Despite an unprecedented surge of research on fathers, progress in the study of father involvement generally occurs within rather than across disciplines. This handbook highlights the challenges facing researchers of father involvement across disciplines. Following an introduction, the chapters of the book are as follows: 1) "Methodological,…
Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S., Ed.; Cabrera, Natasha, Ed.
Using data from a racially and ethnically diverse sample of low-income mothers of two-year-old children participating in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (N = 883), fathers' education and employment, mother-father relationship, and mothers' relationships with kin in the household were examined to explain variation in nonresident father involvement across racial and ethnic groups. Nonresident White fathers were less involved with their children than African-American and Latino fathers. This difference was explained by the status of mother-father relationships. White nonresident fathers were less likely than minority nonresident fathers to maintain romantic relationships with their child's mother. Mothers in the White father group were also more likely to re-partner, which negatively related to biological fathers' involvement. These findings suggest that approaches to strengthen nonresident father involvement in children's lives need to consider how father ethnicity and mother-father relations are associated with differential patterns of father involvement.
Cabrera, Natasha J.; Ryan, Rebecca M.; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Shannon, Jacqueline D.; Tamis-LeMonda, Cathie S.
This study explored first-time fathers' perceived child care skill over the transition to parenthood, based on face-to-face interviews of 152 working-class, dual-earner couples. Analyses examined the associations among fathers' perceived skill and prenatal perception of skill, child care involvement, mothers' breastfeeding, maternal gatekeeping,…
Barry, Amy A.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Deutsch, Francine M.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen
The purpose of this study was to examine whether mothers' beliefs about the role of the father may contribute to mothers influencing the quantity of father involvement in their children's lives. Participants were 30 two-parent families with children between the ages of 2 and 3 years. A combination of self-report and interview data were collected…
McBride, Brent A.; Brown, Geoffrey L.; Bost, Kelly K.; Shin, Nana; Vaughn, Brian; Korth, Byran
Full Text Available The study presented in this paper deals with the effects of experiences with father in the family of origin on the fathering role in the family of procreation. The results of the studies so far point to great importance of such experiences in parental role modelling, while recent approaches have suggested the concept of introjected notion or an internal working model of the fathering role as the way to operationalise the transgenerational transfer. The study included 247 two-parent couple families whose oldest child attended preschool education. Fathers provided information on self-assessed involvement via the Inventory of father involvement, while both fathers and mothers gave information on introjected experiences from the family of origin via the inventory Presence of the father in the family of origin. It was shown that father’s experiences from the family of origin had significant direct effects on his involvement in child-care. Very important experiences were those of negative emotional exchange, physical closeness and availability of the father, as well as beliefs about the importance of the father as a parent. Although maternal experiences from the family of origin did not contribute significantly to father involvement, shared beliefs about father’s importance as a parent in the parenting alliance had an effect on greater involvement in child-care. The data provide confirmation of the hypotheses on modelling of the fathering role, but also open the issue of the factor of intergenerational maintenance of traditional forms of father involvement in families in Serbia.
Full Text Available Fatherhood has received increased attention during the past few decades in both scholarly writings and public forums, yet the conceptualisation of involved fathering has remained largely limited to the idea that men are merely childcare assistants. In this article the generativity perspective on fathering is considered as a possible theoretical expansion of what paternal involvement may entail. Taking the concept of generativity, as defined by Erik Erikson in his psychosocial development theory, as point of departure, generative fathering refers to paternal conduct that responds to the physical, emotional and cognitive needs of a child. This kind of involved fathering implies that a father is focused on lovingly nurturing his child and improving the wellbeing of his offspring, instead of merely conforming to what is stipulated by society and cultural norms with regard to paternal role obligations.
Explores developmental implications for fathers of underinvolvement in child care using Erikson's conception of adult development and his emphasis on achieving generativity. Suggests processes by which fathers may develop generativity and outlines challenges they face in achieving it. Suggests that man's involvement in child care may be crucial to…
Hawkins, Alan J.; And Others
Objective?To examine the relationship of paternal involvement in diabetes care with adherence and glycemic control.?Methods?One hundred and thirty-six mothers and fathers of preadolescents (aged 9–12 years) with type 1 diabetes reported on paternal involvement. Adherence was measured by interview and blood glucose meter downloads. Mothers’ and fathers’ ratings of paternal involvement in diabetes care were compared. We evaluated three structural equation models linking paternal inv...
Hilliard, Marisa E.; Rohan, Jennifer M.; Carle, Adam C.; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan; Drotar, Dennis
Fatherhood has received increased attention during the past few decades in both scholarly writings and public forums, yet the conceptualisation of involved fathering has remained largely limited to the idea that men are merely childcare assistants. In this article the generativity perspective on fathering is considered as a possible theoretical expansion of what paternal involvement may entail. Taking the concept of generativity, as defined by Erik Erikson in his psychosocial development theo...
The familial nature of genetic conditions often requires the testing of parents and other family members in order to determine the relationship of a genetic change to a clinical phenotype or to determine potential reproductive risks. When required as part of prenatal and preconceptional genetic testing services, time constraints and the costs and risks of alternatives to testing parents require that payers have established policies for how both maternal and paternal tests that inform fetal te...
Father characteristics and psychosocial functioning were examined as predictors of father involvement both with an Early Head Start (EHS) program and with their infant. Variables examined as potential predictors were selected based on the program's emphasis on building relationships as their primary intervention strategy. The 72 low-income fathers included in this study were predominantly Caucasian and married or living with their child's mother. Fathers' characteristics predicted thei...
Grounded in family systems and ecological theories, this study examined teenage mothers' perceptions of fathers' parental involvement and the role of teenage mothers' gatekeeping beliefs. Fathers' involvement was perceived to be greater when teenage parents were romantically involved (n = 55). When they no longer shared a romantic relationship (n…
Herzog, Melissa J.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Madden-Derdich, Debra A.; Leonard, Stacie A.
This study examined modeling and compensatory processes underlying the effects of an early paternal model on father involvement in child care. Drawing on social learning theory, it was hypothesized that father-son relationships would moderate the association between a father's involvement and his own father's involvement. A sample of 136 kibbutz…
Gaunt, Ruth; Bassi, Liat
Using a representative sample of low-income, primarily minority adolescents (N=647, aged 10-14 years at Wave 1), this study examined bidirectional longitudinal relations between nonresident father involvement, defined as contact and responsibility for children's care and behavior, and adolescent engagement in delinquent activities. Autoregressive…
Coley, Rebekah Levine; Medeiros, Bethany L.
A growing body of research documents the importance of positive father involvement in children’s development. However, research on fathers in Latino families is sparse, and research contextualizing the father-child relationship within a cultural framework is needed. The current study examined how father's cultural practices and values predicted their fifth-grade child’s report of positive father involvement among a sample of 450 two-parent Mexican-origin families. Predictors included Span...
Cruz, Rick A.; King, Kevin M.; Widaman, Keith F.; Leu, Janxin; Cauce, Ana Mari; Conger, Rand D.
Black fathers are important advocates in addressing the underrepresentation of Black students in gifted programs, as well as the achievement gaps between Black and White students. Black fathers increasingly understand the important role that Black mothers have traditionally played in supporting their gifted children's school experiences. As a…
Grantham, Tarek C.; Henfield, Malik S.
A growing body of research documents the importance of positive father involvement in children's development. However, research on fathers in Latino families is sparse, and research contextualizing the father-child relationship within a cultural framework is needed. The present study examined how fathers' cultural practices and values predicted their fifth-grade children's report of positive father involvement in a sample of 450 two-parent Mexican-origin families. Predictors included Spanish- and English-language use, Mexican and American cultural values, and positive machismo (i.e., culturally related attitudes about the father's role within the family). Positive father involvement was measured by the child's report of his or her father's monitoring, educational involvement, and warmth. Latent variable regression analyses showed that fathers' machismo attitudes were positively related to children's report of positive father involvement and that this association was similar across boys and girls. The results of this study suggest an important association between fathers' cultural values about men's roles and responsibilities within a family and their children's perception of positive fathering. PMID:21842992
Cruz, Rick A; King, Kevin M; Widaman, Keith F; Leu, Janxin; Cauce, Ana Mari; Conger, Rand D
OBJECTIVE: To provide a baseline perspective on the prevalence of Salvadoran men's attendance at prenatal care, delivery, and postpartum well-baby care and on sociodemographic factors associated with their attendance, with the goal of informing efforts to help men play more positive roles in maternal-child health. METHODS: The data came from the 2003 Salvadoran National Male Health Survey. The data focused on fathers (n = 418) and their most recent live-born child in the preceding five years....
Carter, Marion W.; Ilene Speizer
Using a sample of 3,977 youths from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), this study examines the unique characteristics of single-custodial-father families with adolescents and the effects of single fathers' involvement and parenting on outcomes in emerging adulthood. Findings suggest that single-custodial-father families are…
Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Scott, Mindy E.; Lilja, Emily
Men's childhood experiences with their parents, their current relationship with their partners, and demographic factors were examined in relation to father-infant interactions. Participants were 60 racially and ethnically diverse, inner-city men and their 6- to 11-month-old infants. Father-infant interactions were videotaped during semistructured…
Shannon, Jacqueline D.; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S.; Margolin, Allan
This study is part of the BioMadrid Project, a bio-monitoring study designed to assess pollutants in the environment surrounding children born in the Madrid region. Our aim in this report is to evaluate the association between prenatal lead exposure and fetal development using three biological samples (maternal and paternal blood lead at around 34 weeks of gestation as well as cord blood lead levels), three biomarkers of effect in cord blood peripheral lymphocytes (micronucleus in binucleated cells, nucleoplasmic bridges, and nuclear buds), and different anthropometrical characteristics at birth. Maternal and cord blood lead were not associated with newborn measurements or genotoxicity biomarkers. In contrast, increases in father blood lead were coupled with lower weight (mean difference (MD), -110.8 g; 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), -235.6 to 6.00; p < 0.10) and shorter abdominal (MD, -0.81 cm; 95%CI, -1.64 to 0.00; p < 0.05) and cephalic (MD, -0.32 cm; 95%CI, -0.65 to 0.00; p < 0.05) circumferences at birth as well as with the presence of nucleoplasmic bridges (odds ratio, 1.03; 95%CI, 1.00 to 1.06; p < 0.05) and nuclear buds (odds ratio, 1.02; 95%CI, 0.99 to 1.04; p < 0.10). These associations were mainly confined to female babies, in whom paternal lead was also inversely associated with length. Our results support the hypothesis that paternal lead exposure may be affecting the development of newborns. PMID:24647583
García-Esquinas, Esther; Aragonés, Nuria; Fernández, Mario Antonio; García-Sagredo, José Miguel; de León, América; de Paz, Concha; Pérez-Meixeira, Ana María; Gil, Elisa; Iriso, Andrés; Cisneros, Margot; de Santos, Amparo; Sanz, Juan Carlos; García, José Frutos; Asensio, Ángel; Vioque, Jesús; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Astray, Jenaro; Pollán, Marina; Martínez, Mercedes; González, María José; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz
Abstract Aims. This paper is a report on a study analysing the effect of the umbilical cord cutting experience on fathers’ emotional involvement with their infants. Background. Participation in childbirth offers an opportunity for father and mother to share the childbirth experience, so it is vital that midwives improve the fathers’ participation in this event. Design. A quasi-experimental study with a quantitative methodology was implemented. Methods. One hundred ...
Branda?o, S.; Figueiredo, B.
Previous studies mainly examined individual and family factors affecting Japanese fathers' involvement in child care. Along with these factors, we examine how work-related factors such as father-friendly environment at work, workplace's accommodation of parental needs, job stress, and autonomy are associated with Japanese men's…
The study examines whether fathers' "marital satisfaction"--that is, relationships within the parents' marriage--is correlated with their involvement with their child with disabilities. Data were collected from 243 Polish fathers who were married and who had at least one child with disabilities. The issue was assessed by two measures, "the Marital…
Bragiel, Jozefa; Kaniok, Przemyslaw E.
Considerable debate exists regarding whether religiousness promotes or impedes greater father involvement in parenting. Our study addresses this issue using a Midwestern longitudinal dataset that tracks the transition to first parenthood for 169 married couples. We focus on performance of the "messier" tasks of infant care. We find little evidence that religiousness enhances father involvement in this domain. Biblically conservative couples exhibit a greater gender gap in childcare than others, with mothers more involved than fathers. The gender gap is also greater the more fathers work outside the home, the greater mothers' knowledge of infant development, and the more unadaptable the infant. Average daily childcare is lower the greater spouses' work hours, but higher with difficult pregnancies or fussy babies. PMID:21966024
Demaris, Alfred; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I
In this article we present a framework for understanding the indirect effects of fathering on child development in the context of the marriage. We discuss three central pathways of influence: through relations between marital quality and fathering, through children's exposure to father expressions of marital discord, and through relations between…
Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark
Despite concern about compromise of fathering as a public policy issue, very little is known about the status of drug-abusing men as parents. In this pilot study, 50 men enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment completed a structured research interview designed to generate basic information about patterns of pair-bonding, reproduction, and paternal involvement. Descriptive analysis of these data highlighted a number of trends in the nature of fathering that, although at odds with popular s...
Mcmahon, Thomas J.; Winkel, Justin D.; Suchman, Nancy E.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.
This paper draws on information from the Fragile Families Study (N = 2,695) to examine how different coparenting styles emerge and are related to fathers' involvement with young children in a representative sample of unmarried parents. The results show that the quantity and quality of paternal involvement is significantly higher when unmarried parents establish a cooperative as opposed to a disengaged or conflicted coparenting style. Cooperative coparenting is less likely, however, when unmarried parents have separated after the birth or were never together as a couple, when fathers are unemployed or have other risk factors, when the child has a more difficult temperament, and when parents have fewer children together. This analysis also helps clarify previously equivocal findings concerning the relationship between coparenting conflict and paternal involvement. Regression results show that paternal involvement is not significantly different among parents with cooperative and mixed coparenting styles, indicating that when unmarried parents can work together and support each other's parenting efforts, even if they argue frequently while doing so, fathers remain more involved. At the same time, conflicted coparenting leads to a larger decrease in father involvement than disengaged coparenting. In the context of poorer-quality coparenting relationships, it was conflict that mattered for fathering, not just parents' inability to cooperate. Implications of these findings for parenting education programs are discussed. PMID:22984972
Waller, Maureen R
Early Head Start (EHS) is a comprehensive, two-generation program that includes intensive services that begin before the child is born and concentrate on enhancing the child's development and supporting the family during the critical first 3 years of a child's life. This paper discusses approaches to measuring father involvement in their…
Cabrera, Natasha J.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Lamb, Michael E.; Boller, Kimberly
Increasingly couples in two-parent families share the dual responsibilities of parenting and providing for their children financially. Parenting is embedded within and shaped by specific family contexts. This study examined 92 mothers' and fathers' responses on indices of couple and family contexts, parent involvement, and child-reported…
Coyl-Shepherd, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.
SYNOPSIS Objective This longitudinal investigation examines whether fathers’ prenatal involvement (e.g., attending doctor appointments and discussing pregnancy with mother) and residence status at infant’s birth predict the first time a father becomes inaccessible to his child (defined as seeing child fewer than a few times per month) at six developmental time points in children’s first 5 years. Design Data were gathered from 2,160 ethnically diverse mothers (i.e., European American, African American, and Latin American) who participated in the National Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project. Survival analysis was used to predict the timing of father inaccessibility based on interviews. Results By prekindergarten, fathers’ residence at birth and prenatal involvement decreased their risk of being inaccessible to their children for the first time by 71% and 47%, respectively, after adjusting for all other variables in the model. Residence at birth was a stronger predictor of the timing of father inaccessibility than was prenatal involvement for European American and Latin American fathers; for African American fathers, prenatal involvement was a stronger predictor of the timing of father inaccessibility than nonresidential status at birth. Nearly 65% of fathers who were engaged in both prenatal activities remained consistently accessible to their child through child age of 63 months, whereas nearly 50% of fathers who were not prenatally involved were already inaccessible by the time infants were 3 months. Conclusion These findings have implications for early intervention programs aimed at strengthening the role of fathers in their families from the prenatal period.
Shannon, Jacqueline D.; Cabrera, Natasha J.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine; Lamb, Michael E.
The U.S. infant mortality rate is among the highest in the developed world, with recent vital statistics reports estimating 6.14 infant deaths per 1,000 live births. Traditional health education and promotion to improve maternal, infant, and child health in the United States has focused only on women, leaving men out of important health messages that may affect pregnancy outcomes as well as family well-being. Recently, public health scholars have suggested that men be included in prenatal health education in an effort to improve birth outcomes and reduce infant mortality. Incorporating men in prenatal health promotion and education has been found to improve overall birth preparedness, reduce the risk of maternal-infant HIV transmission, and reduce perinatal mortality in less-developed nations. Although these results are positive, research on paternal impact in pregnancy outcomes in the United States to date is lacking. This article proposes a U.S.-specific research agenda to understand the current role of men in pregnancy health, as well as actual involvement, barriers, and the influence men can have in prenatal health. A discussion of culture, individual motivations, health care providers, and social marketing is also considered. PMID:23727791
Guadagno, Marie; Mackert, Michael; Rochlen, Aaron
The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of non-residential father-child involvement with their children at age 2. This study utilized secondary analysis of data collected through the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort. Participants included 650 biological fathers who did not reside with their child at age 2. Significant…
Despite substantial research documenting the importance of father-child relations, little is known about fathers in families considered at risk for child abuse, and this lack of information makes adequate targeting of fathers in interventions challenging. This research aims to provide information that will aid interventions in targeting fathers and addressing father-related family issues through: (a) providing descriptive information regarding fathers in families at risk for child abuse, and (b) examining aspects of family well-being relative to father involvement. Analyses were conducted on mother-report data in families eligible for the Healthy Families Arizona prevention program (N = 197). Results indicated that although only 15% of parents in the sample were married, 47% of families had resident fathers, and 77% of fathers had some contact with their new babies. Families with greater father involvement had better prenatal care, higher incomes, less maternal involvement in Child Protective Services, less physical domestic violence (DV), and greater maternal mental health reflected through less loneliness. These findings have implications for targeting nonresident as well as resident fathers in families at risk for child abuse and for exploring DV issues in families with noninvolved fathers. PMID:21729013
Shapiro, Alyson F; Krysik, Judy; Pennar, Amy L
The relations of infant temperament and parents' marital satisfaction to mother and father involvement in early (T1, approximately 7 months, n = 142) and later (T2, approximately 14 months, n = 95) infancy were examined. At each assessment point, mothers and fathers completed daily diaries together to measure their involvement over four days (i.e., 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days), each partner reported on marital satisfaction, and mothers reported on infants' temperament. Structural equation m...
Mehall, Karissa Greving; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gaertner, Bridget M.
This study examined how child temperament was related to parents' time spent accessible to and interacting with their 2-year-olds. Bivariate analyses indicated that both fathers and mothers spent more time with temperamentally challenging children than easier children on workdays, but fathers spent less time with challenging children than easier…
Brown, Geoffrey L.; McBride, Brent A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Shin, Nana
Full Text Available Although fathers have been shown to contribute uniquely to the development of psychopathology in children, they continue to be ignored in research and clinical work. Knowledge about the impact of involving fathers in their child’s treatment – for the child, couple and the family as a whole - is still sparse. The aim of this study was to explore parents’ experiences of having fathers involved in the treatment of their child. Parents, whose children had received cognitive behavioural therapy for an anxiety disorder, were interviewed about this topic. The participating parents had all been involved in the treatment of their child. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA was used to analyze the data in this study. Three higher order themes and 11 subthemes emerged from the six interview accounts. The three higher order themes were as follows: Strengthening the family system, empowerment of parents, and impact on partner relationship. Results indicated that parents’ experiences of the involvement of fathers to be beneficial not only on the child’s treatment but also on other aspects of family life. The parents reported that the family as a whole benefitted from the treatment and that the relationship between the parents was strengthened. A model was created to conceptualize these results.
Barbara Hoff Esbjørn
Vinculação pré-natal e ansiedade em mães e pais: impacto da ecografia do 1º trimestre de gestação / Prenatal bonding and anxiety in mothers and fathers: the impact of ultrasound in the 1st trimester of pregnancy
Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objectivo de avaliar o impacto da ecografia do 1º trimestre de gravidez na ansiedade e vinculação pré-natal, 22 mães e 22 pais foram recrutados numa Unidade de Medicina Fetal e Diagnóstico Pré-natal. Foram administrados a Bonding Scale (Taylor, Atkins, Kumar, Adams, & Glover, 2005; versão port [...] uguesa de Figueiredo, Marques, Costa, Pacheco, & Pais, 2005b) e o State Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983; versão portuguesa de Silva, 2003), antes e depois da ecografia, a ambos os membros do casal. Os resultados revelaram que a vinculação pré-natal aumenta significativamente enquanto a sintomatologia ansiosa diminui, depois da realização da ecografia. Conclui-se que a ecografia pode ter um papel tranquilizador e potenciador da ligação dos pais ao seu bebé por nascer. Abstract in english In order to analyse the first trimester ultrasound impact on anxiety and prenatal bonding, 22 mothers and 22 fathers were recruited from a Fetal Medicine and Prenatal Diagnosis Unit. The mothers and fathers filled out Portuguese versions of the Bonding Scale (Taylor, Atkins, Kumar, Adams, & Glover, [...] 2005; Figueiredo, Marques, Costa, Pacheco, & Pais, 2005) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983; Portuguese version by Silva, 2003), before and after the ultrasound attendance. The results show that prenatal bonding improves significantly from before to after the ultrasound attendance, while the anxiety levels diminished. We can conclude that the ultrasound scanning seems to have a positive impact on the mother and father prenatal bonding and reassurance.
Samorinha, Catarina; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Cruz, José Matos.
The differential susceptibility hypothesis suggests that children differ in their susceptibility to the influence of both positive and negative environmental factors. Children with reactive temperaments are hypothesised to be particularly susceptible to environmental influences, both for better and for worse. The present study sought to investigate whether infant temperament moderates the influence of fathers on child prosocial and problem behaviours. In a large prospective population study (...
Ramchandani, PG; Jzendoorn, Mv; Bakermans-kranenburg, Mj
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Following the end of the Gulf War that resulted in the liberation of Kuwait, there are no reports on the impact of veterans' traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on their children. We compared the severity of anxiety, depression, deviant behavior and poor family adjustment among the children of a stratified random sample of four groups of Kuwaiti military men, viz: the retired; an active -in-the-army group (AIA (involved in duties at the rear; an in-battle group (IB (involved in combat; and a prisoners -of- war (POWs group. Also, we assessed the association of father's PTSD/combat status and mother's characteristics with child psychosocial outcomes. Method Subjects were interviewed at home, 6 years after the war, using: the Child Behavior Index to assess anxiety, depression, and adaptive behavior; Rutter Scale A2 for deviant behavior; and Family Adjustment Device for adjustment at home. Both parents were assessed for PTSD. Results The 489 offspring (250 m, 239 f; mean age 13.8 yrs belonged to 166 father-mother pairs. Children of POWs tended to have higher anxiety, depression, and abnormal behavior scores. Those whose fathers had PTSD had significantly higher depression scores. However, children of fathers with both PTSD and POW status (N = 43 did not have significantly different outcome scores than the other father PTSD/combat status groups. Mother's PTSD, anxiety, depression and social status were significantly associated with all the child outcome variables. Parental age, child's age and child's level of education were significant covariates. Although children with both parents having PTSD had significantly higher anxiety/depression scores, the mother's anxiety was the most frequent and important predictor of child outcome variables. The frequency of abnormal test scores was: 14% for anxiety/depression, and 17% for deviant behavior. Conclusion Our findings support the impression that child emotional experiences in vulnerable family situations transcend culture and are associated with the particular behavior of significant adults in the child's life. The primacy of the mother's influence has implications for interventions to improve the psychological functioning of children in such families. Mental health education for these families has the potential to help those in difficulty.
Ohaeri Jude U
The involvement of 124 young mothers in a doula support program was measured in two dimensions--quantity of program contact and quality of mother-doula helping relationship. The study examined each dimension's differential associations with maternal outcomes, as well as the moderating effects of mother characteristics on these associations.…
Wen, Xiaoli; Korfmacher, Jon; Hans, Sydney L.; Henson, Linda G.
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de estudar o impacto da qualidade do relacionamento entre pai e filho sobre o desempenho acadêmico de crianças escolares. Participaram deste estudo 58 pais e seus filhos da 5ª e 6ª séries. Os pais preencheram o questionário "Qualidade da interação familiar na visão paterna" e os filhos preencheram o questionário "Interação pai-filho". Para investigar como o envolvimento dos pais afetou o desempenho acadêmico dos seus filhos, as crianças foram avaliadas com o "Teste de Desempenho Escolar". Observou-se que, quanto maior a freqüência de comunicações entre pai e filho e quanto maior o envolvimento dos pais nas atividades escolares, culturais e de lazer do filho, melhor o desempenho acadêmico das crianças. Tais resultados demonstram a importância do pai para o desempenho acadêmico dos filhos e apontam para a necessidade de educar os homens para conhecerem as muitas ações que podem melhorar seu desempenho enquanto pais.The aim of this paper was to study the impact of the quality of the father-child relationship on children's academic performance. A total of 58 fathers and their children (in the fifth and sixth grades participated in this study. The fathers completed a questionnaire, "Quality of family interaction - fathers' perspective" and the children completed a questionnaire "Father-child interaction". To investigate how the fathers' involvement affected their children's academic performance, the children were evaluated using the School Performance Test. The results indicate that, the higher the frequency of father-child communication and the greater the fathers' involvement in the children's school, cultural and leisure activities, the higher the children's academic performance. These results indicate the importance of fathers' involvement, to maximize children's academic performance, and the necessity of educating men with respect to the ways in which they can improve their parental performance.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve por objetivo examinar as relações entre três formas do envolvimento paterno (a comunicação entre pai e filho; a participação do pai nos cuidados com o filho; a participação do pai nas atividades escolares, culturais e de lazer do filho) e dois aspectos do desenvolvimento infantil (a [...] utoconceito e desempenho acadêmico) de crianças que iniciam as atividades escolares. Participaram deste estudo 97 casais e seus filhos matriculados na 1ª ou 2ª série do Ensino Fundamental. Para avaliar o envolvimento paterno a partir de duas perspectivas diferentes, tanto os pais quanto as mães responderam à Avaliação do bem-estar pessoal e familiar e do relacionamento pai-filho - Versão Paterna. Para avaliar o desempenho acadêmico e o autoconceito, foram aplicados nas crianças o Teste de Desempenho Escolar e o Self-Description Questionnaire I. Observou-se que, quanto maior a frequência de comunicação entre pai e filho, a participação do pai nos cuidados com o filho e a participação do pai nas atividades escolares, culturais e de lazer do filho, maior o desempenho acadêmico e o autoconceito das crianças. Esses resultados são indicativos da importância do envolvimento paterno e apontam a necessidade de se realizarem intervenções educativas dirigidas aos homens. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among three types of fathering involvement (father-child communication, fathers' participation in caring for their child and fathers' participation in their child's school, cultural and leisure activities) and two aspects of a child's develo [...] pment (academic performance and selfconcept) among children in their first years of schooling. The participants were 97 fathers, mothers and their children, who were attending the first or second grade. To evaluate father involvement from two different perspectives, both the fathers and the mothers completed the Evaluation questionnaire about individual and family well-being and the parentchild relationship - Fathering Version. Children's academic performance and selfconcept were evaluated using the School Performance Test and the Self-Description Questionnaire I, respectively. The greater the frequency of father-child communication, of the fathers' participation in caring for their children, and in their children's school, cultural and leisure activities, the stronger the children's academic performance and the more positive their selfconcept. These results are indicative of the importance of fathers' involvement and point out the need for educational interventions specifically for men.
Fabiana, Cia; Elizabeth Joan, Barham; Anne Marie Germaine Victorine, Fontaine.
We examine variation in employed fathers’ time with children ages zero to 14, utilizing time use surveys from the United States (2003), Germany (2001), Norway (2000), and the United Kingdom (2000). We examine levels of father involvement and mechanisms associated involvement on both weekdays (N = 4,192) and weekends (N = 3,024). We find some evidence of “new fathers” on weekends in all countries. Fathers spend more time on interactive care and more time alone with children on weekends t...
Hook, Jennifer L.; Wolfe, Christina M.
Resveratrol, an active ingredient of red wine extracts, has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects in several experimental models. Hence in the present study, the protective effects of resveratrol on cognitive deficits induced by prenatal stress were evaluated in offspring, and the possible involvement of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in learning deficits were explored. Pregnant rats were subjected to restraint stress during early or late gestational period. Another set of rats received resveratrol during the entire gestational period along with early or late gestational stress. The study parameters included various behavioral tests like open field test and Morris water maze test. At the end of the behavioral tests (on 40th postnatal day), the offspring were sacrificed, and their brain homogenate was subjected to Na(+), K(+)-ATPase estimation. Early and late gestational stress affected spatial learning and memory and prenatal resveratrol has reversed these cognitive deficits. The Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in the offspring brain homogenate was reduced in the late gestational stress group; however prenatal resveratrol treatment has not affected this activity. These data suggest the neuroprotective efficacy of resveratrol against prenatal stress induced cognitive impairment. Though late gestational stress involves Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in rat brain homogenate, this would not be the primary cause in prenatal stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23044472
Sahu, Sudhanshu Sekhar; Madhyastha, Sampath; Rao, Gayathri M
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Male involvement like women empowerment and maternal health is one of the main strategies in achieving millennium development goals. To prepare the theoretical grounds necessary for male involvement, this descriptive study specifically aims to understand the prevalence and the forms of male involvement in maternal health. Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic study. Subjects consisted of women hospitalized for delivery in Shahrood and Sabsevar hospitals, Iran. Inclusion criteria were alive and healthy fetus. Exclusion criteria were illegal pregnancy. The questionnaires were completed by 507 women and 420 husbands. Data were analyzed using t-test, Pearson correlation and descriptive tests.Results: 17% of men didn’t attend at the time of woman’s admission at the hospital. Low level of husband’s companionship to health centers, low male involvement in household tasks and receiving low health recommendation by husbands were reported by 25%, 33% and 61% of the women, respectively. 77% of men had a low level of knowledge concerning pregnancy complications; however, 93% of them were aware of their wives’ problems in pregnancy. Conclusion: The observed awareness of men of their wives’ problems in pregnancy and their companionship in receiving prenatal care indicates their high level of interest in pregnancy health; however, their low level of knowledge concerning pregnancy problems, women’s physical and psychological needs is an important barrier to male involvement in maternal health. Designing and providing reproductive health education programs for men seems to be necessary.
Research into the process of becoming mother or father shows very conclusively that this important life transition is accompanied by both a decrease in marital quality and a more traditional division of labour. In this paper these changes are analyzed with special emphasis on the relationships between them and exploring the role played in this process by the mother's work status. Results showed a significant link between the development of marital quality and violated expectations regarding f...
Mene?ndez A?lvarez-dardet, Susana; Hidalgo Garci?a, Mari?a Victoria; Jime?nez Garci?a, Luci?a; Moreno Rodri?guez, Mª Carmen
Deals with experiences of a group of separated or divorced fathers who chose to remain fully involved in the upbringing of their children. As they underwent transition from married parenthood to single fatherhood, these men learned that meeting demands of child care contributed to personal stability and growth. (Author)
Keshet, Harry Finkelstein; Rosenthal, Kristine M.
Optimal prenatal care begins before conception, when health habits can be reviewed. The most important task of the initial prenatal assessment is establishing dates. Ongoing assessments should emphasize measurement of symphisis to fundus height, maternal nutrition and screening, especially for urinary tract infection and gestational diabetes. Prenatal care is an excellent opportunity for patient education and involvement of the family. Good prenatal care is today's best health investment.
Reynolds, J. L.
Background: "Adolescent pregnancy is one of the most pressing, persistent, and poignant problems facing society" (Yoos, 1987, p. 247). Manitoba's teen pregnancy rates are among the highest in Canada. Yet, little is known about adolescent fathers and their parenting involvement. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to explore variables which may influence teen fathers' participation in parenting.Methods: A convenience sample of 30 adolescent fathers, whose partners were attending an Adolescent Prenatal Clinic, completed two questionnaires: Offer Self-Image-Revised, and Perceived Parenting Role Performance. Guided by family role theory, four hypotheses were examined utilizing a quantitative research method.Results: Data analysis revealed that 30% of these respondents had a low to very low self-image. Pearson's correlation coefficient, which facilitated hypotheses testing, failed to validate a relationship between teen fathers' perceived role performance and self-image, and perceived parenting role expectations. Nevertheless, a moderate negative correlation was noted between teen fathers' self-image and their perceived parenting role expectations (r = -.35, p <.05).Conclusions: These findings contradict the philosophy of family role theory. Results of this study indicated that teen fathers want to be involved in parenting. However, unrealistic expectations and the inability to combine the developmental tasks of adolescence with the responsibilities of fatherhood increase their vulnerability to parenting failure. PMID:10869996
Studies investigating fathers' roles in child development have focused on a range of different aspects. However, few studies have focused on the early father-infant relationship, which already emerges before the child is born. The aim of this study is to examine the concordance of fathers' representations of their children during the transition to parenthood. The influences of demographic variables, psychological wellbeing, and personality on the stability of these representations are investigated. At 26 weeks gestational age and when infants were six months old, fathers (N = 243) completed questionnaires and the Working Model of the Child Interview during a home visit. A strong association was found between fathers' prenatal and postnatal representations. First-time fathers more often had balanced representations than fathers who already had children. Furthermore, agreeable fathers were more likely to evolve from a non-balanced prenatal representation to a balanced postnatal representation. PMID:24684586
Vreeswijk, Charlotte M J M; Maas, A Janneke B M; Rijk, Catharina H A M; Braeken, Johan; van Bakel, Hedwig J A
We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (NLSY79) from 1979 to 2002 and the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (CNLSY) from 1986 to 2002 to describe the number, shape, and population frequencies of U.S. nonresident father contact trajectories over a 14-year period using growth mixture models. The resulting four-category classification indicated that nonresident father involvement is not adequately characterized by a single population with a monotonic pa...
Cheadle, Jacob E.; Amato, Paul R.; King, Valarie
Full Text Available Fathers today are confronted with constantly changing ideas on theirrole as a parent. The old traditional forms of fathering i.e. the breadwinner and protector roles are being gradually replaced by a more reflexive role that places unconditional love from their children as a central theme in a new type of reflexive parenting. This article examines the role of fatherhood through the theoreticallens of reflexive modernity. It recognises that men are increasingly becoming dependant on their children for unconditional love and this is forcing men to become more involved in the lives of their own children. The theory of reflexive modernisation is applied to a group of 40 fathers from a post-industrial area of Britain to unravel the processes and practices being used in this “new” type of parenting. This research discovers that fathers in the 21st century have numerouspressures from changing ideas about what is a good or bad father, but in the final instance it is their individualised responses to these societal and personal circumstances which create a new reflexive type of fathering. This type of fathering is therefore created by general social changes within a reflexive modern society and also by personal choice.
The shadow of the father plays an important role in a son's ability to live a creatively meaningful life. The mythological basis for the father's shadow is found in the myth of Cronos and his son Zeus. This myth symbolizes a father's body being intimately connected to his son getting in touch with his creative bright shadow. The conclusions reached regarding the importance of the father's shadow are based on research conducted with an ongoing men's group. An early underground phallus dream of Jung is examined, along with the creative work of a patient, both offering evidence of the importance of the body-bond with the father for a son's creative development. PMID:24264459
The presence of derivative chromosome in a child with phenotypic features necessitates the need of parental karyotyping to ascertain the exact amount of loss or gain of the genetic material. The aim of this study was to emphasize the importance of parental karyotyping. Cytogenetic evaluation of the proband and his father were carried out at Laboratory. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on phytohemagglutinin stimulated cultures. The derivative chromosome 11 in proband was ascertained to have additional material from chromosome 6p arising from complex chromosomal rearrangement in the father. Karyotyping is the basic, cost-effective preliminary investigation in a child with mental subnormality or congenital anomalies.
Ranjan, Prabhat; Desai, Kundanbala; Saxena, Shailaja Gada
The present study was designed to investigate whether ethnicity moderates the effects of divorce on young adults' retrospective reports of fathering. An ethnically diverse sample of 1,989 university students completed measures of nurturant fathering, reported father involvement, and desired father involvement. Compared with participants from…
Schwartz, Seth J.; Finley, Gordon E.
Although contemporary socio-cultural changes dramatically increased fathers' involvement in childrearing, little is known about the brain basis of human fatherhood, its comparability with the maternal brain, and its sensitivity to caregiving experiences. We measured parental brain response to infant stimuli using functional MRI, oxytocin, and parenting behavior in three groups of parents (n = 89) raising their firstborn infant: heterosexual primary-caregiving mothers (PC-Mothers), heterosexual secondary-caregiving fathers (SC-Fathers), and primary-caregiving homosexual fathers (PC-Fathers) rearing infants without maternal involvement. Results revealed that parenting implemented a global "parental caregiving" neural network, mainly consistent across parents, which integrated functioning of two systems: the emotional processing network including subcortical and paralimbic structures associated with vigilance, salience, reward, and motivation, and mentalizing network involving frontopolar-medial-prefrontal and temporo-parietal circuits implicated in social understanding and cognitive empathy. These networks work in concert to imbue infant care with emotional salience, attune with the infant state, and plan adequate parenting. PC-Mothers showed greater activation in emotion processing structures, correlated with oxytocin and parent-infant synchrony, whereas SC-Fathers displayed greater activation in cortical circuits, associated with oxytocin and parenting. PC-Fathers exhibited high amygdala activation similar to PC-Mothers, alongside high activation of superior temporal sulcus (STS) comparable to SC-Fathers, and functional connectivity between amygdala and STS. Among all fathers, time spent in direct childcare was linked with the degree of amygdala-STS connectivity. Findings underscore the common neural basis of maternal and paternal care, chart brain-hormone-behavior pathways that support parenthood, and specify mechanisms of brain malleability with caregiving experiences in human fathers. PMID:24912146
Abraham, Eyal; Hendler, Talma; Shapira-Lichter, Irit; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth
Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment) and molecular (DNA mutation analysis) tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessa...
FISH provides a cytogenetic technique which is useful in defining de novo translocations, deletions, insertions, and marker chromosomes in prenatal diagnosis. While the cytogenetic interpretation may be improved with FISH, it may not resolve questions concerning prognosis and options which are genetic counseling issues. Two recent cases illustrate this. Case 1 involved a 45,X/46,X,+mar karyotype from amniocentesis. 22/50 cells had 46,X/46,X+mar; 28/50 cells had 45,X. The marker was smaller than a G. C banding did not confirm this as a Y. The father`s peripheral blood study was normal and his Y did not resemble the marker. It appeared likely that the marker was a structurally abnormal Y since male external genitalia were detected by fetal ultrasound. FISH using alpha- and classical (DYZ1/DYZ3) satellite Y-specific probes did not identify the marker as a Y. Case 2 was a fetus which had a de novo translocation 46,XX,t(3;11)(q26.3;q21) by amniocentesis and confirmed by UBS. FISH for the number 3 and 11 chromosomes confirmed this rearrangement. The parents were advised of the risk associated with a de novo balanced translocation. The possible prognosis for these two different fetuses was not changed by the FISH analysis. FISH, while helpful, is only one aspect of the studies done to provide more accurate genetic counseling to parents; the pregnancy/family history, fetal ultrasound, other possible prenatal studies and pregnancy outcome from perspective studies compose other important aspects that are not mutually exclusive.
Kulch, P.; Crandall, B.F.; Hsi, C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)
O envolvimento do pai na gravidez/parto e a ligação emocional com o bebé / Father’s involvement in pregnancy/childbirth and the emotional bond with the baby / La participación del padre en el embarazo/parto y el vínculo emocional con el bebé
Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Enquadramento: a ligação emocional entre pai e filho é determinante na transição para a paternidade e no desenvolvimento do bebé. Objetivos: pretendemos verificar se existe relação entre as variáveis sóciodemográficas, o envolvimento na gravidez ou o corte do cordão umbilical com a ligação emocional [...] do pai com o bebé. Metodologia: efetuámos um estudo transversal, quantitativo de caráter descritivo analítico. Aplicámos um questionário e a escala bonding validada para a população Portuguesa (Figueiredo et al., 2005), em três momentos diferentes (durante o trabalho de parto, no 1º e no 3º dia após o parto) a 222 pais, entre novembro de 2010 e janeiro de 2011. Resultados: verificámos que a idade (entre 25 e 40 anos), o acompanhamento da grávida às consultas de vigilância da gravidez, o acompanhamento da grávida nos preparativos para o nascimento do bebé, a leitura de informação sobre o bebé em desenvolvimento, o envolvimento na gravidez e o corte do cordão umbilical influenciam positivamente a ligação emocional do pai com o bebé. Conclusão: os resultados apontam para uma melhoria na ligação afetiva entre o pai e o bebé se os profissionais de saúde promoverem o envolvimento do pai na gravidez e no parto. Abstract in spanish Marco: el vínculo emocional entre padre e hijo es crucial en la transición hacia la paternidad y el desarrollo del bebé.Objetivos: pretendemos verificar si existe una relación entre las variables sociodemográficas, la participación en el embarazo o el corte del cordón umbilical y el vínculo emociona [...] l entre el padre y el bebé. Metodología: se realizó un estudio transversal, cuantitativo, de corte descriptivo-analítico. Se aplicó un cuestionario y la escala de Bonding validado para la población portuguesa (Figueiredo et al., 2005), en tres momentos diferentes (durante el parto, durante el primer y el tercer día después del parto) a 222 padres, entre noviembre 2010 y enero de 2011. Resultados: se comprobó que la edad (entre 25 y 40 años), el acompañamiento con la mujer embarazada alas citas para la vigilancia del embarazo, el acompañamiento de la mujer embarazada en los preparativos para el nacimiento del bebé, la lectura de información sobre el desarrollo del bebé, la participación en el embarazo y el corte del cordón umbilical influyen positivamente en el vínculo emocional entre el padre y el bebé. Conclusión: los resultados indican una mejora en el vínculo emocional entre el padre y el bebé siempre y cuando los profesionales de la salud promuevan la participación del padre durante el embarazo y el parto. Abstract in english Background: the emotional bond between father and child is crucial in the transition to parenthood and the baby’s development. Objectives: our intention was to verify if there is a relationship between sociodemographic variables, involvement in the pregnancy or cutting the umbilical cord with the em [...] otional bond between father and baby. Methodology: we performed a cross-sectional, quantitative study descriptive and analytical in nature. We administered a questionnaire and the Bonding scale validated for the Portuguese population (Figueiredo et al., 2005), at three different times (during labour, on the 1st and 3rd days after birth) to 222 parents between November 2010 and January 2011. Results: We found that age (between 25 and 40 years), accompanying the pregnant woman to appointments for pregnancy surveillance, monitoring of the pregnancy in preparation for the birth of the baby, reading information about the developing baby involvement in the pregnancy and cutting the umbilical cord positively influence the emotional bond between father and baby. Conclusion: the results indicate an improvement in the emotional bond between father and baby if health professionals promote fathers’ involvement during pregnancyand childbirth.
João Rui Duarte Farias, Nogueira; Manuela, Ferreira.
Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment and molecular (DNA mutation analysis tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessary precautions and treatments, both before and after birth. Upon prenatal diagnosis of some diseases, termination of the pregnancy could be possible according to the family's wishes and within the legal frameworks. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 80-94
Ozge Ozalp Yuregir
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores associados à falta de envolvimento ativo do pai nos cuidados de crianças aos quatro meses. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo famílias de 153 crianças aos quatro meses de vida, entrevistadas em suas casas por dois terapeutas de famílias. Além do envolvimento do pai nos cuidados do lactente foram examinadas características sociodemográficas, saúde mental dos pais (utilizando a escala Self Report Questionnaire-20 e avaliação com os critérios do Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV e qualidade do relacionamento conjugal (usando a escala Global Assessment of Relational Functioning do Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV. Utilizou-se regressão de Poisson para avaliar a associação entre falta de envolvimento do pai nos cuidados do filho e variáveis selecionadas. A magnitude das associações foi estimada pela razão de prevalências. RESULTADOS: Os pais de 13% dos lactentes não tinham qualquer contato com seus filhos. Entre as famílias em que os pais coabitavam (78% do total, 33% dos pais relataram não participar ativamente nos cuidados de seus filhos. Relação conjugal problemática e mãe ser "do lar" mostraram-se associadas à falta de envolvimento dos pais nos cuidados do filho. CONCLUSÕES: É alta a prevalência de famílias nas quais o pai não tem envolvimento ativo no cuidado de seu filho, ocorrendo em especial quando a relação conjugal é problemática e a mãe não tem trabalho remuneradoOBJETIVO: Identificar factores asociados a la falta del envolvimiento activo del papá en los cuidados de niños a los cuatro meses. MÉTODOS: Se realizó estudio transversal involucrando familias de 153 niños de cuatro meses de edad, y se entrevistaron en sus casas por dos terapeutas de familias en Porto Alegre (Sureste de Brasil, 1998-2000. Además de involucrar al padre en los cuidados del lactante se examinaron características sociodemográficas, salud mental de los papás (utilizando la escala Self Report Questionnaire-20 y evaluación con los criterios del Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV y calidad de la relación de pareja (usando la escala GlobalAssesment of Relational Functioning del Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV. Se utilizó la regresión de Poisson para evaluar la asociación entre falta de envolvimiento del papá en los cuidados del hijo y variables seleccionadas. La magnitud de las asociaciones fue estimada por la razón de prevalencia. RESULTADOS: Los papás de 13% de los lactantes no tenían contacto alguno con sus hijos. Entre las familias en que los papás cohabitaban (78% del total, 33% de ellos expresaron no participar activamente en los cuidados de sus hijos. La relación de pareja problemática y la mamá ser "del hogar" se mostraron asociados a la falta de envolvimiento de los papás en los cuidados del hijo. CONCLUSIONES: Es alta la prevalencia de familias en las cuales el papá no se involucra de manera activa en el cuidado de su hijo, ocurriendo en especial cuando la relación de pareja es problemática y la mamá no tiene trabajo remunerado.OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with the lack of active father involvement in infant care at four months of age. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving families of 153 infants at four months of age, interviewed in their homes by two family therapists. In addition to father involvement in infant care, sociodemographic, parental mental health (using the Self Report Questionnaire-20 scale and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria assessment and quality of couple relationship characteristics (using the Assessment of Relational Functioning from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV were analyzed. Poisson regression was employed to assess the association between lack of father involvement in child care and the variables selected. Prevalence ratio was used to estimate the magnitude of associations. RESULTS: Fathers of 13% of infants had no contact with
Olga G Falceto
The question who is the subject of the right to prenatal diagnosis may be answered in four ways: the parents, the child, society, or no one. This article investigates the philosophical issues involved in each of these answers, which touch upon the conditions of personal identity, the principle of privacy, the scope of social responsibility, and the debate about impersonalism in ethics.
Fathers may feel dissatisfied with their ability to form a close attachment with their infants in the early postpartum period, which, in turn, may increase their parent-related stress. Our study sought to determine if an infant massage intervention assisted fathers with decreasing stress and increasing bonding with their infants during this time. To address the complex father–infant relationship, we conducted a pilot study using a mixed methodology approach. Twelve infant–father dyads par...
Given here is an overview analysis of the Father Christmas Worm, a computer worm that was released onto the DECnet Internet three days before Christmas 1988. The purpose behind the worm was to send an electronic mail message to all users on the computer s...
J. L. Green P. L. Sisson
Father-absent and father-present seveth graders were compared on moral attributes and overt aggression. Some evidence suggests that some but not all of the effects of father absence are attributable to the lack of a paternal model. Effects may be mediated in part by changes in the mother's child-rearing pattern. (NH)
Hoffman, Martin L.
Transdermal testosterone gels are used in the treatment of hypoandrogenism of males. Virilization due to exposure to testosterone gels has been reported in children resulting in a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warning about secondary exposure to these products. At present, we are unaware of prenatal virilization associated with unintentional testosterone gel exposure. We report prenatal virilization in a female infant due to secondary maternal exposure to the father's testoste...
Patel Anisha; Rivkees ScottA
The choice between amniocentesis (AMN) and Chlorionic villus sampling (CVS) for prenatal genetic testing involves trade-offs of the benefits and risks of each test. The authors examined the relationship between preferences for prenatal outcomes and prenat...
P. S. Heckerling M. S. Verp N. Albert
Fatores associados ao envolvimento do pai nos cuidados do lactente / Factors associated with father involvement in infant care / Factores asociados al envolvimiento del papá en los cuidados del lactante
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores associados à falta de envolvimento ativo do pai nos cuidados de crianças aos quatro meses. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo famílias de 153 crianças aos quatro meses de vida, entrevistadas em suas casas por dois terapeutas de famílias. Além do envolvimento do pai [...] nos cuidados do lactente foram examinadas características sociodemográficas, saúde mental dos pais (utilizando a escala Self Report Questionnaire-20 e avaliação com os critérios do Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV) e qualidade do relacionamento conjugal (usando a escala Global Assessment of Relational Functioning do Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV). Utilizou-se regressão de Poisson para avaliar a associação entre falta de envolvimento do pai nos cuidados do filho e variáveis selecionadas. A magnitude das associações foi estimada pela razão de prevalências. RESULTADOS: Os pais de 13% dos lactentes não tinham qualquer contato com seus filhos. Entre as famílias em que os pais coabitavam (78% do total), 33% dos pais relataram não participar ativamente nos cuidados de seus filhos. Relação conjugal problemática e mãe ser "do lar" mostraram-se associadas à falta de envolvimento dos pais nos cuidados do filho. CONCLUSÕES: É alta a prevalência de famílias nas quais o pai não tem envolvimento ativo no cuidado de seu filho, ocorrendo em especial quando a relação conjugal é problemática e a mãe não tem trabalho remunerado Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Identificar factores asociados a la falta del envolvimiento activo del papá en los cuidados de niños a los cuatro meses. MÉTODOS: Se realizó estudio transversal involucrando familias de 153 niños de cuatro meses de edad, y se entrevistaron en sus casas por dos terapeutas de familias en Por [...] to Alegre (Sureste de Brasil), 1998-2000. Además de involucrar al padre en los cuidados del lactante se examinaron características sociodemográficas, salud mental de los papás (utilizando la escala Self Report Questionnaire-20 y evaluación con los criterios del Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV) y calidad de la relación de pareja (usando la escala GlobalAssesment of Relational Functioning del Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV). Se utilizó la regresión de Poisson para evaluar la asociación entre falta de envolvimiento del papá en los cuidados del hijo y variables seleccionadas. La magnitud de las asociaciones fue estimada por la razón de prevalencia. RESULTADOS: Los papás de 13% de los lactantes no tenían contacto alguno con sus hijos. Entre las familias en que los papás cohabitaban (78% del total), 33% de ellos expresaron no participar activamente en los cuidados de sus hijos. La relación de pareja problemática y la mamá ser "del hogar" se mostraron asociados a la falta de envolvimiento de los papás en los cuidados del hijo. CONCLUSIONES: Es alta la prevalencia de familias en las cuales el papá no se involucra de manera activa en el cuidado de su hijo, ocurriendo en especial cuando la relación de pareja es problemática y la mamá no tiene trabajo remunerado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with the lack of active father involvement in infant care at four months of age. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving families of 153 infants at four months of age, interviewed in their homes by two family therapists. In addition to father involvement in [...] infant care, sociodemographic, parental mental health (using the Self Report Questionnaire-20 scale and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria assessment) and quality of couple relationship characteristics (using the Assessment of Relational Functioning from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV) were analyzed. Poisson regression was employed to assess the association between lack of father involvement in child care and the variabl
Olga G, Falceto; Carmen L, Fernandes; Claudia, Baratojo; Elsa R J, Giugliani.
Fatores associados ao envolvimento do pai nos cuidados do lactente / Factors associated with father involvement in infant care / Factores asociados al envolvimiento del papá en los cuidados del lactante
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores associados à falta de envolvimento ativo do pai nos cuidados de crianças aos quatro meses. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo famílias de 153 crianças aos quatro meses de vida, entrevistadas em suas casas por dois terapeutas de famílias. Além do envolvimento do pai [...] nos cuidados do lactente foram examinadas características sociodemográficas, saúde mental dos pais (utilizando a escala Self Report Questionnaire-20 e avaliação com os critérios do Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV) e qualidade do relacionamento conjugal (usando a escala Global Assessment of Relational Functioning do Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV). Utilizou-se regressão de Poisson para avaliar a associação entre falta de envolvimento do pai nos cuidados do filho e variáveis selecionadas. A magnitude das associações foi estimada pela razão de prevalências. RESULTADOS: Os pais de 13% dos lactentes não tinham qualquer contato com seus filhos. Entre as famílias em que os pais coabitavam (78% do total), 33% dos pais relataram não participar ativamente nos cuidados de seus filhos. Relação conjugal problemática e mãe ser "do lar" mostraram-se associadas à falta de envolvimento dos pais nos cuidados do filho. CONCLUSÕES: É alta a prevalência de famílias nas quais o pai não tem envolvimento ativo no cuidado de seu filho, ocorrendo em especial quando a relação conjugal é problemática e a mãe não tem trabalho remunerado Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Identificar factores asociados a la falta del envolvimiento activo del papá en los cuidados de niños a los cuatro meses. MÉTODOS: Se realizó estudio transversal involucrando familias de 153 niños de cuatro meses de edad, y se entrevistaron en sus casas por dos terapeutas de familias en Por [...] to Alegre (Sureste de Brasil), 1998-2000. Además de involucrar al padre en los cuidados del lactante se examinaron características sociodemográficas, salud mental de los papás (utilizando la escala Self Report Questionnaire-20 y evaluación con los criterios del Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV) y calidad de la relación de pareja (usando la escala GlobalAssesment of Relational Functioning del Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV). Se utilizó la regresión de Poisson para evaluar la asociación entre falta de envolvimiento del papá en los cuidados del hijo y variables seleccionadas. La magnitud de las asociaciones fue estimada por la razón de prevalencia. RESULTADOS: Los papás de 13% de los lactantes no tenían contacto alguno con sus hijos. Entre las familias en que los papás cohabitaban (78% del total), 33% de ellos expresaron no participar activamente en los cuidados de sus hijos. La relación de pareja problemática y la mamá ser "del hogar" se mostraron asociados a la falta de envolvimiento de los papás en los cuidados del hijo. CONCLUSIONES: Es alta la prevalencia de familias en las cuales el papá no se involucra de manera activa en el cuidado de su hijo, ocurriendo en especial cuando la relación de pareja es problemática y la mamá no tiene trabajo remunerado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with the lack of active father involvement in infant care at four months of age. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving families of 153 infants at four months of age, interviewed in their homes by two family therapists. In addition to father involvement in [...] infant care, sociodemographic, parental mental health (using the Self Report Questionnaire-20 scale and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria assessment) and quality of couple relationship characteristics (using the Assessment of Relational Functioning from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV) were analyzed. Poisson regression was employed to assess the association between lack of father involvement in child care and the variables sele
Olga G, Falceto; Carmen L, Fernandes; Claudia, Baratojo; Elsa R J, Giugliani.
This paper analyzes the relationship between having one or more father figures and the likelihood that young people engage in delinquent criminal behavior. We pay particular attention to distinguishing the roles of residential and non-residential, biological fathers as well as stepfathers. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we find that adolescent boys engage in more delinquent behavior if there is no father figure in their lives. However, adolescent girls' ...
Cobb-clark, Deborah A.; Tekin, Erdal
Given here is an overview analysis of the Father Christmas Worm, a computer worm that was released onto the DECnet Internet three days before Christmas 1988. The purpose behind the worm was to send an electronic mail message to all users on the computer system running the worm. The message was a Christmas greeting and was signed 'Father Christmas'. From the investigation, it was determined that the worm was released from a computer (node number 20597::) at a university in Switzerland. The worm was designed to travel quickly. Estimates are that it was copied to over 6,000 computer nodes. However, it was believed to have executed on only a fraction of those computers. Within ten minutes after it was released, the worm was detected at the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN), NASA's largest space and Earth science network. Once the source program was captured, a procedural cure, using the existing functionality of the computer operating systems, was quickly devised and distributed. A combination of existing computer security measures, the quick and accurate procedures devised to stop copies of the worm from executing, and the network itself, were used to rapidly provide the cure. These were the main reasons why the worm executed on such a small percentage of nodes. This overview of the analysis of the events concerning the worm is based on an investigation made by the SPAN Security Team and provides some insight into future security measures that will be taken to handle computer worms and viruses that may hit similar networks.
Green, James L.; Sisson, Patricia L.
Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os avanços das técnicas de diagnóstico pré-natal, tornaram possível a identificação de alguns problemas de saúde do feto in-útero, e a determinação do risco da sua ocorrência, deixando aos pais a liberdade e responsabilidade de decidir acerca da saúde do feto, muito antes do seu nascimento. A comple [...] xidade de tais decisões coloca os casais numa encruzilhada, em que qualquer dos caminhos escolhidos marcará as suas vidas. As vivências do progenitor masculino têm sido quase ignoradas pelos investigadores, pelo que a experiência do pai continua a ser muito pouco conhecida. O presente estudo pretende conhecer e compreender os significados atribuídos pelo Pai à experiência de interrupção da gravidez, por anomalia fetal. Para isso recorremos a uma metodologia qualitativa (Grounded Theory). A amostra é constituída por 12 homens cujas esposas interromperam a gravidez no serviço de obstetrícia do Hospital S. Marcos em Braga. Os resultados apontam a interrupção de gravidez por malformação congénita, como uma experiência emocionalmente intensa, com um intenso envolvimento dos pais ao longo do processo. A tomada de decisão representou a confrontação de dúvidas e incertezas, de sentimentos ambivalentes e de dilemas morais, como consequência do investimento na gravidez e da relação afectiva que já existia com o feto. Os pais tendem a desvalorizar os seus sentimentos e as suas necessidades de apoio, centrando as suas preocupações na companheira. Os profissionais de saúde, na opinião dos pais, não só demonstram pouca sensibilidade face aos seus sentimentos e necessidades como constituem um obstáculo ao envolvimento do pai ao longo do processo. A partilha desta experiência com a esposa e o apoio mútuo entre o casal fortaleceu a relação. Os projectos de nova gravidez evidenciam a busca de um novo sentido de vida para estes pais. Estes resultados enfatizam a necessidade de um olhar mais atento sobre o impacto que este acontecimento tem na vida do pai e da importância dos profissionais de saúde neste processo. Abstract in english The development of prenatal diagnosis techniques have made possible the identification of some health problems in the inborn baby and the determination of the risk of such occurrence, leaving parents with the choice and responsibility of deciding about the fetus’ health long before the birth. The co [...] mplexity of such decisions places the couple in a crossroad and any of the chosen roads will impact their lives forever. The father´ s experience has been neglected by researchers and, as a result, their experience is not well known. This study aims to understand the meanings fathers give to the pregnancy interruption, due to congenital malformation, of their baby. A qualitative analysis was used (grounded theory). The sample includes 12 men whose wives terminated their pregnancy in the obstetric service of S. Marcos Hospital in Braga. Results show that pregnancy interruption due to congenital malformation is a very intense emotional experience, with a great involvement of fathers during the entire process. The decision making process required a confrontation of doubts and uncertainties, ambivalent feelings and moral dilemmas, as a consequence of the investment on the pregnancy and the emotional relationship that was already established with the baby. Fathers tend not to value their need for support, and centred all their worries on their mates. Health professionals, in their opinion, show low sensibility towards their feelings and needs and are seen as barriers to their involvement through the process. Sharing their experience with their mates and mutual support between the couple strengthen the marital relationship. The project of a new pregnancy revealed the search for a new meaning in these fathers’ lives. These results show the need to look in depth into the impact of this life event on the father´ s life and the role of health professionals in the process.
Lucília, Sousa; M. Graça, Pereira.
... 478-8500 PAGE 1 WHY IT MATTERS Reducing teen pregnancy can improve child wellbeing by increasing the chances ... in any broad effort to strengthen families. Reducing teen pregnancy also increases the odds that young adults are ...
Despite improvements in the last decade, Canada's perinatal mortality rate is still higher than those of many other developed countries. Consumer expectations have increased not only for a good outcome, but also a more personal and humane process. The physician has to make a decision to be involved in prenatal care. Appropriate steps are suggested for initial assessment, genetic evaluation, and ongoing prenatal care.
Mohide, P. T.
Full Text Available The participation of the father in the breastfeeding must be culturally assimilated by health professionals and by the society. This is a bibliographical descriptive and documentary study, aims to present the theoretical production in relation to the father's involvement breastfeeding in and public policy. The collected data was from 1992 to 2006 and the sources for collection were LILACS; SCIELO; MEDLINE; ADOLEC and BDEN from the Health Virtual Library– BIREME in September 2007 with the keywords: Paternity, Breastfeeding and Public Policies. Among the 140 studies found, one, published in a international magazine recommended other directions in research and Public Policies to encourage the father’s involvement. We hope that this research offers reflections and changes in the practice of nurses to take care/care in maternal and child attention in which the father is included as a participant in breastfeeding and in the mother’s and child care. Urge activities and publications to recognize the father in this process.
Rita Maria Viana Rêgo
O envolvimento paterno e o desenvolvimento social de crianças iniciando as atividades escolares La participación paterna y el desarrollo social de niños iniciando las actividades escolares Father involvement and the social development of children in the school-entry transition stage
Full Text Available Este estudo relacionou indicadores do envolvimento paterno com indicadores de desenvolvimento social dos filhos. Participaram 97 pares de pais e mães (com filhos na 1ª ou 2ª série e 20 professoras. Para avaliar o envolvimento paterno, pais e mães responderam à Avaliação do bem-estar pessoal e familiar e do relacionamento pai-filho - Versão Paterna, e para avaliar o desenvolvimento social das crianças, os pais, as mães e as professoras preencheram o Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. Quanto maior a freqüência de comunicação entre pai e filho e de participação do pai nos cuidados e nas atividades escolares, culturais e de lazer do filho, menor o índice de hiperatividade e de problemas de comportamento e mais adequado o repertório de habilidades sociais das crianças. Os resultados indicam a provável importância do envolvimento positivo do pai para o desenvolvimento social dos filhos e os prováveis benefícios de programas para promover envolvimento paterno.En este estudio se han relacionado indicadores de la participación paterna con los de desarrollo social de los hijos y participaron 97 padres y madres (con hijos en el primero o en el segundo grado y 20 profesoras. Para evaluar la participación paterna, padres y madres respondieron a la Evaluación del bienestar personal y familiar y del reracionamiento padre-hijo - Versión Paterna y para evaluar el desarrollo social de los niños, padres, madres y profesoras completaron el Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. Cuanto mayor es la frecuencia de comunicación entre padre e hijo, de la participación del padre en los cuidados y en las actividades escolares, culturales y de ocio del hijo, menor es el índice de hiperactividad, problemas de comportamiento y mayor es el repertorio de destrezas sociales de los niños. Los resultados indican la probable importancia de la participación positiva del padre para el desarrollo social de los hijos.This study aimed to examine the relationships between indicators of parental involvement and their children’s social and included 97 father-mother pairs (parents of children in the first or second grade, and 20 teachers. To evaluate father involvement, fathers and mothers completed an Evaluation of personal and family wellbeing and the parent-child relationship - Fathering Version, and to evaluate the children’s social development, the mothers, fathers and teachers completed the Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. The results indicate that more frequent: communication between father and child, paternal participation in child caregiving and in the child’s school, cultural and leisure activities are each associated with indicators of lower hyperactivity, fewer behavior problems and a wider repertoire of appropriate social skills. These results point to the importance of the constructive involvement of fathers for their children’s social development and the likely benefits of programs to promote father involvement.
O envolvimento paterno e o desenvolvimento social de crianças iniciando as atividades escolares / Father involvement and the social development of children in the school-entry transition stage / La participación paterna y el desarrollo social de niños iniciando las actividades escolares
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo relacionou indicadores do envolvimento paterno com indicadores de desenvolvimento social dos filhos. Participaram 97 pares de pais e mães (com filhos na 1ª ou 2ª série) e 20 professoras. Para avaliar o envolvimento paterno, pais e mães responderam à Avaliação do bem-estar pessoal e famil [...] iar e do relacionamento pai-filho - Versão Paterna, e para avaliar o desenvolvimento social das crianças, os pais, as mães e as professoras preencheram o Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. Quanto maior a freqüência de comunicação entre pai e filho e de participação do pai nos cuidados e nas atividades escolares, culturais e de lazer do filho, menor o índice de hiperatividade e de problemas de comportamento e mais adequado o repertório de habilidades sociais das crianças. Os resultados indicam a provável importância do envolvimento positivo do pai para o desenvolvimento social dos filhos e os prováveis benefícios de programas para promover envolvimento paterno. Abstract in spanish En este estudio se han relacionado indicadores de la participación paterna con los de desarrollo social de los hijos y participaron 97 padres y madres (con hijos en el primero o en el segundo grado) y 20 profesoras. Para evaluar la participación paterna, padres y madres respondieron a la Evaluación [...] del bienestar personal y familiar y del reracionamiento padre-hijo - Versión Paterna y para evaluar el desarrollo social de los niños, padres, madres y profesoras completaron el Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. Cuanto mayor es la frecuencia de comunicación entre padre e hijo, de la participación del padre en los cuidados y en las actividades escolares, culturales y de ocio del hijo, menor es el índice de hiperactividad, problemas de comportamiento y mayor es el repertorio de destrezas sociales de los niños. Los resultados indican la probable importancia de la participación positiva del padre para el desarrollo social de los hijos. Abstract in english This study aimed to examine the relationships between indicators of parental involvement and their children’s social and included 97 father-mother pairs (parents of children in the first or second grade), and 20 teachers. To evaluate father involvement, fathers and mothers completed an Evaluation of [...] personal and family wellbeing and the parent-child relationship - Fathering Version, and to evaluate the children’s social development, the mothers, fathers and teachers completed the Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. The results indicate that more frequent: communication between father and child, paternal participation in child caregiving and in the child’s school, cultural and leisure activities are each associated with indicators of lower hyperactivity, fewer behavior problems and a wider repertoire of appropriate social skills. These results point to the importance of the constructive involvement of fathers for their children’s social development and the likely benefits of programs to promote father involvement.
Fabiana, Cia; Elizabeth Joan, Barham.
Full Text Available Pregnancy is an exquisite period of life rich in physical and emotional changes. The beginning of new life is exciting not only for future parents but also for the doctor following and supervising the development and growth of a new human being up to its birth after forty weeks of pregnancy. There are many questions, fears and concerns which rise over and over again during this long but also short period of time. However, the consoling truth is that pregnancy has never been as safe as nowadays. Never before in the history of obstetrics have the babies had so many chances to be born alive and healthy. Unnecessary fears can make pregnancy an upsetting event. To prevent it, pregnant woman should be educated and advised on the possibilities of modern prenatal medicine and directed to choose the best ways of prenatal medicine to solve their dilemmas. The aim of this paper was to help pregnant woman and her doctor to find the appropriate treatment in every single case.
"Father Christmas" by The Kinks is used in conjunction with Joel Waldfogel's article "The Deadweight Loss of Christmas" to examine the relative value of cash versus inkind gifts. This can then be extended to an analysis of various public policies.
Ghent, Linda S.
Between 1996 and 2010, the percentage of African children living with their fathers in South Africa dropped from 44% to 31%, with only a third of preschool children living with their parents. Concern about the spate of father absence and its effects on children's well-being has led to a growing focus on fathers in family interventions, although there is relative silence on teenage fathers. In this paper, we draw on an interview-based study with teenage fathers living under conditions of poverty to show how their understandings of fatherhood and constructions of provider masculinity intersect with cultural demands that express both weakness and power. In expressing the desire to care and be involved with their children, and aligning with patterns of masculinity that sought enhanced options for contraceptive use based on gender-equitable relationships, we show a new direction in the making of teenage fatherhood, diverging from hierarchical gender relations where men make the decisions. These changes, however, are limited by constructions of masculinity that contradictorily reinforce provider status, gender inequalities and male patterns of sexual entitlements within a context where teenage fathers are unable to achieve the cultural status of provider masculinity. Implications are discussed in the conclusion. PMID:24592896
Bhana, Deevia; Nkani, Nomvuyo
The psychological literature on how fathers' behaviors may be related to children's psychopathology has grown substantially in the last three decades. This growth is the result of research asking the following three overarching questions: (1) what is the association between family structure, and particularly biological fathers' non-residence, and children's psychopathology, (2) what is the association between fathers' parenting and children's psychopathology, and (3) what is the association between fathers' psychopathology and children's psychopathology. The three broad theoretical perspectives relevant to this literature are the standard family environment model, the passive genetic model, and the child effects model. The evidence from studies comparing the first two models seems to suggest that the origin of the association between parental divorce and children's emotional and behavioral problems is largely shared environmental in origin, as is the association between resident fathers' parenting and children's emotional and behavioral problems, according to studies comparing the standard family environment model with the child effects model. However, research needs to compare appropriately all theoretical perspectives. The paper discusses this, and also points to the importance of considering theory-driven specificity in modeling effects. PMID:20149945
Background: Depression in fathers in the postnatal period is associated with an increased risk of behavioural problems in their offspring, particularly for boys. The aim of this study was to examine for differential effects of depression in fathers on children's subsequent psychological functioning via a natural experiment comparing prenatal and postnatal exposure. Methods:In a longitudinal population cohort study (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)) we examined...
Ramchandani, PG; O Connor, Tg; Evans, J.; Heron, J.; Murray, L.; Stein, A.
Reviews research concerning fathers' birth attendance, early contact, and extended contact with newborn infants. Discusses relationships between fathers' early history with infants and subsequent patterns of involvement. Considers methodological challenges of studying these relationships and finds that no conclusive statements can be made about…
...community and faith-based programs that provide valuable support networks for fathers. We are also promoting work-life balances that benefit families, and partnering with businesses across America to create opportunities for fathers and...
Reports on a study of single-parent fathers who are rearing their young children after marital separation. Discusses what fathers do for and with their children and how being a single parent affects work responsibilities and lifestyle. (BR)
Finkelstein, Keshet; Rosenthal, Kristine M.
Despite policymakers' increasing interest in how fathers and fathering affect the well-being of children, research into the roles of low-income fathers has not met the needs of policymakers, who could benefit from better understanding of the factors affecting fathers' continuing support of and engagement in relationships with their children. In an…
Vogel, Cheri A.; Boller, Kimberly; Faerber, Jennifer; Shannon, Jacqueline D.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.
Intergenerational relationships and gender roles in China are in transition because of ideational and structural changes resulting from social movements and policies in the past half a century. Using a mixed-methods design, we examine Shanghai fathers' involvement in their adolescent daughters' lives. In contrast to traditional…
Xu, Qiong; Yeung, Wei-Jun Jean
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Surrogacy is not regulated by a single legal instrument only, nor is confirmation of a surrogacy agreement by the High Court an unqualified green light for the surrogacy process to proceed. In the context of the HIV status of the commissioning father, whose gametes are to be used for the conception [...] of the child in pursuance of a surrogacy agreement, the intended in vitro fertilisation of the surrogate mother may only take place on condition that the commissioning father, and his semen, have been tested for HIV; that he has consented to his HIV status being made available to the surrogate mother, and if he is HIV-positive, that sperm washing will be used to minimise the risk of infection and that the surrogate mother has been informed of his HIV status, and given her informed consent.
D W, Jordaan.
This study investigates parenting styles among Chinese fathers in Hong Kong as perceived by their school-age children. Four parenting styles, namely inductive, indulgent, indifferent, and dictatorial parenting, are assessed using the Parent Behavior Report (1988). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey on a sample of 1011 Primary Three to Five Chinese students from six schools in Hong Kong and 471 fathers. Findings show that among Chinese fathers, the least common parenting style is inductive, while the other three styles are of similar occurrence. Chi-square analysis shows no significant association between children's grade level and father's parenting style. However, there is a significant association with gender, with fathers more likely to be perceived as dictatorial with boys and indulgent with girls. The effect of paternal styles on children's school-related performance is also examined. MANOVA results show that significant differences are found among children of the four paternal style groups with respect to academic performance, interest in school work, aspiration for education, involvement in extracurricular activities, and efficacy for self-regulated learning. Post-hoc tests reveal that children's performance is similar between the groups with indulgent and inductive fathers, and between children of indifferent and dictatorial fathers, with the former groups performing better than the latter in general. Findings are discussed with regard to research on parenting style and paternal behavior, as well as understanding the roles of fathers in Chinese families in the socio-cultural context in Hong Kong. PMID:12723448
Tam, Vicky C W; Lam, Rebecca S Y
The names of A.G. Bell, A. Meucci, P.Reis, E. Gray, just to mention the most important ones, are all connected with the invention of the telephone. Today, the Italian inventor A. Meucci is recognized as being the first to propose a working prototype of the electric telephone. However, for a series of reasons his strenuous efforts were not rewarded. I will not repeat here the endless and complex disputes about the 'real father' of the telephone. From an historical point of view it is more interesting to understand why so many individuals from different backgrounds conceived of a similar apparatus and why most of these devices were simply forgotten or just remained laboratory curiosities. The case of the development of the telephone is an emblematic and useful example for better understanding the intricate factors which are involved in the birth of an invention and reasons for its success and failure.
Brenni, Paolo (CNR-FST-IMSS, Florence, Italy)
Full Text Available
The purpose of this paper is to determine if there is any basis for regarding Francis Bacon as the father of Modern Philosophy. This involves effort to determine what constitutes, in essence, Modern Philosophy and the goal of Modern Philosophy. Are there criteria that qualify one as the father of Modern Philosophy? Proceeding with this inquiry, our paper examines, on the one hand, the views of those who argue in defence of Bacon’s qualification as the father of Modern Philosophy. Here it is argued that “if Modern Philosophy is, however, understood as beginning from the Renaissance period, it seems more appropriate to regard Francis Bacon as the father of Modern Philosophy” (Omoregbe, 1991, p.v. On the part of those opposed to Bacon’s qualification as the father of Modern Philosophy, it is argued that “Descartes is called the father of Modern Philosophy…. This title of the father of Modern Philosophy has been disputed in favour of Francis Bacon. As Descartes’ reputation rose, that of Bacon fell” (Ozumba 2005, p.146. After a critical examination of the above views, amongst others, we discovered that the major task of Modern Philosophy is getting certainty in knowledge. Bacon did not tackle this question of certainty in knowledge. Perhaps Bacon equated knowledge with certainty. But Descartes tackled this question of certainty in knowledge and reached a foundation (foundationalism for certainty. And it was on this foundation that Modern Philosophy was built. The above views, among others, strongly question Bacon’s qualification as the father of Modern Philosophy. Our paper, therefore, argues that it is more appropriate to regard Descartes as the father of Modern Philosophy.
Key words: Father; Modern Philosophy; Certainty inKnowledge
Chinenye Leo Ochulor
Perception of fathers as for their involvement in activities with their children / A percepção dos pais frente ao seu envolvimento nas atividades com o(s) filho(s) / La percepción de los padres en su compromiso en las actividades con su(s) hijo(s)
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Trata-se de um estudo descritivo exploratório com abordagem quantitativa, que buscou identificar a percepção do pai em relação à importância das necessidades do(s) filho(s); as estratégias utilizadas pelo pai para aproximar-se do(s) filho(s); analisar a influência das tarefas domésticas e da educaçã [...] o do(s) filho(s) na vida do pai. Os sujeitos foram 92 homens com filhos de idade até seis anos, residentes na cidade de Rio Grande, RS. Os resultados apontaram um pai mais participativo nas atividades com os filhos, que valoriza a confiança, a segurança e a proximidade com a família como principais necessidades da criança, e que priorizaram os progressos dos filhos bem como a atenção para ouvir e conversar. A educação dos filhos não agrega mais problemas do que imaginavam, permitindo-lhes planejar a vida como gostariam. Esses achados mostram que, na amostra estudada, o pai está conseguindo desenvolver ações mais afetivas e direcionadas para o envolvimento com o(s) filho(s). Abstract in spanish Es un estudio descriptivo exploratorio con abordaje cuantitativo buscando identificar la percepción del padre con relación a la importancia de las necesidades de su(s) hijo(s); las estrategias utilizadas por el padre para aproximarse del hijo y analizar la influencia de tareas domésticas y educación [...] del hijo en la vida del padre. Los sujetos fueron 92 hombres con hijos de edades hasta seis años, residiendo en Rio Grande/RS. Los resultados apuntaron un padre más participativo en actividades con sus hijos, valorando confianza, seguridad y proximidad con la familia como principales necesidades para el niño, y priorizaron los progresos del hijo bien como atención para oír y conversar. La educación de los hijos no agrega más problemas que lo imaginado, consiguiendo planear la vida como les gustaría. Estos hallazgos muestran que, en la muestra estudiada, el padre está consiguiendo desarrollar acciones más afectivas y dirigidas a la participación con su(s) hijo(s). Abstract in english This is an exploratory, descriptive study with a quantitative approach and the aim to identify the perception of fathers regarding their children's needs; strategies used by fathers to get closer to their children as well as to analyze the influence of household chores and children's education in th [...] eir fathers' lives. Study subjects were 92 men with six-year-old children, residing in the city of Rio Grande, state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS). The results revealed fathers who are more engaged in activities with their children, valuing confidence, safety, as well as proximity to family as children's main needs, having prioritized the progress children make as well as attention to listening and conversation. Children's education does not aggregate more problems than they imagined, managing to plan life the way they seek to. These findings show that, in the sample studied, fathers have been able to develop more affectionate actions aimed at being more involved with their children.
Mara Regina Santos da, SILVA; Maria Emilia Nunes, BUENO; Juliane Portella, RIBEIRO.
The father's role in child rearing has become a major issue in modern family life. Each year in ever increasing numbers, men actively share child care responsibility in the nuclear family and after divorce. This book, based on personal stories of 129 men, focuses on two issues: the relationship between fathers and their children when the father is…
Rosenthal, Kristine M.; Keshet, Harry F.
States that the effect of divorce on the quality of the father-child relationship and fathers' psychological well being is moderated by the residence of children. Divorce is associated with lower relationship quality only for nonresident fathers and is associated with a decline in happiness for nonresident fathers. Divorced fathers are more…
Shapiro, Adam; Lambert, James David
Analyzes legislation and court decisions that affect unwed and/or adolescent African-American fathers. Addresses the following concerns: (1) paternity; (2) child support; and (3) legal rights and responsibilities. Recommends development of programs to help potential fathers understand their rights and responsibilities. (FMW)
Rozie-Battle, Judith L.
We report on a prenatal diagnosis by FISH of a familial 22q11 deletion associated with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS). The deletion was seen in the proband with symptoms of full DGS, in the physically normal father, and in a subsequent pregnancy. After birth this child showed hypocalcaemia, a T cell deficit, and a right sided aortic arch.
Hemel, J. O.; Schaap, C.; Opstal, D.; Mulder, M. P.; Niermeijer, M. F.; Meijers, J. H.
Prenatal Nicotine Exposure in Rhesus Monkeys Compromises Development of Brainstem and Cardiac Monoamine Pathways Involved in Perinatal Adaptation and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Amelioration by Vitamin C
Maternal smoking during pregnancy greatly enhances perinatal morbidity/mortality and is the major risk factor for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Studies in developing rodents indicate that nicotine is a neuroteratogen that targets monoamine pathways involved in the responses to hypoxia that are in turn, hypothesized to contribute to these adverse events. We administered nicotine to pregnant Rhesus monkeys from gestational day 30 through 160 by continuous infusion, achieving maternal pla...
Sushruta is considered the "Father of Plastic Surgery." He lived in India sometime between 1000 and 800 BC, and is responsible for the advancement of medicine in ancient India. His teaching of anatomy, pathophysiology, and therapeutic strategies were of unparalleled luminosity, especially considering his time in the historical record. He is notably famous for nasal reconstruction, which can be traced throughout the literature from his depiction within the Vedic period of Hindu medicine to the era of Tagliacozzi during Renaissance Italy to modern-day surgical practices. The primary focus of this historical review is centered on Sushruta's anatomical and surgical knowledge and his creation of the cheek flap for nasal reconstruction and its transition to the "Indian method." The influential nature of the Sushruta Samhita, the compendium documenting Sushruta's theories about medicine, is supported not only by anatomical knowledge and surgical procedural descriptions contained within its pages, but by the creative approaches that still hold true today. PMID:23788147
Champaneria, Manish C; Workman, Adrienne D; Gupta, Subhas C
Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency, an autosomal recessive inborn error of purine synthesis, provokes accumulation in body fluids of succinylaminoimidazolecarboxamide riboside and succinyladenosine, the dephosphorylated derivatives of the two substrates of the enzyme. Most patients display severe psychomotor retardation, often accompanied by epilepsy and/or autistic features, although some are only mildly retarded. About 20 mutations are known. Prenatal diagnosis was performed twice on chorion villi of the mother of a previously diagnosed patient with a C5T mutation (exon 1) on the maternal allele, and a C1185A mutation (exon 11) on the paternal allele. Both suppress a Fnu4HI restriction site. In a first fetus, incubation of PCR products generated from genomic DNA of exon 1 with Fnu4HI yielded a 113 bp fragment from a control and the father's gene, and both a 113 bp and 170 bp fragment from the mother, affected sibling and fetus. Incubation of PCR products of exons 11-12 with Fnu4HI yielded a 550 bp fragment from a control and the mother's gene, and a 550 bp and 600 bp fragment from the father, affected sibling and fetus. Assay of adenylosuccinate lyase on the aborted fetal liver confirmed the enzyme deficiency. A second fetus displayed only the maternal mutation. PMID:10701848
Marie, S; Flipsen, J W; Duran, M; Poll-The, B T; Beemer, F A; Bosschaart, A N; Vincent, M F; Van den Berghe, G
An increasing number of pregnancies are presumed being terminated following prenatal detection of orofacial cleft during structural ultrasound.After examining the data and literature on this topic it is concluded that the reported cases are merely incidents. For the interpretation of prenatal detection rates a distinction should be made between isolated orofacial cleft and the frequently occurring associated form of orofacial cleft which is usually characterized by other, often major structural or chromosome anomalies. The ultrasound detection rate of the isolated form is low and varies in the literature between 18 and 56%. Together with all Dutch centres of prenatal medicine a care plan was adopted for the management of prenatally detected orofacial cleft including diagnosis (detailed ultrasound examination and karyotyping), medical support (genetic consultations, plastic surgery and psychosocial counselling) and treatment (obstetric and neonatal management). In the presence of associated major congenital anomalies termination of pregnancy may be considered before the 24th week of pregnancy. PMID:19785790
Exalto, Niek; Cohen-Overbeek, Titia E; van Adrichem, Leon N A; Oudesluijs, Gretel G; Hoogeboom, A J M Jeannette; Wildschut, Hajo I J
Invasive prenatal diagnosis is a major diagnostic tool which is used in modern obstetrical care. A synopsis of these techniques is provided to assist the family practitioner in providing this information to his patients.
Full Text Available El presente estudio se diseñó con el fin de conocer las condiciones en las que se realiza el control prenatal en la ciudad fronteriza de Tijuana, Baja California, México y de estudiar las posibles asociaciones entre ese tipo de atención y el resultado neonatal en términos de peso al nacer, estado de salud del neonato y prematuridad. Se seleccionaron siete hospitales que atienden a personas de diferentes estratos socioeconómicos y entre diciembre de 1993 y marzo de 1994 se entrevistó en ellos a 279 mujeres que cursaban las primeras 24 a 48 horas del puerperio. En la entrevista se recogieron datos sobre nivel socioeconómico; conceptos, actitudes y prácticas de las madres respecto de la salud obstétrica; percepción materna de acceso a los servicios de atención prenatal; calidad de las consultas de control prenatal (evaluada según la realización de pruebas de sangre y orina y la medición de la tensión arterial y del peso; y antecedentes ginecobstétricos y de salud de la madre. Se elaboró una base de datos con el paquete estadístico SPSS y se exploraron posibles asociaciones entre la atención prenatal como variable independiente y las diferentes variables dependientes mediante tablas de contingencia y la prueba de Fisher de dos colas.This study was intended to explore the conditions under which prenatal care is delivered in the border city of Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, and to assess the possible associations between that care and neonatal results in terms of birthweight, health of the neonate, and prematurity. Seven hospitals serving persons from different socioeconomic strata were chosen, and between December 1993 and March 1994 interviews were conducted with 279 women who were in the first 24 to 48 hours of puerperium. During the interviews data were collected on socioeconomic level; the mothers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning obstetric health; the mothers' perceptions of access to prenatal care; the quality of prenatal care visits (evaluated in terms of having blood and urine tested and weight and blood pressure measured; and the gynecological and obstetric and health history of the mother. A database was created using the SPSS statistics software package. Possible associations were explored, with prenatal care as the independent variable and various dependent variables, by means of contingency tables and a two-tailed Fisher's exact test. None of the neonates was premature, ill, or had a birthweight of 3 000 g. A significant (P < 0.00038 relationship was found between a lack of prenatal care and low birthweight. In addition, a lack of prenatal care was associated with: low family income; the mother's financial dependence on the father; the mother being in an unmarried relationship; little communication with the partner; having no medical insurance; an unwanted pregnancy; and giving delivery at the General Hospital. Out of the total sample of 279 women, 15 (5.4% had received no prenatal care. None of these 15 women reported they had encountered difficulties that prevented them from obtaining prenatal care, but only 7 of those women answered that question. The prenatal care was of good quality in 190 of the cases (68%. Both the number and the timing of the prenatal visits were adequate in 142 of the cases (50%. The mother's having worked during pregnancy or before had a positive predictive value in terms of utilization of prenatal care services. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the possible relationship between domestic violence and the lack of prenatal care or a delay in seeking such care.
Elephants have the longest pregnancy of all mammals, with an average gestation of around 660 days (Meyer et al. , 2004). The processes involved in prenatal development are therefore of special interest.
Fathers\\' knowledge base and attitudes influence breastfeeding practice. We aimed to evaluate if Irish fathers felt included in the breastfeeding education and decision process. 67 fathers completed questionnaires, which assessed their role in the decision to breastfeed, knowledge regarding the benefits of breastfeeding and attitude towards breastfeeding.Forty-two (62.7%) of their partners were breastfeeding. Antenatal classes were attended by 38 (56.7%); 59 (88.1%) discussed breastfeeding with their partners and 26 (38.8%) felt that the decision was made together. Twelve (48%) fathers of formula fed infants were unaware that breastfeeding was healthier for the baby. Most fathers (80.6%) felt that breastfeeding was the mother\\'s decision and most (82.1%) felt that antenatal information was aimed at mothers only. Irish fathers remain relatively uninformed regarding the benefits of breastfeeding. This may contribute to their exclusion from the decision to breastfeed. Antenatal education should incorporate fathers more, and this may result in an improvement in our breastfeeding rates.
Prenatal diagnosis of de novo interstitial deletions involving 5q23.1-q23.3 and 18q12.1-q12.3 by array CGH using uncultured amniocytes in a pregnancy with fetal interrupted aortic arch and atrial septal defect.
We present prenatal diagnosis of de novo interstitial deletions involving 5q23.1-q23.3 and 18q12.1-q12.3 by aCGH using uncultured amniocytes in pregnancy with interrupted aortic arch and atrial septal defect in a fetus. The fetus postnatally manifested facial dysmorphisms and long slender fingers. We discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation and the consequence of haploinsufficiency of FBN2, DTNA and CELF4 in this case. PMID:24036431
Chen, Chih-Ping; Huang, Ming-Chao; Chen, Yi-Yung; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Chen, Yu-Ting; Su, Jun-Wei; Wang, Wayseen
THE MAJOR EMPHASIS OF THE STUDY WAS UPON THE HYPOTHESIS THAT, AMONG ADOLESCENT BOYS, STRONG ORIENTATION TOWARD THE FATHER AND DISINTEREST IN THE YOUTH CULTURE WILL PREDICT INVOLVEMENT IN THE COLLEGE-BOUND HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAM, AND CONVERSELY, WEAK ORIENTATION TOWARD THE FATHER AND HIGH INVOLVEMENT IN THE YOUTH CULTURE WILL PREDICT POTENTIAL DROPOUT…
GRINDER, ROBERT E.
Contents: The PETA--Father of the Indonesian army; The surviving Indonesian military traditions; Inception of Japanese military government; Establishment of the PETA; Organization and training; PETA uprisings against the Japanese.
T. F. Conlon
In the rise of early modern science, Christian concepts were crucially important in shaping men's thoughts about the world. An endemic 'conflict' between science and religion has been wrongly predicted on a few isolated, if dramatic, examples (notably those of Galileo and Darwin), when men of science were persecuted by elements of the organised Church. This thesis has been nourished from time to time by anti-clerical groups in various countries. The implausibility of such a 'conflict thesis' is indicated by the large numbers of leading scientists from the seventeenth to the twentieth centuries who have cheerfully professed a Christian faith. The generation and use of scientific theories have never been unconditioned by social and cultural forces, and these have often included those that one can label 'religion'. Whereas science owes many of its fundamental attributes to the Judaeo-Christian religion, such a dependence is now often forgotten, or at least relegated to the subconscious. The persistence of a Christian belief in some form among many physical scientists has continued to this day. The author is concerned to indicate, very briefly, this same tendency in the lives and work of five of the most notable founding fathers of physics.
Russell, Colin A.
By reviewing the literature, we looked at how parental leave policies in Sweden have influenced two well-defined areas of early father involvement: participating in parental leave and at visits/activities at the Child Health Centers. Sweden has one of the most comprehensive and egalitarian parental leave policies in the world, permitting parents…
Wells, Michael B.; Sarkadi, Anna
Congenital epulis is an uncommon benign tumor that originates from the alveolar ridge in newborns. It is also known as congenital gingival granular cell tumor. Although there have been around 200 reports of its postnatal diagnosis, this oral tumor has rarely been diagnosed prenatally. We present fetal MRI and Doppler prenatal imaging of an infant with two congenital epulides (simultaneous involvement of superior and inferior maxillas). (orig.)
Prenatal care in Germany is based on a nationwide standardized program of care for pregnant women. Besides support and health counseling, it comprises prevention or early detection of diseases or unfavorable circumstances with risks for mother and child. Prenatal care is regulated by law and structured by directives and standard procedures in maternity guidelines (Mutterschafts-Richtlinien). This includes information and counseling of future mothers on offers of psychosocial and medical assistance in normal pregnancies as well as in unplanned or unwanted pregnancies. Further aspects are clinical examinations and risk determinations for genetic variations or direct genetic analysis. During pregnancy, medical history, clinical examination, and blood testing are part of the sophisticated program, which includes at least three standardized sonographic examinations at 10, 20, and 30 weeks of gestation. The maternity passport allows a pregnant woman to carry the most relevant information on her pregnancy and her personal risks with her. For 45 years now, women in Germany are used to carrying their Mutterpass. Societal changes have influenced the central goals of maternity care: In the beginning, the mortality of mother and child had to be reduced. Today, maternal morbidity and impaired development of the child are the center of interest, with expansion to familial satisfaction. The reduction in the mortality and morbidity of both the mother and the child during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum can be attributed to prenatal care. Thus, investment in a program of nationwide structured prenatal care seems to be worthwhile-despite the lack of evidence concerning its effectiveness. PMID:24337130
Vetter, K; Goeckenjan, M
Citrullinemia type I is a urea cycle disorder caused by autosomal recessive mutations in argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1). In the classical form of this disease, symptoms manifest during the neonatal period as progressive lethargy, poor feeding, and central nervous system depression secondary to hyperammonemia. In pregnancies involving two carrier parents, prenatal diagnosis is important for both reproductive decisions and advanced preparation for neonatal care. The current gold standard for prenatal diagnosis has been the citrulline incorporation assay in addition to DNA mutation analysis. Herein, we review our experience with prenatal diagnosis of citrullinemia type I over the span of 11years in 41 at-risk pregnancies. During this time, we identified 15 affected fetuses using a combination of molecular and biochemical testing. Given the established limitations of both the citrulline incorporation assay as well DNA mutation analysis, we probed our data to assess the value of amniotic fluid amino acid levels in prenatal diagnosis. Previous publications have proposed using the amniotic fluid ratio of citrulline/(arginine+ornithine) in prenatal diagnosis; however, we noted that amniotic fluid arginine levels were normal in our cohort and hypothesized that the amniotic fluid citrulline/ornithine ratio may be superior. Indeed, our analyses revealed that the ratio of amniotic fluid citrulline/ornithine alone correctly distinguished affected from unaffected fetuses in all cases. During the establishment of a normal reference range we discovered significant elevations in amniotic fluid citrulline levels in at-risk pregnancies compared to the normal population even when the fetus was unaffected. This highlights the importance of using amniotic fluid from carrier mothers when setting up a normal reference range. Finally, we report our experience as one of the first centers to adopt Sanger sequencing for prospective prenatal diagnosis of citrullinemia. While this is clearly a useful tool in many cases, we encountered families for whom molecular analysis uncovered variants of unknown clinical significance or no mutation at all. Based upon these new findings, we recommend a combinatorial approach involving ASS1 sequencing and amniotic fluid citrulline/ornithine for the prenatal diagnosis of citrullinemia type I. PMID:24889030
Miller, Marcus J; Soler-Alfonso, Claudia R; Grund, Jaime E; Fang, Ping; Sun, Qin; Elsea, Sarah H; Sutton, V Reid
Intergenerational transmissions extend across a number of family-related behaviors, including marriage timing, fertility, and divorce. Surprisingly, few studies investigate the link between the fathering men experience and the fathering they ultimately engage in. I use data on the grandfathers and fathers of the 2001 U.S. birth cohort - measured in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (N=4050) - to test whether men's perception of the parenting they received influences their subsequent paternal self-assessments and behaviors. I find a nonlinear association between experiencing warm fathering and men's self-assessed parenting quality and stress. Men with particularly warm fathers are more likely to report being good fathers themselves. Those who report having the harshest fathers also exhibit better paternal self-perceptions and lower stress. Perceptions of paternal warmth show similar associations with men's fathering engagement. This research sheds light on the significance of family dynamics and how a legacy of fathering may contribute to inequality. PMID:24913941
Diaz, Christina J
Determination of paternity was attempted in the case of three children whose putative fathers are dead using DNA samples of the paternal grandparents. The DNA analyses were performed with both multilocus and single-locus probes which resolve highly polymorphic areas of human genome. The results were conclusive with both types of probes and facilitated, for example, the exclusion of the brother of the putative father. The evidence for true paternity obtained with DNA analyses can be considered reliable in this type of "indirect" paternity in which tests based on protein polymorphism are inconclusive. PMID:1937465
Helminen, P; Johnsson, V; Ehnholm, C; Peltonen, L
There is often a bond between two great men of a society at the time when one is at the peak of his life and the other at its beginning. The great Serbian 19th century poet, clergyman and educator father Vasa Zivkovic, interceding in favour of his student Mihajlo Pupin, significantly influenced the conditions necessary for Pupin`s development into the person he later became. Mihajlo Pupin was certainly not the only student to benefit from father Vasa Zivkovic advice and material support. However their relationship is a perfect example of an acclaimed person successfully influencing a person yet to win acclaim.
Cucic, Dragoljub A
The discovery of DNA markers closely linked to the gene for Huntington's disease (HD) has allowed development of predictive and prenatal testing programmes for HD. This report describes four different approaches to prenatal testing for HD which have arisen during a pilot predictive and prenatal testing program in British Columbia, Canada. In the first approach (exclusion testing), the at risk parent cannot or prefers not to learn of his/her HD status. Two other approaches involve definitive t...
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El uso del diagnóstico prenatal en la práctica de la genética médica ha hecho que se recuerden teorías eugenésicas. Se realizó una revisión histórica de este término y se relacionó con el uso del diagnóstico prenatal (DPN) y el aborto selectivo a la luz de los conocimientos bioéticos actuales. [...] Abstract in english The use of the prenatal diagnosis in the practice of medical genetics has led us to remember eugenic theories. A historical review of this term was made and it was connected with the use of prenatal diagnosis (PND) and selective abortion in the light of the present bioethical knowledge. [...
González Salvat, Rosa María; González Labrador, Ignacio.
Full Text Available El uso del diagnóstico prenatal en la práctica de la genética médica ha hecho que se recuerden teorías eugenésicas. Se realizó una revisión histórica de este término y se relacionó con el uso del diagnóstico prenatal (DPN y el aborto selectivo a la luz de los conocimientos bioéticos actuales.The use of the prenatal diagnosis in the practice of medical genetics has led us to remember eugenic theories. A historical review of this term was made and it was connected with the use of prenatal diagnosis (PND and selective abortion in the light of the present bioethical knowledge.
Rosa María González Salvat
Presents four things that fathers can do to secure the home front and protect their children in light of the September 11th attacks: take great care to respect and support the children's mother; make an extra effort to spend time with the children; model an appropriate response to the September 11th events; and go to great lengths to continually…
Warren, Roland C.
"Tim Berners-Lee, the father of the world wide web, was awarded a knighthood for services to the internet, which his efforts transformed from a haunt of computer geeks, scientists and the military into a global phenomenon" (1/2 page).
The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis.
Filkins, K.; Russo, R.J.
The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis
We report prenatal diagnosis of phenylketonuria by linkage analysis of the markers linked to the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Three markers comprising STR (TCTAT)n in intron 3, VNTR (30bp long cassette) in the 3' UTR and Xmn1 RFLP were ascertained in the affected child, the parents and the chorionic villi sample. The foetus was confirmed to be heterozygous for the mutant allele. The diagnosis that the foetus was unaffected was confirmed by biochemical tests in the newborn. PMID:16456253
Kohli, Sudha; Saxena, Renu; Thomas, Elizabeth; Rao, Pradeep; Verma, I C
This qualitative study explored 18 high-risk adolescent Latinas' perceptions of their relationships with nonresident fathers. A number of interrelated factors--early childhood memories, mothers' interpretations, and fathers' behaviors--shaped girls' perceptions, which in turn, influenced how they interacted with fathers. Some girls struggled to…
Lopez, Vera; Corona, Rosalie
Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) is a psychiatric condition and form of child abuse in which a caregiver, usually a mother, induces illness in a child to gain attention for herself. Because children that are abused by a MSBP perpetrator are likely to be hospitalized multiple times, it is important for the nurse to know warning signs and symptoms of MSBP. Of particular interest is the role of the child's parent that is not involved in the abuse, usually the father. This article presents a review of literature on MSBP, focusing on the role of the nonperpetrating fathers. PMID:22703679
Morrell, Briyana; Tilley, Donna Scott
While there is no single best procedure for performing prenatal diagnosis, ther is a rationale or strategy which will produce correct, reliable results. The investigator should be experienced with all the tests and know what to expect from each. At least two of these tests should e used (more if there s ambiguity) on amniotic fluid and cultured cell extracts. Which tests, and how many, are not as important as the skill and experience of the investigator performing them. Proper controls should be used. Probably the biggest single factor in successful prenatal diagnosis is the use of both negative and positive controls run simultaneously. No method, no matter how good or how well performed, can be counted upon to give sufficiently reproducible results to interpret without these controls. Finally, it is necessary for the investigator to be thoroughly familiar with the enzyme and its isozymes and the clinical heterogeneity of the disease. Although the foregoing details pertain specifically to Tay-Sachs disease, similar or related problems exist in the prenatal diagnosis of any of the neurolipidoses. The need for care of the samples, appreciation of biochemical and clinical heterogeneity, the need for adequate techniques, and the importance of proper controls are requirements for diagnosing any of the neurolipidoses. PMID:6215890
Grebner, E E; Jackson, L G
Congenital dacryocystocele can be diagnosed prenatally by imaging. Prenatal MRI is increasingly utilized for fetal diagnosis. To present the radiological and clinical features of seven fetuses with congenital dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI. The institutional database of 1,028 consecutive prenatal MR examinations performed during a period of 4 years was reviewed retrospectively. The cases of congenital dacryocystocele were identified by reading the report of each MRI study. The incidence of dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI was 0.7% (n=7/1,028). The dacryocystocele was bilateral in three fetuses. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 31 weeks. The indication for prenatal MRI was the presence or the suspicion of central nervous system abnormality in six fetuses and diaphragmatic hernia in one. Dacryocystocele was associated with an intranasal cyst in six of ten eyes. Prenatal sonography revealed dacryocystocele in only two of seven fetuses. Of eight eyes with postnatal follow-up, four did not have any lacrimal symptoms. Prenatal MRI can delineate congenital dacryocystocele more clearly and in a more detailed fashion than ultrasonography. Presence of dacryocystocele was symptomatic in only 50% of our patients, supporting that prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele might follow a benign course. (orig.)
Yazici, Zeynep [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Uludag University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey); Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Rubio, Eva I.; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Linam, Leann E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Yazici, Bulent [Uludag University, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey)
Legal and social service systems rarely acknowledge the status of men as fathers in the conceptualization and delivery of interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV). Large percentages of men who are arrested and mandated to intervention programs for IPV are fathers who continue to live with or have consistent contact with their young children despite aggression and substance use. There are currently no evidence-based treatments that address co-morbid substance abuse and domestic violen...
Despite their expanding role in child rearing, fathers are underrepresented in child feeding research. To address this knowledge gap and encourage father-focused research, this review compiles child feeding research that has included fathers and (i) documents characteristics of studies assessing fathers' feeding practices including study design, setting, recruitment strategies, participant characteristics, theoretical models utilized and measures of child feeding, (ii) outlines general patterns in fathers' feeding practices along with similarities and differences in mothers' and fathers' feeding practices, (iii) summarizes evidence on child and parent correlates of fathers' feeding practices and (iv) generates future research recommendations. A literature review of relevant articles published up to February 2014 was conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they: (i) included fathers, or primary male caregivers, of children 2-18 years of age, (ii) measured fathers' child feeding practices or perceived role in child feeding through objective (e.g., meal observations) or subjective (i.e., fathers' self-report) methods, (iii) analyzed and presented data on fathers separately from mothers and (iv) were published in a peer reviewed journal in the English language. Twenty studies met eligibility criteria. Few studies included an operational definition of "father". Samples were generally small and focused on white, well-educated fathers, cohabiting with the child's mother. Most studies utilized self-report measures of child feeding practices that have not been validated specifically for use with fathers. Pressuring children to eat was a common feeding strategy adopted by fathers. Some differences were noted in mothers' and fathers' feeding practices; fathers were generally less likely to monitor children's food intake and to limit access to food compared with mothers. Child adiposity and a range of child and parent characteristics were associated with fathers' feeding practices. The literature on fathers' child feeding practices is scant. This review consolidates what is known to date and highlights focal areas for future research including the need to recruit diverse samples of fathers and utilize measures validated for use with fathers. PMID:24667152
Khandpur, Neha; Blaine, Rachel E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Davison, Kirsten K
This grounded theory study examined how 20 newly divorced, nonresidential fathers manage their fatherhood identities. The theory created from this study proposes that fathers' perceptions of (a) father-child relationships, (b) how their children's fiscal needs are met, and (c) barriers to their physical interactions with their children influence…
Troilo, Jessica; Coleman, Marilyn
In this paper we report a family where the affected DMD patients were not available for study and a molecular strategy was used for female carriers detection and for prenatal diagnosis. Linkage analysis was performed with two markers within the DMD gene, in all family members screened. DMD markers used (pERT87.8/Taq1 and pERT87.15/Xmn1) seemed not to be informative because the propositas mother (II-2) was homozygous for the minor allele at each marker (T2 and X2), however, the proposita and one sister carried only the major allele, which was inherited from the father. These results suggested that a deletion involving both markers could be present, and was inherited from the mother to both daughters. Quantitative multiplex PCR confirmed the deletion in female carriers, involving at least exons 12 to 17. DNA studies of cultured amniotic fluid cells at 14 weeks gestation, by amplification of specific Y-chromosome sequences, followed by multiplex PCR, lead to the diagnosis of a male fetus affected by DMD. PMID:11694228
Alcántara, M A; García-Cavazos, R; Hernández-U, E; González-del Angel, A; Carnevale, A; Orozco, L
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El desarrollo del diagnóstico prenatal ha modificado radicalmente el manejo de los embarazos y de los resultados perinatales. Con este trabajo se pretende identificar los principales dilemas bioéticos del diagnóstico prenatal de los defectos congénitos en la provincia Artemisa. Se realizó un estudio [...] observacional, descriptivo. Los criterios para la indicación del proceder, el aborto selectivo, estatus moral del feto se identifican entre los conflictos bioéticos del diagnóstico prenatal. Se concluye que los principios generales de la bioética deben servir de base para el análisis y la solución de los dilemas que han surgido en el campo del diagnóstico prenatal y que el desarrollo tecnológico no puede cambiar los principios bioéticos, ni los valores humanos de los profesionales de la salud pública. Abstract in english The development of the prenatal diagnosis has radically modified the handling of pregnancies and of perinatal results. An observational, descriptive study is carried out with the objective of identifying the main bioethical dilemmas of prenatal diagnosis of congenital defects Artemisia. Approaches f [...] or indicating procedures, the selective abortion, and the fetus moral status are identified among the bioethical conflicts of the prenatal diagnosis.It is concluded that the general bioethics principles should serve as base for analysis and solution of these dilemmas, which have arisen in the field of prenatal diagnosis. Additionally it is concluded that technological development cannot change bioethical principles, neither human values of health professionals.
Lázaro, López Baños; Zonia, Fernández Pérez; Luis Gustavo, García Baños; Zenia, García Cartaya.
Collagen lysyl and prolyl hydroxylase activities were measured in cultured fibroblasts from a child with clinical features of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Lysyl-to-prolyl hydroxylase activity ratios in cells from the proband, mother, father, and control were .24, .86, .52, and 1.00, respectively, providing a biochemical diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI and indicating an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance in this family. Prenatal assessment of lysyl hydroxylase deficiency was reques...
Dembure, P. P.; Priest, J. H.; Snoddy, S. C.; Elsas, L. J.
Full Text Available Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure(PCEalters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models,a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PCE on social behaviors involving conspecifics in animal models. Social relationships are critical to the developing organism; maternally-directed interactions are necessary for initial survival. Juvenile rats deprived of play behavior, one of the earliest forms of non-mother directed social behaviors in rodents, show deficits in learning tasks and sexual competence. Social behavior is inherently conmplex. Because the emergence of appropriate social skills involves the interplay between various conceptual and biological facets of behavior and social information, it may be a particularly sensitive measure of prenatal insult. The social behavior surveyed include social interactions, play behavior/fighting, scent marking and aggressive behavior in the offspring, as well as aspects of maternal behavior. The goal is to determine if there is a consensus of results in the literature with respect to PCE and social behaviors, and to discuss discrepant findings in terms of exposure models, the paradigms and dependent variables, as well as housing conditions, and the sex and age of the offspring at testing. As there is increasing evidence that deficits in social behavior may be sequelae of developmental exposure alcohol, we compare changes in social behaviors reported for prenatal alcohol with those reported for prenatal cocaine. Shortcomings in the both literatures are identified and addressed in an effort to improve the translational value of future experimentation.
Preeclampsia is often considered as simply a maternal disease with variable degrees of fetal involvement. More and more the unique immunogenetic maternal-paternal relationship is appreciated, and also the specific 'genetic conflict' that is characteristic of haemochorial placentation. From that perspective, pre-eclampsia can be seen as a disease of an individual couple with primarily maternal and fetal manifestations. The maternal and fetal genomes perform different roles during development. Heritable paternal, rather than maternal, imprinting of the genome is necessary for normal trophoblast development. Large population studies have estimated that 35% of the variance in susceptibility to preeclampsia is attributable to maternal genetic effects; 20% to fetal genetic effects (with similar contributions of both parents), 13% to the couple effect, less than 1% to the shared sibling environment and 32% to unmeasured factors. Not one of these large population studies focussed on the paternal contribution to preeclampsia, which is demonstrated by (1) the effect of the length of the sexual relationship; (2) the concept of primipaternity versus primigravidity; and (3) the existence of the so-called 'dangerous' father, as demonstrated in various large population studies. It is currently unknown how the father exerts this effect. Possible mechanisms include seminal cytokine levels and their effect on maternal immune deviation, specific paternal HLA characteristics and specific paternal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in particular in the paternally expressed genes affecting placentation. Several large cohort studies, including the large international SCOPE consortium, have identified paternal SNPs with strong associations with preeclampsia. PMID:21529966
Dekker, Gus; Robillard, Pierre Yves; Roberts, Claire
Cocaine abuse is a significant problem not only in the general population but also among pregnant women. Since cocaine readily crosses the placenta and is metabolized slowly in fetuses, they can be exposed to significant levels of cocaine for long periods. In humans the most common consequences of cocaine abuse during pregnancy include premature birth, lower birth weight, respiratory distress, bowel infarctions, cerebral infarctions, reduced head circumference, and increased risk of seizures. Behaviorally these newborns show an increased degree of "tremulousness," crying and irritability, and are over-reactive to environmental stimuli. Within a month these behaviors have recovered dramatically, but not to normal levels. Thus while there are a number of abnormalities associated with cocaine-exposed neonates, they are not imminently debilitating or life-threatening. However, the long-term consequences of this prenatal cocaine exposure remain to be elucidated. We have examined a rat model for neurochemical, neuroanatomical and behavioral changes resulting from prenatal cocaine exposure. Since cocaine is known to act by blocking the inactivation of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine, our studies have focused on brain dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) pathways. In this model system we have found neurochemical changes that are present at birth and that return to normal as the rat ages--similar to the recovery observed in infants. However, there are other neurochemical, anatomical and behavioral changes that persist after birth which may provide insights into the long-term consequences. It is hoped that by understanding the changes occurring in this rat model we will be better prepared to devise pharmacological interventions to circumvent the secondary consequences of prenatal cocaine exposure. These consequences might include increased susceptibility to drug addiction, seizures, depression, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, etc. PMID:10911932
Keller, R W; Snyder-Keller, A
In 2004 Estonian government established the paid parental leave policy (called Parental Benefit Act) to contribute to the successful intertwining of work and family life and encourage young families to have children. Although the compensated leave could be used by either of parents, only 5% (2009) of the fathers use the possibility. The analogous shared parental leave policy has been valid approximately 30 years in Nordic countries (...
Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review
Mutations generate sequence diversity and provide a substrate for selection. The rate of de novo mutations is therefore of major importance to evolution. We conducted a study of genomewide mutation rate by sequencing the entire genomes of 78 Icelandic parent-offspring trios at high coverage. Here we show that in our samples, with an average father’s age of 29.7, the average de novo mutation rate is 1.20×10?8 per nucleotide per generation. Most strikingly, the diversity in mutation rate o...
Kong, Augustine; Frigge, Michael L.; Masson, Gisli; Besenbacher, Soren; Sulem, Patrick; Magnusson, Gisli; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg; Wong, Wendy; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Walters, G. Bragi; Steinberg, Stacy; Helgason, Hannes
SYNOPSIS Objective The present study examined mean level similarities and differences as well as correlations between mothers’ and fathers’ attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes. Design Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 77 Swedish families. Results Fathers reported higher adult-controlled failure and child-controlled failure attributions than did mothers; these differences remained significant after controlling for parents’ age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Significant positive correlations were found for mothers’ and fathers’ progressive attitudes, authoritarian attitudes, and modernity of attitudes after controlling for parents’ age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Conclusions We conclude that in Sweden fathers are more likely to attribute failures in caregiving situations both to themselves and to children than are mothers and that there is moderate concordance between fathers and mothers within the same family in progressive and authoritarian parenting attitudes.
Sorbring, Emma; Gurdal, Sevtap
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined mean level similarities and differences as well as correlations between mothers' and fathers' attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes. DESIGN: Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 77 Swedish families. RESULTS: Fathers reported higher adult-controlled failure and child-controlled failure attributions than did mothers; these differences remained significant after controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Significant positive correlations were found for mothers' and fathers' progressive attitudes, authoritarian attitudes, and modernity of attitudes after controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that in Sweden fathers are more likely to attribute failures in caregiving situations both to themselves and to children than are mothers and that there is moderate concordance between fathers and mothers within the same family in progressive and authoritarian parenting attitudes. PMID:21927589
Sorbring, Emma; Gurdal, Sevtap
Full Text Available The article introduces a translation of the account written in 1627 by the Jesuit priest Father Estevao Cacella, of his journey with his companion Father Joao Cabral, first through Bengal and then through Bhutan where they stayed for nearly eight months. The report is significant because the Fathers were the first Westerners to visit and describe Bhutan. More important, the report gives a first-handaccount of Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyel, the Founder of Bhutan.
Luiza Maria Baille
This study set out to examine father-related factors predicting maternal physical child abuse risk in a national birth cohort of 1,480 families. In-home and phone interviews were conducted with mothers when index children were 3 years old. Predictor variables included the mother–father relationship status; father demographic, economic, and psychosocial variables; and key background factors. Outcome variables included both observed and self-reported proxies of maternal physical child abuse r...
Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong; Lee, Shawna J.; Waldfogel, Jane; Rathouz, Paul J.
Full Text Available This article presents a discussion of screening principles and techniques available to screen for common birth defects during pregnancy. Sixty-five to 70% of women have serum screening and /or ultrasound during pregnancy to evaluate the health and well-being of the developing fetus. The most common birth defects identified by screening include neural tube defects and chromosome abnormalities. Nurses employed in prenatal care settings need to have accurate information they can provide to women so they understand the benefits and limitations of screening. Timely presentation of information and identification of available resources will help nurses minimize confusion and provide support for women as they proceed with pregnancy screening.
Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de diagnóstico prenatal ecográfico del Síndrome EEC (Ectrodactilia, Displasia Ectodérmica y Labio y Paladar Hendidos, en una familia con tres generaciones de afectados.
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Multifetal gestations are high-risk pregnancies involving higher perinatal morbidity and mortality, and are subject to unique complications including twin oligohydramnios- polyhydramnios sequence, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, acardiac twins, conjoined twins, co-twin demise, and heterotopic pregnancies. The purpose of this study is to describe the prenatal ultrasonographic and pathologic findings of these complications
Multifetal gestations are high-risk pregnancies involving higher perinatal morbidity and mortality, and are subject to unique complications including twin oligohydramnios- polyhydramnios sequence, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, acardiac twins, conjoined twins, co-twin demise, and heterotopic pregnancies. The purpose of this study is to describe the prenatal ultrasonographic and pathologic findings of these complications.
Kim, Jeong Ah; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee Yeon; Lee, Hak Jong; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Kyung Sang; Cho, Byung Jae; Chun, Yi Kyeong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Fathers of preterm babies in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are under stress. Lack of knowledge about a preterm infant's behavior challenges new fathers who may be required to make decisions about the hospitalized infant, to update concerned family and friends, and to provide support to the mother while she recovers from giving birth. The NICU nurses have the opportunity to support and guide these new fathers, although no previous research has confirmed how to do so effectively. This study confirmed that using The HUG Your Baby DVD and family-friendly educational program with fathers of preterm babies in a NICU increased fathers' knowledge of infant behavior and, as previous research suggests, is likely to boost fathers' confidence and to promote the parent-child relationship and strengthen the family unit. PMID:24421604
Kadivar, Maliheh; Mozafarinia, Seyedeh Maryam
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the sex ratio of children varies between fathers of different occupations. METHODS: The sex ratio (the ratio of the number of boys to the number of girls at birth) was calculated in relation to paternal occupation in the cohort of all 253,433 live births in Cumbria, north west England, from 1950-89. Exact binomial confidence intervals were used to estimate whether the sex ratio in each occupational category was significantly different from that for the rest o...
Launched in 2005, the Illinois Integrated Assessment (IA) process is designed to provide better information about child and family strengths, support systems, and service needs. In this study, we examine the extent to which fathers--stepfathers, putative fathers, legal fathers, adoptive fathers, or biological fathers--were interviewed as a part of…
Smithgall, Cheryl; DeCoursey, Jan; Gitlow, Elissa; Yang, Duck-Hye; Jarpe-Ratner, Elizabeth; Lansing, Jiffy; Goerge, Robert
Chromosome analysis is the single most frequent test used in laboratory prenatal diagnostic studies. I summarize the current status of the field, including diagnostic problems in the laboratory and the clinical problems associated with communicating unexpected laboratory findings. I explore the effect of molecular genetics on these issues and its possible future effects on the entire practice of prenatal diagnosis as it relates to the risk for chromosome nondisjunction (trisomy). I also discu...
Schonberg, S. A.
Aneuploidies are a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is the most common indication for invasive prenatal diagnosis. Initially, screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high-risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. New research is now focusing on non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal circu...
Prenatal diagnostic testing raises a number of important ethical issues, some related to diagnostic testing in general and others related to the special circumstances of pregnancy. These issues are most effectively addressed in the context of a broader understanding of the goals of prenatal diagnosis. Our dual obligations--to the pregnant woman and to the fetus--have an important influence on the goals of testing. Testing seldom leads to treatment beneficial to the fetus, but more often can b...
Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) uses cell-free fetal DNA from the plasma of pregnant women to provide valuable information about the potential risks for fetal aneuploidy. This article provides a historical overview of both invasive diagnostic testing and serum screening approaches, both biochemical and the newer molecular noninvasive prenatal testing assays, used to identify patients who would be best served by invasive testing. PMID:24351443
Robinson, Christopher; van den Boom, Dirk; Bombard, Allan T
We report a neonate who was diagnosed as a case of skeletal dysplasia during pregnancy, and was subsequently diagnosed as a case of MLII alpha/beta on the basis of clinical and radiological findings and molecular testing of the parents. A novel GNPTAB mutation c.1701delC [p.F566LfsX5] was identified in the father. The case reiterates the severe prenatal phenotype of MLII alpha/beta which mimics skeletal dysplasia and illustrates the utility of molecular genetic analysis in confirmation of diagnosis and subsequent genetic counselling. PMID:24685522
Aggarwal, Shagun; Coutinho, Maria Francisca; Dalal, Ashwin B; Mohamed Nurul Jain, S Jamal; Prata, Maria João; Alves, Sandra
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The article focused on the questions of how male dominance came about in theology and the church, what makes it so persistent and what can be done. It argued that patriarchy is based on androcentric ways of thinking, feeling and acting that colour all of culture and society. Patriarchy and androcent [...] rism perpetuate the status quo through language. They provide a template for attributing meaning to reality. They still have a profound effect on theology and ecclesial institutions. This can be seen clearly in the concept of God, the 'Almighty Father'. The article made a case for a theology that has the courage to analyse how and where it idolises the patriarchal template and that imagines a God other than the patriarchal 'Almighty Father': a God who walks with Her or His friends in gracious, empowering love, not 'almighty' but honouring the responsibility She or He gave them. The article concludes that the life of Jesus as the human being who mirrors God's love, friendship and passion for justice inspires a different way of how God could be imagined.
Full Text Available The comparative study of the impact of antenatal training care infants to fathers and couple on the fathers' participations. Objectives: Increasing number of working mothers and changes in viewpoints on fathers’ roles in families has increased fathers’ participations. Fathers’ participation is his broad, positive and active participation in different stages of children’s life. Wives possess the main role in enhancing and limiting father’s participation. Fathers and couples require training to define father’s role in infant care and the significance of his role in infant’s health and foundation of family. Therefore, the present study is done to determine the impact of training couples and fathers how to take care of infants on the rate of father’s participation to take care of infants after birth. Method: the study was done as a clinical trial in three groups, on 150 people in hygienic- clinical centers of Medical University of Mashhad. Fathers of training group and couples of training group took part in two training sessions of infant care in weeks 35 to 37 of pregnancy. The questionnaires of role of father’s training in infant care were filled by mothers in three groups and were analyzed by SPSS software (version 18 and ANOVA with repeated measure, Bonferroni tests. Findings: role of fathers’ participation in infants care in father’s training group and couple training group than control group increased significantly. (p=0/0003 Results: training fathers and couples before birth will enhance rate of their participation in infant care. Key words: fathers’ participation, care of infant, training.
Poor executive functioning has been implicated in children's concurrent and future behavioral difficulties, making work aimed at understanding processes related to the development of early executive function (EF) critical for models of developmental psychopathology. Deficits in EF have been associated with adverse prenatal experiences, genetic influences, and temperament characteristics. However, our ability to disentangle the predictive and independent effects of these influences has been limited by a dearth of genetically informed research designs that also consider prenatal influences. The present study examined EF and language development in a sample of 361 toddlers who were adopted at birth and reared in nonrelative adoptive families. Predictors included genetic influences (as inherited from birth mothers), prenatal risk, and growth in child negative emotionality. Structural equation modeling indicated that the effect of prenatal risk on toddler effortful attention at age 27 months became nonsignificant once genetic influences were considered in the model. In addition, genetic influences had unique effects on toddler effortful attention. Latent growth modeling indicated that increases in toddler negative emotionality from 9 to 27 months were associated with poorer delay of gratification and poorer language development. Similar results were obtained in models incorporating birth father data. Mechanisms of intergenerational transmission of EF deficits are discussed. PMID:22799580
Leve, Leslie D; DeGarmo, David S; Bridgett, David J; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Harold, Gordon T; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David
The current study is one of the first prospective examinations of longitudinal associations between observed father caregiving behaviors and child cortisol reactivity and regulation in response to emotional arousal. Observations of father and mother caregiving behaviors and child cortisol levels in response to challenges at 7 months and 24 months…
Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Barnett, Melissa; Granger, Douglas A.; Blair, Clancy; Cox, Martha J.
A case of pyrexia of unknown origin in a 35-year-old man, who had become a father nine months earlier, is presented. A diagnosis of cytomegalovirus mononucleosis was achieved only after extensive investigations. It is suggested that cytomegalovirus mononucleosis should be added to the differential diagnosis when investigating pyrexia of unknown origin in fathers of young children.
Bignardi, G.; Atkins, M.; Main, J.
This paper provides a brief history of attachment research on fathers as a backdrop against which the other contributions to this volume can be viewed. Empirical research on child-father attachment progressed in four phases and began before Bowlby in 1969 published the first volume of his attachment trilogy. During each phase a different set of…
A communication skills training program for fathers of school-aged children was developed and evaluated. Eleven fathers, recruited from announcements distributed by community organizations serving a Boston neighborhood, participated in the program. A "non-equivalent" control group, similarly recruited, was also utilized. The program consisted of…
Levant, Ronald F.; Doyle, Gregory F.
The absence of a father figure has been linked to very poor developmental outcomes for the child. During incarceration, there are limited opportunities for visitation between fathers and their children. The Baby Elmo Program provides incarcerated teen fathers with parenting training and visitation with their children with the stated goal of enhancing father-child interactional quality. Forty-one incarcerated teen fathers and their infants ranging from 1 to 15 months of age participated in the present study. During individual sessions, a trained facilitator prepared fathers for visits with their children by introducing key concepts such as following the child's lead, using developmentally appropriate media to illustrate those concepts. After each training session, the incarcerated teen father interacted with his infant and the visit was video recorded. Analysis of the visit sessions focused on father's time use on different activities, the quality of father-infant interactions, and father's integration of target skills introduced in the intervention. The time-use analysis revealed that time use changed as a function of infant age. Growth linear modeling indicated that there were significant positive increases in the amount of parent support and infant engagement as a function of the number of sessions. Follow-up analyses indicated that changes between specific sessions mapped onto the target skills discussed during specific training sessions. This study's preliminary findings suggest that an intervention integrating visitation and appropriate media may be effective for incarcerated teen fathers. Due to the lack of a randomized control group, the present findings are exploratory and are discussed with a focus on further program development. PMID:24246016
Barr, Rachel; Morin, Marisa; Brito, Natalie; Richeda, Benjamin; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Shauffer, Carole
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to look at the understanding and perceptions of public health nurses (PHNs related to behavioral characteristics of fathers that contribute to emotional instability in mothers by reviewing abuse cases involving infants and very young children. A qualitative descriptive design was applied to the data analysis, based on a semi-structured interview administered to three experienced PHNs who had been in charge of maternal and child health services for at least five years at a public health department or health center; with the data obtained in the interview narratives analyzed. In the observations of the experienced PHNs, the behavioral characteristics of fathers who are instigators of child abuse can be classified into five categories, fathers who are: “Talking to others about marital problems without attempting to solve these by themselves”, “Working on learning about childcare seeking to correct childcare methods”, “Taking the initiative in childcare at cross purposes with mothers”, “Stressing the effort they (the fathers put into childcare”, and “Failing to notice the own family situation and problems”. The findings of the study suggest the necessity for PHNs to understand fathers, to be aware of the difficulty of building a supportive relationship with fathers, and to improve skills enabling the PHNs to help fathers form good relationships with other family members.
Método. Revisión bibliográfica sistemática de los últimos 20 años obtenida principalmente de Medline; Science Citation Index y Embase sobre los estudios con meconio como matriz de exposición prenatal a substancias neurotóxicas. El perfil de búsqueda utilizado fue: meconium, prenatal
Using meta-analysis, we reviewed the effectiveness of resident fathering education programs. Our review identified 16 studies with over 200 reported effect sizes. Results revealed a significant overall effect size of d = 0.26, with specific significant outcomes ranging from d = 0.14 to d = 0.61. Studies with father-only reports produced…
Holmes, Erin K.; Galovan, Adam M.; Yoshida, Keitaro; Hawkins, Alan J.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between women who reported current and past physical or sexual abuse and those who did not in terms of mean total prenatal weight change, the odds for inadequate prenatal gain, and the odds for excessive prenatal gain. METHODS: This study used a matched retrospective cohort design. Data were from the charts of 578 clients of an urban prenatal care clinic. Multiple regression analyses, stratified by maternal age, were conducte...
Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El concepto, denominado por Lacan, "Nombre del padre" constituye una piedra angular de su enseñanza. Su pluralización en los años 60 y 70 introducen nuevas perspectivas al mismo. Tomaremos un breve escrito de Lacan del año 1974, El despertar de la primavera, para leer allí algunas de éstas, a través [...] de lo que nos enseña la obra de F. Wedekind sobre su versión del padre. Abstract in english The concept "Name of the Father", elaborated by Lacan, is a cornerstone of his teaching. Its pluralization -during the 60´s and the 70´s- has introduced new perspectives. We shall consider a short lacanian text written in 1974, Spring Awakening, in order to read there some of those new proposals abo [...] ut the father, with the support of F. Wedekind's work.
Claudio, Godoy; Fabián, Schejtman.
Herodicus (fifth century BC: ) is the first person in the history of medicine who actually combined sports with medicine. He used to be a sports teacher, who later studied medicine and managed to succeed Euryphon in the medical school of Cnidos, one of the most prominent in ancient Greece together with its neighbor medical school of Cos (Hippocrates' home). In Cnidos Herodicus formed his own theoretical perspective of medicine. He considered, namely, bad health to be the result of imbalance between diet and physical activity and for this reason he recommended strict diet, constant physical activity and regular training. He believed that this combination was the ideal way to maintain good standards of health and he applied this type of treatment method to his patients. Unfortunately, Herodicus' works are lost today. However, excerpts of his medical system, which can be traced in ancient texts, support the fact that Herodicus can be considered as the father of sports medicine. PMID:16951976
Georgoulis, Anastasios D; Kiapidou, Irini-Sofia; Velogianni, Lamprini; Stergiou, Nicholas; Boland, Arthur
Glucocorticoids are administered to premature infants to accelerate pulmonary maturation. In experimental model, prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) results in reduced nephron number and adulthood hypertension. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), can cause oxidative stress and is involved in the development of hypertension. L-citrulline can be converted to l-arginine (the substrate for NOS) in the body. Thus we intended to determine if maternal L-citrulline therapy can prevent prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension by restoration ADMA/nitric oxide (NO) balance, alterations of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and sodium transporters, and epigenetic regulation by histone deacetylases (HDACs). Male offspring were assigned to four groups: control, pregnancy rats received intraperitoneal DEX (0.2 mg/kg body weight) daily on gestational days 15 and 16 (DEX), pregnancy rats received 0.25% L-citrulline in drinking water during the entire pregnancy and lactation period (CIT), and DEX + CIT. We found DEX group developed hypertension at 16 weeks of age, which was prevented by maternal L-citrulline therapy. Prenatal DEX exposure increased plasma ADMA concentrations and reduced renal NO production. However, L-citrulline reduced plasma ADMA level and increased renal level of NO in DEX + CIT group. Next, prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension is related to increased mRNA expression of angiotensin and angiotensin II type 1 receptor, and class I HDACs in the kidney. Prenatal DEX exposure increased renal protein abundance of Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), which was prevented by L-citrulline therapy. The beneficial effects of L-citrulline therapy include restoration of ADMA/NO balance and alteration of NCC, to prevent the prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension. PMID:24555785
Tain, Y L; Sheen, J M; Chen, C C; Yu, H R; Tiao, M M; Kuo, H C; Huang, L T
Explores mothers' and fathers' differential treatment (PDT) of their adolescent offspring and examines how siblings' personal qualities were associated with PDT. Sex was associated with parents' differential temporal involvement. Sex-typed personal qualities were related to parents' differential discipline. Both sex and sex-typed personal…
Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
Although often eagerly anticipated, reunification after deployment poses challenges for families, including adjusting to the parent-soldier's return, re-establishing roles and routines, and the potentially necessary accommodation to combat-related injuries or psychological effects. Fourteen male service members, previously deployed to a combat zone, parent to at least one child under seven years of age, were interviewed about their relationships with their young children. Principles of grounded theory guided data analysis to identify key themes related to parenting young children after deployment. Participants reported significant levels of parenting stress and identified specific challenges, including difficulty reconnecting with children, adapting expectations from military to family life, and coparenting. Fathers acknowledged regret about missing an important period in their child's development and indicated a strong desire to improve their parenting skills. They described a need for support in expressing emotions, nurturing, and managing their tempers. Results affirm the need for support to military families during reintegration and demonstrate that military fathers are receptive to opportunities to engage in parenting interventions. Helping fathers understand their children's behavior in the context of age-typical responses to separation and reunion may help them to renew parent-child relationships and reengage in optimal parenting of their young children. PMID:24693602
Walsh, Tova B; Dayton, Carolyn J; Erwin, Michael S; Muzik, Maria; Busuito, Alexandra; Rosenblum, Katherine L
Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. El pie bot es una de las anomalías músculo- esqueléticas congénitas más frecuentes. La utilización de la ecografía para la detección prenatal del pie bot ha avanzado rápidamente en la última década, pero las publicaciones han presentado una gran variabilidad de opiniones en cuanto a la [...] eficacia del método, la asociación con otras patologías y la necesidad de realizar amniocentesis para análisis del cariotipo. Objetivos. Analizar en qué porcentaje de pacientes se realizó diagnóstico prenatal del pie bot, evaluar la opinión de las madres al respecto y aclarar algunos conceptos revisando la bibliografía disponible a la fecha. Métodos. Se analizó retrospectivamente un grupo de 54 pacientes consecutivos con diagnóstico de pie bot tratados en el período enero 2008-junio 2010. Se documentaron el número de ecografías realizadas durante el embarazo, el tipo de ecografía realizada (2D, 3D o 4D) y la semana de gestación al momento del diagnóstico. Las madres fueron encuestadas a fin de conocer su opinión con respecto al diagnóstico prenatal de esta deformidad. Resultados. Se realizaron 3,2 ecografías promedio durante el embarazo (r, 1-7). En el 25% (13/52) de los casos se realizó diagnóstico prenatal. El diagnóstico fue realizado en 7 casos con ecografía 2D, en 4 con 3D y en 2 con 4D, y en promedio se efectuó a la semana 22 (r, 20-28). En ningún paciente se llevó a cabo diagnóstico temprano, en 12 fue tardío y en 1 muy tardío. Conclusión. El diagnóstico prenatal permite a los padres de prepararse psicológicamente y asesorarse sobre la patología. En nuestra serie, el 90,4% se mostró a favor de conocer previamente el diagnóstico. Abstract in english Introduction. Clubfoot is one of the most frequent congenital musculoskeletal anomalies. The use of ultrasound for prenatal detection of clubfoot has advanced rapidly in the last decade, but publications report a great variability in opinions regarding the effectiveness of the method, the associatio [...] n with other diseases and the need to perform amniocentesis analysis of the karyotype. Objectives. To analyze the percentage of patients with prenatal diagnosis of clubfoot, evaluate mothers' opinion on this issue, and clarify some concepts by reviewing the literature available to date. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed a group of 54 consecutive patients diagnosed with clubfoot treated from January 2008 to June 2010. We documented the number of ultrasounds performed during pregnancy, type of ultrasound (2D, 3D or 4D) and the gestational week at diagnosis. Mothers were surveyed to ascertain their opinion with regard to prenatal diagnosis. Results. An average of 3.2 ultrasounds was performed during pregnancy (r, 1-7). Prenatal diagnosis was performed in 25% of cases (13/52 patients). Diagnosis was performed in 7 cases with 2-D ultrasound in 4 with 3-D and in 2 with 4-D. Diagnosis was performed on average at week 22 (r, 20- 28). No patient was diagnosed early, 12 were diagnosed late and 1 very late. Conclusion. Prenatal diagnosis gives parents the opportunity for psychological preparation and counseling regarding clubfoot. In our series, 90.4% supported prenatal diagnosis.
Julio Javier, Masquijo; Silvio, Marchegiani; Victoria, Allende.
Full Text Available Introducción. El pie bot es una de las anomalías músculo- esqueléticas congénitas más frecuentes. La utilización de la ecografía para la detección prenatal del pie bot ha avanzado rápidamente en la última década, pero las publicaciones han presentado una gran variabilidad de opiniones en cuanto a la eficacia del método, la asociación con otras patologías y la necesidad de realizar amniocentesis para análisis del cariotipo. Objetivos. Analizar en qué porcentaje de pacientes se realizó diagnóstico prenatal del pie bot, evaluar la opinión de las madres al respecto y aclarar algunos conceptos revisando la bibliografía disponible a la fecha. Métodos. Se analizó retrospectivamente un grupo de 54 pacientes consecutivos con diagnóstico de pie bot tratados en el período enero 2008-junio 2010. Se documentaron el número de ecografías realizadas durante el embarazo, el tipo de ecografía realizada (2D, 3D o 4D y la semana de gestación al momento del diagnóstico. Las madres fueron encuestadas a fin de conocer su opinión con respecto al diagnóstico prenatal de esta deformidad. Resultados. Se realizaron 3,2 ecografías promedio durante el embarazo (r, 1-7. En el 25% (13/52 de los casos se realizó diagnóstico prenatal. El diagnóstico fue realizado en 7 casos con ecografía 2D, en 4 con 3D y en 2 con 4D, y en promedio se efectuó a la semana 22 (r, 20-28. En ningún paciente se llevó a cabo diagnóstico temprano, en 12 fue tardío y en 1 muy tardío. Conclusión. El diagnóstico prenatal permite a los padres de prepararse psicológicamente y asesorarse sobre la patología. En nuestra serie, el 90,4% se mostró a favor de conocer previamente el diagnóstico.Introduction. Clubfoot is one of the most frequent congenital musculoskeletal anomalies. The use of ultrasound for prenatal detection of clubfoot has advanced rapidly in the last decade, but publications report a great variability in opinions regarding the effectiveness of the method, the association with other diseases and the need to perform amniocentesis analysis of the karyotype. Objectives. To analyze the percentage of patients with prenatal diagnosis of clubfoot, evaluate mothers' opinion on this issue, and clarify some concepts by reviewing the literature available to date. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed a group of 54 consecutive patients diagnosed with clubfoot treated from January 2008 to June 2010. We documented the number of ultrasounds performed during pregnancy, type of ultrasound (2D, 3D or 4D and the gestational week at diagnosis. Mothers were surveyed to ascertain their opinion with regard to prenatal diagnosis. Results. An average of 3.2 ultrasounds was performed during pregnancy (r, 1-7. Prenatal diagnosis was performed in 25% of cases (13/52 patients. Diagnosis was performed in 7 cases with 2-D ultrasound in 4 with 3-D and in 2 with 4-D. Diagnosis was performed on average at week 22 (r, 20- 28. No patient was diagnosed early, 12 were diagnosed late and 1 very late. Conclusion. Prenatal diagnosis gives parents the opportunity for psychological preparation and counseling regarding clubfoot. In our series, 90.4% supported prenatal diagnosis.
Julio Javier Masquijo
The changes in neurotransmitter concentration after prenatal irradiation observed earlier could also involve a modified binding capacity of corresponding receptors in the brain. Serotonin-2 receptors determined in cortex and striatum of one month old rats are increased after prenatal irradiation on day 12 or 15 but the binding constant is not changed. At an age of 3 months the changes are less conspicuous. The process of myelination as measured from the content of cholesterol, sphingomyelines, choline and ethanolamine containing phospholipids and gangliosides shows little alterations except a temporary increase in choline and ethanolamine containing phospholipids. The function of vascular fragments in total brain, in particular alkaline phosphatase, glutamate transpeptidase and uptake of deoxymethylglucose was found not to be greatly modified after prenatal exposure. From these and the previously reported data it is concluded that the late changes in brain after prenatal irradiation involve mainly the neurons but less the vascular system and myelination. (orig.)
Nowadays, there are a lot of divorces and consequently children, who live with one of the parents and have occasional contacts with the other one. In my diploma I want to find out what kind of relationship father and a child have after divorce, father's feelings about that relationship and the conseqences of this relationship for a father and a child. Parents decide to divorce because of different reasons. After divorce a child lives with only one parent, meanwhile he rarely sees the other on...
Full Text Available Background: The need to provide high quality prenatal care services, which take account of womens views and specifically address their need for information, support and communication, has been advocated and group prenatal care, had been suggested as one of the ways to achieve this objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of group versus individual prenatal care on satisfaction and prenatal care use.Methods: This was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with the health center as the randomization unit that conducted in 2007. Satisfaction was measured through a standardized questionnaire, and the Kotelchuck Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index was used to measure prenatal care utilization.Results: We recruited 678 women (group prenatal care, (N= 344 and individal prenatal care, (N=334 in the study. Women in group prenatal care model were more satisfied than women in individual prenatal care model in all areas evaluated, including information, communication, co-ordination and quality of care. Group care women were significantly more likely to have adequate prenatal care than individual care women were (OR=1.35 95% CI=1.26-1.44.Conclusions: Group prenatal care was associated with a significant improvement in client satisfaction and prenatal care utilization. This model of care has implications for the planning and provision of prenatal services within public health system, which is moving toward a better quality health care, and increasing use of services
Despite the well-documented importance of paternal caregiving for positive child development, little is known about the neural changes that accompany the transition to fatherhood in humans, or about how changes in hormone levels affect paternal brain function. We compared fathers of children aged 1-2 with non-fathers in terms of hormone levels (oxytocin and testosterone), neural responses to child picture stimuli, and neural responses to visual sexual stimuli. Compared to non-fathers, fathers had significantly higher levels of plasma oxytocin and lower levels of plasma testosterone. In response to child picture stimuli, fathers showed stronger activation than non-fathers within regions important for face emotion processing (caudal middle frontal gyrus [MFG]), mentalizing (temporo-parietal junction [TPJ]) and reward processing (medial orbitofrontal cortex [mOFC]). On the other hand, non-fathers had significantly stronger neural responses to sexually provocative images in regions important for reward and approach-related motivation (dorsal caudate and nucleus accumbens). Testosterone levels were negatively correlated with responses to child stimuli in the MFG. Surprisingly, neither testosterone nor oxytocin levels predicted neural responses to sexual stimuli. Our results suggest that the decline in testosterone that accompanies the transition to fatherhood may be important for augmenting empathy toward children. PMID:24882167
Mascaro, Jennifer S; Hackett, Patrick D; Rilling, James K
Objective Prenatal maternal anxiety has detrimental effects on the resulting offspring’s neurocognitive development, including impaired attentional function. Antidepressants are commonly utilized during pregnancy, yet their impact on offspring attention and their interaction with maternal anxiety has not been assessed. Using P50 auditory sensory gating, a putative marker of early attentional processes measurable in young infants, the impact of maternal anxiety and antidepressant use are explored. Method Two hundred forty-two mother-infant dyads were classified relative to maternal history of anxiety and maternal prenatal antidepressant use. Infant P50 auditory sensory gating was recorded during active sleep at a mean± standard deviation of 76 ± 38 days of age. Results In the absence of prenatal antidepressant exposure, infants with mothers with a history of anxiety diagnoses had diminished P50 sensory gating (p<.001). Prenatal antidepressants mitigated the effect of anxiety (uncorrected p=.041). The effect of maternal anxiety was limited to amplitude of response to the second stimulus while antidepressants impacted the amplitude or response to both the first and second stimulus. Conclusion Maternal anxiety disorders are associated less inhibition during infant sensory gating, a performance deficit mitigated by prenatal antidepressant use. This effect may be important in considering the risks and benefits of prenatal antidepressant treatment. Cholinergic mechanisms are hypothesized for both anxiety and antidepressant effects; however the cholinergic receptors involved are likely different for anxiety and antidepressant effects. Additional work focused on understanding how treatment impacts the relationship between maternal prenatal illness and offspring neurocognitive development is indicated.
Hunter, Sharon K.; Mendoza, Jordan H.; D'Anna, Kimberly; Zerbe, Gary O; McCarthy, LizBeth; Hoffman, Camille; Freedman, Robert; Ross, Randal G.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the similarities and differences in goals valuation in father’s and children’s life. According to the motivative Self-Determination Theory (Deci, Ryan, 2000 the aspirations were divided into two groups: external goals (i.e. finance, power, fame and internal goals (i.e. affiliation and prosocial goals. The results suggest that teens, unlike their fathers, estimate higher affiliation goals. The report also shows (in both groups relations between three categories of goals: prosocial, close relationships and self- acceptance.
The ideas that fathers do not have the ability to care for children and that it is not good for families to have fathers take a major responsibility for caregiving are not supported by recent research findings. Observations of fathers interacting with newborn infants reveal that fathers can be just as sensitive and competent in caregiving as…
Full Text Available Contextualization Contemporary Chinese families are experiencing tremendous changes, with the adoption of economic reform and the implementation of the one-child-per-family policy. These changes are inevitably leading to changing parent-child relationships in families, especially for girls’ relationships with their parents. The paper is to research girls’ and fathers’ perceptions of father-daughter relationships among two cohorts of girls aged 13/14 and aged 16/17. It will seek to understand, from fathers’ and daughters’ perspectives, fathers’ influences on girls’ lives in the domains of education, work and career aspirations. In addition, how their relationships change across adolescent girls’ lives will also be explored.
Full Text Available This text is a reflection made which has as its starting point clinical contact with emigrants. The problem of this experience, together with the amplitude of migrations, as well as the general difficulties of our modern times, has made me question our traditional approach to the problem of suffering, especially of exile, both from the point of view of theory and ethics and consequently our position in regard to a cure. How to considerer, in the singularity of the clinical discourse, the elements that give meaning because they refer to the culture, without betraying the intimacy of the confessions of the subjects who are structured by the non meaning of the effects that they cannot know. Here we are faced with the structural impossibility in which the unconscious is constituted. From this question, it seems important to work with notion of subject in his or relationships to other in culture, articulating the way of the representing of the Father, in such a way that the Portuguese culture and its concept of “saudade” is considered. This reflection shows us how culture passed thought the subject and from this point, I develop some hypotheses on the cause of the suffering of a person who is moved from one culture to another.
The main research question of this article is whether and how predictors of fathers' participation in childcare, defined as zero versus more than zero minutes of childcare, differ from predictors of participating fathers' amount of time on childcare, measured as minutes on the survey day. The sample is drawn from the Multinational Time Use Study (MTUS) and covers surveys from ten industrialised countries from 1987 to 2005. Results show that there are remarkable differences between factors inf...
The father is the person in the family that experiences the child and its birth in a different way. During pregnancy he has the opportunity to observe carefully all the changes happening to the mother in order to discover things about his unborn child. The mother on the other hand experiences everything more directly and when the child is born she intuitively knows it needs. Both parents have important influence on their child's personality. The father is an important emotional support to th...
The aim of this paper was to investigate the occurrence of burnout among parents of brain tumour survivors. Burnout was assessed in 24 mothers and 20 fathers of childhood brain tumour survivors, using the Shirom–Melamed Burnout Questionnaire. Parents of children with no history of chronic or serious diseases served as a reference group. Mothers’ burnout scores were significantly higher compared with reference mothers. For fathers, no relation between burnout and being a parent of a brain ...
Einstein is usually revered as the father of special and general relativity. In this article I demonstrate that he is also the father of Solid State Physics, or even his broader version known as Condensed Matter Physics (including liquids). His 1907 article on the specific heat of solids introduces, for the first time, the effect of lattice vibrations on the thermodynamic properties of crystals, in particular the specific heat. His 1905 article on the photoelectric effect an...
Contextualization Contemporary Chinese families are experiencing tremendous changes, with the adoption of economic reform and the implementation of the one-child-per-family policy. These changes are inevitably leading to changing parent-child relationships in families, especially for girls’ relationships with their parents. The paper is to research girls’ and fathers’ perceptions of father-daughter relationships among two cohorts of girls aged 13/14 and aged 16/17. It will se...
This descriptive phenomenological study was designed to explore the life experiences of 14 Taiwanese first-time expectant fathers while their wives were in the third trimester of pregnancy. The authors used unstructured interviews to obtain the data from each participant. Data were analyzed by Colaizzi ' s (1978) method as a qualitative content analysis. In addition, the researcher used the work of Lincoln and Guba (1985) to enhance the rigorousness of this study. The findings demonstrated that during the third trimester of their wives ' pregnancy eight key themes emerged among the first-time expectant fathers, as follows: (1). Jubilation; (2). Feelings of uuncertainty (3). Adjustment; (4). Preparation for fatherhood; (5). Engagement; (6). Gender concerns; (7). The wonder of fetal movement, and (8). Expanded vision. The findings from this study have an important contribution to make to an advancement of practice, education and research concerning first-time fathers ' needs and aspirations. In addition, the findings showed that there is a need to reaffirm the place of caring in nursing and midwifery if our goal is to provide a high quality service which meets the needs of the woman and her family. It is essential for nurses to champion the advancement of family-centred care which involves their partners in pregnancy. PMID:15136964
Kao, Chien-Huei; Long, Ann
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El síndrome o secuencia de Moebius se caracteriza por la afectación del nervio facial y nervio abducens y puede estar asociado a defectos congênitos orofaciales y de las extremidades. Adicionalmente en las dos últimas décadas se han reortada una posible asociación con exposición prenat [...] al a misoprostol. Objetivo: Presentar un caso de síndrome de Moebius con cardiopatía compleja (comunicación interventricular y pseudocoartación de aorta) asociado a exposición prenatal a misoprostol. Caso clínico: Paciente de 5 años quien consulta por antecedente de retardo en el desarrollo psicomotor, anomalías craneofaciales, cardiacas y de las extremidades, con antecedente de exposición prenatal a misoprostol, a quien se le diagnóstica síndrome de Moebius. Conclusiones: Aunque la etiología de este síndrome no es clara, un mecanismo fisiopatológico involucrado es el de la hipoxia que puede ser secundario a la exposición prenatal a misoprostol. Abstract in english Introduction: Moebius syndrome/sequence is characterized by facial and abducens nerve damage and may be associated with congenital orofacial and limb defects. Additionally, in the last two decades, a possible association with prenatal exposure to misoprostol has been reported. Objective: To present [...] a case of Moebius Syndrome with complex heart disease (ventricular septal defect and pseudocoarctation of the aorta) associated with prenatal exposure to misoprostol. Case report: A 5 year old patient diagnosed with Moebius Syndrome who consulted specialists due to psychomotor retardation, craniofacial, heart and limb defects, and with a history of prenatal exposure to misoprostol is presented. Conclusions: Although the etiology of this syndrome is not clear, hypoxia is a pathophysiological mechanism involved, which can be secondary to prenatal exposure to misoprostol.
Harry, Pachajoa L; Carolina, Isaza de L.
The EUROCAT website www.eurocat-network.eu publishes prenatal detection rates for major congenital anomalies using data from European population-based congenital anomaly registers, covering 28% of the EU population as well as non-EU countries. Data are updated annually. This information can be useful for comparative purposes to clinicians and public health service managers involved in the antenatal care of pregnant women as well as those interested in perinatal epidemiology.
Garne, Ester; Dolk, Helen
We report two cases of non-classical fetal lymph angioma, which were diagnosed at prenatal ultrasonography and confimed at autopsy. The tumor involved axilla and anterior mediastinum in one case and lower back and thigh in the other case. The common ultrasonographic findings in both cases were cystic masses with irregular margin and prominent internal septa. In one case, Doppler ultrasonography demonstrated the absence of flow signal in the mass
Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Gak [Cheil Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic Iri, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)
We report two cases of non-classical fetal lymph angioma, which were diagnosed at prenatal ultrasonography and confimed at autopsy. The tumor involved axilla and anterior mediastinum in one case and lower back and thigh in the other case. The common ultrasonographic findings in both cases were cystic masses with irregular margin and prominent internal septa. In one case, Doppler ultrasonography demonstrated the absence of flow signal in the mass
We report a child with segmental maternal uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 6, involving most of the long arm distal to 6q16, detected by SNP microarray. Clinical features include prenatal growth restriction, global developmental delay, and severe gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 6 has previously been reported to cause intrauterine growth restriction. Paternal UPD of this chromosome is well known to cause transient neonatal diabetes mellitus....
Poke, G.; Doody, M.; Prado, J.; Gattas, M.
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) and polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are genetically heterogeneous anomalies which can make up part of various syndromes or chromosomal anomalies. Due to the rapid lethality prognosis, early and precise prenatal diagnosis would be of great value. This case report describes extensive PKD involvement, already present in utero, in a patient with HPE and subdural effusion visible by MR imaging. The detailed anatomic information obtained by the MR imaging can guide the surgical planning and can aid antenatal counseling
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) and polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are genetically heterogeneous anomalies which can make up part of various syndromes or chromosomal anomalies. Due to the rapid lethality prognosis, early and precise prenatal diagnosis would be of great value. This case report describes extensive PKD involvement, already present in utero, in a patient with HPE and subdural effusion visible by MR imaging. The detailed anatomic information obtained by the MR imaging can guide the surgical planning and can aid antenatal counseling.
Koplay, Mustafa [Ergani Status Hospital, Diyarbakir (Turkmenistan); Onbas, Omer; Alper, Fatih; Borekci, Bunyamin [Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkmenistan)
The premise underlying prenatal testing is that knowing the health status of the fetus will enable expectant parents to make rational reproductive decisions. Accordingly, rational-choice perspectives have informed both counselling protocols and the majority of investigations into the psychological processes involved in making decisions about testing and selective abortion. However, because conditions inherent in the testing situation may not adhere to the basic assumptions of rational choice ...
We characterized depressive symptoms in the prenatal and/or postpartum periods and examined associated risk factors among 594 women who received care at community health care centers. Women were screened with comprehensive risk assessments, which included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression screen, during pregnancy and at least 4 weeks after delivery. Fifteen percent had depressive symptoms in the prenatal period only; 6 % in the postpartum period only, and 8 % had depressive symptoms in both periods. Risk markers varied for women who reported depressive symptoms at one period only compared with those who reported persistent depressive symptoms. Age (25 years versus younger), having experienced abuse, not living with the infant's father, and cigarette smoking were associated with depressive symptoms at both periods; being US-born, lacking social support, and experiencing food insecurity were associated with reporting symptoms only in the prenatal period, and lack of phone access was associated with risk only in the postpartum period. Our findings confirm the importance of repeated screenings for depressive symptoms during the perinatal period. The variability in risk markers associated with periods of reported depressive symptoms may reflect their varying associations with persistence, new onset, or recovery from depressive symptoms. PMID:24037098
Sidebottom, Abbey C; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Harrison, Patricia A; Hennrikus, Deborah
Prenatal infection and exposure to traumatizing experiences during peripuberty have each been associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. Evidence is lacking for the cumulative impact of such prenatal and postnatal environmental challenges on brain functions and vulnerability to psychiatric disease. Here, we show in a translational mouse model that combined exposure to prenatal immune challenge and peripubertal stress induces synergistic pathological effects on adult behavioral functions and neurochemistry. We further demonstrate that the prenatal insult markedly increases the vulnerability of the pubescent offspring to brain immune changes in response to stress. Our findings reveal interactions between two adverse environmental factors that have individually been associated with neuropsychiatric disease and support theories that mental illnesses with delayed onsets involve multiple environmental hits.
Giovanoli, Sandra; Engler, Harald
In 1965, Daniel Patrick Moynihan argued that the black family was nearing "complete breakdown" due to high rates of out-of-wedlock childbearing. In subsequent decades, nonmarital childbearing rose dramatically for all racial groups and unwed fathers were often portrayed as being absent from their children's lives. The authors examine contemporary nonmarital father involvement using quantitative evidence from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and qualitative evidence from in-depth interviews with 150 unmarried fathers. The authors find that father involvement drops sharply after parents' relationships end, especially when they enter subsequent relationships and have children with new partners. These declines are less dramatic for African American fathers, suggesting that fathers' roles outside of conjugal relationships may be more strongly institutionalized in the black community. The challenges Moynihan described among black families some forty years ago now extend to a significant minority of all American children. PMID:21359113
Edin, Kathryn; Tach, Laura; Mincy, Ronald
Inherited metabolic diseases are mostly due to enzyme deficiency in one of numerous metabolic pathways, leading to absence of a compound downstream from and the accumulation of a compound upstream from the deficient metabolite(s). Diseases of intoxication by proteins (aminoacidopathies, organic acidurias, urea cycle defects) and by sugars (galactosemia, fructosemia) usually do not give prenatal symptoms since mothers protect their fetuses from pathological metabolite accumulation. A well-known exception is hypoplasia of corpus callosum, as is sometimes observed in nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sulfite oxidase deficiency. Conversely, women with phenylketonuria "poison" their fetus if they are not treated (spontaneous abortions, intrauterine growth restriction [IUGR], cardiac malformations, and brain disease). Amino acid synthesis defects can lead to prenatal symptoms: microcephaly in serine deficiency (detectable by amino acid analysis in fetal cord blood), and brain malformations in glutamine synthetase deficiency. Impaired folate metabolism is involved in a large fraction of neurodevelopmental defects referred to as spina bifida, yet the underlying genetic component(s) are largely unknown. Energy metabolism diseases caused by defects in the synthesis or utilization of relevant metabolites lead to organ dysfunctions or malformations, but prenatal diagnosis is usually impossible unless genetic analysis can rely on a previously affected child in the family. A somewhat intermediate condition is defects of mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids, as they may sometimes be symptomatic prenatally (notably the HELLP syndrome or other presentations), and in this case, organic acid and acylcarnitine analysis in amniotic fluid can be informative in the absence of an index case. In contrast, complex molecule diseases commonly give prenatal symptoms that may permit the diagnosis even in the absence of index cases: hydrops fetalis and skeletal anomalies in lysosomal storage diseases, hydrops fetalis in congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) and transaldolase deficiency, brain malformations in O-glycosylation defects, brain malformations, kidney cysts and skeletal anomalies in peroxysomal diseases (Zellweger syndrome), syndactyly, genitalia malformations, and IUGR in Smith-Lemli-Opitz (SLO) syndrome. Although many metabolic disorders show biochemical abnormalities during fetal development that are informative for prenatal diagnosis, only a fraction of them are clinically/sonographically symptomatic before birth, thus allowing for prenatal diagnosis in the absence of an index case, i.e., serine deficiency, some fatty acid beta-oxidation defects, transaldolase deficiency, lysosomal diseases, CDG, Zellweger syndrome, and SLO syndrome. PMID:22884749
Brassier, A; Ottolenghi, C; Boddaert, N; Sonigo, P; Attié-Bitach, T; Millischer-Bellaiche, A-E; Baujat, G; Cormier-Daire, V; Valayannopoulos, V; Seta, N; Piraud, M; Chadefaux-Vekemans, B; Vianey-Saban, C; Froissart, R; de Lonlay, P
We present a case of horseshoe lung (HL) and esophageal atresia suspected prenatally on US imaging and confirmed with fetal MRI. Prenatal diagnosis of HL and esophageal atresia allowed for prenatal counseling and informed parental decisions. (orig.)
Goldberg, Shlomit; Ringertz, Hans [Stanford University School of Medicine, Radiology Department, Stanford, CA (United States); Barth, Richard A. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Radiology Department, Stanford, CA (United States); Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States)
We present a case of horseshoe lung (HL) and esophageal atresia suspected prenatally on US imaging and confirmed with fetal MRI. Prenatal diagnosis of HL and esophageal atresia allowed for prenatal counseling and informed parental decisions. (orig.)
Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.
Prenatal medicine strives to reveal hereditary disorders and congenital malformations before delivery. The application of RIA significantly widened the spectrum of available diagnostic possibilities. We first focused our attention on determining alpha-1-fetoprotein in the amniotic fluid and the serum. We used the results of 33 examinations of the amniotic fluid and 100 samples of the blood serum to compile a graph of physiological values during pregnancy. The graph is used in assessing clinical samples in suspect congenital disorders of neural tube closure and other malformations. In the last two years we have tested testosterone determination in the amniotic fluid to ascertain prenatally the fetal sex in early pregnancy. The results were satisfactory and agreed in 70.6%. (author)
A paucity of prenatal data is available concerning prenatal experiences of primigravid women compared with those of multigravid women. Therefore, the objectives of this study were twofold: to compare prenatal personal (demographic and other descriptive elements, including self-esteem) and psychosocial variables (maternal-fetal attachment, marital satisfaction) and to describe perceived pregnancy experiences for both primigravid and multigravid women. Both quantitative and qualitative data wer...
Nichols, Mary R.; Roux, Gayle M.; Harris, Nena R.
Prenatal diagnosis aims either to provide the reassurance to the couples at risk of having an affected child by timely appropriate therapy or to give the parents a chance to decide the fate of the unborn babies with health problems. Invasive prenatal diagnosis (IPD) is accurate, however, carrying a risk of miscarriage. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) has been developed based on the existing of fetal genetic materials in maternal circulation; however, a minority fetal DNA in majority ma...
Zhong, Xiao Yan; Holzgreve, Wolfgang
Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23–37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.
This research assessed the effects of yoga on prenatal depression symptoms using archival data. Depressed pregnant women were randomly assigned to either a yoga treatment group (n = 12) or a parenting education control group (n = 12). Women in the yoga group participated in classes two times a week for a period of 12 weeks. The attention control group received 12 parenting education sessions on the same schedule. The yoga versus control group showed greater decreases on the depressed affect a...
Jennifer Mitchell; Tiffany Field; Miguel Diego; Debra Bendell; Rae Newton; Martha Pelaez
Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.
Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Identificar, na literatura científica, publicações sobre a participação do pai ou companheiro no aleitamento materno. FONTES DE DADOS: Realizou-se uma revisão integrativa no período de 1995 a 2010, utilizando-se os unitermos "pai" e "aleitamento materno" nas bases de dados LILACS, SciELO, [...] BDENF e PubMed/MEDLINE. Os dados obtidos foram organizados em três categorias: o pai como suporte para a amamentação; percepções paternas sobre a amamentação; e o impacto da intervenção educativa sobre aleitamento para os pais. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Foram identificadas 44 publicações que mostraram que o apoio social, profissional e familiar foi imprescindível para o sucesso do aleitamento materno. O pai foi destacado como suporte fundamental pela forte influência na decisão da mulher em amamentar e na sua continuidade. Contudo, a participação do pai exibe sentimentos ambivalentes: competitividade com a mãe vs. proteção; exclusão vs. aumento do vínculo familiar; apoio vs. preconceitos. Os profissionais de saúde, apontados como referência na busca de informações, mostram-se despreparados para atender aos pais. CONCLUSÕES: Foram encontradas várias produções científicas ressaltando a relevância do apoio paterno para o sucesso do aleitamento materno. Contudo, a maioria das pesquisas apresenta abordagem descritiva, havendo poucos estudos com intervenções educativas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify publications regarding the role of the father or partner in the breastfeeding practice. DATA SOURCE: An integrative review of the literature was performed searching for articles published between 1995 and 2010, using the key-words "father" and "breastfeeding" in following data [...] bases: LILACS, SciELO, BDENF e PubMed/MEDLINE. Data were organized in three categories: the supporting role of the father on breastfeeding; paternal perceptions about breastfeeding; and the impact of educational intervention on breastfeeding for parents. DATA SYNTHESIS: 44 articles showed that social, professional and family support is vital to successful breastfeeding. The father was highlighted as crucial supporter due to his strong influence over women´s decision to breastfeed and to maintain breastfeeding. However, the involvement of the father presents evasive patterns: competition with the mother vs. protection, exclusion vs. increase strength in the family relationships, support vs. prejudices. Health professionals were reported as reference sources of education, however they were shown as unprepared to assist the parents. CONCLUSIONS: Several studies on the theme of paternal support were found in the literature, which highlights its importance for successful breastfeeding. However, most of the research had a descriptive approach and there were few studies on educational interventions.
Bruna Turaça, Silva; Luciano Borges, Santiago; Joel Alves, Lamonier.
Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma) is an autosomal dominant skin disorder caused by defects in the suprabasal keratins. Recently, mutations in the keratins 1 and 10 have been identified in patients with this disease. In this study, direct gene sequencing was used to establish the prenatal diagnosis in 15-week gestation twins at risk for epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. Direct sequence analysis of genomic DNA from the affected father and from both chorionic villus samples revealed a tyrosine to asparagine mutation at position 14 within the highly conserved 1A alpha-helical segment of keratin 10. None of the unaffected family members that were analyzed exhibit this mutation nor have polymorphic variations been observed in the normal population at this position. This residue is invariant in all type I keratins sequenced to date and is also conserved in related intermediate filament proteins such as vimentin and lamin. Given this high degree of conservation it is probable that any mutation at this position is deleterious and will result in disease. PMID:7507150
Rothnagel, J A; Longley, M A; Holder, R A; Küster, W; Roop, D R
Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…
Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.
Prenatal screening for karyotype anomalies takes place in most European countries. In Denmark, the screening method was changed in 2005. The aim of this study was to study the trends in prevalence and prenatal detection rates of chromosome anomalies and Down syndrome (DS) over a 22-year period.
FrÃ¸slev-Friis, Christina; Hjort-Pedersen, Karina
Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.
Noninvasive prenatal testing is a relatively new screening method for the detection of fetal chromosome abnormalities using next-generation sequencing (NGS) of fetal DNA in maternal blood. Recently, the introduction of a new tool called WIthin SamplE COpy Number aberration DetectOR (WISECONDOR) marked a new era in prenatal screening. WISECONDOR detects copy number aberrations at a resolution that is almost comparable to classic karyotyping and requires only shallow sequencing, making noninvasive prenatal screening cost-effective. This emphasizes the role of NGS in the daily clinical practice of prenatal diagnosis and will require reorganization of clinical genetics laboratories to accommodate NGS. For prenatal diagnostics, WISECONDOR introduces an exciting development that will substantially improve the information provided to pregnant couples regarding their fetus's wellbeing. PMID:24831532
Straver, Roy; Sistermans, Erik A; Reinders, Marcel J T
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A interação pai-criança deficiente merece atenção e precisa de mais investigações. Este estudo descreveu características dos pais de crianças com deficiência mental, com idade entre dois e quatro anos, quanto a stress, empoderamento (processo pelo qual os familiares obtêm acesso a conhecimentos, hab [...] ilidades e recursos que os capacitam a ganhar controle positivo de suas vidas, bem como melhorar a qualidade de seus estilos de vida), apoio social e qualidade do ambiente. Treze pais responderam aos seguintes instrumentos: Questionário de Caracterização do Sistema Familiar, Questionário de Recursos e Stress na forma resumida, Guia Geral de Transcrição dos Dados de Entrevista, Entrevista de Caracterização do Papel do Pai na Educação da Criança com Deficiência Mental, Escala de Empoderamento da Família, Escala de Senso de Competência Parental e Observação Domiciliar para Medida do Ambiente - Primeira Infância. Os resultados indicaram pais com baixo nível socioeconômico e de escolaridade, papel tradicional, presença de stress, autoestima adequada e porcentagens elevadas de empoderamento, além de ambiente domiciliar pobre em estimulação à criança. Os participantes se classificaram como bons pais e figuras importantes na vida das crianças, despendendo muitas horas de interação com elas. Percebe-se a necessidade de estudos com diferentes metodologias e de envolvimento do pai nos serviços profissionais para seus filhos. Abstract in english The interaction between a father and his disabled child deserves attention and needs further investigation. This study described characteristics of the fathers of mentally disabled children, aged between two and four years old, in terms of stress, empowerment, social support and quality of the envir [...] onment. Thirteen fathers answered the following tools: Characterization of Family System Questionnaire, Questionnaire on Resources and Stress - Short Form, General Guide to Transcription of Interview Data, Interview in respect of the Characterization of the Role of the Father in the Education of the Mentally Disabled Child, Family Empowerment Scale, Parent Sense of Competence Scale and Early Childhood - The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment. Results pointed to fathers of low socio-economic and educational levels, traditional role, presence of stress, adequate self-esteem and high percentages of empowerment, while the home environment failed to stimulate the child. The participants ranked themselves as good fathers and important figures in the child's life, spending many hours interacting with the child. It can be seen that there is a need for further studies using different methodologies as well as for the father's involvement in professional services for their children.
Nancy Capretz Batista da, Silva; Ana Lúcia Rossito, Aiello.
The Sessions on Prenatal Exposition on Ionizing Radiations was organized by the Argentine Radioprotection Society, in Buenos Aires, between 8 and 9, November 2001. In this event, were presented papers on: biological effects of ionizing radiation; the radiation protection and the pregnant woman; embryo fetal development and its relationship with the responsiveness to teratogens; radioinduced delayed mental; neonatal irradiation: neurotoxicity and modulation of pharmacological response; pre implanted mouse embryos as a model of uranium toxicity studies; hereditary effects of the radiation and new advances from the UNSCEAR 2001; doses estimation in embryo
The hypotheses for the initial investigation was based on the idea that failure to observe structural teratogenesis following microwave exposure did not preclude the possibility that such exposure would result in behavioral changes. We also proposed that such exposure might specifically alter some aspect of thermoregulatory behavior. The results of these studies support both of these hypotheses. Whether the studies show enhanced thermal sensitivity or enhanced development, they do support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to microwave radiation is more likely to alter postnatal sensitivity to thermally related stimuli or conditions as compared to stimuli that are thermally neutral.
O' Connor, M.E.
The radiopharmaceutical administration with diagnostic or therapeutic purpose during pregnancy implies a prenatal radiation dose. The dose assessment and the evaluation of the radiological risks become relevant due to the great radiosensitivity of the fetal tissues in development. This paper is a revision of the available data for estimating fetal doses in the cases of the more frequently used radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine, taking into account recent investigation in placental crossover. The more frequent diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were analyzed according to the radiation doses implied. (author)
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of a noncustodial fathers program on fathers' child support payments, visitation, and his coparenting relationship with the custodial mother. Research has documented the decline in father's participation in child rearing once he is out of the home and the deleterious effects of father absence on children's development. Forty noncustodial fathers participated in a 10-week program designed to encourage noncustodial fathers increased...
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Postnatal depression is a significant problem affecting 10-15% of mothers in many countries and has been the subject of an increasing number of publications. Prenatal depression has been studied less. The aims of the present investigation were: 1) to obtain information on the prevalence of prenatal [...] and postnatal depression in low income Brazilian women by using an instrument already employed in several countries, i.e., the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS); 2) to evaluate the risk factors involved in prenatal and postnatal depression in Brazil. The study groups included 33 pregnant women interviewed at home during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and once a month during the first six months after delivery. Questions on life events and the mother's relationship with the baby were posed during each visit. Depressed pregnant women received less support from their partners than non-depressed pregnant women (36.4 vs 72.2%, P
V.A., Da-Silva; A.R., Moraes-Santos; M.S., Carvalho; M.L.P., Martins; N.A., Teixeira.
Full Text Available Postnatal depression is a significant problem affecting 10-15% of mothers in many countries and has been the subject of an increasing number of publications. Prenatal depression has been studied less. The aims of the present investigation were: 1 to obtain information on the prevalence of prenatal and postnatal depression in low income Brazilian women by using an instrument already employed in several countries, i.e., the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; 2 to evaluate the risk factors involved in prenatal and postnatal depression in Brazil. The study groups included 33 pregnant women interviewed at home during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and once a month during the first six months after delivery. Questions on life events and the mother's relationship with the baby were posed during each visit. Depressed pregnant women received less support from their partners than non-depressed pregnant women (36.4 vs 72.2%, P<0.05; Fisher exact test. Black women predominated among pre- and postnatally depressed subjects. Postnatal depression was associated with lower parity (0.4 ± 0.5 vs 1.1 ± 1.0, P<0.05; Student t-test. Thus, the period of pregnancy may be susceptible to socio-environmental factors that induce depression, such as the lack of affective support from the partner. The prevalence rate of 12% observed for depression in the third month postpartum is comparable to that of studies from other countries.
Postnatal depression is a significant problem affecting 10-15% of mothers in many countries and has been the subject of an increasing number of publications. Prenatal depression has been studied less. The aims of the present investigation were: 1) to obtain information on the prevalence of prenatal and postnatal depression in low income Brazilian women by using an instrument already employed in several countries, i.e., the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS); 2) to evaluate the risk factors involved in prenatal and postnatal depression in Brazil. The study groups included 33 pregnant women interviewed at home during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and once a month during the first six months after delivery. Questions on life events and the mother's relationship with the baby were posed during each visit. Depressed pregnant women received less support from their partners than non-depressed pregnant women (36.4 vs 72.2%, P postnatally depressed subjects. Postnatal depression was associated with lower parity (0.4 +/- 0.5 vs 1.1 +/- 1.0, P depression, such as the lack of affective support from the partner. The prevalence rate of 12% observed for depression in the third month postpartum is comparable to that of studies from other countries. PMID:9698826
Da-Silva, V A; Moraes-Santos, A R; Carvalho, M S; Martins, M L; Teixeira, N A
Studied perceptions and attitudes of fathers and mothers about their own and their spouse's parental roles, and identified relationships between those perceptions and variations in fathers' actual involvement in child rearing. Found mothers' perceptions of their partners' investments in parent, spouse, and worker roles were best predictors of…
McBride, Brent A.; Rane, Thomas R.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fathers are increasingly providing substantial amounts of technical and nursing care to growing numbers of children with complex healthcare needs. This exploratory study reports some of the first in-depth evidence of fathers' experiences and presents a research agenda in this critically under-researched area. Methods We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 8 fathers who provided a substantial amount of complex technical and nursing care for their child at home. The aim was to describe their experiences of fathering, parenting and caring. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Burnard's approach, which has commonalities with phenomenological and content analysis. Results and Discussion Fathers enjoyed their caring role and found it rewarding and at times stressful. They instituted structured regimes, which focused on the father/child/family. Performing intimate care posed specific challenges for which there is no guidance. Children's community nursing was highly valued. Fathers generally rejected the need for specific father-focussed services, as such provision would induce guilt feelings. Fathers reported positive relationships with their children and partners. Conclusions Key areas for future exploration include gaining a better understanding of fathers' motivations and styles of caring, developing interventions to support fathers' caring role, developing guidance on intimate care, and delivering tailored services to fathers in a family context. There is little understanding of fathering and caring by non-resident, teenage and step-fathers. Finally, knowing more about resilience and coping of fathers in strong relationships with partners and children may help inform interventions to support fathers who do not feel able to stay with their family.
An investigation of changes in functioning of mothers and fathers following divorce is presented in this paper. Subjects were 24 white middle class boys and 24 girls and their divorced parents, from homes in which custody had been granted to the mother, and the same number of children and parents from intact homes. A multimethod approach,…
Hetherington, E. Mavis; And Others
This study examined links between paternal and maternal parenting factors and preschool hyperactivity in a community sample. Forty-one hyperactive and 38 comparison boys (aged 47-62 months) and their fathers and mothers were assessed on a range of interview, parent questionnaire, and observational measures of parenting and child behavior. Results…
The author reviews his experiences as the father of a child with spina bifida, a congenital problem in which the spine is not completely enclosed. He recounts his feelings upon first finding out about the condition and his son's subsequent surgeries and crises. (CL)
Remmel, Carl L.
In this study we examined the relationship between menarche and interest in infants among adolescent girls, and the effects of early environment, particularly of father absence from home, on both variables. Eighty-three girls ranging in age from between 11 and 14 years served as study participants. Interest in infants was assessed through their…
Maestripieri, Dario; Roney, James R.; Debias, Nicole; Durante, Kristina M.; Spaepen, Geertrui M.
Ninety-three pregnant women with Toxoplasma gondii seroconversion during pregnancy underwent prenatal diagnosis of fetal toxoplasmosis. The following tests were used: (1). amniocentesis for mouse inoculation (93 subjects), (2). amplification of T. gondii DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (79 subjects), and (3). cordocentesis for the detection of T. gondii-specific IgM antibodies (13 subjects). All patients had serial ultrasonographic scans to detect those fetuses with abnormalities that could be associated with congenital toxoplasmosis. Eighteen pregnancies (19.4%) had evidence of vertical transmission. A total of 11/18 (61.1%) had positive amniotic mouse inoculation test, while 10/12 (83.3%) had positive PCR results. The combination of both tests allowed the prenatal diagnosis in 17/18 infected fetuses (94.4%). All patients who underwent cordocentesis for the detection of T. gondii-specific IgM antibodies had negative results. However, in two of the above cases fetal toxoplasmosis was detected by amniotic fluid studies. In five of the infected fetuses there were abnormal ultrasonographic findings. All pregnancies with evidence of vertical transmission were terminated, whereas the remaining pregnancies proceeded normally to term. The present data showed that amniotic fluid studies, preferably PCR amplification of T. gondii DNA, are the best diagnostic tools for the detection of vertical transmission in pregnancies with seroconversion during pregnancy. PMID:12454967
Antsaklis, Aris; Daskalakis, George; Papantoniou, Nikolaos; Mentis, Andreas; Michalas, Stylianos
Differenze di genere e genitorialità: lo stile educativo di padri e madri. Risultati di una ricerca empirica Gender differences and parenting: the educational style of fathers and mothers. Results from an empirical study
Full Text Available Quantitative empirical study presented here concern two main dimensions: on the one hand the participation of fathers and mothers to housework and child care, considering the educational outcome that this has on children and on other hand the fathers' and mothers' educational style, comparing also each other's perceptions. The leading objective underlying the investigation consist on understanding whether, in the rapidly changing actual social context, the parental couples reproduce family and educational patterns based on a traditional conception of gender roles, or, instead, present elements of transformation and, in case, in what direction they are going. The data from the sample, couples of parents living in a rural town (222 subjects, showed the presence of some changes that least affect the redistribution of family work between men and women (work that still disadvantage women, and that deal with father’s functions and characteristics: the fathers appear less normative and more inclined to involvement with their children. Finally, mothers and fathers seam found the educational relationship primarily on dialogue, with some differences in the type of approach depending on the children gender.Quantitative empirical study presented here concern two main dimensions: on the one hand the participation of fathers and mothers to housework and child care, considering the educational outcome that this has on children and on other hand the fathers' and mothers' educational style, comparing also each other's perceptions. The leading objective underlying the investigation consist on understanding whether, in the rapidly changing actual social context, the parental couples reproduce family and educational patterns based on a traditional conception of gender roles, or, instead, present elements of transformation and, in case, in what direction they are going. The data from the sample, couples of parents living in a rural town (222 subjects, showed the presence of some changes that least affect the redistribution of family work between men and women (work that still disadvantage women, and that deal with father’s functions and characteristics: the fathers appear less normative and more inclined to involvement with their children. Finally, mothers and fathers seam found the educational relationship primarily on dialogue, with some differences in the type of approach depending on the children gender.
Little is known about the characteristics of boys who become fathers at young age. Some studies have suggested that antisocial adolescents are more likely to be young fathers. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of psychosocial factors in childhood with becoming a young father, and to assess if they are independent of criminal behavior in adolescence.
The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…
Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina
Despite the growing body of research on the topic of adolescent parenthood, few studies have examined the perceptions and lived experiences of African American teen fathers. The primary aim of this study was to examine how this group defines and performs the father role. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 African American fathers aged 14…
Paschal, Angelia M.; Lewis-Moss, Rhonda K.; Hsiao, Tracy
Full Text Available Está a punto de estrenarse en cine, o quizás ya se estrenó en otras latitudes, la versión cinematográfica del último libro de Cormack McCarthy: La carretera. Galardonado con el Pulitzer por este último libro y conocido entre los lectores casuales gracias a su anterior novela: No country for old men, llevada al cine de forma impecable por los hermanos Cohen, McCarthy sorprende dejando ver que a lo largo de su obra, en particular en La carretera, aparece una pregunta por el padre. Tema que de continuo tratan los psicoanalistas, desafortunadamente no con la belleza con que lo hace el poeta. La obra de McCarthy es otro de los tantos ejemplos en los que la literatura enseña al psicoanálisis. // The premiere is ready or maybe it was showed in other latitudes the Cormack Mccarthy movie version of his last book: The Road. This last book won the Pulitzer Prize, also known among the casual readers for his previous novel: No country for old men, impeccable movie version by Cohen brothers. Along his work McCarthy surprise allowing to see, especially in The Road, a question for the father. Subject usually worked by the psychoanalysts, unfortunately, not with the same beauty that the poet does it. McCarthy’s work is other among many examples where the literature teaches to psychoanalysis.
Alexander Cruz Aponasenko
The objective of this study is to look at the understanding and perceptions of public health nurses (PHNs) related to behavioral characteristics of fathers that contribute to emotional instability in mothers by reviewing abuse cases involving infants and very young children. A qualitative descriptive design w...
The low prevalence of fetal CNS anomalies results in a restricted level of exposure to, and limited experience for most obstetricians involved in, prenatal ultrasound. Sonographic guidelines for screening the fetal brain in a systematic way may increase the detection rate of fetal CNS anomalies, thus promoting correct referral to tertiary care centers offering patients a multidisciplinary approach to the condition. The aim of this review is to elaborate on the prenatal sonographic diagnosis and outcome of various CNS malformations. Detailed neurosonographic investigation has become available through high-resolution vaginal ultrasound probes and the development of a variety of 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound modalities, such as ultrasound tomographic imaging. In addition, fetal magnetic resonance imaging is particularly helpful in the detection of gyration and neurulation anomalies, and disorders of the gray and white matter. Isolated mild ventriculomegaly is a rather common finding with good overall outcome. With an increasing diameter of the atria, however, and especially with the presence of associated malformations, long-term neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcome is disturbed in about 15% or more of cases. In view of recent developments in fetal therapy for neural tube defects, there is a clear need for a high level of ultrasound screening, work-up and counseling in tertiary care centers to identify those cases that might benefit from in utero intervention. The failure of prosencephalic midline induction and development results in midline defects ranging from alobar holoprosencephaly to isolated corpus callosum defects. The detection of callosal abnormaties is enhanced by 3D ultrasound, but counseling on neurodevelopmental outcome remains challenging. The Dandy-Walker spectrum includes isolated megacisterna magna, Blake's pouch cyst, hypoplasia of the vermis and Dandy-Walker malformation. Except for complete agenesis of the vermis associated with fourth ventricle cyst formation, data on long-term outcomes for the various conditions is largely lacking. Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) results in the highest incidence of children born with, or developing, long-term neurologic conditions. If proof of fetal infection has been delivered, microcephaly, cortical malformations, and intraparenchymal cysts show a strong correlation with poor outcome. Fetuses with CMV-related ultrasound abnormalities might benefit from maternal transplacental treatment. The aneurysm of the vein of Galen, a vascular malformation of the brain, often results in high cardiac output failure. After neonatal arterial embolization, survival is about 50% with normal neurologic development in 36% of cases. Over 50% of intracranial tumors are teratomata, presenting as fast-growing heterogeneous solid-cystic masses with calcifications. Most intracranial hemorrhages are related to the ventricular system, and prognosis is often poor, particularly in cases involving parenchymal and subdural bleeding. Proliferation disorders of the brain are often characterized by microcephaly. Their etiology is heterogeneous and prenatal diagnosis is often made late in gestation. PMID:22242843
De Catte, Luc; De Keersmaeker, Bart; Claus, Filip
Prenatal diagnosis of severe congenital disease with termination of affected pregnancies is an accepted part of the contemporary practice of clinical genetics. First-trimester prenatal tissue sampling has been studied for years with various results. The key to success in sampling came with the application of ultrasound to guide the sampling procedure. The use of the Portex catheter or canula for sampling is the most common method today. There are other variations available and under trial by European investigators. All of these methods appear to have a high rate of success in obtaining prenatal tissue with a low rate of immediate complications. The author discusses how the sampling is done
Imperforate hymen is one of the most simple and most common anomalies in the female genital organs, occurring in 0.1% of girls born at term. Some are recognized because of mucocolpos at birth, but the diagnosis is usually not detected before puberty. Rarely, obstetric sonography may prenatally detect imperforate hymen due to presentation of hydrocolpos or hydrometrocolpos in the fetus if fetal cervical and vaginal secretions accumulate in response to circulating maternal estrogens. Nonetheless, reports of prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of hydrometrocolpos are still very rare. In this article we report a prenatally diagnosed of imperforate hymen with hydrometrocolpos. PMID:18299863
Yildirim, Gokhan; Gungorduk, Kemal; Aslan, Halil; Sudolmus, Sinem; Ark, Cemal; Saygin, Sezin
Congenital granular cell tumor (GCT) is a relatively rare intraoral benign tumor, approximately 200 cases of which have been reported in the neonatal period worldwide. The newborn infant may have feeding problems and respiratory difficulties due to airway obstruction. This lesion may be diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography and simple resection is mostly required. We report a case of an adult type of GCT in a newly born infant, who presented with an intraoral protruding mass with a prenatal diagnosis. This article describes the prenatal course, clinical, and pathological characteristics, and management of the GCT. PMID:24644385
Kadivar, Maliheh; Sangsari, Razieh; Alavi, Azin
Congenital granular cell tumor (GCT) is a relatively rare intraoral benign tumor, approximately 200 cases of which have been reported in the neonatal period worldwide. The newborn infant may have feeding problems and respiratory difficulties due to airway obstruction. This lesion may be diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography and simple resection is mostly required. We report a case of an adult type of GCT in a newly born infant, who presented with an intraoral protruding mass with a prenatal diagnosis. This article describes the prenatal course, clinical, and pathological characteristics, and management of the GCT.
Kadivar, Maliheh; Sangsari, Razieh; Alavi, Azin
Full Text Available Objective: Compare neonatal morbidities in women with no prenatal care, and women with inadequate prenatal care, to those with adequate prenatal care. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of neonatal morbidities of 3 exposure groups. Group 1: No prenatal care; Group 2: Inadequate prenatal care; Group 3: Intermediate/adequate prenatal care. Results: 2.5%, 23.3% and 74.1% of subjects (N = 264,138 were in Groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Severe neonatal morbidity was more common in Group 1, followed by Group 2, and least common in Group 3. After controlling for gestational age and birth weight, most of these differences were attenuated and not significant except for the following Group 1 vs Group 3 comparisons: meconium aspiration, odds ratio (OR 2.15 and 95% confidence interval (CI 1.39 - 3.33; suspected sepsis, OR 1.30 and CI 1.13 - 1.49; proven viral sepsis, OR 2.23 and CI 1.24 - 4.00. Conclusions: Severe neonatal morbidity was most common in those with no prenatal care followed by those with inadequate prenatal care. For most neonatal morbidities, this could largely be explained by gestational age and birth weight differences, but for some neonatal morbidities (meconium aspirations, viral sepsis and dysmorphic features the impact of no prenatal care persisted after adjustment for these factors.
Heroin use among young women of reproductive age has drawn much attention around the world. However, there is lack of information on the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to opioids on their offspring. Our previous study demonstrated that prenatally buprenorphine-exposed offspring showed a marked change in the cross-tolerance to morphine compared with other groups. In the current study, this animal model was used to study effects of methamphetamine (METH)-induced behavioral sensitization in the offspring at their adulthood. The results showed no differences in either basal or acute METH-induced locomotor activity in any of the groups of animals tested. When male offspring received METH injections of 2?mg/kg, i.p., once a day for 5?days, behavioral sensitization was induced, as determined by motor activity. Furthermore, the distance and rate of development (slope) of locomotor activity and conditioned place preference induced by METH were significantly increased in the prenatally buprenorphine-exposed animals compared with those in other groups. The dopamine D1 R in the nucleus accumbens of the prenatally buprenorphine-exposed offspring had lower mRNA expression; but no significant changes in the ?-, ?-opioid, nociceptin, D2 R and D3 R receptors were noted. Furthermore, significant alterations were observed in the basal level of cAMP and the D1 R agonist enhanced adenylyl cyclase activity in the prenatally buprenorphine-exposed group. Overall, the study demonstrates that D1 R and its downregulated cAMP signals are involved in enhancing METH-induced behavioral sensitization in prenatally buprenorphine-exposed offspring. The study reveals that prenatal exposure to buprenorphine caused long-term effects on offspring and affected the dopaminergic system-related reward mechanism. PMID:23551991
Chiang, Yao-Chang; Hung, Tsai-Wei; Ho, Ing-Kang
ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to low doses of lindane has been shown to affect the ontogeny of xenobiotic metabolizing cytochrome P450s (CYPs), involved in the metabolism and neurobehavioral toxicity of lindane. Attempts were made in the present study to investigate the responsiveness of CYPs in offspring prenatally exposed to lindane (0.25 mg/kg b. wt.; 1/350th of LD50; p. o. to mother) when challenged with 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) or phenobarbital (PB), inducers of CYP1A and 2B families or a sub-convulsant dose of lindane (30 mg/kg b. wt., p. o.) later in life. Prenatal exposure to lindane was found to produce an increase in the mRNA and protein expression of CYP1A1, 1A2, 2B1, 2B2 isoforms in brain and liver of the offspring at postnatal day 50. The increased expression of the CYPs in the offspring suggests the sensitivity of the CYPs during postnatal development, possibly, to low levels of lindane, which may partition into mother's milk. A higher increase in expression of CYP1A and 2B isoenzymes and their catalytic activity was observed in animals pretreated prenatally with lindane and challenged with MC (30 mg/kg, i. p. x 5 days) or PB (80 mg/kg, i. p. x 5 days) when young at age (approx. 7 weeks) compared to animals exposed to MC or PB alone. Further, challenge of the control and prenatally exposed offspring with a single sub-convulsant dose of lindane resulted in an earlier onset and increased incidence of convulsions in the offspring prenatally exposed to lindane have demonstrated sensitivity of the CYPs in the prenatally exposed offspring. Our data assume significance as the subtle changes in the expression profiles of hepatic and cerebral CYPs in rat offspring during postnatal development could modify the adult response to a later exposure to xenobiotics
Objective: Situs anomalies refer to an abnormal organ arrangement, which may be associated with severe errors of development. Due regard being given to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US), this study sought to demonstrate the in utero visualization of situs anomalies on MRI, compared to US. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 12 fetuses with situs anomalies depicted on fetal MRI using prenatal US as a comparison modality. With an MRI standard protocol, the whole fetus was assessed for anomalies, with regard to the position and morphology of the following structures: heart; venous drainage and aorta; stomach and intestines; liver and gallbladder; and the presence and number of spleens. Results: Situs inversus totalis was found in 3/12 fetuses; situs inversus with levocardia in 1/12 fetuses; situs inversus abdominis in 2/12 fetuses; situs ambiguous with polysplenia in 3/12 fetuses, and with asplenia in 2/12 fetuses; and isolated dextrocardia in 1/12 fetuses. Congenital heart defects (CHDs), vascular anomalies, and intestinal malrotations were the most frequent associated malformations. In 5/12 cases, the US and MRI diagnoses were concordant. Compared to US, in 7/12 cases, additional MRI findings specified the situs anomaly, but CHDs were only partially visualized in six cases. Conclusions: Our initial MRI results demonstrate the visualization of situs anomalies and associated malformations in utero, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Using a standard protocol, MRI may identify additional findings, compared to US, which confirm and specify the situs anomaly, but, with limited MRI visualization of fetal CHDs.
A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.
Smith, Desmond J. (Oakland, CA) [Oakland, CA; Rubin, Edward M. (Berkeley, CA) [Berkeley, CA
Full Text Available Se ofrece una revisión teórica actualizada sobre la técnica de amniocentesis utilizada, desde 1882, para el diagnóstico prenatal de un sinnúmero de anomalías congénitas, a partir de la información obtenida en las bases de datos MEDLINE, LILACS y la de la Literatura Cubana de Medicina, de los años 1988 a 1994, localizadas en los órganos de información del Sistema Nacional de Información de Ciencias Médicas. Se dan a conocer los procedimientos generales para aplicar estas técnicas, sus riesgos y beneficios, así como las variantes de amniocentesis que existen de acuerdo con la semana de gestación en que se realicen. Se informan los 4 tipos de análisis de laboratorio que se le aplican a los distintos componenetes del líquido amniótico. Se concluye que a pesar de ser una técnica de gran complejidad y riesgo obstétrico es de gran utilidad para el diagnóstico precoz de determinadas anomalías.An update theorical review is made on the thecnique of amniocentesis used from 1882 for the prenatal diagnosis of a great deal of congenital anomalies taking into account the information obtained from the databases MEDLINE, LILACS, and the Cuban Literature of Medicine from 1988 to 1994, found in the information services of the National System for Information on Medical Sciences. The general procedures for the application of this technique, the risks involved and benefits, are reported, as well as the different variants of amniocentesis available according to the gestation week in which it is performed. The four types of laboratory analysis which are applied to the different components of the amniotic fluid are also reported. It is concluded that despite being a very complex technique having an obstetric risk, it is very useful for the early diagnosis of certain anomalies.
Manuela de la C. Valdés Abreu
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se ofrece una revisión teórica actualizada sobre la técnica de amniocentesis utilizada, desde 1882, para el diagnóstico prenatal de un sinnúmero de anomalías congénitas, a partir de la información obtenida en las bases de datos MEDLINE, LILACS y la de la Literatura Cubana de Medicina, de los años 19 [...] 88 a 1994, localizadas en los órganos de información del Sistema Nacional de Información de Ciencias Médicas. Se dan a conocer los procedimientos generales para aplicar estas técnicas, sus riesgos y beneficios, así como las variantes de amniocentesis que existen de acuerdo con la semana de gestación en que se realicen. Se informan los 4 tipos de análisis de laboratorio que se le aplican a los distintos componenetes del líquido amniótico. Se concluye que a pesar de ser una técnica de gran complejidad y riesgo obstétrico es de gran utilidad para el diagnóstico precoz de determinadas anomalías. Abstract in english An update theorical review is made on the thecnique of amniocentesis used from 1882 for the prenatal diagnosis of a great deal of congenital anomalies taking into account the information obtained from the databases MEDLINE, LILACS, and the Cuban Literature of Medicine from 1988 to 1994, found in the [...] information services of the National System for Information on Medical Sciences. The general procedures for the application of this technique, the risks involved and benefits, are reported, as well as the different variants of amniocentesis available according to the gestation week in which it is performed. The four types of laboratory analysis which are applied to the different components of the amniotic fluid are also reported. It is concluded that despite being a very complex technique having an obstetric risk, it is very useful for the early diagnosis of certain anomalies.
Manuela de la C., Valdés Abreu; Ana Gloria, Díaz Martínez; Aníbal, Dalmau Díaz; Inés, Domínguez.
Men's decisions and behaviours influence the sexual, reproductive and maternal health of women and the health of their families, but men are rarely included in reproductive and maternal health care services. Men's attendance at antenatal care has the potential to prevent women from becoming infected with HIV during pregnancy and post-partum, when they are more vulnerable to infection and have a high risk of transmission to the infant. Greater involvement of men requires an understanding of social, cultural and organisational barriers in different contexts. In 2006, the Burnet Institute undertook fieldwork to inform a pilot project to encourage expectant fathers to attend antenatal care. A local Lao team conducted focus group discussions and interviews in Vientiane with expectant fathers, pregnant women, older women and health care providers. It was found that myths about the dangers of sex during pregnancy and women's decreased desire resulted in periods of sexual abstinence. Participants reported that unprotected extramarital sex was common but difficult for couples to discuss. Men lacked knowledge about sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Men wanted information so they could better protect the health of their partners and babies during and after pregnancy, and reported being willing to attend antenatal care when invited. Our findings have useful implications for policy and implementation. PMID:22175769
Natoli, Lisa; Holmes, Wendy; Chanlivong, Niramonh; Chan, Geoffrey; Toole, Michael J
Hydrometrocolpos is cHaracterized by a vaginal obstruction with cystic dilatation of uterus and vagina caused by accumulation of cervical and endometrial mucus. It could be in association with other malformations, such as postaxial polydactyly, anal atresia, esophageal atresia, renal agenesis, genital anomalies, cardiopathy or autosomal recessive disorder. The appropriate prenatal detection with the help of prenatal ultrasonography differential diagnosis and early treatment and prevention of complications. PMID:12148462
Jiménez Vieyra, Carlos Ramón
Prenatal diagnosis of ?-thalassemia was accomplished for the first time in the 1970s by globin chain synthesis analysis on fetal blood obtained by placental aspiration at 18–22 weeks gestation. Since then, the molecular definition of the ?-globin gene pathology, the development of procedures of DNA analysis, and the introduction of chorionic villous sampling have dramatically improved prenatal diagnosis of this disease and of related disorders. Much information is now available about the ...
Rosatelli, Maria Cristina; Saba, Luisella
Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) of the lung is a rare pulmonarylesion. The prognosis is variable ranging from perinatal death to spontaneous in uteroregression, with no neonatal morbidity. We present a case of CCAM diagnosed at 23 weeks'gestation using results of prenatal sonograms. Both prenatal Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional sonograms revealed multiple cystic lesions at the right lower lung field.Regular serial antenatal sonograms revealed the fetus had persistent r...
This review covers research on the negative effects of prenatal depression and cortisol on fetal growth, prematurity and low birthweight. Although prenatal depression and cortisol were typically measured at around 20 weeks gestation, other research suggests the stability of depression and cortisol levels across pregnancy. Women with Dysthymia as compared to Major Depression Disorder had higher cortisol levels, and their newborns had lower gestational age and birthweight. The cortisol effects ...
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-reif, Maria
Prenatal diagnosis of congenital lung anomalies has increased in recent years as imaging methods have benefitted from technical improvements. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate typical imaging findings of a wide spectrum of congenital lung anomalies on prenatal US and MRI. Moreover, we propose an algorithm based on imaging findings to facilitate the differential diagnosis, and suggest a follow-up algorithm during pregnancy and in the immediate postnatal period. PMID:22262133
Alamo, Leonor; Gudinchet, Francois; Reinberg, Olivier; Vial, Yvan; Francini, Katyuska; Osterheld, Maria-Chiara; Meuli, Reto
Prenatal diagnosis of congenital lung anomalies has increased in recent years as imaging methods have benefitted from technical improvements. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate typical imaging findings of a wide spectrum of congenital lung anomalies on prenatal US and MRI. Moreover, we propose an algorithm based on imaging findings to facilitate the differential diagnosis, and suggest a follow-up algorithm during pregnancy and in the immediate postnatal period. (orig.)
Alamo, Leonor; Gudinchet, Francois; Meuli, Reto [Centre Hospitaliere Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Unit of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Reinberg, Olivier [Centre Hospitaliere Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Department of Pediatric Surgery, Lausanne (Switzerland); Vial, Yvan; Francini, Katyuska [Centre Hospitaliere Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Osterheld, Maria-Chiara [Centre Hospitaliere Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Department of Pathology, Lausanne (Switzerland)
Prenatal diagnosis of congenital lung anomalies has increased in recent years as imaging methods have benefitted from technical improvements. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate typical imaging findings of a wide spectrum of congenital lung anomalies on prenatal US and MRI. Moreover, we propose an algorithm based on imaging findings to facilitate the differential diagnosis, and suggest a follow-up algorithm during pregnancy and in the immediate postnatal period. (orig.)
The vast majority of prenatal genetic testing requires invasive sampling. Since this poses a risk to the fetus, one must make a decision that weighs the desire for genetic information against the risk of an adverse outcome due to hazards of the testing process. These issues are not required to be coupled, and it would be desirable to discover genetic information about the fetus without incurring a health risk. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to noninvasively sequence the entire prenat...
Prenatal irradiation upon the human embryo may result in both malformations and structural damage or degeneration of the nervous system. Neurobehavioral effects of prenatal irradiation can be also regarded as non-stochastic effects with threshold doses. Since up to now only little is known about the molecular basis of learning, memory and behavior the lowest radiation doses for the neurobehavioral teratogenicity of the non-stochastic effects is fairly obscure. (author)
Hb Hammersmith [?42(CD1)Phe???Ser; HBB: c.128T?>?C] is a rare, unstable hemoglobin (Hb) variant. In this case report, we describe another male case of Hb Hammersmith. A 39-year-old male had hemolytic anemia, cyanosis and splenomegaly since 6 months after birth. He passed the disease allele to his daughter, a 3-year-old girl, who also had hemolytic anemia and splenomegaly. This mutation was not identified in the parents and two brothers of the father. Early prenatal diagnosis was performed in the second pregnancy in this family. This is the first case of Hb Hammersmith in an adult male patient. PMID:24471820
Li, Ru; Wang, Ting; Xie, Xing-Mei; Li, Dong-Zhi
Full Text Available We have previously shown that male rats exposed to gestational stress exhibit phenotypes resembling what is observed in schizophrenia, including hypersensitivity to amphetamine, blunted sensory gating, disrupted social behavior, impaired stress axis regulation, and aberrant prefrontal expression of genes involved in synaptic plasticity. Maternal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse cognitive outcomes among children, as well as an increased risk for developing schizophrenia, which is characterized by significant cognitive deficits. We sought to characterize the long-term cognitive outcome of prenatal stress using a preclinical paradigm, which is readily amenable to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Rats exposed to repeated variable prenatal stress during the third week of gestation were evaluated using a battery of cognitive tests, including the novel object recognition task, cued and contextual fear conditioning, the Morris water maze, and iterative versions of a paradigm in which working and reference memory for both objects and spatial locations can be assessed (the ‘Can Test’. Prenatally stressed males were impaired relative to controls on each of these tasks, confirming the face validity of this preclinical paradigm and extending the cognitive implications of prenatal stress exposure beyond the hippocampus. Interestingly, in experiments where both sexes were included, the performance of females was found to be less affected by prenatal stress compared to that of males. This could be related to the finding that women are less vulnerable than men to schizophrenia, and merits further investigation.
Our objective was to review current data pertaining to prenatal ultrasonographic morphology of the umbilical cord. To this goal we identified studies published in the English language regarding prenatal ultrasonographic morphology of this structure. The studies were obtained from a MEDLINE search from 1966 through May 1997; additional sources were identified through cross-referencing. All published reports, case studies, and articles regarding ultrasonographic morphology of the umbilical cord were reviewed. Data pertaining to Doppler flow velocimetry in association with umbilical cord structural anomalies and umbilical cord compression, were also included. Review of the literature supports that prenatal ultrasound may outline normal anatomy or alternatively depict various congenital abnormalities of the umbilical cord including: cysts; pseudocysts; umbilical vein varix; persistent right umbilical vein; hemangiomas; umbilical vessel aneurysm (arterial or venous); single, hypoplastic, or fused umbilical artery; hematomas (spontaneous or iatrogenic); velamentous insertion; and vasa previa. The umbilical cord coiling index, an additional ultrasonographic morphologic feature may identify patients at risk for adverse perinatal outcome. Conditions of potential fetal compromise due to umbilical cord compression including nuchal cords, true knots, occult prolapse, cord presentation, fetal grasping, and cord entanglement in monoamniotic twins, may be detected prenatally and impaired umbilical flow confirmed with Doppler flow velocimetry. Ultrasound has been widely applied to guide invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures involving access to umbilical circulation. In conclusion, precise prenatal ultrasonographic depiction of the morphology of the umbilical cord may enhance perinatal management. PMID:9267868
Sherer, D M; Anyaegbunam, A
Full Text Available EnglishDemographers and sociologists have paid considerable attention to thesituation of lone-parent families. However, until recently, almost all of this work has focused onfamilies headed by a lone mother. This paper seeks to fill an important gap in our knowledge of familychange by examining the growth and characteristics of lone-father families in Canada. Using data fromthe public-use microfiles (PUMFs of the census, the paper shows that the number of lone-fatherfamilies has increased significantly in recent years, and that lone fathers are now younger and morelikely to have become lone fathers through marital breakdown. The results also suggest that while lone-father families are not as economically disadvantaged as lone-mother families, income levels lag wellbehind those of two-parent families and have, in relative terms, declined in recent years.FrenchLes démographes et sociologues se sont beaucoup attardés à la situation desfamilles monoparentales. Cependant, jusqu'à récemment, l'ensemble de cetravail ciblait surtout les mères seules. Cet article cherche à combler la brèchede notre connaissance des changements dans la famille en examinantl'augmentation du nombre de pères seuls au Canada et les caractéristiques de cesfamilles. Grâce aux données des microfilms à usage public du recensement,l'article illustre que le nombre de pères seuls a considérablement augmenté aucours des dernières années, que les pères seuls sont plus jeunes et que leursituation résulte vraisemblablement de la rupture de leur mariage. Les résultatsindiquent aussi que bien que les familles dont le père est monoparental ne soientpas aussi défavorisées que les familles dont la mère est monoparentale, lesniveaux de revenu accusent un certain retard par rapport aux famillesbiparentales et qu'ils ont relativement baissé au cours des dernières années.
In recent years the increase in the divorce rate in many advanced countries and the predominance of female-headed families among the poor has generated much interest in the relationship between divorce and the welfare of mothers and children. In this paper I will review a small body of economic literature which has been recently developed in order to analyze the economic consequence of divorce on the welfare of fathers, mothers and children under alternative behavioral assumptions. Important ...
Del Boca, Daniela
This article examines the role of the father in the transferral of ideological beliefs to the son within the Afrikaans-speaking family as represented in the fiction of contemporary male authors, specifically Alexander Strachan, Mark Behr and S.P. Benjamin. The research is guided by the central question of ideological factors regulating the relation between gender and politics. Kaja Silverman's interpretation of Jacques Lacan's work and her psychoanalytical distinction between the penis and th...
This article describes the perspectives of men recruited to be educators and to facilitate all-male discussion forums for expectant fathers within antenatal education programs. The 8 participants indicated their general satisfaction with the recruitment process and the preparation for and support of the role. They also expressed their support for the overall concept and design of the forum. Suggestions were made regarding areas for improvement in the design and management of the forums. Resul...
The family stress model posits that contextual stressors, such as neighborhood danger, negatively influence youth adjustment, including internalizing symptoms, via disruptions in parenting and family processes. The current study examined a culturally and contextually modified family stress model in a diverse sample of Mexican origin fathers and their children (N = 463) from the Southwestern U.S. Results supported the hypothesized negative influence of neighborhood danger on youth internalizin...
White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.
This study focuses on the long term eff ects of unemployment on subjective wellbeing in a family context for 17-24 year old sons living with at least one parent, using data from the German SOEP. As fathers enter unemployment, sons' subjective wellbeing is not only reduced immediately, but also 5 years into the future. As this future reduction remains unexpected by the sons, this suggests even higher true costs of unemployment than previously thought.
Kind, Michael; Haisken-denew, John P.
"The Pregnancy and Health Profile," (PHP) is a free genetic risk assessment software tool for primary prenatal providers that collects patient-entered family (FHH), personal, and obstetrical health history, performs risk assessment, and presents the provider with clinical decision support during the prenatal encounter. The tool is freely available for download at www.hughesriskapps.net. We evaluated the implementation of PHP in four geographically diverse clinical sites. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted for patients seen prior to the study period and for patients who used the PHP to collect data on documentation of FHH, discussion of cystic fibrosis (CF) and hemoglobinopathy (HB) carrier screening, and CF and HB interventions (tests, referrals). Five hundred pre-implementation phase and 618 implementation phase charts were reviewed. Documentation of a 3-generation FHH or pedigree improved at three sites; patient race/ethnicity at three sites, father of the baby (FOB) race/ethnicity at all sites, and ancestry for the patient and FOB at three sites (P?0.001-0001). CF counseling improved for implementation phase patients at one site (8% vs. 48%, P?0.0001) and CF screening/referrals at two (2% vs. 14%, P?0.0001; 6% vs. 14%; P?=?0.05). Counseling and intervention rates did not increase for HB. This preliminary study suggests that the PHP can improve documentation of FHH, race, and ancestry, as well as the compliance with current CF counseling and intervention guidelines in some prenatal clinics. Future evaluation of the PHP should include testing in a larger number of clinical environments, assessment of additional performance measures, and evaluation of the system's overall clinical utility. PMID:24616345
Edelman, Emily A; Lin, Bruce K; Doksum, Teresa; Drohan, Brian; Edelson, Vaughn; Dolan, Siobhan M; Hughes, Kevin S; O'Leary, James; Galvin, Shelley L; Degroat, Nicole; Pardanani, Setul; Feero, W Gregory; Adams, Claire; Jones, Renee; Scott, Joan
Amniotic band sequence and its US manifestations have been well-described. There is little information, however, regarding the accuracy and utility of fetal MRI. To describe the MRI findings in amniotic band sequence and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of MRI and US. Prenatal MRI and US studies were retrospectively reviewed in 14 consecutive pregnancies with confirmed amniotic band sequence. Both studies were evaluated for amniotic band visualization, body part affected, type of deformity, umbilical cord involvement and vascular abnormality. Amniotic bands were confidently identified with MRI in 8 fetuses (57%), suggested with MRI in 3 fetuses (21%) and confidently seen by US in 13 fetuses (93%). Neither modality detected surgically proven bands on one fetus. Both techniques were equally able to define the body part affected and the type of deformity. At least one limb abnormality was visualized in all cases and truncal involvement was present in two cases. Cord involvement was identified in seven cases, with one case detected only by MRI. Fetal MRI is able to visualize amniotic bands and their secondary manifestations and could be complementary to prenatal US when fetal surgery is contemplated. (orig.)
Since, at least in the near future, prenatal testing and abortion of affected fetuses will remain the main way of the prevention of genetic diseases, knowledge about the way of its acceptance in different cultures is important. The Israeli population includes two major groups: Jewish and Arabs, but while there is wide experience about the Jewish population and its attitude towards prenatal testing, little is known about the Arab population. This knowledge is particularly important, since genetic disorders are relatively frequent in the Arab world (Teebi and Farag, 1997). From 1992 to 1996, 816 prenatal tests were performed in our department on Arab women [143 chorionic villus sampling (CVS) procedures and 673 amniocenteses]. The indication for an early prenatal test was a high risk for a monogenic disorder in 140 out of the 146 tests performed (143 CVS procedures and three early amniocenteses). In 26 cases, the fetus was found to be affected and early abortion was chosen by the couple in 25 cases (96 per cent). The 670 late prenatal tests were done for various reasons including monogenic disorders (13 per cent), increased risk because of a previous child affected with Down syndrome or a neural tube defect (4.8 per cent), and an increased risk for a chromosomal aberration (78 per cent). In 31 cases of a late prenatal test, the fetus was found to be affected and only 21 couples (70 per cent) opted for an abortion. The major reason for this observation is probably related to religious and cultural factors. Since Arab women do not wish to have prenatal testing for only knowledge or reassurance, these factors should be taken into consideration during pre-amniocentesis counselling. PMID:9556038
Zlotogora, J; Reshef, N
An in vitro test for the prenatal diagnosis of homozygous ?-thalassaemia and its application is described. The basic methodology consists in obtaining a minute specimen of placental blood by blind aspiration or foetoscopy at the 18th to 20th week of gestation, incubating a sample in the presence of 3H-leucine, separating the labelled globin chains by chromatography on sodium carboxymethyl cellulose microcolumns with 8M urea-mercaptoethanol and measuring the radioactivity associated with the ?- and ?-chains. The ?/(pre-?+?) radioactivity ratio is used as an index of adequacy of ?-chain synthesis, a value greater than 0.07 being taken as indicative of freedom from disease and a value less than 0.03 indicative of homozygous ?-thalassaemia. From 350 women seeking the test, 344 samples were tested; 269 were judged normal or heterozygous, 75 homozygous for ?-thalassaemia. Four false negatives were identified, 3 having given borderline ?/(pre-?+?) ratios. Complications leading to foetal loss fell from 16% over the first year's experience to 8% over the second and 5% over the third. The test is now judged suitable for general use and is indeed being so used
Prenatal methylmercury poisoning of C57BL/6J mice was followed by the development of communicating hydrocephalus in 15% to 25% of surviving offspring. Although examination of the serially sectioned cerebral aqueduct in hydrocephalic animals revealed the presence of stenosis, complete occlusion of the lumen was not observed. The ependymal epithelium of the cerebral aqueduct was preserved, and there was no evidence of periaqueductal inflammation or reactive gliosis. Edema and vacuolar change were, however, observed subependymally. The cerebral white matter, which bore the brunt of the degenerative changes seen in hydrocephalic brains, showed edema, spongy degeneration, gross cystic change and loss of parenchyma. In addition, ependymal cells and choroid plexus epithelial cells in Hg-treated animals contained large amounts of mercury within their cytoplasm, and it is possible that this may have contributed to the development of hydrocephalus by causing disturbances of CSF homeostasis. We believe that the appearance of aqueductal stenosis in Hg-intoxicated animals represents the result rather than the cause of the hydrocephalus. PMID:3364157
Choi, B H; Kim, R C; Peckham, N H
... Â§ 799.9370 TSCA prenatal developmental toxicity...procedures â(1) Animal selection â(i) Species and...are commonly used in prenatal developmental toxicity...be used. (iii) Sex. Nulliparous...Dose levels and dose selection....
...SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health...799.9370 TSCA prenatal developmental toxicity...intended to meet the testing requirements under...are commonly used in prenatal developmental toxicity testing be employed....
Full Text Available Based on the ecological-contextual model and on the concept of parental involvement, this article proposes to discuss the parental practices of separated/divorced fathers and mothers towards their children. In order to do so, 234 subjects (117 fathers/117 mothers with children at school were interviewed via the Parental Practices Inventory. Such instrument evaluated the parental involvement in 5 areas: affective involvement, didactic involvement, social involvement, disciplinary involvement and, responsibility. The results showed greater maternal involvement with children after the divorce: direct (care, interaction and indirect (monitoring, preoccupation. The cohabitation with the mother revealed itself as a significant variable associated to her greater involvement with activities in the private/domestic environment while fathers had greater involvement in the public/social space. Contextual characteristics (cohabitation, frequency of visits and characteristics of the parents (occupation, education, affective and conjugal issues showed to be strongly associated with the parental involvement after divorce.
Luciana Suárez Grzybowski
The hemoglobinopathies encompass a heterogeneous group of disorders associated with mutations in both the alpha-globin and beta-globin genes. Increased immigration of high-risk populations has prompted the implementation of prenatal and newborn screening programs for hemoglobinopathies across Europe and North America. In Canada, the UK, and other European countries, prenatal screening to identify hemoglobinopathy carriers and offer prenatal diagnostic testing to couples at risk is linked to newborn screening, while in the United States, it is still not universally performed. The structure of screening programs, whether prenatal or postnatal, universal or selective, varies greatly among these countries and within the United States. The laboratory methods used to identify hemoglobinopathies are based on the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies within the population and the type of screening performed. Advances in molecular testing have facilitated the diagnosis of complex thalassemias and sickling disorders observed in ethnically diverse populations. This review summarizes the current approaches and methods used for carrier detection, prenatal diagnosis, and newborn screening. PMID:23590658
Hoppe, C C
Objective: To analyze trends in screening and invasive prenatal diagnosis of chromosome abnormalities (CA) over a 13-year period and correlate them to changes in the national prenatal screening policy. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed Down syndrome (DS) screening tests and fetal karyotypes obtained by prenatal invasive testing (IT) in our fetal medicine unit between January 1999 and December 2011. Results: A total of 24,226 prenatal screening tests for DS and 11,045 invasive procedures ha...
Prenatal hemoglobinopathy screening was chosen as a model system for the study of patient receptivity to unsolicited genetic information. Providers of prenatal care in Rochester, NY, were offered free testing of all their prenatal patients and genetic counseling of women found positive. The 18,907 prenatal samples tested in a 5-year period represented 35.1% of the pregnancies in the Rochester metropolitan region. A hemoglobinopathy was found in 810 pregnancies (4.3%). Of the 21 different type...
The authors aimed to investigate the prospective links between normative variation in fathers' marital satisfaction and the observed quality of father-toddler interactions, as well as the moderating role of child gender in these associations. Sixty-three fathers reported on their marital satisfaction when their children were 15 months of age, and were observed interacting with their child at 18 months. The results suggested that marital satisfaction was positively associated with the quality of father-son interactions, while no relations emerged among fathers of girls. These findings reiterate the importance of marital relationships for the quality of fathers' parenting, while reaffirming previous suggestions that the role of child gender in the marriage-parenting connections requires further investigation. PMID:24796158
Bernier, Annie; Jarry-Boileau, Véronique; Lacharité, Carl
With increasing availability of drugs for impotence and advanced reproductive technologies for the treatment of subfertility, more men are fathering children at advanced ages. We conducted a study of the chromosomal content of sperm of healthy men aged 24–57 years to (a) determine whether father’s age was associated with increasing frequencies of aneuploid sperm including XY, disomy X, disomy Y, disomy 21, and sperm diploidy, and (b) examine the association between the frequencies of diso...
Lowe, Xiu; Eskenazi, Brenda; Nelson, David O.; Kidd, Sharon; Alme, Angela; Wyrobek, Andrew J.
Little is known about the characteristics of boys who become fathers at young age. Some studies have suggested that antisocial adolescents are more likely to be young fathers. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of psychosocial factors in childhood with becoming a young father, and to assess if they are independent of criminal behavior in adolescence. The baseline assessment in 1989 included 2,946 boys born in 1981. Information about psychiatric symptoms at age eight was col...
Traditionally child health care (CHC) has been an arena where mothers and nurses meet, but in recent years fathers are entering CHC with increasing frequency. The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ experiences of fathers’ participation in CHC. Nine Swedish nurses working in CHC were interviewed and asked to give a description of their experiences from meetings with fathers in CHC. Phenomenology according to Giorgi was used for the analysis and the essence of the findings was that f...
Working arrangements are still not sufficiently flexible to enable parents to manage to fulfil their roles as workers and as carers and there remains a dearth of flexible working arrangements and work-life balance policies especially for fathers. This paper examines the degree of work/life balance among fathers, and mothers, employed in 5 major Irish organisations surveyed in 2002. It concentrates on the access to, and take up of, flexible working time and leave arrangements by fathers and mo...
Working arrangements are still not sufficiently flexible to enable parents to manage their roles as workers and as carers and there remains a dearth of flexible working arrangements and work-life balance policies especially for fathers. This paper examines the degree of work/life balance among fathers, and mothers, employed in 5 major Irish organisations surveyed in 2002. It concentrates on the access to, and takes up of, flexible working time and leave arrangements by fathers and mothers and...
Abstract Background Little is known about the characteristics of boys who become fathers at young age. Some studies have suggested that antisocial adolescents are more likely to be young fathers. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of psychosocial factors in childhood with becoming a young father, and to assess if they are independent of criminal behavior in adolescence. Methods The baseline assessment in 1989 included 2,946 boys born in 1981. ...
Using data from the first wave of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study conducted in 2002–03, this paper examines the economic, psychological and social wellbeing among 1,467 men aged 40–59 years with different parenthood histories and circumstances: the childless, fathers who live with their children, non-co-resident fathers, and ‘empty-nest fathers ’. The gerontological interest is whether there are variations in wellbeing by parenting, and whether they persist in old age. The results...
Dykstra, P. A.; Keizer, R.
We present new estimates of unwed fathers’ ability to pay child support. Prior research relied on surveys that drastically undercounted nonresident unwed fathers and provided no link to their children who lived in separate households. To overcome these limitations, previous research assumed assortative mating and that each mother partnered with one father who was actually eligible to pay support and had no other child support obligations. Because the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Stu...
Research suggests that paternal re-partnering and new-partner fertility are associated with decreased nonresident father investments in children. Few studies, however, have examined the influence of maternal re-partnering and new-partner births on nonresident father investments. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine associations of maternal re-partnering (through cohabitation or marriage with a new partner) and new-partner births with nonresident father visitat...
Berger, Lawrence M.; Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R.
Full Text Available Widespread use of ultrasonography has resulted in an increase in the recognition of fetal hydronephrosis. The enthusiasm that accompanied early interventions has been tempered by the experience and results obtained over the past 2 decades. The goal has remained the same: to identify patients with serious prenatal obstruction and to identify those which may benefit from intervention. Myelomeningocele remains a devastating congenital anomaly. Fetal and experimental studies suggested that patients with myelomeningocele could benefit from prenatal intervention. Advances in technology and perinatal management have made intervention for more complex malformations such as myelomeningocele possible. This article will review current knowledge and will detail rational management for the management of prenatal hydronephrosis. The current state of antenatal myelomeningocele repair and the urologic implications will be described as well.
Swana Hubert S.
Widespread use of ultrasonography has resulted in an increase in the recognition of fetal hydronephrosis. The enthusiasm that accompanied early interventions has been tempered by the experience and results obtained over the past 2 decades. The goal has remained the same: to identify patients with serious prenatal obstruction and to identify those which may benefit from intervention. Myelomeningocele remains a devastating congenital anomaly. Fetal and experimental studies suggested that patients with myelomeningocele could benefit from prenatal intervention. Advances in technology and perinatal management have made intervention for more complex malformations such as myelomeningocele possible. This article will review current knowledge and will detail rational management for the management of prenatal hydronephrosis. The current state of antenatal myelomeningocele repair and the urologic implications will be described as well. PMID:15707516
Swana, Hubert S; Sutherland, Ronald S; Baskin, Laurence
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Widespread use of ultrasonography has resulted in an increase in the recognition of fetal hydronephrosis. The enthusiasm that accompanied early interventions has been tempered by the experience and results obtained over the past 2 decades. The goal has remained the same: to identify patients with se [...] rious prenatal obstruction and to identify those which may benefit from intervention. Myelomeningocele remains a devastating congenital anomaly. Fetal and experimental studies suggested that patients with myelomeningocele could benefit from prenatal intervention. Advances in technology and perinatal management have made intervention for more complex malformations such as myelomeningocele possible. This article will review current knowledge and will detail rational management for the management of prenatal hydronephrosis. The current state of antenatal myelomeningocele repair and the urologic implications will be described as well.
Hubert S., Swana; Ronald S., Sutherland; Laurence, Baskin.
Prenatal diagnosis was carried out in 10 families suffering from lysosomal diseases: Tay-Sachs disease--5 families, Sandhoff disease--1 family, GM1-gangliosidosis--1 family and Hunter disease--3 families. Diagnosis of Tay-Sachs disease was excluded in fetuses of two families, Sandhoff disease--in one family, GM1-gangliosidosis--in one family, Hunter disease--in two families. Tay-Sachs disease was found in two fetuses and in one neonate. In two fetuses was found Hunter disease (twin pregnancy). The results of prenatal diagnosis were corroborated by postnatal studies of the neonates funicular blood and of autopsies of the aborted fetuses tissues. Application of several independent procedures for prenatal diagnosis of hereditary lysosomal diseases enabled to exclude erroneous diagnosis. PMID:3143186
Mirenburg, T V; Aronovich, E L; Lebedeva, T V; Akhunov, V S; Krasnopol'skaia, K D
Full Text Available Miniaturist as Jane Austen is, she has depicted the life of a few families. In her letter to her niece, Anna Austen, she writes: "three or four families in a country village is the very thing to work on"(Chapman's Edition, 1970, P.10. Jane’s knowledge about these families is, in no way shallow. It is rich in variation and contrasts. Jane Austen is a great novelist due to the universal significance of her novels. This universal significance is achieved in two ways. First, she creates living characters; she penetrates beneath the surface to the underlying principles of personality. She has a full understanding of human psychology and this enables her to draw intricate and complex natures. She lays bare not only the processes of their minds but also those of the heart. Second, she considers them impartially and shows them compounded both of faults and virtues like human beings. They have a universal significance; they are not national types, but representatives of essential human nature. They reveal the weaknesses and virtues of human nature in every age and country. There has been insufficient attention focused on Jane Austen’s father figures: how she created characters and what character types and father figures emerge in the full range of her stories. Characters are centre front in her stories, many of which are chiefly fine vignettes, and in Austen's theoretical statements she has consistently stressed the importance of character creation. The objective of this research is to shed light on those father figures who are the heads of the central families in Jane’s six novels.
Emotional intelligence (EI) measures one’s “common sense” and ability to get along with others. The EI construct is a rather novel concept with little empirical support, particularly, in relation to the link between father’s EI and that of his child’s behavior. The specific objective of this research is to determine the relationship between fathers’ EI and their pleasure-anger responses to children’s behavior. The present study was carried out among 107 fathers of Iranian studen...
Mojgan Mirza; Ma’rof Redzuan; Rohani Abdullah; Mariani Mansor
Girls receiving lower quality paternal investment tend to engage in more risky sexual behavior (RSB) than peers. Whereas paternal investment theory posits that this effect is causal, it could arise from environmental or genetic confounds. To distinguish between these competing explanations, the current authors employed a genetically and environmentally controlled sibling design (N = 101 sister pairs; ages 18-36), which retrospectively examined the effects of differential sibling exposure to family disruption/father absence and quality of fathering. Consistent with a causal explanation, differences between older and younger sisters in the effects of quality of fathering on RSB were greatest in biologically disrupted families when there was a large age gap between the sisters (thus maximizing differential exposure to fathers), with greater exposure within families to higher quality fathering serving as a protective factor against RSB. Further, variation around the lower end of fathering quality appeared to have the most influence on RSB. In contrast, differential sibling exposure to family disruption/father absence (irrespective of quality of fathering) was not associated with RSB. The differential sibling-exposure design affords a new quasi-experimental method for evaluating the causal effects of fathers within families. PMID:22293012
Ellis, Bruce J; Schlomer, Gabriel L; Tilley, Elizabeth H; Butler, Emily A
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La cobertura del control prenatal, calidad, y atención del parto se refleja en la resolución obstétrica como en la morbi-mortalidad del binomio madre-hijo. Esta investigación aborda el problema del impacto de los controles prenatales sobre el resultado obstétrico y perinatal. Objetivo: conocer el im [...] pacto del control prenatal sobre los resultados obstétricos obtenidos. Material y método: mediante un estudio de cohortes reconstruidas en una población obtenida azarosamente por conglomerados diarios en el transcurso del mes de junio (2010), se obtuvieron 419 puérperas. El material de investigación fue el binomio madre-hijo. Algunas variables estudiadas fueron: edad, control prenatal, número de consultas, peso, talla, tensión arterial, medición fondo uterino, forma de término del embarazo, peso del producto, sexo, apgar, destino del producto, complicaciones maternas, etc. Se utilizo en el programa estadístico Riesgo® y Primer® obteniéndose el RR, RR con intervalo de confianza al 95%. Resultados. Se analizaron 395 productos mayores de 20 semanas y 35 menores, de los productos mayores de 20 semanas (f=355) tuvieron sus madres control prenatal (89.87%) y 40 no lo tuvieron (10.13%), las distocias fueron más frecuentes en las madres con control prenatal, X²=7.73 RR=1.45 IC95% 1.11-1.90, las complicaciones maternas tuvieron proporciones similares en madres con y sin control prenatal X² = 0.0091RR=0.96, diferencia de proporciones p=0.899, la enfermedad hipertensiva del embarazo fue la complicación mas frecuente (74.6% de ellas) sin haber diferencia entre las madres que tuvieron o no control prenatal X² =0.0010. Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos señalan que en este grupo estudiado, en particular, la presencia del control prenatal no representó un factor que ayude a una resolución obstétrica y perinatal favorable, excepto en la prevención de la macrosomía. Abstract in english The coverage of prenatal care, quality and delivery care is reflected in the resolution as obstetric morbidity andmortality of mother and child. This research addresses the issue of the impact of prenatal care on the obstetric and perinatal outcome. Objective: To determine the impact of prenatal car [...] e on obstetric out comes achieved. Material and method: using a reconstructed cohort study in a population cluster randomly obtained daily duringthe month of June (2010), 419 were women in labour. The research material was the mother-child. Some ofthe studied variables were age, prenatal care, number of visits, weight, height, blood pressure, fundalmeasurement, method of pregnancy termination, product weight, sex, apgar, destination of the product, maternal complications, etc. It was used in the statistical program Primer® Risk® obtaining the RR, RR with aconfidence interval of 95%. Results: 395 products were analysed over 20 weeks and 35 children, of the goods over 20 weeks (f = 355) mothers had prenatal care (89.87%) and 40 did not have it (10.13%), dystocia were more common in mothers with prenatal care, X² = 7.73 RR = 1.45 95% CI 1.11-1.90, maternal complications were similar proportions in mothers with and without prenatal X² = 0.0091 RR = 0.96, difference in proportions p = 0.899, hypertensive disease of pregnancy was the most frequent complication (74.6% of them) without difference between themothers had no prenatal care or X² = 0.0010. Conclusion: Our results indicate that in this particular group studied, the presence of prenatal care is not afactor that helps an obstetric resolution and favourable perinatal, except for the macrosomia prevention.
Rico Venegas, R.M.; Ramos Frausto, V.M.; Martínez, P.C..
Children fathered by 27 testicular cancer patients treated with radiotherapy, 25 treated with chemotherapy, and 57 control men (46 community control and 11 Stage I testicular cancer patients) were examined for evidence of congenital malformations. The proportion of malformations in children in the treatment group did not differ from that in children in the control group or from incidence rates for malformations in the general population. Our results suggest that treatment for testicular cancer should not constitute a reason for advising termination of pregnancy, although numbers were too few to detect a relative risk smaller than 3.2. More observations are needed to provide a definite answer. (author)
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito de este trabajo es presentar una propuesta de premisas éticas para la práctica del diagnóstico prenatal de defectos congénitos. Se realizó un estudio sistemático, profundo y crítico sobre el tema y sobre los resultados de investigaciones realizadas en población cubana y los derivados de [...] talleres realizados con la participación de especialistas de la Red Nacional de Genética Médica; para su elaboración se tuvieron en cuenta los principios éticos más universalmente aceptados y recomendados por la OMS y otros organismos internacionales, así como las resoluciones y leyes cubanas relacionadas con este tema. Se presentan normativas generales, sobre el diagnóstico prenatal y el aborto selectivo, el asesoramiento genético y el revelado de información; esta propuesta se complementa con otras normativas propias de la investigación científica y relacionadas con el consentimiento informado, las investigaciones que involucran pacientes, aspectos de la ética profesional y de las publicaciones científicas. Estas normativas en su conjunto conforman las premisas éticas que garantizan el respeto a los derechos y a la dignidad de las personas que son atendidas en los servicios de asesoramiento genético y diagnóstico prenatal y formarán parte de un manual para la provisión de servicios en la red de genética médica de Cuba. Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to submit a proposal of ethical premises for prenatal diagnosis of congenital defects. An in-depth systematic and critical study was conducted on the topic and on the results of research works carried out with the Cuban population and those of workshops where the Nati [...] onal Network of Medical Genetics experts participated. For their preparation, the universally accepted ethical principles that are recommended by WHO and other international bodies, as well as the Cuban resolutions and laws in this regard were all taken into account. Some general standards on prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion and on the approach to genetic counseling and the disclosure of information were presented. This proposal was supplemented with other standards inherent to the scientific research, since during prenatal diagnosis practice, some research works can emerge, the results of which may be published, that is, informed consent, research involving patients, ethical aspects of scientific publications and professional ethics elements. These standards are the ethical premises that guarantee the respect to the rights and to the dignity of those persons who are served by the genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis services, and will be part of a manual for the provision of services in the medical genetic network of Cuba.
Rojas Betancourt, Iris Andrea; Llamos Paneque, Arianne; Marcheco Teruel, Beatriz.
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito de este trabajo es presentar una propuesta de premisas éticas para la práctica del diagnóstico prenatal de defectos congénitos. Se realizó un estudio sistemático, profundo y crítico sobre el tema y sobre los resultados de investigaciones realizadas en población cubana y los derivados de [...] talleres realizados con la participación de especialistas de la Red Nacional de Genética Médica; para su elaboración se tuvieron en cuenta los principios éticos más universalmente aceptados y recomendados por la OMS y otros organismos internacionales, así como las resoluciones y leyes cubanas relacionadas con este tema. Se presentan normativas generales, sobre el diagnóstico prenatal y el aborto selectivo, el asesoramiento genético y el revelado de información; esta propuesta se complementa con otras normativas propias de la investigación científica y relacionadas con el consentimiento informado, las investigaciones que involucran pacientes, aspectos de la ética profesional y de las publicaciones científicas. Estas normativas en su conjunto conforman las premisas éticas que garantizan el respeto a los derechos y a la dignidad de las personas que son atendidas en los servicios de asesoramiento genético y diagnóstico prenatal y formarán parte de un manual para la provisión de servicios en la red de genética médica de Cuba. Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to submit a proposal of ethical premises for prenatal diagnosis of congenital defects. An in-depth systematic and critical study was conducted on the topic and on the results of research works carried out with the Cuban population and those of workshops where the Nati [...] onal Network of Medical Genetics experts participated. For their preparation, the universally accepted ethical principles that are recommended by WHO and other international bodies, as well as the Cuban resolutions and laws in this regard were all taken into account. Some general standards on prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion and on the approach to genetic counseling and the disclosure of information were presented. This proposal was supplemented with other standards inherent to the scientific research, since during prenatal diagnosis practice, some research works can emerge, the results of which may be published, that is, informed consent, research involving patients, ethical aspects of scientific publications and professional ethics elements. These standards are the ethical premises that guarantee the respect to the rights and to the dignity of those persons who are served by the genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis services, and will be part of a manual for the provision of services in the medical genetic network of Cuba.
Rojas Betancourt, Iris Andrea; Llamos Paneque, Arianne; Marcheco Teruel, Beatriz.
Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer qué factores personales (epidemiológicos, socioeconómicos, institucionales y médicos están relacionados con la inasistencia a la consulta prenatal. Ambiente: Departamento de Obstetricia y Ginecología, Hospital "Dr. Adolfo Prince Lara", Puerto Cabello, Estado Carabobo. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo epidemiológico, analítico de corte transversal, basado en una entrevista-encuesta, en 1000 pacientes que en el embarazo actual o pasado no se controlaron durante el año 2008. Resultados: En factores epidemiológicos, predominó residencia en barrios (57,2 %, educación secundaria (59,7%, estado civil soltera (48,1 % y la edad entre 20-29 años (40,4 %. Con los factores sociales, dominó el domicilio lejano (52,3 %, en los económicos, el desempleo (27,3 % y en la educación prenatal, el desconocimiento de la importancia del control (48,8 %. En los factores institucionales fue determinante el ambiente inadecuado de la consulta (39,2 % y la ubicación lejana del centro de salud (19,3 %. En factores de atención médica refirieron, consulta de baja calidad (29,8 %, seguida de la opinión de pocas horas de consulta (23,2 %. Conclusión: La falta a la consulta prenatal está relacionada con múltiples factores, esto conlleva a la instauración de actividades educativas, incluye desarrollar acciones efectivas para elevar la calidad de vida, rescate de programas preventivos de salud, además de reparación y dotación de las instalaciones de salud; sin olvidar mejoras del acto médico.Objective: To know what personal (epidemiological, socioeconomic, institutional and medical factors are related to non attendance to prenatal care. Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital "Dr. Adolfo Prince Lara", Puerto Cabello, Estado Carabobo. Methods: Descriptive, epidemiological, analytical, transversal study, based in a interview-survey, in 1000 patients with no prenatal care in the actual or previous pregnancy during 2008. Results: In epidemiological factors, prevailed suburb residency (57.2 %, high school education (59.7%, marital status single (48.1 %, and age between 20-29 years (40.4 %. In social factors, predominated distant residence (52.3 %, in the economical, unemployment (27.3 % and in prenatal education, ignorance of the importance of the prenatal care (48.8 %. In the institutional factors was determinant unappropriated environment (39.2 % and distant location of the health center (19.3 %. In the medical attention factors, reported low quality of the consultation (29.8 %, followed by few hours of attendance (23.2 %. Conclusion: The lack of prenatal care is related to multiple factors, that suggest the instauration of educative activities to elevate the life quality, rescue of the health preventive programs, and repairing and equip of health infrastructure; without forget the improvement of the medical act.
Pedro Faneite A
This article describes prenatal diagnosis (PND) of haemophilia B (HB) within the framework of Italian haemophilia centres and genetics laboratories. The study details the experience from six haemophilia genetic centres (three in the North, one in the Centre and two in the South of Italy) and summarizes the different techniques used to perform PND of HB during the last 15 years. To date, the Italian HB database includes 373 characterized unrelated patients and their genetic information has permitted the identification of 274 carriers of childbearing age. This database represents the main instrument for timely and precise PND. Sixty-six prenatal diagnoses were performed on 52 HB carriers whose average age at the time was 34 (ranging from 24 to 44 years). In 44 cases, genetic counselling for carrier status determination was performed before pregnancy, while eight were not studied prior to pregnancy. Foetal samples were obtained by chorionic villus sampling in 52 cases, by amniocentesis in 12 while two were diagnosed by analysis of free foetal DNA obtained from maternal peripheral blood. In 35 (53%) pregnancies the foetus was female. For 31 men (47%), haemophilia status was determined by analysis of previously determined informative markers or familial mutations (12 affected and 19 unaffected). There may be more than one laboratory involved in the PND diagnostic pathway (providing DNA extraction, karyotype analysis, gender determination, maternal contamination detection, molecular diagnosis and sequencing). Good communication between all the parties, coordinated by the haemophilia centre, is essential for a successful and rapid process. PMID:23809776
Belvini, D; Salviato, R; Acquila, M; Bicocchi, M P; Frusconi, S; Garagiola, I; Sanna, V; Santacroce, R; Rocino, A; Tagariello, G
Subchronic gestational stress leads to permanent modifications in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of offspring probably due to the increase in circulating glucocorticoids known to affect prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell turnover is affected in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis by subchronic prenatal stress and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Restraint stress was performed in pregnant rats during the last week of g...
Baquedano, E.; Garci?a-ca?ceres, C.; Diz-chaves, Yolanda; Lagunas, N.; Calmarza-font, I.; Azcoitia, I.; Garcia-segura, Luis M.; Argente, J.; Chowen, J. A.; Frago, L. M.
Background There is significant evidence to support the importance of prenatal care in preventing adverse outcomes such as preterm birth and low infant birth weight. Previous studies have indicated that the benefits of prenatal care are not evenly distributed throughout the social strata. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that among particular populations, rates of preterm birth are unchanged or increasing. This suggests that an alternate care model is necessary, one that...
Benediktsson Ingunn; McDonald Sheila W; Vekved Monica; McNeil Deborah A; Dolan Siobhan M; Tough Suzanne C
Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) alters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models, a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of ...
Objetivo: Conocer qué factores personales (epidemiológicos, socioeconómicos), institucionales y médicos están relacionados con la inasistencia a la consulta prenatal. Ambiente: Departamento de Obstetricia y Ginecología, Hospital "Dr. Adolfo Prince Lara", Puerto Cabello, Estado Carabobo. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo epidemiológico, analítico de corte transversal, basado en una entrevista-encuesta, en 1000 pacientes que en el embarazo actual o pasado no se controlaron durante e...
This case report illustrates the sonographic appearance of such calcifications which to our knowledge have not been described. We observed abnormalities on a prenatal ultrasound at 37 weeks of gestation and calcifications within the kidney on ultrasound during the neonatal period in an infant of a mother with Class B diabetes mellitus. (orig.)
... thinking about future pregnancies? • Glossary Cystic Fibrosis: Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis What are risk factors for CF? ... their risk. The test is done on a blood sample. Carrier testing also is available to all pregnant ... • Adoption • Using donor sperm or donor eggs (but the donor should ...
The terminology to be used in reproductive (or in prenatal) toxicology has to be in accord with other fields and principles of toxicology; the reasons are briefly discussed. In addition it is essential to assess prenatal toxicity in comparison to adult (maternal) toxicity. Since pharmacokinetics in laboratory animals (e.g. rodents) usually differ considerably from that in man, this fact has to be considered when planning and evaluating studies on prenatal toxicity. Up till now this aspect has seldom been taken into account. A special problem in prenatal toxicity is the inter- and intralitter variability of the toxic manifestation (especially in polytocal animals). This problem has to be recognized by the investigators and means of dealing with it have to be developed. Like all other toxic effects, embryo-/fetotoxic manifestations occur dose dependently. Little information is available in the literature on clean dose-response-curves for teratogenic effects. Some data from our laboratory are presented. Risk assessment of teratogenic effects up till now represents a major problem. While qualitative risk assessment for man on the basis of animal data is possible, quantitative extrapolation from such data to the situation possibly existing in man is still difficult, because basic principles and strategies are largely lacking. The results of some activities towards this goal are presented from our laboratory.
Neubert, D.; Chahoud, I.; Platzek, T.; Meister, R.
The diagnosis of esophageal atresia may be suspected on prenatal ultrasonography in fetuses with absent or small stomach, upper esophageal dilatation and unexplained polyhydramnios. However, the diagnostic value of these findings is relatively poor. Two cases are reported where MRI appeared to be accurate for establishing the diagnosis of this congenital anomaly. PMID:15692414
Chaumoître, K; Amous, Z; Bretelle, F; Merrot, T; D'Ercole, C; Panuel, M
To report the case of a prenatally detected de novo mosaic tetrasomy 18p where a combination of different methodologies was used,including conventional cytogenetics and molecular genetics techniques. METHOD: Molecular rapid aneuploidy diagnosis, by quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR), conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). RESULTS:Amniocentesis was performed at
Silva, Marisa; Geraldes, Maria Ce?u; Ferreira, Cristina; Marques, Ba?rbara; Furtado, Jose?; Ventura, Catarina; Cohen, Alvaro; Correia, Hildeberto
Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…
Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty
Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is a heritable connective tissue disorder caused by defects in the gene encoding fibrillin-2 (FBN2). People with CCA typically have a marfanoid habitus, flexion contractures, severe kyphoscoliosis, abnormal pinnae, and muscular hypoplasia. Because of the relative infrequency of the syndrome and its generally mild to moderate severity, prenatal diagnosis had not previously been sought. Here we report prenatal diagnosis in a family with CCA. Because the course of the disease in the proband was rather severe, she had requested genetic counseling as early as age 17. She delayed childbearing until prenatal diagnosis for CCA became possible. This decision was supported by her mother and later her husband. Because she shared the same genotype with her husband, genetic linkage analysis of this family did not alter the a priori 50% risk of having an affected child. The possibility of unambiguously ascertaining the affected status of a fetus homozygous for the tested FBN2 marker was sufficient for the family to pursue prenatal diagnosis. This case strongly points to the importance of informed decisions now that genetic testing is becoming commonplace. PMID:10464661
Belleh, S; Spooner, L; Allanson, J; Godfrey, M
As originally stated in our proposal, the long-term goal of our work is to develop methods to assist women of all ages in making informed decisions about their options for prenatal testing for chromosomal disorders, including maternal serum screening, cho...
Tendency of intellectual deficiency and emotion disturbance among children which were irradiated in womb was found. Study of the risk of endogenic psychic disorder development and, first of all, schizophrenia in pre-natally irradiated children, as a result of Chernobyl catastrophe, is of special interest. 256 refs., 1 tab
Summary Prenatal diagnosis aims either to provide the reassurance to the couples at risk of having an affected child by timely appropriate therapy or to give the parents a chance to decide the fate of the unborn babies with health problems. Invasive prenatal diagnosis (IPD) is accurate, however, carrying a risk of miscarriage. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) has been developed based on the existing of fetal genetic materials in maternal circulation; however, a minority fetal DNA in majority maternal background DNA hinders the detections of fetal traits. Different protocols and assays, such as homogenous MassEXTEND (hME), single allele base extension reaction (SABER), precise measuring copy number variation of each allele, and quantitative methylation and expression analysis using the high-throughput sensitive matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), allow NIPD for single gene disorders, fetal blood group genotyping and fetal aneuploidies as well as the development of fetal gender-independent biomarkers in maternal circulation for management of pathological pregnancies. In this review, we summarise the use of MALDI-TOF MS in prenatal genomics.
Zhong, Xiao Yan; Holzgreve, Wolfgang
Objective: To examine the association of paternal depression with risk for parental neglect of young children. Study design: The sample was derived from a birth cohort study of 1,089 families in which both biological parents resided in the home when the target child was 3- and 5-years old. Prospective analyses examined the contribution of paternal…
Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.
Exposure to ethanol in utero is associated with a myriad of sequelae for the offspring. Some of these effects are morphological in nature and noticeable from birth, while others involve more subtle changes to the brain that only become apparent later in life when the individuals are challenged cognitively. One brain structure that shows both functional and structural deficits following prenatal ethanol exposure is the hippocampus. The hippocampus is composed of two interlocking gyri, the cornu ammonis (CA) and the dentate gyrus (DG), and they are differentially affected by prenatal ethanol exposure. The CA shows a more consistent loss in neuronal numbers, with different ethanol exposure paradigms, than the DG, which in contrast shows more pronounced and consistent deficits in synaptic plasticity. In this study we show that significant deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis are apparent in aged animals following prenatal ethanol exposure. Deficits in hippocampal neurogenesis were not apparent in younger animals. Surprisingly, even when ethanol exposure occurred in conjunction with maternal stress, deficits in neurogenesis did not occur at this young age, suggesting that the capacity for neurogenesis is highly conserved early in life. These findings are unique in that they demonstrate for the first time that deficits in neurogenesis associated with prenatal ethanol consumption appear later in life. PMID:24846617
Gil-Mohapel, J; Titterness, A K; Patten, A R; Taylor, S; Ratzlaff, A; Ratzlaff, T; Helfer, J; Christie, B R
The effects of prenatal exposure on gamma/neutron radiations (0.5 Gy at about the 18th day of fetal life) were studied in a hybrid strain of mice (DBA/Cne males x C57BL/Cne females). During ontogeny, measurements of sensorimotor reflexes revealed in prenatally irradiated mice (1) a delay in sensorial development, (2) deficits in tests involving body motor control, and (3) a reduction of both motility and locomotor activity scores. In adulthood, the behaviour of prenatally irradiated and control mice was examined in the open field test and in reactivity to novelty. Moreover, their learning performance was compared in several situations. The results show that, in the open field test, only rearings were more frequent in irradiated mice. In the presence of a novel object, significant sex x treatment interactions were observed since ambulation and leaning against the novel object increased in irradiated females but decreased in irradiated males. Finally, when submitted to different learning tasks, irradiated mice were impaired in the radial maze, but paradoxically exhibited higher avoidance scores than control mice, possibly because of their low pain thresholds. Taken together, these observations indicate that late prenatal gamma/neutron irradiation induces long lasting alterations at the sensorimotor level which, in turn, can influence learning abilities of adult mice.
Di Cicco, D.; Antal, S.; Ammassari-Teule, M. (Istituto di Psicobiologia e Psicofarmacologia del CNR, Rome (Italy))
The effects of prenatal exposure on gamma/neutron radiations (0.5 Gy at about the 18th day of fetal life) were studied in a hybrid strain of mice (DBA/Cne males x C57BL/Cne females). During ontogeny, measurements of sensorimotor reflexes revealed in prenatally irradiated mice (1) a delay in sensorial development, (2) deficits in tests involving body motor control, and (3) a reduction of both motility and locomotor activity scores. In adulthood, the behaviour of prenatally irradiated and control mice was examined in the open field test and in reactivity to novelty. Moreover, their learning performance was compared in several situations. The results show that, in the open field test, only rearings were more frequent in irradiated mice. In the presence of a novel object, significant sex x treatment interactions were observed since ambulation and leaning against the novel object increased in irradiated females but decreased in irradiated males. Finally, when submitted to different learning tasks, irradiated mice were impaired in the radial maze, but paradoxically exhibited higher avoidance scores than control mice, possibly because of their low pain thresholds. Taken together, these observations indicate that late prenatal gamma/neutron irradiation induces long lasting alterations at the sensorimotor level which, in turn, can influence learning abilities of adult mice
Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for aneuploidy using cell-free DNA in maternal plasma is revolutionizing prenatal screening and diagnosis. We review NIPT in the context of established screening and invasive technologies, the range of cytogenetic abnormalities detectable, cost, counseling and ethical issues. Current NIPT approaches involve whole-genome sequencing, targeted sequencing and assessment of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) differences between mother and fetus. Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of NIPT for Down and Edwards syndromes, and possibly Patau syndrome, in high-risk women. Universal NIPT is not cost-effective, but using NIPT contingently in women found at moderate or high risk by conventional screening is cost-effective. Positive NIPT results must be confirmed using invasive techniques. Established screening, fetal ultrasound and invasive procedures with microarray testing allow the detection of a broad range of additional abnormalities not yet detectable by NIPT. NIPT approaches that take advantage of SNP information potentially allow the identification of parent of origin for imbalances, triploidy, uniparental disomy and consanguinity, and separate evaluation of dizygotic twins. Fetal fraction enrichment, improved sequencing and selected analysis of the most informative sequences should result in tests for additional chromosomal abnormalities. Providing adequate prenatal counseling poses a substantial challenge given the broad range of prenatal testing options now available. PMID:23765643
Benn, P; Cuckle, H; Pergament, E
"Was", the first story of Go Down, Moses, opens with the disclaimer that the protagonist Isaac McCaslin is "father to no one" and that the story to follow: was not something participated in or even seen by himself, but by his elder cousin, McCaslin Edmonds, grandson of Isaac's father's sister and so descended by the distaff, yet notwithstanding the inheritor, and in his time the bequestor, of that which some had thought then and some still thought shou...
The purpose of this study was to describe the meanings of good nonresidential fathering from the recollections of young adults with a childhood experience of divorce. An additional purpose was to identify barriers and contributions to good nonresidential fathering from the viewpoint of young adults. A phenomenological perspective was used to…
Wages, Alan, Jr.
The study includes a longitudinal sample of 1,989 fathers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study and examines factors associated with fathering a higher-order birth (three or more children) and compares these factors to those predicting any subsequent birth. Also, the article examines differences by marital status. Logistic regression…
Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Manlove, Jennifer; Lilja, Emily
Temperament ratings were obtained from 98 fathers when their infants were 4 and 6 months of age to examine effects of paternal characteristics on infant temperament. Parental stress, internalizing symptoms, and father's temperament were considered as factors possibly contributing to differences in their child's temperament. PMID:24468647
Potapova, Natalia V; Gartstein, Maria A; Bridgett, David J
Attachment relationships of first, third, and fifth graders with their mothers and fathers, and their associations with self-perceived and teacher-rated competence, were investigated. Children rated their attachment security with mothers and fathers using the Kerns security scale. Children's perceptions of academic and peer competence were…
Diener, Marissa L.; Isabella, Russell A.; Behunin, Melissa G.; Wong, Maria S.
The association of marital satisfaction with parenting burden and quality of the parent-child relationship was examined in 91 married mothers and fathers of co-residing adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders. Within-couple differences between mothers and fathers in how child characteristics related to these parenting experiences…
Hartley, Sigan L.; Barker, Erin T.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the characteristics of boys who become fathers at young age. Some studies have suggested that antisocial adolescents are more likely to be young fathers. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of psychosocial factors in childhood with becoming a young father, and to assess if they are independent of criminal behavior in adolescence. Methods The baseline assessment in 1989 included 2,946 boys born in 1981. Information about psychiatric symptoms at age eight was collected with Rutter questionnaires from parents and teachers and with the Child Depression Inventory from the children themselves. Data on criminal offenses at age 16–20 was collected from a police register. Register-based follow-up data on becoming a father under the age of 22 was available for 2,721 boys. Results The factors measured at age eight, which were associated with becoming a young father independently of adolescent criminality, were conduct problems, being born to a young father and having a mother with a low educational level. Having repeatedly committed criminal offences in adolescence was associated with becoming a young father independently of psychosocial factors in childhood. Conclusions Antisocial tendencies both in childhood and adolescence are associated with becoming a young father. They should be taken into consideration when designing preventive or supportive interventions.
A comparison of divorced single-parent fathers (N=33) and divorced single-parent mothers (N=38) found the two groups comparable on several variables: place of residence, race, age, number and age of children, religion, reported mental problems, and alcohol and drug usage. Fathers were somewhat better educated, had higher incomes, and tended to…
DeFrain, John; Elrick, Rod
In this study the associations between mothers' and fathers' differential parenting and children's oppositional and emotional problems were examined. A curvilinear relationship between differential parenting and children's outcomes was hypothesized, as well as the combined effect of mothers' and fathers' parenting. Data came from a community…
Meunier, Jean Christophe; Bisceglia, Rossana; Jenkins, Jennifer M.
The present study contrasted the parenting stress and adjustment patterns of 100 mothers and 111 fathers incarcerated in one of 11 U.S. prisons. In comparison to inmate mothers, fathers had less contact with children, higher levels of parenting stress, and poorer alliance with caregivers. For inmate mothers, higher levels of contact with…
Loper, Ann Booker; Carlson, L. Wrenn; Levitt, Lacey; Scheffel, Kathryn
Noting that our ability to incorporate the cultural strengths and the distinctive ways that families, specifically fathers, contribute to educational accomplishments of preschool children is severely constrained by major gaps and inadequacy in the research literature, this Digest explores what is known about the role of fathers in young children's…
Gadsden, Vivian; Ray, Aisha
The Fathering Indicators Framework (FIF) is an evaluation tool designed to help researchers, practitioners, and policymakers conceptualize, examine, and measure change in fathering behaviors in relation to child and family well-being. This report provides a detailed overview of the research and theory informing the development of the FIF. The FIF…
Gadsden, Vivian, Ed.; Fagan, Jay, Ed.; Ray, Aisha, Ed.; Davis, James Earl, Ed.
Examined toddlers' self-regulated compliance to mothers, fathers, and caregivers. Found child emotion regulation and adult warm control in discipline situation related to self-regulated compliance to mother, caregiver, and father. Compliance to parents correlated with parental sensitivity and philosophies. Compliance to caregivers correlated with…
Feldman, Ruth; Klein, Pnina S.
The relations between intactness of the parental unit (e.g., father absent at age 14) and pubertal timing in both men and women were examined in a US national probability sample. In both men and women, an absent father at age 14 predicted an earlier age of puberty (e.g., early menarche or voice change). There was little evidence that an absent…
Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 781), I examined how father visitation for children born outside of marriage is affected by subsequent maternal relationship formation, focusing on the timing, type, and stability of maternal relationships. Results showed that fathers were most likely to have not seen their child…
Guzzo, Karen Benjamin
Using a two-year and three-wave cross-lagged design with a sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined bidirectional longitudinal relations between father-child relationships and children's social competence. The results of structural equation modeling showed bidirectional effects between father-child conflict and social…
Research about parent experiences with the special education system is largely dominated by the perspectives of mothers. Using purposeful sampling techniques, we interviewed 20 active fathers about their experiences navigating the special education system. All the fathers described three primary roles they experienced, including acting as a…
Mueller, Tracy Gershwin; Buckley, Pamela C.
We report 6 cases of polysplenic syndrome diagnosed on prenatal sonography. The mean menstrual age at the time of presentation was 275 weeks (range 184 to 38 weeks). All cases were examined using level-II prenatal sonography. The sonographic findings of polysplenic syndrome were retrograde analyzed and compared to the autopsy or postnatal findings. Polysplenia was detected in 5 cases on the prenatal sonography. Associated cardiovascular anomalies were detected in all 6 cases, all of which had more than one anomaly, namely complete atrioventricular septal defect in two cases, double outlet right ventricle combined with rudimentary LV or mitral atresia in two cases and VSD and ASD in one case each. There were three cases of interrupted IVC with azygous continuation of the posterior thorax. Bradycardia was observed in 2 cases, one of which showed AV dissociation of rhythm. Visceral abnormalities were present in all cases and there were combined anomalies such as echogenic bowel, pelviectasia, horseshoe kidney, and posterior neck cystic hygroma and fetal hydrops. Four cases terminated pregnancy. The autopsy results of 2 cases were comparable to those of the prenatal sonography, however autopsies were not performed in 2 cases. One fetus near term was delivered and the baby subsequently underwent heart surgery and was still alive at the last follow-up. The remaining one case was lost to follow-up. If multiple fetal anomalies, including complex heart disease and polysplenia, are detected in the prenatal sonography, a diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome can be made. IVC interruption with azygous continuation can also be helpful in the diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome, and this can be observed by detecting the double vessel of the posterior thorax
We report 6 cases of polysplenic syndrome diagnosed on prenatal sonography. The mean menstrual age at the time of presentation was 275 weeks (range 184 to 38 weeks). All cases were examined using level-II prenatal sonography. The sonographic findings of polysplenic syndrome were retrograde analyzed and compared to the autopsy or postnatal findings. Polysplenia was detected in 5 cases on the prenatal sonography. Associated cardiovascular anomalies were detected in all 6 cases, all of which had more than one anomaly, namely complete atrioventricular septal defect in two cases, double outlet right ventricle combined with rudimentary LV or mitral atresia in two cases and VSD and ASD in one case each. There were three cases of interrupted IVC with azygous continuation of the posterior thorax. Bradycardia was observed in 2 cases, one of which showed AV dissociation of rhythm. Visceral abnormalities were present in all cases and there were combined anomalies such as echogenic bowel, pelviectasia, horseshoe kidney, and posterior neck cystic hygroma and fetal hydrops. Four cases terminated pregnancy. The autopsy results of 2 cases were comparable to those of the prenatal sonography, however autopsies were not performed in 2 cases. One fetus near term was delivered and the baby subsequently underwent heart surgery and was still alive at the last follow-up. The remaining one case was lost to follow-up. If multiple fetal anomalies, including complex heart disease and polysplenia, are detected in the prenatal sonography, a diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome can be made. IVC interruption with azygous continuation can also be helpful in the diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome, and this can be observed by detecting the double vessel of the posterior thorax
Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Suh, Jeong Soo [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ho [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
The purpose of this study is to examine how father’s psychological variable of role awareness affects parenting participation. Data were collected by the survey in fathers of 363 children in public kindergartens and national/public and private nurseries and analyzed by using multiple regression analysis. The results showed that fathers perceiving their role of educating (for cognitive development, social skills, and physical health) and of meeting the needs (needs for health protection, and emotional needs) participated actively in parenting and that those perceiving their role of meeting the needs for food, clothing, and shelter participated passively in parenting. On the basis of these results, strategic and practical implications were given to induce fathers to participate more actively in parenting.
Roh, Youn-Soo; Yang, Sonam
To better understand quantity and quality of divorced father contact, a weighted county sample of 230 divorced fathers with a child aged 4-11 years was employed to test whether fathers' antisocial personality (ASP) moderated effects of monthly contact with children in predicting children's observed noncompliance. Eighteen-month latent growth models obtained significant individual differences in levels of noncompliance and growth rates. ASP significantly moderated beneficial impact of fathers' monthly contact. Fathers' observed parenting practices significantly predicted noncompliance levels but not growth. Parenting did not account for the effect of Contact x ASP, suggesting both environmental and potentially genetic influences on child adjustment. Findings were robust across boys and girls and age levels. Implications for preventive intervention are discussed. PMID:20438456
DeGarmo, David Scott
DAT stories of 28 father-absent (FA) and 103 father-present (FP) college males were coded for castration anxiety. Relying on Stoller's (1974) use of castration anxiety (CA) as an index of core male gender identity, it was predicted that FA males would have less secure gender identity and higher CA than FP males. The FP subjects were grouped into three subgroups according to ratings of the quality of father-son interaction (positive, neutral and negative). Social class, age, SAT scores and story-length did not discriminate between FAs and FPs. FAs were significantly higher in CA, but there were no significant differences between the three FP subgroups. Age at father-loss did not affect CA, although father-absence through death rather than divorce, separation or desertion was associated with higher CA. Presence of a stepfather, other significant older male, sibling sex or birth-order did not affect CA level of FAs. PMID:7218135
Purpose Numerous studies show associations between father absence and girls’ early puberty. However, most research has been retrospective, focused on menarche, and failed to consider BMI, ethnicity and income in the analyses. This study resolves these scientific gaps. Methods This was a prospective study of 444 6–8-year-old girls and their caregivers (96% mothers). Data were collected annually in clinic, including weight, height and Tanner stage for breast and pubic hair. Caregivers reported on father absence and demographics. This report focuses on the assessment of father absence at baseline and two years of follow-up for pubertal outcomes. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to test whether father absence at baseline predicted pubertal onset by follow-up 2. BMI was assumed to be in the causal pathway. Differences by ethnicity and income were examined. Results Income and ethnicity moderated associations between father absence and pubertal onset when adjusting for BMI. Father absence predicted earlier onset of breast development only in higher-income families. Father absence predicted earlier onset of pubic hair development only in higher-income African Americans families. BMI was not related to father absence and therefore was not in the causal pathway. Conclusions Among girls from higher-income but not lower-income families, father absence is linked to earlier puberty. This was particularly true for African Americans in terms of pubic hair development. These effects are not explained by body weight. Future research is needed to identify social and biophysiological mechanisms through which father absence, ethnicity and income impact pubertal onset.
Deardorff, Julianna; Ekwaru, John P.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Ellis, Bruce J.; Greenspan, Louise C.; Mirabedi, Anousheh; Landaverde, Evelyn G.; Hiatt, Robert A.
The aim of this study was to describe the meaning of the father's lived experiences when taking care of his infant as the primary caregiver during the first hours after birth, when the infant was apart from the mother due to the mother's postoperative care. Fifteen fathers were interviewed between 8 days and 6 weeks after the birth. The results describe a movement toward father-child togetherness characterized by an immediate and gradual change within the father as he undertakes increasing re...
Erlandsson, Kerstin; Christensson, Kyllike; Fagerberg, Ingegerd
We report on an infant with multi-system disease including liver fibrosis, right microphthalmia with cataract, interstitial pneumonitis, and hyperechoic lesions in the basal ganglia and in the periventricular and thalamic regions. Prenatal ascites with hepatomegaly concomitantly with detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in the amniotic fluid, following recurrent maternal CMV infection, had been shown. Although CMV culture and DNA detection were negative in the urine, the infant was given foscarnet because CMV infection was demonstrated in the liver by DNA detection and immunohistochemical staining. Favorable clinical outcome and absence of CMV in the liver were subsequently shown. Our case suggests that congenital CMV disease following maternal recurrence may not be associated with disseminated infection but only with intracellular infection. The diagnosis should therefore be based on CMV detection in the involved organs. Moreover, this is the first report on the possible efficacy and safety of foscarnet for therapy of immunocompetent infants with congenital CMV disease. PMID:15280124
Nigro, G; Sali, E; Anceschi, M M; Mazzocco, M; Maranghi, L; Clerico, A; Castello, M A
The University of Detroit-Mercy has created this digital exploration of Father Charles E. Coughlin in order to scholastically examine his role in influencing the hearts and minds of Americans from the late 1920s through World War II. In the 1930s, Coughlin was well known for his support of FDR and as a social commentator concerned with predatory capitalism. Later, in his radio-broadcasting career, his commentaries turned quite anti-Semitic and he was roundly chastised in many quarters. On this site, visitors can read a biography of Coughlin and also consider educational materials related to his life and times. These materials include a detailed bibliography, lesson plans, and a range of primary materials, such as transcripts of his radio broadcasts and images from his newspaper, "Social Justice."
We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic analysis of mosaic small supernumerary marker chromosome 1 [sSMC(1)]. We review the literature of sSMC(1) at amniocentesis and chromosome 1p21.1-p12 duplication syndrome. We discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation of the involved genes of ALX3, RBM15, NTNG1, SLC25A24, GPSM2, TBX15 and NOTCH2 in this case. PMID:23933412
Chen, Chih-Ping; Chen, Ming; Su, Yi-Ning; Huang, Jian-Pei; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Su, Jun-Wei; Chang, Shun-Ping; Chen, Yu-Ting; Lee, Chen-Chi; Chen, Li-Feng; Pan, Chen-Wen; Wang, Wayseen
We report the imaging findings in a case of fetal lymphangioma involving the retroperitoneum and right lower extremity, and diagnosed by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 26 weeks of gestation. Prenatal ultrasonograms and T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo MR images clearly revealed an extensive, multilocular cystic mass with internal hemorrhage in the retroperitoneum extending to the lower extremity.
Rha, Sung Eun; Byun, Jae Young; Kim, Hak Hee; Shin, Jong-chul; Ahn, Hyun Young; Kim, Dong-chul; Lee, Kyo-young
We report the imaging findings in a case of fetal lymphangioma involving the retroperitoneum and right lower extremity, and diagnosed by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 26 weeks of gestation. Prenatal ultrasonograms and T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo MR images clearly revealed an extensive, multilocular cystic mass with internal hemorrhage in the retroperitoneum extending to the lower extremity.
Rha, Sung-Eun; Byun, Jae-Young; Kim, Hak-Hee; Shin, Jong-Chul; Ahn, Hyun-Young; Kim, Dong-Chul; Lee, Kyo-Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
We report the imaging findings in a case of fetal lymphangioma involving the retroperitoneum and right lower extremity, and diagnosed by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 26 weeks of gestation. Prenatal ultrasonograms and T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo MR images clearly revealed an extensive, multilocular cystic mass with internal hemorrhage in the retroperitoneum extending to the lower extremity
The SCA-TEST, Prenatal Aneuploidies Screening, is an innovating program with very articulated and differentiated calculation potentials. It is a software which allows executing a sequence-like rational screening involving the ultrasound study of the first and second trimester. The program enables to execute a complete and different- levels combined screening, through very sophisticated mathematic analysis methods. In particular, it enables to make: a first trimester screening combining it wit...
Sacco, Alessandro; Coco, Claudio; Mangiafico, Lucia; Cignini, Pietro; Tiezzi, Alessandra; Giorlandino, Claudio
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of the 2.5 million new adult HIV infections that occurred worldwide in 2007 were in stable couples. Feasible and acceptable strategies to improve HIV prevention in a conjugal context are scarce. In the preparatory phase of the ANRS 12127 Prenahtest multi-site HIV prevention trial, we assessed the acceptability of couple-oriented post-test HIV counseling (COC) and men's involvement within prenatal care services, among pregnant women, male partners and health care...
Orne-gliemann, Joanna; Tchendjou, Patrice; Miric, Marija; Gadgil, Mukta; Butsashvili, Maia; Eboko, Fred; Perez-then, Eddy; Darak, Shrinivas; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Kamkamidze, George; Balestre, Eric; Du Lou?, Annabel Desgre?es; Dabis, Francois
Pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEB) act as airway oxygen sensors and produce serotonin, a variety of neuropeptides and are involved in autonomic nervous system control of breathing, especially during the neonatal period. We now report that NEB cells also express a GABAegic signaling loop that is increased by prenatal nicotine exposure. In this study, cultured monkey NEB cells show hypoxia-evoked spikes and hypoxia-sensitive K+ current. As shown by both immunofluorescence and RT-PCR, monkey...
Disorders involving dysfunctional sensory processing are characterized by an inability to filter sensory information, particularly simultaneously arriving multimodal inputs. We examined the effects of prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), a teratogen linked to sensory dysfunction, on the behavior of juvenile and adult rats, and on the anatomy of the superior colliculus, a critical multisensory integration center in the brain. VPA-exposed rats showed deficits in colliculus-dependent behavi...
Dendrinos, Georgia; Hemelt, Marie; Keller, Asaf
Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) has substantial medical importance as it targets the development of safer and more effective methods to avoid the risk of fetal loss associated with currently used invasive methods. Several approaches have been demonstrated as being proof-of concept for NIPD of chromosomal aneuploidies. These approaches include cell-based and cell-free detection methods, involving the investigation of fetal cells in the maternal circulation, formaldehyde treatment of mat...
Papageorgiou, Elisavet A.; Patsalis, Philippos C.
Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that there is a rich and varied interplay between persons and their environments, which strongly suggests that this involves gene-environment correlations and interactions. We investigated whether familial risk (FR) to externalizing behaviors and prenatal and perinatal risk factors, separately or in interaction with each other, predicted externalizing behaviors. Methods: The subjects were 10- to 12-year-old preadolescents who were taking part in TRA...
Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Aken, Marcel A. G.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.
Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: English Abstract in spanish Hoy los hombres interactúan más con sus hijos y con su entorno familiar en comparación con décadas pasadas. Los hombres están redefiniendo su identidad y sus funciones, cuestionando las restricciones sociales. Sobre la base de algunos estudios de la antropología, la sociología y la psicología llevad [...] os a cabo en las últimas décadas, especialmente en América Latina, la relación entre padre e hijo es enfocada en este artículo. Con el fin de reflexionar sobre los posibles efectos de los padres maternales a la siguiente generación este estudio trata de poner de relieve la importancia en la relación padre-hijo, en la construcción de la identidad de género masculino y para discutir las asimetrías en la distribución de la atención de los padres, para identificar los elementos que contribuyen para diferentes supuestos sobre la paternidad, la evaluación de la brecha de género entre hombres y mujeres en el cuidado de los niños. Abstract in english Today men interact more with their children and with their home environments compared with past decades. Men are redefining their identity and their roles, questioning societal constraints. Based on some studies of anthropology, sociology and psychology carried out in recent decades especially in La [...] tin America, the relationship between father and son is focused in this article. In order to reflect on the possible effects of mothering fathers into the next generation this study tries to highlight the importance of parent-child relationship in the construction of male gender identity and to discuss asymmetries in the sharing of parental care, to identify the elements that contribute for different assumptions on fatherhood, and assessing the gender gap between men and women concerning child care.
Bruna, Krimberg von Muhlen; Marilia, Saldanha; Marlene, Neves Strey.
Microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2, the most common human deletion syndrome encompasses a wide spectrum of abnormalities. Many clinical or ultrasonographic findings may support deletion studies, either in utero or in the post-natal period. The objective of our study was to evaluate the circumstances of 22q11.2 deletion diagnosis in a single centre of genetics during a 12 years period. Testing for 22q11.2 deletion was performed in 883 cases. Congenital heart defect was the most common reason for referral. An antenatal 22q11.2 microdeletion was detected in 8 fetuses (4.7%) among 169 pregnancies, all presenting conotruncal anomalies. In one case prenatal diagnosis led to the identification of the deletion in the mildly affected father and had negative impact on the family. During the same period, postnatal 22q11.2 DS was diagnosed in 81 out of 714 patients aged from birth to 42 years (11.3%) (p = 0.02). A CHD was present in 37 (45.7%). This figure is significantly lower than the 75% commonly reported. These results suggest that deletion studies could be justifiable in fetuses with non-cardiac prenatal sonographic findings that have been reported in association with 22q11.2 DS. However, as most of these malformations are rather common and non specific, systematic 22q11.2 testing is not justifiable. In such cases, careful cardiac and thymus examination could provide additional clues for 22q11.2 testing. In addition parents should be given accurate information before antenatal or postnatal testing, including the wide variability of the clinical phenotype, the impossibility to establish a precise prognosis concerning psychomotor development and psychiatric risks. PMID:20659598
Bretelle, Florence; Beyer, Laura; Pellissier, Marie Christine; Missirian, Chantal; Sigaudy, Sabine; Gamerre, Marc; D'Ercole, Claude; Philip, Nicole
Examines the impact of noncustodial fathers' postdivorce behavior on children's performance. For intact families, fathers' ethnicity and income were related to college entrance exam (CEE) scores; for students with divorced parents, however, these and other father variables are not statistically related to CEE performance. Offers a "social capital"…
Furr, L. Allen
Attempts to manage the outcome of pregnancy are ubiquitous among human societies. Those practices are becoming standardized as prenatal care under a biomedically trained practitioner has come to characterize the formal management of pregnancy. However, many women do not seek biomedical surveillance of their pregnancies, and, in many contexts, particularly in 'modernizing' or rural communities, prenatal care facilities are often poorly coordinated and under-utilized for a variety of reasons. This report illustrates widespread and increasing usage of biomedical services for prenatal care and birth among women in Ladakh, India, over the course of the past 20 years. This trend is at odds with that typical of other parts of South Asia, and can be attributed to the unique ecological, cultural, and historical characteristics of this region. These include the hypoxia of this high-altitude region, which poses substantial problems for successful birth outcome, along with the socio-ecology of maternal diet and work patterns that further compromise birth outcome. These risk factors exist in the context of the absence of involvement of traditional institutions such as Tibetan medicine or traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in pregnancy and birth, and government-sponsored efforts to establish institutions of modernity in Ladakh such as biomedical facilities. Hence, the penetration of biomedical services into the domain of reproductive health has been facilitated. Idiosyncratic aspects of the obstetrics practice itself, particularly the social position and personality of the obstetrician, have also played an important role in recruiting women to make use of hospital-based prenatal care and birth. However, despite broader usage of prenatal care and hospital births by Ladakhi women, there is little indication that birth outcomes have improved significantly. Reasons for this lack of measurable success are considered. PMID:12365523
Wiley, Andrea S
The consumption of artificial food dye (AFD) during childhood and adolescence has been linked to behavioural changes, such as hyperactivity. It is possible that the vulnerability to AFDs is modified by prenatal stress. Common consequences of prenatal stress include hyperactivity, thus potentially leading to synergistic actions with AFDs. Here, we investigated the compounding effect of multigenerational prenatal stress (MPS) and AFD consumption on the development of hyperactivity and anxiety-related behaviours across the lifespan in male rats. MPS treatment involved a family history of four consecutive generations of prenatal stress (F4 generation). AFD treatment included a 4%-concentration of FD&C Red 40, FD&C Yellow 5, FD&C Yellow 6, and FD&C Blue 1 in the drinking water from postnatal days 22 to 50 to resemble juvenile and adolescent dietary exposure. Using several exploration tasks, animals were tested in motor activity and anxiety-like behaviours from adolescence to 13 months of age. MPS resulted in hyperactivity both early (50 days) and later in life (13 months), with normalized activity patterns at reproductive age. AFD consumption resulted in hyperactivity during consumption, which subsided following termination of treatment. Notably, both MPS and AFD promoted risk-taking behaviour in young adults (3 months). There were few synergistic effects between MPS and AFD in this study. The findings suggest that AFDs exert the most noticeable effects at the time of exposure. MPS, however, results in a characteristic lifespan profile of behavioural changes, indicating that development and aging represent particularly vulnerable periods in life during which a family history of prenatal stress may precipitate.
Erickson, Zachary T.; Falkenberg, Erin A.; Metz, Gerlinde A. S.
The risk of fetal aneuploidies is usually estimated based on high resolution ultrasound combined with biochemical determination of criterion in maternal blood, with invasive procedures offered to the population at risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a new rapid aneuploidy screening test on amniotic fluid (AF) or chorionic villus (CV) samples based on BACs-on-Beads (BoBs) technology and to compare the results with classical karyotyping by Giemsa banding (G-banding) of cultured cells in metaphase as the gold standard technique. The prenatal-BoBs kit was used to study aneuploidies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y as well as nine microdeletion syndromes in 321 AF and 43 CV samples. G-banding of metaphase cultured cells was performed concomitantly for all prenatal samples. A microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was also carried out in a subset of samples. Prenatal-BoBs results were widely confirmed by classical karyotyping. Only six karyotype findings were not identified by Prenatal-BoBs, all of them due to the known limitations of the technique. In summary, the BACs-on-Beads technology was an accurate, robust, and efficient method for the rapid diagnosis of common aneuploidies and microdeletion syndromes in prenatal samples.
Martinez-Conejero, Jose Antonio; Serra, Vicente; Olmo, Ines; Lara, Coral; Simon, Carlos
In 1965, Daniel Patrick Moynihan argued that the black family was nearing “complete breakdown” due to high rates of out-of-wedlock childbearing. In subsequent decades, nonmarital childbearing rose dramatically for all racial groups and unwed fathers were often portrayed as being absent from their children’s lives. The authors examine contemporary nonmarital father involvement using quantitative evidence from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and qualitative evidence from in...
Edin, Kathryn; Tach, Laura; Mincy, Ronald
Comprehensive prenatal care for HIV-infected women in the United States involves addressing mental health needs. Retrospective quantitative data are presented from HIV-infected pregnant women (n = 45) who reported childhood sexual or physical abuse (66%), abuse in adulthood by a sexual partner (25%), and abuse during pregnancy (10%). Depression and anxiety were the most commonly reported psychological symptoms; more than half of the sample reported symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including HIV-related PTSD (PTSD-HIV). There was a strong association between depression and PTSD as well as between anxiety and PTSD-HIV. The majority of infants received zidovudine at birth and continued the recommended regimen. All but one infant were determined to be noninfected. Women improved their CD4(+) T cell counts and HIV RNA viral loads while in prenatal care. Results support the need for targeted prenatal programs to address depression, anxiety, substance use, and trauma in HIV-infected women. PMID:24274993
Villar-Loubet, Olga M; Illa, Lourdes; Echenique, Marisa; Cook, Ryan; Messick, Barbara; Duthely, Lunthita M; Gazabon, Shirley; Glemaud, Myriam; Bustamante-Avellaneda, Victoria; Potter, JoNell
Sexual And Reproductive Health 23414 Teen Pregnancy Prenatal Care forTeens Prenatal Care forTeens htmPrenatalTeens Find out how teens can help ensure a healthy pregnancy. 310395 InteliHealth 2009-07- ...
Anterior sacral meningocele is an extremely rare condition and there has been only one previous report of a prenatal diagnosis. We report the case of a 36-year-old primigravida who was referred following detection of a huge fetal pelvic cyst on routine ultrasound examination at 19 + 4 weeks' gestation. Neither fetal ultrasound nor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 20 + 5 weeks' gestation could detect communication between the cyst and the spinal cord. Because extension of the pear-shaped cyst through the pelvic diaphragm down to the perineum was reminiscent of dilated vagina and uterine cervix, a tentative diagnosis of hydrometrocolpos secondary to imperforate hymen was considered. On follow-up MRI at 33 + 5 weeks' gestation, a narrow stalk connecting the pelvic cyst and the spinal canal through the anterior sacral foramen was clearly delineated, allowing us to reach the prenatal diagnosis of anterior sacral meningocele. PMID:20882559
Sumi, A; Sato, Y; Kakui, K; Tatsumi, K; Fujiwara, H; Konishi, I
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Valorar la capacidad diagnóstica y el seguimiento de las cardiopatías congénitas con diagnóstico prenatal realizadas en el Centro de Referencia Perinatal Oriente (CERPO). Método: Se analizan todas las cardiopatías congénitas con diagnóstico prenatal que ingresaron al CERPO entre abril 2003 [...] y diciembre de 2011. Se realiza seguimiento postnatal, se evalúa la concordancia entre el diagnóstico pre y postnatal, y se compara el pronóstico con la experiencia previamente reportada en la literatura. Resultados: Se detectaron 568 cardiopatías congénitas, el 53% correspondían a pacientes referidas desde otras regiones del país. En relación a la edad materna y paterna el 28% y el 35% tenían 35 años o más, respectivamente. De las 568 cardiopatías congénitas controladas, el 75% fueron pesquisadas con la ecocardiografía por visión de 4 cámaras y el 25% por visión de tractos de salida. La concordancia entre la ecocardiografía prenatal y postnatal fue de 87%. Los diagnósticos más frecuentes correspondieron a comunicación interventricular, síndrome de hipoplasia ventricular izquierdo, arritmias y canal aurículoventricular. Se detectaron 60 cromosomopatías, 8 síndromes genéticos y 145 malformaciones extracardiacas asociadas. Se pudo realizar seguimiento de sobrevida al año en 390 pacientes, la sobrevida global en este grupo (excluidas las aneuploidías incompatibles con la vida) alcanzó un 44%. Conclusión: Existe una alta tasa de diagnóstico prenatal de cardiopatías congénitas a nivel terciario, con un 87% de concordancia entre ecocardiografía pre y postnatal. La sobrevida global de pacientes con cardiopatías congénitas fue de 44% al año de seguimiento. Por las características territoriales de nuestro país debiera contarse con más centros de referencia perinatal, al menos en las zonas norte y sur del país. Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic and follow-up congenital heart disease with prenatal diagnosis performed in the Centro de Referencia Perinatal Oriente (CERPO). Method: We analyzed all the congenital heart disease with prenatal diagnosis admitted to CERPO between April 2003 and December 2011. P [...] ostnatal follow-up is performed, evaluating the correlation between pre and postnatal diagnosis and prognosis compared with the experience previously reported in the literature. Results: We detected 568 congenital heart diseases of which 53% were patients referred from other regions of the country. In relation to maternal and paternal age, 28% and 35% were 35 years or older, respectively. From 568 controlled congenital heart diseases, 75% could be researched to ultrasound echocardiography 4-chamber view and 25% per-view outflow tracts. The correlation between prenatal and postnatal echocardiography in this series was 87%. The most frequent diagnosis was interventricular communication, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, arrhythmias and atrioventricular canal. In this series we detected 60 chromosomal, 8 genetic syndromes and 145 extracardiac malformations. Follow-up could be performed one year survival in 390 patients, overall survival in this group (excluding aneuploidies with life incompatibility) reached 44%. Conclusion: There is a high rate of prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease at the tertiary level, with 87% concordance between pre-and postnatal echocardiography. Overall survival of patients with congenital heart disease is 44% at one year. For the territorial characteristics of our country should be counted more perinatal referral centers, at least in the north and south.
Carla, Mayorga H; Juan Guillermo, Rodríguez A; Gabriela, Enríquez G; Jaime, Alarcón R; Constanza, Gamboa W; Daniela, Capella S; Daniela, Fischer F.
Full Text Available In recent years, prenatal diagnosis and elective pregnancy termination have affected the reported birth prevalence of trisomies. Trisomy 13, or Patau syndrome, represents the third autosomic trisomy in order of frequency, after trisomy 21 (Down syndrome and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome, with a prevalence at birth estimated as between 1:12000 and 1:29000. In this study, we are presenting the results of cytogenetic analysis and clinic assessment in fetus of a woman at 22 weeks gestation, who were referred to our genetic diagnostic laboratory with abnormal triple test result, omphalosel and hydrocephaly. We performed the cordocentesis and pedigree analysis. We found a karyotype (47,XY,+13 in fetus. Because individuals of the family didn’t want, we were not followed the pregnancy prognosis for the mother and the fetus. We were recommending to the prenatal diagnosis for their further pregnancies.
There is increasing evidence that the cerebellum is susceptible to both prenatal infections and haemorrhages as well as being vulnerable in extremely preterm babies, but not to perinatal and postnatal hypoxic-ischaemic injuries. Starting with the imaging appearance we describe and illustrate a spectrum of prenatal cerebellar disruptions: cerebellar agenesis; unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia; unilateral cerebellar cleft; global cerebellar hypoplasia; vanishing cerebellum in myelomeningocele; and disruption of cerebellar development in preterm infants. We discuss neuroradiological characteristics, possible disruptive events, and clinical findings in the different morphological patterns. Remarkably, the same disruptive agent can cause different neuroradiological patterns, which appear likely to represent a morphological spectrum. The analysis of imaging patterns is crucial in recognising cerebellar disruptions. Recognition of cerebellar disruptions and their differentiation from cerebellar malformations is important in terms of diagnosis, prognosis, and genetic counselling. PMID:18945628
Poretti, Andrea; Prayer, Daniela; Boltshauser, Eugen
Full Text Available Introduction: Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS have twice the risk for metabolicsyndrome as compared to women from the general population. Mothers and sisters of affected womenalso have an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study was to determine theprevalence of metabolic syndrome in fathers of patients with PCOS.Materials and Methods: 34 fathers of PCOS patients were evaluated. The control group was 34 fathersof normal women. The data were obtained from the clinical history and personal interview with thepatients, the controls and their fathers at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Prevalence ofmetabolic syndrome was determined according to Adult Treatment Panel index III (ATPIII andInternational Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. Also incidence of hypertension and impaired glucosetolerance test, insulin resistance and diabetes type II were considered in both groups .Results: According to ATPIII and IDF criteria, the prevalence of metabolic disorders was 29.35% and41.17 in the fathers of the PCOS patients and 8.85% and 11.76 % in the fathers of the control group,respectively (p <0.008 and p<0.007, respectively. Also incidence of hypertension and impaired glcosetolerance test was significantly higher in fathers of the PCOS patients than control group (p< 0.05 .Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the fathers of women with PCOS have higher prevalence ofmetabolic syndrome and higher risk of developing hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance anddiabetes .
Background: Lead exposure in adults is associated with hypertension. Altered prenatal nutrition is associated with subsequent risks of adult hypertension, but little is known about whether prenatal exposure to toxicants, such as lead, may also confer such risks. Objectives: We investigated the relationship of prenatal lead exposure and blood pressure (BP) in 7- to 15-year-old boys and girls. Methods: We evaluated 457 mother–child pairs, originally recruited for an environmental birth cohort...
Zhang, Aimin; Hu, Howard; Sa?nchez, Brisa N.; Cantonwine, David; Schnaas, Lourdes; Lamadrid-figueroa, Hector; Tellez-rojo, Martha Maria; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Park, Sung Kyun; Wright, Robert O.
Most computerized prenatal record systems organize and store prenatal data but do not perform any computations on that data. The estimated date of confinement (EDC) is usually projected from the last menstrual period (LMP) by a simple calculation, but in a significant number of patients, the LMP is uncertain or unknown. We examine the possibility that parameters of fetal growth routinely collected during prenatal care can be combined to reliably predict the EDC.
Andersen, H. Frank; Barclay, Mel L.
OBJECTIVE: To examine how prenatal care providers responded to a new provincial policy of offering HIV testing to all prenatal patients, and to determine factors associated with self-reported high testing rates. DESIGN: Cross-sectional mailed survey. SETTING: Outpatient practices in three Ontario health-planning regions. PARTICIPANTS: Prenatal care providers: 784 family physicians, 200 obstetricians, and 103 midwives were sent questionnaires and were eligible to participate. MAIN OUTCOME MEAS...
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of implementation of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) educational intervention on universal screening for HIV in a prenatal clinic setting. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, frequencies of offering and acceptance of HIV testing were compared before and after an educational intervention performed by an HIV-focused nurse. The records of 293 women seeking prenatal care before the intervention and 206 women seeking prenatal care after the intervent...
We present the data of male participants in the Coordinating Center of the Hungarian Preconception Service (HPS), Budapest, 1984–2010. One of main objectives of the HPS was the incorporation of male partners of female participants into the preparation of childbirth. The HPS is based on three steps: (I) Reproductive health check-up. (II) A 3-month preparation for conception with the major determinants of the development of new life such as sex, health and/or some diseases. Smoking and illicit drug use cessation and limitation of alcohol intake was suggested in the male participants (III) to achieve optimal conception and better protection of early pregnancy. Pregnant women usually visit prenatal care clinics between the 7th and 12th gestational week when it is too late to reduce the risk of congenital abnormalities. Male participation in HPS will help to enhance use of appropriate preconception methods at the appropriate time.
Czeizel, Andrew E.; Czeizel, Benjamin; Vereczkey, Attila
Widespread use of ultrasonography has resulted in an increase in the recognition of fetal hydronephrosis. The enthusiasm that accompanied early interventions has been tempered by the experience and results obtained over the past 2 decades. The goal has remained the same: to identify patients with serious prenatal obstruction and to identify those which may benefit from intervention. Myelomeningocele remains a devastating congenital anomaly. Fetal and experimental studies suggested that patien...
Swana, Hubert S.; Sutherland, Ronald S.; Laurence Baskin
Prenatal multiple micronutrients (UNIMMAP) improve fetal growth only moderately compared to iron and folic acid alone (IFA). Whether this is due to insufficient amounts of UNIMMAP or to IFA being in reality an active control is unknown. We assessed the association between cumulative micronutrient intake (CMI) and fetal growth by secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in Burkina Faso where tablet intake was directly observed. We applied 2-part residual regression models adjusted f...
Roberfroid, D.; Huybregts, L.; Lanou, H.; Habicht, J. P.; Henry, M. C.; Meda, N.; Kolsteren, P.
ABSTRACT: Aneuploidies are one of the important causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Initially screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. Recently, various methods including non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) by analysis of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal blood has shown promise for hi...
In recent years, prenatal diagnosis and elective pregnancy termination have affected the reported birth prevalence of trisomies. Trisomy 13, or Patau syndrome, represents the third autosomic trisomy in order of frequency, after trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome), with a prevalence at birth estimated as between 1:12000 and 1:29000. In this study, we are presenting the results of cytogenetic analysis and clinic assessment in fetus of a woman at 22 weeks gestation, who ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of the 2.5 million new adult HIV infections that occurred worldwide in 2007 were in stable couples. Feasible and acceptable strategies to improve HIV prevention in a conjugal context are scarce. In the preparatory phase of the ANRS 12127 Prenahtest multi-site HIV prevention trial, we assessed the acceptability of couple-oriented post-test HIV counseling (COC and men's involvement within prenatal care services, among pregnant women, male partners and health care workers in Cameroon, Dominican Republic, Georgia and India. Methods Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used: direct observations of health services; in-depth interviews with women, men and health care workers; monitoring of the COC intervention and exit interviews with COC participants. Results In-depth interviews conducted with 92 key informants across the four sites indicated that men rarely participated in antenatal care (ANC services, mainly because these are traditionally and programmatically a woman's domain. However men's involvement was reported to be acceptable and needed in order to improve ANC and HIV prevention services. COC was considered by the respondents to be a feasible and acceptable strategy to actively encourage men to participate in prenatal HIV counseling and testing and overall in reproductive health services. Conclusions One of the keys to men's involvement within prenatal HIV counseling and testing is the better understanding of couple relationships, attitudes and communication patterns between men and women, in terms of HIV and sexual and reproductive health; this conjugal context should be taken into account in the provision of quality prenatal HIV counseling, which aims at integrated PMTCT and primary prevention of HIV.
Full Text Available Objective: to study the prenatal care offered in Sao Goncalo do Amarante city based on information from SIAB, SISPRENATAL, SINASC, SINANNET and SIM. Method: this is about a descriptive study, from quantitative approach, performed with 632 pregnant women enrolled from January 2007 to December 2008. The sample was obtained by sense, using the entire study population. Data were collected from information systems: SIAB, SISPRENATAL, SINASC, SINANNET and SIM, recorded in a standard form and analyzed according to criteria established by PHPN. The study was approved by the Ethics in Research Committee of the Federal University of Ceará/UFC (protocol number 241/07. Results: it was observed that 86,8% of women began prenatal care in first trimester of pregnancy in 2008, the coverage of immunization against tetanus reached 98,4%, there was detection of syphilis and seropositivity for HIV, resulting in the adoption of remedial measures and resulting in avoidable neonatal infection. Conclusion: the district has good adequacy of prenatal care, based primarily on prevention and health promotion.
Hélcia Carla dos Santos Pitombeira, Liana Mara Rocha Teles, Jamile de Souza Pacheco Paiva, Maysa Oliveira Rolim, Lydia Vieira Freitas, Ana Kelve de Castro Damasceno
The expected outcome of pregnancy is a healthy mother with a healthy child. The single most important care which could prevent the negative outcomes of pregnancy is Antenatal Care (ANC). Proper and timely antenatal care can significantly reduce the risks of maternal mortality. In pregnancy, total cost is about 80,000 Kcal, and above normal energy requirements. To find out prenatal nutrition an exploratory study was carried out in seven villages of the Ward-2 of Jamtoil Union of Kamarkhand Upazila under Sirajganj District. Thirty pregnant women of different trimesters, gravida and parity had been studied employing the methods and techniques of "Ethnographic Field Work." Mean daily calorie consumption of the Key Informants (KIs) was 1480.49 Kcal without reference to their religious affiliation, family resource base, education, occupation, gravidity, parity and duration of pregnancy. This is indicated that the mean calorie intake of the Key Informants did not meet not only their prenatal nutritional need but also their requirement during pre-pregnancy period. It was observed that food intake was in no way different from that of the non-pregnant status. Antenatal care of rural inhabitants analyzed almost exclusively from biomedical perspectives, its cultural, socio-economic, gender, ecological and other relevant perspectives are mostly ignored. In order to have safe motherhood up through compliance of prenatal advice, nutritional one in particular, these factors should be taken into consideration. PMID:22081169
Basher, M S; Kabir, S; Ahmed, S; Miah, M A; Kamal, M S
The paternal uniparental disomy 14 is a rare malformation syndrome whose postnatal pathognomonic sign is the deformation of the rib as coat hanger. In prenatal, ultrasonographic signs are major recurrent polyhydramnios, a narrow thorax and deformed long bones short and sometimes other anomalies including ends. The authors report one rare case of prenatal paternal uniparental disomy 14 with the deformation of the rib as coat hanger. Prenatally, the narrow deformed thorax can be searched by ultrasound three-dimensional (3D) and/or helical CT and thus represent an aid to prenatal diagnosis. PMID:24394322
Boiffard, F; Bénéteau, C; Quéré, M P; Philippe, H J; Le Vaillant, C
We examined the effects of prenatal exposure to the long acting opiate l-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM) followed by postnatal withdrawal on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity in neonatal and adult rats and anxiety-like behavior in adult rats. Female rats were treated with LAAM (0, 0.2, or 1.0 mg/kg/day) via oral gavage for 28 days prior to and continuing throughout pregnancy. Pups were fostered at birth to nontreated, lactating dams and underwent opiate withdrawal. On postnatal day (PND) 18, prenatal opiate-exposed male and female rat pups displayed a decreased corticosterone response 2 h after the application of an immunological stressor and 15 min following a social stressor compared to controls. In contrast, in adulthood, prenatal opiate-treated rats showed a heightened corticosterone response compared to prenatal water-treated controls at 3 h, but not 8 h, following an immunological stressor. Males prenatally treated with 1.0 mg/kg LAAM displayed elevated startle responding compared to the other prenatally treated male groups, but there was no effect of prenatal treatment in females. There were no effects of prenatal treatment in the open field test in either sex. These results suggest that prenatal opiate exposure followed by postnatal withdrawal dysregulated the HPA axis response to stressors in the neonate and adult and differentially affected adult anxiety-like behavior in males and females. PMID:15681124
Hamilton, Kathryn L; Harris, Andrew C; Gewirtz, Jonathan C; Sparber, Sheldon B; Schrott, Lisa M
Full Text Available O diagnóstico pré-natal está indicado para algumas genodermatoses graves, como a epidermólise bolhosa distrófica recessiva e a epidermólise bolhosa juncional. A biópsia de pele fetal foi introduzida em 1980, mas não pode ser realizada antes da 15a semana de gestação. A análise do DNA fetal é método preciso e pode ser realizado mais precocemente na gestação. No entanto, deve-se conhecer a base molecular da genodermatose, e é essencial determinar a mutação e/ou marcadores informativos nas famílias com criança previamente afetada. O DNA fetal pode ser obtido pela biópsia da vilosidade coriônica ou amniocentese. O diagnóstico genético pré-implantação tem surgido como alternativa que dispensa a interrupção da gestação. Essa técnica, que envolve fertilização in vitro e teste genético do embrião. vem sendo realizada para genodermatoses em poucos centros de referência. A ultra-sonografia é exame não invasivo, mas tem uso limitado no diagnóstico pré-natal de genodermatoses. A ultrasonografia tridimensional geralmente estabelece o diagnóstico tardiamente na gestação, e há apenas relatos anedóticos de diagnóstico pré-natal de genodermatoses usando esse método.Prenatal diagnostic testing is indicated for some severe genodermatoses, such as recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and junctional epidermolysis bullosa. Fetal skin biopsy was introduced in 1980, but it cannot be performed before 15th gestational week. Fetal DNA analysis is a precise method and can be performed earlier in pregnancy. However, the molecular basis of the genodermatoses must be known and it is essential to determine the gene mutations and/or informative markers in the families with a previously affected child. Fetal DNA can be obtained by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is an alternative approach obviating the need for termination of pregnancy. It involves in vitro fertilization and genetic testing of embryos. However, this technique has been performed for genodermatoses in only a few reference centers. Ultrasonography is a non-invasive test, but has a limited use in prenatal diagnosis of genodermatoses. Tridimensional ultrasonography usually establishes diagnosis late in pregnancy and there are only anecdotal reports of prenatal diagnosis of genodermatoses using this method.
Maria Carolina de Abreu Sampaio
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O diagnóstico pré-natal está indicado para algumas genodermatoses graves, como a epidermólise bolhosa distrófica recessiva e a epidermólise bolhosa juncional. A biópsia de pele fetal foi introduzida em 1980, mas não pode ser realizada antes da 15a semana de gestação. A análise do DNA fetal é método [...] preciso e pode ser realizado mais precocemente na gestação. No entanto, deve-se conhecer a base molecular da genodermatose, e é essencial determinar a mutação e/ou marcadores informativos nas famílias com criança previamente afetada. O DNA fetal pode ser obtido pela biópsia da vilosidade coriônica ou amniocentese. O diagnóstico genético pré-implantação tem surgido como alternativa que dispensa a interrupção da gestação. Essa técnica, que envolve fertilização in vitro e teste genético do embrião. vem sendo realizada para genodermatoses em poucos centros de referência. A ultra-sonografia é exame não invasivo, mas tem uso limitado no diagnóstico pré-natal de genodermatoses. A ultrasonografia tridimensional geralmente estabelece o diagnóstico tardiamente na gestação, e há apenas relatos anedóticos de diagnóstico pré-natal de genodermatoses usando esse método. Abstract in english Prenatal diagnostic testing is indicated for some severe genodermatoses, such as recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and junctional epidermolysis bullosa. Fetal skin biopsy was introduced in 1980, but it cannot be performed before 15th gestational week. Fetal DNA analysis is a precise method [...] and can be performed earlier in pregnancy. However, the molecular basis of the genodermatoses must be known and it is essential to determine the gene mutations and/or informative markers in the families with a previously affected child. Fetal DNA can be obtained by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is an alternative approach obviating the need for termination of pregnancy. It involves in vitro fertilization and genetic testing of embryos. However, this technique has been performed for genodermatoses in only a few reference centers. Ultrasonography is a non-invasive test, but has a limited use in prenatal diagnosis of genodermatoses. Tridimensional ultrasonography usually establishes diagnosis late in pregnancy and there are only anecdotal reports of prenatal diagnosis of genodermatoses using this method.
Maria Carolina de Abreu, Sampaio; Zilda Najjar Prado de, Oliveira; Javier, Miguelez.
The aim of this study was to compare father-infant interaction with mother-infant interaction, and explore differences and similarities between parents. Related factors for quality of father-infant interaction were also examined. Sixteen pairs of parents with infants aged 0 to 36 months were observed for play interaction between parents and their children. Results suggested no significant differences between parents, but children's interactions were significantly more contingent with fathers than mothers (p =.045). Significant correlations between parents were found in socialemotional growth fostering encouragement for children during interaction (? =.73, p =.001). Paternal depressive symptoms were significantly correlated to paternal sensitivity to child's cues (? =-.59, p =.017). PMID:24658960
Yago, Satoshi; Hirose, Taiko; Okamitsu, Motoko; Okabayashi, Yukiko; Hiroi, Kayoko; Nakagawa, Nozomi; Omori, Takahide
Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed gestationally by chronic mild stress (CMS, a variable schedule of different stressors) or dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid, i.e., a pharmacological stressor) was tested for reactivity by testing their acoustic startle response (ASR). Two subsets of offspring were tested. One was experimentally naÃ¯ve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring that had been blood sampled 3 months previously. In conclusion, similarity of the effects of maternal gestational exposure to aregular stress schedule and of exposure to a synthetic glucocorticoid suggests that maternal glucocorticoids may be a determining factor for changes in the regulatory mechanisms of the acoustic startle response. Further, a single aversive life event showed capable of changing the reactivity of prenatally stressed offspring, whereas offspring of dams going through a less stressful gestation was largely unaffected by this event. This suggests that circumstances dating back to the very beginning of life affect the individual's sensitivity towards experiences in life after birth. The prenatal environment may thus form part of the explanation of the considerable individual variation in the development of psychopathology.
Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Seguimiento de las cardiopatías congénitas con diagnóstico prenatal. Método: Se analizan todas las cardiopatías con diagnóstico prenatal que ingresaron al Centro de Referencia Perinatal Oriente (CERPO) entre Abril 2003 y Junio 2005. Se realiza seguimiento postnatal y se compara el pronósti [...] co con la experiencia previamente reportada en la literatura. Resultados: Se detectaron 94 cardiopatías congénitas de las cuales 76,6% correspondían a pacientes referidas desde otras regiones del país. La edad gestacional promedio al diagnóstico fue de 32 semanas. La principal causa de derivación correspondió a sospecha en examen obstétrico ultrasonográfico de rutina (72% de los casos). En esta serie se detectaron 10 anomalías cromosómicas y 14 casos presentaron malformaciones extracardíacas asociadas. Los diagnósticos más frecuentes correspondieron a síndrome hipoplasia ventricular izquierdo y ventrículo único, cardiopatías de difícil tratamiento y elevada mortalidad. La sobrevida global alcanzó un 46,1%, cifra similar a estudios internacionales previamente reportados. La sobrevida fue mejor en pacientes con malformaciones cardíacas únicas, que en pacientes que presentaron malformaciones más severas. Conclusión: Es importante mejorar el diagnóstico de cardiopatías ductus dependientes aisladas para mejorar la sobrevida en estos grupos de pacientes Abstract in english Objective: Follow up of congenital heart disease with prenatal diagnosis. Method: We analyzed all the congenital heart disease with prenatal diagnosis referred to the Centro de Referencia Perinatal Oriente (CERPO), between April 2003 and June 2005. We followed up after birth in terms of its prognosi [...] s and it was compared with previous reports. Results: 94 congenital heart diseases were diagnosed, 76.6% of these patients was referred from others regions of the country. The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 32 weeks. In 72% the reason for referral was suspicion of congenital heart disease on routine obstetric ultrasound examination. 10 patients presented chromosomal abnormalities and 14 were associated with others extracardiac malformations. The most frequent diagnosis was hypoplastic left heart syndrome and single ventricle, both complex malformations with difficult treatment and high mortality. The global survival rate reached a 46.1%, similar to previously reported studies. The survival rate was higher in patients with a single cardiac malformation than in patients with complex malformations. Conclusion: It is important to improve the prenatal diagnosis of ductus dependent isolated cardiac abnormalities in order to improve the survival in this group of patients
Susana, Aguilera P; Juan Guillermo, Rodríguez A; Gabriela, Enríquez G; Ximena, Vascopé M; Oscar, Pizarro R; Ramón, Almuna V.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' program was designed to help overweight fathers lose weight and positively influence the health behaviors of their children. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the previously established program in a community setting, in a large effectiveness trial. Methods/Design The Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids community trial consists of three stages: (i Stage 1 - program refinement and resource development (ii Stage 2 - community randomized controlled trial (iii Stage 3 - community effectiveness trial. The program will be evaluated in five Local Government Areas in the Hunter Valley Region of NSW, Australia. For the community randomized controlled trial, 50 overweight/obese men (aged 18-65 years from one Local Government Area with a child aged between 5-12 years of age will be recruited. Families will be randomized to either the program or a 6-month wait-list control group. Fathers and their children will be assessed at baseline, post-intervention (3-months and 6-months. Inclusion criteria are: body mass index 25-40 kg/m2; no participation in other weight loss programs during the study; pass a health-screening questionnaire; and access to a computer with Internet facilities. In the community trial, the program will be evaluated using a non-randomized, prospective design in five Local Government Areas. The exclusion criteria is body mass index 2 or lack of doctor's approval. Measures will be collected at baseline, 3-, 6- and 12-months. The program involves fathers attending seven face-to-face group sessions (three with children over 3-months. Measures: The primary outcome is fathers' weight. Secondary outcomes for both fathers and children include: waist circumference, blood pressure, resting heart rate, physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary intake. Father-only measures include portion size, alcohol consumption, parenting for physical activity and nutrition and parental engagement. Process evaluation will determine the fidelity, dose (delivered and received, reach, recruitment and context of the program. Discussion As a unique approach to reducing obesity prevalence in men and improving lifestyle behaviours in children, our findings will provide important evidence relating to the translation of Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids, which will enable it to be delivered on a larger scale. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12610000608066
Morgan Philip J
Fetal blood sampling is a procedure that involves the drawing of a blood sample from the umbilical vein of the umbilical cord, which can be performed after 18 weeks gestation. Fetal blood sampling is a preferable method for prenatal diagnosis of thalassemia in second trimester or late pregnancy. Additionally, it is suggested to be performed in cases in which mosaicisms are identified by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS), areas where DNA analysis is not available, and when mutations of the parents are not known. Laboratory steps regarding prenatal diagnosis by fetal blood sampling were summarized, including the ensuring of fetal origin, determination of red blood cell parameters, fetal hemoglobin analysis, and finally fetal DNA analysis. The objective of this review is to present an overview of procedures in terms of benefits, laboratory interpretations, and some limitations. PMID:24851565
Full Text Available We have reviewed the development of internal relief of 101 human hearts during prenatal ontogenesis. It was used a macroscopic, immunohystochemical research methods, which enabled us to trace the processes of vessel’s development, proliferation of cardiac wall cells, heteromorphy of its structure in various stages of development. The data indicate the involvement of cardiogel, primary cardiomyocytes, as well as mesenchymal cells in the development and statement of the structural components, which form the internal relief of the heart chambers. The process of heart wall’s delamination is a separate morphological mechanism. Delamination plates are embryo material for the formation of tendinous chords, papillary muscles and muscle trabecula. Process of forming of the internal structures of relief occurs during the prenatal period of 5-20 weeks ontogenesis. One of the first parts of the heart, in which the process of papillary-trabecular apparatus forming occurs, is the atrium’s wall.
Full Text Available Disorders involving dysfunctional sensory processing are characterized by an inability to filter sensory information, particularly simultaneously arriving multimodal inputs. We examined the effects of prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA, a teratogen linked to sensory dysfunction, on the behavior of juvenile and adult rats, and on the anatomy of the superior colliculus, a critical multisensory integration center in the brain. VPA-exposed rats showed deficits in colliculus-dependent behaviors including startle response, prepulse inhibition and nociceptive responses. Some deficits reversed with age. Stereological analyses revealed that colliculi of VPA-treated rats had significantly fewer parvalbumin-positive neurons, a subset of GABAergic cells. These results suggest that prenatal VPA treatment affects the development of the superior colliculus and leads to persistent anatomical changes evidenced by aberrant behavior in tasks that require sensory processing.
This study describes a test of the Fathers and Sons Program for increasing intentions to avoid violence and reducing aggressive behaviors in 8- to 12-year-old African American boys by enhancing the parenting skills satisfaction and parenting behaviors of their nonresident fathers. The study included 158 intervention and 129 comparison group families. Structural equation model results indicated that the intervention was effective for improving fathers' parenting skills satisfaction, which was positively associated with sons' satisfaction with paternal engagement. Sons' paternal engagement satisfaction was positively associated with their intentions to avoid violence. Although aggressive behaviors were lower for comparison group sons, the intervention effectively reduced sons' aggressive behaviors indirectly by enhancing fathers' parenting behaviors. Support for family-centered youth violence prevention efforts is discussed. PMID:23746345
Howard Caldwell, Cleopatra; Antonakos, Cathy L; Assari, Shervin; Kruger, Daniel; De Loney, E Hill; Njai, Rashid
Full Text Available Abstract: The concept of god-fatherism in other words clientelism; patron-client relationship in Nigerian politics is not a new phenomenon. It has been in existence right from the inception of party politics in the country. Thus, it is a phenomenon in continuity but with changes. This concept – god-fatherism in politics implies a dominant individual in the politics of an area or geo-political zone who is capable either by her/his influence/past record or current political power of determining who win elections in that area or zone. What is new or change however in theory and practice of god-fatherism in Nigerian politics is that, it has taken a different posture from the earlier posture which was based on ideology, charisma, contribution and achievement of the individual god-father to the current posture based on thuggery, money and coercion among others. This paper therefore tries to unravel the previous and current postures of god-fatherism in Nigerian politics and proffers suggestions for improvement. Key words: God-fatherism; Politics; Change; Nigeria Résumé: Le concept du clientélisme d'un god-fatherism en d'autres termes ; les relations de patron-client dans la politique nigérienne ne sont pas un nouveau phénomène. Elles ont été dans le juste d'existence du commencement de la politique de partis dans le pays. Ainsi, c'est un phénomène dans la continuité mais avec des changements. Ce concept , un God-fatherism dans la politique implique une personne dominante dans la politique d'un secteur ou d'une zone géopolitique qui est capable par son pouvoir politique record ou actuel d'influence/passé de déterminer qui des élections de victoire dans ce secteur ou zone.Ce qu'il y a de neuf ou le changement cependant de la théorie et de la pratique d'un god-fatherism dans la politique nigérienne est ce, il a pris une posture différente de la posture plus tôt qui a été basée sur l'idéologie, le charisme, la contributionet l'accomplissement du parrain individuel à la posture actuelle basée sur le vol à main armée,l'argent et la coercition notamment. Ce document essaie donc de se démêler les postures précédentes et actuelles d'un god-fatherism dans la politique nigérienne et offre des suggestions pour l'amélioration. Mots clés: Un Dieu-fatherism; La politique; Changement; Nigeria
Soon after the American atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the notion took hold in the popular mind that Albert Einstein was ``the father of the bomb.'' The claim of paternity rests on the belief that E=mc2 is what makes the release of enormous amounts of energy in the fission process possible and that the atomic bomb could not have been built without it. This is a misapprehension. Most physicists have known that all along. Nevertheless in his reaction to the opera Dr. Atomic, a prominent physicist claimed that Einstein's discovery that matter can be transformed into energy ``is precisely what made the bomb possible.'' In fact what makes the fission reaction and one of its applications,the atomic bomb, possible is the smaller binding energies of fission products compared to the binding energies of the nuclei that undergo fission.The binding energies of nuclei are a well understood consequence of the numbers and arrangements of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and of quantum-mechanical effects. The realization that composite systems have binding energies predates relativity. In the 19th century they were ascribed to potential and other forms of energy that reside in the system. With Einstein they became rest mass energy. While E=mc2 is not the cause of fission, measuring the masses of the participants in the reaction does permit an easy calculation of the kinetic energy that is released.
Objective to identify and describe men’s experiences of sexuality after having a child. Design a qualitative study using an interpretative phenomenological approach for analysing in-depth interviews. Participants purposeful sampling was used. 12 men were interviewed six to 13 months after having a child. Informants were men who became fathers for the first time or had already fathered a child. Setting a mid-sized town located in the centre of Sweden. Findings four themes became apparent; a ...
While research on parent-adult child relationships has expanded over the last two decades, most research has ignored the experiences of older fathers and their relationships with adult children. The present study sought to explore how midlife and older men assess the costs and rewards associated with their fatherhood experiences and how fathers’ level of paternal maturity influences their perceptions of fatherhood. More specifically, the purpose of the present study was two-fold: to explore...
Stelle, Charlie D.; Sheehan, Nancy W.
The association of marital satisfaction with parenting burden and quality of the parent–child relationship was examined in 91 married mothers and fathers of co-residing adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders. Within-couple differences between mothers and fathers in how child characteristics related to these parenting experiences were also evaluated. Multilevel modeling was used to control for the dependency in couple data. Marital satisfaction was an important predictor of pa...
Hartley, Sigan L.; Barker, Erin T.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.
The remarks in John 5:19-23 should be understood in the context of education practices in ancient times. The dynamics of the metaphorical language used in these verses are explored and related to the appropriate socio-cultural framework. The Father educates the Son and prepares him for his mission. He teaches him to give life and to exercise eschatological judgment. This legitimizes the position of Jesus as the one who works like his Father does.
Watt, J. G.
The article draws on empirical qualitative research to identify the various ways in which separated or divorced fathers in the Czech Republic relate to the norm of father-provider. It offers an analysis of the plurality of men's approaches to the traditional provider norm of fatherhood, & the changes that occur in their attitudes & approaches as a result of divorce. The results show that although for Czech men the 'provider' dimension is the strongest dimension in their notion of fatherhood e...
The impact of father absence on early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy was investigated in longitudinal studies in the United States (N = 242) and New Zealand (N = 520), in which community samples of girls were followed prospectively from early in life (5 years) to approximately age 18. Greater exposure to father absence was strongly associated with elevated risk for early sexual activity and adolescent pregnancy. This elevated risk was either not explained (in the U.S. study) or only pa...
Introduction: Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have twice the risk for metabolicsyndrome as compared to women from the general population. Mothers and sisters of affected womenalso have an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study was to determine theprevalence of metabolic syndrome in fathers of patients with PCOS.Materials and Methods: 34 fathers of PCOS patients were evaluated. The control group was 34 fathersof normal women. The data were obtained from ...
This article uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Survey to examine the association between transitioning to marriage and general health status or serious health problems among low-income men. Beginning with a sample of 3,631 unmarried fathers, the study observes the relationship between their transitions to marriage within 3 years after the birth of their child and their health status 5 years postbirth. The authors also explore if unmarried fathers benefit from marrying m...
Haldane, Eva C.; Mincy, Ronald; Miller, Daniel
This paper uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,098) to examine differences in the parenting practices of four types of resident fathers, defined by their biological relationship to a focal child and their marital status with regard to the focal child’s mother. Regression results suggest that biological and social (i.e., stepfathers or mothers’ cohabiting partners) fathers differ significantly, and in some unexpected ways, on most measures of parenting. How...
Berger, Lawrence M.; Carlson, Marcia J.; Bzostek, Sharon H.; Osborne, Cynthia
Because very little is known about the coparenting relationships of drug-abusing men, this comparative study was designed to examine the lifetime prevalence and recent frequency of intimate partner violence in the coparenting relationships of 106 fathers enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment. When compared with 118 community controls, the opioid-dependent fathers reported greater prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological aggression directed at the mother of their youngest biolog...
Moore, Barbara C.; Easton, Caroline J.; Mcmahon, Thomas J.
The 1997 discovery of free fetal DNA in maternal plasma launched clinical researchers' efforts to establish a reliable method for non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal genetic conditions. Various methods, including, but not limited to, massively parallel sequencing (MPS) and selective analysis of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma, have recently been developed as highly sensitive and specific noninvasive screening tools for common fetal chromosome aneuploidies. Incorporating these new noninvasive technologies into clinical practice will impact the current prenatal screening paradigm for fetal aneuploidy, in which genetic counseling plays an integral role. The National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) currently supports Noninvasive Prenatal Testing/Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis (NIPT/NIPD) as an option for patients whose pregnancies are considered to be at an increased risk for certain chromosome abnormalities. NSGC urges that NIPT/NIPD only be offered in the context of informed consent, education, and counseling by a qualified provider, such as a certified genetic counselor. Patients whose NIPT/NIPD results are abnormal, or who have other factors suggestive of a chromosome abnormality, should receive genetic counseling and be given the option of standard confirmatory diagnostic testing. PMID:23334531
Devers, Patricia L; Cronister, Amy; Ormond, Kelly E; Facio, Flavia; Brasington, Campbell K; Flodman, Pamela
The broad goal of contemporary prenatal care is to promote the health of the mother, child, and family through the pregnancy, delivery, and the child's development. Although the vast majority of mothers giving birth in developed countries receive prenatal care, past research has not found compelling evidence that early or adequate prenatal care has favorable effects on birth outcomes. It is possible that prenatal care confers health benefits to the child that do not become apparent until after the perinatal period. Using data from a national urban birth cohort study in the US, we estimate the effects of prenatal care on four markers of child health at age 5-maternal-reported health status, asthma diagnosis, overweight, and height. Prenatal care, defined a number of different ways, does not appear to have any effect on the outcomes examined. The findings are robust and suggest that routine health care encounters during the prenatal period could potentially be used more effectively to enhance children's health trajectories. However, future research is needed t