Taíse Neves Ferreira
Full Text Available In society, pregnancy has always been treated as a uniquely female experience, however, it is observed that the concepts and functions predetermined for men and women in the family are in full transformation. Describe the importance of parental involvement in monitoring prenatal vision of father and pregnant. This is a descriptive and quantitative study. The research had as reference Strategies Family Health Cáceres - MT. Participants were 30 pregnant women and their companions. When asked whether women talked to his companions about the importance of paternal participation in prenatal care, 67% of women answered yes and 33% did not talk. It is important to note that prenatal quality is achieved through pipelines necessary for pregnant women and hospitable. Geared this progress is the father figure who demonstrates an interest in participating, however, the work prevent them from contributing effectively.
This paper is a commentary on five papers in a special series on father-involvement in child psychology services. The following themes are addressed: the effects of fathers on child development; benefits of father-involvement in child psychology services; obstacles to fatherinvolvement ; engaging fathers; specific interventions for fathers; and implications for service development, training and research.
... Nonresident Fathers with Children Born to a Teen Mother 12 Father attachment and involvement has been demonstrated to have an important influence on child wellbeing. 14,15,16 For example, studies show ...
DeGarmo, David S.
This study tested identity theory models of father involvement for 230 divorced fathers of young children aged 4 to 11 followed over 18 months. Research questions were (1) Do measures of identity salience and centrality of the fathering role predict fathering involvement over time? (2) Does father involvement predict fathering identity over time? (3) Does father custody moderate these relationships? Involvement was assessed as contact frequency, number of father-child activities, and positive...
Full Text Available The study presented in this paper deals with the effects of experiences with father in the family of origin on the fathering role in the family of procreation. The results of the studies so far point to great importance of such experiences in parental role modelling, while recent approaches have suggested the concept of introjected notion or an internal working model of the fathering role as the way to operationalise the transgenerational transfer. The study included 247 two-parent couple families whose oldest child attended preschool education. Fathers provided information on self-assessed involvement via the Inventory of father involvement, while both fathers and mothers gave information on introjected experiences from the family of origin via the inventory Presence of the father in the family of origin. It was shown that father’s experiences from the family of origin had significant direct effects on his involvement in child-care. Very important experiences were those of negative emotional exchange, physical closeness and availability of the father, as well as beliefs about the importance of the father as a parent. Although maternal experiences from the family of origin did not contribute significantly to father involvement, shared beliefs about father’s importance as a parent in the parenting alliance had an effect on greater involvement in child-care. The data provide confirmation of the hypotheses on modelling of the fathering role, but also open the issue of the factor of intergenerational maintenance of traditional forms of father involvement in families in Serbia.
Masciadrelli, Brian P.; Milardo, Robert M.
This study investigated the associations between academic stress experienced by university student fathers and the behavioral and cognitive involvement these fathers had with their children. Fifty-three fathers enrolled in university classes and residing with at least one child less than 12 years of age responded to questionnaire measures of…
Perry, Armon R.; Harmon, Dana K.; Leeper, James
Increasing fathers' involvement with their children has become a priority in recent years. Marriage promotion programs have been offered as the primary vehicles for increasing paternal involvement. Although marriage is likely to provide fathers with increased access and opportunity for paternal involvement, much less is known about the ways in…
Gaertner, Bridget M.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Greving, Karissa A.
Using daily diary data to document involvement with infants at 6-8 months of age (n = 142) and 6 months later (n = 95), we examined relations between reported childrearing attitudes and resident fathers' relative (as compared to mothers') involvement with children. Fathers' authoritarian views related negatively to their relative involvement on…
Pleck, Joseph H.; Sandra L. Hofferth
This study hypothesized that father involvement is influenced by mothers' level of involvement as well as by marital conflict, mothers' work hours, and fathers' status as biological or step father. The analysis also tested hypotheses about mother involvement as a potential mediator of the effects of marital conflict and maternal work hours on father involvement, and hypotheses about factors influencing mother involvement. Children aged 10-14 from the NLSY79 who resided with their biological o...
Flouri, E.; Buchanan, A.
Background: Few studies have investigated the individual long-term contributions that mothers and fathers make to their children's schooling. Aims: (1) To explore the role of early father involvement in children's later educational attainment independently of the role of early mother involvement and other confounds, (2) to investigate whether…
Jia, Rongfang; Kotila, Letitia E; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J
Children's socioemotional development is child as well as parent driven. Yet, transactional frameworks are rarely applied to studies of father-child relations. This study examined reciprocal associations between father involvement in play and caregiving and children's adjustment and tested supportive coparenting behavior as a moderator of these associations. One hundred twelve families participated in a 1-year longitudinal study. Fathers reported on their involvement and mothers and teachers reported on preschoolers' behavior at two time points, and supportive coparenting behavior was observed at the second time point. Results showed that father involvement in play predicted relative decreases in externalizing behaviors, and also relative decreases in internalizing behaviors and relative increases in social competence at school only when accompanied by supportive coparenting behavior; reciprocally, fathers showed relative reductions in their play with children initially high in internalizing behaviors perceived by teachers. Father involvement in caregiving predicted relative increases in children's internalizing behaviors, but reciprocal effects indicated that these associations may be driven by children. The presence of reciprocal associations between father involvement and child behaviors that differed for play and caregiving domains and were moderated by supportive coparenting behavior suggests the importance of a transactional, domain-specific, and systemic approach to understanding father-child relations and the implementation of relevant intervention practices. PMID:23066678
Degarmo, David S
This study tested identity theory models of father involvement for 230 divorced fathers of young children aged 4 to 11 followed over 18 months. Research questions were (1) Do measures of identity salience and centrality of the fathering role predict fathering involvement over time? (2) Does father involvement predict fathering identity over time? (3) Does father custody moderate these relationships? Involvement was assessed as contact frequency, number of father-child activities, and positive involvement observed during father-child interaction. Comparisons showed that the quantity of involvement differed by custody but there were few differences in the quality of involvement. Fathers did not exhibit significant mean decreases in involvement and custodial groups did not differ in the growth rates for involvement nor identity measures. However, there were significant individual differences in growth rates, meaning there was variance in fathers increasing and decreasing in measures over time. Time 1 father identities, measured as salience and centrality, predicted days per month, overnights per month, and father child activities over time. Time-varying predictors suggested that identities were more predictive of growth in involvement than vice versa although father involvement predicted salience and primarily centrality. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:20617120
Pleck, Joseph H.
Four theoretical perspectives about why father involvement could have positive consequences for child development are briefly reviewed: attachment theory, social capital theory, Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory, and "essential father" theory. Strengths and weaknesses of each perspective are discussed, and the prospects for an integrated…
Gaertner, Bridget M.; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eisenberg, Nancy; Greving, Karissa A.
Using daily diary data to document involvement with infants at 6 – 8 months of age (n = 142) and 6 months later (n = 95), we examined relations between reported childrearing attitudes and resident fathers' relative (as compared to mothers') involvement with children. Fathers' authoritarian views related negatively to their relative involvement on weekdays, and this relation held over time for caregiving and playing activities. Mothers' protective attitudes had concurrent negative associatio...
Herzog, Melissa J.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Madden-Derdich, Debra A.; Leonard, Stacie A.
Grounded in family systems and ecological theories, this study examined teenage mothers' perceptions of fathers' parental involvement and the role of teenage mothers' gatekeeping beliefs. Fathers' involvement was perceived to be greater when teenage parents were romantically involved (n = 55). When they no longer shared a romantic relationship (n…
Morgan, Anne; Nutbrown, Cathy; Hannon, Peter
Relatively few studies of family literacy programmes have investigated parents' experiences and whilst a number of such programmes have been specifically aimed at fathers, little is known about the involvement of fathers in programmes which target both mothers and fathers. This article reports fathers' involvement in a family literacy programme…
Ingber, Sara; Most, Tova
The authors compared the involvement in children's development and education of 38 fathers of preschoolers with hearing loss to the involvement of a matched group of 36 fathers of preschoolers with normal hearing, examining correlations between child, father, and family characteristics. Fathers completed self-reports regarding their parental…
Cruz, Rick A.; King, Kevin M.; Widaman, Keith F.; Leu, Janxin; Cauce, Ana Mari; Conger, Rand D.
A growing body of research documents the importance of positive father involvement in children’s development. However, research on fathers in Latino families is sparse, and research contextualizing the father-child relationship within a cultural framework is needed. The current study examined how father's cultural practices and values predicted their fifth-grade child’s report of positive father involvement among a sample of 450 two-parent Mexican-origin families. Predictors included Span...
Cruz, Rick A; King, Kevin M; Widaman, Keith F; Leu, Janxin; Cauce, Ana Mari; Conger, Rand D
A growing body of research documents the importance of positive father involvement in children's development. However, research on fathers in Latino families is sparse, and research contextualizing the father-child relationship within a cultural framework is needed. The present study examined how fathers' cultural practices and values predicted their fifth-grade children's report of positive father involvement in a sample of 450 two-parent Mexican-origin families. Predictors included Spanish- and English-language use, Mexican and American cultural values, and positive machismo (i.e., culturally related attitudes about the father's role within the family). Positive father involvement was measured by the child's report of his or her father's monitoring, educational involvement, and warmth. Latent variable regression analyses showed that fathers' machismo attitudes were positively related to children's report of positive father involvement and that this association was similar across boys and girls. The results of this study suggest an important association between fathers' cultural values about men's roles and responsibilities within a family and their children's perception of positive fathering. PMID:21842992
Grantham, Tarek C.; Henfield, Malik S.
Black fathers are important advocates in addressing the underrepresentation of Black students in gifted programs, as well as the achievement gaps between Black and White students. Black fathers increasingly understand the important role that Black mothers have traditionally played in supporting their gifted children's school experiences. As a…
Marion W. Carter
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide a baseline perspective on the prevalence of Salvadoran men's attendance at prenatal care, delivery, and postpartum well-baby care and on sociodemographic factors associated with their attendance, with the goal of informing efforts to help men play more positive roles in maternal-child health. METHODS: The data came from the 2003 Salvadoran National Male Health Survey. The data focused on fathers (n = 418 and their most recent live-born child in the preceding five years. Factors associated with the fathers' participation in prenatal care visits, attendance at delivery, and participation in postnatal well-baby visits were explored using logistic and multinomial regression models. RESULTS: Ninety percent of the recent Salvadoran fathers who were surveyed participated in a prenatal care visit, attended the delivery, or participated in a postpartum well-baby care visit; 34% participated in all three of the activities. Attendance at delivery was most common, reported by 81% of fathers; the most common reason that subjects cited for not attending was that they had had to work. CONCLUSIONS: A large majority of the Salvadoran fathers participated in at least one prenatal care visit, delivery, or a postpartum well-baby care visit. While attendance alone does not necessarily indicate that men are supporting their partners, the results suggest that norms are in place for men to play positive roles in maternal-child health matters. Furthermore, the participation of fathers in these maternal and child health care activities may provide new opportunities to educate and further support men in both their own health and their family's health.OBJETIVO: Proporcionar información de base acerca de la frecuencia con la cual los hombres salvadoreños acuden a la atención prenatal, al parto y a la atención del bebé sano después del parto, así como acerca de los factores sociodemográficos que se asocian con su asistencia a esas actividades, a fin de orientar acciones encaminadas a ayudar a los hombres a participar de una forma más útil en la salud maternoinfantil. MÉTODOS: Los datos, que se obtuvieron de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud Masculina de 2003 (ENSM-03 de El Salvador, se centran en los padres (n = 418 y en el hijo más joven que haya nacido vivo durante los cinco años anteriores a la encuesta. Mediante modelos de regresión logística y multinomial se exploraron factores asociados con la presencia de los padres en las consultas prenatales, en el parto y en las consultas para la atención del neonato sano. RESULTADOS: Noventa por ciento de los padres salvadoreños que fueron encuestados participaron en una consulta prenatal, asistieron al parto o estuvieron en una consulta para la atención del bebé sano; 34% de ellos participaron en las tres actividades. Lo más frecuente fue la asistencia al parto, notificada por 81% de los padres, y la razón dada con mayor frecuencia para no haber asistido fue la necesidad de ir a trabajar. CONCLUSIONES: La gran mayoría de los padres salvadoreños habían estado en por lo menos una consulta prenatal, en el parto o en una consulta para la atención del bebé sano. Aunque la participación en estas actividades no necesariamente significa que los cónyuges les estén dando a sus parejas el apoyo debido, los resultados parecieran indicar que ya están sentadas ciertas normas para que los hombres puedan desempeñar un papel positivo en el área de la salud maternoinfantil. Además, la participación de los padres en estas actividades relacionadas con la atención de madre e hijo podría ofrecer nuevas oportunidades para educar a los hombres y darles más apoyo en el cuidado de su propia salud y la de su familia.
Jeynes, William H.
A meta-analysis was undertaken, including 66 studies, to determine the relationship between father involvement and the educational outcomes of urban school children. Statistical analyses were done to determine the overall impact and specific components of father involvement. The possible differing effects of paternal involvement by race were also…
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Baril, Megan E.; McHale, Susan M.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.
Using latent profile analysis, this study examined patterns of mother-father involvement in adolescents’ peer relationships along three dimensions, support, guidance, and restrictions, in 240 Mexican-origin families. Three profiles were identified: (a) High Mother Involvement (mothers higher than fathers on all three dimensions); (b) High Support/Congruent (mothers and fathers reported the highest levels of peer support and similar levels of guidance and restrictions); and (c) Differentiate...
Cesar Augusto Piccinini
Full Text Available The gestational period requires a series of adaptations from the father's side, who needs to prepare himself for the new role he will assume vis-à-vis the baby and his/her new family. The present study aimed at investigating father's involvement during the third trimester of gestation. Thirty-five fathers, aged 21 to 40, who were expecting their first child, took part in the study. The fathers were interviewed individually and their answers were examined through content analysis. Results indicated that many fathers were involved in different ways during their partner's pregnancy, being emotionally connected with the baby and their partner. However, some fathers still found difficulties concerning involvement with their child, seeming not to perceive him/her as real and showing low emotional connection with pregnancy. These data point to signs of change concerning fatherhood during pregnancy, which is increasingly less restricted to the feminine domain.
Laxman, Daniel J; McBride, Brent A; Jeans, Laurie M; Dyer, W Justin; Santos, Rosa M; Kern, Justin L; Sugimura, Niwako; Curtiss, Sarah L; Weglarz-Ward, Jenna M
This study examined the longitudinal association between fathers' early involvement in routine caregiving, literacy, play, and responsive caregiving activities at 9 months and maternal depressive symptoms at 4 years. Data for 3,550 children and their biological parents were drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data set. Analyses in a structural equation modeling framework examined whether the association between father involvement and maternal depressive symptoms differed for families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and for families of children with other disabilities or delays from families of children who were typically developing. Results indicated that father literacy and responsive caregiving involvement were associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms for mothers of children with ASD. These findings indicate that greater father involvement may benefit families of children with ASD and highlight the need to support and encourage service providers to work with fathers. PMID:25326111
Cesar Augusto Piccinini
Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou o envolvimento paterno aos três meses de vida do bebê. Foram entrevistados 38 pais primíparos, com idades entre 20 e 40 anos. Realizou-se uma análise de conteúdo baseada nas dimensões do conceito de envolvimento paterno: interação, acessibilidade e responsabilidade. Os pais revelaram envolverem-se nas atividades de cuidado, embora nem sempre de maneira rotineira. Também relataram preocupações e envolvimento nas decisões relativas aos cuidados, educação e saúde do bebê. Contudo, consideravam que sua participação estava aquém da ideal em função das restrições impostas pelo trabalho. Os resultados apontam para um aumento no envolvimento paterno nos primeiros meses do bebê e para a necessidade de apoio aos pais neste momento de transição familiar.This study investigated the involvement of fathers when their baby was three months old. Participants included 38 primiparous fathers with ages from 20 to 40 years. The fathers' interviews were content analyzed, based on three dimensions of father involvement: interaction, accessibility and responsibility. Fathers reported their involvement in many care activities, although not always routinely. They also mentioned worries and a much involvement in decisions related to care, education and baby's health. However, fathers considered their participation less than desired due to work-related time restrictions. These results indicated an increase in father involvement during the baby's third month and the need for emotional support for the fathers during this family transition.
Levant, Ronald F.; And Others
Examined patterns and correlates of fathers' involvement in household chores and child care in 40 upper-middle class families. Although fathers spent significant time in child care and did perform a number of child-care tasks and household chores, the traditional pattern still held sway to some degree. (Author/ABB)
Bragiel, Jozefa; Kaniok, Przemyslaw E.
The study examines whether fathers' "marital satisfaction"--that is, relationships within the parents' marriage--is correlated with their involvement with their child with disabilities. Data were collected from 243 Polish fathers who were married and who had at least one child with disabilities. The issue was assessed by two measures, "the Marital…
Previous studies mainly examined individual and family factors affecting Japanese fathers' involvement in child care. Along with these factors, we examine how work-related factors such as father-friendly environment at work, workplace's accommodation of parental needs, job stress, and autonomy are associated with Japanese men's…
Cesar Augusto Piccinini
Full Text Available O período de gestação da companheira exige uma série de adaptações por parte do pai, que precisa se preparar para os novos papéis que deverá assumir frente ao bebê e à sua nova família. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo investigar como se dá o envolvimento paterno durante o 3º trimestre de gestação. Participaram deste estudo 35 pais que esperavam seu primeiro filho, com idades entre 21 e 40 anos. Os pais foram entrevistados individualmente e as suas respostas foram examinadas através de análise de conteúdo. Os resultados indicaram que muitos pais estiveram envolvidos de diversas maneiras durante a gestação de suas companheiras, mostrando-se emocionalmente conectados à gestante e ao bebê. No entanto, alguns pais ainda encontravam dificuldades quanto ao envolvimento com seu filho, parecendo não percebê-lo como real e apresentando uma baixa ligação emocional com a gestação. Estes dados apontam para indícios de uma modificação quanto à paternidade já no período da gestação, a qual se encontra cada vez menos restrita ao universo feminino.The gestational period requires a series of adaptations from the father's side, who needs to prepare himself for the new role he will assume vis-à-vis the baby and his/her new family. The present study aimed at investigating father's involvement during the third trimester of gestation. Thirty-five fathers, aged 21 to 40, who were expecting their first child, took part in the study. The fathers were interviewed individually and their answers were examined through content analysis. Results indicated that many fathers were involved in different ways during their partner's pregnancy, being emotionally connected with the baby and their partner. However, some fathers still found difficulties concerning involvement with their child, seeming not to perceive him/her as real and showing low emotional connection with pregnancy. These data point to signs of change concerning fatherhood during pregnancy, which is increasingly less restricted to the feminine domain.
Coyl-Shepherd, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.
Increasingly couples in two-parent families share the dual responsibilities of parenting and providing for their children financially. Parenting is embedded within and shaped by specific family contexts. This study examined 92 mothers' and fathers' responses on indices of couple and family contexts, parent involvement, and child-reported…
Hsu, Hsien-Yuan; Zhang, Dalun; Kwok, Oi-Man; Li, Yan; Ju, Song
Using a sample drawn from Taiwan, this study evaluated the role of mother and father involvement in adolescent academic achievement. The participants were drawn from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS) and consisted of 8,108 adolescents who studied seventh grade in 2001. Father and mother involvement related to academic achievement was…
Full Text Available The research so far indicates that the context in which the father’s role takes place significantly influences the form and level of father involvement in taking care of the child. The primary goal of this research was to describe the forms and effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior as a characteristic form of interaction between parents which is, as part of the context, considered a significant factor in father involvement in care of the child. Research participants were 247 parental couples from complete families whose oldest child attended a pre-school institution. Fathers provided assessments of their own involvement via the Father Involvement Inventory, as well as assessments of prominence of gate-keeping behavior in their wives via the checklist of maternal gate-keeping behavior. Mothers reported on their beliefs about the importance and possibilities of father involvement in care of the child, as well as on their personal satisfaction with the current involvement of their husband in the joint care of the child. The results point out to the particular forms of mothers’ ambivalence when it comes to the joint care of the child, which is a form of gate-keeping behavior. The frequency of gate-keeping behavior, assessed by the checklist, significantly changes the possibilities of father involvement in taking care of the child in the developmental phase of the family, having in mind that the task of this phase is precisely the definition of parental roles and formation of parent cooperative principle.
Cesar Augusto, Piccinini; Milena da Rosa, Silva; Tonantzin Ribeiro, Gonçalves; Rita Sobreira, Lopes; Jonathan, Tudge.
Full Text Available O período de gestação da companheira exige uma série de adaptações por parte do pai, que precisa se preparar para os novos papéis que deverá assumir frente ao bebê e à sua nova família. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo investigar como se dá o envolvimento paterno durante o 3º tri [...] mestre de gestação. Participaram deste estudo 35 pais que esperavam seu primeiro filho, com idades entre 21 e 40 anos. Os pais foram entrevistados individualmente e as suas respostas foram examinadas através de análise de conteúdo. Os resultados indicaram que muitos pais estiveram envolvidos de diversas maneiras durante a gestação de suas companheiras, mostrando-se emocionalmente conectados à gestante e ao bebê. No entanto, alguns pais ainda encontravam dificuldades quanto ao envolvimento com seu filho, parecendo não percebê-lo como real e apresentando uma baixa ligação emocional com a gestação. Estes dados apontam para indícios de uma modificação quanto à paternidade já no período da gestação, a qual se encontra cada vez menos restrita ao universo feminino. Abstract in english The gestational period requires a series of adaptations from the father's side, who needs to prepare himself for the new role he will assume vis-à-vis the baby and his/her new family. The present study aimed at investigating father's involvement during the third trimester of gestation. Thirty-five f [...] athers, aged 21 to 40, who were expecting their first child, took part in the study. The fathers were interviewed individually and their answers were examined through content analysis. Results indicated that many fathers were involved in different ways during their partner's pregnancy, being emotionally connected with the baby and their partner. However, some fathers still found difficulties concerning involvement with their child, seeming not to perceive him/her as real and showing low emotional connection with pregnancy. These data point to signs of change concerning fatherhood during pregnancy, which is increasingly less restricted to the feminine domain.
Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; O Farrell, Timothy J.
We investigated longitudinal associations between alcoholic fathers’ 12-step treatment involvement and their children’s internalizing and externalizing problems (N=125, Mage=9.8±3.1), testing the hypotheses that fathers’ greater treatment involvement would benefit later child behavior, and that this effect would be mediated by fathers’ post-treatment behaviors. The initial association was established between fathers’ treatment involvement and children’s externalizing problems onl...
Hernán, Villalón U; Rosario, Toro G; Isidora, Riesco C; Mauricio, Pinto C; Cristián, Silva V.
Full Text Available Introducción: Recientes iniciativas, han promovido la participación de los padres en los cuidados tempranos de sus hijos. Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados de un programa de estímulo a la participación paterna en el parto. Se incluyeron padres de RN de término sanos, asignados aleatoriamente para par [...] ticipar en la experiencia del parto o control. Pacientes y Metodos: El protocolo incluyó: secado de la piel, corte de cordón umbilical, peso, estatura, y finalmente, entrega a la madre para el contacto piel a piel. Se evaluó frecuencia cardiaca (FC), respiratoria (FR) y temperatura una hora después. En el primer control ambulatorio, las madres completaron un cuestionario. 127 padres participaron en la experiencia del parto o control. Resultados: 62 asignados al protocolo y 65 al control. Ambos grupos de RN resultaron comparables. También los padres, en edad, escolaridad, ruralidad, y las madres, en primiparidad. Diferencias significativas: asistencia nocturna (37/62, 59,6% vs 10/65, 15,4%, p Abstract in english Introduction: Recent initiatives have promoted the participation of fathers in the early care of their children. Objective: To assess the results of a program to encourage parental involvement in childbirth. Parents of healthy term newborns were randomly allocated to participate either in the birth [...] experience or control. Patients and Methods: The protocol included: to dry the skin, umbilical cord cutting off, weight, height, and finally give him/her to the mother for the skin-to-skin contact. Heart rate (HR), respiratory (RR) and temperature were evaluated one hour later. In the first outpatient clinic assessment, mothers completed a questionnaire. 127 fathers participated either in the birth experience or control. Results: 62 followed the protocol and 65 the control. Both newborn groups were comparable. Also were fathers in age, education and rurality; mothers in primiparity. Significant differences: night care (37/62, 10/65 59.6% vs 15.4%, p
Volling, Brenda L.; Belsky, Jay
Examined observed father-infant interaction and reports of parental responsibility during infancy in 54 dual-earner and 65 single-earner families. Results indicated that personality characteristics of the father were important in predicting father's responsibility for child care in single-earner families, not in dual-earner families. Contextual…
Giallo, Rebecca; Treyvaud, Karli; Cooklin, Amanda; Wade, Catherine
Parent involvement in play, learning, and everyday home activities is important for promoting children's cognitive and language development. The aims of the study were to (a) examine differences between mothers' and fathers' self-reported involvement with their children, (b) explore the relationship between child, parent and family factors, and…
Gordon, Derrick M.; Iwamoto, Derek; Watkins, Natasha D.; Kershaw, Trace; Mason, Diana; Judkins, Anthony
This study investigates how unemployment, traumatic sexual experiences, substance use, intimate partner violence, and parental involvement collectively contribute to involvement with child protective system (CPS) and court-restricted access to children among low-income, ethnically diverse fathers. Participants were 164 fathers involved in a statewide fatherhood program. The majority of the fathers in the program were unemployed (76%) and ethnic minorities (66%). Logistic regression revealed t...
Cleide Maria, Pontes; Aline Chaves, Alexandrino; Mônica Maria, Osório.
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: desvendar os eixos norteadores e, a partir deles, construir uma proposta de incentivo à participação do homem no processo da amamentação, identificando estratégias nas diversas fases de sua vida, desde criança até tornar-se pai. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo, exploratório e qualitativo, cujo [...] s eixos norteadores e a construção da proposta ocorreram a partir da análise das falas oriundas das entrevistas semiestruturadas realizadas com 17 casais, residentes na favela do Bode, Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. As falas foram interpretadas à luz da análise do conteúdo manifesto, ancoradas no referencial teórico - construção histórica, social e cultural da paternidade - para encontrar os eixos norteadores e subsídios à construção da proposta. RESULTADOS: os eixos norteadores encontrados foram família, escola e instituição de saúde, os quais subsidiaram a construção de uma proposta por meio da implantação do ambulatório de amamentação (consulta para família, do pré-natal aos seis meses de vida da criança) e da socialização de meninos e meninas pró-amamentação. Tal proposta consta de atividades para o envolvimento do pai no amamentar. CONCLUSÕES: os eixos norteadores apresentaram aspectos significativos que alijaram o homem do processo da amamentação. Por isso, a essência desta proposta construída foi servir de modelo de incentivo à participação do pai nessa prática, para se estruturar um programa de saúde a ser implementado nas escolas e instituições de saúde, como uma forma de transformar a cultura do amamentar, aumentando o período de duração da amamentação. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: to reveal the guiding influences and through these to draw up a proposal to stimulate the participation of men in breast feeding, identifying strategies at the various phases in a man's life, from childhood to fatherhood. METHODS: a descriptive, exploratory and qualitative study was carr [...] ied out, whose guidelines and proposals were based on examination of statements gathered in the course of semi-structured interviews conducted with 17 couples, living on the Bode favela, in Recife, in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The statements were interpreted using manifest content analysis, based on the theoretical notion of the historical, social and cultural construction of fatherhood, and subsequently used to determine the guiding influences and draw up proposals. RESULTS: the principal guiding influences were found to be the family, the school and the health unit, all of which help to draw up a proposal for the initiation of breast feeding at the outpatients clinic (during prenatal family consultations when the child is aged six months) and the socialization of male and female children in favor of breast feeding. This proposal includes activities that aim to involve the father in breast feeding. CONCLUSIONS: some significant features of the guiding influences tend to exclude men from the breast feeding process. The essence of this proposal is therefore to serve as a model for stimulating the participation of fathers in breast feeding and for building up a health program to be introduced in schools and health units, as a way of changing the culture of breast feeding and extending its duration.
Gunnoe, Marjorie Lindner; Hetherington, E Mavis
Caucasian stepchildren (aged 10-18) in the Nonshared Environment and Adolescent Development (NEAD) project rated noncustodial (NC) parents' socioemotional involvement. Stepfamilies had been together at least 5 years. Adolescents with NC mothers (n = 56) reported more phone calls, mail, overnight visits, and social support than adolescents with NC fathers (n = 143). The association between perceived social support and adolescent adjustment was compared for NC mothers versus NC fathers by using structural equation modeling; the association was stronger for NC mothers. No effects for sex of child or interactions of sex of child/sex of NC parent were obtained. NC fathers might increase their influence in adolescents' lives by behaving more like NC mothers (more frequent phone calls, overnights, etc.). PMID:15598161
How do adults adapt when they have been inculcated into a particular philosophy of parenting and education and are then expected to adjust to a cultural framework possibly at odds with their worldview? Mainland Chinese fathers represent one immigrant group that has had to successfully learn to navigate various challenges while interacting with…
In Mexico, a country with high emigration rates, parental migration matches divorce as a contributor to child-father separation. Yet little has been written about children's relationships with migrating parents. In this study, I use nationally representative data from the 2005 Mexican Family Life Survey to model variation in the interaction…
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Deeds, Osvelia; Contogeorgos, Jennifer; Ascencio, Angela
Prenatal depressive symptoms, anxiety, anger and daily hassles were investigated in 156 depressed and non-depressed pregnant women and their depressed and non-depressed partners (fathers-to-be). Depressed versus non-depressed fathers had higher depression, anxiety and daily hassles scores. Although the pregnant women in general had lower anxiety, anger and daily hassles scores th...
Ohaeri Jude U
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Following the end of the Gulf War that resulted in the liberation of Kuwait, there are no reports on the impact of veterans' traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on their children. We compared the severity of anxiety, depression, deviant behavior and poor family adjustment among the children of a stratified random sample of four groups of Kuwaiti military men, viz: the retired; an active -in-the-army group (AIA (involved in duties at the rear; an in-battle group (IB (involved in combat; and a prisoners -of- war (POWs group. Also, we assessed the association of father's PTSD/combat status and mother's characteristics with child psychosocial outcomes. Method Subjects were interviewed at home, 6 years after the war, using: the Child Behavior Index to assess anxiety, depression, and adaptive behavior; Rutter Scale A2 for deviant behavior; and Family Adjustment Device for adjustment at home. Both parents were assessed for PTSD. Results The 489 offspring (250 m, 239 f; mean age 13.8 yrs belonged to 166 father-mother pairs. Children of POWs tended to have higher anxiety, depression, and abnormal behavior scores. Those whose fathers had PTSD had significantly higher depression scores. However, children of fathers with both PTSD and POW status (N = 43 did not have significantly different outcome scores than the other father PTSD/combat status groups. Mother's PTSD, anxiety, depression and social status were significantly associated with all the child outcome variables. Parental age, child's age and child's level of education were significant covariates. Although children with both parents having PTSD had significantly higher anxiety/depression scores, the mother's anxiety was the most frequent and important predictor of child outcome variables. The frequency of abnormal test scores was: 14% for anxiety/depression, and 17% for deviant behavior. Conclusion Our findings support the impression that child emotional experiences in vulnerable family situations transcend culture and are associated with the particular behavior of significant adults in the child's life. The primacy of the mother's influence has implications for interventions to improve the psychological functioning of children in such families. Mental health education for these families has the potential to help those in difficulty.
Maybury, Karol K.
This handbook, published by the Teen Father's Program of the Sacramento (California) YWCA, outlines options available to teen fathers-to-be, as well as adolescent males who are already fathers, and where they can find help. While the final decision about pregnancy legally rests with the mother, the father can be involved in the process by helping…
Fabiana, Cia; Elizabeth Joan, Barham; Anne Marie Germaine Victorine, Fontaine.
Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo examinar as relações entre três formas do envolvimento paterno (a comunicação entre pai e filho; a participação do pai nos cuidados com o filho; a participação do pai nas atividades escolares, culturais e de lazer do filho) e dois aspectos do desenvolvimento infantil (a [...] utoconceito e desempenho acadêmico) de crianças que iniciam as atividades escolares. Participaram deste estudo 97 casais e seus filhos matriculados na 1ª ou 2ª série do Ensino Fundamental. Para avaliar o envolvimento paterno a partir de duas perspectivas diferentes, tanto os pais quanto as mães responderam à Avaliação do bem-estar pessoal e familiar e do relacionamento pai-filho - Versão Paterna. Para avaliar o desempenho acadêmico e o autoconceito, foram aplicados nas crianças o Teste de Desempenho Escolar e o Self-Description Questionnaire I. Observou-se que, quanto maior a frequência de comunicação entre pai e filho, a participação do pai nos cuidados com o filho e a participação do pai nas atividades escolares, culturais e de lazer do filho, maior o desempenho acadêmico e o autoconceito das crianças. Esses resultados são indicativos da importância do envolvimento paterno e apontam a necessidade de se realizarem intervenções educativas dirigidas aos homens. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among three types of fathering involvement (father-child communication, fathers' participation in caring for their child and fathers' participation in their child's school, cultural and leisure activities) and two aspects of a child's develo [...] pment (academic performance and selfconcept) among children in their first years of schooling. The participants were 97 fathers, mothers and their children, who were attending the first or second grade. To evaluate father involvement from two different perspectives, both the fathers and the mothers completed the Evaluation questionnaire about individual and family well-being and the parentchild relationship - Fathering Version. Children's academic performance and selfconcept were evaluated using the School Performance Test and the Self-Description Questionnaire I, respectively. The greater the frequency of father-child communication, of the fathers' participation in caring for their children, and in their children's school, cultural and leisure activities, the stronger the children's academic performance and the more positive their selfconcept. These results are indicative of the importance of fathers' involvement and point out the need for educational interventions specifically for men.
Full Text Available The present study aims to depict a picture of Greek fathers concerning their involvement in family and child-centered tasks over the first year of the child. Eighty fathers from rural areas with low educational and occupational status and eighty fathers from urban districts with high educational and occupational status were asked to talk about their own perceptions of fatherhood and also their participation into two parenting commitments: (a preparations before and after the birth of the child and (b involvement in play with the child and a variety of daily child-care tasks. The results show that fathers in urban regions were more involved in these activities than their counterparts in rural areas. All fathers valued fatherhood as a pleasant experience. Many fathers, however, stated that child-rearing responsibilities cause them a lot of psychological strain. The results are discussed in relation to the division of roles between spouses in Greek families.O presente estudo descreve o envolvimento do pai grego com a família e as tarefas de cuidados da criança, durante o seu primeiro ano de vida. Oitenta pais de zona rural, de nível educacional e status ocupacional baixos, e 80 pais de zona urbana, de nível educacional e status ocupacional altos, falaram sobre as suas percepções de paternidade e de sua participação em duas das responsabilidades dos pais: (a a preparação antes e após o nascimento de um bebê e (b o envolvimento em brincadeiras e em uma variedade de tarefas rotineras de cuidados da criança. Os resultados mostram que os pais provenientes de áreas urbanas se envolviam mais nessas atividades que os pais de áreas rurais. Todos os pais valorizaram a paternidade como uma experiência agradável; muitos deles, entretanto, afirmaram que as responsabilidades de educar a criança causaram-lhes muita tensão psicológica. Os resultados são discutidos em relação à divisão de papéis entre o marido e a esposa, nas famílias gregas.
Rita, Simões; Isabel, Leal; João, Maroco.
Full Text Available O estudo pretendeu avaliar o grau de envolvimento paterno de pais Portugueses de crianças entre os 5 e os 9 anos de idade, explorando factores de variabilidade interindividual (idade do pai, educação, nível socioeconómico e número de filhos), bem como a associação entre envolvimento paterno e alguns [...] factores identificados na literatura: satisfação parental, stress parental e ajustamento conjugal. A amostra é constituída por 145 pais casados, com idades entre os 28 e os 59 anos (M=40,14), a maioria dos quais com um nível de escolaridade secundário e superior e um nível socioeconómico médio. A recolha de dados foi realizada através da aplicação de questionários de auto-resposta, juntamente com um questionário para caracterização sócio-demográfica. Os principais resultados mostram um grau relativamente elevado de envolvimento paterno, sobretudo nas dimensões Cuidados e Disponibilidade, embora em termos relativos os pais atribuam às mães uma maior percentagem de tempo como principais figuras cuidadoras da criança. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os pais em função das variáveis individuais estudadas. Contudo, foi encontrada uma associação negativa moderada entre o envolvimento paterno e o stress parental, bem como uma associação positiva igualmente moderada entre o envolvimento e o ajustamento diádico, o que vai ao encontro de outros estudos realizados nesta área. Estes resultados suportam a conceptualização multidimensional do envolvimento paterno, sugerindo diferentes dimensões de comportamento paterno face aos cuidados e educação das crianças. Adicionalmente, confirmam a natureza multideterminada do envolvimento, sugerindo que factores pessoais e relacionais podem ter impacto na forma como os homens desempenham a paternidade. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of paternal involvement in Portuguese parents of children between 5 and 9 years old, exploring factors of interindividual variability (father´s age, education, socioeconomic status and number of children), as well as the association between father [...] involvement and a number of factors identified in the literature: parental satisfaction, parental stress and marital adjustment. The sample consists of 145 married fathers aged between 28 and 59 years (M = 40.14), most of them with a high and college degree of education and a middle socioeconomic status. Data collection was based on self-report assessment scales, along with a questionnaire for socio-demographic characterization. The main results point to a relatively high degree of paternal involvement, particularly in the dimensions Care and Availability, although in relative terms the father’s reports indicate a higher percentage of time given to mothers as primary caregivers of children. There were no significant differences between the fathers depending on the individual variables studied. However, we found a moderate negative association between father involvement and parental stress, and also a moderate positive association between father involvement and dyadic adjustment, which is consistent with other studies in this area. The results support the multidimensional conceptualization of father involvement, suggesting different dimensions of paternal behavior in relation to the care and education of children. In addition, the study confirms the multi-determined nature of paternal involvement, suggesting that personal and relational factors may have an impact on how men perform paternity.
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Figueiredo, Barbara; Deeds, Osvelia; Contogeorgos, Jennifer; Ascencio, Angela
Prenatal depressive symptoms, anxiety, anger and daily hassles were investigated in 156 depressed and non-depressed pregnant women and their depressed and non-depressed partners (fathers-to-be). Depressed versus non-depressed fathers had higher depression, anxiety and daily hassles scores. Although the pregnant women in general had lower anxiety, anger and daily hassles scores than the men, the scores on the measures for depressed fathers and depressed mothers did not differ. Paternal depression appeared to have less effect than maternal depression on their partners’ scores. However, the similarity between the scores of depressed mothers and depressed fathers highlights the importance of screening for depression in fathers-to-be as well as mothers-to-be as well as during pregnancy. PMID:17138311
Profissionais e usuárias(os adolescentes de quatro programas públicos de atendimento pré-natal da região da grande Florianópolis: onde está o pai? Professionals and teenagers users of prenatal assistance in Florianopolis city and surroundings: where is the father?
Maria Juracy Toneli Siqueira
Full Text Available Este artigo trata da caracterização do universo investigado em uma pesquisa sobre a estrutura e o funcionamento de quatro programas públicos de atendimento pré-natal da região da grande Florianópolis, Santa Catarina. A partir das informações obtidas através de questionários aplicados aos profissionais (34 e usuários adolescentes (63 mulheres e 6 homens, foi possível construir perfis dos grupos investigados. Os resultados indicam perfis semelhantes aos encontrados em outros programas públicos voltados para o atendimento pré-natal nesta faixa etária, nos quesitos idade, escolaridade, trabalho remunerado, número de gestações, tipo de relação com o parceiro. A exclusão do pai da arena da saúde reprodutiva permanece acontecendo em todos estes programas, à semelhança de inúmeros outros descritos pela literatura. Repensar esta situação parece urgente no sentido da construção da eqüidade de gênero neste campo, bem como no da garantia dos direitos sexuais e reprodutivos na adolescência.This article is about the investigated universe characterization in a study about the structure and functioning of four prenatal assistance public programs of Florianópolis city (state of Santa Catarina and surroundings. Through questionnaires applied on professionals (34 and teenagers users (63 women and six men, it was possible to build an analysis which characterized the investigated groups. The results indicate similar profiles as those found on other prenatal assistance public programs like age, scholarship, work, pregnancy occurrence and couple relationship. The father's exclusion in the reproductive health arena remains happening in all of them as well as other countless programs described on the scientific literature. To reflect upon this situation seems urgent to build gender equity in this field and also to guaranty the adolescents' sexual and reproductive rights.
Priya, Bt; Suganthy, Rajakumari R; Manimegalai, M; Krishnaveni, A
Ainhum, also known as dactylolysis spontanea, is a painful constriction of the base of the fifth toe, frequently followed by spontaneous amputation a few years later. The disease is often symmetrical on both the feet, but, occasionally, other toes are also affected and rarely the distal phalanx of the fifth finger. Pseudoainhum is a similar condition that occurs as a secondary event resulting from certain hereditary and nonhereditary diseases that lead to annular constriction of digits. We hereby present a case of familial ainhum in father and son with multiple toes affected, autoamputation, and more involvement of fourth toe than the fifth toe, which is a very rare finding. PMID:25657437
Maur, Damian G; Pascuan, Cecilia G; Genaro, Ana M; Zorrilla-Zubilete, Maria A
Several studies suggest that negative emotions during pregnancy generate adverse effects on the cognitive, behavioural and emotional development of the descendants. The psychoneuroendocrine pathways involve the transplacentary passage of maternal glucocorticoids in order to influence directly on fetal growth and brain development.Nitric oxide is a gaseous neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the control of neural activity by diffusing into neurons and participates in learning and memory processes. It has been demonstrated that nitric oxide is involved in the regulation of corticosterone secretion. Thus, it has been found that the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is an endogenous inhibitor of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus and that nNOS in the hippocampus may participate in the modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity via GR.Neurotrophins are a family of secreted growth factors consisting of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and NT4. Although initially described in the nervous system, they regulate processes such as cell survival, proliferation and differentiation in several other compartments. It has been demonstrated that the NO-citrulline cycle acts together with BDNF in maintaining the progress of neural differentiation.In the present chapter, we explore the interrelation between nitric oxide, glucocorticoids and neurotrophins in brain areas that are key structures in learning and memory processes. The participation of this interrelation in the behavioural and cognitive alterations induced in the offspring by maternal stress is also addressed. PMID:25287536
It has been reported that premature infants in neonatal intensive care units are exposed to a high rate of bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupting chemical. Our previous studies demonstrated that corticothalamic projection was disrupted by prenatal exposure to BPA, which persisted even in adult mice. We therefore analyzed whether prenatal and lactational exposure to low doses of BPA affected the formation of the cortical barrel, the barreloid of the thalamus, and the barrelette of the brainstem in terms of the histology and the expression of genes involved in the barrel development. Pregnant mice were injected subcutaneously with 20 µg/kg of BPA daily from embryonic day 0 (E0) to postnatal 3 weeks (P3W), while the control mice received a vehicle alone. The barrel, barreloid and barrelette of the adult mice were examined by cytochrome C oxidase (COX) staining. There were no significant differences in the total and septal areas and the patterning of the posterior medial barrel subfield (PMBSF), barreloid and barrelette, between the BPA-exposure and control groups in the adult mice. The developmental study at postnatal day 1 (PD1), PD4 and PD8 revealed that the cortical barrel vaguely appeared at PD4 and completely formed at PD8 in both groups. The expression pattern of some genes was spatiotemporally altered depending on the sex and the treatment. These results suggest that the trigeminal projection and the thalamic relay to the cortical barrel were spared after prenatal and lactational exposure to low doses of BPA, although prenatal exposure to BPA was previously shown to disrupt the corticothalamic projection
Full Text Available Fathers today are confronted with constantly changing ideas on theirrole as a parent. The old traditional forms of fathering i.e. the breadwinner and protector roles are being gradually replaced by a more reflexive role that places unconditional love from their children as a central theme in a new type of reflexive parenting. This article examines the role of fatherhood through the theoreticallens of reflexive modernity. It recognises that men are increasingly becoming dependant on their children for unconditional love and this is forcing men to become more involved in the lives of their own children. The theory of reflexive modernisation is applied to a group of 40 fathers from a post-industrial area of Britain to unravel the processes and practices being used in this “new” type of parenting. This research discovers that fathers in the 21st century have numerouspressures from changing ideas about what is a good or bad father, but in the final instance it is their individualised responses to these societal and personal circumstances which create a new reflexive type of fathering. This type of fathering is therefore created by general social changes within a reflexive modern society and also by personal choice.
Pedersen, Frank A.; And Others
This document reports a study investigating the effects of father absence on measures of cognitive, social, and motivational development in infancy. The sample included 54 black infants, 27 of whom were classified "father-absent." This classification was based on two indices, (1) a dichotomy of father-absent or father-present based on mother's…
The main focus of this chapter is the comprehensive description of the neuropathology, the imaging correlates and underlying mechanisms of prenatal stroke. We describe established prenatal stroke in subgroups similar to postnatal stroke: arterial (forebrain or hindbrain) infarction, venous thrombosis, primary lobar haemorrhage. This longitudinal classification should facilitate the study of risk factors and mechanisms. Forebrain lesions of arterial type present as porencephaly, (hemi)hydranencephaly, multicystic encephalopathy or schizencephaly. Venous prenatal forebrain stroke presents as simple porencephaly (in some of genetic nature) and sinus thrombosis. A list of rare porencephaly-like conditions is added for differentiation from arterial and venous porencephaly. Hindbrain infarctions (so far the only reported variants seem to be of arterial nature) present as brainstem disconnection, focal brainstem destruction, uni- or bilateral cerebellar destruction and focal spinal cord ischaemia. Prenatal intracranial haemorrhage and congenital brain infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of prenatal stroke. PMID:19664975
McNair, L F; Kohlmeier, K A
Despite huge efforts from public sectors to educate society as to the deleterious physiological consequences of smoking while pregnant, 12-25% of all babies worldwide are born to mothers who smoked during their pregnancies. Chief among the negative legacies bestowed to the exposed individual is an enhanced proclivity postnatally to addict to drugs of abuse, which suggests that the drug exposure during gestation changed the developing brain in such a way that biased it towards addiction. Glutamate signalling has been shown to be altered by prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) and glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter within the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT), which is a brainstem region importantly involved in responding to motivational stimuli and critical in development of drug addiction-associated behaviours, however, it is unknown whether PNE alters glutamate signalling within this nucleus. Accordingly, we used calcium imaging, to evaluate AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated calcium responses in LDT brain slices from control and PNE mice. We also investigated whether the positive AMPA receptor modulator cyclothiazide (CYZ) had differential actions on calcium in the LDT following PNE. Our data indicated that PNE significantly decreased AMPA receptor-mediated calcium responses, and altered the neuronal calcium response to consecutive NMDA applications within the LDT. Furthermore, CYZ strongly potentiated AMPA-induced responses, however, this action was significantly reduced in the LDT of PNE mice when compared with enhancements in responses in control LDT cells. Immunohistochemical processing confirmed that calcium imaging recordings were obtained from the LDT nucleus as determined by presence of cholinergic neurons. Our results contribute to the body of evidence suggesting that neurobiological changes are induced if gestation is accompanied by nicotine exposure. We conclude that in light of the role played by the LDT in motivated behaviour, the cellular changes in the LDT induced by exposures to nicotine prenatally, when combined with alterations in other reward-related regions, could contribute to the increased susceptibility to smoking observed in the offspring. PMID:25362989
Holmberg, John R; Olds, David L
Our aim was to examine the rates and predictors of father attendance at nurse home visits in replication sites of the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP). Early childhood programs can facilitate father involvement in the lives of their children, but program improvements require an understanding of factors that predict father involvement. The sample consisted of 29,109 low-income, first-time mothers who received services from 694 nurses from 80 sites. We conducted mixed-model multiple regression analyses to identify population, implementation, site, and nurse influences on father attendance. Predictors of father attendance included a count of maternal visits (B = 0.12, SE = 0.01, F = 3101.77), frequent contact between parents (B = 0.61, SE = 0.02, F = 708.02), cohabitation (B = 1.41, SE = 0.07, F = 631.51), White maternal race (B = 0.77, SE = 0.06, F = 190.12), and marriage (B = 0.42, SE = 0.08, F = 30.08). Random effects for sites and nurses predicted father-visit participation (2.7 & 6.7% of the variance, respectively), even after controlling for population sociodemographic characteristics. These findings suggest that factors operating at the levels of sites and nurses influence father attendance at home visits, even after controlling for differences in populations served. Further inquiry about these influences on father visit attendance is likely to inform program-improvement efforts. PMID:25521707
... of pregnancy. What tests are done in the second trimester? As you get further along in your pregnancy, your provider may offer you these prenatal tests: Maternal blood screening . Tests your blood to see if your baby ...
Kim, Pilyoung; Rigo, Paola; Mayes, Linda C; Feldman, Ruth; Leckman, James F; Swain, James E
Fathering plays an important role in infants' socioemotional and cognitive development. Previous studies have identified brain regions that are important for parenting behavior in human mothers. However, the neural basis of parenting in human fathers is largely unexplored. In the current longitudinal study, we investigated structural changes in fathers' brains during the first 4 months postpartum using voxel-based morphometry analysis. Biological fathers (n = 16) with full-term, healthy infants were scanned at 2-4 weeks postpartum (time 1) and at 12-16 weeks postpartum (time 2). Fathers exhibited increase in gray matter (GM) volume in several neural regions involved in parental motivation, including the hypothalamus, amygdala, striatum, and lateral prefrontal cortex. On the other hand, fathers exhibited decreases in GM volume in the orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and insula. The findings provide evidence for neural plasticity in fathers' brains. We also discuss the distinct patterns of associations among neural changes, postpartum mood symptoms, and parenting behaviors among fathers. PMID:24958358
Envolvimento paterno da gestação ao primeiro ano de vida do bebê / Father involvement from pregnancy to the infant´s first year of life / Participación paterna desde el embarazo hasta el primer año de vida del bebé
Luciana, Castoldi; Tonantzin Ribeiro, Gonçalves; Rita de Cássia Sobreira, Lopes.
Full Text Available Este estudo longitudinal analisou o envolvimento paterno por meio de um estudo de casos coletivos com seis casais primíparos entrevistados na gestação, aos três e 12 meses do bebê. A análise qualitativa dos dados se baseou no conceito de envolvimento paterno e no enfoque psicodinâmico, revelando ser [...] em os modelos familiares de parentalidade aspectos muito influentes no envolvimento dos pais. Por outro lado, a ausência de uma matriz de apoio e as percepções das mães sobre o desempenho do marido como pai não pareceram influenciar diretamente o nível de envolvimento com o bebê. Percebeu-se que os pais continuavam seguindo modelos tradicionais de paternidade quanto à acessibilidade e à responsabilidade, centrando-se no papel de provedor financeiro. O engajamento dos pais foi maior em atividades lúdicas do que nos cuidados do filho, pois para cuidados parecia lhes faltarem modelos efetivos. São discutidas as influências intergeracionais e do discurso sobre o "novo pai" na prática da paternidade. Abstract in spanish Este estudio longitudinal analizó la participación paterna por medio de un estudio de casos colectivos con seis parejas primíparas entrevistadas en la gestación, a los tres y a los 12 meses de vida del bebé. El análisis cualitativo de los datos se basó en el concepto de participación paterna y en el [...] enfoque psicodinámico, revelando los modelos familiares de parentalidad como aspectos muy influyentes en la participación de los padres. Por otro lado, la ausencia de una matriz de apoyo, así como las percepciones de las madres sobre el desempeño del esposo como padre, no parecieron influir directamente en el nivel de participación con el bebé. Se observó que los padres aún estaban siguiendo los modelos tradicionales de la paternidad en cuanto a la accesibilidad y responsabilidad, centrándose en el papel de proveedor financiero. El compromiso de los padres fue mayor en las actividades lúdicas que en los cuidados al hijo, por los que parecía carecer de modelos efectivos. Se discuten las influencias intergeneracionales y del discurso sobre el "nuevo padre" en la práctica de la paternidad. Abstract in english This longitudinal study examined the parental involvement through a collective case study with six primiparous couples interviewed in the last trimester of pregnancy, at three and 12 months of baby's life. A qualitative analysis of the data, based on father involvement as well as in psychodynamic ap [...] proach, revealed the familiar models of parenting had important influences in the father involvement. On the other hand, the absence of a support matrix, as well as the perceptions of mothers on the performance of their husbands as fathers, did not seem to directly influence the level of father involvement with the baby. It seems that the parents were still following traditional models of fatherhood in relation to accessibility and accountability, focusing on their role as financial provider. The involvement of parents was higher in recreational activities than in child care for which it seemed lacking effective models. We discuss intergenerational and discourse influences on the "new father" in the practice of fatherhood.
Participação dos pais no nascimento em maternidade pública: dificuldades institucionais e motivações dos casais / Fathers' participation in childbirth at a public hospital: institutional difficulties and motivations of couples
Maria Luiza Mello de, Carvalho.
Full Text Available A participação dos pais no nascimento, presente na humanização da assistência ao parto, afina-se com o crescente envolvimento dos homens nos cuidados com as crianças. Possibilita o suporte psicossocial à gestante, o compartilhamento da experiência pelo casal e a formação de vínculo pai-bebê. Procura [...] ndo conhecer o impacto desta experiência entre os pais numa maternidade pública no Rio de Janeiro, foi desenvolvida uma pesquisa etnográfica, em duas etapas: observação-participante do trabalho de parto e do parto, e onze entrevistas com pais participantes do parto. A participação dos pais se mostrou atravessada por: dificuldades institucionais; motivações das mães e dos pais; representações sociais sobre parto e paternidade; e exclusão dos pais nos serviços de saúde reprodutiva e pediátrica. A presença dos pais não foi valorizada pela equipe nem como suporte à gestante nem como evento da paternidade. O estudo indica: a necessidade de incentivo à participação dos pais no pré-natal, parto, pós-parto e nas consultas pediátricas; a preparação das equipes para trabalho com as famílias; a ampliação da discussão social sobre paternidade e a formulação de políticas trabalhistas que garantam a presença dos pais nos serviços de saúde. Abstract in english Participation by fathers in the process of childbirth, an aspect of the humanization of obstetric care, helps foster the fathers' involvement in raising their children. This participation provides psychosocial support for pregnant women during labor and delivery, sharing of the experience by the cou [...] ple, and father-child bonding. The focus of this ethnographic research was the impact of this process on fathers participating in childbirth at a State hospital in Rio de Janeiro, with two stages: participant observation of labor and delivery and eleven interviews with fathers who had been present at delivery. Fathers' participation was influenced by: the motivation of mothers and fathers; social representations of delivery and fatherhood; and exclusion of fathers from reproductive health and pediatrics services. The father's participation was not valued by the attending staff as either a source of emotional support for the mother or as part of fatherhood. The following are necessary: inclusion of fathers in prenatal care, delivery, and pediatrics services; the training of staff to work with the families; social discussion of fatherhood and health services policies to ensure the presence of fathers during labor and childbirth.
Participação dos pais no nascimento em maternidade pública: dificuldades institucionais e motivações dos casais Fathers' participation in childbirth at a public hospital: institutional difficulties and motivations of couples
Maria Luiza Mello de Carvalho
Full Text Available A participação dos pais no nascimento, presente na humanização da assistência ao parto, afina-se com o crescente envolvimento dos homens nos cuidados com as crianças. Possibilita o suporte psicossocial à gestante, o compartilhamento da experiência pelo casal e a formação de vínculo pai-bebê. Procurando conhecer o impacto desta experiência entre os pais numa maternidade pública no Rio de Janeiro, foi desenvolvida uma pesquisa etnográfica, em duas etapas: observação-participante do trabalho de parto e do parto, e onze entrevistas com pais participantes do parto. A participação dos pais se mostrou atravessada por: dificuldades institucionais; motivações das mães e dos pais; representações sociais sobre parto e paternidade; e exclusão dos pais nos serviços de saúde reprodutiva e pediátrica. A presença dos pais não foi valorizada pela equipe nem como suporte à gestante nem como evento da paternidade. O estudo indica: a necessidade de incentivo à participação dos pais no pré-natal, parto, pós-parto e nas consultas pediátricas; a preparação das equipes para trabalho com as famílias; a ampliação da discussão social sobre paternidade e a formulação de políticas trabalhistas que garantam a presença dos pais nos serviços de saúde.Participation by fathers in the process of childbirth, an aspect of the humanization of obstetric care, helps foster the fathers' involvement in raising their children. This participation provides psychosocial support for pregnant women during labor and delivery, sharing of the experience by the couple, and father-child bonding. The focus of this ethnographic research was the impact of this process on fathers participating in childbirth at a State hospital in Rio de Janeiro, with two stages: participant observation of labor and delivery and eleven interviews with fathers who had been present at delivery. Fathers' participation was influenced by: the motivation of mothers and fathers; social representations of delivery and fatherhood; and exclusion of fathers from reproductive health and pediatrics services. The father's participation was not valued by the attending staff as either a source of emotional support for the mother or as part of fatherhood. The following are necessary: inclusion of fathers in prenatal care, delivery, and pediatrics services; the training of staff to work with the families; social discussion of fatherhood and health services policies to ensure the presence of fathers during labor and childbirth.
This paper summarizes the results of research on the role of fathers in families and family therapy with particular reference to preparation for fatherhood, father involvement in family life as a protective factor, fathers' deviant behaviour as a risk factor, fathers' communication and coping styles, fatherhood and different types of marriages, and the effects of the workplace on fathers' behaviour within the family. Available research suggests that, with respect to problem formation, the beh...
Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Altenburger, Lauren E; Settle, Theresa A; Kamp Dush, Claire M; Sullivan, Jason M; Bower, Daniel J
This study examined expectant fathers' intuitive parenting behavior and its correlates and associations with fathers' postpartum positive engagement. One hundred eighty-two expectant couples completed the Prenatal Lausanne Trilogue Play in the third trimester of pregnancy. Coders rated expectant fathers' and mothers' intuitive parenting behavior during this procedure. Expectant parents also completed surveys regarding their psychological and demographic characteristics. At 3 months postpartum, fathers completed time diaries that assessed the time that they spent in developmentally appropriate, positive engagement activities with their infants. Examination of correlates of expectant fathers' intuitive parenting behavior revealed that expectant fathers showed lower levels of these behaviors than did expectant mothers, that intuitive parenting behavior was moderately positively associated for mothers and fathers, and that individual differences in expectant fathers' intuitive parenting behavior were associated with parent demographic and psychological characteristics. In particular, expectant fathers showed greater intuitive parenting behavior when they had greater human capital and more progressive beliefs about parent roles, and when their partners had lower parenting self-efficacy. Findings also indicated that expectant fathers' greater intuitive parenting behavior was predictive of fathers' greater subsequent engagement in developmentally appropriate activities at 3 months postpartum, but only when expectant mothers demonstrated low levels of intuitive parenting behavior. PMID:25798492
Pruett, M K; Pruett, K D
To minimize many of the negative consequences of divorce, it is beneficial to support a father's ongoing involvement in his child's life. Although the research literature isn't unequivocal on this point, it does strongly suggest that men who are "visitors" do not have as much impact on their children and that visits are a poor substitute for having a parental figure. The answer lies in creating meaningful roles for noncustodial fathers that elevate men's opportunities to contribute to their children's overall development. One of the most important messages parents can impart to children is that some commitments outlive change and that working together in the child's best interests is one of them. PMID:9894071
Marceau, Kristine; Ram, Nilam; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Fisher, Phil; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.
Developmental plasticity models hypothesize the role of genetic and prenatal environmental influences on the development of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and highlight that genes and the prenatal environment may moderate early postnatal environmental influences on HPA functioning. This article examines the interplay of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences across the first 4.5 years of life on a novel index of children’s cortisol variability. Repeated measures data were obtained from 134 adoption-linked families, adopted children and both their adoptive parents and birth mothers, who participated in a longitudinal, prospective US domestic adoption study. Genetic and prenatal influences moderated associations between inconsistency in overreactive parenting from child age 9 months to 4.5 years and children’s cortisol variability at 4.5 years differently for mothers and fathers. Among children whose birth mothers had high morning cortisol, adoptive fathers’ inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children with low birth mother morning cortisol adoptive fathers’ inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability. Among children who experienced high levels of prenatal risk, adoptive mothers’ inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability and adoptive fathers’ inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children who experienced low levels of prenatal risk there were no associations between inconsistent overreactive parenting and children’s cortisol variability. Findings supported developmental plasticity models and uncovered novel developmental, gene × environment and prenatal × environment influences on children’s cortisol functioning. PMID:23947477
Mohide, P. T.
Despite improvements in the last decade, Canada's perinatal mortality rate is still higher than those of many other developed countries. Consumer expectations have increased not only for a good outcome, but also a more personal and humane process. The physician has to make a decision to be involved in prenatal care. Appropriate steps are suggested for initial assessment, genetic evaluation, and ongoing prenatal care.
Olga G Falceto
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores associados à falta de envolvimento ativo do pai nos cuidados de crianças aos quatro meses. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo famílias de 153 crianças aos quatro meses de vida, entrevistadas em suas casas por dois terapeutas de famílias. Além do envolvimento do pai nos cuidados do lactente foram examinadas características sociodemográficas, saúde mental dos pais (utilizando a escala Self Report Questionnaire-20 e avaliação com os critérios do Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV e qualidade do relacionamento conjugal (usando a escala Global Assessment of Relational Functioning do Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV. Utilizou-se regressão de Poisson para avaliar a associação entre falta de envolvimento do pai nos cuidados do filho e variáveis selecionadas. A magnitude das associações foi estimada pela razão de prevalências. RESULTADOS: Os pais de 13% dos lactentes não tinham qualquer contato com seus filhos. Entre as famílias em que os pais coabitavam (78% do total, 33% dos pais relataram não participar ativamente nos cuidados de seus filhos. Relação conjugal problemática e mãe ser "do lar" mostraram-se associadas à falta de envolvimento dos pais nos cuidados do filho. CONCLUSÕES: É alta a prevalência de famílias nas quais o pai não tem envolvimento ativo no cuidado de seu filho, ocorrendo em especial quando a relação conjugal é problemática e a mãe não tem trabalho remuneradoOBJETIVO: Identificar factores asociados a la falta del envolvimiento activo del papá en los cuidados de niños a los cuatro meses. MÉTODOS: Se realizó estudio transversal involucrando familias de 153 niños de cuatro meses de edad, y se entrevistaron en sus casas por dos terapeutas de familias en Porto Alegre (Sureste de Brasil, 1998-2000. Además de involucrar al padre en los cuidados del lactante se examinaron características sociodemográficas, salud mental de los papás (utilizando la escala Self Report Questionnaire-20 y evaluación con los criterios del Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV y calidad de la relación de pareja (usando la escala GlobalAssesment of Relational Functioning del Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV. Se utilizó la regresión de Poisson para evaluar la asociación entre falta de envolvimiento del papá en los cuidados del hijo y variables seleccionadas. La magnitud de las asociaciones fue estimada por la razón de prevalencia. RESULTADOS: Los papás de 13% de los lactantes no tenían contacto alguno con sus hijos. Entre las familias en que los papás cohabitaban (78% del total, 33% de ellos expresaron no participar activamente en los cuidados de sus hijos. La relación de pareja problemática y la mamá ser "del hogar" se mostraron asociados a la falta de envolvimiento de los papás en los cuidados del hijo. CONCLUSIONES: Es alta la prevalencia de familias en las cuales el papá no se involucra de manera activa en el cuidado de su hijo, ocurriendo en especial cuando la relación de pareja es problemática y la mamá no tiene trabajo remunerado.OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with the lack of active father involvement in infant care at four months of age. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving families of 153 infants at four months of age, interviewed in their homes by two family therapists. In addition to father involvement in infant care, sociodemographic, parental mental health (using the Self Report Questionnaire-20 scale and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria assessment and quality of couple relationship characteristics (using the Assessment of Relational Functioning from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV were analyzed. Poisson regression was employed to assess the association between lack of father involvement in child care and the variables selected. Prevalence ratio was used to estimate the magnitude of associations. RESULTS: Fathers of 13% of infants had no contact with
Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert
Using Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Data (N = 4,871), this paper examines why relationship status matters for prenatal health behaviors. The paper argues that a mother's potential investments in her child's health are conditioned by socioeconomic and interpersonal resources, including the quality of her relationship with the child's father.…
Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kotila, Letitia E.; Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N.; Bower, Daniel J.
Self-report data from 112 two-parent families were used to compare levels and predictors of four types of mothers' and fathers' engagement with their preschool-aged children: socialisation, didactic, caregiving, and physical play. Mothers were more involved than fathers in socialisation, didactic, and caregiving, whereas fathers were more involved…
Information about the influence fathers have on their children's development is provided in this booklet. Chapter One reviews research focused on father-absence and inadequate fathering. Societal expectations for fathers, paternal deprivation, children's emotional, cognitive and social development as well as sex-role adjustment are briefly…
Saleh, Mahasin F.; Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.
The purpose of this study was to examine the involvement of young fathers with their children at entry to a fatherhood program and at subsequent follow-up. Thirty-eight young fathers participated in this analysis. Using open-ended questions at intake and subsequent follow-up, they were asked to describe in their own words their relationships with…
Shulman, Shmuel; Klein, Mosha M.
Seventy-eight Israeli seventh, ninth, and eleventh graders were interviewed about their relationship with their mother and father. Results indicated that fathers spent less time with their adolescents, were less involved with them, and spent less time discussing personal and family matters with them when compared to the mothers. Adolescents…
Research in the last three decades has established a clear link between parental involvement and children's educational attainment (e.g. Fan and Chen, 2001; Desforges and Abouchaar, 2003). While most of what people know is based on mother-child interactions (Waldfogel, 2006), increased attention has been paid to the specific influences fathers and…
Dreyfus, Edward A.
Treatment of the divorced father usually follows four phases. The first phase deals with the immediate crisis of separation. The second centers on the experience of loss and dependency needs. Phase three examines beliefs, values, and social realities. Phase four focuses on issues of parenthood. There is considerable overlap. (Author)
Levant, Ronald F.; Rabinovitz, Joseph
The content and organization of an 8-week evening course for fathers, developed at Boston University, are discussed in this workshop report. Participants' characteristics that should be considered by the group leader are also discussed. The first half of the course focused on learning to listen and respond to one's child, whereas the second half…
Silverstein, Louise B.; Auerbach, Carl F.
Research on parenting shows that the stability of the emotional connections and the predictability of the caretaking relationship are the significant variables that predict positive child adjustment. Offers social policy recommendations that support men in their fathering role without discriminating against women and same-sex couples. (SLD)
Hoffman, Martin L.
Father-absent and father-present seveth graders were compared on moral attributes and overt aggression. Some evidence suggests that some but not all of the effects of father absence are attributable to the lack of a paternal model. Effects may be mediated in part by changes in the mother's child-rearing pattern. (NH)
Lucília, Sousa; M. Graça, Pereira.
Full Text Available Os avanços das técnicas de diagnóstico pré-natal, tornaram possível a identificação de alguns problemas de saúde do feto in-útero, e a determinação do risco da sua ocorrência, deixando aos pais a liberdade e responsabilidade de decidir acerca da saúde do feto, muito antes do seu nascimento. A comple [...] xidade de tais decisões coloca os casais numa encruzilhada, em que qualquer dos caminhos escolhidos marcará as suas vidas. As vivências do progenitor masculino têm sido quase ignoradas pelos investigadores, pelo que a experiência do pai continua a ser muito pouco conhecida. O presente estudo pretende conhecer e compreender os significados atribuídos pelo Pai à experiência de interrupção da gravidez, por anomalia fetal. Para isso recorremos a uma metodologia qualitativa (Grounded Theory). A amostra é constituída por 12 homens cujas esposas interromperam a gravidez no serviço de obstetrícia do Hospital S. Marcos em Braga. Os resultados apontam a interrupção de gravidez por malformação congénita, como uma experiência emocionalmente intensa, com um intenso envolvimento dos pais ao longo do processo. A tomada de decisão representou a confrontação de dúvidas e incertezas, de sentimentos ambivalentes e de dilemas morais, como consequência do investimento na gravidez e da relação afectiva que já existia com o feto. Os pais tendem a desvalorizar os seus sentimentos e as suas necessidades de apoio, centrando as suas preocupações na companheira. Os profissionais de saúde, na opinião dos pais, não só demonstram pouca sensibilidade face aos seus sentimentos e necessidades como constituem um obstáculo ao envolvimento do pai ao longo do processo. A partilha desta experiência com a esposa e o apoio mútuo entre o casal fortaleceu a relação. Os projectos de nova gravidez evidenciam a busca de um novo sentido de vida para estes pais. Estes resultados enfatizam a necessidade de um olhar mais atento sobre o impacto que este acontecimento tem na vida do pai e da importância dos profissionais de saúde neste processo. Abstract in english The development of prenatal diagnosis techniques have made possible the identification of some health problems in the inborn baby and the determination of the risk of such occurrence, leaving parents with the choice and responsibility of deciding about the fetus’ health long before the birth. The co [...] mplexity of such decisions places the couple in a crossroad and any of the chosen roads will impact their lives forever. The father´ s experience has been neglected by researchers and, as a result, their experience is not well known. This study aims to understand the meanings fathers give to the pregnancy interruption, due to congenital malformation, of their baby. A qualitative analysis was used (grounded theory). The sample includes 12 men whose wives terminated their pregnancy in the obstetric service of S. Marcos Hospital in Braga. Results show that pregnancy interruption due to congenital malformation is a very intense emotional experience, with a great involvement of fathers during the entire process. The decision making process required a confrontation of doubts and uncertainties, ambivalent feelings and moral dilemmas, as a consequence of the investment on the pregnancy and the emotional relationship that was already established with the baby. Fathers tend not to value their need for support, and centred all their worries on their mates. Health professionals, in their opinion, show low sensibility towards their feelings and needs and are seen as barriers to their involvement through the process. Sharing their experience with their mates and mutual support between the couple strengthen the marital relationship. The project of a new pregnancy revealed the search for a new meaning in these fathers’ lives. These results show the need to look in depth into the impact of this life event on the father´ s life and the role of health professionals in the process.
Cobb-clark, Deborah A.; Tekin, Erdal
This paper analyzes the relationship between having one or more father figures and the likelihood that young people engage in delinquent criminal behavior. We pay particular attention to distinguishing the roles of residential and non-residential, biological fathers as well as stepfathers. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we find that adolescent boys engage in more delinquent behavior if there is no father figure in their lives. However, adolescent girls' ...
Bastaits, Kim; Pasteels, Inge; Ponnet, Koen; Mortelmans, Dimitri
Most parenting research on paternal involvement uses data from a father perspective. Nevertheless, research on bias in father non-response is scarce. In this study, we examine the non-response bias of fathers, hypothesizing that fathers who engage in parenting studies might already be fathers who are more involved with their children than fathers who do not engage in these studies. Furthermore, we expect a double non-response bias by socio-demographic characteristics of the father, which impacts both paternal participation as well as paternal involvement. Using the multi-actor dataset from the "Divorce in Flanders"-project, which provides data from children whose fathers actually participated (N=461) as well as data from children whose fathers did not (N=137) with children reporting on paternal involvement, we are able to test our hypotheses. Results confirm our first hypothesis, indicating that non-participating fathers are significantly more uninvolved than participating fathers. Regarding our second hypothesis, an indirect effect of father's educational level and age on non-response was revealed for one out of three indicators of paternal involvement. PMID:25432601
Goodsell, Todd L.; Meldrum, Jaren T.
This research investigates the meaning of child-father attachment where the child feels close to the father but distant from the mother. A categorical-content narrative analysis was conducted of four transcripts of interviews with women who were becoming mothers for the first time and who exhibited this pattern. The analysis suggests the…
Krampe, Edythe M.
The article reconceptualizes father presence as the psychological presence of the father in the child. The article explicates the components of father presence as comprised of the following: (a) an inner sense of father in the child that orients him or her to the father; (b) the child's relationship with the personal father; (c) other family…
O envolvimento paterno e o desenvolvimento social de crianças iniciando as atividades escolares / Father involvement and the social development of children in the school-entry transition stage / La participación paterna y el desarrollo social de niños iniciando las actividades escolares
Fabiana, Cia; Elizabeth Joan, Barham.
Full Text Available Este estudo relacionou indicadores do envolvimento paterno com indicadores de desenvolvimento social dos filhos. Participaram 97 pares de pais e mães (com filhos na 1ª ou 2ª série) e 20 professoras. Para avaliar o envolvimento paterno, pais e mães responderam à Avaliação do bem-estar pessoal e famil [...] iar e do relacionamento pai-filho - Versão Paterna, e para avaliar o desenvolvimento social das crianças, os pais, as mães e as professoras preencheram o Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. Quanto maior a freqüência de comunicação entre pai e filho e de participação do pai nos cuidados e nas atividades escolares, culturais e de lazer do filho, menor o índice de hiperatividade e de problemas de comportamento e mais adequado o repertório de habilidades sociais das crianças. Os resultados indicam a provável importância do envolvimento positivo do pai para o desenvolvimento social dos filhos e os prováveis benefícios de programas para promover envolvimento paterno. Abstract in spanish En este estudio se han relacionado indicadores de la participación paterna con los de desarrollo social de los hijos y participaron 97 padres y madres (con hijos en el primero o en el segundo grado) y 20 profesoras. Para evaluar la participación paterna, padres y madres respondieron a la Evaluación [...] del bienestar personal y familiar y del reracionamiento padre-hijo - Versión Paterna y para evaluar el desarrollo social de los niños, padres, madres y profesoras completaron el Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. Cuanto mayor es la frecuencia de comunicación entre padre e hijo, de la participación del padre en los cuidados y en las actividades escolares, culturales y de ocio del hijo, menor es el índice de hiperactividad, problemas de comportamiento y mayor es el repertorio de destrezas sociales de los niños. Los resultados indican la probable importancia de la participación positiva del padre para el desarrollo social de los hijos. Abstract in english This study aimed to examine the relationships between indicators of parental involvement and their children’s social and included 97 father-mother pairs (parents of children in the first or second grade), and 20 teachers. To evaluate father involvement, fathers and mothers completed an Evaluation of [...] personal and family wellbeing and the parent-child relationship - Fathering Version, and to evaluate the children’s social development, the mothers, fathers and teachers completed the Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. The results indicate that more frequent: communication between father and child, paternal participation in child caregiving and in the child’s school, cultural and leisure activities are each associated with indicators of lower hyperactivity, fewer behavior problems and a wider repertoire of appropriate social skills. These results point to the importance of the constructive involvement of fathers for their children’s social development and the likely benefits of programs to promote father involvement.
O envolvimento paterno e o desenvolvimento social de crianças iniciando as atividades escolares La participación paterna y el desarrollo social de niños iniciando las actividades escolares Father involvement and the social development of children in the school-entry transition stage
Full Text Available Este estudo relacionou indicadores do envolvimento paterno com indicadores de desenvolvimento social dos filhos. Participaram 97 pares de pais e mães (com filhos na 1ª ou 2ª série e 20 professoras. Para avaliar o envolvimento paterno, pais e mães responderam à Avaliação do bem-estar pessoal e familiar e do relacionamento pai-filho - Versão Paterna, e para avaliar o desenvolvimento social das crianças, os pais, as mães e as professoras preencheram o Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. Quanto maior a freqüência de comunicação entre pai e filho e de participação do pai nos cuidados e nas atividades escolares, culturais e de lazer do filho, menor o índice de hiperatividade e de problemas de comportamento e mais adequado o repertório de habilidades sociais das crianças. Os resultados indicam a provável importância do envolvimento positivo do pai para o desenvolvimento social dos filhos e os prováveis benefícios de programas para promover envolvimento paterno.En este estudio se han relacionado indicadores de la participación paterna con los de desarrollo social de los hijos y participaron 97 padres y madres (con hijos en el primero o en el segundo grado y 20 profesoras. Para evaluar la participación paterna, padres y madres respondieron a la Evaluación del bienestar personal y familiar y del reracionamiento padre-hijo - Versión Paterna y para evaluar el desarrollo social de los niños, padres, madres y profesoras completaron el Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. Cuanto mayor es la frecuencia de comunicación entre padre e hijo, de la participación del padre en los cuidados y en las actividades escolares, culturales y de ocio del hijo, menor es el índice de hiperactividad, problemas de comportamiento y mayor es el repertorio de destrezas sociales de los niños. Los resultados indican la probable importancia de la participación positiva del padre para el desarrollo social de los hijos.This study aimed to examine the relationships between indicators of parental involvement and their children’s social and included 97 father-mother pairs (parents of children in the first or second grade, and 20 teachers. To evaluate father involvement, fathers and mothers completed an Evaluation of personal and family wellbeing and the parent-child relationship - Fathering Version, and to evaluate the children’s social development, the mothers, fathers and teachers completed the Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. The results indicate that more frequent: communication between father and child, paternal participation in child caregiving and in the child’s school, cultural and leisure activities are each associated with indicators of lower hyperactivity, fewer behavior problems and a wider repertoire of appropriate social skills. These results point to the importance of the constructive involvement of fathers for their children’s social development and the likely benefits of programs to promote father involvement.
Scott, Mindy E.; Booth, Alan; King, Valarie; Johnson, David R.
Research indicates that closeness of the father-child bond following parental divorce is associated with better outcomes for children and adolescents. Unlike other investigations, this study takes a long-term developmental approach to understanding stability and change in postdivorce father-adolescent relationship closeness. Drawing on Add Health…
Rita Maria Viana Rêgo
Full Text Available The participation of the father in the breastfeeding must be culturally assimilated by health professionals and by the society. This is a bibliographical descriptive and documentary study, aims to present the theoretical production in relation to the father's involvement breastfeeding in and public policy. The collected data was from 1992 to 2006 and the sources for collection were LILACS; SCIELO; MEDLINE; ADOLEC and BDEN from the Health Virtual Library– BIREME in September 2007 with the keywords: Paternity, Breastfeeding and Public Policies. Among the 140 studies found, one, published in a international magazine recommended other directions in research and Public Policies to encourage the father’s involvement. We hope that this research offers reflections and changes in the practice of nurses to take care/care in maternal and child attention in which the father is included as a participant in breastfeeding and in the mother’s and child care. Urge activities and publications to recognize the father in this process.
Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; SHAW, DANIEL S.; Harold, Gordon T.; Reiss, David
This study used a prospective adoption design to investigate effects of prenatal and postnatal parent depressive symptom exposure on child hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and associated internalizing symptoms. Birth mother prenatal symptoms and adoptive mother/father postnatal (9-month, 27-month) symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory in a sample of 192 families as part of the Early Growth and Development adoption Study. Child morning/evening cortisol levels a...
Bhana, Deevia; Nkani, Nomvuyo
Between 1996 and 2010, the percentage of African children living with their fathers in South Africa dropped from 44% to 31%, with only a third of preschool children living with their parents. Concern about the spate of father absence and its effects on children's well-being has led to a growing focus on fathers in family interventions, although there is relative silence on teenage fathers. In this paper, we draw on an interview-based study with teenage fathers living under conditions of poverty to show how their understandings of fatherhood and constructions of provider masculinity intersect with cultural demands that express both weakness and power. In expressing the desire to care and be involved with their children, and aligning with patterns of masculinity that sought enhanced options for contraceptive use based on gender-equitable relationships, we show a new direction in the making of teenage fatherhood, diverging from hierarchical gender relations where men make the decisions. These changes, however, are limited by constructions of masculinity that contradictorily reinforce provider status, gender inequalities and male patterns of sexual entitlements within a context where teenage fathers are unable to achieve the cultural status of provider masculinity. Implications are discussed in the conclusion. PMID:24592896
Eizirik, Cláudio Laks
The author discusses Freud's thinking on the role of the father, as well as that of later French theoreticians. To illustrate his remarks, he draws on the poetry of Carlos Drummond de Andrade (1912-1987), a Brazilian poet whose work often dealt with themes of the father, the family, and his own paternal relationship. The author also discusses the psychic formation of the father principle and how this may be evident in the clinical analytic setting, even when the analyst's approach privileges field theory, intersubjectivity, or other concepts emphasizing the relationship between analyst and patient. PMID:25876537
Fathers today are confronted with constantly changing ideas on theirrole as a parent. The old traditional forms of fathering i.e. the breadwinner and protector roles are being gradually replaced by a more reflexive role that places unconditional love from their children as a central theme in a new type of reflexive parenting. This article examines the role of fatherhood through the theoreticallens of reflexive modernity. It recognises that men are increasingly becoming dependant on their chil...
Dumont, Caroline; Paquette, Daniel
The broad aim of this study on father-child attachment was to verify whether the Risky Situation (RS) procedure is a more valid means than the Strange Situation (SS) procedure of predicting children's socio-emotional development, and to evaluate the moderator effect of day-to-day involvement on attachment and activation. Participants were 53…
Exalto, Niek; Cohen-Overbeek, Titia E; van Adrichem, Leon N A; Oudesluijs, Gretel G; Hoogeboom, A J M Jeannette; Wildschut, Hajo I J
An increasing number of pregnancies are presumed being terminated following prenatal detection of orofacial cleft during structural ultrasound.After examining the data and literature on this topic it is concluded that the reported cases are merely incidents. For the interpretation of prenatal detection rates a distinction should be made between isolated orofacial cleft and the frequently occurring associated form of orofacial cleft which is usually characterized by other, often major structural or chromosome anomalies. The ultrasound detection rate of the isolated form is low and varies in the literature between 18 and 56%. Together with all Dutch centres of prenatal medicine a care plan was adopted for the management of prenatally detected orofacial cleft including diagnosis (detailed ultrasound examination and karyotyping), medical support (genetic consultations, plastic surgery and psychosocial counselling) and treatment (obstetric and neonatal management). In the presence of associated major congenital anomalies termination of pregnancy may be considered before the 24th week of pregnancy. PMID:19785790
Prenatal diagnosis of de novo interstitial deletions involving 5q23.1-q23.3 and 18q12.1-q12.3 by array CGH using uncultured amniocytes in a pregnancy with fetal interrupted aortic arch and atrial septal defect.
Chen, Chih-Ping; Huang, Ming-Chao; Chen, Yi-Yung; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Chen, Yu-Ting; Su, Jun-Wei; Wang, Wayseen
We present prenatal diagnosis of de novo interstitial deletions involving 5q23.1-q23.3 and 18q12.1-q12.3 by aCGH using uncultured amniocytes in pregnancy with interrupted aortic arch and atrial septal defect in a fetus. The fetus postnatally manifested facial dysmorphisms and long slender fingers. We discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation and the consequence of haploinsufficiency of FBN2, DTNA and CELF4 in this case. PMID:24036431
Lamb, Michael E.
This paper discusses the nature of the infant social world. Infants develop attachments to both parents. Father-child and mother-child relationships are qualitatively different. They involve different types of experiences and have different implications for the child's personality development. The fathers' sex-differentiating behavior focuses the…
Stevenson, Michael R.; Black, Kathryn N.
This paper reports the results of meta-analysis of the literature addressing the effects of father-absence on both male and female sex-role development. Considering both published and unpublished papers, the analysis involved 33 studies of males and 16 studies of females which become available between 1958 and 1982 and which studied father-absence…
Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Cederbaum, Julie A.
Although mothers are widely acknowledged as the primary in-home sexual educators of children, fathers also play an important role in sexual socialization. Paternal involvement is linked to positive social and psychological outcomes; an increased father-daughter communication can delay sexual debut and decrease frequency of engagement in…
The psychological literature on how fathers' behaviors may be related to children's psychopathology has grown substantially in the last three decades. This growth is the result of research asking the following three overarching questions: (1) what is the association between family structure, and particularly biological fathers' non-residence, and children's psychopathology, (2) what is the association between fathers' parenting and children's psychopathology, and (3) what is the association between fathers' psychopathology and children's psychopathology. The three broad theoretical perspectives relevant to this literature are the standard family environment model, the passive genetic model, and the child effects model. The evidence from studies comparing the first two models seems to suggest that the origin of the association between parental divorce and children's emotional and behavioral problems is largely shared environmental in origin, as is the association between resident fathers' parenting and children's emotional and behavioral problems, according to studies comparing the standard family environment model with the child effects model. However, research needs to compare appropriately all theoretical perspectives. The paper discusses this, and also points to the importance of considering theory-driven specificity in modeling effects. PMID:20149945
Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep.
Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit
Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone; 5) prenatal T and postnatal flutamide; 6) prenatal T and postnatal rosiglitazone; and 7) prenatal T and postnatal metformin. Prenatal treatments spanned 30-90 days of gestation and postnatal treatments began at approximately 8 weeks of age and continued throughout. Blood samples were taken twice weekly, beginning at approximately 12 weeks of age to time puberty. Two-hour samples after the synchronization with prostaglandin F2? were taken for 120 hours to characterize LH surge dynamics at 7 and 19 months of age. Prenatal T females entered puberty earlier than controls, and all interventions prevented this advancement. Prenatal T reduced the percentage of animals having LH surge, and females that presented LH surge exhibited delayed timing and dampened amplitude of the LH surge. Prenatal androgen antagonist, but not other interventions, restored LH surges without normalizing the timing of the surge. Normalization of pubertal timing with prenatal/postnatal androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer interventions suggests that pubertal advancement is programmed by androgenic actions of T involving insulin as a mediary. Restoration of LH surges by cotreatment with androgen antagonist supports androgenic programming at the organizational level. PMID:25919188
Xu, Qiong; Yeung, Wei-Jun Jean
Intergenerational relationships and gender roles in China are in transition because of ideational and structural changes resulting from social movements and policies in the past half a century. Using a mixed-methods design, we examine Shanghai fathers' involvement in their adolescent daughters' lives. In contrast to traditional…
Modecki, Kathryn Lynn; Hagan, Melissa J; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene A
This study examined profiles of nonresidential father engagement (i.e., support to the adolescent, contact frequency, remarriage, relocation, and interparental conflict) with their adolescent children (N = 156) 6 to 8 years following divorce and the prospective relation between these profiles and the psychosocial functioning of their offspring, 9 years later. Parental divorce occurred during late childhood to early adolescence; indicators of nonresidential father engagement were assessed during adolescence, and mental health problems and academic achievement of offspring were assessed 9 years later in young adulthood. Three profiles of father engagement were identified in our sample of mainly White, non-Hispanic divorced fathers: Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict, Low Involvement/Moderate Conflict, and High Involvement/High Conflict. Profiles differentially predicted offspring outcomes 9 years later when they were young adults, controlling for quality of the mother-adolescent relationship, mother's remarriage, mother's income, and gender, age, and offspring mental health problems in adolescence. Offspring of fathers characterized as Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict had the highest academic achievement and the lowest number of externalizing problems 9 years later compared to offspring whose fathers had profiles indicating either the highest or lowest levels of involvement but higher levels of conflict. Results indicate that greater paternal psychosocial support and more frequent father-adolescent contact do not outweigh the negative impact of interparental conflict on youth outcomes in the long term. Implications of findings for policy and intervention are discussed. PMID:24484456
Heath, Douglas H.
The adolescent personality, adult maturity, competence, and quality of marital relations associated with paternal competence were assessed by a longitudinal study of highly educated fathers. Paternal competence was rated by the fathers and their wives. (MS)
...love and success. On Father's Day, we honor the...support and guidance. A father's absence is felt by children...that can have lasting effects. Their absence is also felt by mothers...priority. Last year on Father's Day, I announced...
Achatz, Mary; MacAllum, Crystal A.
This report is based on an intensive 18-month ethnographic study of 47 young fathers enrolled in Public/Private Ventures' Young Unwed Fathers Pilot Project. It presents a detailed look at selected aspects of the lives of these fathers before and during program participation, as well as outcomes of the pilot intervention. Following an introductory…
...lives of their children. Father's Day is a special...dedication and love. Fathers are our first teachers...we want our sons and daughters to become, and to build...An active, committed father makes a lasting difference...families cope with an absence government cannot...
East, Leah; Jackson, Debra; O'Brien, Louise
Changes in family structures have resulted in many children growing up in non-traditional families, where their father is not resident in the family home. Father absence that occurs as a result of the breakdown of the parental relationship is associated with life adversity and less than optimal outcomes for children and adolescents. However, little research exists that explores this phenomenon from the perspective of the father absent young person. This phenomenological study was conducted in 2005 and aimed to explore women's perceptions about relationships with their fathers within the context of a father absent childhood. Nine women participated in this study. Findings revealed that growing up without their father present in the family home disrupted the relationship these daughters held with their fathers. Due to the perceived lack of interest these daughters felt from their fathers, they expressed feelings of hurt and diminished respect for their fathers. Furthermore, participants felt that their fathers were unable to provide them with the father-daughter relationship that they sought. The findings of this paper provide insights that can help nurses and other healthcare professionals to recognise the emotional impact that father absence can have on young women. Findings suggest a need for further research to gain greater insights into the experiences of family members who undergo disruption of relationships due to family breakdown. PMID:17343528
Mckechnie, Anne Chevalier; Pridham, Karen
Drawing on attachment and caregiving theory and the concept of motivation, the purpose of this descriptive study was to examine parents’ retrospective accounts of their prenatal experiences after receiving the diagnosis of a fetal heart defect. These parents constituted a subgroup of participants in a larger longitudinal study of parenting an infant with a complex congenital heart defect. Data were derived from 14 semistructured interviews with 13 mothers and 3 fathers in the home or hospit...
Perception of fathers as for their involvement in activities with their children / A percepção dos pais frente ao seu envolvimento nas atividades com o(s) filho(s) / La percepción de los padres en su compromiso en las actividades con su(s) hijo(s)
Mara Regina Santos da, SILVA; Maria Emilia Nunes, BUENO; Juliane Portella, RIBEIRO.
Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo descritivo exploratório com abordagem quantitativa, que buscou identificar a percepção do pai em relação à importância das necessidades do(s) filho(s); as estratégias utilizadas pelo pai para aproximar-se do(s) filho(s); analisar a influência das tarefas domésticas e da educaçã [...] o do(s) filho(s) na vida do pai. Os sujeitos foram 92 homens com filhos de idade até seis anos, residentes na cidade de Rio Grande, RS. Os resultados apontaram um pai mais participativo nas atividades com os filhos, que valoriza a confiança, a segurança e a proximidade com a família como principais necessidades da criança, e que priorizaram os progressos dos filhos bem como a atenção para ouvir e conversar. A educação dos filhos não agrega mais problemas do que imaginavam, permitindo-lhes planejar a vida como gostariam. Esses achados mostram que, na amostra estudada, o pai está conseguindo desenvolver ações mais afetivas e direcionadas para o envolvimento com o(s) filho(s). Abstract in spanish Es un estudio descriptivo exploratorio con abordaje cuantitativo buscando identificar la percepción del padre con relación a la importancia de las necesidades de su(s) hijo(s); las estrategias utilizadas por el padre para aproximarse del hijo y analizar la influencia de tareas domésticas y educación [...] del hijo en la vida del padre. Los sujetos fueron 92 hombres con hijos de edades hasta seis años, residiendo en Rio Grande/RS. Los resultados apuntaron un padre más participativo en actividades con sus hijos, valorando confianza, seguridad y proximidad con la familia como principales necesidades para el niño, y priorizaron los progresos del hijo bien como atención para oír y conversar. La educación de los hijos no agrega más problemas que lo imaginado, consiguiendo planear la vida como les gustaría. Estos hallazgos muestran que, en la muestra estudiada, el padre está consiguiendo desarrollar acciones más afectivas y dirigidas a la participación con su(s) hijo(s). Abstract in english This is an exploratory, descriptive study with a quantitative approach and the aim to identify the perception of fathers regarding their children's needs; strategies used by fathers to get closer to their children as well as to analyze the influence of household chores and children's education in th [...] eir fathers' lives. Study subjects were 92 men with six-year-old children, residing in the city of Rio Grande, state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS). The results revealed fathers who are more engaged in activities with their children, valuing confidence, safety, as well as proximity to family as children's main needs, having prioritized the progress children make as well as attention to listening and conversation. Children's education does not aggregate more problems than they imagined, managing to plan life the way they seek to. These findings show that, in the sample studied, fathers have been able to develop more affectionate actions aimed at being more involved with their children.
Coiro, M J; Emery, R E
The important question of whether marital problems disrupt fathering more than mothering is addressed in (a) a quantitative review of evidence on marital conflict and parenting in intact families, and (b) a qualitative review of research on mother and father involvement with their children following divorce. We conclude that (a) there is limited evidence that, relative to mothering, fathering is more likely to be affected by marital conflict, but suggest that (b) marital status (i.e., divorce) affects fathering notably more than it affects mothering. We further suggest that marital problems may disrupt father involvement which, in turn, weakens the quality of father-child relationships; there likely are multiple alternative pathways through which marriage problems affect parenting, including both "spillover" and "compensation"; researchers need to examine more carefully how marital problems disrupt coparenting; child age and gender may moderate linkages between the parental and marital subsystems; and coparenting, marital happiness, and the institution of marriage itself may be essential first avenues of intervention for those who wish to improve or maintain fathers' involvement with their children. PMID:11324075
Fetal cardiac anomalies involving the ventricular and atrial septa, outflow tracts, chambers, and valves are often encountered in routine screening. However, the prenatal detection of a fetal left ventricular aneurysm is rare. This report describes the case of a left ventricular aneurysm that was diagnosed at 24 weeks of gestation; the diagnosis was later confirmed by postnatal echocardiography. This case is reported because of its rarity and the characteristic echocardiographic findings. An ...
Malmsey L.M., Sengane; Anna G.W., Nolte.
Full Text Available Midwives have been criticised for neglecting the expectations and needs of fathers. They either ignore the fathers or pressure them into becoming more involved than they would choose, if allowed to provide support to the mothers during labour. Whilst midwives are providing woman-centred care, it is [...] important that they remember to involve the fathers in decision-making and to acknowledge their role, expectations and needs, because the birth of a child is one of the most important events in a person's lifetime. This study focused on fathers' expectations of the care provided to mothers by the midwives during labour. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study design was utilised. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with fathers about the care provided to their partners or wives by midwives. Data were then analysed with an open descriptive method of coding that is appropriate for qualitative research. The results of the interviews were subsequently positioned within a holistic health-promotive nursing theory that encompassed body, mind and spirit. The results revealed that fathers saw the provision of comfort and support as the two main aspects for mothers in labour that they expected from midwives. The findings were that midwives should improve their communication skills with the mothers, as well as with the fathers if they are available. Fathers expected midwives to encourage them to accompany the mother during labour and to facilitate bonding between father, mother and baby. The results of this study should assist midwives to provide holistic quality care to mothers and fathers during labour.
D W, Jordaan.
Full Text Available Surrogacy is not regulated by a single legal instrument only, nor is confirmation of a surrogacy agreement by the High Court an unqualified green light for the surrogacy process to proceed. In the context of the HIV status of the commissioning father, whose gametes are to be used for the conception [...] of the child in pursuance of a surrogacy agreement, the intended in vitro fertilisation of the surrogate mother may only take place on condition that the commissioning father, and his semen, have been tested for HIV; that he has consented to his HIV status being made available to the surrogate mother, and if he is HIV-positive, that sperm washing will be used to minimise the risk of infection and that the surrogate mother has been informed of his HIV status, and given her informed consent.
Rosa María, González Salvat; Ignacio, González Labrador.
Full Text Available El uso del diagnóstico prenatal en la práctica de la genética médica ha hecho que se recuerden teorías eugenésicas. Se realizó una revisión histórica de este término y se relacionó con el uso del diagnóstico prenatal (DPN) y el aborto selectivo a la luz de los conocimientos bioéticos actuales. [...] Abstract in english The use of the prenatal diagnosis in the practice of medical genetics has led us to remember eugenic theories. A historical review of this term was made and it was connected with the use of prenatal diagnosis (PND) and selective abortion in the light of the present bioethical knowledge. [...
Rosa María González Salvat
Full Text Available El uso del diagnóstico prenatal en la práctica de la genética médica ha hecho que se recuerden teorías eugenésicas. Se realizó una revisión histórica de este término y se relacionó con el uso del diagnóstico prenatal (DPN y el aborto selectivo a la luz de los conocimientos bioéticos actuales.The use of the prenatal diagnosis in the practice of medical genetics has led us to remember eugenic theories. A historical review of this term was made and it was connected with the use of prenatal diagnosis (PND and selective abortion in the light of the present bioethical knowledge.
The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis
Yazici, Zeynep [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Uludag University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey); Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Rubio, Eva I.; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Linam, Leann E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Yazici, Bulent [Uludag University, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey)
Congenital dacryocystocele can be diagnosed prenatally by imaging. Prenatal MRI is increasingly utilized for fetal diagnosis. To present the radiological and clinical features of seven fetuses with congenital dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI. The institutional database of 1,028 consecutive prenatal MR examinations performed during a period of 4 years was reviewed retrospectively. The cases of congenital dacryocystocele were identified by reading the report of each MRI study. The incidence of dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI was 0.7% (n=7/1,028). The dacryocystocele was bilateral in three fetuses. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 31 weeks. The indication for prenatal MRI was the presence or the suspicion of central nervous system abnormality in six fetuses and diaphragmatic hernia in one. Dacryocystocele was associated with an intranasal cyst in six of ten eyes. Prenatal sonography revealed dacryocystocele in only two of seven fetuses. Of eight eyes with postnatal follow-up, four did not have any lacrimal symptoms. Prenatal MRI can delineate congenital dacryocystocele more clearly and in a more detailed fashion than ultrasonography. Presence of dacryocystocele was symptomatic in only 50% of our patients, supporting that prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele might follow a benign course. (orig.)
Abstract Background Fathers are intricately bound up in all aspects of family life. This review examines fathers in the presence of HIV: from desire for a child, through conception issues, to a summary of the knowledge base on fathers within families affected by HIV. Methods A mixed-methods approach is used, given the scarcity of literature. A review is provided on paternal and male factors in relation to the desire for a child, HIV testing in pregnancy, fatherhood and conception, fatherhood ...
Lázaro, López Baños; Zonia, Fernández Pérez; Luis Gustavo, García Baños; Zenia, García Cartaya.
Full Text Available El desarrollo del diagnóstico prenatal ha modificado radicalmente el manejo de los embarazos y de los resultados perinatales. Con este trabajo se pretende identificar los principales dilemas bioéticos del diagnóstico prenatal de los defectos congénitos en la provincia Artemisa. Se realizó un estudio [...] observacional, descriptivo. Los criterios para la indicación del proceder, el aborto selectivo, estatus moral del feto se identifican entre los conflictos bioéticos del diagnóstico prenatal. Se concluye que los principios generales de la bioética deben servir de base para el análisis y la solución de los dilemas que han surgido en el campo del diagnóstico prenatal y que el desarrollo tecnológico no puede cambiar los principios bioéticos, ni los valores humanos de los profesionales de la salud pública. Abstract in english The development of the prenatal diagnosis has radically modified the handling of pregnancies and of perinatal results. An observational, descriptive study is carried out with the objective of identifying the main bioethical dilemmas of prenatal diagnosis of congenital defects Artemisia. Approaches f [...] or indicating procedures, the selective abortion, and the fetus moral status are identified among the bioethical conflicts of the prenatal diagnosis.It is concluded that the general bioethics principles should serve as base for analysis and solution of these dilemmas, which have arisen in the field of prenatal diagnosis. Additionally it is concluded that technological development cannot change bioethical principles, neither human values of health professionals.
Reviews literature indicating detrimental effects of father absence on children's cognitive development as assessed by standardized IQ tests, standardized achievement tests, and school performance. (BD)
Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is an important public health problem that recurs unless it is recognized early and protection measures are implemented timely. Multidisciplinary collaboration of related professionals is of paramount importance in assessing and managing cases of child abuse and neglect. The father of the twins presented in this paper, who was employed in odd jobs as the sole bread-winner of his family of five and abused his wife also physically abused his twin children under one year of age. Although the physicians reported these children to law enforcement, the family concealed the abuse and neither the physicians nor the law enforcement reported this family to child protective services. As a consequence, a picture of recurrence of abuse with a cumulative negative medico-social outcome was observed. Since the mother declined to testify on the father abusing his children during the court proceedings, the father returned to the family after a brief incarceration. Child protective measures were established only after the forensic medicine physician interfered with the proceedings on a voluntary basis. This presentation aimed at reviewing the risk factors related to abuse and associated findings and assessment steps of abuse. In addition, these cases confirmed that every child abuse case that is missed by physicians and mismanaged legally or from child protection perspective has the potential to lead to severe, chronic abuse. Therefore, it is important that the family, law, medicine, and social services should collaborate in diagnosis and management of these cases. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 346-50
This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Let $F$ assign to each student in your math class his/her biological father. Explain why $F$ is a function. Describe conditions on the class that would...
A variety of research studies have indicated that fathers' availability and their leadership are vital to the healthy functioning of each individual in the family. One study showed that in 48 societies fathers assume an instrumental role in family life, while in only eight societies is fathering predominately an expressive function. Occasionally,…
Abendroth, Anja; Pausch, Stephanie; Bo?hm, Sebastian
This article studies the relevance of the workplace and family context as well as the experience of conflicts between the work and family domain for fathers’ preference to reduce working hours to care for their children. Previous research was not able to disentangle whether the preference to reduce working hours is related to fathers’ caring involvement or to other reasons. Integrating insights from work-family research and arguments on the relevance of the social context for preference f...
Shapiro, Adam; Lambert, James David
States that the effect of divorce on the quality of the father-child relationship and fathers' psychological well being is moderated by the residence of children. Divorce is associated with lower relationship quality only for nonresident fathers and is associated with a decline in happiness for nonresident fathers. Divorced fathers are more…
When expectant fathers are present and view labor and birth as a couple experience, they are co-laboring in one of three roles: coach, teammate, or witness. Within these roles are various degrees and types of engagement. Men in the role of coach experience high degrees of physical and mental engagement. Teammates fluctuate between high and low degrees of physical and mental engagement, and witnesses remain at low degrees of engagement until the second stage of labor, when they experience high degrees of mental engagement. The expectant fathers' experience is influenced by the labor guides' activities of gatekeeping, leading, and informing. Men either maintain or redefine their role during labor and birth. Men who experience a sense of not belonging or who are uncomfortable with their role will redefine their role by using the strategy of searching for place. Searching for place involves the steps of identifying an alternative role, engaging in the new role, testing the role, and evaluating the effectiveness of the alternative role. Men who experience a sense of belonging in their new role will maintain this role. May posed the question, "Is it time to fire the coach?" This theory, which requires further testing and validation, does address May's question. Perhaps it is not time to fire the coach, as May indicated, but it is time to provide couples with options in the role expectant fathers play during labor and birth. This theory can guide nurses in relatively risk-free interventions for the expectant father. Nurses can assist expectant fathers in finding a place in labor and birth that will enhance a mutually satisfying birthing experience. PMID:1993982
Peševski, Živorad; Sedmera, David
New York : Springer, 2013 - (Oš?ádal, B.; Dhalla, N.), s. 41-57 ISBN 978-1-4614-5202-7. - (Advances in Biochemistry in Health and Disease) R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA304/08/0615; GA ?R(CZ) GAP302/11/1308 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : chick embryo * fetal sheep * hyperplasia * hypertrophy * aortic banding * pulmonary artery banding * conotruncal banding * left atrial ligation * prenatal myocardium Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery
Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review
The classically-enhanced father protocol is an optimal protocol for a sender to transmit both classical and quantum information to a receiver by exploiting preshared entanglement and a large number of independent uses of a noisy quantum channel. We detail the proof of a quantum Shannon theorem that gives the three-dimensional capacity region containing all achievable rates that the classically-enhanced father protocol obtains. Points in the capacity region are rate triples consisting of the classical communication rate, the quantum communication rate, and the entanglement consumption rate of a particular coding scheme. The classically-enhanced father protocol is more general than any other protocol in the family tree of quantum Shannon theoretic protocols. Several previously known quantum protocols are now child protocols of the classically-enhanced father protocol. Interestingly, the classically-enhanced father protocol gives insight for constructing optimal classically-enhanced entanglement-assisted quantum...
The role of the father in the family has changed over time. Traditionally, fathers were not involved with the care and upbringing of their children, this role belonged to mothers only. Social and environmental changes have brought about the changes in family life, since women began to involve in the public sphere and politics. Due to a changed way of life, the problem regarding active parenting arouse. The role of fathers in childcare has become more and more important, and this led to greate...
Fathers\\' knowledge base and attitudes influence breastfeeding practice. We aimed to evaluate if Irish fathers felt included in the breastfeeding education and decision process. 67 fathers completed questionnaires, which assessed their role in the decision to breastfeed, knowledge regarding the benefits of breastfeeding and attitude towards breastfeeding.Forty-two (62.7%) of their partners were breastfeeding. Antenatal classes were attended by 38 (56.7%); 59 (88.1%) discussed breastfeeding with their partners and 26 (38.8%) felt that the decision was made together. Twelve (48%) fathers of formula fed infants were unaware that breastfeeding was healthier for the baby. Most fathers (80.6%) felt that breastfeeding was the mother\\'s decision and most (82.1%) felt that antenatal information was aimed at mothers only. Irish fathers remain relatively uninformed regarding the benefits of breastfeeding. This may contribute to their exclusion from the decision to breastfeed. Antenatal education should incorporate fathers more, and this may result in an improvement in our breastfeeding rates.
Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Monteiro, Daniela da Silva Alves; Pereira, Camila Moraes de Souza Camacho; Scoralick, Ana Carolina Daflon; Jorge, Mariana Gomes; do Rozario, Suelem
The scope of this article is to evaluate the association between adequate prenatal care and sociodemographic variables in Niterói in the state of Rio de Janeiro. It involved a cross-sectional study conducted between 2000 and 2009 evaluating 62,449 live births using data from the Brazilian Live Birth Information System (SINASC). Multivariate analysis by logistic regression was performed considering quantitatively adequate prenatal care - seven or more visits - as the dependent variable, and maternal age, educational level and skin color as independent variables. The time trends of mother's age, educational level and prenatal visits were also analyzed. The significance level was 5%. There was an improvement in educational level, reduction in adolescent pregnancy and an increase in mothers aged over 35 in Niterói. Women who attended seven or more prenatal visits remained above 80%, though with differences according to age, education and skin color. Adult women (OR = 1.4; IC95% 1.39-1.56). women with eight or more years of schooling (OR = 2.5; IC95% 2.45-2.70) and white women (OR = 2.4; IC95% 2.30-2.53) had more chances of adequate prenatal care. Health inequalities in maternal health care on offer in Niterói were identified, despite improvements in social and demographic indicators in the city. PMID:25014279
Buyens, A.; Gyselaers, W.; Coumans, A.; Al Nasiry, S.; Willekes, C; Boshoff, D; Frijns, J.-P.; Witters, I.
The prenatal diagnosis of fetal coarctation is still challenging. It is mainly suspected by ventricular disproportion (smaller left ventricle than right ventricle). The sensitivity of ventricular discrepancy is however moderate for the diagnosis of coarctation and there is a high false positive rate. Prenatal diagnosis of coarctation is important because the delivery can be arranged in a centre with a pediatric cardiac intensive careand this reduces postnatal complications and longterm morbid...
An understanding of basic historical and cultural concepts is a prerequisite to effective work with Latino teen fathers. The fundamental structure of the Latino family is especially important to consider in working toward solutions that are consistent with the young Latino father's cultural context. The Latino client's understanding of his personal needs is strongly linked to family concerns and pressures. Unlike the Anglo-American family, where linear movement toward increased individuation and independence is stressed, the Latino family model places a higher value on continued involvement in an extended family network. The Latino culture's familial orientation can be a strength, in that there are so many functionally connected people to form a supportive network, yet it can also present problems for service delivery because of the importance of loyalty and privacy in the family. Other important cultural values in the Latino community include the centrality of the father as a power figure and respect for the rights of others. Also essential is sensitivity to the Latino's personalized way of relating. Social workers have found that rapport can be established more readily with Latino males if self-disclosure is used to foster a personal connection. Given the power that young fathers have over the young mother's future plans, it is essential that they be included in family planning program design and outreach. Cultural sensitivity--a willingness to learn about, understand, and accept the social context of human behavior--must be a cornerstone of agency programs seeking to enlist the participation of young Latino males. PMID:12315501
McLanahan, Sara; TACH, LAURA; Schneider, Daniel
The literature on father absence is frequently criticized for its use of cross-sectional data and methods that fail to take account of possible omitted variable bias and reverse causality. We review studies that have responded to this critique by employing a variety of innovative research designs to identify the causal effect of father absence, including studies using lagged dependent variable models, growth curve models, individual fixed effects models, sibling fixed effects models, natural ...
Findings from a survey of 56,067 women in Montreal on maternal occupation and pregnancy outcome have been reported. Paternal occupation recorded in the same survey was analysed for spontaneous abortion in 24 occupational groups retaining the six main sectors of maternal occupation and allowing, by means of logistic regression, for seven potentially confounding variables. In only one of the 24 fathers' occupational groups was there a statistically significant excess of spontaneous abortions-mechanics, repairers, and certain assemblers (O/E = 1.10, 90% CI = 1.02-1.20); subdivision of this group suggested that this excess was mainly attributable to the large group of motor vehicle mechanics (O/E = 1.17). No significant excess of known chromosomally determined defects was found in any of the 24 occupational groups. An association of developmental defects was found with food and beverage processing (18 defects observed compared with 8.02 expected; p < 0.05); however, there was no specificity in type of food, beverage, or congenital defect, and no obvious explanatory mechanism. (author)
M. Genco Usta
Full Text Available The influence of prenatal stress on psychopathology has been observed in many animal and human studies. In many studies, stress during prenatal period has been shown to result in negative feedback dysregulation and hyperactivity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Prenatal stres also may cause increased risk of birth complications, startle or distress in response to novel and surprising stimuli during infancy; lower Full Scale IQs, language abilities and attention deficiency in period of 3-5 years; increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, anxiety symptoms, depressive disorder and impulsivity during adolescence. Additionally, timing of prenatal stress is also important and 12-22 weeks of gestation seems to be the most vulnerable period. The results underline the need for early prevention and intervention programs for highly anxious women during pregnancy. Administration of prenatal stress monitoring to public health programs or removing pregnant women who have been exposed to life events such as natural disaster, terror attack to secure areas that provide basic needs may be crucial.
McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Pridham, Karen
Drawing on attachment and caregiving theory and the concept of motivation, the purpose of this descriptive study was to examine parents' retrospective accounts of their prenatal experiences after receiving the diagnosis of a fetal heart defect. These parents constituted a subgroup of participants in a larger longitudinal study of parenting an infant with a complex congenital heart defect. Data were derived from 14 semistructured interviews with 13 mothers and 3 fathers in the home or hospital setting. A directed content analysis yielded a central category of preparing heart and mind for infant caregiving. Preparing heart and mind is a preliminary caregiving goal within the caregiving system that generates intentions and expectations indicative of specific caregiving motivations to relate to the baby, handle circumstances practically, and manage infant medical care. A theoretical model illustrates the prenatal process these parents engaged in to provide care to their infants with life-threatening medical conditions. PMID:22927700
Plessinger, M A
Based on findings in humans and the confirmation of prenatal exposures in animals, amphetamines and methamphetamines increase the risk of an adverse outcome when abused during pregnancy. Clefting, cardiac anomalies, and fetal growth reduction deficits that have been seen in infants exposed to amphetamines during pregnancy have all been reproduced in animal studies involving prenatal exposures to amphetamines. The differential effects of amphetamines between genetic strains of mice and between species demonstrate that pharmacokinetics and the genetic disposition of the mother and developing embryo can have an enormous influence on enhancing or reducing these potential risks. The effects of prenatal exposure to amphetamines in producing altered behavior in humans appear less compelling when one considers other confounding variables of human environment, genetics, and polydrug abuse. In view of the animal data concerning altered behavior and learning tasks in comparison with learning deficits observed in humans, the influence of the confounding variables in humans may serve to increase the sensitivity of the developing embryo/fetus to prenatal exposure to amphetamines. These factors and others may predispose the developing conceptus to the damaging effects of amphetamines by actually lowering the threshold of susceptibility at the sites where damage occurs. Knowledge of the effects of prenatal exposure of the fetus and the mother to designer amphetamines is lacking. Based on the few studies in which designer drugs have been examined in animal models, more questions are raised than answered. Possible reasons why no malformations or significant fetal effects were found in the study by St. Omer include the genetic strain of rat used, the conservative exposure profile, or the fact that the placenta metabolized MDMA before reaching the embryo. These questions underscore the need for further investigations concerning the prenatal exposure effects of designer compounds and the effects of amphetamine and methamphetamine in general. PMID:9547763
Barjaktarovi?, N; Pendi?, B; Garzici?, B; Popovic, M; Paljm, A
Prenatal detection of "Cri du chat" syndrome, as the consequence of balanced translocation 46,XY,t (5, 15) (p 13, p11) of the father, is described. A phenotipically normal child, with the same type of translocation possesed by his father was born in this family, as well as a child with "Cri du chat" syndrome. Four pregnancies were termed by spontaneous abortion. In the seventh pregnancy amniocenthesis was performed. On the basis of cell culture of amniotic fluid the diagnosis of "Cri du chat" syndrome was established. The diagnosis was confirmed by culture of peripheral blood of prematurely born foetus. Tissue cultures of some fetal organs were performed in order to find the origin of amniotic cells whose culture served for screening cytogenetic analysis. PMID:834552
Booth, Margaret Zoller
Among 80 rural Swazi children tested upon entrance to formal schooling, those whose fathers were absent for long periods because of work migration had significantly lower scores on school readiness tests than did children with fathers at home. Results were not related to sex of child or family socioeconomic status. (SV)
Borduin, Charles M.; And Others
The relationship of juvenile delinquency and father absence to family problem-solving communication was investigated using an observational method. In the results, delinquency was associated with lower rates of maternal problem solving, and father absence was associated with higher rates of maternal and adolescent problem solving. (KH)
Julio Javier, Masquijo; Silvio, Marchegiani; Victoria, Allende.
Full Text Available Introducción. El pie bot es una de las anomalías músculo- esqueléticas congénitas más frecuentes. La utilización de la ecografía para la detección prenatal del pie bot ha avanzado rápidamente en la última década, pero las publicaciones han presentado una gran variabilidad de opiniones en cuanto a la [...] eficacia del método, la asociación con otras patologías y la necesidad de realizar amniocentesis para análisis del cariotipo. Objetivos. Analizar en qué porcentaje de pacientes se realizó diagnóstico prenatal del pie bot, evaluar la opinión de las madres al respecto y aclarar algunos conceptos revisando la bibliografía disponible a la fecha. Métodos. Se analizó retrospectivamente un grupo de 54 pacientes consecutivos con diagnóstico de pie bot tratados en el período enero 2008-junio 2010. Se documentaron el número de ecografías realizadas durante el embarazo, el tipo de ecografía realizada (2D, 3D o 4D) y la semana de gestación al momento del diagnóstico. Las madres fueron encuestadas a fin de conocer su opinión con respecto al diagnóstico prenatal de esta deformidad. Resultados. Se realizaron 3,2 ecografías promedio durante el embarazo (r, 1-7). En el 25% (13/52) de los casos se realizó diagnóstico prenatal. El diagnóstico fue realizado en 7 casos con ecografía 2D, en 4 con 3D y en 2 con 4D, y en promedio se efectuó a la semana 22 (r, 20-28). En ningún paciente se llevó a cabo diagnóstico temprano, en 12 fue tardío y en 1 muy tardío. Conclusión. El diagnóstico prenatal permite a los padres de prepararse psicológicamente y asesorarse sobre la patología. En nuestra serie, el 90,4% se mostró a favor de conocer previamente el diagnóstico. Abstract in english Introduction. Clubfoot is one of the most frequent congenital musculoskeletal anomalies. The use of ultrasound for prenatal detection of clubfoot has advanced rapidly in the last decade, but publications report a great variability in opinions regarding the effectiveness of the method, the associatio [...] n with other diseases and the need to perform amniocentesis analysis of the karyotype. Objectives. To analyze the percentage of patients with prenatal diagnosis of clubfoot, evaluate mothers' opinion on this issue, and clarify some concepts by reviewing the literature available to date. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed a group of 54 consecutive patients diagnosed with clubfoot treated from January 2008 to June 2010. We documented the number of ultrasounds performed during pregnancy, type of ultrasound (2D, 3D or 4D) and the gestational week at diagnosis. Mothers were surveyed to ascertain their opinion with regard to prenatal diagnosis. Results. An average of 3.2 ultrasounds was performed during pregnancy (r, 1-7). Prenatal diagnosis was performed in 25% of cases (13/52 patients). Diagnosis was performed in 7 cases with 2-D ultrasound in 4 with 3-D and in 2 with 4-D. Diagnosis was performed on average at week 22 (r, 20- 28). No patient was diagnosed early, 12 were diagnosed late and 1 very late. Conclusion. Prenatal diagnosis gives parents the opportunity for psychological preparation and counseling regarding clubfoot. In our series, 90.4% supported prenatal diagnosis.
The changes in neurotransmitter concentration after prenatal irradiation observed earlier could also involve a modified binding capacity of corresponding receptors in the brain. Serotonin-2 receptors determined in cortex and striatum of one month old rats are increased after prenatal irradiation on day 12 or 15 but the binding constant is not changed. At an age of 3 months the changes are less conspicuous. The process of myelination as measured from the content of cholesterol, sphingomyelines, choline and ethanolamine containing phospholipids and gangliosides shows little alterations except a temporary increase in choline and ethanolamine containing phospholipids. The function of vascular fragments in total brain, in particular alkaline phosphatase, glutamate transpeptidase and uptake of deoxymethylglucose was found not to be greatly modified after prenatal exposure. From these and the previously reported data it is concluded that the late changes in brain after prenatal irradiation involve mainly the neurons but less the vascular system and myelination. (orig.)
Full Text Available Organic acidemias are the group of metabolic disorders which define by high anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypo or hyperglycemia & hyperammonemia.Because of the severity of disease in children and its fatality in severe form of disease and also need for life long treatment, prenatal diagnosis is an important diagnostic tool.Three approaches to prenatal diagnosis may be possible, including measurement of analytes in amniotic fluid or use of cells obtained by Choronic Villus sampling (CVS or amniocentesis to either assay enzyme activity or extract DNA for molecular genetic testing.Biochemical genetic testing: Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia, biotin-unresponsive3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, glutaric acidemia type 1, ketothiolase deficiency, methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblC type, and isovaleric acidemia is possible by analysis of amniotic fluid if highly accurate quantitative methods are used to measure the appropriate analytes. Amniocentesis is usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for MSUD is possible by measurement of enzyme activity in fetal cells obtained by chorionic villous sampling(CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks gestation or amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.(If cells from CVS are used, extreme care must be taken to assure that they are fetal rather than maternal cells.Molecular genetic testing:Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for all disorders is possible by analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells obtained by amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks of gestation or chorionic villous sampling (CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks of gestation. Both disease-causing allels of an affected family member must be identified before prenatal testing.Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD may be available for families in which the disease causing mutation has been identified.
Zolotor, Adam J; Carlough, Martha C
Many elements of routine prenatal care are based on tradition and lack a firm evidence base; however, some elements are supported by more rigorous studies. Correct dating of the pregnancy is critical to prevent unnecessary inductions and to allow for accurate treatment of preterm labor. Physicians should recommend folic acid supplementation to all women as early as possible, preferably before conception, to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Administration of Rho(D) immune globulin markedly decreases the risk of alloimmunization in an RhD-negative woman carrying an RhD-positive fetus. Screening and treatment for iron deficiency anemia can reduce the risks of preterm labor, intrauterine growth retardation, and perinatal depression. Testing for aneuploidy and neural tube defects should be offered to all pregnant women with a discussion of the risks and benefits. Specific genetic testing should be based on the family histories of the patient and her partner. Physicians should recommend that pregnant women receive a vaccination for influenza, be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria, and be tested for sexually transmitted infections. Testing for group B streptococcus should be performed between 35 and 37 weeks' gestation. If test results are positive or the patient has a history of group B streptococcus bacteriuria during pregnancy, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered to reduce the risk of infection in the infant. Intramuscular or vaginal progesterone should be considered in women with a history of spontaneous preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or shortened cervical length (less than 2.5 cm). Screening for diabetes should be offered using a universal or a risk-based approach. Women at risk of preeclampsia should be offered low-dose aspirin prophylaxis, as well as calcium supplementation if dietary calcium intake is low. Induction of labor may be considered between 41 and 42 weeks' gestation. PMID:24506122
Bachelard-Serra, Mathilde; Chau, Cécile; Farinetti, Anne; Roman, Stéphane; Triglia, Jean-Michel; Nicollas, Richard
Congenital bilateral dacryocystocele was diagnosed prenatally by ultrasonography in 3 female fetuses at 32.5 weeks gestation. After birth, first baby developed respiratory distress and was treated with endoscopic marsupialization of the cysts; the second baby had no respiratory symptoms and had spontaneous resolution of the cysts without surgery. The last one was expected to have a left dacryocystocele in US but the clinical examination after birth showed a bilateral lesion, with predominance on the right side and underwent an endoscopic marsupialization for nasal obstruction. Prenatal diagnosis with ultrasonography facilitated the education of the mothers and staff and helped minimize the risk of potential complications. PMID:23411136
Li, Peining; Pomianowski, Pawel; Dimaio, Miriam S.; Florio, Joanne R.; Rossi, Michael R.; Xiang, Bixia; Xu, Fang; Yang, Hui; Geng, Qian; Xie, Jiansheng; Mahoney, Maurice J.
Detection of chromosomal structural abnormalities using conventional cytogenetic methods poses a challenge for prenatal genetic counseling due to unpredictable clinical outcomes and risk of recurrence. Of the 1,726 prenatal cases in a 3-year period, we performed oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on 11 cases detected with various structural chromosomal abnormalities. In nine cases, genomic aberrations and gene contents involving a 3p distal deletion, a mar...
Coles, Claire D.
Fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are underdiagnosed in general treatment settings. Among the factors involved in identifying the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure are (1) the evidence for prenatal alcohol exposure; (2) the effects of the postnatal, caregiving environment; (3) comorbidities; and (4) differential diagnosis, which includes identifying the neurodevelopmental effects of alcohol and discriminating these effects from those characterizing other condition...
Deeney, Kathleen; Lohan, Maria; Spence, Dale; Parkes, Jackie
More fathers than ever before attend at the birth of their child and, internationally, there is a palpable pressure on maternity and neonatal services to include and engage with fathers. It is, thus, more important than ever to understand how fathers experience reproductive and neonatal health services and to understand how fathers can be successfully accommodated in these environments alongside their partners. In this paper we advance a theoretical framework for re-thinking fatherhood and health services approaches to fatherhood based on Critical Studies on Men (CSM). We illustrate the importance of this feminist informed theoretical approach to understanding the gendered experiences of fathers in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) setting in Northern Ireland. Using a longitudinal follow-up research design, with two data collection points, a total of 39 in-depth semi-structured interviews was conducted with 21 fathers of infants admitted to the NICU between August 2008 and December 2009. The findings demonstrate: (i) how men are forging new gendered identities around the birth of their baby but, over time, acknowledge women as the primary caregivers; (ii) how social class is a key determinant of men's ability to enact hegemonic forms of 'involved fatherhood' in the NICU, and; (iii) how men also encounter resistance from their partners and health professionals in challenging a gender order which associates women with the competent care of infants. An understanding of these gendered experiences operating at both individual and structural levels is critical to leading change for the inclusion of fathers as equal parents in healthcare settings. PMID:22694990
Morrell, Briyana; Tilley, Donna Scott
Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) is a psychiatric condition and form of child abuse in which a caregiver, usually a mother, induces illness in a child to gain attention for herself. Because children that are abused by a MSBP perpetrator are likely to be hospitalized multiple times, it is important for the nurse to know warning signs and symptoms of MSBP. Of particular interest is the role of the child's parent that is not involved in the abuse, usually the father. This article presents a review of literature on MSBP, focusing on the role of the nonperpetrating fathers. PMID:22703679
... factor refers to a protein found on red blood cells. If the mother is Rh negative (lacks the protein) and the father is Rh positive (has the protein), the pregnancy requires a special level of care. 3 (2) to do a blood count—hemoglobin, hematocrit (3) to test for hepatitis ...
Marsella, Anthony J.; And Others
The Parental Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) was administered to 34 wives of nuclear submarine personnel under counterbalanced conditions of father presence and absence. Significant differences were found on seven subscales as a function of the father's status. (Author/SDH)
Harry, Pachajoa L; Carolina, Isaza de L.
Full Text Available Introducción: El síndrome o secuencia de Moebius se caracteriza por la afectación del nervio facial y nervio abducens y puede estar asociado a defectos congênitos orofaciales y de las extremidades. Adicionalmente en las dos últimas décadas se han reortada una posible asociación con exposición prenat [...] al a misoprostol. Objetivo: Presentar un caso de síndrome de Moebius con cardiopatía compleja (comunicación interventricular y pseudocoartación de aorta) asociado a exposición prenatal a misoprostol. Caso clínico: Paciente de 5 años quien consulta por antecedente de retardo en el desarrollo psicomotor, anomalías craneofaciales, cardiacas y de las extremidades, con antecedente de exposición prenatal a misoprostol, a quien se le diagnóstica síndrome de Moebius. Conclusiones: Aunque la etiología de este síndrome no es clara, un mecanismo fisiopatológico involucrado es el de la hipoxia que puede ser secundario a la exposición prenatal a misoprostol. Abstract in english Introduction: Moebius syndrome/sequence is characterized by facial and abducens nerve damage and may be associated with congenital orofacial and limb defects. Additionally, in the last two decades, a possible association with prenatal exposure to misoprostol has been reported. Objective: To present [...] a case of Moebius Syndrome with complex heart disease (ventricular septal defect and pseudocoarctation of the aorta) associated with prenatal exposure to misoprostol. Case report: A 5 year old patient diagnosed with Moebius Syndrome who consulted specialists due to psychomotor retardation, craniofacial, heart and limb defects, and with a history of prenatal exposure to misoprostol is presented. Conclusions: Although the etiology of this syndrome is not clear, hypoxia is a pathophysiological mechanism involved, which can be secondary to prenatal exposure to misoprostol.
Poke, G.; Doody, M.; Prado, J.; Gattas, M.
We report a child with segmental maternal uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 6, involving most of the long arm distal to 6q16, detected by SNP microarray. Clinical features include prenatal growth restriction, global developmental delay, and severe gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 6 has previously been reported to cause intrauterine growth restriction. Paternal UPD of this chromosome is well known to cause transient neonatal diabetes mellitus....
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) and polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are genetically heterogeneous anomalies which can make up part of various syndromes or chromosomal anomalies. Due to the rapid lethality prognosis, early and precise prenatal diagnosis would be of great value. This case report describes extensive PKD involvement, already present in utero, in a patient with HPE and subdural effusion visible by MR imaging. The detailed anatomic information obtained by the MR imaging can guide the surgical planning and can aid antenatal counseling
Reviews what is known about Esperanto as a home language and first language. Recorded cases of Esperanto-speaking families are known since 1919, and in nearly all of the approximately 350 families documented, the language is spoken to the children by the father. The data suggests that this "artificial bilingualism" can be as successful as "natural…
...with homework. We see it on our playing...to success. We see it in parents working...college. And we see it in mentors and...themselves and others. As fathers...we rededicate ourselves to that important...daughters, let us show our...
Ro?. 48, ?. 162 (2008), s. 135-152. ISSN 1231-1413 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA700280504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : fathering * gender in/equality * hegemonic masculinity * shared parenting Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.118, year: 2008
Following a case study of father-daughter incest, the author comments on the prevalence of incest and describes Santa Clara County's Child Sexual Abuse Treatment Program (CSATP). The founding of CSATP, its treatment model for incestuous families, and its preliminary results are covered. (SJL)
"Tim Berners-Lee, the father of the world wide web, was awarded a knighthood for services to the internet, which his efforts transformed from a haunt of computer geeks, scientists and the military into a global phenomenon" (1/2 page).
Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige; Turkheimer, Eric; Van Hulle, Carol A.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Rodgers, Joseph L.; Emery, Robert E.; Lahey, Benjamin B.
Children raised without a biological father in the household have earlier average ages of first sexual intercourse than children raised in father-present households. Competing theoretical perspectives have attributed this either to effects of father absence on socialization and physical maturation or to nonrandom selection of children predisposed…
Shears, Jeffrey; Robinson, Joann
This study examined direct and indirect influences of fathers' reported parenting beliefs and practices on children's development. Participants included 525 fathers and mothers of toddlers enrolled in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project in 14 communities across the United States. Results show that fathers' modernity defined as…
The present longitudinal and naturalistic study aims to investigate infants' and fathers' facial expressions of emotions during pauses preceding and following spontaneous early infant-father conversation. Studying emotional expressions in the course of pauses in early infant-father interaction is important because it may extend our knowledge on…
Marsiglio, William; Hinojosa, Ramon
Drawing on qualitative in-depth interviews with 46 stepfathers, we explore how stepfathers characterize the biological father and their relations with him. We focus specifically on instances in which stepfathers directly and indirectly act like a "father ally"; that is, they presumably help the father sustain or improve his relationship with his…
Giovanoli, Sandra; Engler, Harald
Prenatal infection and exposure to traumatizing experiences during peripuberty have each been associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. Evidence is lacking for the cumulative impact of such prenatal and postnatal environmental challenges on brain functions and vulnerability to psychiatric disease. Here, we show in a translational mouse model that combined exposure to prenatal immune challenge and peripubertal stress induces synergistic pathological effects on adult behavioral functions and neurochemistry. We further demonstrate that the prenatal insult markedly increases the vulnerability of the pubescent offspring to brain immune changes in response to stress. Our findings reveal interactions between two adverse environmental factors that have individually been associated with neuropsychiatric disease and support theories that mental illnesses with delayed onsets involve multiple environmental hits.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fathers are intricately bound up in all aspects of family life. This review examines fathers in the presence of HIV: from desire for a child, through conception issues, to a summary of the knowledge base on fathers within families affected by HIV. Methods A mixed-methods approach is used, given the scarcity of literature. A review is provided on paternal and male factors in relation to the desire for a child, HIV testing in pregnancy, fatherhood and conception, fatherhood and drug use, paternal support and disengagement, fatherhood and men who have sex with men (MSM, and paternal effects on child development in the presence of HIV. Literature-based reviews and systematic review techniques are used to access available data Primary data are reported on the issue of parenting for men who have sex with men. Results Men with HIV desire fatherhood. This is established in studies from numerous countries, although fatherhood desires may be lower for HIV-positive men than HIV-negative men. Couples do not always agree, and in some studies, male desires for a child are greater than those of their female partners. Despite reduced fertility, support and services, many proceed to parenting, whether in seroconcordant or serodiscordant relationships. There is growing knowledge about fertility options to reduce transmission risk to uninfected partners and to offspring. Within the HIV field, there is limited research on fathering and fatherhood desires in a number of difficult-to-reach groups. There are, however, specific considerations for men who have sex with men and those affected by drug use. Conception in the presence of HIV needs to be managed and informed to reduce the risk of infection to partners and children. Further, paternal support plays a role in maternal management. Conclusions Strategies to improve HIV testing of fathers are needed. Paternal death has a negative impact on child development and paternal survival is protective. It is important to understand fathers and fathering and to approach childbirth from a family perspective.
Stover, Carla Smith
Legal and social service systems rarely acknowledge the status of men as fathers in the conceptualization and delivery of interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV). Large percentages of men who are arrested and mandated to intervention programs for IPV are fathers who continue to live with or have consistent contact with their young children despite aggression and substance use. There are currently no evidence-based treatments that address co-morbid substance abuse and domestic violen...
Full Text Available Orhan Pamuk’s book My Father’s Suitcase, which was published in 2007, combines of three of his speeches. They are, the speech he gave before taking the Nobel Literature Prize in 2006, the speech he gave at Oklahoma Puterbaugh Conference with the title The implied Author and In Kars and In Frankfurt his speech before taking German Publishers’ Association’s Peace Prize. In the study, only the text My Father’s Suitcase will be emphasized, the uncanniness which was created by the dilemma of the state of the teller’s and the suitcase’s being both familiar and unfamiliar to one another, son’s relation with the act of writing, contradictory states of son caused by being a son of a father who has writing habits, and dynamics of the uneasy processes caused by those contradictions will also be dwelled on. While examining this process, Freud’s concept of the uncanny will be used to demonstrate how the suitcase as an object exists both as a physical/concrete reality and also as an abstract and complicated space for meaning. For the suitcase in the text is not limited to the object itself. It is a central image containing not only the father’s manuscripts but also the foreign travels, the smell of foreign countries, hotel rooms, and the writing adventures of both the father and the son. The suitcase, seen as a physical object in the beginning of the text, becomes an uncanny object through the narrator’s account of the past experiences and finally is trapped into an ambivalence of meaning. Going back to Freud’s essay “The Uncanny,” this study examines the suitcase in the text as an uncanny object and discusses the multi layered structure of the other elements of the text contributing to this uncanniness.
Khandpur, Neha; Blaine, Rachel E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Davison, Kirsten K
Despite their expanding role in child rearing, fathers are underrepresented in child feeding research. To address this knowledge gap and encourage father-focused research, this review compiles child feeding research that has included fathers and (i) documents characteristics of studies assessing fathers' feeding practices including study design, setting, recruitment strategies, participant characteristics, theoretical models utilized and measures of child feeding, (ii) outlines general patterns in fathers' feeding practices along with similarities and differences in mothers' and fathers' feeding practices, (iii) summarizes evidence on child and parent correlates of fathers' feeding practices and (iv) generates future research recommendations. A literature review of relevant articles published up to February 2014 was conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they: (i) included fathers, or primary male caregivers, of children 2-18 years of age, (ii) measured fathers' child feeding practices or perceived role in child feeding through objective (e.g., meal observations) or subjective (i.e., fathers' self-report) methods, (iii) analyzed and presented data on fathers separately from mothers and (iv) were published in a peer reviewed journal in the English language. Twenty studies met eligibility criteria. Few studies included an operational definition of "father". Samples were generally small and focused on white, well-educated fathers, cohabiting with the child's mother. Most studies utilized self-report measures of child feeding practices that have not been validated specifically for use with fathers. Pressuring children to eat was a common feeding strategy adopted by fathers. Some differences were noted in mothers' and fathers' feeding practices; fathers were generally less likely to monitor children's food intake and to limit access to food compared with mothers. Child adiposity and a range of child and parent characteristics were associated with fathers' feeding practices. The literature on fathers' child feeding practices is scant. This review consolidates what is known to date and highlights focal areas for future research including the need to recruit diverse samples of fathers and utilize measures validated for use with fathers. PMID:24667152
Stover, Carla Smith
Legal and social service systems rarely acknowledge the status of men as fathers in the conceptualization and delivery of interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV). Large percentages of men who are arrested and mandated to intervention programs for IPV are fathers who continue to live with or have consistent contact with their young children despite aggression and substance use. There are currently no evidence-based treatments that address co-morbid substance abuse and domestic violence perpetration with emphasis on paternal parenting for fathers. This article will describe the components of a new intervention, Fathers for Change, which addresses the co-morbidity of substance abuse, domestic violence, and poor parenting in fathers of young children. Fathers for Change is unique in its focus on the paternal role throughout treatment. A case example and initial feasibility of the intervention will be described to provide an understanding of the key ingredients and the gap this intervention could fill in the field once tested in efficacy trials. PMID:23503178
Troilo, Jessica; Coleman, Marilyn
This grounded theory study examined how 20 newly divorced, nonresidential fathers manage their fatherhood identities. The theory created from this study proposes that fathers' perceptions of (a) father-child relationships, (b) how their children's fiscal needs are met, and (c) barriers to their physical interactions with their children influence…
Goldberg, Shlomit; Ringertz, Hans [Stanford University School of Medicine, Radiology Department, Stanford, CA (United States); Barth, Richard A. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Radiology Department, Stanford, CA (United States); Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States)
We present a case of horseshoe lung (HL) and esophageal atresia suspected prenatally on US imaging and confirmed with fetal MRI. Prenatal diagnosis of HL and esophageal atresia allowed for prenatal counseling and informed parental decisions. (orig.)
We present a case of horseshoe lung (HL) and esophageal atresia suspected prenatally on US imaging and confirmed with fetal MRI. Prenatal diagnosis of HL and esophageal atresia allowed for prenatal counseling and informed parental decisions. (orig.)
Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.
Prenatal medicine strives to reveal hereditary disorders and congenital malformations before delivery. The application of RIA significantly widened the spectrum of available diagnostic possibilities. We first focused our attention on determining alpha-1-fetoprotein in the amniotic fluid and the serum. We used the results of 33 examinations of the amniotic fluid and 100 samples of the blood serum to compile a graph of physiological values during pregnancy. The graph is used in assessing clinical samples in suspect congenital disorders of neural tube closure and other malformations. In the last two years we have tested testosterone determination in the amniotic fluid to ascertain prenatally the fetal sex in early pregnancy. The results were satisfactory and agreed in 70.6%. (author)
Madhavan, Sangeetha; Roy, Kevin
In this paper, we examine how low income black men in South Africa and the US work with their kin to secure fathering and ensure the well-being of children. We use ethnographic and life history data on men who fathered children from 1992-2005 to demonstrate how fathers' roles as kin workers enable them to meet culturally-defined criteria for responsible fatherhood in two contexts marked by legacies of racism, increasing rates of incarceration and HIV/AIDS, and a web of interlocking inequalities that effectively precludes them from accessing employment with good wages. Using a comparative framework based on kin work, we identify three common processes in both contexts - negotiation between maternal and paternal kin, pedifocal approach and flexible fathering - that enable men and their kin networks to secure father involvement in economically marginalized communities. We conclude with a discussion of the policy implications of our findings. PMID:24273365
Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23–37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.
Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)
Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.
Full Text Available The future of prenatal diagnosis and screening lies in developing clinical approaches and laboratory technologies applicable to genetic analyses and therapeutic interventions during embryonic development.
The future of prenatal diagnosis and screening lies in developing clinical approaches and laboratory technologies applicable to genetic analyses and therapeutic interventions during embryonic development.
Omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect at the midline characterized by herniation of abdominal contents and covered by peritoneum and amnion. The aim of this paper is to present a case of omphalocele with gestational age of 23 weeks and prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography. Using ultrasound diagnosis in a patient inquest made 40 years of age in the second trimester (gestational age 23 weeks) showed a level of the anterior fetal echogenic image that sticks through the abdominal wall and then locate the cord umbilical. Stomach is seen displaced and loss of normal anatomy of the abdominal circumference. Genetic counseling was conducted at the Municipal Center for Genetics of Manzanillo. Pathologically the fetus presented short and wide neck, low-set ears, defect omphalomesenteric of ductal closure, hernia sac occupied by the caudate lobe of the liver and gallbladder bed, wide base heart dissection showing cava-cava absence of interventricular septum was observed pulmonary valve stenosis most dilation of supravalvular pulmonary artery, large defect and aorta intraventricular septum ride, which speaks in favor of a heart rate troncoconal fallop trilogy over the omphalocele. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is an efficient and reliable method for prenatal diagnosis of omphalocele
Samuel, M; Burge, D M; Griffiths, D M
Seven infants with laryngotracheoesophageal (LTE) clefts who had abnormal prenatal fetal sonographs were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate the antenatal scan characteristics, clinical features at presentation and associated malformations. The prenatal scans demonstrated polyhydramnios, lung cysts and an absent stomach in all. The mode of delivery was by emergency lower segment cesarean section for fetal distress, in all 7 babies. The mean gestational age at delivery was 36 weeks (range 33-38) and intrauterine growth retardation was seen in 4 neonates. A combination of endoscopy, surgery and autopsy confirmed LTE cleft type 4 in 5 patients, type 3 and type 2 in a patient each. Esophageal atresia and lower pouch tracheoesophageal fistula was present in all. Agastria was seen in 4 and microgastria in 3 children. Lung abnormalities were seen in all 7 infants and they included congenital lung cysts (4 patients), absent lung lobulation (3 patients), bronchogenic cysts (2 patients), cystic adenomatoid malformation (1 patient) and bronchoesophageal fistula (1 patient). The mortality was 86% and the sole survivor had a LTE cleft type 2 which was successfully repaired. The diagnosis of LTE cleft must be considered if a prenatal scan demonstrates the triad of: (1) polyhydramnios; (2) absent stomach, and (3) presence of lung cyst. This should lead to a detailed postnatal evaluation and early diagnosis of this uncommon anomaly resulting in early counseling and suitable management. PMID:9430204
Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay
Evidence indicates that maternal prenatal distress predicts problematic health and behavioral outcomes in children as well as infant/child cortisol levels and negative emotionality as reviewed here. Evidence that these physiological and behavioral characteristics themselves moderate environmental effects on development in a "for better and for worse" manner consistent with Belsky's differential susceptibility hypothesis and Boyce and Ellis' notions of biological sensitivity to context raises the prospect that susceptibility to rearing is a function of nurture (i.e., fetal environment), consistent with Boyce and Ellis' proposal that plasticity can be shaped by developmental experience. This hypothesis is supported by new findings from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development showing that low birth weight, a marker for an adverse prenatal environment, predicts infant difficult temperament, which is a susceptibility factor that we previously showed as moderating, in a for better and for worse manner, the effects of parenting and child care quality on socioemotional functioning. Moreover, recent Gene × Environment interaction research raises the prospect that some fetuses may be more susceptible to such "prenatal programming of postnatal plasticity" as a result of their genetic makeup. If this proves true, it will be consistent with the conclusion that early developmental plasticity is a function of both nature and nurture and may be evolutionarily adaptive, a further possibility considered in the discussion. PMID:21262037
Gudex, Claire; Nielsen, Bentt LØwe
Objectives To investigate women's reasons for requesting prenatal ultrasound in the absence of clinical indications. Methods A postal questionnaire was completed by 370 pregnant women with no apparent obstetric risk factors, who had expressed a desire to have ultrasound scanning in their current pregnancy. The women were asked to indicate, from a list of 12 items, their three most important reasons for wanting scanning. Ninety per cent of the women were in the first trimester of pregnancy, and 10% in the second trimester. Results The items most frequently identified as important reasons for ultrasound were to check for fetal abnormalities (60% of women) to see that all was normal (55%) and for own reassurance (44%). Lower income was related to wanting to see the baby (P=0.028) and wanting an ultrasound picture (P=0.017); higher income was related to checking that all was normal (P=0-003) and for own reassurance (P=0.015). Women in their first pregnancy were more likely to want themselves and the father to see the baby (P=0.001); women who had given birth previously were more likely to want reassurance (P=0.002), as were women with a previous miscarriage or induced abortion. Women who believed that the presence of fetal trisomy justifies abortion or who would vote for free abortion were more likely to want to know about abnormalities (P<0.001 and P<0.004, respectively). Women in the second trimester were more likely to want to check for abnormalities (P=0.047) than those in the first trimester. Conclusions It would appear that women in normal pregnancy have specific reasons for wanting prenatal ultrasound that are influenced by sociodemographic, obstetric and attitudinal factors
Edelman, Emily A; Lin, Bruce K; Doksum, Teresa; Drohan, Brian; Edelson, Vaughn; Dolan, Siobhan M; Hughes, Kevin S; O'Leary, James; Galvin, Shelley L; Degroat, Nicole; Pardanani, Setul; Feero, W Gregory; Adams, Claire; Jones, Renee; Scott, Joan
"The Pregnancy and Health Profile," (PHP) is a free genetic risk assessment software tool for primary prenatal providers that collects patient-entered family (FHH), personal, and obstetrical health history, performs risk assessment, and presents the provider with clinical decision support during the prenatal encounter. The tool is freely available for download at www.hughesriskapps.net. We evaluated the implementation of PHP in four geographically diverse clinical sites. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted for patients seen prior to the study period and for patients who used the PHP to collect data on documentation of FHH, discussion of cystic fibrosis (CF) and hemoglobinopathy (HB) carrier screening, and CF and HB interventions (tests, referrals). Five hundred pre-implementation phase and 618 implementation phase charts were reviewed. Documentation of a 3-generation FHH or pedigree improved at three sites; patient race/ethnicity at three sites, father of the baby (FOB) race/ethnicity at all sites, and ancestry for the patient and FOB at three sites (P?prenatal clinics. Future evaluation of the PHP should include testing in a larger number of clinical environments, assessment of additional performance measures, and evaluation of the system's overall clinical utility. PMID:24616345
Carlsson, Tommy; Bergman, Gunnar; Melander Marttala, Ulla; Wadensten, Barbro; Mattsson, Elisabet
Background Prenatal screening of pregnant women in Sweden has improved the detection of major congenital heart defects (CHD). The aim was to explore parental experiences and need for information following a prenatal diagnosis of CHD. Methods Semi-structured interviews conducted with six fathers and five mothers to seven prenatally diagnosed children. Data were analyzed through content analysis. Results Three themes and 9 categories emerged. Theme 1, Grasping the facts today while reflecting on the future, containing five categories: Difficulties sorting out information when in emotional chaos; Respectful information regarding termination of pregnancy; Early information is crucial; Understanding the facts regarding the anomaly; Preparing for the future. Theme 2, Personal contact with medical specialists who give honest and trustworthy information is valued, containing two categories: Trust in information received from medical specialists and Truth and honesty is valued. Theme 3, An overwhelming amount of information on the Internet, containing two categories: Difficulties in finding relevant information and Easy to focus on cases with a poor outcome when searching the Internet. Conclusion Early and honest information in line with individual preferences is crucial to support the decisional process regarding whether to continue or terminate the pregnancy. The use of illustrations is recommended, as a complement to oral information, as it increases comprehension and satisfaction with obtained information. Furthermore, the overwhelming amount of information on the Internet calls for compilation of easily accessible and reliable information sources via the Internet. PMID:25692879
Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between lobular breast cancer and family history is not clear. The aim of the study was to possibly identifying new hereditary patterns predisposing for cancer in the different histopathologic subtypes of breast cancer, with focus on patients with lobular breast cancer and cancer in their first degree relatives. Methods In 1676 consecutive breast cancer patients detailed family history of cancer was related to histopathologic subtype of breast cancer. Results Patients with lobular breast cancer were found to be significantly positively associated with having a father diagnosed with cancer, OR 2.17 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.37-3.46. The finding persisted after excluding breast cancer in the family. Ductal breast cancer was associated with having a mother diagnosed with cancer. There was a significant association between lobular breast cancer and having a father with prostate cancer, OR 2.4 (CI 1.1-5.3. The occurrence of having a father with prostate cancer for lobular breast cancer patients was higher in the younger patient group, OR 2.9 (CI 1.1-7.8, and was still high but lost statistical significance in the older patient group, OR 1.9 (CI 0.5-7.4. The association between lobular breast cancer and a father remained significant after excluding fathers with prostate cancer, OR 1.94 (CI 1.20-3.14. Other commonly occurring tumor types in the father included sarcoma and leukemia. Conclusion We propose that lobular breast cancer is associated with having a father diagnosed with cancer, most commonly prostate carcinoma. Since the association remained after excluding family history of breast cancer, the association seems independent of classical breast cancer heredity. The association with a father diagnosed with cancer also remained after removing prostate cancer, indicating an independence from prostate cancer as well. The reason for this association is genetically unclear, but could involve sex-specific imprinting.
Perfil de adolescentes com repetição da gravidez atendidas num ambulatório de pré-natal Perfil de las adolescentes con repetición del embarazo atendidas en un ambulatorio de prenatal Profile of adolescents with repeated pregnancies attended at a prenatal clinic
Full Text Available Este trabalho identificou o perfil biopsicossocial das adolescentes com repetição da gravidez, atendidas num ambulatório de pré-natal. Os dados obtidos através do prontuário médico e entrevista foram analisados quantitativamente. Através dos resultados encontrados e de acordo com a literatura, foram selecionados, do perfil das adolescentes, fatores mais fortemente associados à ocorrência da repetição da gravidez. São eles: menarca precoce, primeira relação sexual após curto intervalo da menarca, repetência escolar, abandono escolar, ausência de ocupação remunerada, baixa renda familiar, envolvimento com parceiros mais velhos, residir com o parceiro, união consensual com o parceiro, um parceiro fixo, baixo uso de condon, história familiar de gravidez na adolescência, ausência do pai por morte ou abandono, reação positiva da família à gravidez anterior, aborto anterior, parto anterior bem conceituado pela adolescente, e ausência à revisão pós-parto anterior.Este trabajo identificó el perfil biopsicosocial de las adolescentes con repetición del embarazo, atendidas en un ambulatorio de prenatal. Los datos obtenidos por medio del prontuario médico y entrevista, fueron analizados cuantitativamente. Por medio de los resultados y de acuerdo con la literatura, fueron seleccionados, entre los perfiles de las adolescentes, factores más fuertemente asociados a la ocurrencia de la repetición del embarazo. Ellos son: menarca precoz; primera relación sexual tras corto intervalo de la menarca; repetición escolar; abandono escolar; ausencia de ocupación remunerada; baja renta familiar; envolvimiento con parejas más viejas; residir con la pareja; unión consensual con la pareja; pareja fija; bajo uso de condón; historia familiar de embarazo en la adolescencia; ausencia del padre por muerte o abandono; reacción positiva de la familia al embarazo anterior; aborto anterior; parto anterior bien conceptuado por la adolescente; y ausencia a la revisión pos-parto anterior.This study identified the biopsychosocial profile of adolescent with repeated pregnancies, who were attended at a prenatal clinic. Data were collected through patient records and interviews and were subject to quantitative analysis. Based on the obtained results and in accordance with literature, factors that are strongly associated with the occurrence of pregnancy repetition were selected in the adolescents' profiles. These are: early menarche; first sexual intercourse shortly after menarche; school repetition; school dropout; non remunerated occupation; low family income; involvement with older partners; living with the partner; consensual union with the partner; one partner; low condom use; family history of adolescent pregnancy; father's absence because of death or abandonment; positive family reaction to previous pregnancy; previous abortion; adolescent's positive concepts about previous delivery; and absence from previous postpartum consultations.
Perfil de adolescentes com repetição da gravidez atendidas num ambulatório de pré-natal / Profile of adolescents with repeated pregnancies attended at a prenatal clinic / Perfil de las adolescentes con repetición del embarazo atendidas en un ambulatorio de prenatal
Lia, Persona; Antonieta Keiko Kakuda, Shimo; Maria Celina, Tarallo.
Full Text Available Este trabalho identificou o perfil biopsicossocial das adolescentes com repetição da gravidez, atendidas num ambulatório de pré-natal. Os dados obtidos através do prontuário médico e entrevista foram analisados quantitativamente. Através dos resultados encontrados e de acordo com a literatura, foram [...] selecionados, do perfil das adolescentes, fatores mais fortemente associados à ocorrência da repetição da gravidez. São eles: menarca precoce, primeira relação sexual após curto intervalo da menarca, repetência escolar, abandono escolar, ausência de ocupação remunerada, baixa renda familiar, envolvimento com parceiros mais velhos, residir com o parceiro, união consensual com o parceiro, um parceiro fixo, baixo uso de condon, história familiar de gravidez na adolescência, ausência do pai por morte ou abandono, reação positiva da família à gravidez anterior, aborto anterior, parto anterior bem conceituado pela adolescente, e ausência à revisão pós-parto anterior. Abstract in spanish Este trabajo identificó el perfil biopsicosocial de las adolescentes con repetición del embarazo, atendidas en un ambulatorio de prenatal. Los datos obtenidos por medio del prontuario médico y entrevista, fueron analizados cuantitativamente. Por medio de los resultados y de acuerdo con la literatura [...] , fueron seleccionados, entre los perfiles de las adolescentes, factores más fuertemente asociados a la ocurrencia de la repetición del embarazo. Ellos son: menarca precoz; primera relación sexual tras corto intervalo de la menarca; repetición escolar; abandono escolar; ausencia de ocupación remunerada; baja renta familiar; envolvimiento con parejas más viejas; residir con la pareja; unión consensual con la pareja; pareja fija; bajo uso de condón; historia familiar de embarazo en la adolescencia; ausencia del padre por muerte o abandono; reacción positiva de la familia al embarazo anterior; aborto anterior; parto anterior bien conceptuado por la adolescente; y ausencia a la revisión pos-parto anterior. Abstract in english This study identified the biopsychosocial profile of adolescent with repeated pregnancies, who were attended at a prenatal clinic. Data were collected through patient records and interviews and were subject to quantitative analysis. Based on the obtained results and in accordance with literature, fa [...] ctors that are strongly associated with the occurrence of pregnancy repetition were selected in the adolescents' profiles. These are: early menarche; first sexual intercourse shortly after menarche; school repetition; school dropout; non remunerated occupation; low family income; involvement with older partners; living with the partner; consensual union with the partner; one partner; low condom use; family history of adolescent pregnancy; father's absence because of death or abandonment; positive family reaction to previous pregnancy; previous abortion; adolescent's positive concepts about previous delivery; and absence from previous postpartum consultations.
Full Text Available The article focused on the questions of how male dominance came about in theology and the church, what makes it so persistent and what can be done. It argued that patriarchy is based on androcentric ways of thinking, feeling and acting that colour all of culture and society. Patriarchy and androcentrism perpetuate the status quo through language. They provide a template for attributing meaning to reality. They still have a profound effect on theology and ecclesial institutions. This can be seen clearly in the concept of God, the ‘Almighty Father’. The article made a case for a theology that has the courage to analyse how and where it idolises the patriarchal template and that imagines a God other than the patriarchal ‘Almighty Father’: a God who walks with Her or His friends in gracious, empowering love, not ‘almighty’ but honouring the responsibility She or He gave them. The article concludes that the life of Jesus as the human being who mirrors God’s love, friendship and passion for justice inspires a different way of how God could be imagined.
How to cite this article: Bons-Storm, R., 2011, ‘Back to basics: The “Almighty Father” revisited’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 67(1, Art. #902, 5 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v67i1.902
Full Text Available During the early 1990s, George H.W. Bush was being inundated with criticism since many individuals believed he had failed to devise an effective plan for bringing the United States out of a serious economic downturn. In the years following his time in the White House, some analysts continued to dwell on Bush’s response to this recession, but there were others who elected to examine his performance in the international arena. Most of the evaluators of his foreign policy were of the opinion that he exercised great caution when he was dealing with developments on the world stage. While George W. Bush was running for president in 2000, it appeared as if he would be guided by this example that had been set by his father since he frequently scrutinized risky endeavors such as nation-building missions. However, once he won that election, a lot of comparisons could not be drawn between him and his father because he proceeded to introduce a rather ambitious agenda on the foreign front. From 2009 to the present, Barack Obama, the sitting U.S. president, has not attempted to accomplish lofty objectives as his predecessor did for eight years. Instead, he has opted to emulate the more circumspect approach of Bush’s father. Inside the following article, this bond between Barack Obama and George H. W. Bush will be looked at in a thorough fashion.
Skirton, Heather; Goldsmith, Lesley; Chitty, Lyn S
Prenatal testing based on cell-free fetal DNA in maternal serum is now possible for specific monogenic conditions, and studies have shown that the use of non-invasive testing is supported by prospective parents and health professionals. However, some ethical issues have been raised concerning informed consent and paternal rights. The objective of this study was to explore ethical aspects of the use of non-invasive prenatal diagnostic testing for autosomal recessive disorders. We used a qualitative cross-sectional design, based on Thematic Analysis, and recruited 27 individuals of reproductive age who were carriers of one of four conditions: thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis or spinal muscular atrophy. Data were collected via focus groups or interviews. Participants were aware of the potential for such tests to be viewed as routine and suggested that obtaining written consent and allowing time for consideration is needed to facilitate autonomous choice and informed consent. All participants felt that mothers should be able to request such tests, but fathers who declined carrier testing should be made aware that fetal test results may reveal their status. We suggest that a written record of consent for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis should be used as a standard to help reinforce the serious nature of the test results. Where the father's carrier status could be revealed through fetal testing, he should be made aware of this before the results are available. Health professionals should discuss with the pregnant woman the best way to manage unsought information about the father's carrier status to minimise family disruption. PMID:25351779
Stahlschmidt, Mary Jo; Threlfall, Jennifer; Seay, Kristen D.; Lewis, Ericka M.; Kohl, Patricia L.
The benefits of high-quality father-child relationships for fathers and children alike are well documented. While evidence suggests parenting programs can improve the quality of father-child relationships, few fathers participate in such programs. This qualitative study aims to fill the gap in knowledge on best practices for recruiting urban African American fathers, a group of fathers with unique parenting challenges, to parenting programs. Focus groups were conducted with 29 fathers to gain...
Blouet, Marie [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Belloy, Frederique [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); Jeanne-Pasquier, Corinne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Pathology, Caen (France); Leporrier, Nathalie [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Genetics, Caen (France); Benoist, Guillaume [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Pole Femmes-Enfants, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Caen (France)
Pai syndrome is a rare disorder that includes midline cleft lip, pericallosal lipoma and cutaneous polyp of the face. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis using sonography and MRI. We emphasize the importance of facial examination with prenatal association of midline cleft lip and pericallosal lipoma in making the diagnosis of Pai syndrome. (orig.)
Pai syndrome is a rare disorder that includes midline cleft lip, pericallosal lipoma and cutaneous polyp of the face. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis using sonography and MRI. We emphasize the importance of facial examination with prenatal association of midline cleft lip and pericallosal lipoma in making the diagnosis of Pai syndrome. (orig.)
Cavallini, Giorgio; Beretta, Giovanni; Biagiotti, Giulio; Mallus, Roberto; Maretti, Carlo; Pescatori, Edoardo; Paulis, Gianni
Objectives: The objective of this paper was to assess whether the beneficial effects of a varicocelectomy on fertility are transitory or definitive after a first fathering. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study which involved seven andrological centers. The files of 2223 patients who underwent subinguinal ligation of a high grade left varicocele for (oligo)±(astheno)±(terato)-spermia and infertility between January 1st, 2002 and January 1st 2013 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria for the patients were the following: Sperm count improvement and fathering a child after an uneventful left varicocelectomy; 745 patients were considered. Patients who had undergone three assessments for (in-) fertility: Before surgery, before the first fathering and after the first fathering were included in the study. Each assessment included: Clinical history, physical examination, two sperm analyses, bilateral scrotal Duplex scans, blood hormonal levels [follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), testosterone (T) and prolactin (PRL)]. Results: Forty patients were finally studied; they all had an improved sperm count and had fathered once after surgery. Fifteen had fathered twice and still had their sperm count increased after the second fathering. Twenty-five patients could not father twice; 13 patients had their sperm count decreased after the first fathering and 12 did not. A decrease in testicular volume and an increase in FSH paralleled the worsening of sperm concentration, motility and morphology after fathering. No other differences could be observed between the groups. Conclusions: Our data indicated that the beneficial effects of a varicocelectomy might be transitory in some cases. PMID:25657551
Johansson, Anita; Ewertzon, Mats; Andershed, Birgitta; Anderzen-Carlsson, Agneta; Nasic, Salmir; Ahlin, Arne
There is a lack of studies on mothers' and fathers' experiences of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) associated with caregiving of adult children suffering from mental disorder. A cross-sectional study was therefore carried out with 108 mothers and 43 fathers. Data were collected by means of the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Family Involvement and Alienation Questionnaire (FIAQ) and the Burden Assessment Scale (BAS). Mothers' HRQOL was affected more than fathers' and lower compared to Swedish age related norms. HRQOL was predominantly related to ratings on HADS and BAS. PMID:26001718
The Sessions on Prenatal Exposition on Ionizing Radiations was organized by the Argentine Radioprotection Society, in Buenos Aires, between 8 and 9, November 2001. In this event, were presented papers on: biological effects of ionizing radiation; the radiation protection and the pregnant woman; embryo fetal development and its relationship with the responsiveness to teratogens; radioinduced delayed mental; neonatal irradiation: neurotoxicity and modulation of pharmacological response; pre implanted mouse embryos as a model of uranium toxicity studies; hereditary effects of the radiation and new advances from the UNSCEAR 2001; doses estimation in embryo
The radiopharmaceutical administration with diagnostic or therapeutic purpose during pregnancy implies a prenatal radiation dose. The dose assessment and the evaluation of the radiological risks become relevant due to the great radiosensitivity of the fetal tissues in development. This paper is a revision of the available data for estimating fetal doses in the cases of the more frequently used radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine, taking into account recent investigation in placental crossover. The more frequent diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were analyzed according to the radiation doses implied. (author)
Oburu, Paul Odhiambo
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined differences and similarities between Kenyan mothers and fathers in attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes. DESIGN: Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 100 two-parent families in Kenya. RESULTS: Mothers were more likely to make attributions regarding adult-controlled failure in caregiving situations than were fathers, but mothers and fathers did not differ on attributions regarding uncontrollable success, child-controlled failure, or authoritarian or progressive attitudes. Moderate to large correlations were found between mothers and fathers in terms of attributions regarding uncontrollable success, authoritarian attitudes, and modernity of attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: Kenyan mothers and fathers hold very similar attributions for success and failures in caregiving situations as well as parenting attitudes. PMID:21927588
Novakov-Miki?, Aleksandra; Koprivsek, Katarina; Luci?, Milos; Belopavlovi?, Zoran; Stoji?, Sinisa; Sekuli?, Slobodan
Ultrasonography of the central nervous system is an integral part of a prenatal scan, and the development of imaging technologies has led to better diagnostic possibilities. Posterior fossa anomalies have traditionally been divided into Dandy Walke malformation, Dandy Walker variation and megacisterna magna, but this approach, due to diversity of the extensive number of possible disorders covered by this classification, unables accurate prognosis and therefore adequate counselling. An alternative approach to the classification of posterior fossa anomalies is to divide them into agenesis of the vermis, which could be partial or complete, cerebellar hypoplasia, pontocerebellar hypoplasia and cerebellar atrophy. Different ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imagining of appearances of the posterior fossa anomalies in prenatal period are discussed in the article, as well as possible syndromes and prognosis of different entities. Diversity of anomalies of the central nervous system, and in particular, subtle differences in prenatal appearances of posterior fossa anomalies, which may have major impact on the prognosis, demand a multidisciplinary approach that encompasses two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound scan, magnetic resonance imaging, infectious diseases and metabolic disorders work-ups as well as individual approach to every case involving of a team of experts in the field of perinatology, radiology, paediatrics, neurology and genetics. PMID:19623847
Full Text Available Ultrasonography of the central nervous system is an integral part of a prenatal scan, and the development of imaging technologies has led to better diagnostic possibilities. Posterior fossa anomalies have traditionally been divided into Dandy Walke malformation, Dandy Walker variation and megacisterna magna, but this approach, due to diversity of the extensive number of possible disorders covered by this classification, unables accurate prognosis and therefore adequate counselling. An alternative approach to the classification of posterior fossa anomalies is to divide them into agenesis of the vermis, which could be partial or complete, cerebellar hypoplasia, pontocerebellar hypoplasia and cerebellar atrophy. Different ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imagining of appearances of the posterior fossa anomalies in prenatal period are discussed in the article, as well as possible syndromes and prognosis of different entities. Diversity of anomalies of the central nervous system, and in particular, subtle differences in prenatal appearances of posterior fossa anomalies, which may have major impact on the prognosis, demand a multidisciplinary approach that encompasses two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound scan, magnetic resonance imaging, infectious diseases and metabolic disorders work-ups as well as individual approach to every case involving of a team of experts in the field of perinatology, radiology, paediatrics, neurology and genetics.
Alhajjat, Amir M; Strong, Beverly S; Durkin, Emily T; Turner, Lucas E; Wadhwani, Ram K; Midura, Emily F; Keswani, Sundeep G; Shaaban, Aimen F
In utero hematopoietic cellular transplantation (IUHCT) holds great promise for the treatment of congenital diseases of cellular dysfunction such as sickle cell disease, immunodeficiency disorders and inherited metabolic disorders. However, repeated failures in clinical cases of IUHCT that do not involve an immunodeficiency disease force a closer examination of the fetal immune system. While the mechanisms regulating T cell tolerance have been previously studied, the educational mechanisms leading to NK cell tolerance in prenatal chimeras remain unknown. As a low level of donor cells (1.8%) is required to induce and maintain this tolerance, it is likely that these mechanisms employ indirect host-donor interaction. This report examines donor-to-host MHC transfer (trogocytosis) as an intrinsic mechanism regulating the development and maintenance of NK cell tolerance in prenatal chimeras. The findings demonstrate that phenotypically tolerant host NK cells express low levels of transferred donor MHC antigens during development and later as mature cytotoxic lymphocytes. Further study is needed to understand how the cis-recognition of transferred donor MHC ligand influences the selection and maintenance of tolerant NK cells in prenatal chimeras. PMID:24121538
Stephanie J. Mitchell; Hilliard, Marisa E.; Mednick, Lauren; Henderson, Celia; Cogen, Fran R.; Streisand, Randi
Although fathers’ stress has been shown to have important implications for children’s health and well-being, few studies of children with type 1 diabetes have considered paternal parenting stress. The current study contributes to the literature by exploring correlates of fathers’ pediatric parenting stress in a sample of young children with type 1 diabetes. Forty-three fathers of children 2–6 years old with type 1 diabetes completed self-report questionnaires examining pediatric parenting str...
Pillemer, Karl; Munsch, Christin L.; Fuller-rowell, Thomas; Riffin, Catherine; Suitor, J. Jill
The authors examined how ambivalence toward adult children within the same family differs between mothers and fathers and whether patterns of maternal and paternal ambivalence can be explained by the same set of predictors. Using data collected in the Within-Family Differences Study, they compared older married mothers’ and fathers’ (N = 129) assessments of ambivalence toward each of their adult children (N = 444). Fathers reported higher levels of ambivalence overall. Both mothers and fa...
Avramaki Elissavet; Tsekeris Charalambos
In psychoanalysis, fathering has not received much analytical attention and only little is known about the actual impact of paternity on the development of certain psychopathology. This paper seeks to carefully examine and critically discuss the impact of fathering on psychotic individuals. It elaborates on the importance of the father in the healthy development of the children, as well as on the consequences that his absence entails for their psyche. Drawing on a Lacanian analytical ...
Pancsofar, Nadya; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Odom, Erika C.
Fathers' vocabulary to infants has been linked in the literature to early child language development, however, little is known about the variability in fathers' language behavior. This study considered associations between fathers' work characteristics and fathers' vocabulary among a sample of employed African American fathers of 6-month-old…
Elena, De Diego Allué; Ricardo, Savirón Cornudella; Mercedes, Odriozola Grijalba; Diego, Lerma Puertas; Tanit, Corbacho Garza; M. Aranzazu, Pérez Íñigo.
Full Text Available La catarata congénita (CC) es una patología poco frecuente en nuestro medio frente a los países en desarrollo donde constituye la etiología más frecuente de ceguera infantil. La prevención de deterioro visual debido a esta patología es parte del programa de la OMS cuyo objetivo es la eliminación de [...] ceguera evitable en el año 2020. Presentamos el caso de una gestante en la que el diagnóstico prenatal se realizó en la ecografía morfológica. Si somos capaces de realizar este diagnóstico podremos evitar el deterioro precoz de la función visual del recién nacido. Así, la identificación de ambos cristalinos debe de formar parte de las estructuras a reconocer de forma obligada en la ecografía morfológica. Abstract in english Congenital cataract is a rare disease in our environment opposite developing countries where it is the most frequent etiology of childhood blindness. Prevention of visual impairment due to this pathology is a part of the WHO programme whose objective is the elimination of avoidable blindness by the [...] year 2020. We present the case of a pregnant woman that prenatal diagnosis was made on mid- trimester ultrasound. If we are able to perform this diagnosis, we will be able to prevent early deterioration of visual function of the newborn. Thus, identification of both crystalline should be part of the structures to recognize in the mid- trimester ultrasound.
Dickinson, H O; Parker, L.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the sex ratio of children varies between fathers of different occupations. METHODS: The sex ratio (the ratio of the number of boys to the number of girls at birth) was calculated in relation to paternal occupation in the cohort of all 253,433 live births in Cumbria, north west England, from 1950-89. Exact binomial confidence intervals were used to estimate whether the sex ratio in each occupational category was significantly different from that for the rest o...
Stern, Edgar E.
A two-part questionnaire covering 11 dimensions of parent role and child development was administered to a group of single and a group of nonsingle mothers. Results found that singles rated a father more important than nonsingles did, but singles also rated a mother more important. (Author)
Mott, Frank L.
Used data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine extent to which presence or absence of biological fathers from home was associated with gender difference in presence or absence of children and gender differences in home environment encountered by children. Results for black children were less systematic than those for white…
Kadivar, Maliheh; Mozafarinia, Seyedeh Maryam
Fathers of preterm babies in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are under stress. Lack of knowledge about a preterm infant’s behavior challenges new fathers who may be required to make decisions about the hospitalized infant, to update concerned family and friends, and to provide support to the mother while she recovers from giving birth. The NICU nurses have the opportunity to support and guide these new fathers, although no previous research has confirmed how to do so effectively. This...
Gordon, Derrick M.; Hunter, Bronwyn; Woods, Lakeesha N.; Tinney, Barbara; Bostic, Blannie; Malone, Sherman; Kimbro, Germano; Greenlee, Dolores; Fabish, Sarah; Harris, Kenneth; Smith, Amos
This paper documents a model for outreaching, connecting, and serving low-income, ethnically diverse, non-custodial fathers. Men are engaged “where they are” by building their strengths and addressing their needs. The Male Involvement Network’s (MIN) collaborative model was created in Connecticut to help fathers become positive and healthy role models by increasing their attachment to their children and families (Smith, 2003). This clinically informed, case management model addresses th...
De Catte, Luc; De Keersmaeker, Bart; Claus, Filip
The low prevalence of fetal CNS anomalies results in a restricted level of exposure to, and limited experience for most obstetricians involved in, prenatal ultrasound. Sonographic guidelines for screening the fetal brain in a systematic way may increase the detection rate of fetal CNS anomalies, thus promoting correct referral to tertiary care centers offering patients a multidisciplinary approach to the condition. The aim of this review is to elaborate on the prenatal sonographic diagnosis and outcome of various CNS malformations. Detailed neurosonographic investigation has become available through high-resolution vaginal ultrasound probes and the development of a variety of 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound modalities, such as ultrasound tomographic imaging. In addition, fetal magnetic resonance imaging is particularly helpful in the detection of gyration and neurulation anomalies, and disorders of the gray and white matter. Isolated mild ventriculomegaly is a rather common finding with good overall outcome. With an increasing diameter of the atria, however, and especially with the presence of associated malformations, long-term neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcome is disturbed in about 15% or more of cases. In view of recent developments in fetal therapy for neural tube defects, there is a clear need for a high level of ultrasound screening, work-up and counseling in tertiary care centers to identify those cases that might benefit from in utero intervention. The failure of prosencephalic midline induction and development results in midline defects ranging from alobar holoprosencephaly to isolated corpus callosum defects. The detection of callosal abnormaties is enhanced by 3D ultrasound, but counseling on neurodevelopmental outcome remains challenging. The Dandy-Walker spectrum includes isolated megacisterna magna, Blake's pouch cyst, hypoplasia of the vermis and Dandy-Walker malformation. Except for complete agenesis of the vermis associated with fourth ventricle cyst formation, data on long-term outcomes for the various conditions is largely lacking. Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) results in the highest incidence of children born with, or developing, long-term neurologic conditions. If proof of fetal infection has been delivered, microcephaly, cortical malformations, and intraparenchymal cysts show a strong correlation with poor outcome. Fetuses with CMV-related ultrasound abnormalities might benefit from maternal transplacental treatment. The aneurysm of the vein of Galen, a vascular malformation of the brain, often results in high cardiac output failure. After neonatal arterial embolization, survival is about 50% with normal neurologic development in 36% of cases. Over 50% of intracranial tumors are teratomata, presenting as fast-growing heterogeneous solid-cystic masses with calcifications. Most intracranial hemorrhages are related to the ventricular system, and prognosis is often poor, particularly in cases involving parenchymal and subdural bleeding. Proliferation disorders of the brain are often characterized by microcephaly. Their etiology is heterogeneous and prenatal diagnosis is often made late in gestation. PMID:22242843
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to look at the understanding and perceptions of public health nurses (PHNs related to behavioral characteristics of fathers that contribute to emotional instability in mothers by reviewing abuse cases involving infants and very young children. A qualitative descriptive design was applied to the data analysis, based on a semi-structured interview administered to three experienced PHNs who had been in charge of maternal and child health services for at least five years at a public health department or health center; with the data obtained in the interview narratives analyzed. In the observations of the experienced PHNs, the behavioral characteristics of fathers who are instigators of child abuse can be classified into five categories, fathers who are: “Talking to others about marital problems without attempting to solve these by themselves”, “Working on learning about childcare seeking to correct childcare methods”, “Taking the initiative in childcare at cross purposes with mothers”, “Stressing the effort they (the fathers put into childcare”, and “Failing to notice the own family situation and problems”. The findings of the study suggest the necessity for PHNs to understand fathers, to be aware of the difficulty of building a supportive relationship with fathers, and to improve skills enabling the PHNs to help fathers form good relationships with other family members.
Hunt, Larry L.; Hunt, Janet G.
Investigates how structural circumstances condition the meaning of the father-son connection and the effects of father-absence: examining a sample of white and black adolescents, the research sought father-present/father-absent differences in personal identity and orientation toward the conventional success goals of early adulthood. (Author/JM)
Full Text Available The article focused on the questions of how male dominance came about in theology and the church, what makes it so persistent and what can be done. It argued that patriarchy is based on androcentric ways of thinking, feeling and acting that colour all of culture and society. Patriarchy and androcent [...] rism perpetuate the status quo through language. They provide a template for attributing meaning to reality. They still have a profound effect on theology and ecclesial institutions. This can be seen clearly in the concept of God, the 'Almighty Father'. The article made a case for a theology that has the courage to analyse how and where it idolises the patriarchal template and that imagines a God other than the patriarchal 'Almighty Father': a God who walks with Her or His friends in gracious, empowering love, not 'almighty' but honouring the responsibility She or He gave them. The article concludes that the life of Jesus as the human being who mirrors God's love, friendship and passion for justice inspires a different way of how God could be imagined.
Full Text Available Objective: Compare neonatal morbidities in women with no prenatal care, and women with inadequate prenatal care, to those with adequate prenatal care. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of neonatal morbidities of 3 exposure groups. Group 1: No prenatal care; Group 2: Inadequate prenatal care; Group 3: Intermediate/adequate prenatal care. Results: 2.5%, 23.3% and 74.1% of subjects (N = 264,138 were in Groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Severe neonatal morbidity was more common in Group 1, followed by Group 2, and least common in Group 3. After controlling for gestational age and birth weight, most of these differences were attenuated and not significant except for the following Group 1 vs Group 3 comparisons: meconium aspiration, odds ratio (OR 2.15 and 95% confidence interval (CI 1.39 - 3.33; suspected sepsis, OR 1.30 and CI 1.13 - 1.49; proven viral sepsis, OR 2.23 and CI 1.24 - 4.00. Conclusions: Severe neonatal morbidity was most common in those with no prenatal care followed by those with inadequate prenatal care. For most neonatal morbidities, this could largely be explained by gestational age and birth weight differences, but for some neonatal morbidities (meconium aspirations, viral sepsis and dysmorphic features the impact of no prenatal care persisted after adjustment for these factors.
Murray, Asa; Sandqvist, Karin
The effects of fathers' absence from the home on their children's educational aptitude and achievement were studied for about 9,000 Swedish children from grade 6 to age 21 years, 15 percent of whom lived only with their mothers. Low achievement in the mathematical and technical spheres characterized those with no father in the home. (SLD)
Santrock, John W.
Investigates the effects of father absence and perceived maternal behaviors on the moral behavior, judgment, and affect of preadolescent boys. Also tests for differences between sons of divorcees and widows and between boys who were at different ages at the onset of father absence. (CW)
In the process of children's talent development, fathers have been largely ignored compared to mothers who are mostly identified as the initial and primary influence for their children. Though modern fathers are becoming more engaged in childrearing and interacting more with their children and changes in family systems lead to new challenges and…
Brand, Ann E.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie
This chapter provides a review of the literature that examines the role of mothers and fathers in socializing emotion in their sons and daughters during adolescence. Within the context of this chapter, we focus on mother-father similarities, differences, and coordinated efforts in socializing the emotion of their adolescent children. Empirical…
There is very little literature that depicts the parental role of Black professional fathers positively or that samples Black participants from the upper economic strata. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into how Black professional fathers experience or perceive gender role conflict and identify clinical implications. Grounded in…
Goodship, J.; Redfearn, A; Milligan, D.; Gardner-Medwin, D; Burn, J.
We present a male infant with cranial hemi-hypertrophy, a lymphangioma, a lipoma, and epidermal naevi. A diagnosis of Proteus syndrome was made. His father had had a large lymphangioma resected from the right side of the face as a child. We propose that Proteus syndrome has been transmitted from father to son.
This paper provides a brief history of attachment research on fathers as a backdrop against which the other contributions to this volume can be viewed. Empirical research on child-father attachment progressed in four phases and began before Bowlby in 1969 published the first volume of his attachment trilogy. During each phase a different set of…
Pillemer, Karl; Munsch, Christin L.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas; Riffin, Catherine; Suitor, J. Jill
The authors examined how ambivalence toward adult children within the same family differs between mothers and fathers and whether patterns of maternal and paternal ambivalence can be explained by the same set of predictors. Using data collected in the Within-Family Differences Study, they compared older married mothers' and fathers' (N = 129)…
Cole, Pamela M.; And Others
This study examined the self-reported parenting experience and practices of women who were either incest victims of their fathers as children (n=20), whose fathers were alcoholic but not sexually abusive (n=25), or who had no known risk in childhood (n=39). Incest survivors reported less confidence and sense of control as parents. (Author/DB)
Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel V. S.; Kommor, Martin J.
Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self-interview. Nineteen were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 241 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The remaining 1,261 served as controls. Incest victims were…
Berkowitz, Dana; Marsiglio, William
Our qualitative study examines the social psychology of gay men's experiences with their procreative, father, and family identities. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 childless gay men and 20 gay men in the United States who have fathered using diverse means excluding heterosexual intercourse. By focusing on men aged 19-55 residing…
Tedder, Sandra L.; And Others
Discusses a five-session group experience within the context of establishing a support group for single custodial fathers. Includes topics of dating, remarriage, homemaking and house maintenance, and the effects of divorce on children. A follow-up showed fathers appreciated the sense of community and specific information and coping strategies.…
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Figueiredo, Barbara; Deeds, Osvelia; Ascencio, Angela; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia
Depressed pregnant women (N=126) were divided into high and low prenatal maternal dopamine (HVA) groups based on a tertile split on their dopamine levels at 20 weeks gestation. The high versus the low dopamine group had lower CES-D scores, higher norepinephrine levels at the 20 week gestational age visit and higher dopamine and serotonin levels at both the 20 the 32 week gestational age visits. The neonates of the mothers with high versus low prenatal dopamine levels also had higher dopamine and serotonin levels as well as lower cortisol levels. Finally, the neonates in the high dopamine group had better autonomic stability and excitability scores on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale. Thus, prenatal maternal dopamine levels appear to be negatively related to prenatal depression scores and positively related to neonatal dopamine and behavioral regulation, although these effects are confounded by elevated serotonin levels. PMID:18774177
Objective: Situs anomalies refer to an abnormal organ arrangement, which may be associated with severe errors of development. Due regard being given to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US), this study sought to demonstrate the in utero visualization of situs anomalies on MRI, compared to US. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 12 fetuses with situs anomalies depicted on fetal MRI using prenatal US as a comparison modality. With an MRI standard protocol, the whole fetus was assessed for anomalies, with regard to the position and morphology of the following structures: heart; venous drainage and aorta; stomach and intestines; liver and gallbladder; and the presence and number of spleens. Results: Situs inversus totalis was found in 3/12 fetuses; situs inversus with levocardia in 1/12 fetuses; situs inversus abdominis in 2/12 fetuses; situs ambiguous with polysplenia in 3/12 fetuses, and with asplenia in 2/12 fetuses; and isolated dextrocardia in 1/12 fetuses. Congenital heart defects (CHDs), vascular anomalies, and intestinal malrotations were the most frequent associated malformations. In 5/12 cases, the US and MRI diagnoses were concordant. Compared to US, in 7/12 cases, additional MRI findings specified the situs anomaly, but CHDs were only partially visualized in six cases. Conclusions: Our initial MRI results demonstrate the visualization of situs anomalies and associated malformations in utero, which associated malformations in utero, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Using a standard protocol, MRI may identify additional findings, compared to US, which confirm and specify the situs anomaly, but, with limited MRI visualization of fetal CHDs.
Full Text Available We have previously shown that male rats exposed to gestational stress exhibit phenotypes resembling what is observed in schizophrenia, including hypersensitivity to amphetamine, blunted sensory gating, disrupted social behavior, impaired stress axis regulation, and aberrant prefrontal expression of genes involved in synaptic plasticity. Maternal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse cognitive outcomes among children, as well as an increased risk for developing schizophrenia, which is characterized by significant cognitive deficits. We sought to characterize the long-term cognitive outcome of prenatal stress using a preclinical paradigm, which is readily amenable to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Rats exposed to repeated variable prenatal stress during the third week of gestation were evaluated using a battery of cognitive tests, including the novel object recognition task, cued and contextual fear conditioning, the Morris water maze, and iterative versions of a paradigm in which working and reference memory for both objects and spatial locations can be assessed (the ‘Can Test’. Prenatally stressed males were impaired relative to controls on each of these tasks, confirming the face validity of this preclinical paradigm and extending the cognitive implications of prenatal stress exposure beyond the hippocampus. Interestingly, in experiments where both sexes were included, the performance of females was found to be less affected by prenatal stress compared to that of males. This could be related to the finding that women are less vulnerable than men to schizophrenia, and merits further investigation.
Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu'usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T
The objective of this study is to describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n = 692) were categorized according to the adequacy of prenatal care utilization index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way analysis of variance and independent samples t tests. Between 2001 and 2008 85.4 % of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P = 0.02), maternal unemployment (P = 0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P = 0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initiation. Giving birth in 2007-2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 vs. 25.12 weeks; P American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007-2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912
Francesca Romana Grati
Full Text Available Chromosomal mosaicism is one of the primary interpretative issues in prenatal diagnosis. In this review, the mechanisms underlying feto-placental chromosomal mosaicism are presented. Based on the substantial retrospective diagnostic experience with chorionic villi samples (CVS of a prenatal diagnosis laboratory the following items are discussed: (i The frequency of the different types of mosaicism (confined placental, CPM, and true fetal mosaicisms, TFM; (ii The risk of fetal confirmation after the detection of a mosaic in CVS stratified by chromosome abnormality and placental tissue involvement; (iii The frequency of uniparental disomy for imprinted chromosomes associated with CPM; (iv The incidence of false-positive and false-negative results in CVS samples analyzed by only (semi-direct preparation or long term culture; and (v The implications of the presence of a feto-placental mosaicism for microarray analysis of CVS and non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS.
Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Choi, Jong Sun
Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies. Isolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encount...
Full Text Available Despite the increased recognition afforded to biological fathers as legal parents, the Children's Act 38 of 2005 still does not treat fathers on the same basis as mothers as far as the automatic allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned. This article investigates the constitutionality of the differential treatment of fathers in this respect, given South Africa's international obligations, especially in terms of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, to ensure that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing of their child. After a brief consideration of the constitutionality of the mother's position as parent, the constitutionality of the father's position is investigated, firstly, with reference to Section 9 of the Constitution and the question of whether the differentiation between mothers and fathers as far as the allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, amounts to unfair discrimination. The inquiry also considers whether the differentiation between committed fathers (that is, those who have shown the necessary commitment in terms of Sections 20 and 21 of the Children's Act to acquire parental responsibilities and rights and uncommitted fathers may amount to discrimination on an unspecified ground. Since the limitation of the father's rights to equality may be justifiable, the outcomes of both inquiries are shown to be inconclusive. Finally, the legal position of the father is considered in relation to the child's constitutional rights – the rights to parental care and the right of the child to the paramountcy of its interests embodied in Section 28 of the Constitution. While there appears to be some justification for the limitation of the child's right to committed paternal care, it is submitted that an equalisation of the legal position of mothers and fathers as far as the automatic acquisition of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, is not only justified but imperative if the constitutional rights of children are to be advanced and protected.
Tiesler, Carla M T; Heinrich, Joachim
In utero exposure to tobacco smoke has been related to numerous adverse health effects in new-borns, infants, children, adolescents and adults. The aim of this review was to summarise findings on prenatal nicotine exposure and its relationship with behavioural problems in the offspring. The majority of studies, and especially several recent epidemiological studies, observed a higher likelihood for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD symptoms in exposed subjects. However, both human and animal studies have failed to provide clear evidence on causality. Existing literature on studies investigating the association between prenatal nicotine exposure and conduct or externalising problems in the offspring suggests a causal effect. The establishment of a final conclusion concerning the relationship between prenatal nicotine exposure and internalising problems in the offspring is complicated by insufficient data and mixed results in epidemiological studies. Prenatal nicotine exposure has been associated with altered brain structure and function in human offspring, and a proposed biological mechanism is related to nicotine's adverse influence on neurotransmitter systems during brain development. In conclusion, establishing a statement on the causality of the relationship between prenatal nicotine exposure and behavioural problems in children remains a challenging task. Nevertheless, considering the results of an increasing number of studies which link prenatal exposure to nicotine to externalising problems applying different methodologies to account for confounding and in view of other adverse health effects known to be caused by this exposure, parents should consider smoking cessation. PMID:25241028
Lickenbrock, Diane M; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M
Taking an ecological systems perspective, early parent-child relationships can be affected by interactions between systems where some are more proximally linked to the child than others. Socioeconomic status, a distal factor, is associated with social functioning during childhood, but research on its association with functioning during infancy, particularly attachment, is scant and inconsistent. Moreover, it is not clear how distal factors affect infant functioning. Other systems such as marital adjustment and parenting may moderate or mediate relations between distal factors and infant attachment. The current longitudinal study (n=135) examined the role of various systems - parental resources, marital functioning, parental sensitivity and involvement - in early infancy (3-, 5-, 7-months) on infant-mother (12-months) and infant-father (14-months) attachment security. Findings supported moderating processes but in different ways for infant-mother versus infant-father dyads. Implications for future studies and interventions are discussed. PMID:25890261
Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been given to the adequacy of prenatal care use in promoting healthy outcomes for women and their infants. Adequacy of use takes into account the timing of initiation of prenatal care and the number of visits. However, there is emerging evidence that the quality of prenatal care may be more important than adequacy of use. The purpose of our study was to explore women's and care providers' perspectives of quality prenatal care to inform the development of items for a new instrument, the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire. We report on the derivation of themes resulting from this first step of questionnaire development. Methods A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 pregnant women and 40 prenatal care providers recruited from five urban centres across Canada. Data were analyzed using inductive open and then pattern coding. The final step of analysis used a deductive approach to assign the emergent themes to broader categories reflective of the study's conceptual framework. Results The three main categories informed by Donabedian's model of quality health care were structure of care, clinical care processes, and interpersonal care processes. Structure of care themes included access, physical setting, and staff and care provider characteristics. Themes under clinical care processes were health promotion and illness prevention, screening and assessment, information sharing, continuity of care, non-medicalization of pregnancy, and women-centredness. Interpersonal care processes themes were respectful attitude, emotional support, approachable interaction style, and taking time. A recurrent theme woven throughout the data reflected the importance of a meaningful relationship between a woman and her prenatal care provider that was characterized by trust. Conclusions While certain aspects of structure of care were identified as being key dimensions of quality prenatal care, clinical and interpersonal care processes emerged as being most essential to quality care. These processes are important as they have a role in mitigating adverse outcomes, promoting involvement of women in their own care, and keeping women engaged in care. The findings suggest key considerations for the planning, delivery, and evaluation of prenatal care. Most notably, care should be woman-centred and embrace shared decision making as an essential element.
Yvinec, Cédric; Ellsworth, Ryan M.; Bailey, Drew H.
Partible paternity refers to the conception belief that children can have multiple fathers (“co-fathers”) and is common to indigenous cultures of lowland South America. The nature of social relationships observed between co-fathers reveals information about the reproductive strategies underlying partible paternity. Here we analyze clan, genealogical, and social relationships between co-fathers for the Suruí, an indigenous horticultural population in Brazil. We show that co-fathers roughly assort into two separate categories. In the affiliative category, co-father relationships are amicable when they are between close kin, namely brothers and father-son. In the competitive category, relationships are more likely of avoidance or open hostility when between more distant kin such as cousins or unrelated men of different clans. Results therefore imply multiple types of relationships, including both cooperative and competitive contexts, under the rubric of partible paternity. These complexities of partible paternity institutions add to our knowledge of the full range of cross-cultural variation in human mating/marriage arrangements and speak to the debate on whether or not humans should be classified as cooperative breeders. PMID:25893150
Robert S. Walker
Full Text Available Partible paternity refers to the conception belief that children can have multiple fathers (“co-fathers” and is common to indigenous cultures of lowland South America. The nature of social relationships observed between co-fathers reveals information about the reproductive strategies underlying partible paternity. Here we analyze clan, genealogical, and social relationships between co-fathers for the Suruí, an indigenous horticultural population in Brazil. We show that co-fathers roughly assort into two separate categories. In the affiliative category, co-father relationships are amicable when they are between close kin, namely brothers and father-son. In the competitive category, relationships are more likely of avoidance or open hostility when between more distant kin such as cousins or unrelated men of different clans. Results therefore imply multiple types of relationships, including both cooperative and competitive contexts, under the rubric of partible paternity. These complexities of partible paternity institutions add to our knowledge of the full range of cross-cultural variation in human mating/marriage arrangements and speak to the debate on whether or not humans should be classified as cooperative breeders.
Alkon, Abbey; Boyce, W. Thomas; Tran, Linh; Harley, Kim G.; Neuhaus, John; Eskenazi, Brenda
The purpose of the study was to determine whether mothers’ adversities experienced during early pregnancy are associated with offspring’s autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity trajectories from 6 months to 5 years of age. This cohort study of primarily Latino families included maternal interviews at 13–14 weeks gestation about their experience of a range of adversities: father’s absence, general social support, poverty level, and household density. ANS measures of heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (parasympathetic nervous system) and preejection period (sympathetic nervous system) were collected during resting and challenging conditions on children at 6 months and 1, 3.5 and 5 years of age. Reactivity measures were calculated as the mean of the responses to challenging conditions minus a resting condition. Fixed effects models were conducted for the 212 children with two or more timepoints of ANS measures. Interactions between maternal prenatal adversity levels and child age at time of ANS protocol were included in the models, allowing the calculation of separate trajectories or slopes for each level of adversity. Results showed no significant relations between mothers’ prenatal socioeconomic or social support adversity and offspring’s parasympathetic nervous system trajectories, but there was a statistically significant relationship between social support adversity and offspring’s heart rate trajectories (p<.05) and a borderline significant relationship between socioeconomic adversity and offspring’s sympathetic nervous system trajectories (p?=?.05). Children whose mothers experienced one, not two, social support adversity had the smallest increases in heart rate reactivity compared to children whose mothers experienced no adversity. The children whose mothers experienced no social support and no socioeconomic adversity had the largest increases in heart rate and preejection period respectively from 6 months to 5 years showing the most plasticity. Mothers’ prenatal adverse experiences may program their children’s physiologic trajectory to dampen their heart rate or sympathetic responsivity to challenging conditions. PMID:24466003
Nowadays, there are a lot of divorces and consequently children, who live with one of the parents and have occasional contacts with the other one. In my diploma I want to find out what kind of relationship father and a child have after divorce, father's feelings about that relationship and the conseqences of this relationship for a father and a child. Parents decide to divorce because of different reasons. After divorce a child lives with only one parent, meanwhile he rarely sees the other on...
An in vitro test for the prenatal diagnosis of homozygous ?-thalassaemia and its application is described. The basic methodology consists in obtaining a minute specimen of placental blood by blind aspiration or foetoscopy at the 18th to 20th week of gestation, incubating a sample in the presence of 3H-leucine, separating the labelled globin chains by chromatography on sodium carboxymethyl cellulose microcolumns with 8M urea-mercaptoethanol and measuring the radioactivity associated with the ?- and ?-chains. The ?/(pre-?+?) radioactivity ratio is used as an index of adequacy of ?-chain synthesis, a value greater than 0.07 being taken as indicative of freedom from disease and a value less than 0.03 indicative of homozygous ?-thalassaemia. From 350 women seeking the test, 344 samples were tested; 269 were judged normal or heterozygous, 75 homozygous for ?-thalassaemia. Four false negatives were identified, 3 having given borderline ?/(pre-?+?) ratios. Complications leading to foetal loss fell from 16% over the first year's experience to 8% over the second and 5% over the third. The test is now judged suitable for general use and is indeed being so used
Ellis, Lee; Hoskin, Anthony W
A decade old theory hypothesizes that brain exposure to androgens promotes involvement in criminal behavior. General support for this hypothesis has been provided by studies of postpubertal circulating levels of testosterone, at least among males. However, the theory also predicts that for both genders, prenatal androgens will be positively correlated with persistent offending, an idea for which no evidence currently exists. The present study used an indirect measure of prenatal androgen exposure-the relative length of the second and fourth fingers of the right hand (r2D:4D)-to test the hypothesis that elevated prenatal androgens promote criminal tendencies later in life for males and females. Questionnaires were administered to 2,059 college students in Malaysia and 1,291 college students in the United States. Respondents reported their r2D:4D relative finger lengths along with involvement in 13 categories of delinquent and criminal acts. Statistically significant correlations between the commission of most types of offenses and r2D:4D ratios were found for males and females even after controlling for age. It is concluded that high exposure to androgens during prenatal development contributes to most forms of offending following the onset of puberty. PMID:24013770
Many prospective studies have shown that if a mother is depressed, anxious or stressed while pregnant, this increases the risk for her child having a wide range of adverse outcomes including emotional problems, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or impaired cognitive development. Although genetics and postnatal care clearly affect these outcomes, evidence for a prenatal causal component also is substantial. Prenatal anxiety/depression may contribute 10-15 % of the attributable load for emotional/behavioural outcomes.The mechanisms underlying these changes are just starting to be explored. One possible mediating factor is increased exposure of the fetus to cortisol, as has been shown in animal studies. However, the human hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis which makes cortisol functions differently in human pregnancy from in most animals. The maternal HPA axis becomes gradually less responsive to stress as pregnancy progresses. And there is only a weak, if any, association between a mother's prenatal mood and her cortisol level, especially later in pregnancy. Cytokines are alternative possible mediators. An additional explanation is that stress or anxiety causes increased transfer of maternal cortisol across the placenta to the fetus. The placenta plays a crucial role in moderating fetal exposure to maternal factors and presumably in preparing the fetus for the environment in which it is going to find itself. There is some evidence in both rat models and in humans that prenatal stress can reduce placental 11?-HSD2, the enzyme which metabolises cortisol to inactive cortisone. The level of cortisol in the amniotic fluid, surrounding the baby in the womb, has been shown to be inversely correlated with infant cognitive development. However, several other biological systems are likely to be involved. Serotonin is another possible mediator of prenatal stress induced programming effects on offspring neurocognitive and behavioural development. The role of epigenetic changes in mediating alterations in offspring outcome following prenatal stress is likely to be important and starting to be explored. PMID:25287545
Kindler, Heinz; Grossmann, Karin
A supportive father as well as a supportive mother may foster offspring's healthy development. But what the behavior of a supportive parent looks like may in part depend upon whether the parent is a mother or a father. From the beginnings of empirical research on fathers, the father's role in traditional western families has been conceptualized as…
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the similarities and differences in goals valuation in father’s and children’s life. According to the motivative Self-Determination Theory (Deci, Ryan, 2000 the aspirations were divided into two groups: external goals (i.e. finance, power, fame and internal goals (i.e. affiliation and prosocial goals. The results suggest that teens, unlike their fathers, estimate higher affiliation goals. The report also shows (in both groups relations between three categories of goals: prosocial, close relationships and self- acceptance.
Arbeev, Konstantin G.; Hunt, Steven C.; Kimura, Masayuki; Aviv, Abraham; Anatoliy I. Yashin
Recent studies have reported that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is longer in offspring of older fathers. Longer telomeres might increase cancer risk. We examined the relation of father’s age at the birth of the offspring (FAB) with LTL in the offspring in 2177 participants of the Family Heart Study and the probability of developing breast cancer in 1405 women from the Framingham Heart Study (offspring cohort). For each year of increase in FAB (adjusted for mother’s age at birth), LTLs i...
Gay, Caryl L.; Lee, Kathryn A.; Lee, Shih-Yu
The purpose of this study was to describe the sleep patterns and fatigue of both mothers and fathers before and after childbirth. The authors used wrist actigraphy and questionnaires to estimate sleep and fatigue in 72 couples during their last month of pregnancy and 1st month postpartum. Both parents experienced more sleep disruption at night during the postpartum period as compared to the last month of pregnancy. Compared to fathers, with their stable 24-h sleep patterns over time, mothers ...
The main research question of this article is whether and how predictors of fathers' participation in childcare, defined as zero versus more than zero minutes of childcare, differ from predictors of participating fathers' amount of time on childcare, measured as minutes on the survey day. The sample is drawn from the Multinational Time Use Study (MTUS) and covers surveys from ten industrialised countries from 1987 to 2005. Results show that there are remarkable differences between factors inf...
O'Halloran, Maeve; Sweeney, John; Doody, Owen
This study explores Irish fathers’ perceptions of parenting a child with Asperger syndrome (AS). Ethical approval was granted by the service provider, and Husserlian phenomenological approach facilitated the exploration. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews of nine fathers in the West region of Ireland. Data were transcribed and analysed using Colaizzi’s (1978) method. The study highlighted that parenting a child with AS is an arduous task, but while there...
Within childbirth education circles, catering effectively to the needs of expectant fathers who attend antenatal education programs has become an issue of concern. This article reviews the literature on all-male discussion groups for expectant fathers as a strategy to address identified deficits in relation to the inclusion of men within existing program structures. An exploration of the attributes considered appropriate for those who facilitate such groups is undertaken, and the article conc...
Planalp, Elizabeth M.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.
The degree to which parent sensitivity and infant temperament distinguish attachment classification was examined. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effect of parent sensitivity and infant temperament on infant–mother and infant–father attachment. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, and their infants (N = 135) when the infant was 3-, 5-, 7-, 12-, and 14-months old. Temperament was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003); parent ...
Richter, Linda; Chikovore, Jeremiah; Makusha, Tawanda
This paper begins with estimates of fatherhood in South Africa, in the absence of formal measures of paternity. It highlights several salient features of fatherhood in the country, particularly low rates of marriages and father absence from households, and it traces their roots in colonialism and Apartheid, the political system in South Africa under which Black people were systematically oppressed. We point out that some forms of father absence illustrate the commitment of men to supporting t...
Full Text Available This article tries to show that early Church Fathers didn´t take the basic presuppositions of their theology from the Scriptures but from Greek philosophy. Furthermore, it demonstrates that they resorted to Greek philosophy to justify their procedure. In doing so, they abandoned the biblical identit [...] y of Christianity. Specifically, this article evinces it through a study of the early Church Father's doctrine of God and Christ, and St. Augustine's doctrine of the creation of the world.
Chris L, de Wet.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the views of the three Cappadocian fathers, namely Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nyssa, and Gregory of Nazianzus, on how to manage slaves. The article approaches slaveholding as a habitus. Firstly, Basil of Caesarea's views are examined. Basil's views on sla [...] ve management were based on the principle that slaves should still remain obedient and submissive to their masters, but that masters should treat their slaves justly. He especially discusses slave management as the management of wealth and sexuality. Secondly, Gregory of Nazianzus's views, especially from his testament, highlighted the importance of managing slaves after death. It is also a window into the realities of clerics and churches managing slancient treatise against mastery and the viceves. Finally, Gregory of Nyssa's fourth homily on Ecclesiastes can be described as the ancienttreatise against mastery and the vice of pride, since this is the angle from which he criticises slave management. The homily is indeed proof that ancient authors were able to think outside the habitus of Roman slaveholding.
Full Text Available When we review the history of modern aesthetic surgery, a name that stands out as bright as a beacon and precious as gold is undoubtedly that of Jacques Joseph. A surgeon, par excellence, far ahead of his time, who chose to think out of the box, Joseph, despite all odds set out to give respectability to Aesthetic Surgery without depriving it of any scientific core values. By his words and deeds proved beyond doubt that only the very best in the field of reconstructive surgery, can visualize the hidden perfection in imperfection and formulate a treatment plan and a surgical strategy to achieve that elusive perfection. The rich surgical literature that he has left behind, the wealth of surgical instruments that he had designed and above all a way of thinking that he propagated, that aesthetic surgery is not frivolous but very serious endeavor, and treating the psychology of the patient is as important as treating his disease, undoubtedly makes him the revered ?Father of Modern Aesthetic Surgery?.
Iris Andrea, Rojas Betancourt; Arianne, Llamos Paneque; Beatriz, Marcheco Teruel.
Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es presentar una propuesta de premisas éticas para la práctica del diagnóstico prenatal de defectos congénitos. Se realizó un estudio sistemático, profundo y crítico sobre el tema y sobre los resultados de investigaciones realizadas en población cubana y los derivados de [...] talleres realizados con la participación de especialistas de la Red Nacional de Genética Médica; para su elaboración se tuvieron en cuenta los principios éticos más universalmente aceptados y recomendados por la OMS y otros organismos internacionales, así como las resoluciones y leyes cubanas relacionadas con este tema. Se presentan normativas generales, sobre el diagnóstico prenatal y el aborto selectivo, el asesoramiento genético y el revelado de información; esta propuesta se complementa con otras normativas propias de la investigación científica y relacionadas con el consentimiento informado, las investigaciones que involucran pacientes, aspectos de la ética profesional y de las publicaciones científicas. Estas normativas en su conjunto conforman las premisas éticas que garantizan el respeto a los derechos y a la dignidad de las personas que son atendidas en los servicios de asesoramiento genético y diagnóstico prenatal y formarán parte de un manual para la provisión de servicios en la red de genética médica de Cuba. Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to submit a proposal of ethical premises for prenatal diagnosis of congenital defects. An in-depth systematic and critical study was conducted on the topic and on the results of research works carried out with the Cuban population and those of workshops where the Nati [...] onal Network of Medical Genetics experts participated. For their preparation, the universally accepted ethical principles that are recommended by WHO and other international bodies, as well as the Cuban resolutions and laws in this regard were all taken into account. Some general standards on prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion and on the approach to genetic counseling and the disclosure of information were presented. This proposal was supplemented with other standards inherent to the scientific research, since during prenatal diagnosis practice, some research works can emerge, the results of which may be published, that is, informed consent, research involving patients, ethical aspects of scientific publications and professional ethics elements. These standards are the ethical premises that guarantee the respect to the rights and to the dignity of those persons who are served by the genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis services, and will be part of a manual for the provision of services in the medical genetic network of Cuba.
Paula, D O
The purpose of this work is to identify the place where the father is at the time his son/daughter is being born and his perceptions about this place. This study has a qualitative nature and the Minayo's (1996) reference of speech analysis is used. In order to do it, twenty-three fathers whose children have been born within the present year were interviewed. The approach was direct and they were interviewed in public places. We verified that only seven fathers were present at the moment of parturition, and that among them, only one had his wife's delivery assisted by the SUS. The other interviewed fathers were absent from their children's birthplace. The conclusion is that in spite of all the encouragement given to the father by the correspondent bibliography to be present at the moment of his children's birth for a precocious father-baby interaction, reality shows us that, especially in hospitals where one can be assisted by the SUS, men are excluded from this very important moment. PMID:12143804
Al-Hassan, Suha; Takash, Hanan
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined mean level similarities and differences as well as correlations between mothers' and fathers' attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes in Jordan. DESIGN: Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 112 families. RESULTS: There were no significant main effects of gender on any of the constructs of interest. Mothers and fathers reported similar levels of attributions regarding uncontrollable success, adult-controlled failure, and child-controlled failure in the same family. Regarding attitudes, mothers and fathers reported greater progressive attitudes than authoritarian attitudes. Large, significant correlations were found for concordance between parents in the same family on all seven attributions and attitudes examined; all remained significant after controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Significant positive correlations were found for mothers' and fathers' attributions regarding uncontrollable success, adult-controlled failure, child-controlled failure, perceived control over failure, progressive attitudes, authoritarian attitudes, and modernity of attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: This study concluded that in Jordan mothers and fathers hold similar levels of attributions and attitudes. PMID:21927587
R.M., Rico Venegas; V.M., Ramos Frausto; P.C., Martínez.
Full Text Available La cobertura del control prenatal, calidad, y atención del parto se refleja en la resolución obstétrica como en la morbi-mortalidad del binomio madre-hijo. Esta investigación aborda el problema del impacto de los controles prenatales sobre el resultado obstétrico y perinatal. Objetivo: conocer el im [...] pacto del control prenatal sobre los resultados obstétricos obtenidos. Material y método: mediante un estudio de cohortes reconstruidas en una población obtenida azarosamente por conglomerados diarios en el transcurso del mes de junio (2010), se obtuvieron 419 puérperas. El material de investigación fue el binomio madre-hijo. Algunas variables estudiadas fueron: edad, control prenatal, número de consultas, peso, talla, tensión arterial, medición fondo uterino, forma de término del embarazo, peso del producto, sexo, apgar, destino del producto, complicaciones maternas, etc. Se utilizo en el programa estadístico Riesgo® y Primer® obteniéndose el RR, RR con intervalo de confianza al 95%. Resultados. Se analizaron 395 productos mayores de 20 semanas y 35 menores, de los productos mayores de 20 semanas (f=355) tuvieron sus madres control prenatal (89.87%) y 40 no lo tuvieron (10.13%), las distocias fueron más frecuentes en las madres con control prenatal, X²=7.73 RR=1.45 IC95% 1.11-1.90, las complicaciones maternas tuvieron proporciones similares en madres con y sin control prenatal X² = 0.0091RR=0.96, diferencia de proporciones p=0.899, la enfermedad hipertensiva del embarazo fue la complicación mas frecuente (74.6% de ellas) sin haber diferencia entre las madres que tuvieron o no control prenatal X² =0.0010. Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos señalan que en este grupo estudiado, en particular, la presencia del control prenatal no representó un factor que ayude a una resolución obstétrica y perinatal favorable, excepto en la prevención de la macrosomía. Abstract in english The coverage of prenatal care, quality and delivery care is reflected in the resolution as obstetric morbidity andmortality of mother and child. This research addresses the issue of the impact of prenatal care on the obstetric and perinatal outcome. Objective: To determine the impact of prenatal car [...] e on obstetric out comes achieved. Material and method: using a reconstructed cohort study in a population cluster randomly obtained daily duringthe month of June (2010), 419 were women in labour. The research material was the mother-child. Some ofthe studied variables were age, prenatal care, number of visits, weight, height, blood pressure, fundalmeasurement, method of pregnancy termination, product weight, sex, apgar, destination of the product, maternal complications, etc. It was used in the statistical program Primer® Risk® obtaining the RR, RR with aconfidence interval of 95%. Results: 395 products were analysed over 20 weeks and 35 children, of the goods over 20 weeks (f = 355) mothers had prenatal care (89.87%) and 40 did not have it (10.13%), dystocia were more common in mothers with prenatal care, X² = 7.73 RR = 1.45 95% CI 1.11-1.90, maternal complications were similar proportions in mothers with and without prenatal X² = 0.0091 RR = 0.96, difference in proportions p = 0.899, hypertensive disease of pregnancy was the most frequent complication (74.6% of them) without difference between themothers had no prenatal care or X² = 0.0010. Conclusion: Our results indicate that in this particular group studied, the presence of prenatal care is not afactor that helps an obstetric resolution and favourable perinatal, except for the macrosomia prevention.
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Figueiredo, Barbara; Deeds, Osvelia; Ascencio, Angela; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia
Depressed pregnant women (N=126) were divided into high and low prenatal maternal dopamine (HVA) groups based on a tertile split on their dopamine levels at 20 weeks gestation. The high versus the low dopamine group had lower CES-D scores, higher norepinephrine levels at the 20 week gestational age visit and higher dopamine and serotonin levels at both the 20 the 32 week gestational age visits. The neonates of the mothers with high versus low prenatal dopamine levels also had higher dopamine ...
A variety of neoplasms can develop in each tetal organ. Most fetal neoplasms can be detected by careful prenatal ultrasonographic examination. Some neoplosms show specific ultrasonographic findings suggesting the differential diagnosis, but others do not. Knowledge of the presence of a neoplasm in the fetus may alter the prenatal management of a pregnancy and the mode of delivery, and facilitates immediate postnatal treatment. During the last five years, we experienced 32 cases of fetal neoplasms in a variety of organs. We describe their typical and ultrasonographic findings with correlating postnatal CT, MRI, and pathologic findings
Baquedano, E.; Garci?a-ca?ceres, C.; Diz-chaves, Yolanda; Lagunas, N.; Calmarza-font, I.; Azcoitia, I.; Garcia-segura, Luis M.; Argente, J.; Chowen, J. A.; Frago, L. M.
Subchronic gestational stress leads to permanent modifications in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of offspring probably due to the increase in circulating glucocorticoids known to affect prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell turnover is affected in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis by subchronic prenatal stress and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Restraint stress was performed in pregnant rats during the last week of g...
There are manifold benefits of parental involvement in a child's education, but there is evidence of gender imbalances in parental involvement. This article describes research into fathers' involvement with educational psychologists (EPs) working with children undergoing statutory assessment. A content analysis of children's files from one…
Objective To examine the father’s role when his partner and child are admitted to a perinatal mental health unit. Background Establishing attachment in the first months of life is crucial for infant mental health. Parental mental health and separation can interrupt the formation of attachment. Maternal postnatal mental health is known to affect the father’s well-being and mental health. A systematic review conducted found paternal depression in the first year after...
Korostelev, S; Totchiev, G; Kanivets, I; Gnetetskaya, V
The purposes of this study is to examine possibility to use combination of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) for prenatal diagnostics and their advantages between combined first-trimester screen with confirmation by karyotyping of CVS or amniocytes. A total of 1968 pregnant women, in this study, have undergone prenatal screening and/or diagnostic tests. NIPT is more suitable and efficient for the detection of aneuploidy. However, this test has limitations for detection deletions/duplications. Use of CMA for confirmation of some NIPT findings or as first test for women with ultrasound abnormalities can detect small imbalances in chromosomes. Combination of NIPT and CMA allows a higher prenatal detection of chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:25200820
Eberhardt, Carolyn A.; Schill, Thomas
Compared sexual permissiveness attitudes and likely behaviors of father-absent vs. father-present Black, lower-socioeconomic female adolescents (N=100). Father-absent subjects were not found to be more sexually permissive, but had significantly greater inconsistency between behavioral and attitudinal scores in which the reported behavior was more…
SonyaKrishnaSobrian; Robertholson, R.
Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) alters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models, a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of ...
Latendresse, Gwen; Deneris, Angela
Prenatal genetic testing is rapidly evolving and requires that prenatal care providers stay up-to-date with accurate, evidence-based knowledge. Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT), first trimester maternal serum markers, and fetal nuchal translucency are the most recently developed screening tests added to the testing repertoire for detection of chromosomal disorders such as trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). NIPT is a new, highly accurate technique that uses maternal serum and is rapidly being introduced as a first trimester screening tool and increasingly being requested by pregnant women. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that all pregnant women be offered first and second trimester screening options, regardless of risk status, but does not yet recommend NIPT. It is important for prenatal care providers to be aware of and understand these testing options in order to assist women and their families in making well-informed decisions during pregnancy. The purpose of this article is to update midwives and other prenatal care providers on the current prenatal genetic testing options available and how to appropriately offer and discuss them with their clients. We discuss how these tests work; what to do with the results; and most importantly, how to support and communicate accurate information to women and families as they navigate through an increasingly complicated array of testing choices. PMID:25712277
Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B
Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed gestationally by chronic mild stress (CMS, a variable schedule of different stressors) or dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid, i.e., a pharmacological stressor) was tested for reactivity by testing their acoustic startle response (ASR). Two subsets of offspring were tested. One was experimentally naïve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring that had been blood sampled 3 months previously. In conclusion, similarity of the effects of maternal gestational exposure to aregular stress schedule and of exposure to a synthetic glucocorticoid suggests that maternal glucocorticoids may be a determining factor for changes in the regulatory mechanisms of the acoustic startle response. Further, a single aversive life event showed capable of changing the reactivity of prenatally stressed offspring, whereas offspring of dams going through a less stressful gestation was largely unaffected by this event. This suggests that circumstances dating back to the very beginning of life affect the individual's sensitivity towards experiences in life after birth. The prenatal environment may thus form part of the explanation of the considerable individual variation in the development of psychopathology.
Driscoll, C D; Riley, E P; Meyer, L S
Parallels between the behavioral profiles of rats exposed to alcohol prenatally and those with hippocampal damage suggest that hippocampal dysfunction may underlie some of the behavioral abnormalities resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure. Because of possible hippocampal involvement in the acquisition of a delayed conditioned taste aversion, this task was assessed in rat pups exposed to alcohol prenatally. Long-Evans rats were maintained on liquid diets containing either 35% or 0% ethanol derived calories from Days 6-20 of gestation. Pair-feeding procedures and an ad lib Lab Chow (LC) group were included. Fifteen-day-old offspring from these three groups were given access to saccharin and then injected immediately (0 hr) or 2 hr later with either lithium chloride (LiCl) or sodium chloride (NaCl). Immediate pairing of saccharin with LiCl produced a marked taste aversion, although this effect was less pronounced in 35% EDC pups. In the 2 hr condition, weaker aversions were exhibited and again the 35% EDC group showed the least aversion. However, prenatal treatment did not interact with the injection interval. PMID:4040378
Benn, P; Cuckle, H; Pergament, E
Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for aneuploidy using cell-free DNA in maternal plasma is revolutionizing prenatal screening and diagnosis. We review NIPT in the context of established screening and invasive technologies, the range of cytogenetic abnormalities detectable, cost, counseling and ethical issues. Current NIPT approaches involve whole-genome sequencing, targeted sequencing and assessment of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) differences between mother and fetus. Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of NIPT for Down and Edwards syndromes, and possibly Patau syndrome, in high-risk women. Universal NIPT is not cost-effective, but using NIPT contingently in women found at moderate or high risk by conventional screening is cost-effective. Positive NIPT results must be confirmed using invasive techniques. Established screening, fetal ultrasound and invasive procedures with microarray testing allow the detection of a broad range of additional abnormalities not yet detectable by NIPT. NIPT approaches that take advantage of SNP information potentially allow the identification of parent of origin for imbalances, triploidy, uniparental disomy and consanguinity, and separate evaluation of dizygotic twins. Fetal fraction enrichment, improved sequencing and selected analysis of the most informative sequences should result in tests for additional chromosomal abnormalities. Providing adequate prenatal counseling poses a substantial challenge given the broad range of prenatal testing options now available. PMID:23765643
This case report illustrates the sonographic appearance of such calcifications which to our knowledge have not been described. We observed abnormalities on a prenatal ultrasound at 37 weeks of gestation and calcifications within the kidney on ultrasound during the neonatal period in an infant of a mother with Class B diabetes mellitus. (orig.)
Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.
This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…
Belleh, S; Spooner, L; Allanson, J; Godfrey, M
Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is a heritable connective tissue disorder caused by defects in the gene encoding fibrillin-2 (FBN2). People with CCA typically have a marfanoid habitus, flexion contractures, severe kyphoscoliosis, abnormal pinnae, and muscular hypoplasia. Because of the relative infrequency of the syndrome and its generally mild to moderate severity, prenatal diagnosis had not previously been sought. Here we report prenatal diagnosis in a family with CCA. Because the course of the disease in the proband was rather severe, she had requested genetic counseling as early as age 17. She delayed childbearing until prenatal diagnosis for CCA became possible. This decision was supported by her mother and later her husband. Because she shared the same genotype with her husband, genetic linkage analysis of this family did not alter the a priori 50% risk of having an affected child. The possibility of unambiguously ascertaining the affected status of a fetus homozygous for the tested FBN2 marker was sufficient for the family to pursue prenatal diagnosis. This case strongly points to the importance of informed decisions now that genetic testing is becoming commonplace. PMID:10464661
Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty
Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…
Tendency of intellectual deficiency and emotion disturbance among children which were irradiated in womb was found. Study of the risk of endogenic psychic disorder development and, first of all, schizophrenia in pre-natally irradiated children, as a result of Chernobyl catastrophe, is of special interest. 256 refs., 1 tab
Full Text Available The vast majority of the congenital surgical abnormalities can be determined prior to birth. Most of these defects are perceived from ultrasonographic examinations during pregnancy. Some of the complicated abnormalities detected in the prenatal period, with the collaboration of obstetrics, neonatology, genetics, pediatrics and pediatric surgery specialists, can also be treated prenatally by taking the decision of family. Prenatal information related with the type of birth, minimal requirements for a possible maternal hospital, possible course of the diasease, management protocols and their effects on the future of unborn patient should be given in detail to tha parents. As the delivery time approaches, many of the pregnant mothers with managable abormalities should be directed to the appropriate centers where the previously mentioned teams work. For those fetuses with severe, life threatening abnormalities, evaluation of the abortion decision should be made earlier. In these centers, either the baby is delivered in the preterm period or the method for the birth could be altered acording to the characteristics of the abnormality. Intrauterin correction is required for some fetuses. Postnatal treatment of the most abnormalities ascertained will be made by pediatric surgeons. By courtesy of these consultations, due to the prenatal follow up and and planned emergent treatment following birth, birth place and method could be changed. (Turk Arch Ped 2010; 45 Suppl: 1-3
Bruna Turaça Silva
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar, na literatura científica, publicações sobre a participação do pai ou companheiro no aleitamento materno. FONTES DE DADOS: Realizou-se uma revisão integrativa no período de 1995 a 2010, utilizando-se os unitermos "pai" e "aleitamento materno" nas bases de dados LILACS, SciELO, BDENF e PubMed/MEDLINE. Os dados obtidos foram organizados em três categorias: o pai como suporte para a amamentação; percepções paternas sobre a amamentação; e o impacto da intervenção educativa sobre aleitamento para os pais. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Foram identificadas 44 publicações que mostraram que o apoio social, profissional e familiar foi imprescindível para o sucesso do aleitamento materno. O pai foi destacado como suporte fundamental pela forte influência na decisão da mulher em amamentar e na sua continuidade. Contudo, a participação do pai exibe sentimentos ambivalentes: competitividade com a mãe vs. proteção; exclusão vs. aumento do vínculo familiar; apoio vs. preconceitos. Os profissionais de saúde, apontados como referência na busca de informações, mostram-se despreparados para atender aos pais. CONCLUSÕES: Foram encontradas várias produções científicas ressaltando a relevância do apoio paterno para o sucesso do aleitamento materno. Contudo, a maioria das pesquisas apresenta abordagem descritiva, havendo poucos estudos com intervenções educativas.OBJECTIVE: To identify publications regarding the role of the father or partner in the breastfeeding practice. DATA SOURCE: An integrative review of the literature was performed searching for articles published between 1995 and 2010, using the key-words "father" and "breastfeeding" in following databases: LILACS, SciELO, BDENF e PubMed/MEDLINE. Data were organized in three categories: the supporting role of the father on breastfeeding; paternal perceptions about breastfeeding; and the impact of educational intervention on breastfeeding for parents. DATA SYNTHESIS: 44 articles showed that social, professional and family support is vital to successful breastfeeding. The father was highlighted as crucial supporter due to his strong influence over women´s decision to breastfeed and to maintain breastfeeding. However, the involvement of the father presents evasive patterns: competition with the mother vs. protection, exclusion vs. increase strength in the family relationships, support vs. prejudices. Health professionals were reported as reference sources of education, however they were shown as unprepared to assist the parents. CONCLUSIONS: Several studies on the theme of paternal support were found in the literature, which highlights its importance for successful breastfeeding. However, most of the research had a descriptive approach and there were few studies on educational interventions.
Bruna Turaça, Silva; Luciano Borges, Santiago; Joel Alves, Lamonier.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar, na literatura científica, publicações sobre a participação do pai ou companheiro no aleitamento materno. FONTES DE DADOS: Realizou-se uma revisão integrativa no período de 1995 a 2010, utilizando-se os unitermos "pai" e "aleitamento materno" nas bases de dados LILACS, SciELO, [...] BDENF e PubMed/MEDLINE. Os dados obtidos foram organizados em três categorias: o pai como suporte para a amamentação; percepções paternas sobre a amamentação; e o impacto da intervenção educativa sobre aleitamento para os pais. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Foram identificadas 44 publicações que mostraram que o apoio social, profissional e familiar foi imprescindível para o sucesso do aleitamento materno. O pai foi destacado como suporte fundamental pela forte influência na decisão da mulher em amamentar e na sua continuidade. Contudo, a participação do pai exibe sentimentos ambivalentes: competitividade com a mãe vs. proteção; exclusão vs. aumento do vínculo familiar; apoio vs. preconceitos. Os profissionais de saúde, apontados como referência na busca de informações, mostram-se despreparados para atender aos pais. CONCLUSÕES: Foram encontradas várias produções científicas ressaltando a relevância do apoio paterno para o sucesso do aleitamento materno. Contudo, a maioria das pesquisas apresenta abordagem descritiva, havendo poucos estudos com intervenções educativas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify publications regarding the role of the father or partner in the breastfeeding practice. DATA SOURCE: An integrative review of the literature was performed searching for articles published between 1995 and 2010, using the key-words "father" and "breastfeeding" in following data [...] bases: LILACS, SciELO, BDENF e PubMed/MEDLINE. Data were organized in three categories: the supporting role of the father on breastfeeding; paternal perceptions about breastfeeding; and the impact of educational intervention on breastfeeding for parents. DATA SYNTHESIS: 44 articles showed that social, professional and family support is vital to successful breastfeeding. The father was highlighted as crucial supporter due to his strong influence over women´s decision to breastfeed and to maintain breastfeeding. However, the involvement of the father presents evasive patterns: competition with the mother vs. protection, exclusion vs. increase strength in the family relationships, support vs. prejudices. Health professionals were reported as reference sources of education, however they were shown as unprepared to assist the parents. CONCLUSIONS: Several studies on the theme of paternal support were found in the literature, which highlights its importance for successful breastfeeding. However, most of the research had a descriptive approach and there were few studies on educational interventions.
We report 6 cases of polysplenic syndrome diagnosed on prenatal sonography. The mean menstrual age at the time of presentation was 275 weeks (range 184 to 38 weeks). All cases were examined using level-II prenatal sonography. The sonographic findings of polysplenic syndrome were retrograde analyzed and compared to the autopsy or postnatal findings. Polysplenia was detected in 5 cases on the prenatal sonography. Associated cardiovascular anomalies were detected in all 6 cases, all of which had more than one anomaly, namely complete atrioventricular septal defect in two cases, double outlet right ventricle combined with rudimentary LV or mitral atresia in two cases and VSD and ASD in one case each. There were three cases of interrupted IVC with azygous continuation of the posterior thorax. Bradycardia was observed in 2 cases, one of which showed AV dissociation of rhythm. Visceral abnormalities were present in all cases and there were combined anomalies such as echogenic bowel, pelviectasia, horseshoe kidney, and posterior neck cystic hygroma and fetal hydrops. Four cases terminated pregnancy. The autopsy results of 2 cases were comparable to those of the prenatal sonography, however autopsies were not performed in 2 cases. One fetus near term was delivered and the baby subsequently underwent heart surgery and was still alive at the last follow-up. The remaining one case was lost to follow-up. If multiple fetal anomalies, including complex heart disease and polysplenia,ing complex heart disease and polysplenia, are detected in the prenatal sonography, a diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome can be made. IVC interruption with azygous continuation can also be helpful in the diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome, and this can be observed by detecting the double vessel of the posterior thorax
Momplaisir, Florence M.; Brady, Kathleen A.; Fekete, Thomas; Thompson, Dana R.; Diez Roux, Ana; Yehia, Baligh R.
Background HIV suppression at parturition is beneficial for maternal, fetal and public health. To eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV, an understanding of missed opportunities for antiretroviral therapy (ART) use during pregnancy and HIV suppression at delivery is required. Methodology We performed a retrospective analysis of 836 mother-to-child pairs involving 656 HIV-infected women in Philadelphia, 2005-2013. Multivariable regression examined associations between patient (age, race/ethnicity, insurance status, drug use) and clinical factors such as adequacy of prenatal care measured by the Kessner index which classifies prenatal care as inadequate, intermediate, or adequate prenatal care; timing of HIV diagnosis; and the outcomes: receipt of ART during pregnancy and viral suppression at delivery. Results Overall, 25% of the sample was diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy; 39%, 38%, and 23% were adequately, intermediately, and inadequately engaged in prenatal care. Eight-five percent of mother-to-child pairs received ART during pregnancy but only 52% achieved suppression at delivery. Adjusting for patient factors, pairs diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy were less likely to receive ART (AOR 0.39, 95% CI 0.25-0.61) and achieve viral suppression (AOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49-1.00) than those diagnosed before pregnancy. Similarly, women with inadequate prenatal care were less likely to receive ART (AOR 0.06, 95% CI 0.03-0.11) and achieve viral suppression (AOR 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.47) than those with adequate prenatal care. Conclusions Targeted interventions to diagnose HIV prior to pregnancy and engage HIV-infected women in prenatal care have the potential to improve HIV related outcomes in the perinatal period. PMID:26132142
Dumka, Larry E.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Bonds, Darya; Millsap, Roger E.
To understand the role that Mexican origin parents play in their children’s academic success, this study used structural equation modeling to evaluate the associations of parents’ parenting practices (warmth, monitoring, harshness, and academic involvement) and cultural orientations (enculturation and acculturation) with their adolescents’ grades, classroom behavior, and association with peers who get into trouble at school. Data were obtained from teachers, mothers, fathers, and male a...
Luciana Suárez Grzybowski
Full Text Available Based on the ecological-contextual model and on the concept of parental involvement, this article proposes to discuss the parental practices of separated/divorced fathers and mothers towards their children. In order to do so, 234 subjects (117 fathers/117 mothers with children at school were interviewed via the Parental Practices Inventory. Such instrument evaluated the parental involvement in 5 areas: affective involvement, didactic involvement, social involvement, disciplinary involvement and, responsibility. The results showed greater maternal involvement with children after the divorce: direct (care, interaction and indirect (monitoring, preoccupation. The cohabitation with the mother revealed itself as a significant variable associated to her greater involvement with activities in the private/domestic environment while fathers had greater involvement in the public/social space. Contextual characteristics (cohabitation, frequency of visits and characteristics of the parents (occupation, education, affective and conjugal issues showed to be strongly associated with the parental involvement after divorce.
We report the imaging findings in a case of fetal lymphangioma involving the retroperitoneum and right lower extremity, and diagnosed by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 26 weeks of gestation. Prenatal ultrasonograms and T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo MR images clearly revealed an extensive, multilocular cystic mass with internal hemorrhage in the retroperitoneum extending to the lower extremity
Sacco, Alessandro; Coco, Claudio; Mangiafico, Lucia; Cignini, Pietro; Tiezzi, Alessandra; Giorlandino, Claudio
The SCA-TEST, Prenatal Aneuploidies Screening, is an innovating program with very articulated and differentiated calculation potentials. It is a software which allows executing a sequence-like rational screening involving the ultrasound study of the first and second trimester. The program enables to execute a complete and different- levels combined screening, through very sophisticated mathematic analysis methods. In particular, it enables to make: a first trimester screening combining it wit...
Engel, E; Empson, J; DeLozier, D; McGee, B; da Costa Woodson, E; Engel-de Montmollin, M; Carter, T; Lorber, C; Cassidy, S B; Millis, J; Heller, R M; Boehm, F; Vanhooydonk, J
1. In a review of methods developed for the identification of fetal malformations, the technique, risks and results of amniocentesis are presented. 2. Large series already published have demonstrated the relative simplicity and feasibility of the procedure as well as current indications for its utilization. These include the detection of chromosomal anomalies, the determination of sex (in certain sex-linked disorders), documentation of enzymatic and metabolic deficiencies, and the demonstration of open lesions of the neural tube by appropriate techniques. 3. Experience with over 500 cases personally tested by the authors entirely confirms the major indications for and benefits of this modern method for the detection and prevention of severe congenital anomalies during early pregnancy. 4. The identification of chromosomal alterations is currently the major objective of the method. Increased risks are associated with pregnancies involving a maternal age of 35 years or older (which account for 1-3% of aneuploidies), the birth of a previous infant with free trisomy 21 (1% recurrence risk) or secondary to a parental chromosome translocation (as much as 10% risk of aneuploidy). Fetal karyotyping for determination of sex, in cases where the mother is a carrier of an X-linked recessive gene (on average, 50% of male offspring will be affected), is an inadequate method of diagnosis to be utilized only until alternative techniques render possible specific diagnosis of the anomalies under consideration (hemophilias A and B, muscular dystrophy, etc). 5. Several of these techniques are now nearing development through the advent of fetoscopy and advanced ultrasound methodology, and have already been applied to the detection of certain sex-linked disorders and also for diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies (thalassemias, sickel cell anemia) and other conditions requiring the obtaining of fetal blood for diagnosis. Technology allowing direct examination of fetal parts by means of optical instruments is particularly useful in cases where a severe fetal morphologic malformation cannot currently be identified by indirect visualization (ultrasound) or by analysis of cytogenetic or molecular markers. 6. Pathological accumulations of alpha-fetoprotein which are associated with diverse feto-placental abnormalities (particularly open malformations of the neural tube) can be detected in the amniotic fluid and/or maternal blood. In extension of this approach, it is foreseeable that conditions existing prenatally will be diagnosed in a growing number of cases from the study of fetal cells and molecules which can be isolated from the venous blood of pregnant women. This will become feasible as a result of some well-developed techniques which allow separation of fetal from maternal cells and metabolites, and also to some extremely fine analytic techniques, notably examination of the DNA itself by means of restriction enzymes. PMID:88763
Human pair-bonding and paternal involvement have long been attributed to the need for biparental rearing of altricial offspring with extended periods of dependency. More recently, researchers have focused on the fertility benefits that pair-bonding offers men and have re-conceptualized paternal care as a stratagem designed to curry favor with the recipient children's mother. These models, however, fail to explain a number of puzzling empirical findings, namely the lack of a significant and robust effect of father-presence cross-culturally, despite what appears to be true paternal involvement. I argue that the record is better explained by conceptualizing reproduction within unions as a joint venture, in which men's contributions are not simply lumped onto women's invariant levels of parental investment, but one in which men's involvement allows wives to reduce their own allocations to parental investment and increase those to fertility (fertility model), thereby maximizing the production of the union, not simply child survivorship. PMID:21516953
Daniela Centenaro, Levandowski; Cesar Augusto, Piccinini.
Full Text Available Embora muitos estudos investiguem a maternidade na adolescência, poucos têm investigado a paternidade adolescente. Uma vez que o adolescente precisa cumprir diversas tarefas próprias da fase na qual se encontra, ele tenderia a ficar sobrecarregado com as tarefas adicionais decorrentes da paternidade [...] . Em virtude disso, sua interação com o bebê seria menos responsiva do que a de pais adultos. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste estudo foi examinar eventuais diferenças entre pais adolescentes e adultos na interação com o bebê aos 3 meses de vida. Participaram do estudo 20 pais, sendo 9 adolescentes e 11 adultos, que esperavam seu primeiro filho. Quando o bebê completou 3 meses, foi realizada uma observação domiciliar da interação da díade pai-bebê. As análises não revelaram diferenças significativas na interação pai-bebê entre adolescentes e adultos. Estes resultados sugerem que a idade não é necessariamente um fator determinante da responsividade do pai em relação ao bebê. Ao contrário da expectativa inicial, estes adolescentes mostraram-se tão responsivos ao bebê quanto os pais adultos. Abstract in english Although many studies have investigated adolescent motherhood, only a few have focused on adolescent fatherhood. It is believed that since the adolescent already has several tasks to deal with concerning his own adolescent period, he would be overwhelmed by the additional tasks regarding fatherhood. [...] As a result, his interaction with his baby would be less responsive than an adult father´s. This study aimed at examining possible differences between adolescent and adult fathers´ interaction with their 3-month-old baby. Twenty fathers, 9 adolescents and 11 adults, participated in the study. A home observation of the father-baby interaction was carried out when the baby was 3 months old. The analyses did not reveal significant differences between adolescent and adult fathers´ interaction with the baby. These results suggest that age is not necessarily a determinant factor of father´s responsivity towards his baby. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, the adolescents were as responsive to the baby as the adult fathers.
Nancy Capretz Batista da, Silva; Ana Lúcia Rossito, Aiello.
Full Text Available A interação pai-criança deficiente merece atenção e precisa de mais investigações. Este estudo descreveu características dos pais de crianças com deficiência mental, com idade entre dois e quatro anos, quanto a stress, empoderamento (processo pelo qual os familiares obtêm acesso a conhecimentos, hab [...] ilidades e recursos que os capacitam a ganhar controle positivo de suas vidas, bem como melhorar a qualidade de seus estilos de vida), apoio social e qualidade do ambiente. Treze pais responderam aos seguintes instrumentos: Questionário de Caracterização do Sistema Familiar, Questionário de Recursos e Stress na forma resumida, Guia Geral de Transcrição dos Dados de Entrevista, Entrevista de Caracterização do Papel do Pai na Educação da Criança com Deficiência Mental, Escala de Empoderamento da Família, Escala de Senso de Competência Parental e Observação Domiciliar para Medida do Ambiente - Primeira Infância. Os resultados indicaram pais com baixo nível socioeconômico e de escolaridade, papel tradicional, presença de stress, autoestima adequada e porcentagens elevadas de empoderamento, além de ambiente domiciliar pobre em estimulação à criança. Os participantes se classificaram como bons pais e figuras importantes na vida das crianças, despendendo muitas horas de interação com elas. Percebe-se a necessidade de estudos com diferentes metodologias e de envolvimento do pai nos serviços profissionais para seus filhos. Abstract in english The interaction between a father and his disabled child deserves attention and needs further investigation. This study described characteristics of the fathers of mentally disabled children, aged between two and four years old, in terms of stress, empowerment, social support and quality of the envir [...] onment. Thirteen fathers answered the following tools: Characterization of Family System Questionnaire, Questionnaire on Resources and Stress - Short Form, General Guide to Transcription of Interview Data, Interview in respect of the Characterization of the Role of the Father in the Education of the Mentally Disabled Child, Family Empowerment Scale, Parent Sense of Competence Scale and Early Childhood - The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment. Results pointed to fathers of low socio-economic and educational levels, traditional role, presence of stress, adequate self-esteem and high percentages of empowerment, while the home environment failed to stimulate the child. The participants ranked themselves as good fathers and important figures in the child's life, spending many hours interacting with the child. It can be seen that there is a need for further studies using different methodologies as well as for the father's involvement in professional services for their children.
Full Text Available In psychoanalysis, fathering has not received much analytical attention and only little is known about the actual impact of paternity on the development of certain psychopathology. This paper seeks to carefully examine and critically discuss the impact of fathering on psychotic individuals. It elaborates on the importance of the father in the healthy development of the children, as well as on the consequences that his absence entails for their psyche. Drawing on a Lacanian analytical framework, it is argued that, nowadays, the paternal figure has significantly lost its previous status. The gradual extinction of the paternal function, within the contemporary cultural environment, is mainly because of important social and legal changes in the familial structure, such as the increase of single-parent families and the legalization of the adoption of children by gay couples.
Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD can cause severe mental retardation in children who are prenatally exposed to ethanol. The effects of prenatal and early postnatal ethanol exposure on adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been investigated; however, the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on the subventricular zone (SVZ have not. Gypenosides (GPs have been reported to have neuroprotective effects in addition to other bioactivities. The effects of GPs on neural stem cells (NSCs in the FASD model are unknown. Here, we test the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on the neonatal SVZ, and the protection potential of GPs on NSCs in FASD rats. Our results show that prenatal ethanol exposure can suppress the cell proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the neonatal SVZ and that GPs (400 mg/kg/day can significantly increase the cell proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells inhibited by ethanol. Our data indicate that GPs have neuroprotective effects on the NSCs and can enhance the neurogenesis inhibited by ethanol within the SVZ of neonatal rats. These findings provide new evidence for a potential therapy involving GPs for the treatment of FASD.
Dong, Lun; Yang, Kun-Qi; Fu, Wen-Yan; Shang, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Jing, Fang-Miao; Li, Lin-Lin; Xin, Hua; Wang, Xiao-Jing
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) can cause severe mental retardation in children who are prenatally exposed to ethanol. The effects of prenatal and early postnatal ethanol exposure on adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been investigated; however, the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on the subventricular zone (SVZ) have not. Gypenosides (GPs) have been reported to have neuroprotective effects in addition to other bioactivities. The effects of GPs on neural stem cells (NSCs) in the FASD model are unknown. Here, we test the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on the neonatal SVZ, and the protection potential of GPs on NSCs in FASD rats. Our results show that prenatal ethanol exposure can suppress the cell proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the neonatal SVZ and that GPs (400 mg/kg/day) can significantly increase the cell proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells inhibited by ethanol. Our data indicate that GPs have neuroprotective effects on the NSCs and can enhance the neurogenesis inhibited by ethanol within the SVZ of neonatal rats. These findings provide new evidence for a potential therapy involving GPs for the treatment of FASD. PMID:25464383
Within childbirth education circles, catering effectively to the needs of expectant fathers who attend antenatal education programs has become an issue of concern. This article reviews the literature on all-male discussion groups for expectant fathers as a strategy to address identified deficits in relation to the inclusion of men within existing program structures. An exploration of the attributes considered appropriate for those who facilitate such groups is undertaken, and the article concludes with a report on the recruitment of male facilitators at a health service in New South Wales, Australia. PMID:18311334
Irenia, Blanco Pérez; Sahily, Miñoso Pérez; Caridad, Barroso Gazquez; Ada, Socarras Gámez; Elena, Cué Perdomo.
Full Text Available Introducción: las alteraciones cromosómicas son cambios que afectan el número y la estructura de los cromosomas. El riesgo de padecer una enfermedad genética cromosómica aumenta con el incremento de la edad materna. La amniocentesis constituye un importante medio de diagnóstico prenatal citogenético [...] para la detección temprana de las mismas. Objetivo: analizar el comportamiento del programa de diagnóstico prenatal citogenético en la provincia de Pinar del Río durante el año 2013. Material y método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y de corte longitudinal al total de gestantes con indicación de amniocentesis durante el año 2013 en la provincia de Pinar del Río, analizando los principales parámetros relacionados con el diagnóstico prenatal citogenético. Resultados: en el período analizado se realizaron un total de 481 estudios prenatales, siendo el municipio de Pinar del Río el de mayor número de casos. La edad materna avanzada constituye la principal indicación y se diagnosticaron un total de 10 casos positivos para un 2.3%. Conclusiones: en el diagnóstico prenatal citogenético se logró precisar el cariotipo fetal en las gestantes con riesgo, por lo que continúa siendo el DPC un importante programa en la detección precoz de cromosomopatías, proporcionando un punto de partida para un adecuado asesoramiento genético a la familia. Abstract in english Introduction: Chromosomal abnormalities are changes that affect the number and structure of chromosomes. The risk of a chromosomal genetic disease increases with increasing maternal age. Amniocentesis is an important means of cytogenetic prenatal diagnosis for early detection of the same. Objective: [...] to analyze the behavior of the program of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis in the province of Pinar del Rio in 2013. Material and methods: a descriptive, retrospective study slitting the total of pregnant women was performed with amniocentesis indication in 2013 in the province of Pinar del Rio, analyzing the main parameters related to the cytogenetic prenatal diagnosis. Results: in the analyzed period a total of 481 prenatal studies were conducted, with the city of Pinar del Río the highest number of cases. Advanced maternal age is the main display and a total of 10 positive cases were diagnosed to 2.3%. Conclusions: prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis was achieved clarify the fetal karyotype in pregnant women at risk, so the DPC remains an important program in the early detection of chromosomal abnormalities, providing a starting point for proper genetic counseling to the family.
Olds, David L.; Kitzman, Harriet J.; Cole, Robert E.; Hanks, Carole A.; Arcoleo, Kimberly J.; Anson, Elizabeth A.; Luckey, Dennis W.; Knudtson, Michael D.; Henderson, Charles R.; Bondy, Jessica; Stevenson, Amanda J.
Objective To test, among an urban primarily African American sample, the effects of prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses on mothers’ fertility, partner relationships, and economic self-sufficiency and on government spending through age 12 years of their firstborn child. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Public system of obstetric and pediatric care in Memphis, Tennessee. Participants A total of 594 urban primarily African American economically disadvantaged mothers (among 743 who registered during pregnancy). Intervention Prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses. Main Outcome Measures Mothers’ cohabitation with and marriage to the child’s biological father, intimate partner violence, duration (stability) of partner relationships, role impairment due to alcohol and other drug use, use and cost of welfare benefits, arrests, mastery, child foster care placements, and cumulative subsequent births. Results By the time the firstborn child was 12 years old, nurse-visited mothers compared with control subjects reported less role impairment owing to alcohol and other drug use (0.0% vs 2.5%, P = .04), longer partner relationships (59.58 vs 52.67 months, P = .02), and greater sense of mastery (101.04 vs 99.60, P = .005). During this 12-year period, government spent less per year on food stamps, Medicaid, and Aid to Families with Dependent Children and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families for nurse-visited than control families ($8772 vs $9797, P = .02); this represents $12 300 in discounted savings compared with a program cost of $11 511, both expressed in 2006 US dollars. No statistically significant program effects were noted on mothers’ marriage, partnership with the child’s biological father, intimate partner violence, alcohol and other drug use, arrests, incarceration, psychological distress, or reports of child foster care placements. Conclusion The program improved maternal life course and reduced government spending among children through age 12 years. PMID:20439792
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Medina, Lissette; Delgado, Jeannette; Hernandez, Andrea
Eighty-four prenatally depressed women were randomly assigned to yoga, massage therapy or standard prenatal care control groups to determine the relative effects of yoga and massage therapy on prenatal depression and neonatal outcomes. Following 12 weeks of twice weekly yoga and massage sessions (20 minutes each) both therapy groups versus the control group had a greater decrease on depression, anxiety and back and leg pain scales and a greater increase on a relationship scale. In addition, t...
Davis, Elysia Poggi; Curt A. Sandman
Experimental animal models have demonstrated that one of the primary consequences of prenatal stress is increased fear and anxiety in the offspring. Few prospective human studies have evaluated the consequences of prenatal stress on anxiety during preadolescence. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the consequences of prenatal exposure to both maternal biological stress signals and psychological distress on anxiety in preadolescent children. Participants included 178 mother-chil...
This book contains abstracts of 31 papers from the 'International symposium on developmental disturbances after prenatal radiation' exposure. Most of the papers deal with the effects of externally applied, prenatal radiation exposure in mice, rats, and humans, in the latter radiation exposure was mostly due to X-ray examinations during pregnancy. The effects of prenatal exposure to internal radionuclides, expecially tritium, are discussed in some of the papers, as well as enhanced radiation effects due to the action of radiosensitizers. (MG)
Hunter, L; Callaghan, N; Patel, K; Rinaldi, L; Bellsham-Revell, H; Sharland, G
A double aortic arch is a congenital anomaly associated with the formation of a vascular ring, which can cause varying degrees of airway compression. This can be subclinical or clinical, manifesting as acute stridor, severe respiratory compromise or symptoms of chronic airway compression. An accurate diagnosis of double aortic arch can be made prenatally by fetal echocardiography. In this report, we describe two infants with normal karyotypes in whom a prenatal diagnosis of double aortic arch was made at our fetal cardiology center, between July 2012 and August 2013. The diagnosis was confirmed postnatally by two-dimensional echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The presence of a right aortic arch should prompt more careful evaluation to exclude a double aortic arch. Postnatal assessment should comprise echocardiography and cross-sectional imaging in the form of cardiac MRI/computed tomography. Bronchoscopy may be considered to exclude subclinical airway compression and reduce potential long-term respiratory sequelae. PMID:24817195
Full Text Available In recent years, prenatal diagnosis and elective pregnancy termination have affected the reported birth prevalence of trisomies. Trisomy 13, or Patau syndrome, represents the third autosomic trisomy in order of frequency, after trisomy 21 (Down syndrome and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome, with a prevalence at birth estimated as between 1:12000 and 1:29000. In this study, we are presenting the results of cytogenetic analysis and clinic assessment in fetus of a woman at 22 weeks gestation, who were referred to our genetic diagnostic laboratory with abnormal triple test result, omphalosel and hydrocephaly. We performed the cordocentesis and pedigree analysis. We found a karyotype (47,XY,+13 in fetus. Because individuals of the family didn’t want, we were not followed the pregnancy prognosis for the mother and the fetus. We were recommending to the prenatal diagnosis for their further pregnancies.
Carla, Mayorga H; Juan Guillermo, Rodríguez A; Gabriela, Enríquez G; Jaime, Alarcón R; Constanza, Gamboa W; Daniela, Capella S; Daniela, Fischer F.
Full Text Available Objetivo: Valorar la capacidad diagnóstica y el seguimiento de las cardiopatías congénitas con diagnóstico prenatal realizadas en el Centro de Referencia Perinatal Oriente (CERPO). Método: Se analizan todas las cardiopatías congénitas con diagnóstico prenatal que ingresaron al CERPO entre abril 2003 [...] y diciembre de 2011. Se realiza seguimiento postnatal, se evalúa la concordancia entre el diagnóstico pre y postnatal, y se compara el pronóstico con la experiencia previamente reportada en la literatura. Resultados: Se detectaron 568 cardiopatías congénitas, el 53% correspondían a pacientes referidas desde otras regiones del país. En relación a la edad materna y paterna el 28% y el 35% tenían 35 años o más, respectivamente. De las 568 cardiopatías congénitas controladas, el 75% fueron pesquisadas con la ecocardiografía por visión de 4 cámaras y el 25% por visión de tractos de salida. La concordancia entre la ecocardiografía prenatal y postnatal fue de 87%. Los diagnósticos más frecuentes correspondieron a comunicación interventricular, síndrome de hipoplasia ventricular izquierdo, arritmias y canal aurículoventricular. Se detectaron 60 cromosomopatías, 8 síndromes genéticos y 145 malformaciones extracardiacas asociadas. Se pudo realizar seguimiento de sobrevida al año en 390 pacientes, la sobrevida global en este grupo (excluidas las aneuploidías incompatibles con la vida) alcanzó un 44%. Conclusión: Existe una alta tasa de diagnóstico prenatal de cardiopatías congénitas a nivel terciario, con un 87% de concordancia entre ecocardiografía pre y postnatal. La sobrevida global de pacientes con cardiopatías congénitas fue de 44% al año de seguimiento. Por las características territoriales de nuestro país debiera contarse con más centros de referencia perinatal, al menos en las zonas norte y sur del país. Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic and follow-up congenital heart disease with prenatal diagnosis performed in the Centro de Referencia Perinatal Oriente (CERPO). Method: We analyzed all the congenital heart disease with prenatal diagnosis admitted to CERPO between April 2003 and December 2011. P [...] ostnatal follow-up is performed, evaluating the correlation between pre and postnatal diagnosis and prognosis compared with the experience previously reported in the literature. Results: We detected 568 congenital heart diseases of which 53% were patients referred from other regions of the country. In relation to maternal and paternal age, 28% and 35% were 35 years or older, respectively. From 568 controlled congenital heart diseases, 75% could be researched to ultrasound echocardiography 4-chamber view and 25% per-view outflow tracts. The correlation between prenatal and postnatal echocardiography in this series was 87%. The most frequent diagnosis was interventricular communication, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, arrhythmias and atrioventricular canal. In this series we detected 60 chromosomal, 8 genetic syndromes and 145 extracardiac malformations. Follow-up could be performed one year survival in 390 patients, overall survival in this group (excluding aneuploidies with life incompatibility) reached 44%. Conclusion: There is a high rate of prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease at the tertiary level, with 87% concordance between pre-and postnatal echocardiography. Overall survival of patients with congenital heart disease is 44% at one year. For the territorial characteristics of our country should be counted more perinatal referral centers, at least in the north and south.
Burcu Artunc Ulkumen
Full Text Available The incidence of the placental invasion anomalies are increasing, mainly due to repeat cesarean deliveries. Placenta percreta occurs if these villi perforate the serosa and also sometimes into adjacent organs such as the bladder. The prenatal diagnosis is very important because of the high maternal morbidity and mortality rates without the appropriate surgical planning. The adherent placentas will result in severe early postpartum bleeding, just after the delivery of the fetus. Severe hemorrhage usually results rapidly in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, shock, multiorgan failure or death.The surgery is also challenging due to the risk of the adjacent tissue damage, such as bladder or ureteral injury. Approximately 1 in every 3 cases need intensive care. We present here a prenatally diagnosed, 31-year-old gravida 7 para 2 abortus 4 pregnant case with placenta percreta and rewiev the relevant literature about the key aspects in the ultrasonograhic diagnosis and underlie the key points in the diagnosis.
Barrett, Emily S.; Parlett, Lauren E.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Liu, Fan; Redmon, J. Bruce; Wang, Christina; Swan, Shanna H.
In animal models, prenatal stress programs reproductive development in the resulting offspring, however little is known about effects in humans. Anogenital distance (AGD) is a commonly used, sexually dimorphic biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure in many species. In rodents, prenatally stressed males have shorter AGD than controls (suggesting lower prenatal androgen exposure), whereas prenatally stressed females have longer AGD than controls (suggesting greater prenatal androgen exposure)....
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Figueiredo, Barbara; Deeds, Osvelia; Ascencio, Angela; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia
In a study on prenatal dopamine and its association with depression and other neurotransmitters, serotonin was a confounding variable (Field, Diego, Hernandez-Reif, Figueiredo, Deeds et al., 2007). Serotonin has long been associated with depression (Cubala & Landwski, 2006; Neumeister, 2003; Neumeister, Young, & Stastny, 2004). Serotonin receptors and serotonin transporters are reduced in depression, suggesting that serotonin systems play a key role in the pathophysiology of depression (Neume...
In a study on prenatal dopamine and its association with depression and other neurotransmitters, serotonin was a confounding variable (Field, Diego, Hernandez-Reif, Figueiredo, Deeds et al., 2007). Serotonin has long been associated with depression (Cubala & Landwski, 2006; Neumeister, 2003; Neumeister, Young, & Stastny, 2004). Serotonin receptors and serotonin transporters are reduced in depression, suggesting that serotonin systems play a key role in the pathophysiology of depression (Neumeister et al., 2004). PMID:18279966
Madhusudan Dey, Sumita Agarwal and Sumedha Sharma
ABSTRACT: Aneuploidies are one of the important causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Initially screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. Recently, various methods including non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) by analysis of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal blood has shown promise for hi...
Buckles, Kasey; Kolka, Shawna
Mothers have many opportunities to invest in their own or their child's health and well-being during pregnancy and immediately after birth. These investments include seeking prenatal care, taking prenatal vitamins, and breastfeeding. In this paper, we investigate a potential determinant of mothers' investments that has been largely overlooked by previous research-birth order. Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) Child and Young Adult Survey, which provides detailed information on pre- and post-natal behaviors of women from the NLSY79. These women were between the ages of 14 and 22 in 1979, and form a nationally representative sample of youth in the United States. Our sample includes births to these women between 1973 and 2010 (10,328 births to 3755 mothers). We use fixed effects regression models to estimate within-mother differences in pre- and post-natal behaviors across births. We find that mothers are 6.6 percent less likely to take prenatal vitamins in a fourth or higher-order birth than in a first and are 10.6 percent less likely to receive early prenatal care. Remarkably, mothers are 15.4 percent less likely to breastfeed a second-born child than a first, and are 20.9 percent less likely to breastfeed a fourth or higher-order child. These results are not explained by changing attitudes toward investments over time. These findings suggest that providers may want to increase efforts to encourage these behaviors at women with higher parity. The results also identify a potential mechanism for the emergence of differences in health and other outcomes across birth orders. PMID:25108692
Holladay, S. D.
Reports in humans and rodents indicate that immune development may be altered following perinatal exposure to immunotoxic compounds, including chemotherapeutics, corticosteroids, polycyclic hydrocarbons, and polyhalogenated hydrocarbons. Effects from such exposure may be more dramatic or persistent than following exposure during adult life. For example, prenatal exposure to the insecticide chlordane or to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[(italic)a(/italic)]pyrene produces what appear...
Cystic masses of the adrenal gland are unusual in the fetus and most are secondary to hemorrhage. Cystic neuroblastoma is extremely rare, and in contrast to solid neuroblastoma, follows a benign course, is diagnosed earlier, and rarely presents with metastatic lesions(1-4). We report one case of cystic neuroblastoma diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and include a review of the literature
Maria Carolina de Abreu, Sampaio; Zilda Najjar Prado de, Oliveira; Javier, Miguelez.
Full Text Available O diagnóstico pré-natal está indicado para algumas genodermatoses graves, como a epidermólise bolhosa distrófica recessiva e a epidermólise bolhosa juncional. A biópsia de pele fetal foi introduzida em 1980, mas não pode ser realizada antes da 15a semana de gestação. A análise do DNA fetal é método [...] preciso e pode ser realizado mais precocemente na gestação. No entanto, deve-se conhecer a base molecular da genodermatose, e é essencial determinar a mutação e/ou marcadores informativos nas famílias com criança previamente afetada. O DNA fetal pode ser obtido pela biópsia da vilosidade coriônica ou amniocentese. O diagnóstico genético pré-implantação tem surgido como alternativa que dispensa a interrupção da gestação. Essa técnica, que envolve fertilização in vitro e teste genético do embrião. vem sendo realizada para genodermatoses em poucos centros de referência. A ultra-sonografia é exame não invasivo, mas tem uso limitado no diagnóstico pré-natal de genodermatoses. A ultrasonografia tridimensional geralmente estabelece o diagnóstico tardiamente na gestação, e há apenas relatos anedóticos de diagnóstico pré-natal de genodermatoses usando esse método. Abstract in english Prenatal diagnostic testing is indicated for some severe genodermatoses, such as recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and junctional epidermolysis bullosa. Fetal skin biopsy was introduced in 1980, but it cannot be performed before 15th gestational week. Fetal DNA analysis is a precise method [...] and can be performed earlier in pregnancy. However, the molecular basis of the genodermatoses must be known and it is essential to determine the gene mutations and/or informative markers in the families with a previously affected child. Fetal DNA can be obtained by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is an alternative approach obviating the need for termination of pregnancy. It involves in vitro fertilization and genetic testing of embryos. However, this technique has been performed for genodermatoses in only a few reference centers. Ultrasonography is a non-invasive test, but has a limited use in prenatal diagnosis of genodermatoses. Tridimensional ultrasonography usually establishes diagnosis late in pregnancy and there are only anecdotal reports of prenatal diagnosis of genodermatoses using this method.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fathers are increasingly providing substantial amounts of technical and nursing care to growing numbers of children with complex healthcare needs. This exploratory study reports some of the first in-depth evidence of fathers' experiences and presents a research agenda in this critically under-researched area. Methods We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 8 fathers who provided a substantial amount of complex technical and nursing care for their child at home. The aim was to describe their experiences of fathering, parenting and caring. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Burnard's approach, which has commonalities with phenomenological and content analysis. Results and Discussion Fathers enjoyed their caring role and found it rewarding and at times stressful. They instituted structured regimes, which focused on the father/child/family. Performing intimate care posed specific challenges for which there is no guidance. Children's community nursing was highly valued. Fathers generally rejected the need for specific father-focussed services, as such provision would induce guilt feelings. Fathers reported positive relationships with their children and partners. Conclusions Key areas for future exploration include gaining a better understanding of fathers' motivations and styles of caring, developing interventions to support fathers' caring role, developing guidance on intimate care, and delivering tailored services to fathers in a family context. There is little understanding of fathering and caring by non-resident, teenage and step-fathers. Finally, knowing more about resilience and coping of fathers in strong relationships with partners and children may help inform interventions to support fathers who do not feel able to stay with their family.
Sheppard, Paula; Snopkowski, Kristin; Sear, Rebecca
Father absence is consistently associated with children’s reproductive outcomes in industrialized countries. It has been suggested that father absence acts as a cue to particular environmental conditions that influence life history strategies. Much less is known, however, about the effects of father absence on such outcomes in lower-income countries. Using data from the 1988 Malaysian Family Life Survey (n?=?567), we tested the effect of father absence on daughters’ age at menarche, f...
DeGarmo, David S.
The study employed multiple methods including direct observation of fathering behaviors and child noncompliance to better address our understanding of the quantity and quality of divorced father contact. A weighted county sample of 230 divorced-father families with a focal child aged 4 to 11 years was employed to test whether fathers' antisocial personality (ASP) moderated effects of monthly contact with children in predicting children's observed noncompliance over 18 months. Latent growth mo...
Garfinkel, Irwin; McLanahan, Sara; Meyer, Daniel; Seltzer, Judith
In the shadow of rising divorce and non-marital birth rates, nearly two-thirds of all American children today will live apart from at least one of their parents, usually the father. Clearly this astonishing proportion of non-resident fathers has serious implications for the economic, employment, and educational status of mothers and the development and wellbeing of children. But according to the authors of Fathers Under Fire, a more comprehensive perspective on non-resident fathers - understa...
Hélcia Carla dos Santos Pitombeira, Liana Mara Rocha Teles, Jamile de Souza Pacheco Paiva, Maysa Oliveira Rolim, Lydia Vieira Freitas, Ana Kelve de Castro Damasceno
Full Text Available Objective: to study the prenatal care offered in Sao Goncalo do Amarante city based on information from SIAB, SISPRENATAL, SINASC, SINANNET and SIM. Method: this is about a descriptive study, from quantitative approach, performed with 632 pregnant women enrolled from January 2007 to December 2008. The sample was obtained by sense, using the entire study population. Data were collected from information systems: SIAB, SISPRENATAL, SINASC, SINANNET and SIM, recorded in a standard form and analyzed according to criteria established by PHPN. The study was approved by the Ethics in Research Committee of the Federal University of Ceará/UFC (protocol number 241/07. Results: it was observed that 86,8% of women began prenatal care in first trimester of pregnancy in 2008, the coverage of immunization against tetanus reached 98,4%, there was detection of syphilis and seropositivity for HIV, resulting in the adoption of remedial measures and resulting in avoidable neonatal infection. Conclusion: the district has good adequacy of prenatal care, based primarily on prevention and health promotion.
Madsen, Mia Gebauer; NØrregaard, Rikke
The introduction of prenatal ultrasonography as a screening method entails an increasing number of infants diagnosed with prenatal hydronephrosis. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction accounts for 35% of prenatal hydronephrotic cases. Urinary tract obstruction that occurs during early kidney development affects renal morphogenesis, maturation and growth, and in the most severe cases this will ultimately cause renal insufficiency. A major challenge in the clinical management of these patients is to preserve renal function by selection of the 15%-20% who require early surgical intervention, leaving those for whom watchful waiting may be appropriate because of spontaneous resolution/stabilization without significant loss of renal function. Today, this requires medical surveillance, including repetitive invasive diuretic renograms relying on arbitrary threshold values, and therefore there is a need for non-arbitrary, non-invasive urinary biomarkers that may be used as predictors for renal structural changes and/or decreasing renal function, and thereby provide the surgeon with more clear indications for surgical intervention. In this review, we summarize the currently well-known facts about urinary biomarkers in ureteropelvic junction obstruction concerning renal function, and we also suggest potential novel urinary biomarkers.
Maestripieri, Dario; Roney, James R.; Debias, Nicole; Durante, Kristina M.; Spaepen, Geertrui M.
In this study we examined the relationship between menarche and interest in infants among adolescent girls, and the effects of early environment, particularly of father absence from home, on both variables. Eighty-three girls ranging in age from between 11 and 14 years served as study participants. Interest in infants was assessed through their…
Parrow, Alan A.
A 1969 cross-sectional sample of adolescent males in the Fort Wayne, Indiana public schools was used to investigate the effect of father absence on educational ambition. Information from surveys completed by the boys and from interviews held with their mothers provided the relevant data. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for four…
Berry, Kenneth K.; Poncini, Michael
The effects of both early and late father-absence upon school achievement, cognitive development, and emotional development of 27 Australian males between 9 and 12 years of age were examined. Three groups of boys were evaluated in order to ascertain the effects of paternal deprivation. These groups included children experiencing (1) early…
Remmel, Carl L.
The author reviews his experiences as the father of a child with spina bifida, a congenital problem in which the spine is not completely enclosed. He recounts his feelings upon first finding out about the condition and his son's subsequent surgeries and crises. (CL)
Seiffge-Krenke, I; Tauber, M
In a sample on 243 adolescents, it was investigated whether idealization is a necessary consequence for adolescents experiencing parental divorce. Earlier studies emphasized the negative effects of parental divorce on the development of children and adolescents. Due to historic changes in family structure, however, parental divorce has to be conceptualized in more positive terms. In the study presented, idealization of the non-custodial father was only found in a clinical subsample of adolescents, whereas the father-adolescent relationship in non-clinical adolescents from divorced families did not differ significantly from the quality of relationship described by non-clinical adolescents living in two-parent families. The function of idealization in coping with negative affects such as aggression and affliction is discussed, in particular for those adolescents in the clinical sample who rarely have contact with their non-custodial fathers, and the contributions of fathers to hold up this idealization outlined. Idealistic conceptions in adolescents of divorced parents are especially problematic, since adolescents are expected to become disengaged of their parents and develop a mature and realistic perception of them. PMID:9273535
Kayfitz, Adam D.; Gragg, Marcia N.; Orr, R. Robert
Background: The present study examined the positive experiences of parents raising school-aged children with autism within the context of parenting stress. Materials and Methods: Participants included 23 mother/father pairs raising children with autism (ages 5 to 11 years, M = 7.39). Parents completed measures of parenting stress and positive…
Data collected from 1990 until 2004 from 423 college women show that, although the majority felt they had a loving relationship with their fathers, the vast majority felt that the mother-daughter relationship was more communicative, more emotionally intimate, and more comfortable. Daughters and mothers knew one another better and were more…
Hetherington, E. Mavis; And Others
An investigation of changes in functioning of mothers and fathers following divorce is presented in this paper. Subjects were 24 white middle class boys and 24 girls and their divorced parents, from homes in which custody had been granted to the mother, and the same number of children and parents from intact homes. A multimethod approach,…
Although teenage pregnancy is at the center of much current social concern and political debate, the focus tends to be on the young mothers and their children. The lives and parenting experiences of young fathers typically receive less attention from researchers, practitioners, and policymakers. This article presents findings from a qualitative…
Hetherington, E. Mavis
Study suggests that the effects of father absence on daughters appear during adolescence and are manifested mainly as an inability to interact appropriately with males, rather than in other deviations from appropriate sex typing or in interactions with females. (Author/CB)
The developmental origins and the longitudinal consequences of the infant-father attachment bond have been studied a number of times, but for the child-father attachment relationship, different developmental factors seem to play a role. It has been suggested that the importance of the child-father relationship may lie in the domain of coping with…
McCarthy, E. Doyle; And Others
Investigated effect of father presence or absence in the home in New York City families: welfare AFDC families and lower-middle income families. Results indicated that children of surrogate fathers revealed significantly more behavioral difficulties. Cross-section children and mothers were more adversely affected by father absence than others.…
Harris, Shanette M.
Critically reviews old and recent research on African American father absence, calling for a paradigmatic shift that emphasizes the value of investigating the effects of father absence as part of a transactional process. Views father absence as a stressor that can potentially give rise to additional stressors that can increase childhood risks for…
Sciara, Frank J.
Father absence is a growing phenomenon in urban areas. Although both black and white children from low income families are affected, the great rise in father absence rates has been in black families. Three studies of the effect of father absence upon the academic achievement of urban elementary school children are presented in this paper. In the…
MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Castellino, Domini R.; Brody, Gene H.; Fincham, Frank D.
Investigated concurrent and longitudinal relations between attributions and negative behavioral interactions between 177 fathers and young adolescents. Found that children's attributions about father played a significant role in negative interactions within and across time. Father's earlier negative interactions with their children predicted…
Crooks, Claire V.; Goodall, George R.; Baker, Linda L.; Hughes, Ray
Although fathers play a key role in helping their children develop ideas about gender relations and close relationships, they have been largely overlooked as a resource to help prevent violence against women. This paper explores some of the reasons why fathers have not been successfully engaged in violence prevention. Engaging fathers to promote…
This longitudinal and naturalistic study investigated fathers' and infants' emotional expressions during free infant-father "protoconversation" and the preceding/following pauses. Eleven infant-father dyads were observed during spontaneous interactions at home, from the second to the sixth month after birth. Micro-analysis of infant and paternal…
Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cox, Martha J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne
The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine the implications of fathers' experiences of work stress for paternal behaviors with infants across multiple dimensions of parenting in a sample of fathers living in nonmetropolitan communities (N = 492). LPA revealed five classes of fathers based on levels of social-affective…
Robinson, Bryan E.; Barret, Robert L.
Research on teenage pregnancies has usually neglected young fathers. Most studies ignore fathers entirely, or use data confused or confounded by biased reporting techniques. Retrospective and post hoc analyses often produce inaccurate conclusions, and subject samples often are unrepresentative. A closer examination of adolescent fathers is…
Swisher, Raymond R.; Roettger, Michael E.
This paper examines associations between biological father's incarceration and internalizing and externalizing outcomes of depression and serious delinquency, across White, Black, and Hispanic subsamples of youth in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Among respondents whose father was first incarcerated during childhood or adolescence, father's incarceration is found to be associated with increased depression and delinquency. On the whole, results indicate that associations...
Finlay, Andrea K.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Saenz, Delia S.; Baham, Melinda E.; Parke, Ross D.; Fabricius, William; Braver, Sanford
Little attention has been paid to how early adolescents make attributions for their fathers’ behavior. Guided by symbolic interaction theory, we examined how adolescent gender, ethnicity, family structure, and depressive symptoms explained attributions for residential father behavior. 382 adolescents, grouped by ethnicity (European American, Mexican American) and family structure (intact, stepfamilies), reported attributions for their fathers’ positive and negative behaviors. Results indi...
Schindler, Holly S.; Coley, Rebekah L.
The present qualitative research focuses on homeless fathers living with their children in family shelters. Data were collected through semistructured, face-to-face interviews with homeless fathers (n = 9) and shelter directors (n = 3). Findings suggest that how fathers made meaning of their experiences in a homeless shelter was related to…
Slaughter, Diana T.; Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye
Compared primary caregivers' perceptions of social support received in father-present (N=15) and father-absent (N=19) Black families caring for a child with sickle cell anemia. Found most support to caregivers came from extended kin network, despite father presence or absence. Caregivers reported decrease in network support between diagnosis in…
Shulman, Shmuel; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge
The family itself and men's roles within traditional nuclear families are changing; non-custodial fathers, stepfathers, and absent fathers are commonplace. This book examines the relationships of fathers to their adolescent sons, and daughters, in the context of a changing society. Chapter one explores both the historical and the changing role of…
Pan, Qiong; Sun, Baojuan; Huang, Xiaoli; Jing, Xin; Liu, Hailiang; Jiang, Fuman; ZHOU, JIE; Lin, Mengmeng; Yue, Hongni; HU, Ping; Ning, Ying
At 17+4 week, non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) results of a 24-years-old mother showed high risk of monosomy X (45, X). Abnormally shaped head and cardiac defects were observed in prenatal ultrasound scan at 19+3 week. Amniocentesis conducted at 19+3 week identified karyotype 47, XX, +18, which suggested that the NIPT failed to detect trisomy 18 (T18) in this case. With a further massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of maternal blood, fetal and placental tissues, we found a confined pla...
Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Revsbech, Rasmus
Abstract Background: Recent studies have noted differences in social acquiescence and interpersonal relations among adults born preterm or with very low birth weight compared to full term adults. In addition, birth weight has been observed to be negatively correlated with lie-scale scores in two studies. We attempted to replicate and extend these studies by examining young adult lie-scale scores in a Danish birth cohort. Method: Weight, length and head circumference of 9125 children from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort were measured at birth and at 1, 3 and 6 years. A subsample comprising 1182 individuals participated in a follow-up at 20–34 years and was administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) which includes a lie-scale (indicating social acquiescence or self-insight). Associations between lie-scale scores and weight, length and head circumference respectively were analysed by multiple linear regression adjusting for single-mother status, parity, mother’s age, father’s age, parental social status, age at EPQ measurement, intelligence, and adult size. Results: Male infants with lower weight, length, and head-circumference at birth and the following three years grew up to have higher scores on the lie-scale as young adults. Most of these associations remained significant after adjustment for the included covariates. No associations were found for females. Analyses were also conducted with neuroticism, extraversion and psychoticism as outcome variables, but no significant associations were found for these traits after adjustment. Conclusions: The findings replicate and extend findings from previous studies suggesting that size at birth and during the first three years of life is significantly associated with social acquiescence in adult men. They highlight the potential influence of prenatal and early postnatal development on personality growth and development. Keywords: Eysenck personality questionnaire, Lie-scale, Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism, Birth weight, Birth length, Birth head-circumference
Full Text Available Disorders involving dysfunctional sensory processing are characterized by an inability to filter sensory information, particularly simultaneously arriving multimodal inputs. We examined the effects of prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA, a teratogen linked to sensory dysfunction, on the behavior of juvenile and adult rats, and on the anatomy of the superior colliculus, a critical multisensory integration center in the brain. VPA-exposed rats showed deficits in colliculus-dependent behaviors including startle response, prepulse inhibition and nociceptive responses. Some deficits reversed with age. Stereological analyses revealed that colliculi of VPA-treated rats had significantly fewer parvalbumin-positive neurons, a subset of GABAergic cells. These results suggest that prenatal VPA treatment affects the development of the superior colliculus and leads to persistent anatomical changes evidenced by aberrant behavior in tasks that require sensory processing.
Alexander Cruz Aponasenko
Full Text Available Está a punto de estrenarse en cine, o quizás ya se estrenó en otras latitudes, la versión cinematográfica del último libro de Cormack McCarthy: La carretera. Galardonado con el Pulitzer por este último libro y conocido entre los lectores casuales gracias a su anterior novela: No country for old men, llevada al cine de forma impecable por los hermanos Cohen, McCarthy sorprende dejando ver que a lo largo de su obra, en particular en La carretera, aparece una pregunta por el padre. Tema que de continuo tratan los psicoanalistas, desafortunadamente no con la belleza con que lo hace el poeta. La obra de McCarthy es otro de los tantos ejemplos en los que la literatura enseña al psicoanálisis. // The premiere is ready or maybe it was showed in other latitudes the Cormack Mccarthy movie version of his last book: The Road. This last book won the Pulitzer Prize, also known among the casual readers for his previous novel: No country for old men, impeccable movie version by Cohen brothers. Along his work McCarthy surprise allowing to see, especially in The Road, a question for the father. Subject usually worked by the psychoanalysts, unfortunately, not with the same beauty that the poet does it. McCarthy’s work is other among many examples where the literature teaches to psychoanalysis.
Waye, J S; Eng, B; Olivieri, N F; Chui, D H
We present a case in which a Greek couple was considered not to be at risk of having children with homozygous beta-thalassaemia, an assessment based largely on the father's belief that he carried alpha-thalassaemia. After their first child was diagnosed with homozygous beta-thalassaemia, the case was re-assessed and both parents were shown to have the haematological profile of beta-thalassaemia trait. Screening for the common Mediterranean mutations demonstrated that the mother carries the IVS-1 nt 110 G-->A beta(+)-thalassaemia mutation. Direct nucleotide sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA revealed that the father carries a novel beta O-thalassaemia mutation, frameshift codons 9/10 (+T). The couple's second pregnancy was terminated after prenatal testing revealed that the fetus had inherited both parental mutations. This case illustrates the need to confirm the carrier status of individuals prior to assessing their genetic risks, and highlights the importance of being able to identify rare or novel beta-thalassaemia mutations. PMID:7899267
Evenhouse, Eirik; Reilly, Siobhan
Across the United States, two phenomena have emerged: high rates of multi-partnered fertility (having children by more than one partner) and high rates of male involvement with the criminal justice system. This paper is a first step in an exploration of the possible connection between these two phenomena. The first part of the paper provides nationally representative estimates of the prevalence of multi-partnered fertility among mothers during the 1985-1996 period, for the overall populati...
Heller, Craig; Cunningham, Bruce; Lee, Ginny; Heller, Hannah M.
Discusses distinctive children's picture books that depict Asian fathers and other men who play significant roles in the lives of children. Books are grouped by theme, such as fairly tale versus real life, Asian immigration to North America, and discipline. Includes guidelines for selecting and evaluating books and appropriate classroom teaching…
Alkon, Abbey; Boyce, W Thomas; Tran, Linh; Harley, Kim G; Neuhaus, John; Eskenazi, Brenda
The purpose of the study was to determine whether mothers' adversities experienced during early pregnancy are associated with offspring's autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity trajectories from 6 months to 5 years of age. This cohort study of primarily Latino families included maternal interviews at 13-14 weeks gestation about their experience of a range of adversities: father's absence, general social support, poverty level, and household density. ANS measures of heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (parasympathetic nervous system) and preejection period (sympathetic nervous system) were collected during resting and challenging conditions on children at 6 months and 1, 3.5 and 5 years of age. Reactivity measures were calculated as the mean of the responses to challenging conditions minus a resting condition. Fixed effects models were conducted for the 212 children with two or more timepoints of ANS measures. Interactions between maternal prenatal adversity levels and child age at time of ANS protocol were included in the models, allowing the calculation of separate trajectories or slopes for each level of adversity. Results showed no significant relations between mothers' prenatal socioeconomic or social support adversity and offspring's parasympathetic nervous system trajectories, but there was a statistically significant relationship between social support adversity and offspring's heart rate trajectories (p<.05) and a borderline significant relationship between socioeconomic adversity and offspring's sympathetic nervous system trajectories (p?=?.05). Children whose mothers experienced one, not two, social support adversity had the smallest increases in heart rate reactivity compared to children whose mothers experienced no adversity. The children whose mothers experienced no social support and no socioeconomic adversity had the largest increases in heart rate and preejection period respectively from 6 months to 5 years showing the most plasticity. Mothers' prenatal adverse experiences may program their children's physiologic trajectory to dampen their heart rate or sympathetic responsivity to challenging conditions. PMID:24466003
Carlos García Guevara
Full Text Available Resumen Se presenta un caso, con examen sonográfico realizado en el segundo trimestre de la gestación, en los cuales se sospechó la presencia de un doble arco aórtico. El estudio ecocardiográfico fetal, realizado en el Cardiocentro Pediátrico "William Soler", centro de referencia para el diagnóstico prenatal de cardiopatías congénitas en Cuba, confirmó la sospecha del referido diagnóstico realizado en la atención primaria de salud. El doble arco aórtico es una anomalía congénita poco frecuente; situación esta que, junto a los pocos casos referidos en la bibliografía con diagnóstico prenatal, motivó su publicación. / Abstract A case is reported with sonographic examination performed in the second trimester of pregnancy, in which the presence of a double aortic arch was suspected. Fetal echocardiography, performed at Cardiocentro Pediátrico "William Soler", a reference center for prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease in Cuba, confirmed the suspicion of such diagnosis performed at a primary health care center. The double aortic arch is a rare congenital abnormality; this condition, together with the few cases with prenatal diagnosis reported in the literature, led us to its publication.
Ishii, Seiji; Hashimoto-Torii, Kazue
Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to various types of environmental stress increases susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Given that even subtle perturbations by prenatal environmental stress in the cerebral cortex impair the cognitive and memory functions, this review focuses on underlying molecular mechanisms of pathological cortical development. We especially highlight recent works that utilized ani...
Full Text Available Hydronephrosis is the most common abnormal finding in the urinary tract on prenatal screening with ultrasonography (U/S. Hydronephrosis may be obstructive or non-obstructive; obstructive lesions are more harmful to the developing kidneys. The aim of the study was to evaluate the causes of renal pelvic dilatation and the outcome of postnatal treatment in infants with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally with U/S. We prospectively studied 67 (60 males newborns with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally and confirmed postnatally with U/S from Sept. 2005 to Oct. 2007. The patients were allocated to three groups based on the mea-surement of the anteroposterior renal pelvic diameter (APRPD in transverse plane: mild (6-9.9 mm, moderate (10-14.9 mm and severe (> 15 mm hydronephrosis. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG was obtained in all of the patients to rule out vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. In cases with negative VUR, Diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA scan with diuretic renography was performed to detect ureteropelvic joint obstruction (UPJO. Twenty two cases (32.8% had mild, 20 (29.9% had moderate, and 25 (37.3% had severe hydronephrosis. The causes of hydroneph-rosis were VUR (40.2%, UPJO (32.8%, posterior urethral valves (PUVs (13.4 %, and transient hydronephrosis (13.4 %. The lesion was obstructive in 37 (55.2% infants. Totally, 33 (49.2% patients with hydronephrosis (9 mild, 9 moderate, and 15 severe subsequently developed com-plications such as UTI and renal insufficiency, or required surgery. Associated abnormalities were observed in 15 (22.4% patients. We conclude that every newborn with any degree of hydro-nephrosis should be assessed postnatally for specific diagnosis and treatment.
Hydronephrosis is the most common abnormal finding in the urinary tract on prenatal screening with ultrasonography (U/S). Hydronephrosis may be obstructive or nonobstructive; obstructive lesions are more harmful to the developing kidneys. The aim of the study was to evaluate the causes of renal pelvic dilatation and the outcome of postnatal treatment in infants with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally with U/S. We prospectively studied 67 (60 males) newborns with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally and confirmed postnatally with U/S from Sept. 2005 to Oct. 2007. The patients were allocated to three groups based on the mea-surement of the anteroposterior renal pelvic diameter (APRPD) in transverse plane: mild (6-9.9 mm), moderate (10-14.9 mm) and severe (> 15 mm) hydronephrosis. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) was obtained in all of the patients to rule out vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). In cases with negative VUR, Diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) scan with diuretic renography was performed to detect ureteropelvic joint obstruction (UPJO). Twenty two cases (32.8%) had mild, 20 (29.9%) had moderate, and 25 (37.3%) had severe hydronephrosis. The causes of hydronephrosis were VUR (40.2%), UPJO (32.8%), posterior urethral valves (PUVs) (13.4 %), and transient hydronephrosis (13.4 %). The lesion was obstructive in 37 (55.2%) infants. Totally, 33 (49.2%) patients with hydronephrosis (9 mild, 9 moderate, and 15 severe) subsequently developed complications such as UTquently developed complications such as UTI and renal insufficiency, or required surgery. Associated abnormalities were observed in 15 (22.4%) patients. We conclude that every newborn with any degree of hydronephrosis should be assessed postnatally for specific diagnosis and treatment. (author)
Edwards syndrome is the second most common trisomy syndrome occurring in 0.3/1,000 births. The prenatal diagnosis of this trisomy may be suspected in the routine ultrasound exam of the pregnancy by means of the recognition of a constellation of findings: fetal structural anomalies, intrauterine growth retardation (CIR) and umbilical cord or amniotic fluid volume abnormalities. The diagnosis is then confirmed by chromosome analysis of either amniotic fluid or fetal blood or tissue. We present six cases of Edwards syndrome suspected by fetal ultrasonography exam, all of them confirmed by karyotype, describing the major sonographic findings. (Author) 15 refs
The clinical presentation of thoracic mesenchymal hamartomas varies from an asymptomatic chest wall mass to severe respiratory distress resulting from compression of the airways and lungs. We present the findings on fetal US and MRI of a histologically confirmed case. Following surgical resection, pathological examination corresponded to the cross-sectional imaging features with haemorrhagic, cystic and calcified components. An awareness of the characteristic imaging findings will allow accurate diagnosis of this condition, even prenatally, and thus facilitate appropriate perinatal management and surgical planning. (orig.)
Merzoug, Valerie; Drissi, Cyrine; Adamsbaum, Catherine [Hopital Saint Vincent de Paul, Service de Radiopediatrie, Paris (France); Flunker, Sabrina; Couture, Alain [Hopital Arnaud de Villeneuve, Service de Radiopediatrie, Montpellier cedex 5 (France); Eurin, Danielle [Hopital Charles Nicolle, Service de Radiopediatrie, Rouen (France); Grange, Gilles [Hopital Cochin, Service de Gyneco-Obstetrique, Maternite Port-Royal, Paris (France); Garel, Catherine [Hopital Armand Trousseau, Service de Radiopediatrie, Paris (France); Richter, Brigitte [Hopital Clemenceau, Service de Radiopediatrie, Caen (France); Geissler, Frederic [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Service de Radiopediatrie, Clermont Ferrand (France)
Dural sinus malformations (DSM) are rare malformations mainly reported after birth. The objectives of this study are to describe their prenatal patterns and to focus on their possible favorable outcome. This multicenter retrospective study reported 13 cases of DSM prenatally diagnosed. The admission criterion was a dural mass posterior to the vermis. In 12 patients, MRI was performed after US. Follow-up in 10 born babies (mean: 8 months) and three neuropathological examinations were available. In all fetuses, DSM presented as a well-delimited round mass involving the torcular. The follow-up examinations (n = 10) revealed progressive thrombosis of the DSM marked by a heterogeneous pattern (US and MRI) with concentric rings. The volume of the mass decreased, with complete regression in seven patients (five before and two after birth). One child died at the age of 5 months in the context of major hydrocephalus and another developed atrophy of the frontal lobes. The eight other babies were doing well (5 days to 3 years) without any treatment (n = 6) or following treatment for hydrocephalus (n = 2). Prenatal DSM may have a typical MR pattern, and the prognosis might not be as bad as has previously been reported. In the absence of criterion to predict the hydrovenous cerebral imbalance, it is mandatory to check the parenchyma and the ventricles during the pregnancy. (orig.)
Vinurel, N; Van Nieuwenhuyse, A; Cagneaux, M; Garel, C; Quarello, E; Brasseur, M; Picone, O; Ferry, M; Gaucherand, P; des Portes, V; Guibaud, L
In order to illustrate the significance of a new anatomical finding, distortion of the interhemispheric fissure (DIHF) associated with impacted medial borders of the frontal lobes, we report a retrospective observational study of 13 fetuses in which DIHF was identified on prenatal imaging. In 10 cases there were associated anatomical anomalies, including mainly midline anomalies (syntelencephaly (n=2), lobar holoprosencephaly (n=1), Aicardi syndrome (n=2)), but also schizencephaly (n=1), cortical dysplasia (n=1) and more complex cerebral malformations (n=3), including neural tube defect in two cases. Chromosomal anomaly was identified in two cases, including 6p deletion in a case without associated central nervous system anomalies and a complex mosaicism in one of the cases with syntelencephaly. In two cases, the finding was apparently isolated on both pre- and postnatal imaging, and the children were doing well at follow-up, aged 4 and 5 years. The presence of DIHF on prenatal imaging may help in the diagnosis of cerebral anomalies, especially those involving the midline. If DIHF is apparently isolated on prenatal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging is recommended for careful analysis of gyration and midline, especially optic and olfactory structures. Karyotyping is also recommended. PMID:23640781
Kyjovska, Zdenka Orabi; Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner
We investigated the influence of maternal airway exposure to nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (TiO2, UV-Titan) and carbon black (CB, Printex90), on male reproductive function in the two following generations. Time-mated C57BL/6J mice were exposed by inhalation to UV-Titan, or by intratracheal instillation with Printex90. Body and testicle weight, sperm content per g testicular parenchyma and daily sperm production (DSP) were assessed. The protocol for assessment of DSP was optimized for application in mice (C57BL/6J) and the influence of different parameters was studied. Maternal particulate exposure did not affect DSP statistically significantly in the F1 generation, although TiO2 tended to reduce sperm counts. Overall, time-to-first F2 litter increased with decreasing sperm production. There was no effect on sperm production in the F2 generation originating after TiO2 exposure. F2 offspring, whose fathers were prenatally exposed to Printex90, showed lowered sperm production. Furthermore, we report statistically significant differences in sperm production between mouse strains.
Full Text Available Objective?To identify the pathogenic gene in a non-syndromic deafness family, provide an accurate genetic consultation and early intervention for deaf family to reduce the incidence of congenital deafness. Methods?Mutation analysis was carried out by polymerase chain reaction followed by DNA sequencing of coding region of GJB2 gene. The fetal DNA was extracted from the amniotic fluid cells by amniocentesis at 20 weeks during pregnancy. The genotype of the fetus was characterized for predicting the status of hearing. Results?Complex heterozygous mutations 235delC and 176-191del16bp were detected in the proband of the family, heterozygous mutation 176-191del16bp was detected in the father, and 235delC was detected in the mother. Fetus carried 235delC heterozygous mutation inherited from his mother. Conclusions?The proband's hearing loss is resulted from the complex heterozygous mutations 235delC and 176-191del16bp in GJB2 gene. Fetus is a heterozygous mutation 235delC carrier. Prenatal diagnosis for deafness assisted by genetic test can provide efficient guidance about offspring's hearing condition, and prevent another deaf-mute member from birth. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.07.09
Widarsson, Margareta; Kerstis, Birgitta; Sundquist, Kristina; Engström, Gabriella; Sarkadi, Anna
The aim of this study was to describe expectant mothers’ and fathers’ perceived needs of support during pregnancy. Twenty-two women and 10 men were interviewed in four focus groups and 13 individual interviews. Systematic text condensation was performed to analyze the data. Parents described not only a broad spectrum of social support needs but also needs of psychological and physical support. They also requested to share their experiences with others. The foci of care and parents’ needs of s...
Rita Maria Viana Rêgo; Ângela Maria Alves e Souza; Maria Josefina da Silva; Violante Augusto Batista Braga; Maria Dalva Santos Alves; Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão Cardoso
The participation of the father in the breastfeeding must be culturally assimilated by health professionals and by the society. This is a bibliographical descriptive and documentary study, aims to present t...
This article examines the role of the father in the transferral of ideological beliefs to the son within the Afrikaans-speaking family as represented in the fiction of contemporary male authors, specifically Alexander Strachan, Mark Behr and S.P. Benjamin. The research is guided by the central question of ideological factors regulating the relation between gender and politics. Kaja Silverman's interpretation of Jacques Lacan's work and her psychoanalytical distinction between the penis and th...
Thomas, Christine Neal
Every father is the son of a mother. While this would appear to be a commonplace, studies of patrimonialism as a political system in the ancient Near East have rarely considered its implications. Royal women, as objects of exchange and as agents of political action, played a central role in negotiations between Late Bronze Age states and in dynastic struggles within these states. The relative positions of royal men were shaped by their relationships to royal women.
Loureiro, Maria L.; Sanz-de-Galdeano, Anna; VURI, Daniela
We analyze data from the 1994-2002 waves of the British Household Panel Survey to explore the influence of parental smoking habits on their children's smoking decisions. In order to account for the potential endogeneity of parental smoking habits we use instrumental variable methods. We find that mothers play a crucial role in determining their daughters' smoking decisions, while fathers' smoking habits are transmitted primarily to their sons.
M. J. Aguilar Cordero
Full Text Available Durante el proceso gestacional, el estrés prolongado y las preocupaciones que genera este período pueden alterar el desarrollo y la función del hemisferio derecho; de ahí la importancia que se atribuye a los distintos programas de estimulación temprana dirigido a las mujeres gestantes. Objetivos: Determinar los resultados perinatales en el momento del parto de las mujeres que recibieron el programa de estimulación prenatal. Material: Se realizó un estudio experimental en cinco áreas de salud del municipio de Cienfuegos (Cuba para identificar los resultados perinatales en el momento del parto y de las mujeres que recibieron el programa de estimulación prenatal. Metodología: Se efectuó una muestra intencional de la totalidad del universo, correspondiente a una n = 200 embarazadas, entre las 20 y las 28 semanas de gestación. Las variables estudiadas fueron la duración del trabajo del parto, el peso del recién nacido, el apgar al nacimiento, el tipo de parto y la opinión que las mujeres estudiadas tenían sobre el programa. Resultados: En el 36% de la población estudiada, el trabajo del parto fue menor de 6 horas. En el 67,5%, el recién nacido tuvo un peso comprendido entre 2.500 y 3.000 gramos y para el 96,5% de los hijos de las madres estimuladas, el apgar al nacer fue evaluado entre 8 y 9. En el 68,5% de las mujeres que recibieron el programa de estimulación, su parto fue eutócico y el 96% de las mujeres participantes está satisfecha con el programa recibido. Conclusiones: Se ha demostrado que estos nuevos programas de estimulación prenatal son bien aceptadas por la embarazada.During pregnancy, the prolonged stress and worry felt by mothers can alter the development and function of the right brain hemisphere. For this reason, importance is given to prenatal stimulation programs for pregnant women. Objectives: To determine the perinatal results in the moment of childbirth in mothers who had participated in prenatal stimulation programs. Material. An experimental study was conducted in five health districts in the town of Cienfuegos (Cuba with a view to identifying the perinatal results at the moment of childbirth in women that had participated in prenatal stimulation programs. Methodology: The study consisted of an intentional sampling of all of the subjects (n = 200 women who were 20-28 weeks pregnant. The variables studied were the following: duration of labor, baby's birth weight, Apgar score at birth, type of childbirth, and opinion of the subjects about the prenatal stimulation program. Results: Of the population sample, 36% of the subjects gave birth in less than six hours; 67.5% had babies weighing 2,500-3,000 grams; and 96.5% had babies whose Apgar scores were between 8 and 9. Finally, 68.5% of the subjects had natural childbirths and 96% were satisfied with the prenatal stimulation program. Conclusions. The results obtained showed that these new prenatal stimulation programs were well received by the subjects in this study.
M. J., Aguilar Cordero; M., Vieite Ravelo; C. A., Padilla López; N., Mur Villar; M., Rizo Baeza; C. I., Gómez García.
Full Text Available Durante el proceso gestacional, el estrés prolongado y las preocupaciones que genera este período pueden alterar el desarrollo y la función del hemisferio derecho; de ahí la importancia que se atribuye a los distintos programas de estimulación temprana dirigido a las mujeres gestantes. Objetivos: De [...] terminar los resultados perinatales en el momento del parto de las mujeres que recibieron el programa de estimulación prenatal. Material: Se realizó un estudio experimental en cinco áreas de salud del municipio de Cienfuegos (Cuba) para identificar los resultados perinatales en el momento del parto y de las mujeres que recibieron el programa de estimulación prenatal. Metodología: Se efectuó una muestra intencional de la totalidad del universo, correspondiente a una n = 200 embarazadas, entre las 20 y las 28 semanas de gestación. Las variables estudiadas fueron la duración del trabajo del parto, el peso del recién nacido, el apgar al nacimiento, el tipo de parto y la opinión que las mujeres estudiadas tenían sobre el programa. Resultados: En el 36% de la población estudiada, el trabajo del parto fue menor de 6 horas. En el 67,5%, el recién nacido tuvo un peso comprendido entre 2.500 y 3.000 gramos y para el 96,5% de los hijos de las madres estimuladas, el apgar al nacer fue evaluado entre 8 y 9. En el 68,5% de las mujeres que recibieron el programa de estimulación, su parto fue eutócico y el 96% de las mujeres participantes está satisfecha con el programa recibido. Conclusiones: Se ha demostrado que estos nuevos programas de estimulación prenatal son bien aceptadas por la embarazada. Abstract in english During pregnancy, the prolonged stress and worry felt by mothers can alter the development and function of the right brain hemisphere. For this reason, importance is given to prenatal stimulation programs for pregnant women. Objectives: To determine the perinatal results in the moment of childbirth [...] in mothers who had participated in prenatal stimulation programs. Material. An experimental study was conducted in five health districts in the town of Cienfuegos (Cuba) with a view to identifying the perinatal results at the moment of childbirth in women that had participated in prenatal stimulation programs. Methodology: The study consisted of an intentional sampling of all of the subjects (n = 200 women who were 20-28 weeks pregnant). The variables studied were the following: duration of labor, baby's birth weight, Apgar score at birth, type of childbirth, and opinion of the subjects about the prenatal stimulation program. Results: Of the population sample, 36% of the subjects gave birth in less than six hours; 67.5% had babies weighing 2,500-3,000 grams; and 96.5% had babies whose Apgar scores were between 8 and 9. Finally, 68.5% of the subjects had natural childbirths and 96% were satisfied with the prenatal stimulation program. Conclusions. The results obtained showed that these new prenatal stimulation programs were well received by the subjects in this study.
Full Text Available This essay analyzes Barack Obama’s Nelson Mandela Memorial speech together with other seminal texts of Obama’s political and personal creed, such as his book Dreams from My Father (1995 and his speech “A More Perfect Union” (2008. This reading becomes helpful to understand Mandela’s transnational power, which Obama uses to comment on the United States by comparing Madiba to other American “fathers of the nation.” Thus, he uproots Mandela’s from a specifically South African legacy, expands his figure, and addresses him as a transnational father of his own nation, whose power, influence, and example transcend South African borders. As a consequence of this enlargement and transnational validation of Mandela’s figure, the speech delivered at the Memorial becomes an occasion to tackle American past and future, while the memory of Madiba and his driving example in Obama’s life serve to reinforce previous positions conveyed in other discourses by the American President, such as the “A More Perfect Union” speech delivered in Philadelphia in 2008.
Sanders, Matthew R.; Dittman, Cassandra K.; Keown, Louise J.; Farruggia, Sue; Rose, Dennis
Participants were 933 fathers participating in a large-scale household survey of parenting practices in Queensland Australia. Although the majority of fathers reported having few problems with their children, a significant minority reported behavioral and emotional problems and 5% reported that their child showed a potentially problematic level of…
Taylor, Sharon Estill
Asking the research question, "What is the lived experience of women whose fathers died in World War II?" led to awareness of the unexplored impact of war loss on children. It was hypothesized that this research would show that women who experienced father-loss due to war would share commonality in certain areas. Areas of exploration including…
Madhusudan Dey, Sumita Agarwal and Sumedha Sharma
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aneuploidies are one of the important causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Initially screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. Recently, various methods including non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT by analysis of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA in maternal blood has shown promise for highly accurate detection of common fetal autosomal trisomies. Incorporating these new non-invasive technologies into clinical practice will impact the current prenatal screening paradigm for fetal aneuploidy, in which genetic counselling plays an integral role. The advantage of the technique being elimination of risks such as miscarriage associated with invasive diagnostic procedures. But then this new technique has its own set of technical limitations and ethical issues at present and further research is required before implementation. Data was obtained through a literature search via Pubmed and Google as well as detailed search of our library database.
Kim, Jeong Ah; Song, Mi Jin [Cheil General Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
This study was performed to present the prenatal sonographic findings and the associated abnormalities of acardiac twins. Seven cases of acardiac twins were reviewed retrospectively. Prenatal ultrasonography was performed in all patients at a gestational age between 12 and 27 weeks (mean 17.6 weeks). Autopsy was performed in four cases. The sonographic and autopsy findings were reviewed to report the associated abnormalities of the acardiac and donor fetuses. The diagnosis of acardiac twins was made on the basis of ultrasonography (n=6) or autopsy (n=1). The associated abnormalities of the acardiac fetuses were single umbilical artery (SUA) (n=5), abdominal wall defect (n=4), club feet (n=4), scoliosis (n=1), cleft lip and palate (n=1), digital anomaly (n=1), and umbilical cord cyst (n=1). In four of the donor fetuses, sonographic abnormalities were found. Autopsy was performed in three of the four cases to reveal hydropic change (n=2), diaphragmatic hernia (n=1) and multiple structural abnormalities of interventricular septal defect, polydactyly, club feet and SUA (n=1). Intrauterine fetal death occurred in five donors and follow-up was lost in the remaining two. Meticulous sonography enables the diagnosis of acardiac twins at an early gestational age and can reveal the associated abnormalities of the donor fetus as well as the acardiac fetus
This study was performed to present the prenatal sonographic findings and the associated abnormalities of acardiac twins. Seven cases of acardiac twins were reviewed retrospectively. Prenatal ultrasonography was performed in all patients at a gestational age between 12 and 27 weeks (mean 17.6 weeks). Autopsy was performed in four cases. The sonographic and autopsy findings were reviewed to report the associated abnormalities of the acardiac and donor fetuses. The diagnosis of acardiac twins was made on the basis of ultrasonography (n=6) or autopsy (n=1). The associated abnormalities of the acardiac fetuses were single umbilical artery (SUA) (n=5), abdominal wall defect (n=4), club feet (n=4), scoliosis (n=1), cleft lip and palate (n=1), digital anomaly (n=1), and umbilical cord cyst (n=1). In four of the donor fetuses, sonographic abnormalities were found. Autopsy was performed in three of the four cases to reveal hydropic change (n=2), diaphragmatic hernia (n=1) and multiple structural abnormalities of interventricular septal defect, polydactyly, club feet and SUA (n=1). Intrauterine fetal death occurred in five donors and follow-up was lost in the remaining two. Meticulous sonography enables the diagnosis of acardiac twins at an early gestational age and can reveal the associated abnormalities of the donor fetus as well as the acardiac fetus
Luskenia, del Río Romero; Nadia, Blanco Figueredo; Zulay, Rodríguez Domínguez.
Full Text Available El onfalocele es un defecto de la pared abdominal a nivel de la línea media caracterizado por la herniación de contenido abdominal y recubierto por peritoneo y amnios. El objetivo de esta comunicación es presentar un caso de onfalocele con edad gestacional de 23 sem y su diagnóstico prenatal por ult [...] rasonografía. Mediante diagnóstico ecográfico en una pesquisa realizada a una paciente de 40 años de edad en el segundo trimestre (edad gestacional de 23 semanas), mostró a nivel de la pared anterior fetal imagen ecogénica que protruye a través de la pared abdominal y a continuación se localiza el cordón umbilical. Se observó estómago desplazado y pérdida de la anatomía normal de la circunferencia abdominal. Se realizó asesoramiento genético en el Centro Municipal de Genética de Manzanillo. Anatomopatológicamente el feto presentó cuello corto y ancho, orejas de implantación baja, defecto del cierre del conducto onfalomesentérico, saco herniario ocupado por el lóbulo cuadrado del hígado y lecho vesicular, corazón con base ancha que muestra a la disección cava-cava, ausencia de tabique interventricular, estenosis de la válvula pulmonar y dilatación supravalvular de la arteria pulmonar, defecto amplio del tabique intraventicular y aorta cabalgada, lo que habla a favor de una cardiopatía troncoconal del tipo trilogía de Fallop, más el onfalocele. El diagnóstico prenatal por ultrasonografía es un método eficaz y fiable para el diagnóstico prenatal de onfalocele. Abstract in english Omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect at the midline characterized by herniation of abdominal contents and covered by peritoneum and amnion. The aim of this paper is to present a case of omphalocele with gestational age of 23 weeks and prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography. Using ultrasound diagno [...] sis in a patient pesquiza made 40 years of age in the second trimester (gestational age 23 weeks) showed a level of the anterior fetal echogenic image that sticks through the abdominal wall and then locate the cord umbilical. Stomach is seen displaced and loss of normal anatomy of the abdominal circumference. Genetic counseling was conducted at the Municipal Center for Genetics of Manzanillo. Anatomopatolágicamente the fetus presented short and wide neck, low-set ears, defect omphalomesenteric of ductal closure, hernia sac occupied by the caudate lobe of the liver and gallbladder bed, wide base heart dissection showing cava-cava absence of interventricular septum was observed pulmonary valve stenosis most dilation of supravalvular pulmonary artery, large defect and aorta intraventricular septum ride, which speaks in favor of a heart rate troncoconal fallop trilogy over the omphalocele. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is an efficient and reliable method for prenatal diagnosis of omphalocele.
Sheppard, Paula; Snopkowski, Kristin; Sear, Rebecca
Father absence is consistently associated with children's reproductive outcomes in industrialized countries. It has been suggested that father absence acts as a cue to particular environmental conditions that influence life history strategies. Much less is known, however, about the effects of father absence on such outcomes in lower-income countries. Using data from the 1988 Malaysian Family Life Survey (n = 567), we tested the effect of father absence on daughters' age at menarche, first marriage, and first birth; parity progression rates; and desired completed family size in Malaysia, a country undergoing an economic and fertility transition. Father absence during later childhood (ages 8 to 15), although not during earlier childhood, was associated with earlier progressions to first marriage and first birth, after controlling for other confounders. Father absence does not affect age at menarche, desired family size, or progression from first to second birth. The patterns found in this transitional population partly mirror those in developed societies, where father absence accelerates reproductive events. There is, however, a notable contrast between the acceleration in menarche for father-absent girls consistently found in developed societies and the lack of any association in our findings. The mechanisms through which father absence affects reproduction may differ in different ecological contexts. In lower-income contexts, direct paternal investment or influence may be of more importance in determining reproductive behavior than whether fathers act as a cue to environmental conditions. PMID:24610662
Norwitz, Errol R; Levy, Brynn
Prenatal detection of chromosome abnormalities has been offered for more than 40 years, first by amniocentesis in the early 1970s and additionally by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) in the early 1980s. Given the well-recognized association between increasing maternal age and trisomy,1–3 the primary utilization of prenatal testing has been by older mothers. This has drastically reduced the incidence of aneuploid children born to older mothers.4 Although younger women have relatively low risks of conceiving a child with aneuploidy, the majority of pregnant women are in their late teens, 20s, and early 30s. As such, most viable aneuploid babies are born to these younger mothers.5 Invasive prenatal diagnosis (CVS and amniocentesis) is not a feasible option for all low-risk mothers, as these procedures carry a small but finite risk and would ultimately cause more miscarriages than they would detect aneuploidy. For this reason, a number of noninvasive tests have been developed—including first-trimester risk assessment at 11 to 14 weeks, maternal serum analyte (quad) screening at 15 to 20 weeks, and sonographic fetal structural survey at 18 to 22 weeks—all of which are designed to give a woman an adjusted (more accurate) estimate of having an aneuploid fetus using as baseline her a priori age-related risk. Ultrasound and maternal serum analysis are considered screening procedures and both require follow up by CVS or amniocentesis in screen-positive cases for a definitive diagnosis of a chromosome abnormality in the fetus. The ability to isolate fetal cells and fetal DNA from maternal blood during pregnancy has opened up exciting opportunities for improved noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Direct analysis of fetal cells from maternal circulation has been challenging given the scarcity of fetal cells in maternal blood (1:10,000–1:1,000,000) and the focus has shifted to the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA, which is found at a concentration almost 25 times higher than that available from nucleated blood cells extracted from a similar volume of whole maternal blood. There have now been numerous reports on the use of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) for NIPT for chromosomal aneuploidies—especially trisomy (an extra copy of a chromosome) or monosomy (a missing chromosome)—and a number of commercial products are already being marketed for this indication. This article reviews the various techniques being used to analyze cell-free DNA in the maternal circulation for the prenatal detection of chromosome abnormalities and the evidence in support of each. A number of areas of ongoing controversy are addressed, including the timing of maternal blood sampling, the need for genetic counseling, and the use of confirmatory invasive testing. Future applications for this technology are also reviewed. PMID:24466384
Shenk, Mary K; Starkweather, Kathrine; Kress, Howard C; Alam, Nurul
This paper examines the effects of three different types of father absence on the timing of life history events among women in rural Bangladesh. Age at marriage and age at first birth are compared across women who experienced different father presence/absence conditions as children. Survival analyses show that daughters of fathers who divorced their mothers or deserted their families have consistently younger ages at marriage and first birth than other women. In contrast, daughters whose fathers were labor migrants have consistently older ages at marriage and first birth. Daughters whose fathers died when they were children show older ages at marriage and first birth than women with divorced/deserted fathers and women with fathers present. These effects may be mediated by high socioeconomic status and high levels of parental investment among the children of labor migrants, and a combination of low investment, high psychosocial stress, and low alloparental investment among women with divorced/deserted fathers. Our findings are most consistent with the Child Development Theory model of female life history strategies, though the Paternal Investment and Psychosocial Acceleration models also help explain differences between women in low paternal investment situations (e.g., father divorced/abandoned vs. father dead). Father absence in and of itself seems to have little effect on the life history strategies of Bangladeshi women once key reasons for or correlates of absence are controlled, and none of the models is a good predictor of why women with deceased fathers have delayed life histories compared with women whose fathers are present. PMID:23355056
Full Text Available Data for two birth cohorts from two Brazilian municipalities, Ribeirão Preto in 1994 and São Luís in 1997/1998, were used to identify and compare factors associated with inadequate utilization of prenatal care and to identify factors capable of explaining the differences observed between the two cities. Prenatal care was defined as adequate or inadequate according to the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were used to compare differences in the inadequacy of prenatal care utilization. The percentage of inadequacy was higher in São Luís (34.6% than in Ribeirão Preto (16.9%. Practically the same variables were associated with inadequacy in both cities. Puerperae with lower educational level, without a companion or cohabiting, who delivered in public health units, younger than 20 years, multiparae and smokers, with low family income presented higher percentages of inadequate prenatal care utilization. However, the effects of some variables differed between the two cities. The risk for inadequate use of prenatal care was higher for women attended in the public health sector in São Luís and for cohabiting women in Ribeirão Preto. The effect of the remaining factors studied did not differ between cities. The category of admission accounted for 57.0% of the difference in the inadequate use of prenatal care between cities and marital status accounted for 45.3% of the difference. Even after adjustment for all variables, part of the difference in the inadequacy of prenatal care utilization remained unexplained.
“L’homme qui n’élève pas ses enfants ne devrait pas être appelé un père” ? Les tendances du discours sur la paternité et le dilemme paternel au Japon “The Man who Doesn’t Raise his Child Shouldn’t Be Called a Father”? The Trends of Discourse on Fatherhood and Father’s Dilemma in Japan
Full Text Available La paternité japonaise a longtemps été caractérisée par un engagement professionnel exacerbé et une absence marquée au niveau familial. Cependant, le contexte économique et politique récent a induit certains changements dans la manière d’appréhender la paternité. Il est ainsi possible d’identifier trois types de positionnements dans les discours récents relatifs à la paternité au Japon : 1 le père “pourvoyeur”, garantissant les ressources économiques nécessaires aux besoins des enfants, 2 le père “socialisateur”, encadrant ses enfants dans l’apprentissage des normes sociales, 3 le père “soigneur”, aidant ses enfants pour ce qu’ils ne peuvent faire. Il n’est pas facile pour les pères de trouver un équilibre par rapport aux responsabilités que ces trois approches supposent. Les codes professionnels valorisant “l’homme dominant” et les carences du système d’encadrement des enfants obligent de nombreux pères à s’investir énormément dans leur vie professionnelle tandis que de nombreuses mères restent à la maison. Les réactions des pères face à cette situation sont variées. Certains valorisent une division genrée des responsabilités parentales et se consacrent pleinement à leur travail. D’autres articulent travail et famille tandis que l’épouse reste à la maison. D’autres, enfin, optent pour une articulation travail/famille impliquant les deux membres du couple, redéfinissant ainsi la signification de la masculinité.Japanese fatherhood has been characterized as preoccupation with work and alienation from family. However, Japan’s recent political and economic conditions have brought about changes and diversification in fatherhood. We can recognize three types of father’s responsibilities in recent discourses on fatherhood in Japan : 1 “provider,” supplying necessary economic resources for the growth of children, 2 “socializer,” supporting children to learn social norms and good manners, 3 “carer,” helping children by doing what children cannot do. It is difficult for fathers to keep a balance between the responsibility as a provider and as a socializer/carer. Male-dominant employment practices and insufficient child-support systems force many fathers to work very long and many mothers to stay home. Fathers’ reactions to the conflict are various. Some affirm gender division of parental responsibilities and justify their insufficient involvement in childcare. Some take a responsibility as a sole provider and make an effort to get involved in childcare as much as possible. Some try to juggle work and childcare and build egalitarian relationship with his wife, rethinking the meaning of masculinity.
Rohan, Jennifer M.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Delamater, Alan; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Drotar, Dennis
Objective?To document trajectories of paternal involvement in diabetes management and examine bidirectional associations with diabetes outcomes across early adolescence.?Methods?3-year prospective assessment of paternal involvement, diabetes self-management, and glycemic control among 136 youth (age 9–12 at baseline) and their mothers and fathers.?Results?Unconditional growth curves demonstrated decreasing amount (maternal report: F(1,128) = 14.79; paternal report: F(1,111) = 12.95, ps < 0.01) and level of contribution (maternal report: F(1,131) = 23.6, p < .01) of paternal involvement. Controlling for covariates, lower youth self-management predicted an increasing slope in fathers’ self-reported amount of involvement (b = ?0.15 to ?0.22, p < .05), and higher levels of fathers’ self-reported level of contribution predicted a decreasing slope in youths’ self-reported self-management (b = ?0.01, p < .05).?Conclusions?Like mothers, fathers’ involvement declines modestly during early adolescence. Different aspects of paternal involvement influence or are influenced by youths’ self-management. Communication about ways to enhance fathers’ involvement before this transition may help prevent or reduce declining diabetes management and control common in adolescence. PMID:24013966
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Medina, Lissette; Delgado, Jeannette; Hernandez, Andrea
Eighty-four prenatally depressed women were randomly assigned to yoga, massage therapy or standard prenatal care control groups to determine the relative effects of yoga and massage therapy on prenatal depression and neonatal outcomes. Following 12 weeks of twice weekly yoga or massage therapy sessions (20 min each) both therapy groups versus the control group had a greater decrease on depression, anxiety and back and leg pain scales and a greater increase on a relationship scale. In addition, the yoga and massage therapy groups did not differ on neonatal outcomes including gestational age and birthweight, and those groups, in turn, had greater gestational age and birthweight than the control group. PMID:22464118
Full Text Available Although prenatal testicular torsion (PNTT is rarely observed,it is an important condition that can cause bilateralvanishing testis. Generally, PNTT cases observed asextravaginal torsion and treatment is emergency surgicalop-eration. In this article, 39 week presented a case diagnosedin the prenatal testicular torsion. PNTT diagnosiswas confirmed by Doppler ultrasonography and emergencysurgery was performed. Extravaginal left testiculartorsion gangrene and necrosis of the testis was observedin the operation. Left orchiectomy was performed andintrauter-ine ultrasonographic diagnosis was found to becorrect.Key words: Testicular torsion, prenatal diagnosis, features,ultrasonography
Vazquez, Elida; Castellote, Amparo; Mayolas, Nuria; Enriquez, Goya [Hospital Universitario Vall d' Hebron, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Carreras, Elena [Hospital Universitario Vall d' Hebron, Fetal Medicine Unit, Barcelona (Spain); Peiro, Jose Luis [Hospital Universitario Vall d' Hebron, Department of Paediatric Surgery, Barcelona (Spain)
Congenital intracranial tumours are uncommon and differ from those occurring in older children in clinical presentation, imaging characteristics and prognosis. These tumours are often detected incidentally on routine prenatal US and/or fetal MRI. Hence, the paediatric radiologist should be familiar with the features of those lesions that should be included in the differential diagnosis. In general, the prognosis of these conditions is poor owing to large tumour size and the limitations of adjuvant therapy at such a young age. Congenital lesions involving the head and neck region require a meticulous imaging approach using both US and MRI techniques to better guide prenatal planning and fetal or neonatal surgical procedures. (orig.)
Congenital intracranial tumours are uncommon and differ from those occurring in older children in clinical presentation, imaging characteristics and prognosis. These tumours are often detected incidentally on routine prenatal US and/or fetal MRI. Hence, the paediatric radiologist should be familiar with the features of those lesions that should be included in the differential diagnosis. In general, the prognosis of these conditions is poor owing to large tumour size and the limitations of adjuvant therapy at such a young age. Congenital lesions involving the head and neck region require a meticulous imaging approach using both US and MRI techniques to better guide prenatal planning and fetal or neonatal surgical procedures. (orig.)
Mabel, Domínguez Mena; María Idania, Viñales Pedraza; María Esther, Santana Hernández; Estela, Morales Peralta.
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en el Centro de Desarrollo de la Genética del municipio La Lisa, en el período comprendido de enero de 1999 hasta diciembre de 2003. La muestra la conformaron 251 embarazadas con edad materna avanzada (38 años o más) que acudieron a recibir asesoramiento genético po [...] r tener riesgo incrementado de cromosomopatías. Los datos fueron procesados con el cálculo porcentual. Se realizaron diagnóstico prenatal (DPN) 189 pacientes (75,29 %), y se obtuvieron 6 casos positivos, 4 síndrome Down (47 XY+21), 1 súper macho (47 XYY), 1 trisomía 18 (47 XY+18) y 15 casos sin resultados. No se realizaron el diagnóstico prenatal 62 pacientes, 12 por amenaza de aborto, 25 por edad gestacional avanzada, 25 por negarse a la realización del proceder y 3 por otras causas. El asesoramiento genético fue no directivo, respetando las decisiones personales, confiabilidad, exponiendo la relación riesgo / beneficio y obteniendo el consentimiento informado para su realización. Abstract in english A descriptive study was conducted in the Center of Genetic Development in La Lisa municipality from January 1999 to December 2003. The sample was composed of 251 pregnant women with advanced maternal age (38 or over) that seeked genetic counselling for having increased risk of chromosomopathies. The [...] data were processed by the percentage calculation. 189 patients (75.29 %) were prenatally diagnosed (PND). 6 cases were positive, 4 Down's syndrome (47 XY+ 21), 1 super male (47 XYY), 1 trisomy 18 (47 XY + 18) and 15 cases without results. The prenatal diagnosis was not made in 62 patients, 12 due to threatened abortion, 25 due to advanced gestational age, 25 rejected the procedure and 3 for other causes. The genetic counseling was not directive. It respected the personal decisions and it was also reliable, presented the risk-benefit relation and required the informed consent.
Mabel Domínguez Mena
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en el Centro de Desarrollo de la Genética del municipio La Lisa, en el período comprendido de enero de 1999 hasta diciembre de 2003. La muestra la conformaron 251 embarazadas con edad materna avanzada (38 años o más que acudieron a recibir asesoramiento genético por tener riesgo incrementado de cromosomopatías. Los datos fueron procesados con el cálculo porcentual. Se realizaron diagnóstico prenatal (DPN 189 pacientes (75,29 %, y se obtuvieron 6 casos positivos, 4 síndrome Down (47 XY+21, 1 súper macho (47 XYY, 1 trisomía 18 (47 XY+18 y 15 casos sin resultados. No se realizaron el diagnóstico prenatal 62 pacientes, 12 por amenaza de aborto, 25 por edad gestacional avanzada, 25 por negarse a la realización del proceder y 3 por otras causas. El asesoramiento genético fue no directivo, respetando las decisiones personales, confiabilidad, exponiendo la relación riesgo / beneficio y obteniendo el consentimiento informado para su realización.A descriptive study was conducted in the Center of Genetic Development in La Lisa municipality from January 1999 to December 2003. The sample was composed of 251 pregnant women with advanced maternal age (38 or over that seeked genetic counselling for having increased risk of chromosomopathies. The data were processed by the percentage calculation. 189 patients (75.29 % were prenatally diagnosed (PND. 6 cases were positive, 4 Down's syndrome (47 XY+ 21, 1 super male (47 XYY, 1 trisomy 18 (47 XY + 18 and 15 cases without results. The prenatal diagnosis was not made in 62 patients, 12 due to threatened abortion, 25 due to advanced gestational age, 25 rejected the procedure and 3 for other causes. The genetic counseling was not directive. It respected the personal decisions and it was also reliable, presented the risk-benefit relation and required the informed consent.
Krans, Elizabeth E; Cochran, Gerald; Bogen, Debra L
Pregnancy is an opportune time to identify opioid dependence, facilitate conversion to opioid maintenance treatment, and coordinate care with specialists in addiction medicine, behavioral health, and social services. Comprehensive prenatal care for opioid-dependent women involves the evaluation and the management of co-occurring psychiatric disorders, polysubstance use, infectious diseases, social stressors, and counseling regarding the importance of breastfeeding, contraception, and neonatal abstinence syndrome. Although the complex psychiatric, social, and environmental factors faced by this population pose significant challenges to obstetric care providers, the development of strong patient-provider relationships can facilitate the ability to deliver efficient and effective health care during pregnancy. PMID:25775440
In utero exposures to ionising radiation are a very important subject in radiological protection concerning not only the prevention but also the estimation of the associated risks. In these situations the perception of risks by the pregnant woman and the involved professionals could not always be correlated with their objective magnitude. In this communication we describe the effects of prenatal exposure to ionising, the thresholds and their relation with the gestational age, taking into account occupationally exposed women, patients undergoing medical procedures and public members. The dose estimation, the evaluation of the potential associated risks and the relation with the spontaneous incidence of the considered effects are analyzed in the framework of the basic principles of radiological protection. Most of diagnostic procedures properly done do not imply induction of deterministic effects in embryo/fetus. Therapeutical procedures and accidental overexposures could associated with significant risks of deterministic effects. Childhood cancer induction is an stochastic effect without threshold and every in utero exposure will increase their probability. (Author) 13 refs
Despite the historical prevalence of single motherhood in Latin America and its rise in recent years, there is limited knowledge on the magnitude and consequences of father absence as experienced by children. Using a nationally representative sample from the 2002 Guatemalan Reproductive Health Survey, this study provides unprecedented documentation on the national prevalence of children’s separate living arrangements from their biological fathers and nonresident fathers’ paternity establi...
Noyes Jane; Hobson Lucie
Abstract Background Fathers are increasingly providing substantial amounts of technical and nursing care to growing numbers of children with complex healthcare needs. This exploratory study reports some of the first in-depth evidence of fathers' experiences and presents a research agenda in this critically under-researched area. Methods We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 8 fathers who provided a substantial amount of complex technical and nursing care for their child at home. T...
Little research to date has assessed the importance of the presence of fathers in the household for protecting child health, particularly in developing country contexts. Although divorce and nonmarital childbearing are low in many developing countries, migration is a potentially important source of father absence that has yet to be studied in relation to child health. This study utilizes prospective, longitudinal data from Mexico to assess whether father absence due to migration is associated...
Neonatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can interfere with hormone-sensitive developmental processes, including brain sexual differentiation. We hypothesized that disruption of these processes by gestational PCB exposure would be detectable as early as the day after birth (postnatal day (P) 1) through alterations in hypothalamic gene and protein expression. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected twice, once each on gestational days 16 and 18, with one of the following: DMSO vehicle; the industrial PCB mixture Aroclor 1221 (A1221); a reconstituted mixture of the three most prevalent congeners found in humans, PCB138, PCB153, and PCB180; or estradiol benzoate (EB). On P1, litter composition, anogenital distance (AGD), and body weight were assessed. Pups were euthanized for immunohistochemistry of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) or TUNEL labeling of apoptotic cells or quantitative PCR of 48 selected genes in the preoptic area (POA). We found that treatment with EB or A1221 had a sex-specific effect on developmental apoptosis in the neonatal anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), a sexually dimorphic hypothalamic region involved in the regulation of reproductive neuroendocrine function. In this region, exposed females had increased numbers of apoptotic nuclei, whereas there was no effect of treatment in males. For ER?, EB treatment increased immunoreactive cell numbers and density in the medial preoptic nrs and density in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) of both males and females, while A1221 and the PCB mixture had no effect. PCR analysis of gene expression in the POA identified nine genes that were significantly altered by prenatal EDC exposure, in a manner that varied by sex and treatment. These genes included brain-derived neurotrophic factor, GABAB receptors-1 and -2, IGF-1, kisspeptin receptor, NMDA receptor subunits NR2b and NR2c, prodynorphin, and TGF?. Collectively, these results suggest that the disrupted sexual differentiation of the POA by prenatal EDC exposures is already evident as early as the day after birth, effects that may change the trajectory of postnatal development and compromise adult reproductive function.
Cohain, Judy Slome
Based on accurate randomized controlled studies, the correct evidence-based recommendation would be for women not to undergo prenatal ultrasound except to assist with turning a breech baby to head down, evaluating ectopic pregnancy and directing the needle during amniocentesis and fetal blood transfusions. First and second trimester organ scans, biophysical profile (BPP), amniotic fluid index (AFI), placental grading 0-III and Doppler umbilical, uterine and fetal artery velocity testing have been tested in randomized controlled studies on tens of thousands of women. They are used to attempt to predict suspected fetal growth restriction (FGR or IUGR), suspected placental insufficiency and suspected postdate pregnancy. They are unable to predict those with sufficient accuracy to direct management that will reduce the number of stillbirths or improve perinatal mortality rates and in most settings result in increased cesarean rates as a result of failed induction. PMID:22856081
Martín, M C; Cristiano, E; Villanueva, M; Bonora, M L; Berguio, N; Tocci, A; Groisman, B; Bidondo, M P; Liascovich, R; Barbero, P
Mycophenolate mofetil is a widely prescribed immunosuppressive agent for transplant patients and autoimmune diseases. Potential teratogenic effects after in utero exposure to mycophenolate mofetil has been described in human clinical observations. The complete clinical pattern is still being delineated. We present four newborns with esophageal atresia and other congenital anomalies, prenatally exposed to mycophenolate mofetil during the first trimester. Two of the cases had other defects related to the embryopathy: microtia, eye abnormalities and oral clefts. Two cases did not show major craniofacial anomalies. We propose that esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistula is a feature of mycophenolate embryopathy even without the presence of other major craniofacial anomalies. The human teratogenicity of MMF is reinforced by this report, and the current contraceptive recommendations about its use in fertile women are stressed. PMID:25461910
One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues. PMID:25521971
Álvaro, Monterrosa-Castro; Ivette, Romero-Pérez; Elida, Caraballo-Olave.
Full Text Available Antecedentes: La prematuridad es importante factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de parálisis cerebral (PC). El Sulfato de Magnesio (MgSO4) se ha planteado como una estrategia para reducir el riesgo de PC en recién nacidos por debajo de las 34 semanas de gestación. Objetivo: Precisar con la evidencia [...] disponible, la validez del uso del MgSO4 para protección neuronal prenatal en embarazadas en riesgo de parto pretér-mino (PP) inminente. Método: Se revisaron las bases de datos PubMed, ScienceDirect, EBSCOhost, Scielo y OvidSP en búsqueda de estudios clínicos y epidemiológicos, revisiones sistemáticas, consensos y meta análisis. Se realizó revisión temática de los artículos que cumplieron los criterios de selección. Resultados: Experimentos en modelos animales mostraron la posibilidad que el MgSO4 fuese protector neuronal. Estudios observacionales señalaron la posible asociación entre la exposición fetal al MgS04 y reducción en morbilidad neurológica en nacidos pretérmino (NP). Cinco ensayos clínicos entre 2002-2008, individualmente no mostraron datos concluyentes. En el 2009 se publicaron tres metaanálisis, basados en esos mismos ensayos y mostraron significativa reducción de PC en NP expuestos prenatalmente al MgSO4. Conclusión: Existe evidencia para recomendar MgSO4 para protección neuronal prenatal antes de las 34 semanas de embarazo y con riesgo inminente de PP, aunque no está definida la dosis óptima. Se recomienda aplicar hasta el parto o por 12-24 horas. Abstract in english Background: Prematurity is a leading risk factor for development of cerebral palsy (CP). The use of Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) has been proposed as a strategy to reduce the risk of cerebral palsy in preterm infants less than 34 weeks of gestation. Aims: To assess the best available evidence in order [...] to validate the use of MgSO4 for prenatal neuroprotection in pregnant women at risk of imminent preterm delivery. Methods: we searched the PubMed, ScienceDirect, EBSCOhost, Scielo and OvidSP databases for clinical and epidemiological studies, systematic reviews, consensus and meta-analysis about the use of Magnesium sulphate to prevent cerebral palsy. Thematic review was conducted of articles that met the selection criteria. Results: Experiments in animal models showed properties of MgSO4 for neuroprotection. Observational studies indicated the possible association between fetal exposures to MgS04 and reduced neurological morbidity in PP. Five clinical trials between 2002 and 2008 showed no conclusive data individually. In 2009, three meta-analysis showed significant reduction of cerebral palsy in MgSO4 exposed preterm infants. Conclusion: There is evidence to recommend the use of MgSO4 for prenatal neuroprotection before 34 weeks of pregnancy and imminent risk of preterm birth. It is unclear the optimal dose of MgSO4; is recommended until delivery or by 12-24 hours.
Jacobsen, Pernille E; Henriksen, Tine B
The aim of the study was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to AEDs and the risk of dental agenesis and to differentiate between the possible effects of the different drugs used.
Barratt, Barnaby B
The film The Return, directed by Andrey Zvyagintsev, depicts a weeklong "crash course" in masculinity offered by a father who returns after a prolonged absence. It is here analyzed here in terms of paternal functions related to love, work, and play. The story culminates in the father's "accidental" death. The image of his corpse sinking into a watery grave suggests that this "[not so] good enough" father both returns to his former condition as mythic-and-absent, and also assumes the position of the "always already dead" symbolic father. Psychoanalysis has admirably explored many fathering issues (specifically the experiential qualities of presence and absence, both emotionally and physically). This paper presents the argument that more attention should be directed to the (mis)alliance between the actual and the symbolic father (both of whom are always both present and absent in psychic life). It is noted that an actual father can be killed and mourned, whereas the symbolic father is "always already dead," and can neither be killed nor be mourned except in the crucial sense wherein we are all called to grieve the omnipotent fantasy/phantasy that we might not be "castrated"-to grieve the delusion that we might be able to speak from the locus of the "phallus," which is the generative position held exclusively by the symbolic father. PMID:26080094
Mojgan Mirza; Ma’rof Redzuan; Rohani Abdullah; Mariani Mansor
Emotional intelligence (EI) measures one’s “common sense” and ability to get along with others. The EI construct is a rather novel concept with little empirical support, particularly, in relation to the link between father’s EI and that of his child’s behavior. The specific objective of this research is to determine the relationship between fathers’ EI and their pleasure-anger responses to children’s behavior. The present study was carried out among 107 fathers of Iranian studen...
Ellis, Bruce J; Schlomer, Gabriel L; Tilley, Elizabeth H; Butler, Emily A
Girls receiving lower quality paternal investment tend to engage in more risky sexual behavior (RSB) than peers. Whereas paternal investment theory posits that this effect is causal, it could arise from environmental or genetic confounds. To distinguish between these competing explanations, the current authors employed a genetically and environmentally controlled sibling design (N = 101 sister pairs; ages 18-36), which retrospectively examined the effects of differential sibling exposure to family disruption/father absence and quality of fathering. Consistent with a causal explanation, differences between older and younger sisters in the effects of quality of fathering on RSB were greatest in biologically disrupted families when there was a large age gap between the sisters (thus maximizing differential exposure to fathers), with greater exposure within families to higher quality fathering serving as a protective factor against RSB. Further, variation around the lower end of fathering quality appeared to have the most influence on RSB. In contrast, differential sibling exposure to family disruption/father absence (irrespective of quality of fathering) was not associated with RSB. The differential sibling-exposure design affords a new quasi-experimental method for evaluating the causal effects of fathers within families. PMID:22293012
Bereczkei, T; Csanaky, A
An evolutionary theory of socialization suggests that children from father-absent families will mature earlier, and form less-stable pair bonds, compared with those from father-present families. Using a sample of about 1,000 persons the recent study focuses on elements of father-absent children's behavior that could be better explained by a Darwinian approach than by rival social science theories. As a result of their enhanced interest in male competition, father-absent boys were found to engage in rule-breaking behavior more intensively than father-present boys. Compared with father-present children, adolescents from widowed households (both boys and girls) showed a higher intensity of various kinds of noncompliant behavior, which can be linked to their earlier maturation. School attendance, age at marriage, and marital success proved to be influenced by the children's early family experiences, governed by adapted evolutionary strategies. Father-absent daughters conceived more children than those whose fathers were present during their childhood. As evolutionary theory predicts, reproductive behavior of individuals from divorced households differed from that of individuals who grew up in widowed households. Finally, the strong correlation found between spontaneous abortion/stillbirths and family arrangement indicates that father absence has certain direct impacts on the neurohormonal processes of child development. PMID:24203375
Full Text Available Miniaturist as Jane Austen is, she has depicted the life of a few families. In her letter to her niece, Anna Austen, she writes: "three or four families in a country village is the very thing to work on"(Chapman's Edition, 1970, P.10. Jane’s knowledge about these families is, in no way shallow. It is rich in variation and contrasts. Jane Austen is a great novelist due to the universal significance of her novels. This universal significance is achieved in two ways. First, she creates living characters; she penetrates beneath the surface to the underlying principles of personality. She has a full understanding of human psychology and this enables her to draw intricate and complex natures. She lays bare not only the processes of their minds but also those of the heart. Second, she considers them impartially and shows them compounded both of faults and virtues like human beings. They have a universal significance; they are not national types, but representatives of essential human nature. They reveal the weaknesses and virtues of human nature in every age and country. There has been insufficient attention focused on Jane Austen’s father figures: how she created characters and what character types and father figures emerge in the full range of her stories. Characters are centre front in her stories, many of which are chiefly fine vignettes, and in Austen's theoretical statements she has consistently stressed the importance of character creation. The objective of this research is to shed light on those father figures who are the heads of the central families in Jane’s six novels.
Casteel, J K
This descriptive study examined the feelings and thoughts of mothers and fathers of preterm infants. Responses were solicited while the infant was in a special care nursery as well as in the home. Mothers and fathers responses between the hospital and the home setting were compared as were maternal and paternal responses. General systems theory was the conceptual orientation of this study. This framework provided a perspective on the generation and analysis of affective and cognitive responses of parents following the birth of a premature infant. An open-ended, semi-structured interview was conducted in the special care nursery when the infant was 5 days old. A second interview was conducted when the preterm infant had been home for 5 days. The 18 mother-father dyads wer interviewed twice as dyadic units. The dyads were married and shared the same domicile, spoke and understood English, and resided within eighty miles of the special care nursery. There were 11 males and 7 females in the infant sample, with a mean gestational age of 34.9 weeks and a mean birthweight of 2281.7. The interviews were content analyzed and responses of the parent dyads categorized into meaningful sets within an a priori construct of affects and cognitions. A z-statistic was used to examine differences in the proportion of responses. The affective category was comprised of both positive and negative responses. Positive responses were amazement, confidence, love, and well-being. Negative responses were anxiety, fear, helplessness, and sadness. The cognitive category was comprised of three kinds of responses: protection, provision, and attachment. PMID:2136576
Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner
Particulate air pollution has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in humans. Air pollution may also adversely affect pregnancy outcome and the integrity of sperm cells DNA. Animal studies have shown that inhalation of air particulates can induce mutations in premeiotic sperm cells. The investigation of potential mutagenic risk is of outmost importance, as it may lead to cancer. Furthermore, heritable mutations may be passed on to descendents and thereby pose a permanent genetic risk to the population. The nanosized fraction of particulate air pollution has recently come into focus. Inhaled nanoparticles are cleared very slowly from the lungs and a small fraction may translocate into the bloodstream and compartments of the body. In the airways nanoparticles can induce a high degree of pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress. Nanoparticles are more reactive than larger sized particles and may have unique properties as a result of their size. The exposure to nanoparticles in the occupational setting and from consumer products will most likely increase greatly in the near future and thorough investigations of their potentially hazardous effects are needed. Expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci in mice are sensitive markers of mutagenic effects resulting from environmental exposures; Studies on adult mice have revealed that while particulate air pollution induced ESTR mutations in premeiotic sperm cells, the female germline was not affected. Unlike sperm cells that are continuously developed in adulthood, the majority of oocytes are in a dormant state during long periods of adult life and may therefore be less sensitive to mutations. However, female germ cells may be vulnerable during pregnancy when the female germ cells of the fetus when are actively dividing. The aim of this PhD study was to determine if two widely used nanoparticles titanium dioxide UV-Titan and carbon black Printex 90 induce ESTR mutations in the germ cells of prenatally exposed females. Pregnant generation P mice were exposed to ~42 mg UV-Titan/m3/1 h/d during gestation days 8-18 or carbon black Printex 90 at gestation days (7,10,15 and 18) (total dose of 268 ?g/animal) by intratracheal instillation. Maternal inflammation and DNA damage were assessed in order to assess the potential for indirect effects on offspring during pregnancy. Prenatally exposed F1 females were grown to maturity and mated with unexposed males. The ESTR mutation rate in F2 offspring was estimated from full pedigrees (mother, father, offspring). ESTR mutation rates of 0.029/0.0025 (maternal allele) and 0.047/0.053 (paternal allele) in UV-Titan/Printex 90-exposed F2 offspring were not statistically different from those of F2 controls: 0.037/0.024 (maternal allele) and 0.061/0.038 (paternal allele). UV-Titan and Printex 90 exposure induced pulmonary inflammation in pregnant generation P mothers as well as changes in hepatic gene expression in the F1 prenatally exposed females. However, ESTR mutation rates were not increased by UV-Titan or Printex 90 in prenatally exposed F1 females.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on radial-maze learning and hippocampal neuroanatomy, particularly the sizes of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF terminal fields, in three inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and DBA/2J. Results Although we anticipated a modification of both learning and IIPMF sizes, no such effects were detected. Prenatal alcohol exposure did, however, interfere with reproduction in C57BL/6J animals and decrease body and brain weight (in interaction with the genotype at adult age. Conclusion Prenatal alcohol exposure influenced neither radial maze performance nor the sizes of the IIPMF terminal fields. We believe that future research should be pointed either at different targets when using mouse models for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (e.g. more complicated behavioral paradigms, different hippocampal substructures, or other brain structures or involve different animal models.
Paulo Zielinsky; Pilla, Carlo B.
Ebstein's anomaly is an uncommon congenital heart defect, with a prevalence of 0.3-0.5%. Its association with an imperforate tricuspid valve is an even more rare situation (less than 10% of cases). Prenatal diagnosis of this association by means of fetal echocardiography has not been reported. We describe here this association diagnosed before birth and confirmed after birth. The diagnostic potential and importance of fetal echocardiography during prenatal evaluation of cardiac malformations ...
Agarwal, Ashwin; Sayres, Lauren C; Cho, Mildred K; Cook-Deegan, Robert; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini
Cell-free fetal DNA-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) could significantly change the paradigm of prenatal testing and screening. Intellectual property (IP) and commercialization promise to be important components of the emerging debate about clinical implementation of these technologies. We have assembled information about types of testing, prices, turnaround times and reimbursement of recently launched commercial tests in the United States from the trade press, news articles, and sci...
Wood, Amanda G.; Chen, Jian; Barton, Sarah; Nadebaum, Caroline; Anderson, Vicki A.; Catroppa, Cathy; Reutens, David C.; O Brien, Terence J.; Vajda, Frank
Prenatal exposure to sodium valproate (VPA) is associated with neurodevelopmental impairments. Cortical thickness was measured in 16 children exposed prenatally to VPA and 16 controls. We found increased left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; BA45) and left pericalcarine sulcus (BA18) thickness, an association between VPA dose and right IFG thickness, and a close relationship between verbal skills and left IFG thickness. A significant interaction between group and hemispheric IFG thickness showed ...
Tullu M; Muranjan M; Sharma S; Sahu D; Swami S; Deshmukh C; Bharucha B
Prenatal diagnosis of cri-du-chat syndrome is described in 2 pregnancies. In Case 1, the mother was a balanced translocation carrier and had 2 previously affected off springs. Prenatal diagnosis by chorion villus sampling and cordocentesis was successful in diagnosing an affected conceptus and the pregnancy was electively terminated. Case 2 was referred for nonimmune foetal hydrops and cordocentesis revealed deletion 5p. This second case was noteworthy for the fact that deletion 5p has not be...
The ethical guidelines for prenatal diagnosis proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO), as well as by national regulations, only refer to paternity and gender of the fetus as unacceptable, disease-unrelated criteria for prenatal selection, as no other such parameters are at hand so far. This perspective is too narrow because research on complex genetic systems such as cognition and ageing is about to provide clinically applicable tests for genetic constituents of potentially desirable ...
Lagasse, Linda L.; Gaskins, Ronnesia B; Bada, Henrietta S.; Shankaran, Seetha; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry[MH1] M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Higgins, Rosemary D; Das, Abhik; Roberts, Mary
Little is known about the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and obesity. We tested whether prenatal cocaine exposure increases the likelihood of obesity in 561 9-year-old term children from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS). Overall, 21.6% of children met criterion for obesity (body mass index [BMI] ? 95th percentile, age and sex-specific). While there was no overall cocaine effect on obesity, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that children exposed to cocaine but not alco...
Mathilda Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Coull, Brent A.; Cohen, Sheldon; Wooley, Alana
Rationale: Critical periods for programming early wheeze risk may include pregnancy and infancy. Effects of timing remain poorly understood. Objectives: Associations among prenatal and postnatal maternal stress and children’s wheeze were prospectively examined in 653 families. Effect modification by maternal sensitization was also examined. Methods: Stress was indexed by a maternal negative life events (NLEs) score (range, 0–9) ascertained during pregnancy and between 1 and 2 years postpartum. Mothers reported child wheeze every 3 months up to age 2 years. Relationships of prenatal and postnatal maternal NLEs with repeated wheeze (?2 episodes) were examined using logistic regression adjusting for covariates. Penalized splines were implemented to explore possible nonlinear associations. We also examined the interaction between prenatal stress and maternal sensitization indexed by allergen-specific IgE from maternal prenatal serum. Measurements and Main Results: Adjusted models considering prenatal or postnatal NLEs alone both showed an exposure-response relationship between higher stress and child wheeze. When considering prenatal and postnatal stress concurrently, only children of mothers with high stress in both periods were significantly more likely to wheeze (adjusted odds ratio, 3.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.67–5.53) than children of mothers reporting low stress in both periods. Associations between high prenatal stress and wheeze were significant in children born to nonsensitized mothers (any IgE <0.35 kU/L) but not in the sensitized group (P for interaction = 0.03). Conclusions: Although children have heightened sensitivity to maternal stress in utero and in early childhood, those with higher stress in both periods were particularly at risk for wheeze. The prenatal maternal immune milieu modified effects. PMID:22582161
Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik
Background:Prenatal screening has become an ever increasing part of antenatal care in the western part of the world. Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended, with women accepting or declining the screening tests offered in full understanding of pros and contra.Objective and hypothesis:To summarize current knowledge of women's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations as well as the amount of knowledge possessed by pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations. Reasons for accepting or declining a screening test offered, as well as the influence of information in the decision-making process is also explored. Methods:The review is based on systematic search strategy in the electronic databases Medline and Science Citation. Additional studies were identified through reference lists of individual papers obtained. Results:Women in general express a positive attitude towards screening procedures in pregnancy. Women are found most knowledgeable about procedural and practical aspects but are not always aware of the purposes or any limitations of the tests offered. Understanding and interpretation of risk estimates is low and possible consequences if the test reveals a problem is seldom considered beforehand. A woman's attitude to prenatal examinations is found decisive for up-take of prenatal tests, with no association between a woman's attitude towards prenatal examinations and her knowledge of those tests. Most women consider their doctor an important source of information, and state that information has influenced their decision. Conclusions: Pregnant women favor prenatal examinations, but participation does not seem to be based on an informed consent.
L.C. Coimbra; F.P. Figueiredo; Silva, A A M; Barbieri, M.A.; Bettiol, H.; A.J.M. Caldas; E.G. Mochel; Ribeiro, V. S.
Data for two birth cohorts from two Brazilian municipalities, Ribeirão Preto in 1994 and São Luís in 1997/1998, were used to identify and compare factors associated with inadequate utilization of prenatal care and to identify factors capable of explaining the differences observed between the two cities. Prenatal care was defined as adequate or inadequate according to the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were used to compare dif...
Canetta, Sarah E.; Brown, Alan S.
A body of epidemiological literature has suggested an association between prenatal infection, subsequent maternal immune activation (MIA), and later risk of schizophrenia. These epidemiological studies have inspired preclinical research using rodent and primate models of prenatal infection and MIA. The findings from these preclinical studies indicate that severe infection and immune activation during pregnancy can negatively impact offspring brain development and impair adult behavior. This r...
de Jong, Antina; de Wert, Guido M W R
Prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities such as Down's syndrome differs from other forms of population screening in that the usual aim of achieving health gains through treatment or prevention does not seem to apply. This type of screening leads to no other options but the choice between continuing or terminating the pregnancy and can only be morally justified if its aim is to provide meaningful options for reproductive choice to pregnant women and their partners. However, this aim should not be understood as maximizing reproductive choice per se. Only if understood as allowing prospective parents to avoid suffering related to living with (a child with) serious disorders and handicaps can prenatal screening be a publicly or collectively funded programme. The alternative of moving prenatal testing outside the healthcare system into the private sector is problematic, as it makes these tests accessible only to those who can afford to pay for it. New developments in prenatal screening will have to be assessed in terms of whether and to what extent they either contribute to or undermine the stated aim of providing meaningful options for reproductive choice. In the light of this criterion, this article discusses the introduction of the new non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT), the tendency to widen the scope of follow-up testing, as well as the possible future scenarios of genome-wide screening and 'prenatal personalised medicine'. The article ends with recommendations for further debate, research and analysis. PMID:25521973
Garel, Catherine; Moutard, Marie-Laure
The purpose of this article is to discuss some common cerebral lesions that may be detected during prenatal screening: corpus callosum dysgenesis, absent septum pellucidum, localized parenchymal ischemic-hemorrhagic lesions, megacisterna magna, Blake's pouch cyst, posterior fossa arachnoid cyst and Dandy-Walker malformation. For each cerebral defect, the main imaging findings are reminded, certain differential diagnoses are discussed and prenatal diagnostic accuracy is analyzed with emphasis on uncertainties encountered during analysis of ultrasound or magnetic resonance images. Detecting cerebral lesions in fetuses requires rapid counseling by neuropediatricians. Keeping in mind that the prenatal diagnostic accuracy is not 100%, the neuropediatricians have to answer the parents' questions regarding the outcome of the unborn child as well as the risk of recurrence for future pregnancies. This article is based on the authors' large experience in both prenatal imaging and neurocounseling. The frequently asked questions are set up. Answers are provided, underscoring the importance of an appropriate description of the cerebral defect, and therefore the pivotal role of prenatal imaging. However, prenatal neurocounseling remains challenging and the parents must be aware of uncertainties regarding both diagnostic accuracy and prognostic evaluation. PMID:24577226
Luz Stella Luque
Full Text Available Presentamos un caso de diagnóstico prenatal de hepatoblastoma congénito. Se presentan los aspectos más relevantes acerca del diagnóstico ultrasonográfico de esta rara patología maligna. Se comentan aspectos relacionados con el diagnóstico diferencial, manejo obstétrico, pronóstico y seguimiento neonatal.A case report of the prenatal diagnosis of congenital hepatoblastoma is presented. Relevant issues related to the sonographic diagnosis of this rare tumor are referred. Comments on the differential diagnosis, obstetrical management, prognosis and neonatal follow up are made.
van Schendel, Rachèl V; Kleinveld, Johanna H; Dondorp, Wybo J; Pajkrt, Eva; Timmermans, Danielle R M; Holtkamp, Kim C A; Karsten, Margreet; Vlietstra, Anne L; Lachmeijer, Augusta M A; Henneman, Lidewij
Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and its potential to test for multiple disorders has received much attention. This study explores attitudes of women and men towards NIPT, and their views on widening the scope of prenatal testing in a country with a low uptake of prenatal screening (The Netherlands). Five focus groups with low-risk pregnant women (n=28), three focus groups with men (n=19) and 13 interviews with high- and low-risk pregnant women were conducted. Participants felt that current prenatal screening has great disadvantages such as uncertain results and risk of miscarriage from follow-up diagnostics. Characteristics of NIPT (accurate, safe and early testing) could therefore diminish these disadvantages of prenatal screening and help lower the barrier for participation. This suggests that NIPT might allow couples to decide about prenatal testing based mostly on their will to test or not, rather than largely based on fear of miscarriage risk or the uncertainty of results. The lower barrier for participation was also seen as a downside that could lead to uncritical use or pressure to test. Widening the scope of prenatal testing was seen as beneficial for severe disorders, although it was perceived difficult to determine where to draw the line. Participants argued that there should be a limit to the scope of NIPT, avoiding testing for minor abnormalities. The findings suggest that NIPT could enable more meaningful decision-making for prenatal screening. However, to ensure voluntary participation, especially when testing for multiple disorders, safeguards on the basis of informed decision-making will be of utmost importance. PMID:24642832
Alio, Amina P; Mbah, Alfred K; Shah, Krupa; August, Euna M; Dejoy, Sharon; Adegoke, Korede; Marty, Phillip J; Salihu, Hamisu M; Aliyu, Muktar H
Prior research indicates that infants with absent fathers are vulnerable to unfavorable fetal birth outcomes. HIV is a recognized risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. However, the influence of paternal involvement on fetal morbidity outcomes in women with HIV remains poorly understood. Using linked hospital discharge data and vital statistics records for the state of Florida (1998-2007), the authors assessed the association between paternal involvement and fetal growth outcomes (i.e., low birth weight [LBW], very low birth weight [VLBW], preterm birth [PTB], very preterm birth [VPTB], and small for gestational age [SGA]) among HIV-positive mothers (N=4,719). Propensity score matching was used to match cases (absent fathers) to controls (fathers involved). Conditional logistic regression was employed to generate adjusted odds ratios (OR). Mothers of infants with absent fathers were more likely to be Black, younger (mothers with absent paternal involvement during pregnancy had elevated risks for adverse fetal outcomes (LBW: OR=1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.05-1.60; VLBW: OR=1.72, 95% CI=1.05-2.82; PTB: OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.13-1.69; VPTB: OR=1.81, 95% CI=1.13-2.90). Absence of fathers increases the likelihood of adverse fetal morbidity outcomes in women with HIV infection. These findings underscore the importance of paternal involvement during pregnancy, especially as an important component of programs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. PMID:23913897
Full Text Available This article examines the main elements of the classic Eastern Christian doctrine of divinization as they are found in the Latin Fathers. These include the intimate union of the divinized man with the incarnate God, the divinization of the human nature of Christ, the adoption of man by God in Christ through the action of the Holy Spirit, the ascension of humanity to heaven, as well as the communion of the human person with the divine nature. It would seem that enthusiasm for the idea of divinization drew some western theologians to posit dangerous theories including the pantheistic dissolution of humanity in God as well as the dissolving of the human nature of Christ into his divine nature. Analyzing these theories we can see why Saint Augustine conceived his own juridical theory of divinization based on the concepts of justification and external adoption, which transformed the theory ofdivinization into one of equality with the angelic orders. Because of these developments, the original theory of divinization which at one time was taught by several of the Latin fathers, was unfairly consigned to oblivion
Fisher, Kate; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Wright, Robert O.; Fein, Rebecca; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A.
Rationale: Exploring prenatal factors influencing childhood wheeze may inform programming mechanisms. Objectives: We examined associations among prenatal maternal cortisol profiles, maternal obesity, and repeated wheeze up to age 2 years (n = 261). Methods: Salivary cortisol was collected five times per day over 3 days at 29.0 ± 4.9 weeks gestation. Mothers were categorized as obese (body mass index ? 30 kg/m2) versus nonobese (body mass index < 30 kg/m2). Using logistic regression, we examined the influence of log-transformed cortisol metrics (level at each time point, morning rise, diurnal and afternoon slopes) and obesity on wheeze adjusting for covariates. Linear mixed models were implemented to examine associations between cortisol trajectories and wheezing. Interactions between maternal cortisol and obesity were considered. Measurements and Main Results: Mothers were primarily minority (56.5% Hispanic, 24.1% African American), 61% had less than or equal to 12 years of education, 34% were obese, and 8.4% of children had repeated wheeze. An interquartile range increase in mean log cortisol at bedtime (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.09–4.09) and maternal obesity (odds ratio, 3.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–9.35) were independently associated with wheeze. Linear mixed models revealed an association between a flatter afternoon slope (slower decline in log cortisol per hour) and repeated wheeze in children of obese mothers (children with [?0.017 change] and without [?0.061 change] wheeze [P = 0.009 for time × wheeze interaction]), but not in children of nonobese mothers (with [?0.050 change] and without [?0.061 change] wheeze [P = 0.51]). Conclusions: Maternal prenatal cortisol disruption and obesity were independently associated with children’s wheeze. Obese women with adverse cortisol profiles were most likely to have children with repeated wheeze. PMID:23590260
Full Text Available Emotional intelligence (EI measures one’s “common sense” and ability to get along with others. The EI construct is a rather novel concept with little empirical support, particularly, in relation to the link between father’s EI and that of his child’s behavior. The specific objective of this research is to determine the relationship between fathers’ EI and their pleasure-anger responses to children’s behavior. The present study was carried out among 107 fathers of Iranian students in the Iranian primary school located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The students were clustered in three different age groups, 8, 9, and 10 years old. Data were collected using the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I adult version (Bar- on EQ-I, 1997 and Parent Affect Test (PAT, Linehan and Egen, 1983. Pearson’s correlation indicated that fathers with high EI displayed more positive responses to children’s behavior in comparison to the fathers with low EI. In addition, fathers with low EI displayed more anger responses to children’s behavior in comparison to the fathers with high EI.
Freeman, Harry; Almond, Tasha M.
A mixed methods approach was used to examine how young adults (n = 1012) perceive fathers as targets for attachment support. Participants ranked the level of attachment support received and sought from fathers, mothers, best friends, and romantic partners, and provided relationship-specific information on additional indices of social support…
Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Finnegan, Regina A.; Perry, David G.
Examined the balance between connectedness to, and independence from, mother, father, and best friend in 9- to 14-year olds. Found that children reporting a preoccupied or avoidant stance toward their mother displayed increased social impairment in the peer group over time. Stances toward mother, father, and best friend were related. Children…
Atkinson, Brian R.; Obston, Donald G.
The behavior of young and adolescent male children from homes without fathers was compared to comparable groups of children from intact homes. Teachers reported no difference in academic and extracurricular participation and performance. It was concluded that, in general, the behavior of children with and without fathers is not appreciably…
Sciara, Frank J.
Achievement test scores in reading and arithmetic of 300 children from father absent homes and 773 children from father present homes were collected over a 2-year period and analyzed by utilizing the variables of year, sex, family status, and intelligence. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences favoring the academic achievement…
Effects of father absence on boys and girls who live in families headed by mothers were studied. Subjects were 40 Israeli children (ages 2.6 to 2.10 years of age) whose fathers had died before their birth. Strong differential effects were found in the responses of girls as compared with those of boys. (Author/MP)
Stanley, Barbara K.; And Others
Two groups of nursery school children were administered the Preschool Interpersonal Problem Solving Test. The father absent group scored significantly lower, indicating a deficit in the type of thinking believed central to the child's adjustment to other people. Adds to studies citing possible negative effects of father absence in preschool years.…
Wiens, Sandra E.; Daniluk, Judith C.
The purpose of the present study was to give voice to fathers of young adult children diagnosed with schizophrenia within the past 10 years. A qualitative, phenomenological method was used to explore and describe the fathering experiences of the 6 volunteer participants. The findings suggest that mental health professionals should recognize the…
This study investigated the mediating role of adolescents' global self-esteem, based on the relationship between adolescents' mother or father attachment and their career indecision; as well as the mediating role of adolescents' career indecision on the relationship between mother or father attachment and self-esteem. Two hundred and forty-one…
Diener, Marissa L.; Isabella, Russell A.; Behunin, Melissa G.; Wong, Maria S.
Attachment relationships of first, third, and fifth graders with their mothers and fathers, and their associations with self-perceived and teacher-rated competence, were investigated. Children rated their attachment security with mothers and fathers using the Kerns security scale. Children's perceptions of academic and peer competence were…
The purpose of this article was to introduce the newly developed scale of Child's Attachment to his/her Kindergarten Teacher and adapted scales of child's attachment to his/her mother and father. The main goal of the research was to analyze the relationships between child's attachment to his/her mother, father and kindergarten teacher. One hundred…
This study examined the relations between 8-12-year-olds' perceived attachment security to father, academic self-concept and school performance in language mastery. One hundred and twenty two French students' perceptions of attachment to mother and to father were explored with the Security Scale and their academic self-concept was assessed with…
Brito, Natalie; Barr, Rachel; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Shauffer, Carole
The absence of a father figure has been linked to very poor developmental outcomes. The Baby Elmo Program, a parenting and structured visitation program, aims to form and maintain bonds between children and their incarcerated teen fathers. The program is taught and supervised by probation staff in juvenile detention facilities. This intervention…
Pancsofar, Nadya; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Odom, Erica; Roe, Jacqueline R.
Very little previous research has considered the contributions of family relationships and interactions on the language input of mothers and fathers to their young children. This study examined the contributions of marital love and conflict, and broader family-level conflict, cohesion, and expressiveness to mother and father vocabulary in triadic…
Weinman, Maxine L.; Buzi, Ruth S.; Smith, Peggy B.; Nevarez, Lucinda
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a fatherhood program on risk behaviors among three groups of young fathers: those still in school (21%), those who had dropped out (52%), and those who graduated from high school or completed a GED (27%). The sample consisted of 198 young fathers who participated in a school-linked…
John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy; Humphrey, Jeremy
The study focused on qualitative and quantitative differences between maternal and paternal play interaction behaviours with their preschool children. Home observations of 18 child-mother and child-father play interactions were qualitatively analysed to derive interaction themes. In addition, the quality of child-mother and child-father…
Maine, Margo D.
Although the mental health field tends to underestimate the father's role in the psychological development of the child, eating disordered women reveal a consistent pattern of paternal distance and disengagement that is fundamental to their developmental problems. To examine how the father's emotional and/or physical absence contributed to the…
Swisher, Raymond R.; Roettger, Michael E.
This article examines associations between biological father's incarceration and internalizing and externalizing outcomes of depression and serious delinquency, across White, Black, and Hispanic subsamples of youth in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Among respondents whose father was first incarcerated during childhood or…
Schindler, Holly S.
This study explores the relationship between residential, biological fathers' parental engagement, financial contributions, and psychological well-being in 2-parent families. Specifically, this study focuses on how fathers' parental engagement and financial contributions are related to their self-esteem, self-efficacy, and psychological distress.…
Davies, Betty; Gudmundsdottir, Maria; Worden, Bill; Orloff, Stacy; Sumner, Liz; Brenner, Paul
Grounded theory methods were used to study the experiences of 8 bereaved fathers whose children received care in a home-based hospice program. In-depth, unstructured interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded for themes and categories. Every aspect of fathers' lives was affected by their experiences, which were described in metaphoric…
This study examined a cumulative model of vulnerability and protective factors at the individual level (children's attachment relationships with father and children's sense of coherence) and at the family level as manifested by fathers' coping resources (fathers' sense of coherence, fathers' active and avoidant coping strategies) in helping to explain differences in socioemotional and behavioral adjustment among children at the age 8 to 12 years with learning disabilities (LD) and or with typical development. The sample included 205 father-child dyads: 107 fathers and their children having LD and 98 fathers and their children with typical development, from the same public elementary schools. Preliminary analyses indicated significant group differences on all the children's measures as well as on fathers' avoidant coping strategies. Path analysis examined the multidimensional risk model for the LD and non-LD groups. The study found a high fit between the theoretical model and the empirical findings as well as a different pattern of relationship between the model's components for the two populations studied. Discussion focuses on understanding the unique value of vulnerability and protective factors at the individual and family levels on children's well-adjusted functioning. PMID:21971083
Men are taking a more active role in child care. By 1991, 20% of preschool children were cared for by their fathers while their mothers worked outside the home--an increase since 1988, when only 15 percent of preschoolers were cared for by their fathers. This report summarizes the latest findings on child care arrangements of mothers who work…
Hunt, Janet G.; Hunt, Larry L.
This research examines some of the consequences, for female children, of father absence within the existing framework of sexual and racial stratification. An analysis of survey data by Morris Rosenberg and Roberta Simmons shows that father-loss has mixed implications for girls, and patterns differ between blacks and whites. (Author/GC)
Ellis, Bruce J.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Pettit, Gregory S.; Woodward, Lianne
Longitudinal studies in two countries investigated impact of father absence on girls' early sexual activity (ESA) and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicated that greater exposure to father absence strongly related to elevated ESA and adolescent pregnancy risk. Elevated risk was not explained (U.S. sample) or only partly explained (New Zealand…
Little research to date has assessed the importance of the presence of fathers in the household for protecting child health, particularly in developing country contexts. Although divorce and non-marital childbearing are low in many developing countries, migration is a potentially important source of father absence that has yet to be studied in relation to child health. This study utilizes prospective, longitudinal data from Mexico to assess whether father absence due to migration is associated with increased child illness in poor, rural communities. Rural Mexico provides a setting where child illness is related to more serious health problems, and where migration is an important source of father absence. Both state- and individual-level fixed effects regression analyses are used to estimate the relationship between father absence due to migration and child illness while controlling for unobserved contextual and individual characteristics. The state-level models illustrate that the odds of children being ill are 39% higher for any illness and 51% higher for diarrhea when fathers are absent compared with when fathers are present in the household. The individual-level fixed effects models support these findings, indicating that, in the context of rural Mexico, fathers may be important sources of support for ensuring the healthy development of young children. PMID:19699568
Ahrons, Constance R.; Tanner, Jennifer L.
Examines adult children's reports of relationship changes with their fathers were 20 years after their parents' divorce. Findings indicated that most adult children felt that their relationships with their fathers had either improved or remained stable over time. Custody did not directly affect reported changes in the quality of their relationship…
Hipólito, Breijo Madera; Diana, Crespo Fernández; Guillermo, Breijo Madera.
Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación del tipo innovación tecnológica en el Policlínico Universitario Pedro Borrás Astorga de Pinar del Río, de septiembre de 2005 a junio del 2006, decidiéndose confeccionar un software para mostrar rápidamente los principales parámetros de la consulta de Atención Prenatal, s [...] egún el tiempo de gestación de la embarazada. El universo estuvo constituido por todos los estudiantes de Ciencias Médicas que asistieron en este período a la Biblioteca del Policlínico mencionado. La muestra fueron aquellos estudiantes (214) que utilizaron el simulador por algún motivo y decidieron voluntariamente responder la encuesta aplicada. En la realización de este medio se utilizó una microcomputadora Celerón a 600Mhz con el sistema operativo Windows XP y el Software Macro media Flash 5, utilizando el español como lenguaje y creando un simulador de consultas de Atención Prenatal (ATENPRE) con secuencias multimedia, que a través de una serie de enlaces llevan al usuario a reconocer la consulta buscada. Dentro de los principales resultados se encuentra más de 90% de aceptabilidad, eficiencia y utilidad, llegando a la conclusión de que el software educativo (ATEN-PRE) es una herramienta más a utilizar por los estudiantes de pregrado en la búsqueda activa de información. Abstract in english A research on technological innovation at "Pedro Borrás Astorga" Outpatient Clinic in Pinar del Río was carried out from September 2005 to July 2006, where a software to show the main parameters in the consult of Prenatal Care considering time of pregnancy was created. The sample was constituted by [...] all the medical students attending the library of the outpatient clinic during the period mentioned. In the final sample, 214 students using the simulator by any reasons decided voluntarily to answer the survey applied .To create this teaching aid a Celeron (600Mhz) microcomputer with Windows XP operative system and the Software Flash 5 Macromedia (in Spanish Language) were used, the simulator for the Prenatal Consults was created having sequences of multimedia, which by means of a series of links, make the user recognise the consulting room sought. The percentage of acceptability, efficiency and usefulness is more than 90%; concluding that the educative software (ATEN-PRE) is another teaching aid to be used by undergraduate students when seeking active information out.
Karel, Reyes Bacardí; Ivonne, Martínez Vidal; Carlos, García Guevara; Yudamis, Martínez Nieves.
Full Text Available La pentalogía de Cantrell fue descrita por vez primera en 1958, y consiste en 5 defectos. Tiene una incidencia estimada de 5,5 por 1 millón de nacidos vivos, y su patogénesis no está esclarecida. Se presenta un caso en el que se diagnosticó prenatalmente este defecto de baja frecuencia. [...] Abstract in english Pentalogy of Cantrell was firstly described in 1958 and consists of 5 defects. It has an estimated incidence rate of 5.5 per one million livebirths and the pathogenesis is not clarified. This is the case of a prenatal diagnosis of this low frequency defect. [...
Ivonne Martínez Vidal
Full Text Available La artrogriposis múltiple congénita puede definirse como una displasia articular sistémica, caracterizada por rigidez articular en múltiples localizaciones de forma congénita. Se presenta un caso en el que se diagnosticó prenatalmente este signo clínico, que puede tener múltiples causas subyacentes.Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita may be defined as a systemic articular dysplasia characterized by articular rigidity in a many locations of congenital origin. A case was presented in which this clinical sign was diagnosed at prenatal phase and it may have many underlying causes.
Ivonne, Martínez Vidal; Karel, Reyes Bacardí; Yudamis, Martínez Nieves; Gladys Hildelisa, Bernal Montes de Oca.
Full Text Available La artrogriposis múltiple congénita puede definirse como una displasia articular sistémica, caracterizada por rigidez articular en múltiples localizaciones de forma congénita. Se presenta un caso en el que se diagnosticó prenatalmente este signo clínico, que puede tener múltiples causas subyacentes. [...] Abstract in english Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita may be defined as a systemic articular dysplasia characterized by articular rigidity in a many locations of congenital origin. A case was presented in which this clinical sign was diagnosed at prenatal phase and it may have many underlying causes. [...
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care services according to gestastional week in Karabuk Community Health Center (CHC. Methods: In this descriptive study 365 pregnant women was selected as sample among 753 pregnant women registered at Karabuk CHC in 18/01/2011. 93.0% of women in the selected sample has been visited in their homes and the face to face interviews were done. The questionnaire was prepared according to Prenatal Care Management Guidelines (PCMG of Ministry of Health. Findings The number of follow-ups was not complete in 23.7% of 15-24 month, 34.4% of 25-32 month, 52,1% of 33-42 month pregnant women. At least four follow-up visits were completed only in 66,7% of postpartum women. Timing of first visit was after 15th week in 15,6% of women. In follow up visits 62.5% of of women’s height were never measured, in 13,0% the women hearth sound of infants didn’t monitored at least once. Laboratory test numbers were under the level required by PCMG. The delivery conditions weren’t planned in 41,8% of last trimester and postpartum women and training about breastfeeding wasn’t given to 15,5 of the same group. Result In family medicine model in Karabuk CHC developments in number of prenatal follow-up visits were observed, but no substantial improvements were found in quality of prenatal visits. Regular in service trainings shoud be given to family doctors and midwives. The use of prenatal care guideline published by MoH should be increased. Keywords: Prenatal care, pregnancy, timing of first visit, qality of prenatal care [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 153-162
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, infant mortality rates remain more than twice as high for African Americans as compared to other racial groups. Lack of adherence to prenatal care schedules in vulnerable, hard to reach, urban, poor women is associated with high infant mortality, particularly for women who abuse substances, are homeless, or live in communities having high poverty and high infant mortality. This issue is of concern to the women, their partners, and members of their communities. Because they are not part of the system, these womens' views are often not included in other studies. Methods This qualitative study used focus groups with four distinct categories of people, to collect observations about prenatal care from various perspectives. The 169 subjects included homeless women; women with current or history of substance abuse; significant others of homeless women; and residents of a community with high infant mortality and poverty indices, and low incidence of adequate prenatal care. A process of coding and recoding using Ethnograph and counting ensured reliability and validity of the process of theme identification. Results Barriers and motivators to prenatal care were identified in focus groups. Pervasive issues identified were drug lifestyle, negative attitudes of health care providers and staff, and non-inclusion of male partners in the prenatal experience. Conclusions Designing prenatal care relevant to vulnerable women in urban communities takes creativity, thoughtfulness, and sensitivity. System changes recommended include increased attention to substance abuse treatment/prenatal care interaction, focus on provider/staff attitudes, and commitment to inclusion of male partners.
L.C., Coimbra; F.P., Figueiredo; A.A.M., Silva; M.A., Barbieri; H., Bettiol; A.J.M., Caldas; E.G., Mochel; V.S., Ribeiro.
Full Text Available Data for two birth cohorts from two Brazilian municipalities, Ribeirão Preto in 1994 and São Luís in 1997/1998, were used to identify and compare factors associated with inadequate utilization of prenatal care and to identify factors capable of explaining the differences observed between the two cit [...] ies. Prenatal care was defined as adequate or inadequate according to the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were used to compare differences in the inadequacy of prenatal care utilization. The percentage of inadequacy was higher in São Luís (34.6%) than in Ribeirão Preto (16.9%). Practically the same variables were associated with inadequacy in both cities. Puerperae with lower educational level, without a companion or cohabiting, who delivered in public health units, younger than 20 years, multiparae and smokers, with low family income presented higher percentages of inadequate prenatal care utilization. However, the effects of some variables differed between the two cities. The risk for inadequate use of prenatal care was higher for women attended in the public health sector in São Luís and for cohabiting women in Ribeirão Preto. The effect of the remaining factors studied did not differ between cities. The category of admission accounted for 57.0% of the difference in the inadequate use of prenatal care between cities and marital status accounted for 45.3% of the difference. Even after adjustment for all variables, part of the difference in the inadequacy of prenatal care utilization remained unexplained.
Ezra S Simon
This study was conducted in Ghana to investigate, (1) factors that predict parental involvement, (2) the relationship between parental home and school involvement and the educational achievement of adolescents, (3) the relationship between parental authoritativeness and the educational achievement of adolescent students, (4) parental involvement serving as a mediator between their authoritativeness and the educational achievement of the students, and (5) whether parental involvement decreases...
Full Text Available Working arrangements are still not sufficiently flexible to enable parents to manage their roles as workers and as carers and there remains a dearth of flexible working arrangements and work-life balance policies especially for fathers. This paper examines the degree of work/life balance among fathers, and mothers, employed in 5 major Irish organisations surveyed in 2002. It concentrates on the access to, and takes up of, flexible working time and leave arrangements by fathers and mothers and explores the impact of such arrangements on their careers and their attitudes towards work/life balance. Parents were asked about their actual and preferred childcare arrangements. The majority of fathers were able to rely upon the provision of care by the mother in their own home (an option that was available to only a small proportion of mothers. The paper concludes by discussing the kinds of work/life balance interventions/measures sought by fathers and mothers.
Full Text Available In den meisten Diskussionen zum Thema ‚Vater‘ wird vom „traditionellen“ Vater gesprochen. Die Kritik, dass dabei nicht hinreichend geklärt wird, was damit jeweils gemeint ist und was sich hinter diesen Vorstellungen verbirgt, ist für Barbara Drinck Ausgangspunkt, verschiedene Vaterdiskurse zu analysieren. Sie untersucht in beeindruckender Detailgenauigkeit die wichtigsten Vatertheorien und Vaterbilder auf der Grundlage von pädagogischen, psychologischen und soziologischen Beiträgen der letzten 250 Jahre.In most discussions on the topic of the ‘father,’ the reference is made to the ‘traditional’ father. The inadequately explained criticism of this fact, what is meant by this criticism, and what hides behind these conceptions form Barbara Drinck’s point of departure for her analysis of various father discourses. She examines the important father theories and father images with impressive detail-specific precision on the basis of pedagogical, psychological, and sociological contributions from the last 250 years.
DeGarmo, David Scott
To better understand quantity and quality of divorced father contact, a weighted county sample of 230 divorced fathers with a child aged 4-11 years was employed to test whether fathers' antisocial personality (ASP) moderated effects of monthly contact with children in predicting children's observed noncompliance. Eighteen-month latent growth models obtained significant individual differences in levels of noncompliance and growth rates. ASP significantly moderated beneficial impact of fathers' monthly contact. Fathers' observed parenting practices significantly predicted noncompliance levels but not growth. Parenting did not account for the effect of Contact x ASP, suggesting both environmental and potentially genetic influences on child adjustment. Findings were robust across boys and girls and age levels. Implications for preventive intervention are discussed. PMID:20438456
Deardorff, Julianna; Ekwaru, John P.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Ellis, Bruce J.; Greenspan, Louise C.; Mirabedi, Anousheh; Landaverde, Evelyn G.; Hiatt, Robert A.
Purpose Numerous studies show associations between father absence and girls’ early puberty. However, most research has been retrospective, focused on menarche, and failed to consider BMI, ethnicity and income in the analyses. This study resolves these scientific gaps. Methods This was a prospective study of 444 6–8-year-old girls and their caregivers (96% mothers). Data were collected annually in clinic, including weight, height and Tanner stage for breast and pubic hair. Caregivers reported on father absence and demographics. This report focuses on the assessment of father absence at baseline and two years of follow-up for pubertal outcomes. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to test whether father absence at baseline predicted pubertal onset by follow-up 2. BMI was assumed to be in the causal pathway. Differences by ethnicity and income were examined. Results Income and ethnicity moderated associations between father absence and pubertal onset when adjusting for BMI. Father absence predicted earlier onset of breast development only in higher-income families. Father absence predicted earlier onset of pubic hair development only in higher-income African Americans families. BMI was not related to father absence and therefore was not in the causal pathway. Conclusions Among girls from higher-income but not lower-income families, father absence is linked to earlier puberty. This was particularly true for African Americans in terms of pubic hair development. These effects are not explained by body weight. Future research is needed to identify social and biophysiological mechanisms through which father absence, ethnicity and income impact pubertal onset. PMID:21501801
Sapountzi-Krepia, Despina; Lavdaniti, Maria; Dimitriadou, Alexandra; Psychogiou, Maria; Sgantzos, Markos; He, Hong-Gu; Faros, Eythimios; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri
Objectives: The study aims at exploring the feelings and the experience of fathers about their wife/partner’s delivery. Background: During the last decades birth attendance by fathers is a common phenomenon across many countries. Fathers’ birth attendance may evoke both positive and negative feelings. Methodology: The study was conducted in a city of Northern Greece. The sample consisted of 417 fathers whose wife/partner had given birth during the previous one week to one year. Data were collected using the Kuopio Instrument for Fathers (KIF). Results: Father’s feelings about their wife or partner were very positive as nearly all (82.1%) of the participants were proud to become fathers and agree that they felt love and were grateful to their wife/partner. However, half of the fathers felt anxious and nervous. 40.7% quite agree that the staff was very professional, that they trusted the staff (45%) and that they were grateful to the staff (38.8%). There is correlation between the “feelings related to the wife/partner” and education (r=0.156, p=0.0047), “being afraid during the preparatory visit at the obstetric hospital” (r=-0.238, p=0.009), and “anxiety during the preparatory visit” (r=0.295 p=0.005). The subscale “feelings related to the environment and staff” correlates with “usefulness of preparatory visit” (r=-0.223, p=0.004) and the subscale of “experiences related to delivery” correlates with “usefulness of preparatory visit” (r=-0.357, p=0.001). Conclusions: Our results support the findings of previous studies, which indicated that birth attendance by fathers has evoked positive feelings about their wife/partner, the delivery, the staff and the hospital environment. PMID:21347210
Vemulakonda, Vijaya; Yiee, Jenny; Wilcox, Duncan T
Congenital hydronephrosis is one of the most common anomalies identified on antenatal ultrasound. The underlying etiology of congenital hydronephrosis is multifold, ranging from transient hydronephrosis in utero to clinically significant congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. While traditional management of hydronephrosis was aimed at relieving symptoms, the advent of routine prenatal ultrasound has led to a shift in the goal of treatment to prevention of renal injury in the asymptomatic patient. However, despite this focus on renal preservation, the diagnostic criteria for identification of children "at risk" for renal damage that can be alleviated by surgical treatment remain a subject of debate. Both antenatal and postnatal imaging studies have been evaluated as indicators for potential reversible renal damage and have been used as potential indicators of the need for surgical intervention. The aim of this review is to discuss the current literature regarding the role of postnatal clinical and radiographic evaluation to identify children who may benefit from early surgical intervention. PMID:24927968
A policy on prenatal radiation exposure at two nuclear power plants was revised to give better assurance of compliance with NCRP recommendations on fetal radiation exposure. This action was taken after publication of NCRP 91 in June 1987 to provide better assurance that a total dose equivalent limit to an embryo-fetus be no greater than 0.5 mSv (0.05 rem) in any month and no more than 5 mSv (500 mrem) for a gestation period. For any female worker to receive radiation exposure greater than 1.5 mSv (0.15 rem) in a month at these nuclear power plants, she was asked to initiate an administrative request for radiation exposure in excess of this limit. In this request, she was asked to acknowledge that she was aware of the guidance in U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 8.13. A worker who had the potential for radiation exposure in excess of 1.5 mSv (0.15 rem) refused to process this request and was consequently denied overtime work. She filed a grievance for denial of overtime, and this grievance was submitted for labor arbitration in June 1988. The arbitration decision and its basis and related NRC actions are discussed
Hume, R.F. Jr.; Lampinen, J.; Martin, L.S.; Johnson, M.P.; Evans, M.I. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)] [and others
We have reported previously a 10% aneuploidy detection rate among 39 cases of fetal neural tube defects (NTD). Subsequently we amassed an additional experience of over 17,000 prenatal diagnosis cases over a 5-year period. During this period 106 cases of NTDs were identified; 44 with anencephaly, 62 with open spina bifida. The average maternal age of this population with NTDs was 29 years (15-40); 6 patients declined amniocentesis. Six of 100 cytogenetic studies were aneuploid; on anencephalic fetus had inherited a maternal marker chromosome, and 5 NTD cases had trisomy 18. The average maternal age of the aneuploid cases was 21 (19-40); 3 were 35 years or older. Four of 5 trisomy 18 cases had multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). The overall aneuploidy detection rate in our cohort was 5-6, while aneuploidy occurred in 2% of the isolated NTD cases, and 24% of the MCA cases. Combining the earlier experience, 4/39 aneuploidy (2 trisomy 18, 4p+, del 13q) yields an aneuploidy detection frequency of 10/145 (7%), of which most (7/10) had trisomy 18. These data support fetal karyotyping for accurate diagnosis, prognosis, and recurrence-risk counseling. 5 refs., 2 tabs.
The exposure to the radiation ionising of pregnant women, frequently constitutes motive of preoccupation for the expectant mother and the medical professionals taken the responsibility with its attention. The protection of the embryo-fetus against the ionising radiation is of singular importance due to its special vulnerability to this agent. On the other hand the diagnosis or treatment with radiations ionising beneficial for the expectant mother, are only indirectly for the embryo-fetus that is exposed to a hazard without perceiving anything. The present paper presents the experience obtained in the clinical and dosimetric evaluation from twenty-one pregnant patients subjected to diverse radiodiagnostic procedures or nuclear medicine during the years 1999-2000. The obtained results evidence that 24% of the patients was subjected to procedures of nuclear medicine with diagnostic purposes. While the period of pregnancy of the patients ranged between 4 and 12 weeks, it could be concluded that in all the cases the doses received by the patients in the whole body did not exceed 2 mSv. When conjugating the period of pregnancy of the patients with the doses received, there is no evidence of significant risk for the embryo-fetus. Paradoxically the physicians of assistance suggested to their patients in all the cases to carry out the interruption of the pregnancy, demonstrating with this decision ignorance on the biological effects of the ionizing radiations during the prenatal exposures. (author)
At 17+4 week, non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) results of a 24-years-old mother showed high risk of monosomy X (45, X). Abnormally shaped head and cardiac defects were observed in prenatal ultrasound scan at 19+3 week. Amniocentesis conducted at 19+3 week identified karyotype 47, XX, +18, which suggested that the NIPT failed to detect trisomy 18 (T18) in this case. With a further massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of maternal blood, fetal and placental tissues, we found a confined placental mosaicism (CPM) with non-mosaic T18 fetus and multiclonal placenta with high prevalence of 45, X and low level of T18 cells. FISH and SNP-array evidence from the placental tissue confirmed genetic discrepancy between the fetus and placenta. Because the primary source of the fetal cell-free DNA that NIPT assesses is mostly originated from trophoblast cells, the level of T18 placental mosaicism may cause false negative NIPT result in this rare case of double aneuploidy. PMID:25478006
Clausen, Frederik Banch
Incompatibility of red blood cell blood group antigens between a pregnant woman and her fetus can cause maternal immunization and, consequently, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Noninvasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal DNA can be used to assess the risk of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn to fetuses of immunized women. Prediction of the fetal RhD type has been very successful and is now integrated into clinical practice to assist in the management of the pregnancies of RhD immunized women. In addition, noninvasive prediction of the fetal RhD type can be applied to guide targeted prenatal prophylaxis, thus avoiding unnecessary exposure to anti-D in pregnant women. The analytical aspect of noninvasive fetal RHD typing is very robust and accurate, and its routine utilization has demonstrated high sensitivities for fetal RHD detection. A high compliance with administering anti-D is essential for obtaining a clinical effect. Noninvasive fetal typing of RHC/c, RHE/e, and KEL may become more widely used in the future. PMID:24431264
Tania Mayvel, Espinosa Reyes.
Full Text Available La hiperplasia adrenal congénita es una de las endocrinopatías más frecuentes en la infancia. Resulta desde el punto de vista clínico en un trastorno del desarrollo sexual asociado o no a un cuadro de pérdida salina en la etapa neonatal, manifestaciones de hiperandrogenismo en la adolescencia u olig [...] omenorrea y trastornos de la fertilidad en la adultez. Las posibilidades de diagnóstico en el periodo prenatal han marcado un nuevo hito en el manejo y el pronóstico de estas personas, de ahí el interés por su conocimiento y dominio. Abstract in english Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is one of the most frequent endocrinopathies in childhood. It is from the clinical viewpoint a sexual development disorder associated or not to salt loss condition in the neonatal phase, hyperandrogenism manifestations in adolescence and oligomenorrhea and fertility di [...] sorders in the adulthood. The diagnostic possibilities in the prenatal period has marked new milestone in management and prognosis of these patients, hence the interest of professionals for gaining more knowledge about this disorder.
Samira Maria Oliveira Almeida, Marília Amélia Camurça Ramos, Lauana Pimentel de Melo, Régia Maria Batista Leite, Fátima Maria da Silva Abrão
Full Text Available Objective: to describe and analyze prenatal care, according to criteria of PHPN. Methodology: this is about an exploratory and descriptive study, from quantitative approach. Study’s subjects were 4131 pregnant women registered in SISPRENATAL from 2002 to 2006. Data were collected through a form applied to SISPRENATAL after approval by the Ethics Committee on Research of the Centre Integrated Health Amauri de Medeiros/CISAM under protocol number CAAE - 0263.0.000.250-08. Results: 76.5% of pregnant women started prenatal care until the fourth month of pregnancy. As for exams, 60.3% of them made any classification blood, 24.7% had VDRL full, 59.9% had hemoglobin and hematocrit, 24.86% had complete glucose exam, 24.1%, 26.9% and 46 4%, respectively, underwent urinalysis, HIV testing and were immunized against tetanus. As indicators: consultations, examinations and postpartum period, only 11.1% had them all together, so this is performed six or more consultations, recommended tests and post-partum visit. Conclusion: we concluded that the percentages identified can cause negative impacts to the health of mother and baby, and to difficult, consistently, the reduction of maternal and perinatal mortality. Therefore, the study highlights the need to train professionals, to ensure the realization of exam and treatment of complications, to ensure a quality care, while respecting the rights established.
Margeris, Yanes Calderón; Regla María, Rojas González; Mayelín, Castillo Batista; Rosa María, González Salvat; Tatiana, de la Vega Pazitková.
Full Text Available La malformación adenomatoidea quística pulmonar es una enfermedad infrecuente. Se presenta el diagnóstico prenatal por ultrasonido, de un caso al que a las 22 semanas de gestación, se le detectó un aumento de la ecogenicidad del pulmón izquierdo, lo cual indujo a que se sospechara la presencia de es [...] ta enfermedad. Se valoró con ultrasonido por vía transabdominal en los niveles superiores correspondientes, lo cual corroboró el diagnóstico. Luego del asesoramiento genético, y con el criterio diagnóstico de la imagen observada, la pareja determinó la interrupción de la gestación. Posteriormente se confirmó también, mediante anatomía patológica, el diagnóstico de malformación adenomatoidea quística pulmonar tipo III. Abstract in english The pulmonary cystic adenomatous malformation is an uncommon disease. This is the ultrasound prenatal diagnosis of a case which at 22 weeks of pregnancy showed an increase of echogenicity of left lung leading to the suspicion of the presence of this disease. It was assessed with ultrasound by transa [...] bdominal route in the corresponding higher levels, corroborate by the diagnosis. After of the genetic advice, couple determined the interruption of pregnancy. Later it was again confirmed according to pathological anatomy, the type III pulmonary cystic adenomatous malformation.
Sword Wendy; Heaman Maureen I; Brooks Sandy; Tough Suzanne; Janssen Patricia A; Young David; Kingston Dawn; Helewa Michael E; Akhtar-Danesh Noori; Hutton Eileen
Abstract Background Much attention has been given to the adequacy of prenatal care use in promoting healthy outcomes for women and their infants. Adequacy of use takes into account the timing of initiation of prenatal care and the number of visits. However, there is emerging evidence that the quality of prenatal care may be more important than adequacy of use. The purpose of our study was to explore women's and care providers' perspectives of quality prenatal care to inform the development of...
Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik
Background: Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended. Objective: The primary purpose of this review is to summarise current knowledge of the pregnant woman's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations, as well as the knowledge possessed by pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations. Second, we explore their reasons for accepting or declining available screening tests. Results: More than 90 %of the pregnant women expressed a positive attitude toward screening preocedures in pregnancy. Most often (70-96%), the pregnant women were found knowledgeable about the procedural and preactical aspects, but were more seldom (31-81%) able to correctly identify the purpose of tracing fetal malformations. Some 29-65 % were not familiar with the existence of a false negative result, and 30-43 % were found unaware of the possibility of a false negative result. The risk of miscarriage in relation to amniocentesis (AC) is unknown to 11-53%. Uptake rates are associated with attitudes towards prenatal examinations, but not knowledge of the test offered. A total of 88 % concidered their health care provider an important source of information, and 57 % stated that this information has influenced their decision. Conclusions: Pregnant women favor prenatal examinations, but the choice of participation does not seem to be based on insight to enable full informed consent. Health care providers are perceived as an essential source of information.
Nguyen, Patricia; Thomas, Martin; Koren, Gideon
There is no study available that has investigated determinants of prenatal multivitamin adherence among pregnant women, based on gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events. The objective of this study was to identify determinants predicting adherence to prenatal multivitamins in pregnant women who were randomized to take 2 different supplements. The authors recruited and interviewed 70 women on the importance of various factors that may have affected adherence to previous and assigned multivitamins. The different factors included GI symptoms and swallowing difficulty. The authors used a 5-point scale to measure degree of importance. The highest scoring factors for not taking or discontinuing any previous multivitamins were fear of or experience of nausea, vomiting, and gagging. For women who never took the assigned prenatal multivitamins, the highest scoring factors contributing to that decision were fear of nausea, fear of vomiting, and health care provider advice. For women who started taking the assigned supplements, the most important factors affecting adherence were dosing regimen, health care provider advice, and mode of product distribution. Adherence to assigned prenatal multivitamins significantly correlated only with the importance of constipation in deciding to discontinue any previous multivitamins. It is concluded that predictors of adherence to recommended prenatal multivitamins during pregnancy are rooted in women's prior experiences with multivitamin use. PMID:19386624
Full Text Available Introduction. G-banding and other classical cytogenetic methods are still in use, together with molecular cytogenetic techniques such as FISH (Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and SKY (Spectral Karyotyping. Material and methods. This retrospective study evaluated clinical data on individuaols seeking genetic counseling over a 15-year period (1992 - 2007 at the Medical Genetic Center, Child and Youth Health Care Institute of Vojvodina in Novi Sad. The study included 37.191 genetic counselings, and 20.607 prenatal analyses (amniocentesis and cordocentesis. Results Over a 15-year period (1992 - 2007 17.937 amniotic fluid samples were analyzed and 274 abnormal karyotypes were found; out of 2.670 fetal blood samples, there were 78 abnormal karyotypes. During a 15-year period, prenatal diagnosis, using amniocentesis and/or cordocentesis, showed 352 fetuses with chromosomal aberrations. Discussion. On average, over the past 15-year period, 8% of pregnancies were controlled with invasive prenatal procedures. The percentage has changed; in fact, it is increasing from year to year. In 1992, only 0.82% (N=139/17000 of pregnant women in Vojvodina underwent invasive prenatal procedures, and in 2006 the rate increased to 15.65% (N=2660/17000. Conclusion. It is necessary to improve and promote the possibilities of genetic counseling and invasive prenatal diagnosis in order to prevent the occurrence of chromosomal aberrations and other genetic diseases.
In order to evaluate the causal nature of the relationship between prenatal x-ray exposure and childhood cancer, a case control study was conducted in a population of over 32,000 twins born in the state of Connecticut from 1930-1969 and followed to age 15. Thirty-two incident cancer cases were identified by linking the Connecticut Twin and Tumor registries. Each case was matched with four controls on year of birth, sex, race, and survival. Prenatal x-ray information as well as reproductive, delivery and birth data were obtained from the hospital of birth, the physician providing prenatal care, private radiology groups and interviews with hospital staff. The case control study which obtained exposure information on selected subjects found an increased risk of childhood cancer from prenatal x-ray exposure. The risk associated with radiation exposure was elevated in the following subcategories: mother with history of pregnancy loss, a gravity greater than 1, under 30 years of age, and twins weighing five pounds or more at birth. The results, though based on small numbers, strengthen the association between prenatal x-ray exposure and childhood cancer
Svanum, Soren; And Others
The effects of father absence on educational achievement and intellectual development of 6- to 11-year-old children were investigated by employing a nationally representative sample of 5,493 father-present and 616 father-absent children from the Health Examination Survey of the National Center for Health Statistics. (Author/RH)
Florinda, Varona de la Peña; Nerys, Hechavarría Rodríguez; Nora M., Orive Rodríguez.
Full Text Available La evaluación del riesgo reproductivo a nivel comunitario incluye el diagnóstico de las condiciones que significan un peligro potencial para el desarrollo saludable de la gestación y el niño. En el presente trabajo se muestran los resultados de la pesquisa de los riesgos preconcepcional y prenatal e [...] n mujeres en edad fértil y gestantes, respectivamente, residentes en la provincia de Las Tunas. Se revisaron los registros y reportes estadísticos del Centro Provincial de Genética Médica correspondientes a los años 2007 y 2008 para tomar el universo de mujeres a evaluar y las estudiadas, con lo que se calculó la cobertura de ambos programas. Se determinaron las frecuencias relacionadas con los riesgos por cada condición de riesgo: cromosomopatías, hemoglobinopatías, malformaciones congénitas, teratogenicidad y otras afecciones hereditarias. El 55,0 % de las mujeres evaluadas durante el último año y el 79,3 % en el 2007 fue clasificada con algún riesgo preconcepcional, con un predominio de las cromosomopatías como criterio más frecuente de riesgo. El 40,7 % de las 5 746 gestantes atendidas en el 2008 fue considerada con riesgos prenatales, por debajo del 49,2 % en el año precedente. El riesgo por cromosomopatía fue el predominante en la evaluación prenatal, presente en 62,1 % y 71,3 % de las gestantes en el 2007 y el 2008, respectivamente, a expensas del embarazo en la adolescencia. Se requiere de criterios uniformes para la evaluación del riesgo genético en las mujeres, a las que se les ofrece un seguimiento especializado por los servicios comunitarios de Genética e interconsultas con otras especialidades. Abstract in english The assessment of reproductive risk at community level includes the diagnosis of conditions that are a potential risk for the healthy development of pregnancy and the baby. In the present paper the results of a screening of the pre-conception and prenatal risks in women of fertile age and pregnants, [...] respectively, resident of the Las Tunas provinceare shown. The authors analyzed the registries and statistical reports from the Provincial Central of Medical Genetic corresponding to years 2007 and 2008 in order to include both the universe of women assessed and studied, estimating the coverage of both programs. The frequencies related to each risk condition, e.g. chromosomal diseases, hemoglobinopathies, birth defects, theratogenicity and other hereditary affections were al determined. 55.0 % of women assessed during the last year and 79.3 % in 2007 were classified with some pre-conception risk with a predominance of chromosomal diseases as the most frequent criterion of risk. The 40.7 % of the 5 746 pregnants seen in 2008 was considered in prenatal risks, a figure under the 49.2 % in the previous year. The risk of chromosomal disease was predominant in the prenatal assessment, present in the 62.1 % and the 71.3 % of pregnants in 2007 and 2008, respectively, at the expense of the pregnant during adolescence. It is necessary the presence of uniform criteria to assess the genetic risk in women who receive a specialized follow-up by Genetics community services and inter-consultation with other specialties.
Sandalio Durán Álvarez
Full Text Available Con la introducción del ultrasonido materno-fetal en el seguimiento sistemático del embarazo normal se detectan anomalías congénitas en el 1 % de los fetos, el 20 % de las cuales corresponden al tracto urinario. Se realizó el estudio de recién nacidos y lactantes con hidronefrosis prenatal, cuyos ultrasonidos materno-fetales demostraron la presencia de un doble sistema excretor. Para este propósito todos los recién nacidos y lactantes con hidronefrosis detectada prenatalmente, y doble sistema excretor diagnosticado antes o después del nacimiento, fueron seguidos mediante ultrasonografía renal evolutiva, uretrocistografía miccional, gammagrafía estática o dinámica y, en algunos casos, mediante urograma excretor. Hallamos doble sistema excretor en 7 de los 182 pacientes (3,8 % con anormalidades del tracto urinario diagnosticadas antes del nacimiento. El diagnóstico fue prenatal solo en uno de los fetos (31 semanas de embarazo. La dilatación hidronefrótica fue ligera en dos fetos y grave en cinco. La hidronefrosis obedeció a diferentes causas. Se realizó nefrectomía polar superior en los casos de ectopia ureteral y de uréter superior obstruido, reimplantación en un ureterocele, y en otro se comprobó la ruptura espontánea mediante endoscopia. Los restantes pacientes se trataron sintomáticamente. La hidronefrosis detectada antes del nacimiento mediante ultrasonografía materno-fetal puede estar asociada a un doble sistema excretor. La dilatación hidronefrótica asociada a un doble sistema puede deberse a diferentes causas, y es necesario estudiar cuidadosa y sistemáticamente a estos niños y tratarlos adecuadamente, porque cada uno puede necesitar una conducta diferente.With the introduction of the maternofetal ultrasound in the systematic follow-up of normal pregnancy, congenital anomalies are detected in 1 % of the fetuses, 20 % of which correspond to the urinary tract. The newborns and infants with prenatal hydronephrosis were studied. The maternofetal ultrasound showed a double excretory system. To this end, all the newborns and infants with prenatally detected hydronephrosis and double excretory system diagnosed before or after birth were followed up by evolutive renal ultrasonography, micturition urethrocystography, static or dynamic scintigraphy and, in some cases, by excretory urogram. Double excretory system was found in 7 of the 182 patients (3.8 % with abnormalities of the urinary tract diagnosed before birth. Diagnosis was prenatal in just one of the fetuses (31 weeks of pregnancy. Hydronephrotic dilatation was mild in two fetuses and severe in five. Hydronephrosis had different causes. Upper polar nephrectomy was performed in those cases of ureteral ectopy and obstructed upper ureter, reimplantation in one ureterocele, whereas in another it was confirmed the spontaneous rupture by endoscopy. The rest of the patients were symptomatically treated. The hydronephrosis detected before birth by maternofetal ultrasonography may be associated with a double excretory system. Hydronephrotic dilatation associated with a double excretory system may have different causes, and it is necessary to study carefully and systematically these children and to treat them adequately, since each of them may need a different conduct.
Sandalio, Durán Álvarez; Rosario, Calviac Mendoza; Raisa, Durán Menéndez; Yamilé, Marrero García.
Full Text Available Con la introducción del ultrasonido materno-fetal en el seguimiento sistemático del embarazo normal se detectan anomalías congénitas en el 1 % de los fetos, el 20 % de las cuales corresponden al tracto urinario. Se realizó el estudio de recién nacidos y lactantes con hidronefrosis prenatal, cuyos ul [...] trasonidos materno-fetales demostraron la presencia de un doble sistema excretor. Para este propósito todos los recién nacidos y lactantes con hidronefrosis detectada prenatalmente, y doble sistema excretor diagnosticado antes o después del nacimiento, fueron seguidos mediante ultrasonografía renal evolutiva, uretrocistografía miccional, gammagrafía estática o dinámica y, en algunos casos, mediante urograma excretor. Hallamos doble sistema excretor en 7 de los 182 pacientes (3,8 %) con anormalidades del tracto urinario diagnosticadas antes del nacimiento. El diagnóstico fue prenatal solo en uno de los fetos (31 semanas de embarazo). La dilatación hidronefrótica fue ligera en dos fetos y grave en cinco. La hidronefrosis obedeció a diferentes causas. Se realizó nefrectomía polar superior en los casos de ectopia ureteral y de uréter superior obstruido, reimplantación en un ureterocele, y en otro se comprobó la ruptura espontánea mediante endoscopia. Los restantes pacientes se trataron sintomáticamente. La hidronefrosis detectada antes del nacimiento mediante ultrasonografía materno-fetal puede estar asociada a un doble sistema excretor. La dilatación hidronefrótica asociada a un doble sistema puede deberse a diferentes causas, y es necesario estudiar cuidadosa y sistemáticamente a estos niños y tratarlos adecuadamente, porque cada uno puede necesitar una conducta diferente. Abstract in english With the introduction of the maternofetal ultrasound in the systematic follow-up of normal pregnancy, congenital anomalies are detected in 1 % of the fetuses, 20 % of which correspond to the urinary tract. The newborns and infants with prenatal hydronephrosis were studied. The maternofetal ultrasoun [...] d showed a double excretory system. To this end, all the newborns and infants with prenatally detected hydronephrosis and double excretory system diagnosed before or after birth were followed up by evolutive renal ultrasonography, micturition urethrocystography, static or dynamic scintigraphy and, in some cases, by excretory urogram. Double excretory system was found in 7 of the 182 patients (3.8 %) with abnormalities of the urinary tract diagnosed before birth. Diagnosis was prenatal in just one of the fetuses (31 weeks of pregnancy). Hydronephrotic dilatation was mild in two fetuses and severe in five. Hydronephrosis had different causes. Upper polar nephrectomy was performed in those cases of ureteral ectopy and obstructed upper ureter, reimplantation in one ureterocele, whereas in another it was confirmed the spontaneous rupture by endoscopy. The rest of the patients were symptomatically treated. The hydronephrosis detected before birth by maternofetal ultrasonography may be associated with a double excretory system. Hydronephrotic dilatation associated with a double excretory system may have different causes, and it is necessary to study carefully and systematically these children and to treat them adequately, since each of them may need a different conduct.
The University of Detroit-Mercy has created this digital exploration of Father Charles E. Coughlin in order to scholastically examine his role in influencing the hearts and minds of Americans from the late 1920s through World War II. In the 1930s, Coughlin was well known for his support of FDR and as a social commentator concerned with predatory capitalism. Later, in his radio-broadcasting career, his commentaries turned quite anti-Semitic and he was roundly chastised in many quarters. On this site, visitors can read a biography of Coughlin and also consider educational materials related to his life and times. These materials include a detailed bibliography, lesson plans, and a range of primary materials, such as transcripts of his radio broadcasts and images from his newspaper, "Social Justice."
Andréia de Oliveira Alencar Iguma
Full Text Available It is possible to say that literature is a vital ally in the question of forming critical readers and inventive. So it is necessary that young readers have access to books of different genres, in order to achieve a dialogue between the fictional world and society through quality books. However, the autobiographical genre is not as widespread in schools, leaving at certain times, to report to the gaps memorial. Therefore, this article shall, with the primary objective, peer writing this memorial to Bartolomeu Campos de Queirós, the work by his father's side. Investigating at what time you can see a merger between fiction and reality in autobiographical narrative, which belongs to a trilogy that depicts the childhood of the author.
Aymé, S; Julian, C
Two procedures of prenatal diagnosis were the subject of epidemiological evaluations. The first one is the screening of Down syndrome among pregnant women 38 years of age and over. The other is the antenatal screening of major malformations by ultrasound. An analysis of the different studies published is presented. The interventions are defined and the frequencies of pathologies involved are given. A review of risks, efficacy and effectiveness of each intervention was then carried out. For Down syndrome screening, the criterion for efficacy and effectiveness is the case prevented. Maximum expected efficacy if the attendance of pregnant women 38 years and over to amniocentesis was 100% is 21%. In practice, the effectiveness (24%) is higher than the efficacy (21%) for the Bouches du Rhône district because health care channels to amniocentesis are not based only on the indication of maternal age. During these last three years in the Bouches du Rhône area, 25% of the trisomies 21 detected were so because amniocentesis was carried out after an abnormal sonographic sign had been detected, and 75% because of maternal age. The limitations of the effectiveness are detailed. For the ultrasound screening of major malformations, the efficacy and the effectiveness are assessed through the intermediate criterion of "number of antenatal diagnoses performed". The overall sensitivity of screening in the general population varied between 55% and 75% according to the studies but it was only between 28% and 39% at the 24th week of gestation. The most often screened anomalies were of the central nervous system and the least often screened were congenital cardiopathies. The two interventions were then compared for their objectives and limitations. PMID:1831279
Bruna, Krimberg von Muhlen; Marilia, Saldanha; Marlene, Neves Strey.
Full Text Available Hoy los hombres interactúan más con sus hijos y con su entorno familiar en comparación con décadas pasadas. Los hombres están redefiniendo su identidad y sus funciones, cuestionando las restricciones sociales. Sobre la base de algunos estudios de la antropología, la sociología y la psicología llevad [...] os a cabo en las últimas décadas, especialmente en América Latina, la relación entre padre e hijo es enfocada en este artículo. Con el fin de reflexionar sobre los posibles efectos de los padres maternales a la siguiente generación este estudio trata de poner de relieve la importancia en la relación padre-hijo, en la construcción de la identidad de género masculino y para discutir las asimetrías en la distribución de la atención de los padres, para identificar los elementos que contribuyen para diferentes supuestos sobre la paternidad, la evaluación de la brecha de género entre hombres y mujeres en el cuidado de los niños. Abstract in english Today men interact more with their children and with their home environments compared with past decades. Men are redefining their identity and their roles, questioning societal constraints. Based on some studies of anthropology, sociology and psychology carried out in recent decades especially in La [...] tin America, the relationship between father and son is focused in this article. In order to reflect on the possible effects of mothering fathers into the next generation this study tries to highlight the importance of parent-child relationship in the construction of male gender identity and to discuss asymmetries in the sharing of parental care, to identify the elements that contribute for different assumptions on fatherhood, and assessing the gender gap between men and women concerning child care.
Lutgardo García-Díaz; Amp Xe Lix Coserria, F.; Guillermo Antiñolo
A case of prenatally diagnosed fetal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is reported. The mother was referred to our department at 37 weeks' gestation because of suspected congenital heart disease. Prenatal echocardiography showed biventricular hypertrophy and pericardial effusion, without additional abnormalities. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed prenatal diagnosis. Neonatal EKG showed biventricular hypertrophy and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Skeletal muscle biopsy was consistent with mitoch...
KEENAN, KATE; Sheffield, Rebecca; Boeldt, Debra
Examined whether prenatal psychological stress and/or physical stress were associated with suboptimal neonatal outcomes in a pilot study of adolescent mothers (n = 20). The results provide preliminary support for associations between prenatal psychological stress and little evidence for the association between prenatal physical stress and suboptimal neonatal outcomes.
Agarwal, Ashwin; Sayres, Lauren C.; Cho, Mildred K.; Cook-Deegan, Robert; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini
Cell-free fetal DNA-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) could significantly change the paradigm of prenatal testing and screening. Intellectual property (IP) and commercialization promise to be important components of the emerging debate about clinical implementation of these technologies. We have assembled information about types of testing, prices, turnaround times and reimbursement of recently launched commercial tests in the United States from the trade press, news articles, and scientific, legal, and business publications. We also describe the patenting and licensing landscape of technologies underlying these tests and ongoing patent litigation in the United States. Finally, we discuss how IP issues may affect clinical translation of NIPT and their potential implications for stakeholders. Fetal medicine professionals (clinicians and researchers), genetic counselors, insurers, regulators, test developers and patients may be able to use this information to make informed decisions about clinical implementation of current and emerging noninvasive prenatal tests. PMID:23686656
Toews, Maeghan; Caulfield, Timothy
Although non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) marks a notable development in the field of prenatal genetic testing, there are some physician liability considerations raised by this technology. As NIPT is still emerging as the standard of care and is just starting to receive provincial funding, the question arises of whether physicians are obligated to disclose the availability of NIPT to eligible patients as part of the physician-patient discussion about prenatal screening and diagnosis. If NIPT is discussed with patients, it is important to disclose the limitations of this technology with respect to its accuracy and the number of disorders that it can detect when compared with invasive diagnostic options. A failure to sufficiently disclose these limitations could leave patients with false assurances about the health of their fetuses and could raise informed consent and liability issues, particularly if a child is born with a disability as a result. PMID:25375305
Dempsey, M A
An important aspect of prenatal diagnosis is the avoidance of emergency caesarean delivery (CD) where the abnormality is considered lethal and the infant will not survive. A consecutive cohort of 211,163 women delivered of infants weighing 500 grams or more in three tertiary referral centers from 01\\/95 to 12\\/04, was analyzed for perinatal death attributed to congenital malformations. In the group that died in the neonatal period, the emergency CD rate was significantly lower where anomaly was detected versus undetected (17.5% versus 31%). Further, in contrast to undiagnosed anomalies, the indication for emergency CD was more often maternal in the diagnosed group (42% versus 19%, p=0.019). When a diagnosis of lethal congenital anomaly has been made in the prenatal period, the reduction in the emergency CD rate by almost half in this study supports a pivotal role for prenatal diagnosis in optimizing maternal care.
Haggerty, Catherine L; Klebanoff, Mark A
The relationship between Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and preeclampsia was examined longitudinally among 205 cases and 423 normotensive controls nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Antibodies were analyzed at a first prenatal visit (mean 14.2 weeks) and at delivery. Prenatal infections were identified as IgG/IgM seroconversion or a four-fold rise in IgG antibody titers. Although serological evidence of incident prenatal CT infection was uncommon (n=9, 1.4%) in this general pregnant population, infected women were more likely to develop preeclampsia, after adjustment for maternal age, body mass index, smoking status, race and time between blood draws (ORadj 7.2, 95% CI 1.3 - 39.7).
Ricardo, Olivares; Carlos, Morgan; Hernán, Pérez; Alejandro, Hernández; Francisco, Aboitiz; Rubén, Soto-Moyano; Julio, Gil; Alexis, Ortiz; Osvaldo, Flores; Miguel, Gimeno; Jesús, Laborda.
Full Text Available The effect of prenatal malnutrition on the anatomy of the corpus callosum was assessed in adult rats (45-52 days old). In the prenatally malnourished animals we observed a significant reduction of the corpus callosum total area, partial areas, and perimeter, as compared with normal animals. In addit [...] ion, the splenium of corpus callosum (posterior fifth) showed a significant decrease of fiber diameters in the myelinated fibers without changing density. There was also a significant decrease in diameter and a significant increase in density of unmyelinated fibers. Measurements of perimeter's fractal dimensions from sagittal sections of the brain and corpus callosum did not show significant differences between malnourished and control animals. These findings indicate that cortico-cortical connections are vulnerable to the prenatal malnutrition, and suggest this may affect interhemispheric conduction velocity, particulary in visual connections (splenium).
Goldstein, Henry; Akré, Christina; Bélanger, Richard E; Suris, Joan-Carles
Parenting a child with chronic disease provides a unique set of challenges for both mothers and fathers throughout all phases of the illness. However, fathers of these children are under-represented in existing research. This review focuses on the fathers of children with chronic disease included in 44 original articles. We address the challenges to the father's role as breadwinner, leader and strength-giver in the family. Three time-periods describe the obstacles fathers tackle when parenting children with chronic disease: a) diagnosis and short-term, characterized by distress, isolation and uncertainty; b) the mastery period, characterized by the struggle to establish routine and by support and spirituality; and c) the long-term, characterized by relationship and personality change, worries and bereavement. Overall, whilst current research has revealed some key themes pertaining to fathers of children with chronic disease, further studies are required to foster the development of support mechanisms for the specific needs of these fathers. PMID:23314519
Full Text Available The goal of this article was to describe the experience of black fathers concerning support for their wives/partners during labour. The research design entailed an exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study that was contextual to clinical nursing. A phenomenological approach to nursing research was utilized, whereby unstructured interviews were conducted with ten black fathers. Two groups of black fathers were purposively selected for the study. Group 1 consisted of fathers who provided support to their wives/partners during labour and Group 2 consisted of fathers who did not provide support during labour. A literature control was undertaken to verify and recontextualize data. The results indicate that most of the fathers in Group 1 experienced negative feelings of nervousness, helplessness and anxiety due to lack of information concerning childbirth. These were coupled with positive feelings such as excitement, overwhelming delight and a sense of miracle. Most of the fathers in Group 2 expressed a feeling of wanting to be there. Lack of information, fear and cultural factors were identified as stumbling blocks. Conclusions drawn from the study included positive attitudes that needed to be enhanced as well as negative attitudes that needed counteracting. The guidelines were based on overcoming the following: cultural taboos; lack of knowledge and fears concerning childbirth; lack of interest in childbirth; and childbirth being regarded as a woman’s department.
de Jong, Antina; Maya, Idit; van Lith, Jan M M
Prenatal screening pathways, as nowadays offered in most Western countries consist of similar tests. First, a risk-assessment test for major aneuploides is offered to pregnant women. In case of an increased risk, invasive diagnostic tests, entailing a miscarriage risk, are offered. For decades, only conventional karyotyping was used for final diagnosis. Moreover, several foetal ultrasound scans are offered to detect major congenital anomalies, but the same scans also provide relevant information for optimal support of the pregnancy and the delivery. Recent developments in prenatal screening include the application of microarrays that allow for identifying a much broader range of abnomalities than karyotyping, and non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) that enables reducing the number of invasive tests for aneuploidies considerably. In the future, broad NIPT may become possible and affordable. This article will briefly address the ethical issues raised by these technological developments. First, a safe NIPT may lead to routinisation and as such challenge the central issue of informed consent and the aim of prenatal screening: to offer opportunity for autonomous reproductive choice. Widening the scope of prenatal screening also raises the question to what extent 'reproductive autonomy' is meant to expand. Finally, if the same test is used for two different aims, namely detection of foetal anomalies and pregnancy-related problems, non-directive counselling can no longer be taken as a standard. Our broad outline of the ethical issues is meant as an introduction into the more detailed ethical discussions about prenatal screening in the other articles of this special issue. PMID:25521968
Previous studies demonstrated a significant reduction in thymic medullary and epithelial volumes in irradiated canine fetuses. The present study was performed to determine if this prenatal radiation-induced damage persists and is accompanied by functional immune abnormalities after birth. Six pregnant beagle dogs received sham-irradiation or single abdominal exposures to 200R of 60Co radiation at 35 days gestation. The mean fetal dose was approximately 1.5 Gy. Half the dogs of each litter were sacrificed at birth; half were sacrificed at 24 weeks of age. Following sacrifice, thymus sections from each dog were examined morphometrically. The following in vitro and in vivo assays were performed at selected times; lymphocyte blastogenesis, hematology, bone marrow progenitor cell (CFU-GM) colony growth, humoral antibody response to sheep red blood cells, dinitrochloro-benzene skin sensitization, and gross and histopathology. When compared with age-matched controls, thymic medullary volumes in irradiated dogs were significantly reduced at birth; but, by 24 weeks of age, were similar to control values. At 12-16 weeks of age irradiated dogs showed a significant decrease in humoral antibody responses to inoculated sheep red blood cells. In vitro culture of bone marrow demonstrated a significant reduction of CFU-GM colony growth in irradiated dogs at 24 weeks of age. This was accompanied by a reduction in peripheral white blood cell counts in these dogs from 12-24 weeks of age.nts in these dogs from 12-24 weeks of age. These data suggest that radiation injury to the fetal lymphohematopoietic system results in significant postnatal immunologic and hematopoietic defects
Perelberg, Rosine Jozef
I will suggest that the phantasy of 'a father is being beaten' and its transformations emerges for certain male patients as a result of the work of analysis and becomes a potential appropriation of the (symbolic) father. The symbolic beating of the father takes place at the threshold between an anal-sadistic organization and the oedipal situation. The phantasy of the 'father being beaten' does not necessarily mean that it is the father who is explicitly being beaten. It is a construction derived from the free associations and dreams, in the analytic encounter, reached through the work of interpretation. Detailed material of sessions of the five times a week analysis of one of my patients will be presented. This will be contrasted with material from four other analyses of male patients where the 'father being beaten' phantasy was not achieved. The common feature in all these other configurations is a foreclosure in the relationship to the father and a lack of an internalization of the paternal function as a symbolic capacity. It is my suggestion that this absence of the father in its symbolic function is then sexualized in a fusion between life and death drives. A final contrasting example is derived from Karl Abraham's classic paper detailing the analysis of a patient where one can interpret a dream as expressing 'a father is being beaten' phantasy; however the dream's repetitive nature and its links with a current dream in the analysis points out to a lack of differentiation between the sexes and an anal-sadistic organization. PMID:21323880
Paulo, Zielinsky; Carlo B., Pilla.
Full Text Available Ebstein's anomaly is an uncommon congenital heart defect, with a prevalence of 0.3-0.5%. Its association with an imperforate tricuspid valve is an even more rare situation (less than 10% of cases). Prenatal diagnosis of this association by means of fetal echocardiography has not been reported. We de [...] scribe here this association diagnosed before birth and confirmed after birth. The diagnostic potential and importance of fetal echocardiography during prenatal evaluation of cardiac malformations allows for adequate perinatal planning and management, with an obvious impact on morbidity and mortality.