data suggest that child support arrears result in declines in average weeks worked in the formal labor market in subsequent time periods. These findings are driven by the behaviors of fathers who had relatively high amounts of arrears and no income in the previous year and are mostly robust to tests for selection into no work or low levels of work by fathers. Findings also suggest that arrears obligations that are low relative to income result in increases in the probability that fathers engage in any formal work. Arrears are not statistically significantly related to informal labor force participation. This study highlights both intended and unintended consequences of the growth in arrears under current child support enforcement policies. PMID:23935220

Miller, Daniel P; Mincy, Ronald B

2012-12-01

404

Falling Further Behind? Child Support Arrears and Fathers’ Labor Force Participation  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines how child support arrears affect fathers’ labor force participation. It relies on longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study. Findings from analyses of these data suggest that child support arrears result in declines in average weeks worked in the formal labor market in subsequent time periods. These findings are driven by the behaviors of fathers who had relatively high amounts of arrears and no income in the previous year and are mostly robust to tests for selection into no work or low levels of work by fathers. Findings also suggest that arrears obligations that are low relative to income result in increases in the probability that fathers engage in any formal work. Arrears are not statistically significantly related to informal labor force participation. This study highlights both intended and unintended consequences of the growth in arrears under current child support enforcement policies. PMID:23935220

Miller, Daniel P.; Mincy, Ronald B.

2013-01-01

405

La estimulación prenatal: Resultados relevantes en el periparto Prenatal stimulation: Results in the peripartum period  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Durante el proceso gestacional, el estrés prolongado y las preocupaciones que genera este período pueden alterar el desarrollo y la función del hemisferio derecho; de ahí la importancia que se atribuye a los distintos programas de estimulación temprana dirigido a las mujeres gestantes. Objetivos: Determinar los resultados perinatales en el momento del parto de las mujeres que recibieron el programa de estimulación prenatal. Material: Se realizó un estudio experimental en cinco áreas d...

Aguilar Cordero, M. J.; Vieite Ravelo, M.; Padilla Lo?pez, C. A.; Mur Villar, N.; Rizo Baeza, M.; Go?mez Garci?a, C. I.

2012-01-01

406

Prenatal care: examining indicators according to criteria of humanization program of prenatal and birth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: to describe and analyze prenatal care, according to criteria of PHPN. Methodology: this is about an exploratory and descriptive study, from quantitative approach. Study’s subjects were 4131 pregnant women registered in SISPRENATAL from 2002 to 2006. Data were collected through a form applied to SISPRENATAL after approval by the Ethics Committee on Research of the Centre Integrated Health Amauri de Medeiros/CISAM under protocol number CAAE - 0263.0.000.250-08. Results: 76.5% of pr...

Samira Maria Oliveira Almeida, Mari?lia Ame?lia Camurc?a Ramos

2010-01-01

407

Comportamiento del programa de diagnóstico prenatal cromosómico Behavior of the prenatal chromosomal diagnostic program  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en el Centro de Desarrollo de la Genética del municipio La Lisa, en el período comprendido de enero de 1999 hasta diciembre de 2003. La muestra la conformaron 251 embarazadas con edad materna avanzada (38 años o más que acudieron a recibir asesoramiento genético por tener riesgo incrementado de cromosomopatías. Los datos fueron procesados con el cálculo porcentual. Se realizaron diagnóstico prenatal (DPN 189 pacientes (75,29 %, y se obtuvieron 6 casos positivos, 4 síndrome Down (47 XY+21, 1 súper macho (47 XYY, 1 trisomía 18 (47 XY+18 y 15 casos sin resultados. No se realizaron el diagnóstico prenatal 62 pacientes, 12 por amenaza de aborto, 25 por edad gestacional avanzada, 25 por negarse a la realización del proceder y 3 por otras causas. El asesoramiento genético fue no directivo, respetando las decisiones personales, confiabilidad, exponiendo la relación riesgo / beneficio y obteniendo el consentimiento informado para su realización.A descriptive study was conducted in the Center of Genetic Development in La Lisa municipality from January 1999 to December 2003. The sample was composed of 251 pregnant women with advanced maternal age (38 or over that seeked genetic counselling for having increased risk of chromosomopathies. The data were processed by the percentage calculation. 189 patients (75.29 % were prenatally diagnosed (PND. 6 cases were positive, 4 Down's syndrome (47 XY+ 21, 1 super male (47 XYY, 1 trisomy 18 (47 XY + 18 and 15 cases without results. The prenatal diagnosis was not made in 62 patients, 12 due to threatened abortion, 25 due to advanced gestational age, 25 rejected the procedure and 3 for other causes. The genetic counseling was not directive. It respected the personal decisions and it was also reliable, presented the risk-benefit relation and required the informed consent.

Mabel Domínguez Mena

2005-04-01

408

Comportamiento del programa de diagnóstico prenatal cromosómico / Behavior of the prenatal chromosomal diagnostic program  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en el Centro de Desarrollo de la Genética del municipio La Lisa, en el período comprendido de enero de 1999 hasta diciembre de 2003. La muestra la conformaron 251 embarazadas con edad materna avanzada (38 años o más) que acudieron a recibir asesoramiento genético po [...] r tener riesgo incrementado de cromosomopatías. Los datos fueron procesados con el cálculo porcentual. Se realizaron diagnóstico prenatal (DPN) 189 pacientes (75,29 %), y se obtuvieron 6 casos positivos, 4 síndrome Down (47 XY+21), 1 súper macho (47 XYY), 1 trisomía 18 (47 XY+18) y 15 casos sin resultados. No se realizaron el diagnóstico prenatal 62 pacientes, 12 por amenaza de aborto, 25 por edad gestacional avanzada, 25 por negarse a la realización del proceder y 3 por otras causas. El asesoramiento genético fue no directivo, respetando las decisiones personales, confiabilidad, exponiendo la relación riesgo / beneficio y obteniendo el consentimiento informado para su realización. Abstract in english A descriptive study was conducted in the Center of Genetic Development in La Lisa municipality from January 1999 to December 2003. The sample was composed of 251 pregnant women with advanced maternal age (38 or over) that seeked genetic counselling for having increased risk of chromosomopathies. The [...] data were processed by the percentage calculation. 189 patients (75.29 %) were prenatally diagnosed (PND). 6 cases were positive, 4 Down's syndrome (47 XY+ 21), 1 super male (47 XYY), 1 trisomy 18 (47 XY + 18) and 15 cases without results. The prenatal diagnosis was not made in 62 patients, 12 due to threatened abortion, 25 due to advanced gestational age, 25 rejected the procedure and 3 for other causes. The genetic counseling was not directive. It respected the personal decisions and it was also reliable, presented the risk-benefit relation and required the informed consent.

Mabel, Domínguez Mena; María Idania, Viñales Pedraza; María Esther, Santana Hernández; Estela, Morales Peralta.

2005-04-01

409

Constructing Masculinity: De Utero Patris (from the Womb of the Father)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates possible (re-)constructions of masculinity in relation to feminist re-conceptualization of the Father–Son relationship in the classic formulation of the doctrine of the Trinity. I will draw upon the work of Diana Neal who proposed a feminist reading of the relationality of father and son, building on the Council of Toledo’s reference to de utero Patris. This leads to a deconstruction of the binary definition of masculinity with divinity and femaleness with material...

Collins, Paul M.

2010-01-01

410

Young Black American fathers in a fatherhood program: A phenomenological study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe and analyze the experiential perspectives of young minority fathers participating in a Fatherhood Training Program. This research includes individual and aggregated information of retrospective life history interviews of 25 young fathers (16 to 26 years of age), regarding their successes and disappointments in the program with respect to family, relationships, employment, education, racism, masculinity and fatherhood readiness. What w...

Whiting, Gilman Wayne

2004-01-01

411

‘The Child is Father of the Man:’ Implications for the Demographic Transition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a new theory of the demographic transition based on the evidence that body development during childhood is an important factor for life expectancy. The key and novel mechanism of the model is that parents face a tradeoff between the quantity of children and the childhood development spending they afford on each of them. It is in this sense that we refer to Wordsworth’s aphorism that “The (Father of) Child is the Father of Man.” This tradeoff makes life expectan...

Licandro, Omar; Croix, David La

2007-01-01

412

Racial Disparities in Men’s Health and the Transition to Marriage Among Unmarried Fathers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Survey to examine the association between transitioning to marriage and general health status or serious health problems among low-income men. Beginning with a sample of 3,631 unmarried fathers, the study observes the relationship between their transitions to marriage within 3 years after the birth of their child and their health status 5 years postbirth. The authors also explore if unmarried fathers benefit from marrying m...

Haldane, Eva C.; Mincy, Ronald; Miller, Daniel

2010-01-01

413

Parenting Practices of Resident Fathers: The Role of Marital and Biological Ties*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,098) to examine differences in the parenting practices of four types of resident fathers, defined by their biological relationship to a focal child and their marital status with regard to the focal child’s mother. Regression results suggest that biological and social (i.e., stepfathers or mothers’ cohabiting partners) fathers differ significantly, and in some unexpected ways, on most measures of parenting. How...

Berger, Lawrence M.; Carlson, Marcia J.; Bzostek, Sharon H.; Osborne, Cynthia

2008-01-01

414

EXPLORING PATERNAL MATURITY IN THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN OLDER FATHERS AND ADULT CHILDREN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While research on parent-adult child relationships has expanded over the last two decades, most research has ignored the experiences of older fathers and their relationships with adult children. The present study sought to explore how midlife and older men assess the costs and rewards associated with their fatherhood experiences and how fathers’ level of paternal maturity influences their perceptions of fatherhood. More specifically, the purpose of the present study was two-fold: to explore...

Stelle, Charlie D.; Sheehan, Nancy W.

2011-01-01

415

The Father shows the Son everything. The imagery of education in John 5:19-23  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The remarks in John 5:19-23 should be understood in the context of education practices in ancient times. The dynamics of the metaphorical language used in these verses are explored and related to the appropriate socio-cultural framework. The Father educates the Son and prepares him for his mission. He teaches him to give life and to exercise eschatological judgment. This legitimizes the position of Jesus as the one who works like his Father does.

Watt, J. G.

2007-01-01

416

Intra-household Allocation of Resources: Inferences from Non-resident Fathers’ Child Support Payments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A large proportion of divorced and separated fathers form new partnerships. The new partner's preferences are not likely to put much weight on expenditures on the man's children from his previous union. Thus, his own and his partner's income would have different impacts on his child support payments if partners' relative incomes affect bargaining power in household decisions. This paper exploits within-father variation in the British Household Panel Survey (1991-2003) to estimate the impacts ...

Prof John Ermisch; Chiara Pronzato

2008-01-01

417

Nonresident Fathers and Formal Child Support: Evidence from the CPS, NSFG, and SIPP  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Since the beginning of the 1980s, researchers have been raising concerns that surveys underestimated nonresident fatherhood due to sampling and questionnaire effects. Consequently, federal data collection efforts focused resources on reports from custodial mothers rather than from nonresident fathers. Recent data from three national sources provide researchers with an opportunity to estimate the prevalence of nonresident fathers. Objective: Our goals were to provi...

Bart Stykes, J.; Manning, Wendy D.; Brown, Susan L.

2013-01-01

418