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Sample records for father prenatal involvement

  1. THE IMPORTANCE OF PATERNAL INVOLVEMENT DURING PRENATAL CARE: PERCEPTION OF THE MOTHER AND FATHER IN THE CITY OF CACERES – MT.

    Taíse Neves Ferreira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In society, pregnancy has always been treated as a uniquely female experience, however, it is observed that the concepts and functions predetermined for men and women in the family are in full transformation. Describe the importance of parental involvement in monitoring prenatal vision of father and pregnant. This is a descriptive and quantitative study. The research had as reference Strategies Family Health Cáceres - MT. Participants were 30 pregnant women and their companions. When asked whether women talked to his companions about the importance of paternal participation in prenatal care, 67% of women answered yes and 33% did not talk. It is important to note that prenatal quality is achieved through pipelines necessary for pregnant women and hospitable. Geared this progress is the father figure who demonstrates an interest in participating, however, the work prevent them from contributing effectively.

  2. Adolescent Fathers' Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Involvement with Infants

    Fagan, Jay; Bernd, Elisa; Whiteman, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between concurrent measures of adolescent fathers' parenting stress, social support, and fathers' care-giving involvement with the 3-month-old infant, controlling for fathers' prenatal involvement. The study sample consisted of 50 teenage father-mother dyads. Findings from multivariate regression…

  3. Neighborhood Disorder and Paternal Involvement of Nonresident and Resident Fathers

    Zhang, Saijun; Fuller, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Using data of 775 nonresident father families and 1,407 resident father families from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined whether neighborhood disorder was associated with fathers' supportive involvement in child care. Bivariate analysis indicated that mothers and children of nonresident father families were more

  4. The Relationship between Academic Stress and Two Aspects of Father Involvement among University Student Fathers

    Masciadrelli, Brian P.; Milardo, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the associations between academic stress experienced by university student fathers and the behavioral and cognitive involvement these fathers had with their children. Fifty-three fathers enrolled in university classes and residing with at least one child less than 12 years of age responded to questionnaire measures of…

  5. Resident Black Fathers' Involvement: A Comparative Analysis of Married and Unwed, Cohabitating Fathers

    Perry, Armon R.; Harmon, Dana K.; Leeper, James

    2012-01-01

    Increasing fathers' involvement with their children has become a priority in recent years. Marriage promotion programs have been offered as the primary vehicles for increasing paternal involvement. Although marriage is likely to provide fathers with increased access and opportunity for paternal involvement, much less is known about the ways in

  6. Modelling the fathering role: Experience in the family of origin and father involvement

    Mihić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presented in this paper deals with the effects of experiences with father in the family of origin on the fathering role in the family of procreation. The results of the studies so far point to great importance of such experiences in parental role modelling, while recent approaches have suggested the concept of introjected notion or an internal working model of the fathering role as the way to operationalise the transgenerational transfer. The study included 247 two-parent couple families whose oldest child attended preschool education. Fathers provided information on self-assessed involvement via the Inventory of father involvement, while both fathers and mothers gave information on introjected experiences from the family of origin via the inventory Presence of the father in the family of origin. It was shown that father’s experiences from the family of origin had significant direct effects on his involvement in child-care. Very important experiences were those of negative emotional exchange, physical closeness and availability of the father, as well as beliefs about the importance of the father as a parent. Although maternal experiences from the family of origin did not contribute significantly to father involvement, shared beliefs about father’s importance as a parent in the parenting alliance had an effect on greater involvement in child-care. The data provide confirmation of the hypotheses on modelling of the fathering role, but also open the issue of the factor of intergenerational maintenance of traditional forms of father involvement in families in Serbia.

  7. Parental Childrearing Attitudes as Correlates of Father Involvement during Infancy

    Gaertner, Bridget M.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Greving, Karissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Using daily diary data to document involvement with infants at 6-8 months of age (n = 142) and 6 months later (n = 95), we examined relations between reported childrearing attitudes and resident fathers' relative (as compared to mothers') involvement with children. Fathers' authoritarian views related negatively to their relative involvement on

  8. Involved fathering: Expanding conceptualisations of mens paternal caring

    R. Smit

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Fatherhood has received increased attention during the past few decades in both scholarly writings and public forums, yet the conceptualisation of involved fathering has remained largely limited to the idea that men are merely childcare assistants. In this article the generativity perspective on fathering is considered as a possible theoretical expansion of what paternal involvement may entail. Taking the concept of generativity, as defined by Erik Erikson in his psychosocial development theory, as point of departure, generative fathering refers to paternal conduct that responds to the physical, emotional and cognitive needs of a child. This kind of involved fathering implies that a father is focused on lovingly nurturing his child and improving the wellbeing of his offspring, instead of merely conforming to what is stipulated by society and cultural norms with regard to paternal role obligations.

  9. Why Could Father Involvement Benefit Children? Theoretical Perspectives

    Pleck, Joseph H.

    2007-01-01

    Four theoretical perspectives about why father involvement could have positive consequences for child development are briefly reviewed: attachment theory, social capital theory, Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory, and "essential father" theory. Strengths and weaknesses of each perspective are discussed, and the prospects for an integrated

  10. Parental Childrearing Attitudes as Correlates of Father Involvement During Infancy

    Gaertner, Bridget M.; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eisenberg, Nancy; Greving, Karissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Using daily diary data to document involvement with infants at 6 – 8 months of age (n = 142) and 6 months later (n = 95), we examined relations between reported childrearing attitudes and resident fathers' relative (as compared to mothers') involvement with children. Fathers' authoritarian views related negatively to their relative involvement on weekdays, and this relation held over time for caregiving and playing activities. Mothers' protective attitudes had concurrent negative associations...

  11. Adolescent fathers involved with child protection: social workers speak.

    Gordon, Derrick M; Watkins, Natasha D; Walling, Sherry M; Wilhelm, Sara; Rayford, Brett S

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent paternity through structured interviews with their social workers. It adds to the literature by exploring if there were young men involved with the child protection services (CPS) system who are fathers, identifying their unique needs, and beginning discussions on working with these young men. CPS social workers from six area offices and one juvenile detention facility completed surveys for each father on their caseload. A 3.5% rate of adolescent paternity was observed across these offices. Information about the nature of the young men's involvement with CPS, their involvement with their children, and their unique needs as fathers are provided. This paper also identifies some practice and policy implications for adolescent fathers and CPS charged with their care. PMID:22533056

  12. FATHERS' AND MOTHERS' REPRESENTATIONS OF THE INFANT: ASSOCIATIONS WITH PRENATAL RISK FACTORS.

    Vreeswijk, Charlotte M J M; Rijk, Catharina H A M; Maas, A Janneke B M; van Bakel, Hedwig J A

    2015-11-01

    Parents' representations of their infants consist of parents' subjective experiences of how they perceive their infants. They provide important information about the quality of the parent-infant relationship and are closely related to parenting behavior and infant attachment. Previous studies have shown that parents' representations emerge during pregnancy. However, little is known about prenatal (risk) factors that are related to parents' representations. In a prospective study, 308 mothers and 243 fathers were followed during pregnancy and postpartum. Prenatal risk factors were assessed with an adapted version of the Dunedin Family Services Indicator (T.G. Egan etal., ; R.C. Muir etal., ). At 26 weeks' gestation and 6 months' postpartum, parents' representations of their children were assessed with the Working Model of the Child Interview (C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, L. Hirshberg, M.L. Barton, & C. Regan). Results showed stability between pre- and postnatal representations, with fathers having more disengaged representations than did mothers. In addition, prenatal risk factors of parenting problems were associated with the quality of parents' prenatal (only in mothers) and postnatal representations. This study provides valuable information concerning parents at risk of developing nonbalanced representations of their children. In clinical practice, these families could be monitored more intensively and may be supported in developing a more optimal parent-infant relationship. PMID:26536277

  13. Modeling and Compensatory Processes Underlying Involvement in Child Care among Kibbutz-Reared Fathers

    Gaunt, Ruth; Bassi, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined modeling and compensatory processes underlying the effects of an early paternal model on father involvement in child care. Drawing on social learning theory, it was hypothesized that father-son relationships would moderate the association between a father's involvement and his own father's involvement. A sample of 136 kibbutz…

  14. Adolescent Fathers Involved with Child Protection: Social Workers Speak

    Gordon, Derrick M.; Watkins, Natasha D.; Walling, Sherry M.; Wilhelm, Sara; Rayford, Brett S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent paternity through structured interviews with their social workers. It adds to the literature by exploring if there were young men involved with the child protection services (CPS) system who are fathers, identifying their unique needs, and beginning discussions on working with these young men. CPS social workers from

  15. Non-resident father-child contact across divorce cohorts : The role of father involvement during marriage

    Westphal, Sarah Katharina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357426010; Poortman, Anne Rigt|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298807335; Van Der Lippe, Tanja|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416320

    2014-01-01

    Using retrospective data from the Divorce in the Netherlands Survey 1998 (SIN98, N=808), we investigate changes in children's daytime contact and overnight stays with non-resident fathers across four divorce cohorts from 1949 to 1998. Our findings show that daytime contact and overnight stays increased over time. A modest part of this increase can be explained by a rise in fathers' child-rearing involvement during marriage. Involved fathers are more likely to remain in contact with their chil...

  16. Cultural Influences on Positive Father Involvement in Two-Parent Mexican-Origin Families

    Cruz, Rick A.; KING, KEVIN M.; Keith F. Widaman; Leu, Janxin; Cauce, Ana Mari; Conger, Rand D.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research documents the importance of positive father involvement in children’s development. However, research on fathers in Latino families is sparse, and research contextualizing the father-child relationship within a cultural framework is needed. The current study examined how father's cultural practices and values predicted their fifth-grade child’s report of positive father involvement among a sample of 450 two-parent Mexican-origin families. Predictors included Spanish ...

  17. Symptoms of Major Depression in a Sample of Fathers of Infants: Sociodemographic Correlates and Links to Father Involvement

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Moore, Kristin A.; Matthews, Gregory; Carrano, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Depression has been extensively studied for mothers but not for fathers. This study examines the sociodemographic correlates of symptoms of depression and how depression is associated with father involvement using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form (CIDI-SF) for major depression. The study uses a sample of 2,139 resident…

  18. Fathers' involvement in preschool programs for children with and without hearing loss.

    Ingber, Sara; Most, Tova

    2012-01-01

    The authors compared the involvement in children's development and education of 38 fathers of preschoolers with hearing loss to the involvement of a matched group of 36 fathers of preschoolers with normal hearing, examining correlations between child, father, and family characteristics. Fathers completed self-reports regarding their parental involvement and parenting self-efficacy and reported on their family cohesion and adaptability. Mothers also reported on their husbands' involvement. Similarly high levels of involvement on the part of both groups of fathers were found. Involvement correlated positively with fathers' self-reported parenting self-efficacy, family cohesion, and adaptability, and mother-reported paternal involvement. Implications for professionals and mothers are discussed, including the need to encourage mothers' support for their husbands' involvement and to empower fathers' sense of competency in order to increase their involvement. PMID:22978203

  19. Investigating the Correlation between Gender of the Teacher and Fathers' Parental Involvement in Elementary Classrooms

    Unal, Zafer; Unal, Aslihan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if there is a relationship between the genders of teachers when it comes to fathers' involvement in their children's schooling in elementary classrooms. We attempted to answer the following questions: 1) Are the fathers less/more involved when the teacher is female? 2) Are the fathers less/more involved…

  20. Black Father Involvement in Gifted Education: Thoughts from Black Fathers on Increasing/Improving Black Father-Gifted Teacher Partnerships

    Grantham, Tarek C.; Henfield, Malik S.

    2011-01-01

    Black fathers are important advocates in addressing the underrepresentation of Black students in gifted programs, as well as the achievement gaps between Black and White students. Black fathers increasingly understand the important role that Black mothers have traditionally played in supporting their gifted children's school experiences. As a

  1. Cultural influences on positive father involvement in two-parent Mexican-origin families.

    Cruz, Rick A; King, Kevin M; Widaman, Keith F; Leu, Janxin; Cauce, Ana Mari; Conger, Rand D

    2011-10-01

    A growing body of research documents the importance of positive father involvement in children's development. However, research on fathers in Latino families is sparse, and research contextualizing the father-child relationship within a cultural framework is needed. The present study examined how fathers' cultural practices and values predicted their fifth-grade children's report of positive father involvement in a sample of 450 two-parent Mexican-origin families. Predictors included Spanish- and English-language use, Mexican and American cultural values, and positive machismo (i.e., culturally related attitudes about the father's role within the family). Positive father involvement was measured by the child's report of his or her father's monitoring, educational involvement, and warmth. Latent variable regression analyses showed that fathers' machismo attitudes were positively related to children's report of positive father involvement and that this association was similar across boys and girls. The results of this study suggest an important association between fathers' cultural values about men's roles and responsibilities within a family and their children's perception of positive fathering. PMID:21842992

  2. A Meta-Analysis of Father Involvement in Parent Training

    Lundahl, Brad W.; Tollefson, Derrik; Risser, Heather; Lovejoy, M. Christine

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Investigate (a) whether including fathers in parent training enhances outcomes and (b) whether mothers and fathers benefit equally from parent training. Method: Using traditional meta-analysis methodology, 26 studies that could answer the research questions were identified and meta-analyzed. Results: Studies that included fathers,…

  3. Single Custodial Fathers' Involvement and Parenting: Implications for Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Scott, Mindy E.; Lilja, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 3,977 youths from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), this study examines the unique characteristics of single-custodial-father families with adolescents and the effects of single fathers' involvement and parenting on outcomes in emerging adulthood. Findings suggest that single-custodial-father families are…

  4. THE EFFECTS OF FATHER INVOLVEMENT TRAINING ON FAMILY FUNCTIONING AND ADOLESCENTS PEER RELATION

    Ercan KOCAYRK; Zeynep HAT?PO?LU SMER

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to design and determine the effect of Father Involvement Training (FIT), which is based on social-cognitive theory principles, on family functioning in father-adolescent relationships, and (b) to examine the effect of Father Involvement Training (FIT) on the quality of the peer relationships of 9th grade high school students, whose fathers participated in the study. The sample was composed of twenty- six 9th grade students fathers. The 2x3 ex...

  5. Salvadoran fathers' attendance at prenatal care, delivery, and postpartum care La presencia de los padres salvadoreos durante la atencin prenatal, el parto y la atencin posparto

    Marion W. Carter

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide a baseline perspective on the prevalence of Salvadoran men's attendance at prenatal care, delivery, and postpartum well-baby care and on sociodemographic factors associated with their attendance, with the goal of informing efforts to help men play more positive roles in maternal-child health. METHODS: The data came from the 2003 Salvadoran National Male Health Survey. The data focused on fathers (n = 418 and their most recent live-born child in the preceding five years. Factors associated with the fathers' participation in prenatal care visits, attendance at delivery, and participation in postnatal well-baby visits were explored using logistic and multinomial regression models. RESULTS: Ninety percent of the recent Salvadoran fathers who were surveyed participated in a prenatal care visit, attended the delivery, or participated in a postpartum well-baby care visit; 34% participated in all three of the activities. Attendance at delivery was most common, reported by 81% of fathers; the most common reason that subjects cited for not attending was that they had had to work. CONCLUSIONS: A large majority of the Salvadoran fathers participated in at least one prenatal care visit, delivery, or a postpartum well-baby care visit. While attendance alone does not necessarily indicate that men are supporting their partners, the results suggest that norms are in place for men to play positive roles in maternal-child health matters. Furthermore, the participation of fathers in these maternal and child health care activities may provide new opportunities to educate and further support men in both their own health and their family's health.OBJETIVO: Proporcionar informacin de base acerca de la frecuencia con la cual los hombres salvadoreos acuden a la atencin prenatal, al parto y a la atencin del beb sano despus del parto, as como acerca de los factores sociodemogrficos que se asocian con su asistencia a esas actividades, a fin de orientar acciones encaminadas a ayudar a los hombres a participar de una forma ms til en la salud maternoinfantil. MTODOS: Los datos, que se obtuvieron de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud Masculina de 2003 (ENSM-03 de El Salvador, se centran en los padres (n = 418 y en el hijo ms joven que haya nacido vivo durante los cinco aos anteriores a la encuesta. Mediante modelos de regresin logstica y multinomial se exploraron factores asociados con la presencia de los padres en las consultas prenatales, en el parto y en las consultas para la atencin del neonato sano. RESULTADOS: Noventa por ciento de los padres salvadoreos que fueron encuestados participaron en una consulta prenatal, asistieron al parto o estuvieron en una consulta para la atencin del beb sano; 34% de ellos participaron en las tres actividades. Lo ms frecuente fue la asistencia al parto, notificada por 81% de los padres, y la razn dada con mayor frecuencia para no haber asistido fue la necesidad de ir a trabajar. CONCLUSIONES: La gran mayora de los padres salvadoreos haban estado en por lo menos una consulta prenatal, en el parto o en una consulta para la atencin del beb sano. Aunque la participacin en estas actividades no necesariamente significa que los cnyuges les estn dando a sus parejas el apoyo debido, los resultados parecieran indicar que ya estn sentadas ciertas normas para que los hombres puedan desempear un papel positivo en el rea de la salud maternoinfantil. Adems, la participacin de los padres en estas actividades relacionadas con la atencin de madre e hijo podra ofrecer nuevas oportunidades para educar a los hombres y darles ms apoyo en el cuidado de su propia salud y la de su familia.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF FATHER INVOLVEMENT TRAINING ON FAMILY FUNCTIONING AND ADOLESCENTS PEER RELATION

    Ercan KOCAYRK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was twofold: (a to design and determine the effect of Father Involvement Training (FIT, which is based on social-cognitive theory principles, on family functioning in father-adolescent relationships, and (b to examine the effect of Father Involvement Training (FIT on the quality of the peer relationships of 9th grade high school students, whose fathers participated in the study. The sample was composed of twenty- six 9th grade students fathers. The 2x3 experimental design examined pre-training, post-training and six-month follow-up measurements of an experimental group and control group. Data were collected through Parent Success Indicator (PSI, Parent Adolescent Relationship Scale (PARS and Peer Relationship Scale (PRS. Data were analyzed by employing Mann Whitney U Test, Friedman Test, and Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test. The results revealed that the Father Involvement Training had significant effects on the father-child relationship and family functioning of experimental groups fathers. The adolescents, whose fathers participated in the experimental group, had improved in close-relationship and sensitivity dimensions at the end of the study. However, the improvements were not maintained after the six months follow-up measurements. Lastly, there was a significant improvement in the trust and identification dimension of peer relationship levels of children whose fathers received the training compared to children whose fathers did not receive the training.

  7. Including Fathers in the Picture: A Meta-Analysis of Parental Involvement and Students' Academic Achievement

    Kim, Sung won; Hill, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Extant research on parental involvement in education has been conducted largely without respect to which parent is involved. The implicit assumption is that family-school relationship frameworks function similarly for fathers and mothers. Although there is a growing body of research examining fathers' involvement in education, this assumption has…

  8. A Meta-Analysis: The Relationship between Father Involvement and Student Academic Achievement

    Jeynes, William H.

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was undertaken, including 66 studies, to determine the relationship between father involvement and the educational outcomes of urban school children. Statistical analyses were done to determine the overall impact and specific components of father involvement. The possible differing effects of paternal involvement by race were also…

  9. Father Involvement: The Importance of Paternal Solo Care

    Wilson, Katherine R.; Prior, Margot R.

    2010-01-01

    Paternal time spent caring for children alone is qualitatively different from time together mediated by the presence of the mother and may be particularly relevant to father-child relations. Many fathers spend minimal time alone with their children. Indeed, it is still commonly referred to as "babysitting". We explored the concept of Solo Care as

  10. Mother-to-infant and father-to-infant initial emotional involvement

    Figueiredo, Brbara; Raquel A. Costa; Alexandra P. Pacheco; Pais, A

    2007-01-01

    While infant attachment has been largely studied, parental attachment is still relatively unknown, especially when referred to fathers. However, it is mainly recognised that parents emotional involvement with the newborn contributes to the quality of the interaction and the care they provide. The aim of this study was to study mother-to-infant and father-to-infant initial emotional involvement; namely, differences between mothers and fathers and changes in mothers emotions t...

  11. Father involvement in infant care: two longitudinal studies.

    Rustia, J G; Abbott, D

    1993-12-01

    Data collected from two samples of fathers in separate longitudinal studies were compared. One sample consisted of 53 first-time fathers and the other of 69 multiple-time fathers. A post-test only time-series design was used for both studies, and both employed the same procedures and instruments. The studies examined role enactment of fathers with different child-caring experiences using role-theory concepts. Fathers' normative expectations, personal expectations, and personal learning about parenting were tested to determine if they were predictive of paternal role performance. The findings seem to indicate that the culture of fatherhood has changed more rapidly than the conduct of fatherhood. PMID:8288416

  12. Newborns and low to moderate prenatal environmental lead exposure: might fathers be the key?

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Aragonés, Nuria; Fernández, Mario Antonio; García-Sagredo, José Miguel; de León, América; de Paz, Concha; Pérez-Meixeira, Ana María; Gil, Elisa; Iriso, Andrés; Cisneros, Margot; de Santos, Amparo; Sanz, Juan Carlos; García, José Frutos; Asensio, Ángel; Vioque, Jesús; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Astray, Jenaro; Pollán, Marina; Martínez, Mercedes; González, María José; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    This study is part of the BioMadrid Project, a bio-monitoring study designed to assess pollutants in the environment surrounding children born in the Madrid region. Our aim in this report is to evaluate the association between prenatal lead exposure and fetal development using three biological samples (maternal and paternal blood lead at around 34 weeks of gestation as well as cord blood lead levels), three biomarkers of effect in cord blood peripheral lymphocytes (micronucleus in binucleated cells, nucleoplasmic bridges, and nuclear buds), and different anthropometrical characteristics at birth. Maternal and cord blood lead were not associated with newborn measurements or genotoxicity biomarkers. In contrast, increases in father blood lead were coupled with lower weight (mean difference (MD), -110.8 g; 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), -235.6 to 6.00; p < 0.10) and shorter abdominal (MD, -0.81 cm; 95%CI, -1.64 to 0.00; p < 0.05) and cephalic (MD, -0.32 cm; 95%CI, -0.65 to 0.00; p < 0.05) circumferences at birth as well as with the presence of nucleoplasmic bridges (odds ratio, 1.03; 95%CI, 1.00 to 1.06; p < 0.05) and nuclear buds (odds ratio, 1.02; 95%CI, 0.99 to 1.04; p < 0.10). These associations were mainly confined to female babies, in whom paternal lead was also inversely associated with length. Our results support the hypothesis that paternal lead exposure may be affecting the development of newborns. PMID:24647583

  13. Parental Depression, Relationship Quality, and Nonresident Father Involvement with Their Infants

    Paulson, James F.; Dauber, Sarah E.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2011-01-01

    The role of depression in nonresident fathers' involvement with their infant children is poorly understood. A three-factor model of father involvement was evaluated, and its association with parental relationship quality and depressive symptoms in both parents were tested. Data on 569 families from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study were used.…

  14. Father involvement in child welfare: Associations with changes in externalizing behavior.

    Leon, Scott C; Jhe Bai, Grace; Fuller, Anne K

    2016-05-01

    Nonresident fathers can have a significant impact on children's behavioral outcomes. Unfortunately, the impact of nonresident father involvement on the behavioral outcomes of children with child welfare involvement has received scant attention in the literature, a limitation the current study sought to address. A sample of 333 children in state custody in Illinois between the ages of six and 13 participated and were assessed using the externalizing behavior scale of the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) at regular intervals throughout their time in care. Father involvement was measured through a review of case files and interviews with child welfare workers. Growth trajectories were fit to children's externalizing behavior across time and were predicted using Time 1 characteristics. Father involvement, total non-father relative involvement, and gender (girls) was associated with lower baseline externalizing behavior and the African American children in the sample experienced higher baseline externalizing behavior. However, only Time 1 father involvement predicted slope trajectories after controlling for Time 1 externalizing behavior; more father involvement was associated with lower externalizing behavior trajectories. These results suggest that even in the unique and stressful context of child welfare, father involvement can be protective regarding children's externalizing behaviors. PMID:27110849

  15. Increasing father involvement in child care: What do we know about effects on child development?

    Pia S. Schober

    2015-01-01

    The time fathers spend and the activities they perform with children have risen continuously in most Western countries. Increasing father involvement in child care has also been an explicit policy objective with many European countries implementing individual parental leave entitlements for fathers. Whereas these policies mainly aimed at facilitating reconciliation of market work and family care and promoting maternal employment, consequences for child development have received less attention...

  16. Father Identity, Involvement and Work–Family Balance: An In-depth Interview Study

    McLaughlin, Katrina; Muldoon, Orla

    2014-01-01

    Work and family roles have changed considerably in the past number of decades. Fathers are now expected to fulfil the role of 'new father' that involves actively caring and sharing in child rearing and, at the same time, maintain commitment to their occupational role. As a consequence, men are subject to the same pressure that women were when they initially entered the workplace decades ago and indeed still are today. This study aims to explore the meanings fathers attach to their life roles,...

  17. Work Environment and Japanese Fathers' Involvement in Child Care

    Ishii-Kuntz, Masako

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies mainly examined individual and family factors affecting Japanese fathers' involvement in child care. Along with these factors, we examine how work-related factors such as father-friendly environment at work, workplace's accommodation of parental needs, job stress, and autonomy are associated with Japanese men's…

  18. Perceptions and Satisfaction with Father Involvement and Adolescent Mothers' Postpartum Depressive Symptoms

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescent mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms and their perceptions of amount of father care giving and satisfaction with father involvement with the baby. The sample included 100 adolescent mothers (ages 13-19; mainly African-American and Latina) whose partners were recruited for a randomized…

  19. Demographic Variables and Fathers' Involvement with Their Child with Disabilities

    Bragiel, Józefa; Kaniok, Przemyslaw E.

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine whether fathers' involvement with their child with disabilities is correlated with some of the demographic variables. Data were collected from 243 Polish fathers who were married and who had at least one child with disabilities. The issue was assessed by two measures: a Questionnaire and the Father…

  20. Hispanic Fathers and Risk for Maltreatment in Father-Involved Families of Young Children

    Shawna J. Lee; Altschul, Inna; Shair, Sarah R.; Taylor, Catherine A

    2011-01-01

    The Hispanic population is the fastest growing segment of U.S. population. However, risks for child maltreatment in the foreign-born and native-born Hispanic populations are largely understudied. To address this knowledge gap, we explore the association of sociodemographic factors, psychosocial parenting factors, and nativity status with Hispanic fathers aggression toward their young children (3 to 5 years). Using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and the follow-up In-Home Longi...

  1. Father Involvement and Coparenting Behavior: Parents’ Nontraditional Beliefs and Family Earner Status as Moderators

    Buckley, Catherine K.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relations between father involvement in caregiving and play and coparenting behavior using self-report and observational data from 80 two-parent families of preschool-aged children, and examined parents’ nontraditional beliefs about fathers’ roles and family earner status as moderators of these relations. Results indicated that greater father involvement in caregiving and play was associated with less observed undermining coparenting behavior in dual-earner families. C...

  2. Impact of Father Involvement: A Closer Look at Indirect Effects Models Involving Marriage and Child Adjustment

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2007-01-01

    In this article we present a framework for understanding the indirect effects of fathering on child development in the context of the marriage. We discuss three central pathways of influence: through relations between marital quality and fathering, through children's exposure to father expressions of marital discord, and through relations between…

  3. Coparenting and Nonresident Fathers Involvement with Young Children after a Nonmarital Birth

    CARLSON, MARCIA J.; MCLANAHAN, SARA S.; BROOKS-GUNN, JEANNE

    2008-01-01

    We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to investigate the association between coparenting quality and nonresident fathers involvement with children over the first five years after a nonmarital birth. We find that about one year after a nonmarital birth, 48% of fathers are living away from their child, rising to 56% and then to 63% at three and five years, respectively. Using structural equation models to estimate cross-lagged effects, we find that positive coparenting is a strong predictor of nonresident fathers future involvement, whereas fathers involvement is only a weak (but significant) predictor of future coparenting quality. The positive effect of coparenting quality on fathers involvement is robust across several techniques designed to address unobserved heterogeneity and across different strategies for handling missing data. We conclude that parents ability to work together in rearing their common child across households helps keep nonresident fathers connected to their children and that programs aimed at improving parents ability to communicate may have benefits for children irrespective of whether the parents romantic relationship remains intact. PMID:18613490

  4. Father Involvement, Dating Violence, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among a National Sample of Adolescent Females.

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. PMID:25475102

  5. Coparenting and Nonresident Fathers Involvement with Young Children after a Nonmarital Birth

    Carlson, Marcia J.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2008-01-01

    We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to investigate the association between coparenting quality and nonresident fathers involvement with children over the first five years after a nonmarital birth. We find that about one year after a nonmarital birth, 48% of fathers are living away from their child, rising to 56% and then to 63% at three and five years, respectively. Using structural equation models to estimate cross-lagged effects, we find that positive coparentin...

  6. Parental Involvement, Child Temperament, and Parents’ Work Hours: Differential Relations for Mothers and Fathers

    Brown, Geoffrey L; McBride, Brent A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Shin, Nana

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how child temperament was related to parents’ time spent accessible to and interacting with their 2-year-olds. Bivariate analyses indicated that both fathers and mothers spent more time with temperamentally challenging children than easier children on workdays, but fathers spent less time with challenging children than easier children on non-workdays. After accounting for work hours, some associations between temperament and fathers’ workday involvement dropped to non-sign...

  7. Stepfather Involvement and Adolescent Well-Being: Do Mothers and Nonresidential Fathers Matter?

    Vogt Yuan, Anastasia S.; Hamilton, Hayley A.

    2006-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors explore how aspects of stepfather involvement are related to adolescent well-being and whether these relationships depend on maternal involvement, non-residential father involvement, or amount of time in the household. Results indicate that a close, nonconflictual…

  8. Gatekeeping and its impact on father involvement among Black South Africans in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Makusha, Tawanda; Richter, Linda

    2016-03-01

    Involved and caring fatherhood contributes to the health and wellbeing of children, women and men. The corollary is also true - men, women and children are affected when fathers are not involved or supportive of their children. Many factors affect fathers' involvement, including women's attitudes, the history and nature of the relationship between mother and father, and the cultural context. This study explores gatekeeping and its impact on father involvement among Black South Africans in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Among married couples, gatekeeping occurs with respect to childcare and housework through women's attempts to validate their maternal identity according to socially and culturally constructed gender roles. Among unmarried, non-resident parents, women control father-child contact and involvement, with mothers and/or their families either facilitating or inhibiting father involvement. In this context, we found that cultural gatekeeping had a huge impact on father involvement, with the non-payment of inhlawulo or lobola regulating father-child involvement. In a country like South Africa, where there is high non-marital fertility and father-child non-residence, future research, parenting and family programmes should focus on strategies that encourage positive paternal involvement as well as maternal and cultural support for father involvement, regardless of parental relationship and residence status. PMID:26501893

  9. Father Residency and Symptoms of ADHD: Adult Male Involvement as a Mediator

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; To, Yen M.; Davis, Tonya N.; Thomson, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between fathers' involvement and the presence of later symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. A community-based, nationally representative sample of children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort was utilised. Using a…

  10. Mother-to-Infant and Father-to-Infant Initial Emotional Involvement

    Figueiredo, Barbara; Costa, Raquel; Pacheco, Alexandra; Pais, Alvaro

    2007-01-01

    While infant attachment has been largely studied, parental attachment is still relatively unknown, especially when referred to fathers. However, it is mainly recognised that parents' emotional involvement with the newborn contributes to the quality of the interaction and the care they provide. The aim of this study was to study mother-to-infant

  11. Parental Involvement, Child Temperament, and Parents’ Work Hours: Differential Relations for Mothers and Fathers

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; McBride, Brent A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Shin, Nana

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how child temperament was related to parents’ time spent accessible to and interacting with their 2-year-olds. Bivariate analyses indicated that both fathers and mothers spent more time with temperamentally challenging children than easier children on workdays, but fathers spent less time with challenging children than easier children on non-workdays. After accounting for work hours, some associations between temperament and fathers’ workday involvement dropped to non-significance. For fathers, work hours also moderated the relation between irregular temperament and workday play. For mothers, work hours moderated the relation between both difficult and irregular temperament and workday interaction. Mothers also spent more time with girls (but not boys) who were temperamentally irregular. Results speak to the influence of child temperament on parenting behavior, and the differential construction of parenting roles as a function of child characteristics and patterns of work. PMID:25960588

  12. Involvement in Childrearing and Mothers' and Fathers' Adjustment

    Riina, Elizabeth M.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Combining social construction of gender and equity perspectives on parents' division of labor, this study extended research on associations between parents' childrearing involvement and adjustment by (a) differentiating between types of childrearing activities (task focused vs. relationship focused), (b) examining patterns of differences in these…

  13. Involvement in Childrearing and Mothers' and Fathers' Adjustment

    Riina, Elizabeth M.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Combining social construction of gender and equity perspectives on parents' division of labor, this study extended research on associations between parents' childrearing involvement and adjustment by (a) differentiating between types of childrearing activities (task focused vs. relationship focused), (b) examining patterns of differences in these

  14. Determinants of father involvement with young children: Evidence from the early childhood longitudinal study-birth cohort.

    Planalp, Elizabeth M; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M

    2016-02-01

    The current study used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; Snow et al., 2007) to explore determinants of resident father involvement. Families (N = 2,900) were measured at 3 time points (9 months, 2 years, and 4 years of age). Father, mother, and child factors were examined in relation to father caregiving and play. Latent change score models indicated that fathers engaged in more caregiving and play behaviors and increased at a faster rate when they more strongly identified with their role as a father. Fathers engaged in more caregiving when mothers reported higher depressive symptoms and increased in play more slowly when marital conflict was higher. In addition, a Mother Depressive Symptoms × Marital Conflict interaction emerged indicating that fathers differed in their levels of caregiving depending on mothers' report of depressive symptoms, but only when marital conflict was low. Fathers also increased in caregiving at a faster rate with girls than boys. A comprehensive framework for examining resident father involvement is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26437143

  15. Effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior on father involvement in care of a pre-school child

    Mihić Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research so far indicates that the context in which the father’s role takes place significantly influences the form and level of father involvement in taking care of the child. The primary goal of this research was to describe the forms and effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior as a characteristic form of interaction between parents which is, as part of the context, considered a significant factor in father involvement in care of the child. Research participants were 247 parental couples from complete families whose oldest child attended a pre-school institution. Fathers provided assessments of their own involvement via the Father Involvement Inventory, as well as assessments of prominence of gate-keeping behavior in their wives via the checklist of maternal gate-keeping behavior. Mothers reported on their beliefs about the importance and possibilities of father involvement in care of the child, as well as on their personal satisfaction with the current involvement of their husband in the joint care of the child. The results point out to the particular forms of mothers’ ambivalence when it comes to the joint care of the child, which is a form of gate-keeping behavior. The frequency of gate-keeping behavior, assessed by the checklist, significantly changes the possibilities of father involvement in taking care of the child in the developmental phase of the family, having in mind that the task of this phase is precisely the definition of parental roles and formation of parent cooperative principle.

  16. Father involvement moderates the effect of maternal depression during a child's infancy on child behavior problems in kindergarten.

    Mezulis, Amy H; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Clark, Roseanne

    2004-12-01

    This research investigated whether father involvement in infancy may reduce or exacerbate the well-established adverse effect of maternal depression during a child's infancy on behavior problems in childhood. In a community sample (N = 350), the authors found that fathers' self-reported parenting styles interacted with the amount of time fathers spent caring for their infants to moderate the longitudinal effect of maternal depression during the child's infancy on children's internalizing, but not externalizing, behaviors. Low to medium amounts of high-warmth father involvement and high amounts of medium- or high-control father involvement at this time were associated with lower child internalizing behaviors. Paternal depression during a child's infancy exacerbated the effect of maternal depression, but this moderating effect was limited to depressed fathers spending medium to high amounts of time caring for their infants. Results emphasize the moderating role fathers may play in reducing or exacerbating the adverse long-term effects of maternal depression during a child's infancy on later child behavior problems. PMID:15598163

  17. Parental Involvement, Child Temperament, and Parents' Work Hours: Differential Relations for Mothers and Fathers

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; McBride, Brent A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Shin, Nana

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how child temperament was related to parents' time spent accessible to and interacting with their 2-year-olds. Bivariate analyses indicated that both fathers and mothers spent more time with temperamentally challenging children than easier children on workdays, but fathers spent less time with challenging children than easier…

  18. Parental Involvement, Child Temperament, and Parents' Work Hours: Differential Relations for Mothers and Fathers

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; McBride, Brent A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Shin, Nana

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how child temperament was related to parents' time spent accessible to and interacting with their 2-year-olds. Bivariate analyses indicated that both fathers and mothers spent more time with temperamentally challenging children than easier children on workdays, but fathers spent less time with challenging children than easier

  19. Exploring the impact of involving fathers in the treatment of their children: A study using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA

    Anna Elisabeth Iversen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although fathers have been shown to contribute uniquely to the development of psychopathology in children, they continue to be ignored in research and clinical work. Knowledge about the impact of involving fathers in their child’s treatment – for the child, couple and the family as a whole - is still sparse. The aim of this study was to explore parents’ experiences of having fathers involved in the treatment of their child. Parents, whose children had received cognitive behavioural therapy for an anxiety disorder, were interviewed about this topic. The participating parents had all been involved in the treatment of their child. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA was used to analyze the data in this study. Three higher order themes and 11 subthemes emerged from the six interview accounts. The three higher order themes were as follows: Strengthening the family system, empowerment of parents, and impact on partner relationship. Results indicated that parents’ experiences of the involvement of fathers to be beneficial not only on the child’s treatment but also on other aspects of family life. The parents reported that the family as a whole benefitted from the treatment and that the relationship between the parents was strengthened. A model was created to conceptualize these results.

  20. Perceptions of Fathers' Involvement in Their Daughters' Sports: The Relationship to Self-Esteem and Fear of Failure in Specialized AAU Basketball Players

    Veinot, Jan E.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate and describe a daughter's perception of father involvement in her sports; and the relationship to her self-esteem and fear of failure. The purpose of the study was exploratory in nature and it was hypothesized that quality father involvement would be positively associated with a daughter's self-esteem and…

  1. Perceptions of Fathers' Involvement in Their Daughters' Sports: The Relationship to Self-Esteem and Fear of Failure in Specialized AAU Basketball Players

    Veinot, Jan E.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate and describe a daughter's perception of father involvement in her sports; and the relationship to her self-esteem and fear of failure. The purpose of the study was exploratory in nature and it was hypothesized that quality father involvement would be positively associated with a daughter's self-esteem and

  2. Young Mothers' Involvement in a Prenatal and Postpartum Support Program

    Wen, Xiaoli; Korfmacher, Jon; Hans, Sydney L.; Henson, Linda G.

    2010-01-01

    The involvement of 124 young mothers in a doula support program was measured in two dimensions--quantity of program contact and quality of mother-doula helping relationship. The study examined each dimension's differential associations with maternal outcomes, as well as the moderating effects of mother characteristics on these associations.

  3. Do Parentese Prosody and Fathers' Involvement in Interacting Facilitate Social Interaction in Infants Who Later Develop Autism?

    Cohen, David; Cassel, Raquel S.; Saint-Georges, Catherine; Mahdhaoui, Ammar; Laznik, Marie-Christine; Apicella, Fabio; Muratori, Pietro; Maestro, Sandra; Muratori, Filippo; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Background Whether development of autism impacts the interactive process between an infant and his/her parents remains an unexplored issue. Methodology and Principal Findings Using computational analysis taking into account synchronic behaviors and emotional prosody (parentese), we assessed the course of infants' responses to parents' type of speech in home movies from typically developing (TD) infants and infants who will subsequently develop autism aged less than 18 months. Our findings indicate: that parentese was significantly associated with infant responses to parental vocalizations involving orientation towards other people and with infant receptive behaviours; that parents of infants developing autism displayed more intense solicitations that were rich in parentese; that fathers of infants developing autism spoke to their infants more than fathers of TD infants; and that fathers' vocalizations were significantly associated with intersubjective responses and active behaviours in infants who subsequently developed autism. Conclusion The parents of infants who will later develop autism change their interactive pattern of behaviour by both increasing parentese and father's involvement in interacting with infants; both are significantly associated with infant's social responses. We stress the possible therapeutic implications of these findings and its implication for Dean Falk's theory regarding pre-linguistic evolution in early hominins. PMID:23650498

  4. [On the value of "informational evening classes for mothers and fathers" within the scope of prenatal care].

    Neuhaus, W; Wechselberg, A; Bolte, A

    1992-07-01

    In 1989, the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, University of Cologne, questioned the 288 participants of the "informative evenings for mothers and fathers", a primarily preventive measure offered as a preparation for childbirth. The survey aimed at reviewing these evenings, i.e. to make a critical and exact evaluation of their usefulness and quality as one of the numerous events offered to expectant mothers. The following results were obtained: The women who visited the informative evenings were mostly pregnant for the first time, educated above average, for the most part working women and of German nationality. Their attitude towards preventive measures, i.e. regular check-ups during pregnancy as well as smoking behaviour, the wish to breast-feed and the attendance of other birth preparation courses, is well founded. Consequently, this group of women can be described as a highly selected. Their motivation to come to the evenings resulted mostly from the wish to obtain specific clinical information, to become familiar with the maternity ward, to meet midwives and doctors, in order to lose some of their fears and to increase confidence. Contents and structure of these evenings were mostly able to meet the expectations of the visitors. Unsatisfactory, however, was the low number of foreign woman, those with difficult pregnancies and women of a low social status i.e. patients, who above all, need intensive assistance and attention. PMID:1499952

  5. Parenting from Abroad: Migration, Nonresident Father Involvement, and Children's Education in Mexico

    Nobles, Jenna

    2011-01-01

    In Mexico, a country with high emigration rates, parental migration matches divorce as a contributor to child-father separation. Yet little has been written about children's relationships with migrating parents. In this study, I use nationally representative data from the 2005 Mexican Family Life Survey to model variation in the interaction

  6. Parenting from Abroad: Migration, Nonresident Father Involvement, and Children's Education in Mexico

    Nobles, Jenna

    2011-01-01

    In Mexico, a country with high emigration rates, parental migration matches divorce as a contributor to child-father separation. Yet little has been written about children's relationships with migrating parents. In this study, I use nationally representative data from the 2005 Mexican Family Life Survey to model variation in the interaction…

  7. Links between Different Measures of Mother/Father Involvement and Child Social Adjustment

    Dubeau, Diane; Coutu, Sylvain; Lavigueur, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    The relative integration of fathers into the parental unit clearly poses numerous conceptual and methodological challenges despite the considerable progress that has been made in this area. Important social changes that have occurred over a relatively short period of time have resulted in a redefinition of parental roles which supports the

  8. Effects of Family Structure, Family Process, and Father Involvement on Psychosocial Outcomes among African American Adolescents.

    Salem, Deborah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Notaro, Paul C.

    1998-01-01

    Compares the psychosocial outcomes and family processes across five family constellations among 634 African-American adolescents. Results challenge the assumptions that nonresident fathers are absent from their children's lives, and that living with single mothers adversely affects psychosocial development of African-American adolescents.…

  9. Non-Residential Father-Child Involvement, Interparental Conflict and Mental Health of Children Following Divorce: A Person-Focused Approach.

    Elam, Kit K; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2016-03-01

    Variable-centered research has found complex relationships between child well-being and two critical aspects of the post-divorce family environment: the level of non-residential father involvement (i.e., contact and supportive relationship) with their children and the level of conflict between the father and mother. However, these analyses fail to capture individual differences based on distinct patterns of interparental conflict, father support and father contact. Using a person-centered latent profile analysis, the present study examined (1) profiles of non-residential father contact, support, and interparental conflict in the 2 years following divorce (N = 240), when children (49 % female) were between 9 and 12 years of age and (2) differences across profiles in concurrent child adjustment outcomes as well as outcomes 6 years later. Four profiles of father involvement were identified: High Contact-Moderate Conflict-Moderate Support, Low Contact-Moderate Conflict-Low Support, High Conflict-Moderate Contact-Moderate Support, and Low Conflict-Moderate Contact-Moderate Support. Concurrently, children with fathers in the group with high conflict were found to have significantly greater internalizing and externalizing problems compared to all other groups. Six years later, children with fathers in the group with low contact and low support were found to have greater internalizing and externalizing problems compared to children with fathers in the high conflict group, and also greater internalizing problems compared to children with fathers in the low conflict group. These results provide insight into the complex relationship among non-residential fathers' conflict, contact, and support in child adjustment within divorcing families. PMID:26692236

  10. DOES FATHER INVOLVEMENT INFLUENCE THE AFFECT, LANGUAGE ACQUISITION, SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT AND BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG AUTISTIC CHILDREN? AN EARLY INTERVENTION STUDY

    Preeti Tabitha LOUIS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study adopts a randomized experimental design to evaluate the impact of a father-mediated therapy to improve the play skills, affect, language, social skills and behavior among 30 clinically diagnosed autistic children at the age of 3-5 years. Standardized inventories such as, The Play Based Observation (PBO, The Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS, The Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS and the Rendel Shorts Questionnaire were administered pre and post intervention. A special program that involved fathers in the caregiving and nurturing processes of these children was designed and implemented for 6 months after which the children were reassessed. Prior to the intervention, deficits in play skills and developmental delays across expressive and receptive language were observed Scores on the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Rendel Shorts revealed behavioral markers. Post intervention, we noticed significant differences in the play, language acquisition, social engagement and behavior in the treatment group in comparison to the control group. The results suggested that father-mediated therapeutic involvement significantly has proven to positively foster development in young autistic children and this is an important implication for practitioners in developing early intervention programs.

  11. Psychopathological status, behavior problems, and family adjustment of Kuwaiti children whose fathers were involved in the first gulf war

    Ohaeri Jude U

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Following the end of the Gulf War that resulted in the liberation of Kuwait, there are no reports on the impact of veterans' traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on their children. We compared the severity of anxiety, depression, deviant behavior and poor family adjustment among the children of a stratified random sample of four groups of Kuwaiti military men, viz: the retired; an active -in-the-army group (AIA (involved in duties at the rear; an in-battle group (IB (involved in combat; and a prisoners -of- war (POWs group. Also, we assessed the association of father's PTSD/combat status and mother's characteristics with child psychosocial outcomes. Method Subjects were interviewed at home, 6 years after the war, using: the Child Behavior Index to assess anxiety, depression, and adaptive behavior; Rutter Scale A2 for deviant behavior; and Family Adjustment Device for adjustment at home. Both parents were assessed for PTSD. Results The 489 offspring (250 m, 239 f; mean age 13.8 yrs belonged to 166 father-mother pairs. Children of POWs tended to have higher anxiety, depression, and abnormal behavior scores. Those whose fathers had PTSD had significantly higher depression scores. However, children of fathers with both PTSD and POW status (N = 43 did not have significantly different outcome scores than the other father PTSD/combat status groups. Mother's PTSD, anxiety, depression and social status were significantly associated with all the child outcome variables. Parental age, child's age and child's level of education were significant covariates. Although children with both parents having PTSD had significantly higher anxiety/depression scores, the mother's anxiety was the most frequent and important predictor of child outcome variables. The frequency of abnormal test scores was: 14% for anxiety/depression, and 17% for deviant behavior. Conclusion Our findings support the impression that child emotional experiences in vulnerable family situations transcend culture and are associated with the particular behavior of significant adults in the child's life. The primacy of the mother's influence has implications for interventions to improve the psychological functioning of children in such families. Mental health education for these families has the potential to help those in difficulty.

  12. On fathering (the nature and functions of the father role). Part II: Conceptualization of fathering.

    Henderson, J

    1980-08-01

    The scientific study of fathering has been somewhat neglected, perhaps because the father role is hardly constant even within a particular culture and is subject to very great fluctuations indeed from culture to culture. In that respect the study of fathering is much more difficult than the study of mothering. Work often subsumed under the heading of "attachment theory" has shown that the mother-infant and mother-child relationships have some cross-cultural constancy and may even be described as a bio-social "given". Four methods of data collection are described and reviewed: studies of adults partially or fully deprived of adequate fathering during their childhoods; direct studies of father-infant and father-child interaction; "in-depth" psychoanalytic studies of individual psychopathology in relation to that individual's relationship to a father; and introspection and personal observation. Each of these four avenues of data collection offers certain advantages as well as certain disadvantages which are reviewed with examples from available literature. In studying the importance of the father role there is a tendency to study the importance of fathering to children, ignoring that fathering is clearly important to the psychological development and further growth of the father. That there is a psychopathology of the process of fatherhood seems obvious on reflection, and data bearing on that psychopathology are reviewed. The importance of fathering to infants and children can be reviewed according to the three areas of psychic activity: primary creativity, the basic fault, and the Oedipus conflict. In the area of primary creativity we can study the importance of fathering to infants in terms of fantasied fathers and part-time fathers, and the prenatal role of father as mother facilitator. In the area of the basic fault (two-person psychology) we can study the postnatal role of father as mother facilitator, the role of father as mother-surrogate, the pre-oedipal role of father in the determination of gender identity, the role of father in "healing by second intent", and the importance of father in separation-individuation. In the area of the Oedipus conflict (three-person psychology) we can study the role of father in the infant's resolution of the oedipus complex and the development of superego, the importance of father as a role model for post-oedipal identification, the relation of father-absence to anti-social behaviour, the role of father in fostering cognitive and general development and growth, and the role of father in the further formation of adult personality. This two-part concludes with a review of the importance of improved understanding of the father role in clinical work. PMID:7407749

  13. Parental Spanking and Subsequent Risk for Child Aggression in Father-Involved Families of Young Children.

    Lee, Shawna J; Taylor, Catherine A; Altschul, Inna; Rice, Janet C

    2013-08-01

    This study examined separate and combined maternal and paternal use of spanking with children at age 3 and children's subsequent aggressive behavior at age 5. The sample was derived from a birth cohort study and included families (n = 923) in which both parents lived with the child at age 3. In this sample, 44% of 3-year-olds were spanked 2 times or more in the past month by either parent or both parents. In separate analyses, being spanked more than twice in the prior month at age 3, by either mother or father, was associated with increased child aggression at 5 years. In combined analyses, there was a dose-response association; the greatest risk for child aggression was reported when both parents spanked more than twice in the prior month (adjusted odds ratio: 2.01; [confidence interval: 1.03-3.94]). Violence prevention initiatives should target and engage mothers and fathers in anticipatory guidance efforts aimed at increasing the use of effective and non-aggressive child discipline techniques and reducing the use of spanking. PMID:24019558

  14. The effects of parental sensitivity and involvement in caregiving on mother-infant and father-infant attachment in a Portuguese sample.

    Fuertes, Marina; Faria, Anabela; Beeghly, Marjorie; Lopes-Dos-Santos, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    In the present longitudinal study, we investigated attachment quality in Portuguese mother-infant and in father-infant dyads, and evaluated whether attachment quality was related to parental sensitivity during parent-infant social interaction or to the amount of time each parent spent with the infant during play and in routine caregiving activities (e.g., feeding, bathing, play). The sample consisted of 82 healthy full-term infants (30 girls, 53 boys, 48 first born), and their mothers and fathers from mostly middle-class households. To assess parental sensitivity, mothers and fathers were independently observed during free play interactions with their infants when infants were 9 and 15 months old. The videotaped interactions were scored by masked coders using the Crittenden's CARE-Index. When infants were 12 and 18 months old, mother-infant and father-infant dyads were videotaped during an adaptation of Ainsworth's Strange Situation. Parents also described their level of involvement in infant caregiving activities using a Portuguese version of the McBride and Mills Parent Responsibility Scale. Mothers were rated as being more sensitive than fathers during parent-infant free play at both 9 and 15 months. There also was a higher prevalence of secure attachment in mother-infant versus father-infant dyads at both 12 and 18 months. Attachment security was predicted by the amount of time mothers and fathers were involved in caregiving and play with the infant, and with parents' behavior during parent-infant free play. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26437145

  15. Non-resident Fathers’ Social Networks: The Relationship between Social Support and Father Involvement

    Castillo, Jason T.; Sarver, Christian M.

    2012-01-01

    Literature and research examining non-resident fathers’ involvement with their chidren has focused primarily on the fathers’ relationship with their child’s mother. Receiving limited attention in the literature has been the inclusion of examining non-resident fathers’ social support networks, the function of these social networks—perceived and received social support, and how these social support networks affect non-resident fathers’ involvement with their children. Using data from Wave One o...

  16. The Differential Impact of Early Father and Mother Involvement on Later Student Achievement

    McBride, Brent A.; Dyer, W. Justin; Liu, Ying; Brown, Geoffrey L; Hong, Sungjin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of early parenting on later parental school involvement and student achievement. The sample, pulled from the first and second waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics – Child Development Supplement data set, consisted of 390 children ages 2–5 at time 1 and their families. Fathers’ and mothers’ participation in five dimensions of early parenting behaviors were assessed at time 1, while later parental school...

  17. Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in First-Time Mothers: Exploring the Impact of Father Involvement in the Early Post-Partum Period

    Theresa Hunter; Georg’ann Cattelona

    2014-01-01

    Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Chil...

  18. Father involvement and marital relationship during transition to parenthood : differences between dual and single-earner families

    Menndez lvarez-Dardet, Susana; Hidalgo Garca, Mara Victoria; Jimnez Garca, Luca; Moreno Rodrguez, M Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Research into the process of becoming mother or father shows very conclusively that this important life transition is accompanied by both a decrease in marital quality and a more traditional division of labour. In this paper these changes are analyzed with special emphasis on the relationships between them and exploring the role played in this process by the mother's work status. Results showed a significant link between the development of marital quality and violated expectations regarding f...

  19. DOES FATHER INVOLVEMENT INFLUENCE THE AFFECT, LANGUAGE ACQUISITION, SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT AND BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG AUTISTIC CHILDREN? AN EARLY INTERVENTION STUDY

    LOUIS Preeti Tabitha; Kumar, Navin

    2015-01-01

    The present study adopts a randomized experimental design to evaluate the impact of a father-mediated therapy to improve the play skills, affect, language, social skills and behavior among 30 clinically diagnosed autistic children at the age of 3-5 years. Standardized inventories such as, The Play Based Observation (PBO), The Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS), The Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS) and the Rendel Shorts Questionnaire were administered pre and post intervention. ...

  20. Familial ainhum: A case report of multiple toe involvement in a father and son, staging of ainhum with insight into different types of constricting bands

    B T Priya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ainhum, also known as dactylolysis spontanea, is a painful constriction of the base of the fifth toe, frequently followed by spontaneous amputation a few years later. The disease is often symmetrical on both the feet, but, occasionally, other toes are also affected and rarely the distal phalanx of the fifth finger. Pseudoainhum is a similar condition that occurs as a secondary event resulting from certain hereditary and nonhereditary diseases that lead to annular constriction of digits. We hereby present a case of familial ainhum in father and son with multiple toes affected, autoamputation, and more involvement of fourth toe than the fifth toe, which is a very rare finding.

  1. A EXPERIÊNCIA DE PAIS PARTICIPANTES DE UM GRUPO DE EDUCAÇÃO PARA SAÚDE NO PRÉ-NATAL LA EXPERIENCIA DE PADRES PARTICIPANTES DE UN GRUPO DE EDUCACIÓN EN SALUD EN LA ATENCIÓN PRENATAL THE EXPERIENCE OF FATHERS PARTICIPANTS OF HEALTH EDUCATION GROUP IN PRENATAL CARE

    Luciana Magnoni Reberte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de descrever a experiência de pais que participaram em um grupo de educação para a saúde realizado na assistência pré-natal. O grupo foi desenvolvido mediante a estratégia da pesquisa-ação em um hospital Universitário da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil e contou com a participação de oito gestantes e quatro maridos. Das entrevistas individuais feitas com os maridos, integralmente gravadas, transcritas e analisadas de forma indutiva e interpretativa, emergiram três categorias descritivas: a A participação no grupo permitiu compartilhar das experiências de forma mais intensa, b a participação no grupo permitiu melhor compreensão da mulher grávida e promoveu a qualidade do suporte oferecido a ela, c o aprendizado e o desenvolvimento das técnicas corporais promoveram a integração do casal e entre os participantes no grupo. A participação ativa do pai nas atividades educativas da assistência pré-natal deve ser incentivada porque este medida produz benefícios para ele e, conseqüentemente, para sua família e a sociedade.Esta investigación tuvo el objetivo de describir la experiencia de padres que habían participado de un grupo de educación en salud realizado en la atención prenatal. El grupo fue desarrollado con empleo de la metodología de investigación-acción en el hospital Universitario de la ciudad de São Paulo, Brasil y tuvo la participación de ocho embarazadas y cuatro acompañantes. De las entrevistas individuales hechas con los maridos, las que fueron completamente grabadas, transcritas y analizadas de forma inductiva e interpretativa, surgieron tres categorías descriptivas: a La participación en el grupo permitió compartir las experiencias de forma más intensa, b la participación en el grupo permitió mejorar la comprensión de la mujer embarazada y promovió la calidad en el soporte ofrecido a ella, c el aprendizaje y el desarrollo de las técnicas corporales promovió la integración entre las parejas y entre los participantes del grupo. La participación activa de los padres en las actividades educativas del cuidado prenatal debe ser incentivada, pues esta medida produce beneficios para él y, consecuentemente, a su familia y la sociedad.The aim of this research was to describe the experience of fathers, participating in a health education group during prenatal care. An action research strategy was adopted to carry out the study and handle the group, at a University hospital, city of São Paulo, Brazil. The group was conformed by eight pregnant women and four husbands. From the individual interviews carried out with the husbands, fully recorded, transcribed and analyzed in an inductive and interpretive way, three descriptive categories emerged from the experience: a The participation in the group permitted to share the experiences in a more intensive way, b the participation in the group permitted a better understanding of the pregnant woman and promoted the quality of support offered to her, c the knowledge and the development of body techniques promoted the integration of the couples and among the participants of the group. The fathers´ active participation in the educational activities carried out in prenatal care should be encouraged to produce benefits for him and, consequently, to his family and the society.

  2. The Prenatal Care at School Program

    Griswold, Carol H.; Nasso, Jacqueline T.; Swider, Susan; Ellison, Brenda R.; Griswold, Daniel L.; Brooks, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    School absenteeism and poor compliance with prenatal appointments are concerns for pregnant teens. The Prenatal Care at School (PAS) program is a new model of prenatal care involving local health care providers and school personnel to reduce the need for students to leave school for prenatal care. The program combines prenatal care and education…

  3. Fathers of Children With Type 1 Diabetes

    Boman, Ase; Povlsen, Lene; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth; Hanas, Ragnar; Borup, Ina K

    2014-01-01

    This study describes how fathers of children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes understand their involvement in their child's daily life from a health promotion perspective. Sixteen Swedish fathers of children living with type 1 diabetes were interviewed. Manifest and latent content analysis was used...... to identify two themes: the inner core of the father's general parental involvement and the additional involvement based on the child's diabetes. The former was underpinned by the fathers' prioritization of family life and the fathers being consciously involved in raising the child, and the latter by...... the fathers promoting and controlling the child's health and promoting and enabling the child's autonomy. The results highlight that the quality of the fathers' involvement is essential in the management of a child's chronic illness. It is important for pediatric diabetes health care professionals to...

  4. Adolescents with Nonresident Fathers: Are Daughters More Disadvantaged than Sons?

    Mitchell, Katherine Stamps; Booth, Alan; King, Valarie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sons' and daughters' involvement with nonresident fathers and associated outcomes (N = 4,663). Results indicated that sons and daughters reported equal involvement with nonresident fathers on most measures of father investment, although sons reported more overnight visits, sports, and movies and feeling closer to their fathers

  5. A 91 kb microdeletion at Xq26.2 involving the GPC3 gene in a female fetus with Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome detected by prenatal arrayCGH

    Ramsing, Mette; Becher, Naja Helene; Christensen, Rikke; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Vogel, Ida; Vestergaard, Else Marie

    A 91 kb microdeletion at Xq26.2 involving the GPC3 gene in a female fetus with Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome detected by prenatal arrayCGH......A 91 kb microdeletion at Xq26.2 involving the GPC3 gene in a female fetus with Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome detected by prenatal arrayCGH...

  6. Nonresident Fathering and School Failure

    Menning, Chadwick L.

    2006-01-01

    Does involvement by nonresident fathers affect adolescents' propensity to remain in school? If so, is some involvement necessarily better than none, and are changes in involvement with time associated with changes in the odds of school failure? What aspects of involvement matter the most? This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study

  7. Are the children of fathers whose jobs involve contact with many people at an increased risk of leukaemia?

    Fear, N. T.; E. ROMAN; Reeves, G.; Pannett, B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that children of men whose jobs involve contact with many people (particularly children) are at an increased risk of leukaemia. METHODS: A population based dataset obtained from routinely collected death certificates involving 14,168 cancer deaths occurring before the age of 15 years registered in England and Wales between 1959-63 and 1970-90. Associations were assessed with the proportional cancer mortality ratio (PCMR), with all childhood canc...

  8. Chaotic Identities, Love and Fathering

    Stephen Williams

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Fathers today are confronted with constantly changing ideas on theirrole as a parent. The old traditional forms of fathering i.e. the breadwinner and protector roles are being gradually replaced by a more reflexive role that places unconditional love from their children as a central theme in a new type of reflexive parenting. This article examines the role of fatherhood through the theoreticallens of reflexive modernity. It recognises that men are increasingly becoming dependant on their children for unconditional love and this is forcing men to become more involved in the lives of their own children. The theory of reflexive modernisation is applied to a group of 40 fathers from a post-industrial area of Britain to unravel the processes and practices being used in this “new” type of parenting. This research discovers that fathers in the 21st century have numerouspressures from changing ideas about what is a good or bad father, but in the final instance it is their individualised responses to these societal and personal circumstances which create a new reflexive type of fathering. This type of fathering is therefore created by general social changes within a reflexive modern society and also by personal choice.

  9. [Preparation for labor, labor experience and parent-child contact during the clinical stay: an empirical analysis with special reference to the role of the father].

    Bartoszyk, J; Nickel, H

    1986-06-01

    The present pilot study is embedded in a larger longitudinal investigation on early parent-child interaction. Variables related to pregnancy, emotional birth experience and hospital conditions have been assessed in a sample of 69 parents who were given questionnaires before and after the birth of their first child. A critical evaluation of delivery room and hospital conditions indicated new ways of psychological support during the period of early parent-child contact. Further, the effect of infant caretaking courses on later paternal behaviour was evaluated by comparing two groups of fathers: "pretrained" fathers who had attended prenatal classes in infant care and untrained fathers who had not. The questionnaire data revealed that pretrained fathers diapered and fed the newborn significantly more often than the untrained fathers. Besides, there were already considerable differences between the two groups in the experience of feelings when fathers first saw their child. The present study suggests that the general trend of father's involvement in pregnancy, birth and infant care could be facilitated by adequate preparatory courses. PMID:3744004

  10. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally

    Kou, Hao; Liu, Yansong; Liang, Gai; Huang, Jing; Hu, Jieqiong; Yan, You-e; Li, Xiaojun [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Yuanzhen [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Center for Reproductive Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Feng, Jianghua, E-mail: jianghua.feng@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg · d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose–effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time–course study were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure elevated maternal blood glucocorticoid levels. • Prenatal caffeine exposure altered maternal blood metabonomes. • Maternal metabonome alterations were associated with glucocorticoid elevation. • Maternal metabonomes were altered at early stage after caffeine exposure. • Maternal glucocorticoid and associated metabolites may be involved in fetal programming.

  11. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg · d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose–effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time–course study were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure elevated maternal blood glucocorticoid levels. • Prenatal caffeine exposure altered maternal blood metabonomes. • Maternal metabonome alterations were associated with glucocorticoid elevation. • Maternal metabonomes were altered at early stage after caffeine exposure. • Maternal glucocorticoid and associated metabolites may be involved in fetal programming

  12. Perspective on the technical challenges involved in the implementation of array-CGH in prenatal diagnostic testing.

    Callaway, Jonathan L A; Huang, Shuwen; Karampetsou, Evangelia; Crolla, John A

    2014-04-01

    Our aim was to construct a streamlined technical workflow to facilitate a prospective, multi-centre evaluation of array comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) in the prenatal diagnostic context. A collection of commercially available DNA extraction and quantification techniques were evaluated and compared using minimal quantities of amniotic fluid, chorionic villi and cultured cells. When prenatal DNA of suitable quality and quantity was obtained, array-CGH was performed using Oxford Gene Technology's (OGT, Oxford, UK) CytoSure ISCA 8 60 K oligo array platform. With starting quantities of 2-4 ml amniotic fluid, 2-5 mg chorionic villi or under 150,000 cultured cells the following optimised technical workflow was identified: DNA extraction using the iGENatal kit (igenbiotech, Madrid, Spain) and quantification by the Qubit 2.0 Fluorometer with the Qubit dsDNA BR assay kit (Invitrogen, Eugene, OR, USA). In addition, it was elucidated that array-CGH can be successfully performed with as little as 125 ng DNA in the experiment using the OGT CytoSure ISCA 8 60 K oligo array platform. Amidst an on-going debate on whether array-CGH should be applied in the prenatal diagnostic setting, by following the technical recommendations described here genetics laboratories can now gain exposure to prenatal array-CGH testing without compromising the conventional karyotype result. PMID:24146428

  13. Fathers' Reinforcement and Task Persistence of Young Children.

    Robinson, Laura Lynn; Price-Bonham, Sharon

    1978-01-01

    In this study involving 20 four- and five-year-old children, the boys were more motivated by intermittent reinforcement from their fathers, while girls were more motivated by fathers' continuous reinforcement. (RL)

  14. Prenatal and Lactational Exposure to Bisphenol A in Mice Alters Expression of Genes Involved in Cortical Barrel Development without Morphological Changes

    It has been reported that premature infants in neonatal intensive care units are exposed to a high rate of bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupting chemical. Our previous studies demonstrated that corticothalamic projection was disrupted by prenatal exposure to BPA, which persisted even in adult mice. We therefore analyzed whether prenatal and lactational exposure to low doses of BPA affected the formation of the cortical barrel, the barreloid of the thalamus, and the barrelette of the brainstem in terms of the histology and the expression of genes involved in the barrel development. Pregnant mice were injected subcutaneously with 20 µg/kg of BPA daily from embryonic day 0 (E0) to postnatal 3 weeks (P3W), while the control mice received a vehicle alone. The barrel, barreloid and barrelette of the adult mice were examined by cytochrome C oxidase (COX) staining. There were no significant differences in the total and septal areas and the patterning of the posterior medial barrel subfield (PMBSF), barreloid and barrelette, between the BPA-exposure and control groups in the adult mice. The developmental study at postnatal day 1 (PD1), PD4 and PD8 revealed that the cortical barrel vaguely appeared at PD4 and completely formed at PD8 in both groups. The expression pattern of some genes was spatiotemporally altered depending on the sex and the treatment. These results suggest that the trigeminal projection and the thalamic relay to the cortical barrel were spared after prenatal and lactational exposure to low doses of BPA, although prenatal exposure to BPA was previously shown to disrupt the corticothalamic projection

  15. Prenatal Testing

    Prenatal testing provides information about your baby's health before he or she is born. Some routine tests ... also check on your health. At your first prenatal visit, your healthcare provider will test for a ...

  16. Envolvimento paterno durante o nascimento dos filhos: pai "real" e "ideal" na perspectiva materna Paternal involvement during their children's birth: mother's perspective of 'real' and 'ideal' father

    Maria Auxiliadora Dessen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O pai é a fonte de apoio materno mais importante durante a transição decorrente do nascimento de filhos. Este estudo objetiva descrever a percepção de 45 mulheres grávidas e 42 mães com bebês de até seis meses sobre a participação e apoio paterno, durante a gestação e nascimento de filhos. A coleta de dados consistiu da aplicação, às mães, de um questionário de caracterização do sistema familiar e de uma entrevista semiestruturada, visando obter informações sobre o pai "real" e o "ideal". Os resultados mostram que, apesar de os pais serem percebidos como pouco participativos, as mães estavam satisfeitas com o seu envolvimento. Os dados sugerem que é necessário estimular a participação do pai, por ocasião do nascimento de filhos.The father is a major figure on mother's support network during childbirth transition. This study aims to report father's participation and support during the pregnancy and the birth of their children, according to the point of view of 45 pregnant women and 42 women with six-month-old children. Data was collected through the administration of a family questionnaire and a semi-structured interview answered by the mothers in order to get information about the "real" and the "ideal" father. The results show that, although the mothers were satisfied with the fathers' role in family life, they thought fathers were not as participative as they should be. Data suggest that it is necessary to stimulate father's participation during childbirth.

  17. Fragmenting Fatherhoods? Fathers, Fathering and Family Diversity.

    Lee, K.

    2008-01-01

    The central concern of this research is to explore how male parents make sense of and understand their experiences of fathering in a diverse array of family forms. It is a mixed methods study, using both quantitative and qualitative data, to explore the extent to which 'paternal careers' have become more diverse and complex, and the consequences of this complexity for fathers as they negotiate fathering in their everyday lives. Drawing upon data from the British Household Panel Survey it prov...

  18. Derivative chromosome 11 in a child resulting from a complex rearrangement involving chromosomes 3, 6 and 11 in father: Significance of parental karyotyping

    Prabhat Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of derivative chromosome in a child with phenotypic features necessitates the need of parental karyotyping to ascertain the exact amount of loss or gain of the genetic material. The aim of this study was to emphasize the importance of parental karyotyping. Cytogenetic evaluation of the proband and his father were carried out at Laboratory. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on phytohemagglutinin stimulated cultures. The derivative chromosome 11 in proband was ascertained to have additional material from chromosome 6p arising from complex chromosomal rearrangement in the father. Karyotyping is the basic, cost-effective preliminary investigation in a child with mental subnormality or congenital anomalies.

  19. Becoming a Father

    ... Health Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Becoming a Father Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 January ... I find out I am going to be a father? When you find out you are going ...

  20. Fathering in Intact and Divorced Families: Ethnic Differences in Retrospective Reports

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Finley, Gordon E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether ethnicity moderates the effects of divorce on young adults' retrospective reports of fathering. An ethnically diverse sample of 1,989 university students completed measures of nurturant fathering, reported father involvement, and desired father involvement. Compared with participants from

  1. Fathering and Children's Sex Role Orientation in Korea.

    Yang, Jang-Ae

    2000-01-01

    Examines variations in aspects of contemporary Korean fathering and its relationship to children's sex role development. One hundred twenty-nine Korean families were included in the study. Results show that warmth of fathering and father involvement were not significantly associated with children's sex role orientations. However, girls' femininity…

  2. Origins of Mothers' and Fathers' Beliefs about Infant Crying

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Parade, Stephanie H.; Burney, Regan V.

    2010-01-01

    Origins of mothers' and fathers' beliefs about infant crying were examined in 87 couples. Parents completed measures of emotion minimization in the family of origin, depressive symptoms, empathy, trait anger, and coping styles prenatally. At 6 months postpartum, parents completed a self-report measure of their beliefs about infant crying. Mothers…

  3. Derivative chromosome 11 in a child resulting from a complex rearrangement involving chromosomes 3, 6 and 11 in father: Significance of parental karyotyping

    Prabhat Ranjan; Kundanbala Desai; Shailaja Gada Saxena

    2013-01-01

    The presence of derivative chromosome in a child with phenotypic features necessitates the need of parental karyotyping to ascertain the exact amount of loss or gain of the genetic material. The aim of this study was to emphasize the importance of parental karyotyping. Cytogenetic evaluation of the proband and his father were carried out at Laboratory. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on phytohemagglutinin stimulated cultures. The derivative chromosome 11 in proband was ascertained to have ...

  4. Fathers and fetuses.

    Harris, George W

    1986-04-01

    Harris postulates that in certain instances it would be morally impermissible for a woman to have an abortion because it would be a wrongful harm to the father and a violation of his autonomy. He constructs and analyzes five cases chosen to elucidate the moral issues involved and concludes that, for a man to lay claim to the fetus being his in a sense that the mother is obligated to respect, the fetus must be the result of his having pursued a legitimate interest in procreation in a morally legitimate way. When a man has satisfied the requirements of autonomy both for himself and for his sexual partner in regard to the interest in procreation, the woman has a prima facie obligation to him not to harm the fetus. Therefore, unless there is some contravening moral consideration that overrides this obligation, the abortion of the fetus is morally impermissible. PMID:11658724

  5. Origins of Mothers' and Fathers' Beliefs about Infant Crying.

    Leerkes, Esther M; Parade, Stephanie H; Burney, Regan V

    2010-11-01

    Origins of mothers' and fathers' beliefs about infant crying were examined in 87 couples. Parents completed measures of emotion minimization in the family of origin, depressive symptoms, empathy, trait anger, and coping styles prenatally. At 6 months postpartum, parents completed a self-report measure of their beliefs about infant crying. Mothers endorsed more infant-oriented and less parent-oriented beliefs about crying than did fathers. Consistent with prediction, a history of emotion minimization was linked with more parent-oriented and fewer infant-oriented beliefs about infant crying for both mothers and fathers either as a main effect or in conjunction with the partners' infant-oriented beliefs. Contrary to expectation, parents' own emotional dispositions had little effect on parents' beliefs about crying. The pattern of associations varied for mothers and fathers in a number of ways. Implications for future research and programs promoting sensitive parenting are discussed. PMID:21152107

  6. O envolvimento do pai na gravidez/parto e a ligao emocional com o beb La participacin del padre en el embarazo/parto y el vnculo emocional con el beb Fathers involvement in pregnancy/childbirth and the emotional bond with the baby

    Joo Rui Duarte Farias Nogueira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Enquadramento: a ligao emocional entre pai e filho determinante na transio para a paternidade e no desenvolvimento do beb. Objetivos: pretendemos verificar se existe relao entre as variveis sciodemogrficas, o envolvimento na gravidez ou o corte do cordo umbilical com a ligao emocional do pai com o beb. Metodologia: efetumos um estudo transversal, quantitativo de carter descritivo analtico. Aplicmos um questionrio e a escala bonding validada para a populao Portuguesa (Figueiredo et al., 2005, em trs momentos diferentes (durante o trabalho de parto, no 1 e no 3 dia aps o parto a 222 pais, entre novembro de 2010 e janeiro de 2011. Resultados: verificmos que a idade (entre 25 e 40 anos, o acompanhamento da grvida s consultas de vigilncia da gravidez, o acompanhamento da grvida nos preparativos para o nascimento do beb, a leitura de informao sobre o beb em desenvolvimento, o envolvimento na gravidez e o corte do cordo umbilical influenciam positivamente a ligao emocional do pai com o beb. Concluso: os resultados apontam para uma melhoria na ligao afetiva entre o pai e o beb se os profissionais de sade promoverem o envolvimento do pai na gravidez e no parto.Marco: el vnculo emocional entre padre e hijo es crucial en la transicin hacia la paternidad y el desarrollo del beb.Objetivos: pretendemos verificar si existe una relacin entre las variables sociodemogrficas, la participacin en el embarazo o el corte del cordn umbilical y el vnculo emocional entre el padre y el beb. Metodologa: se realiz un estudio transversal, cuantitativo, de corte descriptivo-analtico. Se aplic un cuestionario y la escala de Bonding validado para la poblacin portuguesa (Figueiredo et al., 2005, en tres momentos diferentes (durante el parto, durante el primer y el tercer da despus del parto a 222 padres, entre noviembre 2010 y enero de 2011. Resultados: se comprob que la edad (entre 25 y 40 aos, el acompaamiento con la mujer embarazada alas citas para la vigilancia del embarazo, el acompaamiento de la mujer embarazada en los preparativos para el nacimiento del beb, la lectura de informacin sobre el desarrollo del beb, la participacin en el embarazo y el corte del cordn umbilical influyen positivamente en el vnculo emocional entre el padre y el beb. Conclusin: los resultados indican una mejora en el vnculo emocional entre el padre y el beb siempre y cuando los profesionales de la salud promuevan la participacin del padre durante el embarazo y el parto.Background: the emotional bond between father and child is crucial in the transition to parenthood and the babys development. Objectives: our intention was to verify if there is a relationship between sociodemographic variables, involvement in the pregnancy or cutting the umbilical cord with the emotional bond between father and baby. Methodology: we performed a cross-sectional, quantitative study descriptive and analytical in nature. We administered a questionnaire and the Bonding scale validated for the Portuguese population (Figueiredo et al., 2005, at three different times (during labour, on the 1st and 3rd days after birth to 222 parents between November 2010 and January 2011. Results: We found that age (between 25 and 40 years, accompanying the pregnant woman to appointments for pregnancy surveillance, monitoring of the pregnancy in preparation for the birth of the baby, reading information about the developing baby involvement in the pregnancy and cutting the umbilical cord positively influence the emotional bond between father and baby. Conclusion: the results indicate an improvement in the emotional bond between father and baby if health professionals promote fathers involvement during pregnancyand childbirth.

  7. Father may not know best, but what does he know?

    Byrne, G

    1997-10-01

    In the US, family researchers have focused on gathering data from mothers because demographers questioned the accuracy of information gleaned from fathers. Consequently, little is known about the role of men in families. To rectify this situation, a National Fatherhood Initiative is attempting to improve the well-being of children by increasing the number of responsible fathers. On the federal level, President Clinton ordered that every federal agency work toward strengthening the role of fathers in families and incorporate fathers in appropriate research activities. This led to the formation of the Fatherhood Initiative coordinated by the Domestic Policy Council to increase the involvement of fathers in family life and to improve data collection on fathers (thus the Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics held a series of meetings on the issue in 1996 and 1997 as well as a "town meeting" on fathering and male fertility in March 1996). A 1996 conference on "father involvement" allowed researchers to present results such as 1) children of fathers who are involved in parent-teacher associations acquire more education and income as adults, 2) most unmarried fathers maintain a close relationship with at least one child, 3) children reared without fathers have more behavioral problems and lower test scores, and 4) sons reared without fathers are more likely to become adolescent fathers and to live apart from their children. Accurate data on fathers are crucial for developing appropriate welfare reform and child support policies and programs, and efforts are being made to improve data-collection methods. PMID:12292773

  8. Prenatal diagnosis: whose right?

    Heyd, D

    1995-01-01

    The question who is the subject of the right to prenatal diagnosis may be answered in four ways: the parents, the child, society, or no one. This article investigates the philosophical issues involved in each of these answers, which touch upon the conditions of personal identity, the principle of privacy, the scope of social responsibility, and the debate about impersonalism in ethics.

  9. Later Prenatal Checkups

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Later prenatal checkups Later prenatal checkups Now playing: E-mail to a friend ... a healthy pregnancy and baby. What is your prenatal care schedule? If your pregnancy is healthy, you ...

  10. Human prenatal diagnosis

    Filkins, K.; Russo, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Advances in the field of prenatal diagnosis have been rapid during the past decade. Moreover, liberal use of birth control methods and restriction of family size have placed greater emphasis on optimum outcome of each pregnancy. There are many prenatal diagnostic techniques of proven value; the risks, including false negatives and false positives, are known. With the rapid proliferation of new and experimental techniques, many disorders are potential diagnosable or even treatable; however, risk factors are unknown and issues relating to quality control have not been resolved. These problems are readily appreciated in the dramatic new techniques involving recombinant DNA, chorion villus sampling, and fetal surgery. Unfortunately, clinicians may not appreciate the difficulties that may also be encountered in the more mundane prenatal diagnostic tests such as ultrasonography or enzymatic testing. The aim of this volume is to clarify and rationalize certain aspects of diagnosis, genetic counseling, and intervention. New and experimental techniques are presented in the light of current knowledge.

  11. Fathers, divorce, and their children.

    Pruett, M K; Pruett, K D

    1998-04-01

    To minimize many of the negative consequences of divorce, it is beneficial to support a father's ongoing involvement in his child's life. Although the research literature isn't unequivocal on this point, it does strongly suggest that men who are "visitors" do not have as much impact on their children and that visits are a poor substitute for having a parental figure. The answer lies in creating meaningful roles for noncustodial fathers that elevate men's opportunities to contribute to their children's overall development. One of the most important messages parents can impart to children is that some commitments outlive change and that working together in the child's best interests is one of them. PMID:9894071

  12. Prenatal Virilization Associated with Paternal Testosterone Gel Therapy

    Anisha Patel; Scott A. Rivkees

    2010-01-01

    Transdermal testosterone gels are used in the treatment of hypoandrogenism of males. Virilization due to exposure to testosterone gels has been reported in children resulting in a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warning about secondary exposure to these products. At present, we are unaware of prenatal virilization associated with unintentional testosterone gel exposure. We report prenatal virilization in a female infant due to secondary maternal exposure to the father's testosterone gel...

  13. Individual variation in fathers' testosterone reactivity to infant distress predicts parenting behaviors with their 1-year-old infants.

    Kuo, Patty X; Saini, Ekjyot K; Thomason, Elizabeth; Schultheiss, Oliver C; Gonzalez, Richard; Volling, Brenda L

    2016-04-01

    Positive father involvement is associated with positive child outcomes. There is great variation in fathers' involvement and fathering behaviors, and men's testosterone (T) has been proposed as a potential biological contributor to paternal involvement. Previous studies investigating testosterone changes in response to father-infant interactions or exposure to infant cues were unclear as to whether individual variation in T is predictive of fathering behavior. We show that individual variation in fathers' T reactivity to their infants during a challenging laboratory paradigm (Strange Situation) uniquely predicted fathers' positive parenting behaviors during a subsequent father-infant interaction, in addition to other psychosocial determinants of paternal involvement, such as dispositional empathy and marital quality. The findings have implications for understanding fathering behaviors and how fathers can contribute to their children's socioemotional development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 303-314, 2016. PMID:26497119

  14. What makes a man a man? Prenatal antennapedia expression is involved in the formation of the male phenotype in Daphnia.

    Schwarzenberger, Anke; Von Elert, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic parthenogenetic organisms show a switch in reproductive strategy from asexual to sexual reproduction upon the occurrence of unfavourable environmental conditions. The sexual reproductive mode involves the production of ameiotic diploid males and the fertilization of meiotic haploid eggs. One beautiful example for this switch between parthenogenesis and sexual reproduction is Daphnia. Male and female Daphnia from the same clone are genetically identical. Morphological differences should therefore only be due to differential gene expression. This differential gene expression leads to sexually dimorphic phenotypes with elongated and moveable (i.e. leg-like) first antennae in males in comparison to females. For other arthropods, it has been demonstrated that the formation of differential morphology of legs and antennae involves the regulation of the Hox gene antennapedia (antp). Here, we show that antp is expressed during the embryogenesis of Daphnia, and that adults contain much lower amounts of antp mRNA than eggs. The eggs of mothers that were treated with the juvenile hormone methyl farnesoate (responsible for the production of male offspring) showed lower expression of antp than parthenogenetically produced female eggs. We therefore conclude that differential antp expression is involved in the molecular pathways inducing the male phenotype of Daphnia. PMID:26754486

  15. Propiedades psicométricas y dimensionalidad de la versión española para niños y adolescentes del Father Involvement Scale (FIS

    María J. González-Calderón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar las propiedades psicométricas y dimensionalidad de la versión española para niños y adolescentes del Father Involvement Scale (FIS en el marco de la IPARTheory. Para ello, se utilizó una muestra de 514 participantes (46.9 % varones de edades comprendidas entre 9 y 16 años. Además del cuestionario sobre la implicación paterna, los sujetos informaron de su ajuste emocional, el grado interpersonal de poder y prestigio parental y el grado de aceptación y rechazo parental percibidos. Se obtuvieron dos factores de primer orden (implicación expresiva e implicación instrumental y otro global (implicación paterna. La validez de contenido y criterio, así como la fiabilidad resultan apropiadas para los tres factores. No seencontraron diferencias por sexo.

  16. [Prenatal medicine and prenatal diagnosis].

    Valero de Bernabé Martín de Eugenio, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis universalization allows knowing the prognostic possibilities in a situation of limited therapeutical resources. Therefore, besides permitting the peace of a normal fetal development, in other circumstances it can provoke parent's requirement to interrupt pregnancy in cases of malformation or chromosomal alteration, situations that parents may conceive as difficult for child's life and family environment. Diagnostic tests reliability and risks, information given to the parents, conversion in an eugenic practice of prenatal diagnosis and OMS recommendations in relation to the optional and voluntary character that this diagnosis should have are analysed. PMID:19799483

  17. Exposure to ethanol on prenatal days 19-20 increases ethanol intake and palatability in the infant rat: involvement of kappa and mu opioid receptors.

    Díaz-Cenzano, Elena; Gaztañaga, Mirari; Gabriela Chotro, M

    2014-09-01

    Prenatal exposure to ethanol on gestation Days 19-20, but not 17-18, increases ethanol acceptance in infant rats. This effect seems to be a conditioned response acquired prenatally, mediated by the opioid system, which could be stimulated by ethanol's pharmacological properties (mu-opioid receptors) or by a component of the amniotic fluid from gestation-day 20 (kappa-inducing factor). The latter option was evaluated administering non-ethanol chemosensory stimuli on gestation Days 19-20 and testing postnatal intake and palatability. However, prenatal exposure to anise or vanilla increased neither intake nor palatability of these tastants on postnatal Day 14. In experiment 2, the role of ethanol's pharmacological effect was tested by administering ethanol and selective antagonists of mu and kappa opioid receptors prenatally. Blocking the mu-opioid receptor system completely reversed the effects on intake and palatability, while antagonizing kappa receptors only partially reduced the effects on palatability. This suggests that the pharmacological effect of ethanol on the fetal mu opioid system is the appetitive reinforcer, which induces the prenatally conditioned preference detected in the preweanling period. PMID:24037591

  18. Father Influences on Employed Mothers' Work-Family Balance

    Fagan, Jay; Press, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This study employed the ecological systems perspective and gender ideology theory to examine the influence of fathers' paid work-family crossover and family involvement on self-reports of work-family balance by employed mothers with children under the age of 13 (N = 179). Multiple regression analyses revealed that fathers' crossover factors had a

  19. Oxytocin administration, salivary testosterone, and father-infant social behavior.

    Weisman, Omri; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2014-03-01

    The growing involvement of fathers in childcare is followed by an increased interest in the neurobiology of fatherhood; yet, experimental work on the neuroendocrine basis of paternal care in humans is limited. The steroid Testosterone (T) and the neuropeptide Oxytocin (OT) have each been implicated in complex social behavior including parenting. However, no study to date explored the interaction between these two hormones in the context of fathering. In the current study we first test the relationship between father's basal salivary T and father and infant's social behaviors during parent-child interaction. Second, we examine the effects of intranasal OT administration on father's T production, and, finally, address the relations between OT-induced change in father's T with father-infant social behavior. Thirty-five fathers and their infants participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study. Father-infant interaction was micro-coded for paternal and infant social behavior and synchrony was measured as the coordination between their gaze, affect, and vocalizations. Father's salivary T levels were measured at baseline and three times after administration. Results indicate that lower baseline T correlated with more optimal father and infant's behaviors. OT administration altered T production in fathers, relative to the pattern of T in the placebo condition. Finally, OT-induced change in T levels correlated with parent-child social behaviors, including positive affect, social gaze, touch, and vocal synchrony. Findings support the view that neuroendocrine systems in human males evolved to support committed parenting and are the first to describe the dynamic interactions between OT and T within a bio-behavioral synchrony model. PMID:24252717

  20. Comparisons of Levels and Predictors of Mothers' and Fathers' Engagement with Their Preschool-Aged Children

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kotila, Letitia E.; Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N.; Bower, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Self-report data from 112 two-parent families were used to compare levels and predictors of four types of mothers' and fathers' engagement with their preschool-aged children: socialisation, didactic, caregiving, and physical play. Mothers were more involved than fathers in socialisation, didactic, and caregiving, whereas fathers were more involved…

  1. Anticipating Father Reentry: A Qualitative Study of Children's and Mothers' Experiences

    Yocum, Annie; Nath, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing a grounded theory analysis of interviews with 17 children and their 8 mothers anticipating a father's prison release within 12 months, the authors propose a theory of participants' experiences, focused on the child-father aspects of reentry. Among other expectations, all participants wanted fathers to be involved with the children after…

  2. Supporting Fathering Through Infant Massage

    Cheng, Carolynn Darrell; Volk, Anthony A.; Marini, Zopito A.

    2011-01-01

    Fathers may feel dissatisfied with their ability to form a close attachment with their infants in the early postpartum period, which, in turn, may increase their parent-related stress. Our study sought to determine if an infant massage intervention assisted fathers with decreasing stress and increasing bonding with their infants during this time. To address the complex fatherinfant relationship, we conducted a pilot study using a mixed methodology approach. Twelve infantfather dyads partici...

  3. When Father Gets Custody

    Bartz, Karen W.; Witcher, Wayne C.

    1978-01-01

    Issues that arise when fathers get custody of their children after divorce are: conditions of custody, coping with the role of parent and homemaker, adjustments which have to be made by the children, and the effect of custody on other social relationships. (CM)

  4. Children of imprisoned fathers.

    Sack, W H

    1977-05-01

    John Bowlby's influential 1951 World Health Organization monograph, Maternal Care and Mental Health, pointed to a causal relationship between loss of maternal care and disturbed personality development, and had a profound effect on psychiatrists' thinking about antisocial behavior in particular, and character formation in general. More recently, psychiatric investigators have been increasingly interested in the effects of a child separation from his father. This has been stimulated by sociological concerns for one-parent, fatherless families (Adams, 1973) and by our realizing how historically neglected has been the paternal role in theories of child development. Herzog and Sudia (1971) have recently compiled an extensive bibliography of the fatherless family. Numerous clinical studies of loss of the father, through death (Nagera, 1970; Wolfenstein, 1966; Bonnard, 1964), suicide (Cain and Fast 1966), divorce (McDermott, 1970), military service (Crumley and Blumenthal, 1973), occupations (Rosenfeld et al., 1973), desertion (Thomes, 1968), and mental hospitalization (Schiff, 1965), have all reported various adverse effects, particularly on male children. It has been difficult, however, to sort out the effects of the loss itself from more general prevailing and prior family relationships. My interest in this subject was quickened when I began to see boys brought to a neighborhood clinic for aggressive and antisocial behavior soon after their fathers were imprisoned. I was impressed by the lack of reports in the literature on this form of father separation. I am presenting here my clinical observations of six families seen over a three-year period as part of a general child psychiatric experience at a comprehensive neighborhood health center sponsored by the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. Although there are obvious selection biases that limit generalization when families referred to psychiatrists are the only source of information, it seems a useful place to begin an examination of the consequences for children of father-separation as a result of imprisonment. PMID:870921

  5. Teen Childbearing, Single Parenthood, and Father Involvement

    ... Lichter, D.T. (2007). Marriage patters among unwed mothers: Before and after PRWORA (NPC Working Paper Series 07-13). Ann Arbor, MI: National ... 2012, from http://npc.umich.edu/ publications/u/working_paper07-13.pdf. 9. ... When Unwed Mothers Marry: The Marital and Cohabiting Partners of Midlife ...

  6. Adult non-response bias from a child perspective. Using child reports to estimate father's non-response.

    Bastaits, Kim; Pasteels, Inge; Ponnet, Koen; Mortelmans, Dimitri

    2015-01-01

    Most parenting research on paternal involvement uses data from a father perspective. Nevertheless, research on bias in father non-response is scarce. In this study, we examine the non-response bias of fathers, hypothesizing that fathers who engage in parenting studies might already be fathers who are more involved with their children than fathers who do not engage in these studies. Furthermore, we expect a double non-response bias by socio-demographic characteristics of the father, which impacts both paternal participation as well as paternal involvement. Using the multi-actor dataset from the "Divorce in Flanders"-project, which provides data from children whose fathers actually participated (N=461) as well as data from children whose fathers did not (N=137) with children reporting on paternal involvement, we are able to test our hypotheses. Results confirm our first hypothesis, indicating that non-participating fathers are significantly more uninvolved than participating fathers. Regarding our second hypothesis, an indirect effect of father's educational level and age on non-response was revealed for one out of three indicators of paternal involvement. PMID:25432601

  7. Understanding Prenatal Tests

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Prenatal Tests Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents ... be done before pregnancy or at the first prenatal visit. If there is Rh incompatibility, treatments can ...

  8. Postdivorce Father-Adolescent Closeness

    Scott, Mindy E.; Booth, Alan; King, Valarie; Johnson, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that closeness of the father-child bond following parental divorce is associated with better outcomes for children and adolescents. Unlike other investigations, this study takes a long-term developmental approach to understanding stability and change in postdivorce father-adolescent relationship closeness. Drawing on Add Health…

  9. A case of prenatally detected hepatic cyst communicating with the hepatic duct

    Shinsuke Katsuno; Minoru Horisawa; Hiroyuki Fujisaki; Takashi Arikawa; Katsuhiro Kotake; Tsuyoshi Kurokawa; Toshiaki Nonami

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe the case of a 9-year-old girl. During the patient's prenatal period, her mother had suffered domestic violence perpetrated by the patient's father. On maternal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, an intraabdominal cystic lesion was detected in the fetus at around the 30th prenatal week. The patient was delivered normally, and there were no evident anomalies on her body. Computed tomography with drip infusion cholangiography and percutaneous retrograde transhepati...

  10. O envolvimento paterno e o desenvolvimento social de crianças iniciando as atividades escolares La participación paterna y el desarrollo social de niños iniciando las actividades escolares Father involvement and the social development of children in the school-entry transition stage

    Fabiana Cia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo relacionou indicadores do envolvimento paterno com indicadores de desenvolvimento social dos filhos. Participaram 97 pares de pais e mães (com filhos na 1ª ou 2ª série e 20 professoras. Para avaliar o envolvimento paterno, pais e mães responderam à Avaliação do bem-estar pessoal e familiar e do relacionamento pai-filho - Versão Paterna, e para avaliar o desenvolvimento social das crianças, os pais, as mães e as professoras preencheram o Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. Quanto maior a freqüência de comunicação entre pai e filho e de participação do pai nos cuidados e nas atividades escolares, culturais e de lazer do filho, menor o índice de hiperatividade e de problemas de comportamento e mais adequado o repertório de habilidades sociais das crianças. Os resultados indicam a provável importância do envolvimento positivo do pai para o desenvolvimento social dos filhos e os prováveis benefícios de programas para promover envolvimento paterno.En este estudio se han relacionado indicadores de la participación paterna con los de desarrollo social de los hijos y participaron 97 padres y madres (con hijos en el primero o en el segundo grado y 20 profesoras. Para evaluar la participación paterna, padres y madres respondieron a la Evaluación del bienestar personal y familiar y del reracionamiento padre-hijo - Versión Paterna y para evaluar el desarrollo social de los niños, padres, madres y profesoras completaron el Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. Cuanto mayor es la frecuencia de comunicación entre padre e hijo, de la participación del padre en los cuidados y en las actividades escolares, culturales y de ocio del hijo, menor es el índice de hiperactividad, problemas de comportamiento y mayor es el repertorio de destrezas sociales de los niños. Los resultados indican la probable importancia de la participación positiva del padre para el desarrollo social de los hijos.This study aimed to examine the relationships between indicators of parental involvement and their children’s social and included 97 father-mother pairs (parents of children in the first or second grade, and 20 teachers. To evaluate father involvement, fathers and mothers completed an Evaluation of personal and family wellbeing and the parent-child relationship - Fathering Version, and to evaluate the children’s social development, the mothers, fathers and teachers completed the Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. The results indicate that more frequent: communication between father and child, paternal participation in child caregiving and in the child’s school, cultural and leisure activities are each associated with indicators of lower hyperactivity, fewer behavior problems and a wider repertoire of appropriate social skills. These results point to the importance of the constructive involvement of fathers for their children’s social development and the likely benefits of programs to promote father involvement.

  11. Parent-Infant Psychotherapy and Postpartum Depression: The Fathers Participation

    Milena da Rosa Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the specificities of postpartum maternal depression, the literature recommends that fathers become involved in psychological interventions within this context. This study presents an investigation of the participation of fathers in parent-infant psychotherapy in the context of maternal postpartum depression. Two families participated in this study, both with a child aged between 7 and 8 months old, whose mothers showed depressive symptoms. These families participated in parent-infant psychotherapy lasting approximately 12 sessions. Analysis of the fathers’ participation in psychotherapy showed that their presence during sessions enables the therapy to address aspects of parenthood, and also reduce the feeling of mothers as being the only ones responsible for the family’s process of change. In regard to the technique, the presence of fathers during sessions allows the therapist to see and address the issues concerning mother-father-infant during sessions.

  12. A single center study of the effects of trained fathers' participation in constant breastfeeding.

    Khadijeh Raeisi; Mamak Shariat; Fatemeh Nayeri; Farima Raji; Hosein Dalili

    2014-01-01

    Constant breastfeeding that depends on the family support. Fathers' involvement is as an important factor of successful breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fathers' participation in constant breastfeeding in Vali-E-Asr Hospital, Tehran, Iran. This interventional study was piloted on spouses of pregnant women participating in pregnancy courses. The case group consisted of fathers attending training courses of breastfeeding during pregnancy (Group A), and the c...

  13. When African teenagers become fathers: culture, materiality and masculinity.

    Bhana, Deevia; Nkani, Nomvuyo

    2014-01-01

    Between 1996 and 2010, the percentage of African children living with their fathers in South Africa dropped from 44% to 31%, with only a third of preschool children living with their parents. Concern about the spate of father absence and its effects on children's well-being has led to a growing focus on fathers in family interventions, although there is relative silence on teenage fathers. In this paper, we draw on an interview-based study with teenage fathers living under conditions of poverty to show how their understandings of fatherhood and constructions of provider masculinity intersect with cultural demands that express both weakness and power. In expressing the desire to care and be involved with their children, and aligning with patterns of masculinity that sought enhanced options for contraceptive use based on gender-equitable relationships, we show a new direction in the making of teenage fatherhood, diverging from hierarchical gender relations where men make the decisions. These changes, however, are limited by constructions of masculinity that contradictorily reinforce provider status, gender inequalities and male patterns of sexual entitlements within a context where teenage fathers are unable to achieve the cultural status of provider masculinity. Implications are discussed in the conclusion. PMID:24592896

  14. Temperamental precursors of infant attachment with mothers and fathers.

    Planalp, Elizabeth M; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M

    2013-12-01

    The degree to which parent sensitivity and infant temperament distinguish attachment classification was examined. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effect of parent sensitivity and infant temperament on infant-mother and infant-father attachment. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, and their infants (N = 135) when the infant was 3-, 5-, 7-, 12-, and 14-months old. Temperament was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003); parent sensitivity was coded during the Still Face Paradigm (Tronick, Als, Adamson, Wise, & Brazelton, 1978); attachment was coded using the Strange Situation (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978). Results indicate that mothers and fathers were less sensitive with insecure-avoidant infants. Whereas only one difference was found for infant-mother attachment groups and temperament, five significant differences emerged for infant-father attachment groups, with the majority involving insecure-ambivalent attachment. Infants classified as ambivalent with fathers were higher in perceptual sensitivity and cuddliness and these infants also showed a greater increase in low-intensity pleasure over time compared with other infants. Results indicate the importance of both parent sensitivity and infant temperament, though operating in somewhat different ways, in the development of the infant-mother and infant-father attachment relationship. PMID:24103401

  15. Prenatal Tests for Down Syndrome

    PRENATAL TESTS FOR DOWN SYNDROME S HARE W ITH W OMEN PRENATAL TESTS FOR DOWN SYNDROME What Is Down Syndrome? ... suggests that you consult your health care provider. PRENATAL TESTS FOR DOWN SYNDROME 256 Volume 50, No. ...

  16. Preconception Care and Prenatal Care

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preconception Care and Prenatal Care: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media ... improve the health of your child. What is prenatal care? Prenatal care is the care a woman ...

  17. A novel PIGN mutation and prenatal diagnosis of inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol deficiency.

    Nakagawa, Taku; Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko; Murakami, Yoshiko; Nakamura, Shota; Motooka, Daisuke; Emoto, Tomomi; Satake, Wataru; Nishiyama, Masahiro; Toyoshima, Daisaku; Morisada, Naoya; Takada, Satoshi; Tairaku, Shinya; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Morioka, Ichiro; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Toda, Tatsushi; Kinoshita, Taroh; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors tether proteins to the extracellular face of eukaryotic plasma membranes. Defects in the human GPI anchor biosynthetic pathway cause inherited GPI deficiencies (IGDs) characterized by multiple congenital anomalies: dysmorphic faces, developmental delay, hypotonia, and epilepsy. We report the case of a 6-year-old boy with severe psychomotor developmental delay, epilepsy, and decreased granulocyte surface expression of GPI-anchored protein that suggested autosomal recessive GPI deficiency. The case underwent target exome sequencing to screen for IGDs. Target exome sequencing of the proband identified an apparently homozygous c.808T?>?C (p.Ser270Pro) mutation in PIGN, a gene involved in the GPI anchor biosynthetic pathway. As his parents were expecting another child, genetic carrier screening was conducted for the parents. Direct sequencing of the parents identified a heterozygous c.808T?>?C PIGN mutation in the father but none in the mother. To identify the mother's mutation, we performed semi-quantitative real-time PCR of the PIGN exons and long PCR, identifying a microdeletion in PIGN (del exons 2-14). The proband had inherited this microdeletion from his mother. Prenatal diagnosis of the fetus revealed that it was a heterozygous carrier of the mother's pathogenic allele. Here, we report a sporadic case of inherited GPI deficiency with a PIGN mutation and the first case of prenatal diagnosis for GPI deficiency. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26419326

  18. What about the Child's Tie to the Father? A New Insight into Fathering, Father-Child Attachment, Children's Socio-Emotional Development and the Activation Relationship Theory

    Dumont, Caroline; Paquette, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The broad aim of this study on father-child attachment was to verify whether the Risky Situation (RS) procedure is a more valid means than the Strange Situation (SS) procedure of predicting children's socio-emotional development, and to evaluate the moderator effect of day-to-day involvement on attachment and activation. Participants were 53…

  19. Fathers' behaviors and children's psychopathology.

    Flouri, Eirini

    2010-04-01

    The psychological literature on how fathers' behaviors may be related to children's psychopathology has grown substantially in the last three decades. This growth is the result of research asking the following three overarching questions: (1) what is the association between family structure, and particularly biological fathers' non-residence, and children's psychopathology, (2) what is the association between fathers' parenting and children's psychopathology, and (3) what is the association between fathers' psychopathology and children's psychopathology. The three broad theoretical perspectives relevant to this literature are the standard family environment model, the passive genetic model, and the child effects model. The evidence from studies comparing the first two models seems to suggest that the origin of the association between parental divorce and children's emotional and behavioral problems is largely shared environmental in origin, as is the association between resident fathers' parenting and children's emotional and behavioral problems, according to studies comparing the standard family environment model with the child effects model. However, research needs to compare appropriately all theoretical perspectives. The paper discusses this, and also points to the importance of considering theory-driven specificity in modeling effects. PMID:20149945

  20. What Does It Mean to Be Accountable When One Is a Divorced, Noncustodial Father?

    Browne, Lorna

    This paper explores what divorced, noncustodial fathers may be considered responsible for in society and the possible consequences such accountability may have for educators. The resistance that noncustodial fathers may find to their involvement with their childrens education at their children's schools in highlighted. The author concludes by

  1. The experiences and involvements of fathers during 4-12 months of their children’s lives: a mixed method study/Yaşamın 4-12 aylık döneminde babaların bebek bakımına katılımları ve deneyimleri: bir karma yöntem araştırması

    Kuruçırak, Şirin; Kulakaç, Özen

    2014-01-01

    AbstractObjective: The purpose of this research is to determine the experiences and involvements of Turkish fathers in the care of their 4-12 month old healthy infants. Methods: Fathers’ experiences and involvements in the care of the infants were examined by using a mixed method research design. 260 participants were selected from two health care centers of different socioeconomic status, and reported with a 95% confidence interval and 5% sampling error. The quantitative data were collected ...

  2. Fathers' Frightening Behaviours and Sensitivity with Infants: Relations with Fathers' Attachment Representations, Father-Infant Attachment, and Children's Later Outcomes

    Hazen, Nancy L.; McFarland, Laura; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Boyd-Soisson, Erin

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 125 families investigated whether negative child outcomes related to fathers' frightening (FR) behaviours with infants would be mitigated if fathers were also sensitive. Results indicated that children whose fathers were frightening and insensitive with them during infancy showed the highest emotional under-regulation at

  3. Responsible Fathering: An Educational Approach.

    Lawhon, Tommie

    1996-01-01

    Family/consumer science professionals can support fatherhood by advocating for parenting classes as a graduation requirement and part of divorce proceedings and for marital education before marriage licenses are issued. They can promote family-friendly workplaces and distribute information about the impact of fathers on children's health and…

  4. Latent profiles of nonresidential father engagement six years after divorce predict long-term offspring outcomes.

    Modecki, Kathryn Lynn; Hagan, Melissa J; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined profiles of nonresidential father engagement (i.e., support to the adolescent, contact frequency, remarriage, relocation, and interparental conflict) with their adolescent children (N = 156) 6 to 8 years following divorce and the prospective relation between these profiles and the psychosocial functioning of their offspring, 9 years later. Parental divorce occurred during late childhood to early adolescence; indicators of nonresidential father engagement were assessed during adolescence, and mental health problems and academic achievement of offspring were assessed 9 years later in young adulthood. Three profiles of father engagement were identified in our sample of mainly White, non-Hispanic divorced fathers: Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict, Low Involvement/Moderate Conflict, and High Involvement/High Conflict. Profiles differentially predicted offspring outcomes 9 years later when they were young adults, controlling for quality of the mother-adolescent relationship, mother's remarriage, mother's income, and gender, age, and offspring mental health problems in adolescence. Offspring of fathers characterized as Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict had the highest academic achievement and the lowest number of externalizing problems 9 years later compared to offspring whose fathers had profiles indicating either the highest or lowest levels of involvement but higher levels of conflict. Results indicate that greater paternal psychosocial support and more frequent father-adolescent contact do not outweigh the negative impact of interparental conflict on youth outcomes in the long term. Implications of findings for policy and intervention are discussed. PMID:24484456

  5. A single center study of the effects of trained fathers' participation in constant breastfeeding.

    Khadijeh Raeisi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Constant breastfeeding that depends on the family support. Fathers' involvement is as an important factor of successful breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fathers' participation in constant breastfeeding in Vali-E-Asr Hospital, Tehran, Iran. This interventional study was piloted on spouses of pregnant women participating in pregnancy courses. The case group consisted of fathers attending training courses of breastfeeding during pregnancy (Group A, and the control group was made up of fathers who did not take part in training courses (Group B. The courses were held three times from the 30th week of gestation to the end of pregnancy in a family health research center. Fathers attended three training sessions where they were trained by brochures. After delivery newborns were weighted and examined for jaundice (3-5 days, 30 days, three and six months after birth. According to mothers' views, spouses' participation, encouragement and support in group A, was 11 times more than group B. It means that 47 (94% of spouses in the group A participated in mothers' constant breastfeeding, but fathers' participation in group B was 60% (30 spouses. This study showed that breastfeeding was more constant in the group that fathers participated in breastfeeding training course. One of the reasons for such a significant difference was spouses' participation, encouragement and support in the trained group. This study showed that fathers' involvement in training programs may influence constancy of breastfeeding.

  6. Influências das condições de trabalho do pai sobre o relacionamento pai-filho Influences father's work conditions on father-child relationship

    Fabiana Cia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo identificar as condições de trabalho que influenciam no envolvimento do pai com seu filho. Participaram deste estudo 58 pais que tinham um filho na 5a ou 6a série do Ensino Fundamental. Os pais preencheram o questionário "Avaliação das condições de trabalho e do envolvimento do pai com seu filho - versão paterna". As medidas das condições de trabalho apresentaram correlações significativas com a satisfação do pai em relação ao seu desempenho familiar. Esta escala, por sua vez, estava positivamente correlacionada com as medidas do envolvimento do pai com seu filho. Assim, a relação entre as condições de trabalho e o envolvimento do pai com seu filho foi mediada pela satisfação do pai com seu desempenho familiar. Tais resultados demonstram a necessidade de identificar e alterar as normas e condições de trabalho que restringem as oportunidades para os pais participarem das rotinas familiares.The aim of this study was to identify the work conditions that influence father-child relationship. A total of 58 fathers, whose child was at fifth or sixth grade, participated in this study. The fathers completed the questionnaire "Evaluation of work conditions and involvement of the father with his child - Paternal version". The measures of work conditions presented significant correlations with father's satisfaction concerning his family performance. This scale, in turn, presented correlations with the measures of father-child involvement. Therefore, the relation between work conditions and father-child involvement was mediated by the satisfaction of the father with his family performance. These results indicate the need to identify and alter the work rules and conditions, which restrict fathers' opportunities to participate in their family routines.

  7. Prenatal screening and genetics

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T; Ettorre, E; Hemminki, E; Jalinoja, P; Santalahti, P; Tymstra, T

    2001-01-01

    examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection with...... precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were......Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...

  8. Participação dos pais no nascimento em maternidade pública: dificuldades institucionais e motivações dos casais Fathers' participation in childbirth at a public hospital: institutional difficulties and motivations of couples

    Maria Luiza Mello de Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A participação dos pais no nascimento, presente na humanização da assistência ao parto, afina-se com o crescente envolvimento dos homens nos cuidados com as crianças. Possibilita o suporte psicossocial à gestante, o compartilhamento da experiência pelo casal e a formação de vínculo pai-bebê. Procurando conhecer o impacto desta experiência entre os pais numa maternidade pública no Rio de Janeiro, foi desenvolvida uma pesquisa etnográfica, em duas etapas: observação-participante do trabalho de parto e do parto, e onze entrevistas com pais participantes do parto. A participação dos pais se mostrou atravessada por: dificuldades institucionais; motivações das mães e dos pais; representações sociais sobre parto e paternidade; e exclusão dos pais nos serviços de saúde reprodutiva e pediátrica. A presença dos pais não foi valorizada pela equipe nem como suporte à gestante nem como evento da paternidade. O estudo indica: a necessidade de incentivo à participação dos pais no pré-natal, parto, pós-parto e nas consultas pediátricas; a preparação das equipes para trabalho com as famílias; a ampliação da discussão social sobre paternidade e a formulação de políticas trabalhistas que garantam a presença dos pais nos serviços de saúde.Participation by fathers in the process of childbirth, an aspect of the humanization of obstetric care, helps foster the fathers' involvement in raising their children. This participation provides psychosocial support for pregnant women during labor and delivery, sharing of the experience by the couple, and father-child bonding. The focus of this ethnographic research was the impact of this process on fathers participating in childbirth at a State hospital in Rio de Janeiro, with two stages: participant observation of labor and delivery and eleven interviews with fathers who had been present at delivery. Fathers' participation was influenced by: the motivation of mothers and fathers; social representations of delivery and fatherhood; and exclusion of fathers from reproductive health and pediatrics services. The father's participation was not valued by the attending staff as either a source of emotional support for the mother or as part of fatherhood. The following are necessary: inclusion of fathers in prenatal care, delivery, and pediatrics services; the training of staff to work with the families; social discussion of fatherhood and health services policies to ensure the presence of fathers during labor and childbirth.

  9. A Prospective Three Generational Study of Fathers Constructive Parenting: Influences from Family of Origin, Adolescent Adjustment, and Offspring Temperament

    Kerr, David C. R.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Pears, Katherine C.; Owen, Lee. D.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective, intergenerational study considered multiple influences on 102 fathers constructive parenting of 181 children. Fathers in the second generation (G2) were recruited as boys on the basis of neighborhood risk for delinquency and assessed through early adulthood. The fathers parents (G1) and the G2 mothers of G3 also participated. A multiagent, multimethod approach was used to measure G1 and G2 constructive parenting (monitoring, discipline, warmth, and involvement), G2 positiv...

  10. Fathering and Gender Transformation in Zimbabwean Transnational Families

    Chereni, Admire

    2015-01-01

    Migration research in Southern Africa has paid little attention to migrant men's involvement in the family, including their emotional and cognitive work, as well as associated gender transformations. Based on a qualitative study of six Zimbabwean migrant fathers in Johannesburg and three non-migrant women in Zimbabwe, this article argues that transnational migration at once presents opportunities for and obstacles to the reconstitution of gender-normative forms of parental involvement in migr...

  11. Yes, father, but.

    Ette, M; Igbarumah, M; Ukim, U

    1991-07-22

    Cultural norms limit the ability of Nigerian women to exercise control over their reproductive lives. Having a large number of children in rapid succession is still regarded as an act of obedience to God and husband. The Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria has opened clinics to educate women about the risks to both mother and child inherent in having more than four births. Family planning workers are aware, however, that little change will occur in the absence of improvements in women's status and involvement by men in educational programs. Also needed is education to reduce the preference for sons. Encouraging is a trend toward contraceptive use among professional women in Nigeria. In the past decade, contraceptive prevalence has increased from 5% to 10%. PMID:12179513

  12. Surrogacy commissioning fathers and HIV

    D W, Jordaan.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogacy is not regulated by a single legal instrument only, nor is confirmation of a surrogacy agreement by the High Court an unqualified green light for the surrogacy process to proceed. In the context of the HIV status of the commissioning father, whose gametes are to be used for the conception [...] of the child in pursuance of a surrogacy agreement, the intended in vitro fertilisation of the surrogate mother may only take place on condition that the commissioning father, and his semen, have been tested for HIV; that he has consented to his HIV status being made available to the surrogate mother, and if he is HIV-positive, that sperm washing will be used to minimise the risk of infection and that the surrogate mother has been informed of his HIV status, and given her informed consent.

  13. Support and encouragement of the father in breastfeeding: bibliographic study

    Rita Maria Viana Rêgo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The participation of the father in the breastfeeding must be culturally assimilated by health professionals and by the society. This is a bibliographical descriptive and documentary study, aims to present the theoretical production in relation to the father's involvement breastfeeding in and public policy. The collected data was from 1992 to 2006 and the sources for collection were LILACS; SCIELO; MEDLINE; ADOLEC and BDEN from the Health Virtual Library– BIREME in September 2007 with the keywords: Paternity, Breastfeeding and Public Policies. Among the 140 studies found, one, published in a international magazine recommended other directions in research and Public Policies to encourage the father’s involvement. We  hope that this research offers reflections and changes in the practice of nurses to take care/care in maternal and child attention in which the father is included as a participant in breastfeeding and in the mother’s and child care. Urge activities and publications to recognize the father in this process.

  14. Parenting style of Chinese fathers in Hong Kong: correlates with children's school-related performance.

    Tam, Vicky C W; Lam, Rebecca S Y

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates parenting styles among Chinese fathers in Hong Kong as perceived by their school-age children. Four parenting styles, namely inductive, indulgent, indifferent, and dictatorial parenting, are assessed using the Parent Behavior Report (1988). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey on a sample of 1011 Primary Three to Five Chinese students from six schools in Hong Kong and 471 fathers. Findings show that among Chinese fathers, the least common parenting style is inductive, while the other three styles are of similar occurrence. Chi-square analysis shows no significant association between children's grade level and father's parenting style. However, there is a significant association with gender, with fathers more likely to be perceived as dictatorial with boys and indulgent with girls. The effect of paternal styles on children's school-related performance is also examined. MANOVA results show that significant differences are found among children of the four paternal style groups with respect to academic performance, interest in school work, aspiration for education, involvement in extracurricular activities, and efficacy for self-regulated learning. Post-hoc tests reveal that children's performance is similar between the groups with indulgent and inductive fathers, and between children of indifferent and dictatorial fathers, with the former groups performing better than the latter in general. Findings are discussed with regard to research on parenting style and paternal behavior, as well as understanding the roles of fathers in Chinese families in the socio-cultural context in Hong Kong. PMID:12723448

  15. Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark

    Reinicke, Kenneth; Cybulski, Franz Wilhelm; Drews, Lea Vedel; Sørensen, Bo Wagner

    In the article it is argued that contemporary fatherhood and masculinity differ increasingly from hegemonic masculinity according to which men are primarily responsible for ensuring the financial basis of the family. The article “Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark”, based on interviews with 15...... Danish men and 8 employers, shows that many men’s ideas about fatherhood and family responsibility tend to revolve around such aspects as close contact and involvement with children. However, it seems that men do not acknowledge fully the significance of gender for their decisions concerning the child......, parental leave and domestic affairs. The article also demonstrates that the issue of parental leave may cause a conflict of interest between an employer and en employee although the majority of employers in this study emphasize that parental leave is unproblematic for them....

  16. Prenatal Influences on the Brain.

    Eliot, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Gives an overview of embryology and prenatal brain, sensory, and motor development. Includes discussion of maternal nutrition, chemical exposure, prenatal drug and alcohol hazards, cigarette smoking, and some causes of neural tube defects and premature birth. (Author/KB)

  17. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Cheng, Wei-Lun; Hsiao, Ching-Hua; Tseng, Hua-Wei; Lee, Tai-Ping

    2015-08-01

    Prenatal examination plays an important role in present medical diagnosis. It provides information on fetal health status as well as the diagnosis of fetal treatment feasibility. The diagnosis can provide peace of mind for the perspective mother. Timely pregnancy termination diagnosis can also be determined if required. Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling are two widely used invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures. To obtain complete fetal genetic information and avoid endangering the fetus, noninvasive prenatal diagnosis has become the vital goal of prenatal diagnosis. However, the development of a high-efficiency separation technology is required to obtain the scarce fetal cells from maternal circulation. In recent years, the rapid development of microfluidic systems has provided an effective method for fetal cell separation. Advantages such as rapid analysis of small samples, low cost, and various designs, greatly enhance the efficiency and convenience of using microfluidic systems for cell separation. In addition, microfluidic disks can be fully automated for high throughput of rare cell selection from blood samples. Therefore, the development of microfluidic applications in noninvasive prenatal diagnosis is unlimited. PMID:26384048

  18. Twins abused by their father

    Celal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is an important public health problem that recurs unless it is recognized early and protection measures are implemented timely. Multidisciplinary collaboration of related professionals is of paramount importance in assessing and managing cases of child abuse and neglect. The father of the twins presented in this paper, who was employed in odd jobs as the sole bread-winner of his family of five and abused his wife also physically abused his twin children under one year of age. Although the physicians reported these children to law enforcement, the family concealed the abuse and neither the physicians nor the law enforcement reported this family to child protective services. As a consequence, a picture of recurrence of abuse with a cumulative negative medico-social outcome was observed. Since the mother declined to testify on the father abusing his children during the court proceedings, the father returned to the family after a brief incarceration. Child protective measures were established only after the forensic medicine physician interfered with the proceedings on a voluntary basis. This presentation aimed at reviewing the risk factors related to abuse and associated findings and assessment steps of abuse. In addition, these cases confirmed that every child abuse case that is missed by physicians and mismanaged legally or from child protection perspective has the potential to lead to severe, chronic abuse. Therefore, it is important that the family, law, medicine, and social services should collaborate in diagnosis and management of these cases. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 346-50

  19. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening.

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-11-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non-laboratory aspects such as information and counseling), education of professionals, systematic evaluation of all aspects of prenatal screening, development of better evaluation tools in the light of the aim of the practice, accountability to all stakeholders including children born from screened pregnancies and persons living with the conditions targeted in prenatal screening and promotion of equity of access. PMID:25782669

  20. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjrg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non-laboratory aspects such as information and counseling), education of professionals, systematic evaluation of all aspects of prenatal screening, development of better evaluation tools in the light of the aim of the practice, accountability to all stakeholders including children born from screened pregnancies and persons living with the conditions targeted in prenatal screening and promotion of equity of access. PMID:25782669

  1. Do Coparenting and Social Support Have a Greater Effect on Adolescent Fathers than Adult Fathers?

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether coparenting support and social support had a stronger effect on father engagement with 3-year-olds among adolescent fathers compared with adult fathers. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,540), we found that coparenting support and paternal social support had a significantly stronger…

  2. Breasting father. Father's influence on the eating problems in children. Psychodynamic approach

    Urszula Teresa Turyna

    2015-09-01

    Breasting father can affect eating difficulties in children. His role is often mediated by the mother's feeleings as the main childs feeder. Despite the change in the social role of the father image it appears to be vital to maintain diversity in the roles of mother and father in the first period of a child's life.

  3. Longitudinal Effects of Divorce on the Quality of the Father-Child Relationship and on Fathers' Psychological Well-Being.

    Shapiro, Adam; Lambert, James David

    1999-01-01

    States that the effect of divorce on the quality of the father-child relationship and fathers' psychological well being is moderated by the residence of children. Divorce is associated with lower relationship quality only for nonresident fathers and is associated with a decline in happiness for nonresident fathers. Divorced fathers are more

  4. Congenital epulis: prenatal imaging with MRI and ultrasound

    Congenital epulis is an uncommon benign tumor that originates from the alveolar ridge in newborns. It is also known as congenital gingival granular cell tumor. Although there have been around 200 reports of its postnatal diagnosis, this oral tumor has rarely been diagnosed prenatally. We present fetal MRI and Doppler prenatal imaging of an infant with two congenital epulides (simultaneous involvement of superior and inferior maxillas). (orig.)

  5. "I Know Your Father Very, Very Well"

    Talbott, Brian L., II

    2012-01-01

    Many a young boy wishes to grow up to be like his father someday. The author's father, Brian L. Talbott, was named superintendent of Educational Service District 105 in Yakima, Washington, the same year he entered 1st grade. He continued in this position through his elementary years. His stomping grounds changed during the summer between 6th and…

  6. Father's Unemployment and Adolescent's Self-Concept.

    Ortiz, Larry Paul Andres; Farrell, Michael P.

    1993-01-01

    Examined families affected by steel mill shutdown. Compared families with adolescents in which father was continuously unemployed, unemployed with slight income loss, unemployed with significant income loss. Adolescents' relationships with fathers were more negative when income loss was significant; relationships with mothers were not more

  7. Mechanisms of prenatal radiation effects

    Prenatal irradiation may lead to a stop in the development, death, teratogenic effects, growth disorders, functional disturbances, tumour induction, and hereditary defects. The effects on the conceptus mainly depend on the time of exposure relative to conception, dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. It is assumed that lethal and teratogenic effects as well as growth disorders are the result of a multicellular mechanism involving a threshold-type of dose-response relationship. Cancer initiation and mutagenesis are believed to be uni-cellular processes occurring at random in single cells. The absence of a threshold dose is assumed as a working hypothesis. Cell death, migration disturbances, and disorientation of neuronal processes are assumed as mechanisms responsible for mental retardation. (orig.)

  8. Prenatal stress produces learning deficits associated with an inhibition of neurogenesis in the hippocampus

    Lemaire, V.; Koehl, M.; Le Moal, M; Abrous, D. N.

    2000-01-01

    Early experiences such as prenatal stress significantly influence the development of the brain and the organization of behavior. In particular, prenatal stress impairs memory processes but the mechanism for this effect is not known. Hippocampal granule neurons are generated throughout life and are involved in hippocampal-dependent learning. Here, we report that prenatal stress in rats induced lifespan reduction of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and produced impairme...

  9. Human affection exchange: II. Affectionate communication in father-son relationships.

    Floyd, Kory; Morman, Mark T

    2003-10-01

    The father-son dyad might be the most socially significant male-male relationship in the life course, yet its negative qualities have been the sole focus in most research on the relationship. One communicative aspect that has received little scholarly attention is the expression of affection between fathers and sons, despite the strong correlation of affectionate communication with positive involvement, closeness, and relational satisfaction for fathers and sons. In 2 studies, the authors tested hypotheses about father-son affection that were derived from affection exchange theory (K. Floyd, in press). Results indicated that U.S. men are more affectionate with biological sons than with stepsons or adopted sons and that they are more affectionate with their biological sons than their biological sons are with them. PMID:14609055

  10. Are fathers underused advocates for breastfeeding?

    Kenosi, M

    2011-11-01

    Fathers\\' knowledge base and attitudes influence breastfeeding practice. We aimed to evaluate if Irish fathers felt included in the breastfeeding education and decision process. 67 fathers completed questionnaires, which assessed their role in the decision to breastfeed, knowledge regarding the benefits of breastfeeding and attitude towards breastfeeding.Forty-two (62.7%) of their partners were breastfeeding. Antenatal classes were attended by 38 (56.7%); 59 (88.1%) discussed breastfeeding with their partners and 26 (38.8%) felt that the decision was made together. Twelve (48%) fathers of formula fed infants were unaware that breastfeeding was healthier for the baby. Most fathers (80.6%) felt that breastfeeding was the mother\\'s decision and most (82.1%) felt that antenatal information was aimed at mothers only. Irish fathers remain relatively uninformed regarding the benefits of breastfeeding. This may contribute to their exclusion from the decision to breastfeed. Antenatal education should incorporate fathers more, and this may result in an improvement in our breastfeeding rates.

  11. Human prenatal diagnosis

    The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis

  12. Human prenatal diagnosis

    Filkins, K.; Russo, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis.

  13. Prenatal findings of holoprosencephaly.

    Hayashi, Yuko; Suzumori, Nobuhiro; Sugiura, Tokio; Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi

    2015-08-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a rare brain abnormality characterized by an incomplete cleavage of the primitive prosencephalon of forebrain during early embryogenesis. To determine the clinical characteristics and outcome of fetuses with HPE, we retrospectively analyzed nine patients who were prenatally diagnosed as fetal HPE by ultrasounds. The mean diagnostic weeks were 20 weeks of gestation. Two cases died within one day after birth. The chromosomal examinations were performed in seven cases (trisomy 18: n = 2; trisomy 13: n = 2; 45,XX,der(18)t(18;21)(p10;p10)mat: n = 1; normal karyotype: n = 2). In our HPE cases, most cases had serious facial anomalies and poor prognosis. Our data suggested that the early prenatal diagnosis of HPE allowed time for parental counseling and delivery planning. PMID:25620469

  14. 'New parenting', psychotherapy, prenatal and perinatal care.

    Dowling, Terence

    2007-01-01

    The health of future generations, both physical and psychological, depends upon good parental and early environment, free particularly from malnutrition, toxins and undue stress. Education about these negative influences is urgent, especially to encourage childbearing women in a healthy diet and lifestyle. The detrimental effects of cigarette smoking in pregnancy have been known since the 1970s, yet in Germany, for example, 60% of all children are conceived, carried, born into a household where at least one adult smokes. Even if the father desists from smoking at home, the nicotine in his body tissues is transmitted to anyone near him, for example his wife when they sleep near each other. More than one glass of beer, wine or spirits per week during the pregnancy can be detected at birth. Alcohol in early in the pregnancy--just when many mothers are unaware they are pregnant--an produce significant physical malformation, especially in the face. Prenatal exposure to alcohol has signilfcant effects on the intelligence and behaviour of the child. Many of these children are very restless. Even slight amounts of poisoning during the pregnancy are related to the development of a negative self-image and the compensatory behaviour of the Narcissistic Personality Disorder in later life. The Prenatal Deprivation and Poisoning Syndromes have not only been related to heart disease and eating disorders in the area of general health but also in the area of psychological health to the Borderline Personality Disorder. Undue stress of any kind during the pregnancy leads to problems for the developing child. PMID:18309768

  15. Congenital dacryocystocele: prenatal MRI findings

    Congenital dacryocystocele can be diagnosed prenatally by imaging. Prenatal MRI is increasingly utilized for fetal diagnosis. To present the radiological and clinical features of seven fetuses with congenital dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI. The institutional database of 1,028 consecutive prenatal MR examinations performed during a period of 4 years was reviewed retrospectively. The cases of congenital dacryocystocele were identified by reading the report of each MRI study. The incidence of dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI was 0.7% (n=7/1,028). The dacryocystocele was bilateral in three fetuses. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 31 weeks. The indication for prenatal MRI was the presence or the suspicion of central nervous system abnormality in six fetuses and diaphragmatic hernia in one. Dacryocystocele was associated with an intranasal cyst in six of ten eyes. Prenatal sonography revealed dacryocystocele in only two of seven fetuses. Of eight eyes with postnatal follow-up, four did not have any lacrimal symptoms. Prenatal MRI can delineate congenital dacryocystocele more clearly and in a more detailed fashion than ultrasonography. Presence of dacryocystocele was symptomatic in only 50% of our patients, supporting that prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele might follow a benign course. (orig.)

  16. Congenital dacryocystocele: prenatal MRI findings

    Yazici, Zeynep [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Uludag University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey); Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Rubio, Eva I.; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Linam, Leann E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Yazici, Bulent [Uludag University, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Congenital dacryocystocele can be diagnosed prenatally by imaging. Prenatal MRI is increasingly utilized for fetal diagnosis. To present the radiological and clinical features of seven fetuses with congenital dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI. The institutional database of 1,028 consecutive prenatal MR examinations performed during a period of 4 years was reviewed retrospectively. The cases of congenital dacryocystocele were identified by reading the report of each MRI study. The incidence of dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI was 0.7% (n=7/1,028). The dacryocystocele was bilateral in three fetuses. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 31 weeks. The indication for prenatal MRI was the presence or the suspicion of central nervous system abnormality in six fetuses and diaphragmatic hernia in one. Dacryocystocele was associated with an intranasal cyst in six of ten eyes. Prenatal sonography revealed dacryocystocele in only two of seven fetuses. Of eight eyes with postnatal follow-up, four did not have any lacrimal symptoms. Prenatal MRI can delineate congenital dacryocystocele more clearly and in a more detailed fashion than ultrasonography. Presence of dacryocystocele was symptomatic in only 50% of our patients, supporting that prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele might follow a benign course. (orig.)

  17. Fathers matter: The role of father parenting in preschoolers' executive function development.

    Meuwissen, Alyssa S; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2015-12-01

    Although previous work has shown that mothers' parenting influences the development of child executive function (EF; important self-control skills developed during the preschool years), the role of fathers' parenting has not been thoroughly investigated. We observed fathers' autonomy support and control in dyadic play with their 3-year-old children (N pairs=110) and measured father and child EF independently with laboratory tasks. We found that fathers' controlling parenting was significantly inversely related to the child EF composite, above and beyond family income and child verbal ability. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fathers are important for the development of EF in their children and suggest that fathers should be included in both research and parenting interventions. PMID:26209884

  18. Homophobia, perceived fathering, and male intimate relationships.

    Devlin, P K; Cowan, G A

    1985-10-01

    This study examined the relationships among homophobia, perceived fathering, and male intimacy with significant male and female best friends. A questionnaire, administered to 130 adult heterosexual males, included McDonald and Game's homophobia measure (ATHMS), eight intimacy scales, and four scales measuring subjects' recollections of their fathers' parenting styles. Correlations of ATHMS and individual intimacy scales revealed a significant relationship between homophobia and intimacy in male-male relationships. Homophobia was related to male-female intimacy on those measures which reflected subjects' perception of their female partner's sensitivity to them. Although homophobia was related to perception of the father as enforcing sex roles, none of the perceived fathering variables were directly related to intimacy with males. The findings provide evidence for a direct relationship between male homophobia and lack of intimacy in friendships between men. PMID:4067792

  19. Relationship of Marital Satisfaction, Family Support and Family-Work Conflict Factors Among Malaysian Fathers with Adolescents

    Mahayudin, A.A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study on contextual factors in Malaysian family is more concentrated among mothers compared to the fathers. Malaysian fathers are often influenced by these factors embedded in the family. This study examines the level of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The survey was conducted using a simple sampling method, on a group of 413 fathers with adolescent children from all districts in the state of Selangor, West Peninsular of Malaysia. A set of questionnaires was used to derive data from the fathers̕ contextual factors which are marriage satisfaction, family support and work-family conflict among fathers of adolescents. Analysis on frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, analysis of Variance (ANOVA and the Pearson correlations were used to investigate the level and correlation of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The Pearson correlation shows that there is a significant correlation between work-family conflict and marriage satisfaction and between family support and marriage satisfaction. However, there is no significant correlation between family support and work-family conflict. The study proficiently contributes towards the exploration of influencing factors for the involvement of fathers in parenting.

  20. Fathers' occupation and pregnancy outcome

    Findings from a survey of 56,067 women in Montreal on maternal occupation and pregnancy outcome have been reported. Paternal occupation recorded in the same survey was analysed for spontaneous abortion in 24 occupational groups retaining the six main sectors of maternal occupation and allowing, by means of logistic regression, for seven potentially confounding variables. In only one of the 24 fathers' occupational groups was there a statistically significant excess of spontaneous abortions-mechanics, repairers, and certain assemblers (O/E = 1.10, 90% CI = 1.02-1.20); subdivision of this group suggested that this excess was mainly attributable to the large group of motor vehicle mechanics (O/E = 1.17). No significant excess of known chromosomally determined defects was found in any of the 24 occupational groups. An association of developmental defects was found with food and beverage processing (18 defects observed compared with 8.02 expected; p < 0.05); however, there was no specificity in type of food, beverage, or congenital defect, and no obvious explanatory mechanism. (author)

  1. [The father's role and dysorexia].

    Marocco Muttini, C

    1993-09-01

    Of all eating disorders it is widely acknowledged that dysrexia has increased; this syndrome appears most frequently to affect the more affluent socio-economic classes. This paper focuses on a single case from which more general conclusions are then drawn. After an earlier episode of bulimia, a girl suffering from anorexia was found to live in a family context in which the father provided a weak psychological reference point. He was often away on work during the girl's childhood and only takes part in the family life as the provider of material wellbeing without playing a direct affective or pedagogical role. A situation of this type represents a way of fulfilling family roles in today's society where ensuring the family's comfortable lifestyle acts as a substitute for the affective role which the parent is not able to sustain due to unresolved neurotic nuclei. Society can now augment certain forms of defence in view of efficiency and productivity which detract from a genuine personal evolution. This leads to the development of neuroses in the younger generation which the mental health services must identify and correct using new psychopedagogic proposals. PMID:8302189

  2. Social behavior of offspring following prenatal cocaine exposure in rodents: a comparison with prenatal alcohol

    SonyaKrishnaSobrian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure(PCEalters the offsprings social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models,a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PCE on social behaviors involving conspecifics in animal models. Social relationships are critical to the developing organism; maternally-directed interactions are necessary for initial survival. Juvenile rats deprived of play behavior, one of the earliest forms of non-mother directed social behaviors in rodents, show deficits in learning tasks and sexual competence. Social behavior is inherently conmplex. Because the emergence of appropriate social skills involves the interplay between various conceptual and biological facets of behavior and social information, it may be a particularly sensitive measure of prenatal insult. The social behavior surveyed include social interactions, play behavior/fighting, scent marking and aggressive behavior in the offspring, as well as aspects of maternal behavior. The goal is to determine if there is a consensus of results in the literature with respect to PCE and social behaviors, and to discuss discrepant findings in terms of exposure models, the paradigms and dependent variables, as well as housing conditions, and the sex and age of the offspring at testing. As there is increasing evidence that deficits in social behavior may be sequelae of developmental exposure alcohol, we compare changes in social behaviors reported for prenatal alcohol with those reported for prenatal cocaine. Shortcomings in the both literatures are identified and addressed in an effort to improve the translational value of future experimentation.

  3. Prenatal adaptations to overload

    Peševski, Živorad; Sedmera, David

    New York : Springer, 2013 - (Ošťádal, B.; Dhalla, N.), s. 41-57 ISBN 978-1-4614-5202-7. - (Advances in Biochemistry in Health and Disease) R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0615; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1308 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : chick embryo * fetal sheep * hyperplasia * hypertrophy * aortic banding * pulmonary artery banding * conotruncal banding * left atrial ligation * prenatal myocardium Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  4. Adjusting to being a father to an infant born prematurely: experiences from Swedish fathers.

    Lindberg, Birgitta; Axelsson, Karin; Ohrling, Kerstin

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of being a father to a prematurely born infant. Eight fathers of prematurely born children were interviewed using a narrative approach, and a thematic content analysis was used to analyse the interviews. The fathers described that the preterm birth gave them the chance to get to know their infant as they had to spend time at the intensive care unit. They also felt better educated by professionals who helped them take care of their infant. Their feelings and attachment for their infant increased over time and the fathers felt that they had a stronger bond with their child compared with friends who had babies born at term. As time passed, they became more confident as a father. In spite of the strain, the experience made them change as a person and they expressed having different values. The relationship with their partner was strengthened as they handled this situation together as a couple. However, the fathers felt fortunate despite everything and described having managed a prematurely born infant rather well. Although there are similarities between being a father to a child born at term and to one born preterm, it is significant to gain further knowledge about the specific experiences of fathers of prematurely born infants. The results of this study have implications for nurses working with families who have children born prematurely. PMID:18269426

  5. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review

  6. An Impact and Feasibility Evaluation of a Six-Week (Nine Hour) Active Play Intervention on Fathers' Engagement with Their Preschool Children: A Feasibility Study

    Houghton, Laura J.; O'Dwyer, Mareesa; Foweather, Lawrence; Watson, Paula; Alford, Simon; Knowles, Zoe R.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the benefits of father involvement with their children and a link between uninvolved fatherhood and societal problems. Children's Centres (n?=?15) received 6??90-minute active play sessions designed to foster 6 aspects of parental engagement. Fathers' engagement and attitudes to child physical activity were

  7. Attributions and Attitudes of Mothers and Fathers in Thailand.

    Tapanya, Sombat

    2011-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study examined similarities and differences between mothers' and fathers' attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes as well as correlations between mothers' and fathers' attributions and attitudes. DESIGN: Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 88 Thai families. RESULTS: Mothers and fathers did not differ in mean levels of attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations or in authoritarian or progressive attitudes. Mothers' and fathers' perceived control over failure, authoritarian attitudes, progressive attitudes, and modernity of attitudes were significantly correlated. CONCLUSIONS: This work suggests high similarities between Thai mothers and fathers in their attributions and attitudes related to parenting. PMID:21927590

  8. [Prenatal diagnosis. Ethics - counselling.].

    Malmberg, I

    2001-05-01

    During the last years great progress has been made in the field of prenatal diagnosis. The possibility of monitoring the growth, development and well being of a child in the womb is priceless and can offer the mother a sense of security regarding the pregnancy. But the growing technology leads at the same time to various questions and discussions and it is good for all those who are a part of the maternal care to think about them. Is it unquestionable to eliminate all those fetuses that are diagnosed with an abnormality of any kind? Where would such a development lead us? Are we, with the means of a continuing better technology, bit by bit "eliminating" certain groups within the society? Is it to be an unquestioned "routine" or even duty, that every woman should be subjected to those diagnoses that are possible? We have within the field of ethics many different views on those questions. One view stresses the complete freedom of abortion. Another demands that all life should be protected, and a fetus should never be terminated, even if it is sick or disabled. The author of this article wants to demonstrate the rule of the sanctity of all life, that all human life should be respected, that this rule should always be applied within the field of medicine. At the same time it should be stressed that this respect for life is not always best given by sustaining and saving all life. Death is not always the worst choise. We must evaluate each and every case, that each and every parents to be should make their own decision based on their own ethical views, after having received appropriate information, professional support and counselling. It is important that professionals deal with these matters with respect for life and respect for the parents who already have disabled children and the disabled themselves. All the prenatal diagnosis which is available may lead to that parents to be have to take difficult decisions regarding the pregnancy. It is therefore of the utmost importance that a pregnant woman and her partner should know the meaning and purpose of the prenatal care which is offered and that they are fully aware of the decisions they may have to face. If the results are not in the favor of the fetus, the couple should receive the support and care whatever their decision may be. PMID:17018988

  9. Prenatal management of anencephaly.

    Cook, Rebecca J; Erdman, Joanna N; Hevia, Martin; Dickens, Bernard M

    2008-09-01

    About a third of anencephalic fetuses are born alive, but they are not conscious or viable, and soon die. This neural tube defect can be limited by dietary consumption of foliates, and detected prenatally by ultrasound and other means. Many laws permit abortion, on this indication or on the effects of pregnancy and prospects of delivery on a woman's physical or mental health. However, abortion is limited under some legal systems, particularly in South America. To avoid criminal liability, physicians will not terminate pregnancies, by induced birth or abortion, without prior judicial approval. Argentinian courts have developed means to resolve these cases, but responses of Brazilian courts are less clear. Ethical concerns relate to late-term abortion, meaning after the point of fetal viability, but since anencephalic fetuses are nonviable, many ethical concerns are overcome. Professional guidance is provided by several professional and institutional codes on management of anencephalic pregnancies. PMID:18603246

  10. Monitoring prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Floyd, R Louise; Sidhu, Jasjeet S

    2004-05-15

    Alcohol use during pregnancy is a leading, preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States, with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) being one of the most severe outcomes. Current survey statistics find that approximately one in eight pregnant women (500,000 per year) report alcohol use, with approximately 80,000 reporting binge drinking. While annual rates have fluctuated, trends analysis finds that there has been no significant change in rates of prenatal alcohol exposure over the past 10-year period. Development of effective programs to prevent FAS and to monitor the success of prevention efforts requires epidemiological data systems to inform these activities. This article describes alcohol use patterns among childbearing-age women and data sources that can be used in monitoring this behavior. PMID:15095466

  11. Michael Pupin Idvorsky and father Vasa Zivkovic

    Cucic, Dragoljub A

    2008-01-01

    There is often a bond between two great men of a society at the time when one is at the peak of his life and the other at its beginning. The great Serbian 19th century poet, clergyman and educator father Vasa Zivkovic, interceding in favour of his student Mihajlo Pupin, significantly influenced the conditions necessary for Pupin`s development into the person he later became. Mihajlo Pupin was certainly not the only student to benefit from father Vasa Zivkovic advice and material support. However their relationship is a perfect example of an acclaimed person successfully influencing a person yet to win acclaim.

  12. What Happens during Prenatal Visits?

    ... Who is at risk for complications? How does stress affect pregnancy? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What happens during prenatal visits? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What happens during ...

  13. Pre-natal Aquatic Preparation

    Frias, Ana; Serra, Célia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Water, a source of well-being, peace, fullness, freedom and harmony. For quite some time now, water is sought after for its renowned benefits in terms of relieving the physical and emotional changes which commonly occur during pregnancy. Objectives: 1) Describe the process of intervention, arising from the use of the aquatic environment in prenatal preparation 2) Relate the gains in health from prenatal preparation aquatica Method: Descriptive creating and applying a prep...

  14. Prenatal - Glossary Entry - Genetics Home Reference [Genetics Home Reference (Glossary)

    Full Text Available Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Glossary A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H ... performed, or used before birth, such as prenatal care , the prenatal period, prenatal testing, prenatal v ...

  15. Parent and Child Perspectives on Mothering and Fathering: The Influence of Ecocultural Niches

    Newland, Lisa A.; Chen, Hui-Hua; Coyl-Shepherd, Diana D.; Liang, Yi-Ching; Carr, Eliann R.; Dykstra, Emily; Gapp, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined differences in parent involvement, perceptions, practices, and context by parent gender, nationality, and education level. Mothers, fathers, and their school-age children participated at two sites: the Midwestern USA ("n" = 99) and urban Central Taiwan ("n"?=?100). Parents completed questionnaires regarding their…

  16. Cross-National Comparison of Attitudes toward Fathers' and Mothers' Participation in Household Tasks and Childcare.

    Apparala, Malathi L.; Reifman, Alan; Munsch, Joyce

    2003-01-01

    Explored attitudes toward the division of fathers' and mothers' participation in childcare/household tasks using data from the Euro-barometer surveys that involved over 10,000 respondents from 13 European countries. Respondents were most likely to hold egalitarian views of household work and childcare when they were younger, female, and…

  17. The role of nonperpetrating fathers in Munchausen syndrome by proxy: a review of the literature.

    Morrell, Briyana; Tilley, Donna Scott

    2012-08-01

    Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) is a psychiatric condition and form of child abuse in which a caregiver, usually a mother, induces illness in a child to gain attention for herself. Because children that are abused by a MSBP perpetrator are likely to be hospitalized multiple times, it is important for the nurse to know warning signs and symptoms of MSBP. Of particular interest is the role of the child's parent that is not involved in the abuse, usually the father. This article presents a review of literature on MSBP, focusing on the role of the nonperpetrating fathers. PMID:22703679

  18. Father-Child Play Behaviors and Child Emotion Regulation

    Hagman, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the father-child activation theory, which identifies the father-child relationship as a source for self-regulation learning. Father-child play behaviors during toddlerhood were examined for their contribution to self-regulation skills, specifically emotion regulation and aggression. This study examined father-child play behaviors of emotion amplification, intrusiveness, positive regard, and child emotion regulation seeking in the National Early Head Start (EHS) Evaluation. Fat...

  19. Associations Between Father Absence and Age of First Sexual Intercourse

    Mendle, Jane; Harden, K Paige; Turkheimer, Eric; Van Hulle, Carol A.; DOnofrio, Brian M; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Rodgers, Joseph L.; Emery, Robert E.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Children (N = 1421 years) raised without a biological father in the household have earlier average ages of first sexual intercourse than children raised in father-present households. Competing theoretical perspectives have attributed this either to effects of father absence on socialization and physical maturation, or to nonrandom selection of children predisposed for early sexual intercourse into father absent households. Genetically informative analyses of the children of sister dyads supp...

  20. Acceptability of prenatal testing and termination of pregnancy in Pakistan.

    Jafri, H; Hewison, J; Sheridan, E; Ahmed, S

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess acceptability of prenatal testing (PNT) and termination of pregnancy (TOP) for a range of conditions in Pakistani parents with and without a child with a genetic condition. A structured questionnaire assessing acceptability of PNT and TOP for 30 conditions was completed by 400 Pakistani participants: 200 parents with a child with a genetic condition (100 fathers and 100 mothers) and 200 parents without an affected child (100 fathers and 100 mothers). There was a high level of interest in PNT, where over 80 % of parents in all four study groups would want PNT for the majority of the conditions. There was comparatively less interest in TOP for the same conditions (ranging from 5 to 70 % of parents, with mothers of an affected child being most interested). Parents were most likely to be interested in TOP for conditions at the serious end of the continuum. More than half of the participants in each group would consider TOP for anencephaly and quadriplegia. The interest in PNT and TOP for a range of conditions suggests that rapidly developing PNT technologies are likely to be acceptable in Pakistan, a low-middle income level and Muslim country. The comparatively lower level of interest in TOP for the same conditions highlights ethical dilemmas that such technologies are likely to raise. PMID:25081227

  1. Asking fathers: a study of psychosocial adaptation.

    Herrick, E K; Nussbaum, R; Holtzman, N A; Wissow, L

    2004-09-01

    Although few contemporary studies specifically address paternal adaptation, the theme of paternal estrangement from medical care and from family relationships is pervasive in the psychosocial literature on haemophilia. This estrangement has been shown to have a negative effect on fathers' psychological well-being, marital relationships and the adaptive outcome of their sons who have haemophilia. The goals of this study were to provide contemporary data on the psychosocial adaptation of fathers of boys with haemophilia and to examine specific variables that might influence their adjustment. Eighty-three eligible fathers returned a survey instrument that collected demographic and medical information, as well as scores on self-measures of adaptation in marital and parenting roles. Statistically significant direct correlations (P PSOC were statistically significantly reduced (i.e. fathers felt less effective in the parenting role) in men who 'rarely' or 'never' infused their sons (42/80, 53%). Variables that negatively affected scores on the parenting satisfaction subscale included frustrating interactions with medical staff and concern about their sons' potential to contract an infection or secondary diagnosis. This paper presents a model to examine the interrelationships among the data and discusses the clinical implications. PMID:15357787

  2. Humanistic Treatment of Father-Daughter Incest.

    Giarretto, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Following a case study of father-daughter incest, the author comments on the prevalence of incest and describes Santa Clara County's Child Sexual Abuse Treatment Program (CSATP). The founding of CSATP, its treatment model for incestuous families, and its preliminary results are covered. (SJL)

  3. Family Fathers Lost in Theatre Paradox

    Kuhlmann, Annelis

    2008-01-01

    Diderot's influence on theatre is well known through The Paradox of Acting (Paradoxe sur le comédien). However, Diderot also wrote a few drames bourgeois, among which is The Family Father (Le Père de famille), which still in Diderot's days was edited in Copenhagen in French, and which in Danish...

  4. Knighthood for 'father of the web'

    Uhlig, R

    2003-01-01

    "Tim Berners-Lee, the father of the world wide web, was awarded a knighthood for services to the internet, which his efforts transformed from a haunt of computer geeks, scientists and the military into a global phenomenon" (1/2 page).

  5. Caring Fathers and Gender (In)Equality?

    Maříková, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 162 (2008), s. 135-152. ISSN 1231-1413 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700280504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : fathering * gender in/equality * hegemonic masculinity * shared parenting Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.118, year: 2008

  6. Associations between Father Absence and Age of First Sexual Intercourse

    Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige; Turkheimer, Eric; Van Hulle, Carol A.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Rodgers, Joseph L.; Emery, Robert E.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Children raised without a biological father in the household have earlier average ages of first sexual intercourse than children raised in father-present households. Competing theoretical perspectives have attributed this either to effects of father absence on socialization and physical maturation or to nonrandom selection of children predisposed…

  7. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    2010-04-01

    ... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary insurance... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts....

  8. Fathers' Trait Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness as Predictors of Adult Sons' Perceptions of Fathers' Sarcasm, Criticism, and Verbal Aggressiveness.

    Beatty, Michael J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Finds that approximately 40% of the variance in adult sons' reports of fathers' messages (sarcasm, criticism, and verbal aggressiveness) was attributable to fathers' self-reported argumentativeness and verbal aggression. (SR)

  9. Early Life Disease Programming during the Preconception and Prenatal Period: Making the Link between Stressful Life Events and Type-1 Diabetes

    Virk, Jasveer; Li, Jiong; Vestergaard, Mogens; Obel, Carsten; Lu, Michael; Olsen, Jørn

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To assess the risk of developing Type-1 diabetes among children who were exposed to maternal bereavement during the prenatal or 1-year preconception period. METHODS: We identified N = 1,548,746 singleton births born in Denmark between January 1(st) 1979 through December 31(st) 2004, and...... father or sibling deaths (aIRR: 2.03, 1.22-3.38); the association was mainly seen for girls (aIRR: 2.91, 1.61-5.26). CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence to suggest that female fetuses exposed to severe prenatal stress are at increased risk for developing type-1 diabetes....

  10. Young unwed fathers of AFDC children: do they provide support?

    Rangarajan, A; Gleason, P

    1998-05-01

    We examine the support provided by fathers of children born to disadvantaged teenage mothers. Our sample includes the fathers of 6,009 children born over a two-year period to 3,855 teenage mothers receiving AFDC in three economically depressed inner cities. These fathers provide little social and economic support to their children. Support declines as their children age from infants to toddlers and as fathers' relationships with the mothers grow more distant. Fathers' employment status and educational attainment positively affect the amount of economic support that they provide but do not strongly influence the amount of social support they provide. PMID:9622780

  11. Latino fathers' feeding-related parenting strategies on children's eating.

    Parada, Humberto; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Horton, Lucy A; Ibarra, Leticia; Arredondo, Elva M

    2016-01-01

    This study examined father and child sociodemographic characteristics in relation to fathers' feeding-related parenting strategies and whether their parenting strategies were associated with children's reported fruit and vegetable (FV), weekly fast-food, and daily sugar-sweetened beverage intake among 81 Latino father-child pairs. Father's employment status, acculturation, number of children in the home, and child's age and weight status were associated with the use of different parenting strategies. More control was associated with less FV intake, but more reinforcement was associated with more FV intake by children. Fathers play a role in their children's diet and should be considered in future interventions. PMID:27065160

  12. Cystic Fibrosis: Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Cystic Fibrosis: Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis Home For Patients Search ... Screening and Diagnosis FAQ171, February 2016 PDF Format Cystic Fibrosis: Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis Pregnancy What is cystic ...

  13. Prenatal care in your second trimester

    In your second trimester, you will have a prenatal visit every month. The visits may be quick, ... Gregory KD, Niebyl JR, Johnson TRB. preconception and prenatal care: part of the continuum. In: Gabbe SG, ...

  14. Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth KidsHealth > For Parents > ... Before Birth Print A A A Text Size Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth Operating on a ...

  15. Prenatal care in your third trimester

    In your third trimester, you will have a prenatal visit every 2 weeks until week 36. After ... Gregory KD, Niebyl JR, Johnson TRB. preconception and prenatal care: part of the continuum. In: Gabbe SG, ...

  16. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Prenatal Stress

    M. Genco Usta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of prenatal stress on psychopathology has been observed in many animal and human studies. In many studies, stress during prenatal period has been shown to result in negative feedback dysregulation and hyperactivity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Prenatal stres also may cause increased risk of birth complications, startle or distress in response to novel and surprising stimuli during infancy; lower Full Scale IQs, language abilities and attention deficiency in period of 3-5 years; increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, anxiety symptoms, depressive disorder and impulsivity during adolescence. Additionally, timing of prenatal stress is also important and 12-22 weeks of gestation seems to be the most vulnerable period. The results underline the need for early prevention and intervention programs for highly anxious women during pregnancy. Administration of prenatal stress monitoring to public health programs or removing pregnant women who have been exposed to life events such as natural disaster, terror attack to secure areas that provide basic needs may be crucial.

  17. Abuse history and nonoptimal prenatal weight gain.

    Johnson, Pamela Jo; Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Pirie, Phyllis L.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between women who reported current and past physical or sexual abuse and those who did not in terms of mean total prenatal weight change, the odds for inadequate prenatal gain, and the odds for excessive prenatal gain. METHODS: This study used a matched retrospective cohort design. Data were from the charts of 578 clients of an urban prenatal care clinic. Multiple regression analyses, stratified by maternal age, were conducte...

  18. Fathering in rodents: Neurobiological substrates and consequences for offspring.

    Bales, Karen L; Saltzman, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Paternal care, though rare among mammals, is routinely displayed by several species of rodents. Here we review the neuroanatomical and hormonal bases of paternal behavior, as well as the behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of paternal behavior for offspring. Fathering behavior is subserved by many of the same neural substrates which are also involved in maternal behavior (for example, the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus). While gonadal hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone, as well as hypothalamic neuropeptides such as oxytocin and vasopressin, and the pituitary hormone prolactin, are implicated in the activation of paternal behavior, there are significant gaps in our knowledge of their actions, as well as pronounced differences between species. Removal of the father in biparental species has long-lasting effects on behavior, as well as on these same neuroendocrine systems, in offspring. Finally, individual differences in paternal behavior can have similarly long-lasting, if more subtle, effects on offspring behavior. Future studies should examine similar outcome measures in multiple species, including both biparental species and closely related uniparental species. Careful phylogenetic analyses of the neuroendocrine systems presumably important to male parenting, as well as their patterns of gene expression, will also be important in establishing the next generation of hypotheses regarding the regulation of male parenting behavior. PMID:26122293

  19. Securing Fatherhood through Kin Work: A Comparison of Black Low Income Fathers and Families in South Africa and the U.S.

    Madhavan, Sangeetha; Roy, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we examine how low income black men in South Africa and the US work with their kin to secure fathering and ensure the well-being of children. We use ethnographic and life history data on men who fathered children from 1992-2005 to demonstrate how fathers' roles as kin workers enable them to meet culturally-defined criteria for responsible fatherhood in two contexts marked by legacies of racism, increasing rates of incarceration and HIV/AIDS, and a web of interlocking inequalities that effectively precludes them from accessing employment with good wages. Using a comparative framework based on kin work, we identify three common processes in both contexts - negotiation between maternal and paternal kin, pedifocal approach and flexible fathering - that enable men and their kin networks to secure father involvement in economically marginalized communities. We conclude with a discussion of the policy implications of our findings. PMID:24273365

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of musculoskeletal conditions.

    Oetgen, Matthew E; Kelly, Shannon M; Sellier, Leanne S; Du Plessis, Adre

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasonography is a safe, cost-effective tool used to prenatally detect common musculoskeletal conditions, including clubfoot, skeletal dysplasias, limb-length discrepancies, spinal abnormalities, and hand and other upper extremity deformities. With increased detection of such abnormalities, prenatal parental counseling by orthopaedic surgeons is being requested more frequently. Counseling is important for family education on prognosis and treatment options. A thorough understanding of the common musculoskeletal conditions diagnosed on prenatal ultrasonography, classification of these conditions, and the correlations of these classifications to postnatal severity allows the orthopaedic surgeon to conduct well-informed counseling sessions with families. Accurate information and counseling aids parents in understanding their child's diagnosis, assists clinicians in planning treatment algorithms, and optimizes family preparedness. PMID:25808685

  1. Update on prenatal care.

    Zolotor, Adam J; Carlough, Martha C

    2014-02-01

    Many elements of routine prenatal care are based on tradition and lack a firm evidence base; however, some elements are supported by more rigorous studies. Correct dating of the pregnancy is critical to prevent unnecessary inductions and to allow for accurate treatment of preterm labor. Physicians should recommend folic acid supplementation to all women as early as possible, preferably before conception, to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Administration of Rho(D) immune globulin markedly decreases the risk of alloimmunization in an RhD-negative woman carrying an RhD-positive fetus. Screening and treatment for iron deficiency anemia can reduce the risks of preterm labor, intrauterine growth retardation, and perinatal depression. Testing for aneuploidy and neural tube defects should be offered to all pregnant women with a discussion of the risks and benefits. Specific genetic testing should be based on the family histories of the patient and her partner. Physicians should recommend that pregnant women receive a vaccination for influenza, be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria, and be tested for sexually transmitted infections. Testing for group B streptococcus should be performed between 35 and 37 weeks' gestation. If test results are positive or the patient has a history of group B streptococcus bacteriuria during pregnancy, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered to reduce the risk of infection in the infant. Intramuscular or vaginal progesterone should be considered in women with a history of spontaneous preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or shortened cervical length (less than 2.5 cm). Screening for diabetes should be offered using a universal or a risk-based approach. Women at risk of preeclampsia should be offered low-dose aspirin prophylaxis, as well as calcium supplementation if dietary calcium intake is low. Induction of labor may be considered between 41 and 42 weeks' gestation. PMID:24506122

  2. PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS IN ORGANIC ACIDEMIA

    Hedieh SANEIFARD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic acidemias are the group of metabolic disorders which define by high anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypo or hyperglycemia & hyperammonemia.Because of the severity of disease in children and its fatality in severe form of disease and also need for life long treatment, prenatal diagnosis is an important diagnostic tool.Three approaches to prenatal diagnosis may be possible, including measurement of analytes in amniotic fluid or use of cells obtained by Choronic Villus sampling (CVS or amniocentesis to either assay enzyme activity or extract DNA for molecular genetic testing.Biochemical genetic testing: Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia, biotin-unresponsive3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, glutaric acidemia type 1, ketothiolase deficiency, methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblC type, and isovaleric acidemia is possible by analysis of amniotic fluid if highly accurate quantitative methods are used to measure the appropriate analytes. Amniocentesis is usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for MSUD is possible by measurement of enzyme activity in fetal cells obtained by chorionic villous sampling(CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks gestation or amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.(If cells from CVS are used, extreme care must be taken to assure that they are fetal rather than maternal cells.Molecular genetic testing:Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for all disorders is possible by analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells obtained by amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks of gestation or chorionic villous sampling (CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks of gestation. Both disease-causing allels of an affected family member must be identified before prenatal testing.Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD may be available for families in which the disease causing mutation has been identified.

  3. Tyrannical omnipotence in the archetypal father.

    Colman, W

    2000-10-01

    This paper sets the archetypal relationship between the tyrannical, devouring father and his sons in the context of a disjunction in the parental couple (syzygy) whereby the role of the maternal feminine is eclipsed and excluded. This is shown to originate in an omnipotent defence against infantile dependence on the mother. Successful liberation from the father's tyranny requires the restoration of mutuality between the internal couple. Although the main focus is on the internal world (and a detailed clinical illustration is given, showing the working out of this process in the analytical relationship), reference is also made to political tyranny, attitudes to the control of Nature by technological means and patriarchal forms of masculinity. The Chronos myth is amplified through the use of two modern variants in the films The Terminator and Star Wars. PMID:11077759

  4. The Uniqueness of the Child-Father Attachment Relationship: Fathers' Sensitive and Challenging Play as a Pivotal Variable in a 16-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Grossmann, Karin; Grossmann, Klaus, E.; Fremmer-Bombik, Elisabeth; Kindler, Heinz; Scheuerer-English, Hermann; Zimmermann, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Explored fathers' specific contribution to their children's attachment representation at various ages. Found fathers' play sensitivity to be a better predictor of the child's long-term attachment representation than the early infant-father security of attachment. (Author)

  5. Legacies and Memorializations in the Intergenerational Transmission of Psychic Life: Psychoanalytic Notes on Some of the Ways in Which Sons Assume Their Father's Mantle.

    Barratt, Barnaby B

    2016-04-01

    The intergenerational transmission of psychic life has been difficult to explore psychoanalytically given that a treatment of both parent and child is rarely, if ever, feasible. Here the issue is explored in terms of father-son relationships. Three legendary fathers (Abraham, Laius, Shiva) are discussed as illustrating the filicidal legacy they imposed psychically and corporeally on their sons. Three contemporary case vignettes are then presented, indicating ways in which sons ambivalently memorialize their fathers. This material provides a model as to some of the ways in which sons assume the mantle of the father's conscious and unconscious dynamics in the course of their personal history. Paternal legacies generate "memorializations" that express profound and poignant conflicts animating the son's psychic life. In the context of this investigation, the significance of the distinction between actual fathers or father figures (who are mortal, who possess some sort of gendered qualities, and who may be present or absent, emotionally and physically) and the "symbolic father" (who is the locus of the phallus that organizes the possibility of representational discourse) is discussed. It is suggested that boys and men typically develop in terms of confusions around this distinction. The oedipal conundrum and challenge of the boy's passage into manhood is then formulated as follows: Masculinity involves both the integration of patricidal desire (in response to the paternal legacy) and the mourning of actual fathers or father figures. It also involves the acceptance of the human condition, which is both that of mortality and of our "castratedness" in relation to the "symbolic father" as the locus of the phallus (the only one who knows whereof "He" speaks and acts, and who can neither be mourned nor surpassed). PMID:27042981

  6. Impact of psychosocial risk factors on prenatal care delivery: a national provider survey.

    Krans, Elizabeth E; Moloci, Nicholas M; Housey, Michelle T; Davis, Matthew M

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate providers' perspectives regarding the delivery of prenatal care to women with psychosocial risk factors. A random, national sample of 2,095 prenatal care providers (853 obstetricians and gynecologists (Ob/Gyns), 270 family medicine (FM) physicians and 972 midwives) completed a mailed survey. We measured respondents' practice and referral patterns regarding six psychosocial risk factors: adolescence (age ≤19), unstable housing, lack of paternal involvement and social support, late prenatal care (>13 weeks gestation), domestic violence and drug or alcohol use. Chi square and logistic regression analyses assessed the association between prenatal care provider characteristics and prenatal care utilization patterns. Approximately 60 % of Ob/Gyns, 48.4 % of midwives and 32.2 % of FM physicians referred patients with psychosocial risk factors to clinicians outside of their practice. In all three specialties, providers were more likely to increase prenatal care visits with alternative clinicians (social workers, nurses, psychologists/psychiatrists) compared to themselves for all six psychosocial risk factors. Drug or alcohol use and intimate partner violence were the risk factors that most often prompted an increase in utilization. In multivariate analyses, Ob/Gyns who recently completed clinical training were significantly more likely to increase prenatal care utilization with either themselves (OR 2.15; 95 % CI 1.14-4.05) or an alternative clinician (2.27; 1.00-4.67) for women with high psychosocial risk pregnancies. Prenatal care providers frequently involve alternative clinicians such as social workers, nurses and psychologists or psychiatrists in the delivery of prenatal care to women with psychosocial risk factors. PMID:24740719

  7. Prenatal Programming by Testosterone of Hypothalamic Metabolic Control Neurones in the Ewe

    Sheppard, Kayla M.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Coolen, Lique M.; Lehman, Michael N.

    2011-01-01

    Ewes treated prenatally with testosterone (T) develop metabolic deficits, including insulin resistance, in addition to reproductive dysfunctions that collectively mimic polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrine disease in women. We hypothesised that metabolic deficits associated with prenatal T excess involve alterations in arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurones that contain either agouti-related peptide (AgRP) or proopiomelanocortin (POMC). Characterization of these neurones in the ewe ...

  8. Time-dependent expression of cytochrome p450 epoxygenases during human prenatal development

    Cizkova, Katerina; Konieczna, Anna; Erdosova, Bela; Ehrmann, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that some members of cytochrome P450 enzymes contribute to regulation of normal prenatal development. CYP epoxygenases (CYP2C and CYP2J subfamilies) convert arachidonic acid into four regioisomeric epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), biologically active molecules involved in mitogenesis and cell signaling. Almost nothing is known about localization of their expression in tissues during human prenatal development. The spatio-temporal expression pattern of CYP2C8, CYP2C9...

  9. The Circadian System Is a Target and Modulator of Prenatal Cocaine Effects

    Shang, Eva H.; Zhdanova, Irina V.

    2007-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to cocaine can be deleterious to embryonic brain development, but the results in humans remain controversial, the mechanisms involved are not well understood and effective therapies are yet to be designed. We hypothesize that some of the prenatal effects of cocaine might be related to dysregulation of physiological rhythms due to alterations in the integrating circadian clock function. Methodology and Principle Findings Here we introduce a new high-throughput gene...

  10. Fathers and Maternal Risk for Physical Child Abuse

    Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong; Shawna J. Lee; Waldfogel, Jane; RATHOUZ, PAUL J

    2009-01-01

    This study set out to examine father-related factors predicting maternal physical child abuse risk in a national birth cohort of 1,480 families. In-home and phone interviews were conducted with mothers when index children were 3 years old. Predictor variables included the mother–father relationship status; father demographic, economic, and psychosocial variables; and key background factors. Outcome variables included both observed and self-reported proxies of maternal physical child abuse ris...

  11. The role of the father in the development of psychosis

    Avramaki Elissavet; Tsekeris Charalambos

    2011-01-01

    In psychoanalysis, fathering has not received much analytical attention and only little is known about the actual impact of paternity on the development of certain psychopathology. This paper seeks to carefully examine and critically discuss the impact of fathering on psychotic individuals. It elaborates on the importance of the father in the healthy development of the children, as well as on the consequences that his absence entails for their psyche. Drawing on a Lacanian analytical f...

  12. Commentary: Getting fathers into parenting programmes--a reflection on Panter-Brick et al. (2014).

    Ramchandani, Paul; Iles, Jane

    2014-11-01

    Research, policy and clinical practice focussed on engaging and working with fathers and their children often seems to oscillate between extremes. Where policy documents relating to children's health and wellbeing do include fathers it is often in a restricted way, and similarly discussions about the role of fathers in the media are often one-dimensional. It is sometimes hard to escape a feeling of despondency at the continuing exchanges, too often made ignoring or misinterpreting years of research regarding the importance of co-parenting and the involvement of fathers and other carers. One of the great contributions of child and adolescent mental health professionals has been the drawing of attention to the importance of family processes and systemic thinking, yet in relation to parenting, this seems to have been increasingly overlooked in recent years with an increased focus on attachment or social learning inspired approaches for a single parent-child dyad. In this issue of the JCPP, in a thorough and timely review, Catherine Panter-Brick and colleagues call for a clear change to the way parenting programmes are considered, studied and implemented. In this commentary, we reflect on this call and look at three challenges for CAMHS professionals. PMID:25135767

  13. Different effects of prenatal stress on ERK2/CREB/Bcl-2 expression in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex of adult offspring rats.

    Zhu, Zeen; Sun, Hongli; Gong, Xiaojie; Li, Hui

    2016-05-25

    It has become increasingly evident that prenatal stress and its psychological and physiological concomitants are associated with the pathophysiology of mood disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the prenatal stress-induced offspring's anxiety disorders remain unknown. We recently reported that prenatal stress enhanced anxiety-like behavior in adult offspring rat, and involved N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits, including NR1 and NR2A. In the present research, using the same prenatal stress model, we measured the ERK2/CREB/Bcl-2 mRNA levels by real-time PCR. Our findings indicated that prenatal stress decreased ERK2 and CREB mRNA levels in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex and Bcl-2 mRNA levels in the hippocampus of offspring rat. The results showed that the abnormal ERK2, CREB, and Bcl-2 mRNA levels may be involved in the anxiety-like behavior of adult rats with prenatal stress. PMID:27096215

  14. Fathering and Attachment in the USA and Taiwan: Contextual Predictors and Child Outcomes

    Newland, Lisa A.; Coyl, Diana D.; Chen, Hui-Hua

    2010-01-01

    This study examined connections between fathering context (stress, social support, and fathers' internal working models), fathering dimensions, children's attachment to fathers, and children's social-emotional and academic outcomes within two culturally diverse samples in the USA and Taiwan. Participants included 274 fathers and their eight- to…

  15. Work Characteristics and Fathers' Vocabulary to Infants in African American Families

    Pancsofar, Nadya; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Odom, Erika C.

    2013-01-01

    Fathers' vocabulary to infants has been linked in the literature to early child language development, however, little is known about the variability in fathers' language behavior. This study considered associations between fathers' work characteristics and fathers' vocabulary among a sample of employed African American fathers of 6-month-old…

  16. Incest in the 1990s: reading Anais Nin's 'Father Story'

    Charnock, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    In the summer of 1933, diarist, author and critic Anaïs Nin joined her father for a short vacation in France. Nin wrote about the trip in her diary afterwards, referring to it as the ‘Father Story.’ In the story, she details how, aged 30, she embarked upon an affair with her father which would last for several months. Rather than displaying the signs of trauma that we have come to expect from the incest narrative such as dissociation, blame and recrimination, the ‘Father Story’ is more ambigu...

  17. Health-related quality of life--from the perspective of mothers and fathers of adult children suffering from long-term mental disorders.

    Johansson, Anita; Ewertzon, Mats; Andershed, Birgitta; Anderzen-Carlsson, Agneta; Nasic, Salmir; Ahlin, Arne

    2015-06-01

    There is a lack of studies on mothers' and fathers' experiences of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) associated with caregiving of adult children suffering from mental disorder. A cross-sectional study was therefore carried out with 108 mothers and 43 fathers. Data were collected by means of the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Family Involvement and Alienation Questionnaire (FIAQ) and the Burden Assessment Scale (BAS). Mothers' HRQOL was affected more than fathers' and lower compared to Swedish age related norms. HRQOL was predominantly related to ratings on HADS and BAS. PMID:26001718

  18. Sex ratio in relation to fathers' occupations.

    Dickinson, H.O.; Parker, L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the sex ratio of children varies between fathers of different occupations. METHODS: The sex ratio (the ratio of the number of boys to the number of girls at birth) was calculated in relation to paternal occupation in the cohort of all 253,433 live births in Cumbria, north west England, from 1950-89. Exact binomial confidence intervals were used to estimate whether the sex ratio in each occupational category was significantly different from that for the rest o...

  19. Fathering to Ensure Child's Success: What Urban Indian Fathers Do?

    Sriram, Rajalakshmi; Sandhu, Gurprit Kaur

    2013-01-01

    In a globalizing urban India, middle-class parents are extremely anxious about their child's success and future in a competitive world. In this context, the present article attempts to capture middle-class educated Indian fathers' thoughts, feelings, and contributions in ensuring children's success, through primary research…

  20. Supporting Fathers in a NICU: Effects of the HUG Your Baby Program on Fathers Understanding of Preterm Infant Behavior

    Kadivar, Maliheh; Mozafarinia, Seyedeh Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Fathers of preterm babies in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are under stress. Lack of knowledge about a preterm infants behavior challenges new fathers who may be required to make decisions about the hospitalized infant, to update concerned family and friends, and to provide support to the mother while she recovers from giving birth. The NICU nurses have the opportunity to support and guide these new fathers, although no previous research has confirmed how to do so effectively. This s...

  1. Prenatal Investigation of a Familial Partial Monosomy 10q

    Silva, Marisa; Marques, Bárbara; Brito, Filomena; FERREIRA, CRISTINA; Furtado, José; Ventura, Catarina; Nunes, Luis; Kay, Teresa; Caetano, Paula; Correia, Hildeberto

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To present the clinical, cytogenetic and molecular findings of a prenatal study of a familial partial monosomy 10q. Distal 10q deletions are rare and the majority are terminal deletions involving bands 10q25 and 10q26. Patients typically present with facial dysmorphism, postnatal growth retardation, developmental and mental retardation, genitourinary anomalies and digital anomalies. Methods: Conventional cytogenetic analysis in metaphases obtained by chorionic villi long term cu...

  2. Segmental Maternal UPD6 with Prenatal Growth Restriction

    Poke, G.; Doody, M; Prado, J; Gattas, M

    2012-01-01

    We report a child with segmental maternal uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 6, involving most of the long arm distal to 6q16, detected by SNP microarray. Clinical features include prenatal growth restriction, global developmental delay, and severe gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 6 has previously been reported to cause intrauterine growth restriction. Paternal UPD of this chromosome is well known to cause transient neonatal diabetes mellitus....

  3. Prenatal MRI Findings of Polycystic Kidney Disease Associated with Holoprosencephaly

    Koplay, Mustafa [Ergani Status Hospital, Diyarbakir (Turkmenistan); Onbas, Omer; Alper, Fatih; Borekci, Bunyamin [Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkmenistan)

    2009-06-15

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) and polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are genetically heterogeneous anomalies which can make up part of various syndromes or chromosomal anomalies. Due to the rapid lethality prognosis, early and precise prenatal diagnosis would be of great value. This case report describes extensive PKD involvement, already present in utero, in a patient with HPE and subdural effusion visible by MR imaging. The detailed anatomic information obtained by the MR imaging can guide the surgical planning and can aid antenatal counseling.

  4. Prenatal MRI Findings of Polycystic Kidney Disease Associated with Holoprosencephaly

    KOPLAY, Mustafa; Onbas, Omer; Alper, Fatih; Borekci, Bunyamin

    2009-01-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) and polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are genetically heterogeneous anomalies which can make up part of various syndromes or chromosomal anomalies. Due to the rapid lethality prognosis, early and precise prenatal diagnosis would be of great value. This case report describes extensive PKD involvement, already present in utero, in a patient with HPE and subdural effusion visible by MR imaging. The detailed anatomic information obtained by the MR imaging can guide the surgi...

  5. Prenatal MRI Findings of Polycystic Kidney Disease Associated with Holoprosencephaly

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) and polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are genetically heterogeneous anomalies which can make up part of various syndromes or chromosomal anomalies. Due to the rapid lethality prognosis, early and precise prenatal diagnosis would be of great value. This case report describes extensive PKD involvement, already present in utero, in a patient with HPE and subdural effusion visible by MR imaging. The detailed anatomic information obtained by the MR imaging can guide the surgical planning and can aid antenatal counseling

  6. Surrogate pregnancy: a guide for Canadian prenatal health care providers

    Reilly, Dan R.

    2007-01-01

    Providing health care for a woman with a surrogate pregnancy involves unique challenges. Although the ethical debate surrounding surrogacy continues, Canada has banned commercial, but not altruistic, surrogacy. In the event of a custody dispute between a surrogate mother and the individual(s) intending to parent the child, it is unclear how Canadian courts would rule. The prenatal health care provider must take extra care to protect the autonomy and privacy rights of the surrogate. There is l...

  7. Congenital mesoblastic nephroma and ovarian cyst. Prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis

    Mesoblastic nephroma is the most common solid renal tumor observed in newborns. the ultrasound study discloses a solid mass that can not be distinguished from Wilms' tumor or adrenal neuroblastoma. A case is presented involving a 37-week-old fetus in which ultrasound study revealed a solid renal mass and a cyst located in the abdominal cavity. The prenatal diagnosis was mesoblastic nephroma and ovarian cyst. Surgery performed after the birth of the infant confirmed both diagnosis. (Author) 10 refs

  8. Prenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of Non-classical Cystic Lymph angioma

    We report two cases of non-classical fetal lymph angioma, which were diagnosed at prenatal ultrasonography and confimed at autopsy. The tumor involved axilla and anterior mediastinum in one case and lower back and thigh in the other case. The common ultrasonographic findings in both cases were cystic masses with irregular margin and prominent internal septa. In one case, Doppler ultrasonography demonstrated the absence of flow signal in the mass

  9. Anticipation with phenotypic variation in three father-son pairs with affective disorder: a case series.

    Rajkumar, R P

    2014-12-01

    Anticipation is a phenomenon in which successive generations within a family experience an earlier age of onset and a more severe form of a given illness. It has been observed in various neurological and psychiatric conditions, including bipolar disorder. The molecular basis of anticipation involves trinucleotide repeat expansions in genes, but this has not been conclusively demonstrated in bipolar disorder. The histories of 3 father-son pairs are presented. In each pair, the son presented with an early-onset bipolar disorder, and the father developed severe depression after the age of 50 years. No female relatives were affected. The implications of these observations are discussed. Genetic, epigenetic, and environmental mechanisms that may have contributed to this phenomenon are briefly described. The study of such patients may throw light on the "extended phenotype" of mood disorders, as well as the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in the phenomena of anticipation and phenotypic variation. PMID:25482836

  10. The expectations of fathers concerning care provided by midwives to the mothers during labour

    Anna G.W. Nolte

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Midwives have been criticised for neglecting the expectations and needs of fathers. They either ignore the fathers or pressure them into becoming more involved than they would choose, if allowed to provide support to the mothers during labour. Whilst midwives are providing woman-centred care, it is important that they remember to involve the fathers in decision-making and to acknowledge their role, expectations and needs, because the birth of a child is one of the most important events in a person’s lifetime. This study focused on fathers’ expectations of the care provided to mothers by the midwives during labour. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study design was utilised. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with fathers about the care provided to their partners or wives by midwives. Data were then analysed with an open descriptive method of coding that is appropriate for qualitative research. The results of the interviews were subsequently positioned within a holistic health-promotive nursing theory that encompassed body, mind and spirit. The results revealed that fathers saw the provision of comfort and support as the two main aspects for mothers in labour that they expected from midwives. The findings were that midwives should improve their communication skills with the mothers, as well as with the fathers if they are available. Fathers expected midwives to encourage them to accompany the mother during labour and to facilitate bonding between father, mother and baby. The results of this study should assist midwives to provide holistic quality care to mothers and fathers during labour.

    Opsomming

    Vroedvroue word daarvan beskuldig dat hulle nie voldoen aan die verwagtinge en behoeftes van die vaders nie. Vaders word, óf deur hulle geïgnoreer, óf druk word op hulle uitgeoefen om meer betrokke te raak as waarmee hulle gemaklik is, indien hulle wel toegelaat word om moeders te ondersteun tydens die kraamproses. Vroedvroue verskaf moeder-gesentreerde sorg, maar dit is nogtans belangrik dat hulle onthou om die vaders te betrek in die besluitneming en hulle rol, verwagtinge en behoeftes te erken omdat die geboorte van ‘n kind een van die belangrikste gebeurtenisse in hulle lewens is. Die studie het gefokus op vaders se verwagtinge van die sorg wat verskaf word aan moeders tydens kraam. ‘n Kwalitatiewe, eksploratiewe, beskrywende en kontekstuele navorsingsontwerp is gebruik. Data is ingesamel deur in-diepte onderhoude met vaders te voer oor die sorg wat aan hul vroue of metgeselle tydens die kraamproses verskaf word deur vroedvroue. Data is daarna geanaliseer deur ‘n oop beskrywende metode te gebruik wat toepaslik is vir kwalitatiewe navorsing. Die resultate van die onderhoude is vervolgens geposisioneer binne ‘n holistiese, gesondheids-bevorderende teorie wat verwys na liggaam, psige en gees. Die resultate toon dat gemak en ondersteuning die twee hoofkategorieë is wat verskaf moet word deur vroedvroue aan moeders tydens die kraamproses. Die ander kategorieë wat aangedui word in die resultate, is dat vroedvroue hulle onderlinge kommunikasievaardighede moet verbeter, asook hul kommunikasie met die moeders en vaders indien laasgenoemde beskikbaar is. Die vaders het van vroedvroue verwag om hulle aan te moedig om moeders by te staan tydens die kraamproses en om binding tussen vader, moeder en baba aan te moedig.

    How to cite this article: Sengane, M.L.M. & Nolte, A.G.W., 2012, ‘The expectations of fathers concerning care provided by midwives to the mothers during labour’, Health SA Gesondheid 17(1, Art.#527, 10 pages. http://dx.doi. org/10.4102/hsag.v17i1.527

  11. Ontogeny of suckling behavior in rats prenatally exposed to alcohol.

    Chen, J S; Driscoll, C D; Riley, E P

    1982-10-01

    The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on nipple attachment behavior was studied at a number of ages in rat pups whose mothers consumed liquid diets containing 35% or 0% ethanol-derived calories (EDC) or standard lab chow during pregnancy. In the first experiment, nondeprived pups were tested in groups of three (one from each of the prenatal treatment groups) for nipple attachment to an anesthetized lab chow dam. The second experiment examined the influence of the type of test dam (35% EDC, 0% EDC, or lab chow) on nipple attachment behavior. Finally, experiment three evaluated the possibility that the data from the preceeding experiments were the result of either testing the offspring in triads or alcohol-induced alterations in maternal behavior. Rat pups from all three groups reared by their biological mothers and a group of 35% EDC offspring fostered at birth to lab chow surrogate mothers were tested alone rather than in triads. The data from all three experiments clearly indicated an age-related pattern of nipple attachment behavior; the latency to attach was shortest in 6- to 12-day-old pups and increased rapidly from 13 to 21 days of age. Prenatal exposure to alcohol significantly increased the latency to attach to the nipple and the rank order of attachment at the younger ages (three to nine days of age) but not in the older animals. Also, the prenatal effect of alcohol was independent of the type of dam to which testing was conducted, the social interaction involved in testing triads, or fostering procedures. These results suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure can interfere with the development of normal suckling behavior, which might influence normal growth. PMID:7157191

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of Bruck syndrome.

    Berg, C; Geipel, A; Noack, F; Smrcek, J; Krapp, M; Germer, U; Bender, G; Gembruch, U

    2005-07-01

    Bruck syndrome is an autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder combining features of osteogenesis imperfecta and arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. There are only few reports describing this rare syndrome of multiple fractures and joint contractures that is thought to be a subtype of osteogenesis imperfecta. We report the first case of prenatal diagnosis of this syndrome in a fetus at 23 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound findings included brachycephaly, retrognathia marked shortening and bowing of both femurs, bilateral fixed flexion of the elbows, bilateral fixed extension of the wrists and partially fixed flexion of the knees. The parents opted for termination of pregnancy. Macroscopic and radiologic examination of the aborted fetus confirmed the prenatal diagnosis, whereas morphological studies of the bone tissue found no hard evidence of osteogenesis imperfecta, probably due to the early stage of pregnancy and the heterogeneity of the syndrome itself. PMID:16034828

  13. Radioimmunoassays in prenatal genetic diagnosis

    Prenatal medicine strives to reveal hereditary disorders and congenital malformations before delivery. The application of RIA significantly widened the spectrum of available diagnostic possibilities. We first focused our attention on determining alpha-1-fetoprotein in the amniotic fluid and the serum. We used the results of 33 examinations of the amniotic fluid and 100 samples of the blood serum to compile a graph of physiological values during pregnancy. The graph is used in assessing clinical samples in suspect congenital disorders of neural tube closure and other malformations. In the last two years we have tested testosterone determination in the amniotic fluid to ascertain prenatally the fetal sex in early pregnancy. The results were satisfactory and agreed in 70.6%. (author)

  14. Prenatal Development: How Your Baby Grows During Pregnancy

    ... ACOG Prenatal Development: How Your Baby Grows During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal Development: How ... Format Prenatal Development: How Your Baby Grows During Pregnancy Pregnancy How does pregnancy begin? What is the ...

  15. Prenatal diagnosis of horseshoe lung and esophageal atresia

    We present a case of horseshoe lung (HL) and esophageal atresia suspected prenatally on US imaging and confirmed with fetal MRI. Prenatal diagnosis of HL and esophageal atresia allowed for prenatal counseling and informed parental decisions. (orig.)

  16. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of cloacal anomaly.

    Cacciaguerra, S; Lo Presti, L; Di Leo, L; Grasso, S; Gangarossa, S; Di Benedetto, V; Di Benedetto, A

    1998-02-01

    The authors present a case of prenatal diagnosis of cloacal anomaly, characterized by the presence of oligohydramnios and cystic pelvic mass with changing features during observation. Postnatal study confirmed the presence of a recto-cloacal fistula, with a high confluence of the urinary, genital and intestinal systems. Both parents had a chromosome 9 inversion (p11q13), but the child was chromosomally normal. PMID:9561584

  18. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23–37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  19. PRENATAL STRESS AND RISK FOR AUTISM

    Kinney, Dennis K.; Munir, Kerim M; Crowley, David J; Miller, Andrea M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews several converging lines of research that suggest that prenatal exposure to environmental stress may increase risk for Autistic Disorder (AD). We first discuss studies finding that prenatal exposure to stressful life events is associated with significantly increased risk of AD, as well as other disorders, such as schizophrenia and depression. We then review evidence from animal and human studies that prenatal stress can produce both (a) abnormal postnatal behaviors that res...

  20. Fathers and mothers developing skills in managing children’s long-term medical conditions: how do their qualitative accounts compare?

    Swallow V, Lambert H, Macfadyen A, and Santacroce S

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about the respective experience of fathers and mothers within couples when managing their child’s long-term medical condition. This study therefore aimed to obtain and compare fathers’ and mothers’ accounts of managing long-term kidney conditions. Methods Qualitative study involving individual then joint semi-structured interviews with 14 couples (biological fathers and mothers of 15 children whose care is managed at a specialist unit). Interviews were digitally ...

  1. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of omphalocele

    Omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect at the midline characterized by herniation of abdominal contents and covered by peritoneum and amnion. The aim of this paper is to present a case of omphalocele with gestational age of 23 weeks and prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography. Using ultrasound diagnosis in a patient inquest made 40 years of age in the second trimester (gestational age 23 weeks) showed a level of the anterior fetal echogenic image that sticks through the abdominal wall and then locate the cord umbilical. Stomach is seen displaced and loss of normal anatomy of the abdominal circumference. Genetic counseling was conducted at the Municipal Center for Genetics of Manzanillo. Pathologically the fetus presented short and wide neck, low-set ears, defect omphalomesenteric of ductal closure, hernia sac occupied by the caudate lobe of the liver and gallbladder bed, wide base heart dissection showing cava-cava absence of interventricular septum was observed pulmonary valve stenosis most dilation of supravalvular pulmonary artery, large defect and aorta intraventricular septum ride, which speaks in favor of a heart rate troncoconal fallop trilogy over the omphalocele. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is an efficient and reliable method for prenatal diagnosis of omphalocele

  2. Epidermolysis bullosa: diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis

    Shimizu Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis of severe forms of epidermolysis bullosa (EB have been reviewed. Using electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry of specific monoclonal antibody, foetal skin biopsy during the second trimester of pregnancy has been utilized successfully for the prenatal diagnosis of EB. Recently, elucidation of the specific gene mutation in affected individuals allowed us to perform DNA-based prenatal diagnosis during the first trimester of pregnancy. Our own experience with prenatal diagnosis of EB at the Special Clinic for Inherited Skin Disorders at Keio University Hospital for the last six years is summarized.

  3. DIAGNOSTICO PRENATAL DE SITUS INVERSUS TOTALIS

    Mario Paublo M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso clnico de diagnostico prenatal por ultrasonografa de Situs Inversus completo en la Unidad de ultrasonografa del Hospital San Juan de Dios con su confirmacin post natal por radiologa y ultrasonografa. Es de notar la baja incidencia de esta patologa y la importancia del diagnostico prenatal por las posibles mltiples malformaciones asociadas.We have reviewed a clinical history of ultrasonographic prenatal diagnosis of Complete Situs Inversus at the Ultrasonography Unit of the Hospital San Juan de Dios, which was confirmed with postnatal radiology and ultrasonography. Although the low incidence of this pathology, its prenatal diagnosis is important since it presents association with multiple abnormalities.

  4. Behavioral and genetic correlates of the neural response to infant crying among human fathers.

    Mascaro, Jennifer S; Hackett, Patrick D; Gouzoules, Harold; Lori, Adriana; Rilling, James K

    2014-11-01

    Although evolution has shaped human infant crying and the corresponding response from caregivers, there is marked variation in paternal involvement and caretaking behavior, highlighting the importance of understanding the neurobiology supporting optimal paternal responses to cries. We explored the neural response to infant cries in fathers of children aged 1-2, and its relationship with hormone levels, variation in the androgen receptor (AR) gene, parental attitudes and parental behavior. Although number of AR CAG trinucleotide repeats was positively correlated with neural activity in brain regions important for empathy (anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus), restrictive attitudes were inversely correlated with neural activity in these regions and with regions involved with emotion regulation (orbitofrontal cortex). Anterior insula activity had a non-linear relationship with paternal caregiving, such that fathers with intermediate activation were most involved. These results suggest that restrictive attitudes may be associated with decreased empathy and emotion regulation in response to a child in distress, and that moderate anterior insula activity reflects an optimal level of arousal that supports engaged fathering. PMID:24336349

  5. Physical Punishment by Mothers and Fathers in British Homes.

    Nobes, Gavin; Smith, Marjorie; Upton, Penney; Heverin, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    British mothers (n=362) and fathers (n=103) of randomly selected children from 366 two-parent families were interviewed concerning physically punishing their children. The proportion of mothers and fathers who had used physical punishments were similar. Percentages of types and severity of punishments varied. These findings are discussed in

  6. Multivariate Models of Mothers' and Fathers' Aggression toward Their Children

    Smith Slep, Amy M.; O'Leary, Susan G.

    2007-01-01

    Multivariate, biopsychosocial, explanatory models of mothers' and fathers' psychological and physical aggression toward their 3- to 7-year-old children were fitted and cross-validated in 453 representatively sampled families. Models explaining mothers' and fathers' aggression were substantially similar. Surprisingly, many variables identified as…

  7. Teen Mothers and Fathers: School Counselor Perceptions of Service Needs.

    Kiselica, Mark S.; Gorczynski, Joseph; Capps, Steven

    1998-01-01

    The perceptions of school counselors regarding the service needs of teen mothers and fathers are examined (N=540). Counselors indicated they would refer teen mothers and fathers for services similarly, although they are more likely to refer mothers for health and basic living services. Reasons and improvements needed are discussed. (EMK)

  8. A Definition of Gender Role Conflict among Black Professional Fathers

    Robinson, Ora

    2011-01-01

    There is very little literature that depicts the parental role of Black professional fathers positively or that samples Black participants from the upper economic strata. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into how Black professional fathers experience or perceive gender role conflict and identify clinical implications. Grounded in…

  9. Fathers' Roles in the Process of Talent Development

    Lee, Seon-Young

    2010-01-01

    In the process of children's talent development, fathers have been largely ignored compared to mothers who are mostly identified as the initial and primary influence for their children. Though modern fathers are becoming more engaged in childrearing and interacting more with their children and changes in family systems lead to new challenges and…

  10. Father-Daughter Incest: Data from an Anonymous Computerized Survey

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel V. S.; Kommor, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self-interview. Nineteen were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 241 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The remaining 1,261 served as controls. Incest victims were…

  11. Parenting Difficulties among Adult Survivors of Father-Daughter Incest.

    Cole, Pamela M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the self-reported parenting experience and practices of women who were either incest victims of their fathers as children (n=20), whose fathers were alcoholic but not sexually abusive (n=25), or who had no known risk in childhood (n=39). Incest survivors reported less confidence and sense of control as parents. (Author/DB)

  12. A Community Support Group for Single Custodial Fathers.

    Tedder, Sandra L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a five-session group experience within the context of establishing a support group for single custodial fathers. Includes topics of dating, remarriage, homemaking and house maintenance, and the effects of divorce on children. A follow-up showed fathers appreciated the sense of community and specific information and coping strategies.

  13. Professionals' Attributions of Censure in Father-Daughter Incest.

    Johnson, Pauline A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study investigated variables relating to the attribution of censure by 99 teachers and 162 social workers to a 14-year-old victim of father-daughter incest, the father, and nonparticipating mother. Responses were influenced by the level of resistance, the girl's other sexual experiences, and respondents' sex and occupation. (Author/JDD)

  14. Exploring Fathers' Perceptions of Parenting a Child with Asperger Syndrome

    O' Halloran, Maeve; Sweeney, John; Doody, Owen

    2013-01-01

    This study explores Irish fathers' perceptions of parenting a child with Asperger syndrome (AS). Ethical approval was granted by the service provider, and Husserlian phenomenological approach facilitated the exploration. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews of nine fathers in the West region of Ireland. Data were transcribed and…

  15. The Possible Selves of Young Fathers in Prison

    Meek, Rosie

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on the social psychological concept of possible selves, this study explores the future self concept of young fathers in prison. In considering life after release from prison, qualitative data relating to hoped-for, feared and expected possible selves was generated by 34 young fathers aged between 18 and 21 years. The most common categories…

  16. The Possible Selves of Young Fathers in Prison

    Meek, Rosie

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on the social psychological concept of possible selves, this study explores the future self concept of young fathers in prison. In considering life after release from prison, qualitative data relating to hoped-for, feared and expected possible selves was generated by 34 young fathers aged between 18 and 21 years. The most common categories

  17. Cytomegalovirus mononucleosis: risk for fathers of young children.

    Bignardi, G; Atkins, M; Main, J.

    1993-01-01

    A case of pyrexia of unknown origin in a 35-year-old man, who had become a father nine months earlier, is presented. A diagnosis of cytomegalovirus mononucleosis was achieved only after extensive investigations. It is suggested that cytomegalovirus mononucleosis should be added to the differential diagnosis when investigating pyrexia of unknown origin in fathers of young children.

  18. Fathers' Roles in the Process of Talent Development

    Lee, Seon-Young

    2010-01-01

    In the process of children's talent development, fathers have been largely ignored compared to mothers who are mostly identified as the initial and primary influence for their children. Though modern fathers are becoming more engaged in childrearing and interacting more with their children and changes in family systems lead to new challenges and

  19. Emotion Socialization in Adolescence: The Roles of Mothers and Fathers

    Brand, Ann E.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    This chapter provides a review of the literature that examines the role of mothers and fathers in socializing emotion in their sons and daughters during adolescence. Within the context of this chapter, we focus on mother-father similarities, differences, and coordinated efforts in socializing the emotion of their adolescent children. Empirical…

  20. Father for the first time - development and validation of a questionnaire to assess fathers experiences of first childbirth (FTFQ

    Premberg sa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fathers experience of the birth of his first child is important not only for his birth-giving partner but also for the father himself, his relationship with the mother and the newborn. No validated questionnaire assessing first-time fathers' experiences during childbirth is currently available. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to assess first-time fathers experiences of childbirth. Method Domains and items were initially derived from interviews with first-time fathers, and supplemented by a literature search and a focus group interview with midwives. The comprehensibility, comprehension and relevance of the items were evaluated by four paternity research experts and a preliminary questionnaire was pilot tested in eight first-time fathers. A revised questionnaire was completed by 200 first-time fathers (response rate?=?81% Exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed and multitrait scaling analysis was used to test scaling assumptions. External validity was assessed by means of known-groups analysis. Results Factor analysis yielded four factors comprising 22 items and accounting 48% of the variance. The domains found were Worry, Information, Emotional support and Acceptance. Multitrait analysis confirmed the convergent and discriminant validity of the domains; however, Cronbachs alpha did not meet conventional reliability standards in two domains. The questionnaire was sensitive to differences between groups of fathers hypothesized to differ on important socio demographic or clinical variables. Conclusions The questionnaire adequately measures important dimensions of first-time fathers childbirth experience and may be used to assess aspects of fathers experiences during childbirth. To obtain the FTFQ and permission for its use, please contact the corresponding author.

  1. Associations Between Father Absence and Age of First Sexual Intercourse

    Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige; Turkheimer, Eric; Van Hulle, Carol A.; DOnofrio, Brian M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Rodgers, Joseph L.; Emery, Robert E.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Children (N = 1421 years) raised without a biological father in the household have earlier average ages of first sexual intercourse than children raised in father-present households. Competing theoretical perspectives have attributed this either to effects of father absence on socialization and physical maturation, or to nonrandom selection of children predisposed for early sexual intercourse into father absent households. Genetically informative analyses of the children of sister dyads support the selection hypothesis: this association seems attributable to confounded risks, most likely genetic in origin, which correlated both with likelihood of father absence and early sexual behavior. This holds implications for environmental theories of maturation and suggests previous research may have inadvertently overestimated the role of family structure in reproductive maturation. PMID:19765012

  2. Understanding the Impact of Micro-Aggressions on the Engagement of Undocumented Latino Immigrant Fathers: Debunking Deficit Thinking

    Jimenez-Castellanos, Oscar; Gonzalez, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to refute the deficit-thinking perspectives that permeate the parent involvement literature to better understand the micro-aggressions experienced by undocumented Latino immigrant fathers as they engage with their children. We explore the following 3 questions: (a) What types of micro-aggressions do undocumented Latino

  3. Understanding the Impact of Micro-Aggressions on the Engagement of Undocumented Latino Immigrant Fathers: Debunking Deficit Thinking

    Jimenez-Castellanos, Oscar; Gonzalez, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to refute the deficit-thinking perspectives that permeate the parent involvement literature to better understand the micro-aggressions experienced by undocumented Latino immigrant fathers as they engage with their children. We explore the following 3 questions: (a) What types of micro-aggressions do undocumented Latino…

  4. The Constitutionality of a Biological Father's Recognition as a Parent

    A Louw

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increased recognition afforded to biological fathers as legal parents, the Children's Act 38 of 2005 still does not treat fathers on the same basis as mothers as far as the automatic allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned. This article investigates the constitutionality of the differential treatment of fathers in this respect, given South Africa's international obligations, especially in terms of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, to ensure that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing of their child. After a brief consideration of the constitutionality of the mother's position as parent, the constitutionality of the father's position is investigated, firstly, with reference to Section 9 of the Constitution and the question of whether the differentiation between mothers and fathers as far as the allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, amounts to unfair discrimination. The inquiry also considers whether the differentiation between committed fathers (that is, those who have shown the necessary commitment in terms of Sections 20 and 21 of the Children's Act to acquire parental responsibilities and rights and uncommitted fathers may amount to discrimination on an unspecified ground. Since the limitation of the father's rights to equality may be justifiable, the outcomes of both inquiries are shown to be inconclusive. Finally, the legal position of the father is considered in relation to the child's constitutional rights – the rights to parental care and the right of the child to the paramountcy of its interests embodied in Section 28 of the Constitution. While there appears to be some justification for the limitation of the child's right to committed paternal care, it is submitted that an equalisation of the legal position of mothers and fathers as far as the automatic acquisition of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, is not only justified but imperative if the constitutional rights of children are to be advanced and protected.

  5. Practical Support from Fathers and Grandmothers Is Associated with Lower Levels of Breastfeeding in the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Emmott, Emily H; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Mothers face trade-offs between infant care and subsistence/economic activities. In traditional populations, allomothers such as fathers and grandmothers support mothers with young infants, allowing them to reduce labour activities and focus on breastfeeding. Similarly, the positive impact of social support on breastfeeding has been highlighted in developed populations. However, these studies have generally focused on emotional support from fathers, peers and healthcare professionals. Given the availability of formula milk in developed populations, an evolutionary anthropological perspective highlights that practical support, unlike emotional support, may have negative associations with breastfeeding by enabling substitution of maternal care. Other kin, mainly grandmothers, may also be important allomothers influencing maternal breastfeeding levels. Here we explore the associations between different types of social support mothers receive from fathers/grandmothers and breastfeeding in the UK Millennium Cohort Study. We find frequent grandmother contact and father's parenting involvement are both associated with lower levels of breastfeeding, suggesting a negative relationship between practical support and breastfeeding. In contrast, father presence, potentially capturing emotional support, is associated with greater breastfeeding initiation. Our findings suggest that practical support and emotional support functions differently, and practical support may not encourage breastfeeding in developed populations. PMID:26192993

  6. Greek anatomist herophilus: the father of anatomy.

    Bay, Noel Si-Yang; Bay, Boon-Huat

    2010-12-01

    One of the most stirring controversies in the history of Anatomy is that Herophilus, an ancient Greek anatomist and his younger contemporary, Erasistratus, were accused of performing vivisections of living humans. However, this does not detract from the fact that Herophilus has made phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body which have contributed significantly towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system. It is notable that he was the first person to perform systematic dissection of the human body and is widely acknowledged as the Father of Anatomy. He has been hailed as one of the greatest anatomists that ever lived, rivaled only by Andreas Vesalius who is regarded as the founder of modern human anatomy. PMID:21267401

  7. Pai syndrome: challenging prenatal diagnosis and management

    Pai syndrome is a rare disorder that includes midline cleft lip, pericallosal lipoma and cutaneous polyp of the face. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis using sonography and MRI. We emphasize the importance of facial examination with prenatal association of midline cleft lip and pericallosal lipoma in making the diagnosis of Pai syndrome. (orig.)

  8. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  9. Improved prenatal detection of chromosomal anomalies

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Hjort-Pedersen, Karina; Henriques, Carsten U; Krogh, Lotte Nylandsted; Garne, Ester

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal screening for karyotype anomalies takes place in most European countries. In Denmark, the screening method was changed in 2005. The aim of this study was to study the trends in prevalence and prenatal detection rates of chromosome anomalies and Down syndrome (DS) over a 22-year period....

  10. Pai syndrome: challenging prenatal diagnosis and management

    Blouet, Marie [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Belloy, Frederique [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); Jeanne-Pasquier, Corinne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Pathology, Caen (France); Leporrier, Nathalie [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Genetics, Caen (France); Benoist, Guillaume [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Pole Femmes-Enfants, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Caen (France)

    2014-09-15

    Pai syndrome is a rare disorder that includes midline cleft lip, pericallosal lipoma and cutaneous polyp of the face. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis using sonography and MRI. We emphasize the importance of facial examination with prenatal association of midline cleft lip and pericallosal lipoma in making the diagnosis of Pai syndrome. (orig.)

  11. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  12. Examining antecedents of infant attachment security with mothers and fathers: An ecological systems perspective☆

    Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    Taking an ecological systems perspective, early parent–child relationships can be affected by interactions between systems where some are more proximally linked to the child than others. Socioeconomic status, a distal factor, is associated with social functioning during childhood, but research on its association with functioning during infancy, particularly attachment, is scant and inconsistent. Moreover, it is not clear how distal factors affect infant functioning. Other systems such as marital adjustment and parenting may moderate or mediate relations between distal factors and infant attachment. The current longitudinal study (n = 135) examined the role of various systems – parental resources, marital functioning, parental sensitivity and involvement – in early infancy (3-, 5-, 7-months) on infant–mother (12-months) and infant–father (14-months) attachment security. Findings supported moderating processes but in different ways for infant–mother versus infant–father dyads. Implications for future studies and interventions are discussed. PMID:25890261

  13. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Dermal Sinus

    Sharif Sakr

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background - Congenital dermal sinus (CDS is an uncommon form of spinal dysraphism. Although postdelivery identification in the neonate is aided by several associated physical examination findings, establishing this diagnosis prenatally has proven to be elusive. Case Report - We present a case of CDS where the prenatal findings at 20 weeks gestation led to the diagnosis, which was confirmed postnatally. The associated protrusion of fibrotic membranes through the sinus tract helped in the identification of this lesion prenatally, but created confusion with a more common type of lesion, an open neural tube defect. This is the first case report in the literature describing prenatal diagnosis of fetal CDS. Conclusion - Prenatal diagnosis with postnatal confirmation of CDS leads to early intervention, better long-term outcomes, and lesser complications.

  14. Prenatal Diagnosis and Postnatal Outcome of Schizencephaly.

    Kutuk, Mehmet Serdar; Gorkem, Sureyya Burcu; Bayram, Ayse; Doganay, Selim; Canpolat, Mehmet; Basbug, Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to present our experience with 5 cases of fetal schizencephaly in terms of prenatal diagnostic features, and postnatal outcome. The database of prenatal diagnosis unit was searched for antenatally diagnosed cases with schizencephaly. Maternal characteristics, ultrasonography, prenatal-postnatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and postnatal outcome were noted. Of 5 cases, 2 had definitive prenatal diagnoses on ultrasound and 3 cases were diagnosed by fetal MRI. All cases had cerebral cortical migration anomalies including polymicrogyria, subependymal heterotopia, and lissencephaly, and 2 cases had additional extracranial malformations. Three cases showed regression of the cerebral clefts on follow-up postnatal MRIs. Three cases had moderate to severe psychomotor retardation, and 1 case needed repeated ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation due to hydrocephaly. Prenatal diagnosis of schizencephaly with ultrasonography is not straightforward and required further evaluation with fetal MRI. Additional cerebral anomalies worsen the prognosis of schizencephaly. PMID:25535059

  15. Prenatal radiation doses from radiopharmaceuticals

    The radiopharmaceutical administration with diagnostic or therapeutic purpose during pregnancy implies a prenatal radiation dose. The dose assessment and the evaluation of the radiological risks become relevant due to the great radiosensitivity of the fetal tissues in development. This paper is a revision of the available data for estimating fetal doses in the cases of the more frequently used radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine, taking into account recent investigation in placental crossover. The more frequent diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were analyzed according to the radiation doses implied. (author)

  16. Prenatal exposition on ionizing radiations

    The Sessions on Prenatal Exposition on Ionizing Radiations was organized by the Argentine Radioprotection Society, in Buenos Aires, between 8 and 9, November 2001. In this event, were presented papers on: biological effects of ionizing radiation; the radiation protection and the pregnant woman; embryo fetal development and its relationship with the responsiveness to teratogens; radioinduced delayed mental; neonatal irradiation: neurotoxicity and modulation of pharmacological response; pre implanted mouse embryos as a model of uranium toxicity studies; hereditary effects of the radiation and new advances from the UNSCEAR 2001; doses estimation in embryo

  17. Biological Effects after Prenatal Irradiation

    A Task Group of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has finished a report Biological Effects after Prenatal Irradiation (Embryo and Fetus) which has been approved by the Main Commission and Will be Published. Some new important scientific data shall be discussed in this contribution. During the preimplantation period lethality of the mammalian embryo is the dominating radiation effect. However, in mouse strains with genetic predispositions it has been shown that also malformations can be caused. This effect is genetically determined and its mechanisms is different from the induction of malformations during major organogenesis. Radiation exposures during this prenatal period leads ato an increase of genomic instability of cells in the normal appearing fetuses. These radiation effects can be transmitted to the next generation. A renewed analysis of individuals with severe mental retardation after exposures during the 8th to 15th week post conception in Hiroshima and Nagasaki gives evidence that a threshold dose exists for this effect around 300 mGy. This is supported by a number of experimental animal data which have been obtained from cellular and molecular investigations during the brain development. The data show the high radiosensitivity of the developing brain but also the various compensatory mechanisms and the enormous plasticity of these processes. The radiosensitivity varies strongly during the prenatal development. The highest sensitivity is found during the early and mid fetal period which is coinciding with weeks 8-15 post conception in humans. The lowest doses causing persistent damage are in the range of 100 to 300 mGy. For intelligence quotient scores a linear dose response model provides a satisfactory fit. From the experimental data it can be concluded that the fetal stage is most sensitive to the carcinogenic effect in comparison to the other prenatal stages. Such as clear situation cannot be obtained from the epidemiological studies with humans. in general the magnitude of cancer risk from in-utero exposures may be similar to that from radiation exposures in early childhood. This is especially the case when the follow-up is extended to adulthood. RBE values for fast neutrons as well as DREF values have been reported for various biological endpoints after exposures at various developmental stages. These will be discussed. (Author)

  18. Sex-role orientation of gay fathers versus gay nonfathers.

    Robinson, B E; Skeen, P

    1982-12-01

    This study compared the sex-role orientation of 30 gay fathers and 30 gay nonfathers from the Northeastern, Midwestern, Southern, Southwestern, and Western United States. Scores from the Bem Sex-role Inventory were analyzed by a chi squared test of independence. Analysis indicated that gay men who father children are no more masculine than gay men who do not father children. The myth linking masculinity and gay fatherhood was refuted, and these findings were presented as further evidence that sexual behavior and sex-role orientation are unrelated phenomena and develop out of separate experiences. PMID:7167291

  19. Inheritance of CMT1A duplication from a mosaic father.

    Sorour, E; Thompson, P.; MacMillan, J.; M. Upadhyaya

    1995-01-01

    We describe a case with molecular duplication of chromosome 17 (p11.2-p12) whose duplicated chromosome was inherited from a mosaic father. The patient has clinical manifestations consistent with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), while the mosaic father has minimal findings of CMT1A. The father was found to be homozygous with DNA markers VAW409R3A (D17S122) and p132G8RI (PMP-22) which are duplicated in CMT1A cases. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis with YAC clone 49...

  20. Developmental effects of prenatal irradiation

    This book is the result of a symposium which was organised jointly by the WHO and the department for nuclear biology of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung (Society for Radiation- and Environmental Research) Neuherberg; the Institut fuer Strahlenhygiene (Institute for Radiation Hygiene) of the Federal Board of Health (Bundesgesundheitsamt), Neuherberg and the working group ''Radiation Biology'' in the ''Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft'' and took place in Neuherberg near Munich from the 26.-28. November 1980. Subjects dealt with the lectures were: Developmental disturbances caused by prenatal exposure to either external radiation or incorporation of radionuclides in the organism of the mother. Based on the prenatal radiation effects already known new experiences and new knowledge were reported on and show new consequences on peri- and postnatal development. Radiation effects of incorporated radionuclides include also questions of the biokinetics of radioactive substances at present the emphasis lies on diaplacental penetration. Questions of synergetic effects of radiation and diaplacentally penetrating chemical substances were discussed on the symposium as well. These subjects were also extensively dealt with in a panel discussion. (orig./MG)

  1. Effects after prenatal radiation exposures

    The mammalian organism is highly radiosensitive during all prenatal developmental periods. For most effects a dose relationship with a threshold is observed. These threshold doses are generally above the exposures from medical diagnostic procedures. The quality and extent of radiation effects are very much dependent on the developmental stage during which an exposure takes place and on the radiation dose. An exposure during the preimplantation period will cause lethality. Malformations are usually induced after exposures during the major organogenesis. Growth retardation is also possible during the late organogenesis and foetal periods. The lower limits of threshold doses for these effects are in the range of 100 mGy. A radiation exposure during the early foetal period can lead to severe mental retardation and impairment of intelligence. There are very serious effects with radiation doses above 0.3 Gy. Carcinogenesis can apparently occur after radiation exposures during the total prenatal development period. The radiation risk factor up to now has not been clear, but it seems that it is in the range of risk factors for cancer that are observed after exposures during childhood. For radiation doses that are used in radiological diagnostics the risk is zero or very low. A termination of pregnancy after doses below 100 mGy should not be considered. (author)

  2. Prenatal and postnatal depression among low income Brazilian women

    V.A. Da-Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal depression is a significant problem affecting 10-15% of mothers in many countries and has been the subject of an increasing number of publications. Prenatal depression has been studied less. The aims of the present investigation were: 1 to obtain information on the prevalence of prenatal and postnatal depression in low income Brazilian women by using an instrument already employed in several countries, i.e., the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; 2 to evaluate the risk factors involved in prenatal and postnatal depression in Brazil. The study groups included 33 pregnant women interviewed at home during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and once a month during the first six months after delivery. Questions on life events and the mother's relationship with the baby were posed during each visit. Depressed pregnant women received less support from their partners than non-depressed pregnant women (36.4 vs 72.2%, P<0.05; Fisher exact test. Black women predominated among pre- and postnatally depressed subjects. Postnatal depression was associated with lower parity (0.4 ± 0.5 vs 1.1 ± 1.0, P<0.05; Student t-test. Thus, the period of pregnancy may be susceptible to socio-environmental factors that induce depression, such as the lack of affective support from the partner. The prevalence rate of 12% observed for depression in the third month postpartum is comparable to that of studies from other countries.

  3. Prenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa anomalies: An overview

    Novakov-Mikić Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography of the central nervous system is an integral part of a prenatal scan, and the development of imaging technologies has led to better diagnostic possibilities. Posterior fossa anomalies have traditionally been divided into Dandy Walke malformation, Dandy Walker variation and megacisterna magna, but this approach, due to diversity of the extensive number of possible disorders covered by this classification, unables accurate prognosis and therefore adequate counselling. An alternative approach to the classification of posterior fossa anomalies is to divide them into agenesis of the vermis, which could be partial or complete, cerebellar hypoplasia, pontocerebellar hypoplasia and cerebellar atrophy. Different ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imagining of appearances of the posterior fossa anomalies in prenatal period are discussed in the article, as well as possible syndromes and prognosis of different entities. Diversity of anomalies of the central nervous system, and in particular, subtle differences in prenatal appearances of posterior fossa anomalies, which may have major impact on the prognosis, demand a multidisciplinary approach that encompasses two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound scan, magnetic resonance imaging, infectious diseases and metabolic disorders work-ups as well as individual approach to every case involving of a team of experts in the field of perinatology, radiology, paediatrics, neurology and genetics.

  4. The Evolution of Altruistic Preferences: Mothers versus Fathers

    Alger, Ingela; Cox, Donald

    2012-01-01

    What can evolutionary biology tell us about male-female differences in preferences concerning family matters? Might mothers be more solicitous toward offspring than fathers, for example? The economics literature has documented gender differences—children benefit more from money put in the hands of mothers rather than fathers, for example—and these differences are thought to be partly due to preferences. Yet for good reason family economics is mostly concerned with how prices and incomes affec...

  5. The evolution of altruistic preferences: mothers versus fathers

    Alger, Ingela; Cox, Donald

    2013-01-01

    What can evolutionary biology tell us about male-female differences in preferences concerning family matters? Might mothers be more solicitous toward offspring than fathers, for example? The economics literature has documented gender differences—children benefit more from money put in the hands of mothers rather than fathers, for example—and these differences are thought to be partly due to preferences. Yet for good reason family economics is mostly concerned with how prices and incomes affec...

  6. The Evolution of Altruistic Preferences: Mothers versus Fathers

    Alger, Ingela; Cox, Donald

    2013-01-01

    What can evolutionary biology tell us about male-female differences in preferences concerning family matters? Might mothers be more solicitous toward offspring than fathers, for example? The economics literature has documented gender differences—children benefit more from money put in the hands of mothers rather than fathers, for example—and these differences are thought to be partly due to preferences. Yet for good reason family economics is mostly concerned with how prices and incomes affec...

  7. Father-Time: Welcome to the Rest of Your Life

    Friedewald, Mark; Newing, Carol

    2006-01-01

    This guest editorial reports on the expansion of a program for expectant and new fathers within a local health service on the Central Coast of New South Wales, Australia. The program, titled Father-Time: Welcome to the Rest of Your Life, incorporates, and is an extension to, the all-male discussion forum previously reported in this journal (Spring 2005, Volume 14, No. 2).

  8. The Assessment of Postpartum Depression in Fathers and its Correlates

    A. Gülsen Ceyhun Peker2; Ayşegül Cömert Okutucu1; Ayşe Selda Tekiner; Zehra Dağlı1

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to determine the rates and risk factors for post-partum depression in fathers. Methods: The study was carried out with 252 fathers who agreed to participate, at Ankara University School of Medicine Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between April and June 2013. Two interviews were conducted; first at childbirth, and second at 6th week post-partum. Paternal depression was assessed with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and S...

  9. Sleep Patterns and Fatigue in New Mothers and Fathers

    Gay, Caryl L; Kathryn A. Lee; Lee, Shih-Yu

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the sleep patterns and fatigue of both mothers and fathers before and after childbirth. The authors used wrist actigraphy and questionnaires to estimate sleep and fatigue in 72 couples during their last month of pregnancy and 1st month postpartum. Both parents experienced more sleep disruption at night during the postpartum period as compared to the last month of pregnancy. Compared to fathers, with their stable 24-h sleep patterns over time, mothers ...

  10. Albert Einstein as the father of solid state physics

    Cardona, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Einstein is usually revered as the father of special and general relativity. In this article I demonstrate that he is also the father of Solid State Physics, or even his broader version known as Condensed Matter Physics (including liquids). His 1907 article on the specific heat of solids introduces, for the first time, the effect of lattice vibrations on the thermodynamic properties of crystals, in particular the specific heat. His 1905 article on the photoelectric effect and photoluminescenc...

  11. Prenatal genetic diagnosis by chorionic villus sampling

    Prenatal diagnosis of severe congenital disease with termination of affected pregnancies is an accepted part of the contemporary practice of clinical genetics. First-trimester prenatal tissue sampling has been studied for years with various results. The key to success in sampling came with the application of ultrasound to guide the sampling procedure. The use of the Portex catheter or canula for sampling is the most common method today. There are other variations available and under trial by European investigators. All of these methods appear to have a high rate of success in obtaining prenatal tissue with a low rate of immediate complications. The author discusses how the sampling is done

  12. Prenatal cannibalism in an insect

    de Vries, Thomas; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2007-06-01

    Host selection and infection strategies of parasitoids often correlate with high parental investment and low numbers of progeny. In this study, we investigate how additional internal mechanisms might shape brood size and fitness of the offspring. Emblemasoma auditrix is a parasitoid fly in which about 38 larvae hatch simultaneously in utero. After host location, a single larva is deposited into the host, where it rapidly develops and pupates after about 5 days. The search for hosts can take several weeks, and during that time, the larvae arrest their development and remain in the first larval instar. Nevertheless, the larvae increase in weight within the uterus, and this growth correlates to a decrease in the number of larvae, although no larvae are deposited. Thus, our data indicate a first case of prenatal cannibalism in an invertebrate with larvae feeding on each other within the uterus of the adult.

  13. Situs anomalies on prenatal MRI

    Objective: Situs anomalies refer to an abnormal organ arrangement, which may be associated with severe errors of development. Due regard being given to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US), this study sought to demonstrate the in utero visualization of situs anomalies on MRI, compared to US. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 12 fetuses with situs anomalies depicted on fetal MRI using prenatal US as a comparison modality. With an MRI standard protocol, the whole fetus was assessed for anomalies, with regard to the position and morphology of the following structures: heart; venous drainage and aorta; stomach and intestines; liver and gallbladder; and the presence and number of spleens. Results: Situs inversus totalis was found in 3/12 fetuses; situs inversus with levocardia in 1/12 fetuses; situs inversus abdominis in 2/12 fetuses; situs ambiguous with polysplenia in 3/12 fetuses, and with asplenia in 2/12 fetuses; and isolated dextrocardia in 1/12 fetuses. Congenital heart defects (CHDs), vascular anomalies, and intestinal malrotations were the most frequent associated malformations. In 5/12 cases, the US and MRI diagnoses were concordant. Compared to US, in 7/12 cases, additional MRI findings specified the situs anomaly, but CHDs were only partially visualized in six cases. Conclusions: Our initial MRI results demonstrate the visualization of situs anomalies and associated malformations in utero, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Using a standard protocol, MRI may identify additional findings, compared to US, which confirm and specify the situs anomaly, but, with limited MRI visualization of fetal CHDs.

  14. Was your father a problem drinker?: The challenges of life story interviewing in researching adult sons of problem drinking fathers

    Henna Pirskanen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the challenges of carrying out life story interview research on the adult sons of problem-drinking fathers will be discussed. Earlier studies have shown that parents problem drinking can disturb family life and be harmful in various ways to children. In the case of a problem-drinking father and his son, aspects of the father-son relationship and of the father as a male role model also assume major importance. Consequently, fathers drinking may continue to be a sensitive and a painful topic for their sons in adulthood. Moreover, several studies indicate that recruiting young men as a focus group for interview study is complicated. In addition, family matters are often perceived as something private, not to be talked about or shared with outsiders.For these reasons the life story interview method can be problematic for the researcher interested in collecting and interpreting interview data on sons childhood experiences. In my study, both finding interviewees, carrying out interviews on a sensitive topic and interpreting the data truthfully were challenging tasks presenting a number of ethical considerations. The data used in the study consist of 21 life story interviews with young Finnish men aged 21-42. While these young men were growing up, their fathers were problem drinkers. In the interviews the young men produced narratives or stories about their lives from an adult perspective. Thus narrative analysis is suggested to be applied in analysing the interviews.

  15. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infantile Psychomotor Outcome

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on child development outcomes were studied prospectively in an obstetric unit of a large US urban teaching hospital at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH.

  16. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infantile Psychomotor Outcome

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    The effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on child development outcomes were studied prospectively in an obstetric unit of a large US urban teaching hospital at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH.

  17. Prenatal care in your first trimester

    ... sickness What to do about vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy You will also be given prenatal vitamins with ... tests are done to find problems or infections early in the pregnancy. This panel of tests includes, but is not ...

  18. Prenatal Inflammation Linked to Autism Risk

    ... Thursday, January 24, 2013 Prenatal inflammation linked to autism risk Maternal inflammation during early pregnancy may be related to an increased risk of autism in children, according to new findings supported by ...

  19. Opportunities and limitations of poor South African fathers: the Child Support Grant and the capabilities of fathers to practice fatherhood in South Africa

    Brils, F.A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to enhance understanding on how fathers perceive their fatherhood and if they see the CSG facilitating or constraining their opportunities as a father. This broadens the knowledge about the impact of the CSG by which policymakers can be informed. The data can also help to develop other appropriate interventions for poor fathers.

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of right diaphragmatic eventration associated with fetal hydrops.

    Iskender, Cantekin; Tarım, Ebru; Yalcınkaya, Cem

    2012-05-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic eventration (CDE) is a rare diaphragmatic abnormality. Clinical manifestations of CDE may mimic congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Prenatal differential diagnosis of eventration is critical because postnatal managing and prognosis of these conditions vary significantly. Sonographic features of CDE involve presence of abdominal organs in the thorax, shift of cardiac axis and mediastinum. Non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) has been previously reported to be associated with intrathoracic masses as well as CDE. In this report, we present a case of congenital right diaphragmatic eventration associated with NIHF. PMID:22519886

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital lung malformations

    Prenatal diagnosis of congenital lung anomalies has increased in recent years as imaging methods have benefitted from technical improvements. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate typical imaging findings of a wide spectrum of congenital lung anomalies on prenatal US and MRI. Moreover, we propose an algorithm based on imaging findings to facilitate the differential diagnosis, and suggest a follow-up algorithm during pregnancy and in the immediate postnatal period. (orig.)

  2. Prenatal Programming and Toxicity (PPTOX) Introduction

    Birnbaum, Linda S.; Miller, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    The developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis posits that early-life exposures, including prenatal, can influence disease outcomes throughout the entire lifespan of an organism. Over the past 30 years, scientific researchers have compiled robust epidemiological and mechanistic data showing the effects of early-life nutrition, chemical exposures, and stress on prenatal programing and toxicity. Using novel techniques in genomics and epigenetics, science is now establishing strong li...

  3. Neurobehavioral teratogenicity of prenatal ionizing-radiations

    Prenatal irradiation upon the human embryo may result in both malformations and structural damage or degeneration of the nervous system. Neurobehavioral effects of prenatal irradiation can be also regarded as non-stochastic effects with threshold doses. Since up to now only little is known about the molecular basis of learning, memory and behavior the lowest radiation doses for the neurobehavioral teratogenicity of the non-stochastic effects is fairly obscure. (author)

  4. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital lung malformations

    Alamo, Leonor; Gudinchet, Francois; Meuli, Reto [Centre Hospitaliere Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Unit of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Reinberg, Olivier [Centre Hospitaliere Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Department of Pediatric Surgery, Lausanne (Switzerland); Vial, Yvan; Francini, Katyuska [Centre Hospitaliere Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Osterheld, Maria-Chiara [Centre Hospitaliere Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Department of Pathology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-03-15

    Prenatal diagnosis of congenital lung anomalies has increased in recent years as imaging methods have benefitted from technical improvements. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate typical imaging findings of a wide spectrum of congenital lung anomalies on prenatal US and MRI. Moreover, we propose an algorithm based on imaging findings to facilitate the differential diagnosis, and suggest a follow-up algorithm during pregnancy and in the immediate postnatal period. (orig.)

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung: A case report

    Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation is one of a rare congenital malformation usually unilateal in volving a part of lobe or a whole lobe of the fetal lung, characterized by excessive growing of terminal respiratory element. We made a prenatal diagnosis in a case of congenital cystic adenomdtoid malformation with diffuse bilateral involvement, Stocker Type III which is associated with fetal hydrops

  6. Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor

    Smith, Desmond J. (Oakland, CA); Rubin, Edward M. (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

  7. Prenatal PAH Exposure is Associated with Chromosome-specific Aberrations in Cord Blood

    Orjuela, Manuela A.; Liu, Xinhua; Warburton, Dorothy; Siebert, Aisha L.; Cujar, Claudia; Tang, Deliang; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; PERERA, FREDERICA P.

    2010-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are associated with increased cancer risk in adults. Previously, we demonstrated that stable aberrations involving chromosomes 1-6 in cord blood are associated with prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) measured in air and are disproportionate to genomic content. We now examine whether the association with air PAHs is chromosome-specific and extends to smaller chromosomes.

  8. Development of Swallowing and Feeding: Prenatal through First Year of Life

    Delaney, Amy L.; Arvedson, Joan C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of feeding and swallowing involves a highly complex set of interactions that begin in embryologic and fetal periods and continue through infancy and early childhood. This article will focus on swallowing and feeding development in infants who are developing normally with a review of some aspects of prenatal development that provide…

  9. Prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal anomaly

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic characteristic of a rare malformation comples, Cloacal anomaly on prenatal ultrasonography. From March 1991 to July 2001, eight cases with the persistent cloaca (4 cases in female and 1 case in male) and cloacal exstrophy (3 cases) diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound examination were included, and all of them were pathologically confirmed by autopsy. One radiologist retrospectively analyzed the prenatal sonographic images, including the urinary bladder, kidney, pelvic cyst, abdominal wall defect and amount of amniotic fluid. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was established at 21.8 ± 7.8 weeks of gestation. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of the persistent cloaca were absent bladder (n=2), distended bladder (n=2) and small thick bladder (n=1). Sonography of the kidney showed normal (n=2), hydronephrosis (n=1), dysplasia (n=1) and unilateral hydronephrosis with absent contralateral kidney (n=1). Four fetuses showed septated pelvic cyst; three fetuses, oligohydramnios. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal exstrophy included absent bladder (n=3), normal kidney (n=1), hydronephrosis (n=1) and absent kidney (n=1). All fetuses with cloacal exstrophy had abdominal wall defect while two of them had oligohydramnios. A prenatal diagnosis of persistent cloaca can be confidently made when there is septated pelvic cyst combined oligohydramnios, sediments within the cyst and intraluminal calcifications. Cloacal exstrophy should be included in diagnosis if there is a low abdominal wall defect with absent urinary bladder.

  10. Family structure and use of prenatal care

    Elisabete Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04, an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02, and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively. The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.

  11. Prenatal molecular testing for Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell syndromes

    Eggermann, Thomas; Brioude, Frédéric; Russo, Silvia; Lombardi, Maria P; Bliek, Jet; Maher, Eamonn R; Larizza, Lidia; Prawitt, Dirk; Netchine, Irène; Gonzales, Marie; Grønskov, Karen; Tümer, Zeynep; Monk, David; Mannens, Marcel; Chrzanowska, Krystyna; Walasek, Malgorzata K; Begemann, Matthias; Soellner, Lukas; Eggermann, Katja; Tenorio, Jair; Nevado, Julián; Moore, Gudrun E; Mackay, Deborah Jg; Temple, Karen; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Ogata, Tsutomu; Weksberg, Rosanna; Algar, Elizabeth; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    concerning the inheritance and recurrence risks for the epigenetic abnormalities, which are hallmarks of these developmental disorders. In this paper, experts in the field of BWS and SRS, including members of the European network of congenital IDs (EUCID.net; www.imprinting-disorders.eu), put together their...... the cases. In addition, 10% of the SRS patients carry a maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 11p15.5. There is an increasing demand for prenatal testing of these disorders owing to family history, indicative prenatal ultrasound findings or aberrations involving chromosomes 7 and 11. The complex...

  12. The Effect of Prenatal Exposure to Restraint Stress on Hippocampal Granule Neurons of Adult Rat Offspring

    Hosseini-sharifabad, Mohammad; Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Hosseini-sharifabad, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) It is well known that prenatal stresses (PS) induce a variety of neurobiological and behavioral alterations, some of them involving the hippocampal formation. This study aimed to determine whether restraint stress influences the neuronal volume and number of granule cells in the hippocampus of adult rat offspring. Materials and Methods Ten Wistar pregnant rats were randomly divided: stressed and control groups. Pregnant dams in the stressed group were placed in a Plexiglas restraint tube for 1 hr daily from days 15-21 of gestation. Neuroendocrinological consequences of prenatal stress exposure were evaluated in the male offspring on postnatal day 60. The total numbers and the individual volume of granule cells in the hippocampus were also estimated with the optical fractionator and the rotator methods, respectively. Results Prenatally stressed rats exhibited prolonged elevation in plasma glucocorticoid levels following acute exposure to restraint stress. Data also indicated that there is a decrease in neuronal volume of hippocampal granule cells in prenatally stressed compared with their controls (62564.1 m3 vs. 74180.6 m3). There was no significant difference in the total number of granule cells between prenatally stressed and control animals. Conclusion The present study indicated that exposure of pregnant female during last week of pregnancy leads to a decline in neuronal size in hippocampus of adult male rats without neuronal loss. The present results may provide a basis for the understanding of the reported disturbances in behavior and learning of PS offspring. PMID:23493456

  13. Characterization of the cognitive impairments induced by prenatal exposure to stress in the rat

    Julie A. Markham

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that male rats exposed to gestational stress exhibit phenotypes resembling what is observed in schizophrenia, including hypersensitivity to amphetamine, blunted sensory gating, disrupted social behavior, impaired stress axis regulation, and aberrant prefrontal expression of genes involved in synaptic plasticity. Maternal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse cognitive outcomes among children, as well as an increased risk for developing schizophrenia, which is characterized by significant cognitive deficits. We sought to characterize the long-term cognitive outcome of prenatal stress using a preclinical paradigm, which is readily amenable to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Rats exposed to repeated variable prenatal stress during the third week of gestation were evaluated using a battery of cognitive tests, including the novel object recognition task, cued and contextual fear conditioning, the Morris water maze, and iterative versions of a paradigm in which working and reference memory for both objects and spatial locations can be assessed (the Can Test. Prenatally stressed males were impaired relative to controls on each of these tasks, confirming the face validity of this preclinical paradigm and extending the cognitive implications of prenatal stress exposure beyond the hippocampus. Interestingly, in experiments where both sexes were included, the performance of females was found to be less affected by prenatal stress compared to that of males. This could be related to the finding that women are less vulnerable than men to schizophrenia, and merits further investigation.

  14. Experiences of young adult women with emotionally absent fathers / Emené Peyper

    Peyper, Emené

    2013-01-01

    For many years the focus of research on child well-being and development has been primarily on the dynamics of the mother-child relationship. The mother was seen as the more influential parent as she spends more time with the children. The father’s role in the development process was thus undermined. Fortunately research on the father’s involvement in a child’s life has improved over the past thirty years. Where previously fathers were mostly perceived as the breadwinners and p...

  15. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events comparison with the effects of prenatal dexamethasone

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L; Hansen, Ase M; Werge, Thomas; Lund, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed gestat...

  16. A case of prenatally detected hepatic cyst communicating with the hepatic duct

    Shinsuke Katsuno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe the case of a 9-year-old girl. During the patient's prenatal period, her mother had suffered domestic violence perpetrated by the patient's father. On maternal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, an intraabdominal cystic lesion was detected in the fetus at around the 30th prenatal week. The patient was delivered normally, and there were no evident anomalies on her body. Computed tomography with drip infusion cholangiography and percutaneous retrograde transhepatic cholangiography demonstrated an intrahepatic cyst of approximately 3 cm in diameter, which was located at S5–S8 and communicated with the confluence of the bilateral hepatic ducts. The cyst is clinically conjectured to be a solitary intrahepatic biliary cyst. However, it remains possible that the cyst is a ciliated hepatic foregut cyst or indicates hepatic injury that may have occurred as a result of domestic violence to the mother. Careful, long-term observation of the patient will be continued to ensure that any malignant transformation is not missed.

  17. Prenatal imaging of amniotic band sequence: utility and role of fetal MRI as an adjunct to prenatal US

    Amniotic band sequence and its US manifestations have been well-described. There is little information, however, regarding the accuracy and utility of fetal MRI. To describe the MRI findings in amniotic band sequence and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of MRI and US. Prenatal MRI and US studies were retrospectively reviewed in 14 consecutive pregnancies with confirmed amniotic band sequence. Both studies were evaluated for amniotic band visualization, body part affected, type of deformity, umbilical cord involvement and vascular abnormality. Amniotic bands were confidently identified with MRI in 8 fetuses (57%), suggested with MRI in 3 fetuses (21%) and confidently seen by US in 13 fetuses (93%). Neither modality detected surgically proven bands on one fetus. Both techniques were equally able to define the body part affected and the type of deformity. At least one limb abnormality was visualized in all cases and truncal involvement was present in two cases. Cord involvement was identified in seven cases, with one case detected only by MRI. Fetal MRI is able to visualize amniotic bands and their secondary manifestations and could be complementary to prenatal US when fetal surgery is contemplated. (orig.)

  18. Prenatal imaging of amniotic band sequence: utility and role of fetal MRI as an adjunct to prenatal US

    Neuman, Jeremy [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Staten Island University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Bitters, Constance; Merrow, Arnold C.; Guimaraes, Carolina V.A. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Fetal Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Amniotic band sequence and its US manifestations have been well-described. There is little information, however, regarding the accuracy and utility of fetal MRI. To describe the MRI findings in amniotic band sequence and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of MRI and US. Prenatal MRI and US studies were retrospectively reviewed in 14 consecutive pregnancies with confirmed amniotic band sequence. Both studies were evaluated for amniotic band visualization, body part affected, type of deformity, umbilical cord involvement and vascular abnormality. Amniotic bands were confidently identified with MRI in 8 fetuses (57%), suggested with MRI in 3 fetuses (21%) and confidently seen by US in 13 fetuses (93%). Neither modality detected surgically proven bands on one fetus. Both techniques were equally able to define the body part affected and the type of deformity. At least one limb abnormality was visualized in all cases and truncal involvement was present in two cases. Cord involvement was identified in seven cases, with one case detected only by MRI. Fetal MRI is able to visualize amniotic bands and their secondary manifestations and could be complementary to prenatal US when fetal surgery is contemplated. (orig.)

  19. The Assessment of Postpartum Depression in Fathers and its Correlates

    A. Gülsen Ceyhun Peker1

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to determine the rates and risk factors for post-partum depression in fathers. Methods: The study was carried out with 252 fathers who agreed to participate, at Ankara University School of Medicine Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between April and June 2013. Two interviews were conducted; first at childbirth, and second at 6th week post-partum. Paternal depression was assessed with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and Socio-demographic Questionnaire. Results: Mean EPDS scores in the first and second interviews were 5,35±4,29 and 5,85±4,08 respectively. Depression rates in fathers assessed with EPDS at 6th week postpartum was 5,6%. Factors that raise the incidence of depression were determined as: Number of children, number of individuals living with the family and number of individuals who are taken care of, history of psychiatric disorders, unplanned pregnancies, marital conflicts and lack of social support. Fathers with higher incomes and/or no gender expectations had less depression rates. Conclusion: Fathers should be screened and if needed referred for postpartum depression to Obstetrics and Gynecology departments and primary care for counseling and support. Further research with larger samples is crucial to determine fast and effective screening policies as this could represent an important opportunity for public health intervention.

  20. Father Absence, Childhood Stress, and Reproductive Maturation in South Africa.

    Anderson, Kermyt G

    2015-12-01

    The hypothesis that father absence during childhood, as well as other forms of childhood psychosocial stress, might influence the timing of sexual maturity and adult reproductive behaviors has been the focus of considerable research. However, the majority of studies that have examined this prediction have used samples of women of European descent living in industrialized, low-fertility nations. This paper tests the father-absence hypothesis using the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS), which samples young adults in Cape Town, South Africa. The sample contains multiple racial groups (blacks, coloureds [mixed race], and whites) and includes both males and females. Dependent variables include age at menarche, age at first sexual intercourse, and age at first pregnancy. Childhood stress is measured by father absence by age six (either never lived with father or lived with father some but not all years) and an index of childhood exposure to violence (measuring threatened or actual verbal or physical abuse). The hypothesis received no support for effect on age at menarche but was supported for age at first sex and first pregnancy. The model showed stronger support for coloureds and whites than blacks and had no predictive power at all for black males. PMID:26471378

  1. Challenging behaviors in young children: the father's role.

    Burbach, Ann D; Fox, Robert A; Nicholson, Bonnie C

    2004-06-01

    In this study, the authors examined the parenting practices, developmental expectations, and stress levels of 136 fathers and the challenging and prosocial behaviors of their 1- to 5-year-old children. In addition, the authors systematically addressed fathers' qualitative concerns about their parenting. The authors divided the participants into 4 groups and controlled for family socioeconomic status (SES) and the focus child's gender. Results showed a significantly higher use of corporal and verbal punishment and parenting stress among lower income fathers. Secondary analyses demonstrated a significant effect of paternal disciplinary practices that emphasized the frequent use of corporal and verbal punishment on child behavior problems, regardless of SES level. On a positive note, fathers from both lower and higher SES groups had reasonable developmental expectations for their boys and girls, and they reported similar frequencies of their children's prosocial behavior. The authors discuss the need for early parent education programs that include fathers and that teach specific strategies to address child behavior problems. PMID:15259875

  2. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events comparison with the effects of prenatal dexamethasone

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L; Hansen, Ase M; Werge, Thomas; Lund, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...... naïve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring that...... of the acoustic startle response. Further, a single aversive life event showed capable of changing the reactivity of prenatally stressed offspring, whereas offspring of dams going through a less stressful gestation was largely unaffected by this event. This suggests that circumstances dating back to...

  3. Occupational Careers and Social Origin Revisited: The Father's Micro- Class and Individuals Careers

    Kristiansen, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent social stratification scholarship examines the influence of parental status or big-class on individuals career attainment. The authors draw on the recent micro-class approach to hypothesize on the influence of the fathers micro-class or occupation-specific resources on individuals careers, and study (1) how often individuals work in their fathers occupation and (2) how the fathers micro-class resources affect career progression. Using life-course data on the careers of Dutch me...

  4. How are they doing? Listening as fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder compare themselves to fathers of children who are typically developing.

    Cheuk, Samantha; Lashewicz, Bonnie

    2016-04-01

    The growing prevalence of autism spectrum disorder is accompanied by ongoing efforts to understand and support parents in the face of challenges related to their child's autism spectrum disorder. Although fathers are increasingly hands-on in raising children, research focus on parenting children with autism spectrum disorder continues to be skewed toward experiences of mothers. Our purpose in this article is to contribute understandings of how fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder perceive themselves to be managing, and we undertake this by examining comparisons fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder make between their parenting experiences and experiences of fathers of typically developing children. A purposive sample of 28 fathers of children (aged 2-13 years) with autism spectrum disorder living in an urban center in Western Canada participated in in-depth interviews about their parenting successes and challenges. We found fathers speak of universal fathering experiences yet articulate their own sense of loss and efforts to come to terms with unanticipated demands associated with autism spectrum disorder. Fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder feel "pangs of jealousy" toward fathers of typically developing children, yet they are keenly attentive to their own child's development and convey a sense of gratitude for their child's capabilities and personality amidst an appreciation for trials and triumphs of fathering in general and fathering a child with autism spectrum disorder in particular. PMID:25976158

  5. Viewing Low-Income Fathers' Ties to Families through a Cultural Lens: Insights for Research and Policy.

    Waller, Maureen R

    2010-05-01

    Policy makers have become increasingly interested in addressing the cultural dimensions of child support, "responsible fatherhood," and marriage in poor communities. However, policy studies have primarily focused on identifying economic determinants of these issues, with a substantial amount of variation in their statistical models left unexplained. This article draws on in-depth interviews the author conducted with disadvantaged mothers and fathers to illustrate how a systematic investigation into the meaning of low-income men's ties to families may fill in or provide alternative explanations for some important questions related to paternal involvement. In particular, it suggests that analyzing fathers' relationships through a cultural lens may not only reveal new information about the meaning of their emotional involvement, informal support, care of children, and conflicts with mothers which future policy studies should consider but may also inform policy initiatives by reducing the risk that they will be misdirected or have unintended consequences for poor families. PMID:21625346

  6. Women's and care providers' perspectives of quality prenatal care: a qualitative descriptive study

    Sword Wendy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been given to the adequacy of prenatal care use in promoting healthy outcomes for women and their infants. Adequacy of use takes into account the timing of initiation of prenatal care and the number of visits. However, there is emerging evidence that the quality of prenatal care may be more important than adequacy of use. The purpose of our study was to explore women's and care providers' perspectives of quality prenatal care to inform the development of items for a new instrument, the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire. We report on the derivation of themes resulting from this first step of questionnaire development. Methods A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 pregnant women and 40 prenatal care providers recruited from five urban centres across Canada. Data were analyzed using inductive open and then pattern coding. The final step of analysis used a deductive approach to assign the emergent themes to broader categories reflective of the study's conceptual framework. Results The three main categories informed by Donabedian's model of quality health care were structure of care, clinical care processes, and interpersonal care processes. Structure of care themes included access, physical setting, and staff and care provider characteristics. Themes under clinical care processes were health promotion and illness prevention, screening and assessment, information sharing, continuity of care, non-medicalization of pregnancy, and women-centredness. Interpersonal care processes themes were respectful attitude, emotional support, approachable interaction style, and taking time. A recurrent theme woven throughout the data reflected the importance of a meaningful relationship between a woman and her prenatal care provider that was characterized by trust. Conclusions While certain aspects of structure of care were identified as being key dimensions of quality prenatal care, clinical and interpersonal care processes emerged as being most essential to quality care. These processes are important as they have a role in mitigating adverse outcomes, promoting involvement of women in their own care, and keeping women engaged in care. The findings suggest key considerations for the planning, delivery, and evaluation of prenatal care. Most notably, care should be woman-centred and embrace shared decision making as an essential element.

  7. Prenatal Care Services in Aydin Province

    Erdal BESER

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care in Aydin province. It was a cross-sectional study. 195 women (pregnant/women at postpartum period living in the Aydin province participated in the study. Cluster and simple random sampling method was used in the selection of women from 10 health centers (one rural-one urban health station each. Data obtained by face to face interview technique. Turkey Demografic Health Survey criteria were used for evaluation of the quantity of prenatal care as ?sufficient? or ?insufficient? and quality of prenatal care was scored as ?1-2?(bad, ?3-4?(moderate and ?5-6?(good. Chi-square, Mann Whitney-U and t tests were used for analysis. One fifth of each pregnant women who were in last trimester and 11.3% of women in postpartum period stated that they were not followed up by an health personnel during pregnancy. One third of pregnant women who were in last trimester and 58.5% of women in postpartum period said they weren?t visited by an health personnel in the first trimester. Besides, quality points of prenatal care were found low, both in pregnant women and women in post partum period. It was found that living in urban areas, high education level and presence of social security effected getting adequate prenatal care. The quality and quantity of prenatal care was found less than expected in Aydin province which is located in the western region of Turkey. It is necessary that, health personnel must be more sensitive to convey ?adequate? prenatal care especially women who are living in rural areas, who have low educational level and who have no social security. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(2: 137-141

  8. A interao pai-beb entre pais adolescentes e adultos The father-baby interaction between adolescent and adult fathers

    Daniela Centenaro Levandowski

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora muitos estudos investiguem a maternidade na adolescncia, poucos tm investigado a paternidade adolescente. Uma vez que o adolescente precisa cumprir diversas tarefas prprias da fase na qual se encontra, ele tenderia a ficar sobrecarregado com as tarefas adicionais decorrentes da paternidade. Em virtude disso, sua interao com o beb seria menos responsiva do que a de pais adultos. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste estudo foi examinar eventuais diferenas entre pais adolescentes e adultos na interao com o beb aos 3 meses de vida. Participaram do estudo 20 pais, sendo 9 adolescentes e 11 adultos, que esperavam seu primeiro filho. Quando o beb completou 3 meses, foi realizada uma observao domiciliar da interao da dade pai-beb. As anlises no revelaram diferenas significativas na interao pai-beb entre adolescentes e adultos. Estes resultados sugerem que a idade no necessariamente um fator determinante da responsividade do pai em relao ao beb. Ao contrrio da expectativa inicial, estes adolescentes mostraram-se to responsivos ao beb quanto os pais adultos.Although many studies have investigated adolescent motherhood, only a few have focused on adolescent fatherhood. It is believed that since the adolescent already has several tasks to deal with concerning his own adolescent period, he would be overwhelmed by the additional tasks regarding fatherhood. As a result, his interaction with his baby would be less responsive than an adult fathers. This study aimed at examining possible differences between adolescent and adult fathers interaction with their 3-month-old baby. Twenty fathers, 9 adolescents and 11 adults, participated in the study. A home observation of the father-baby interaction was carried out when the baby was 3 months old. The analyses did not reveal significant differences between adolescent and adult fathers interaction with the baby. These results suggest that age is not necessarily a determinant factor of fathers responsivity towards his baby. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, the adolescents were as responsive to the baby as the adult fathers.

  9. Michael Longleys Father: Memory, Mourning and History

    Barry Sloan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael Longleys father has been a recurring presence in the poets work from his earliest to his most recent collection. This paper examines the exceptional strength of that bond reflected in the varied and changing ways in which the poet has responded to it memorizing and mourning his loss; discovering through his fathers First World War stories a means of memorialising loss of life in contemporary conflicts and a way of facing the history of the twentieth century; confronting his own ageing and sense of mortality; and marking the specific, but also representative, generational history of his family. Close readings of key poems are offered to highlight Longleys skills in meeting his own exacting standards of aesthetic propriety and moral and social responsibility for writers of elegy in order to avoid either exploitation of tragedy and loss, or facile gestures of consolation.

  10. The role of the father in the development of psychosis

    Avramaki Elissavet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In psychoanalysis, fathering has not received much analytical attention and only little is known about the actual impact of paternity on the development of certain psychopathology. This paper seeks to carefully examine and critically discuss the impact of fathering on psychotic individuals. It elaborates on the importance of the father in the healthy development of the children, as well as on the consequences that his absence entails for their psyche. Drawing on a Lacanian analytical framework, it is argued that, nowadays, the paternal figure has significantly lost its previous status. The gradual extinction of the paternal function, within the contemporary cultural environment, is mainly because of important social and legal changes in the familial structure, such as the increase of single-parent families and the legalization of the adoption of children by gay couples.

  11. The prenatal environment and type 1 diabetes.

    Stene, L C; Gale, E A M

    2013-09-01

    There is ample evidence that environmental factors are involved in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes, but the nature and timing of the interactions are poorly understood. The intrauterine environment is known to play a role in the later development of type 2 diabetes, and this review considers a possible role in type 1 diabetes. Autoimmune type 1 diabetes is rare in those diagnosed before 6 months of age, but endogenous autoantibodies predictive of future type 1 diabetes may be detectable by 6-12 months of age, suggesting that environmental factors may operate before this age in some cases. Indirect evidence of a protective effect for the intrauterine environment comes from the observation that mothers with type 1 diabetes are less likely than affected fathers to transmit diabetes to their offspring, although the precise role (if any) is unclear. The risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes increases with maternal age at delivery, and with high birthweight, but these associations are weak and heterogeneous, and these factors are unlikely to be directly causally related to type 1 diabetes. No firm conclusion can be drawn from studies of maternal enteroviral infection or from various nutritional exposures. The birth process itself may play a role, as suggested by the slightly increased risk in children born by Caesarean section; lack of contact with maternal bacteria is one suggested mechanism. In sum, there is circumstantial evidence, but no proof of principle, that maternal or intrauterine conditions may modulate genetic risk of type 1 diabetes. The disease process culminating in type 1 diabetes typically begins in early life, but it is not clear whether the trail begins before or after birth. PMID:23657800

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of homozygous ?-thalassemia

    An in vitro test for the prenatal diagnosis of homozygous ?-thalassaemia and its application is described. The basic methodology consists in obtaining a minute specimen of placental blood by blind aspiration or foetoscopy at the 18th to 20th week of gestation, incubating a sample in the presence of 3H-leucine, separating the labelled globin chains by chromatography on sodium carboxymethyl cellulose microcolumns with 8M urea-mercaptoethanol and measuring the radioactivity associated with the ?- and ?-chains. The ?/(pre-?+?) radioactivity ratio is used as an index of adequacy of ?-chain synthesis, a value greater than 0.07 being taken as indicative of freedom from disease and a value less than 0.03 indicative of homozygous ?-thalassaemia. From 350 women seeking the test, 344 samples were tested; 269 were judged normal or heterozygous, 75 homozygous for ?-thalassaemia. Four false negatives were identified, 3 having given borderline ?/(pre-?+?) ratios. Complications leading to foetal loss fell from 16% over the first year's experience to 8% over the second and 5% over the third. The test is now judged suitable for general use and is indeed being so used

  13. Biological effects of prenatal irradiation

    After large releases of radionuclides, exposure of the embryo or fetus can take place by external irradiation or uptake of radionuclies. The embryo and fetus are radiosensitive throughout prenatal development. The quality and extent of radiation effects depend on the development stage. During the preimplantation period (one to 10 days postconception, p.c.) a radiation exposure of at least 0.2 Gy can cause the death of the embryo. Malformations are only observed in rare cases when genetic predisposition exist. Macroscopic, anatomical malformations are induced only after irradiation during the major organogenesis (two to eight weeks p.c.). A radiation dose of about 0.2 Gy is a doubling dose for the malformation risks as extrapolated from experiments with rodents. The human embryo may be more radioresistant. During early fetogenesis (8-15 weeks p.c.) a high radiosensitivity exists for the developmental of the brain. Radiation doses of 1.0 Gy cause severe mental retardation in about 40% of the exposed fetuses. It must be taken into account that a radiation exposure during the fetal period can also induce cancer. It is generally assumed that the risk exists at about the same level as for children. (Author)

  14. The Determinants of Paternal Involvement in Primiparous Swedish Families.

    Lamb, Michael E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Considers employment factors as determinants of parental involvement in the care of 138 first-born children of 16 and 28 months. Results indicated that fathers were more involved when they assumed more responsibility for child care chores, when they had been more involved 12 months earlier, and when their partners worked more. (RJC)

  15. Prenatal Acetaminophen Use Tied to Higher Asthma Risk in Kids

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157178.html Prenatal Acetaminophen Use Tied to Higher Asthma Risk in ... to prove cause-and-effect, researchers found that prenatal exposure to the over-the-counter medicine was ...

  16. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    ... 2014 Disorganized cortical patches suggest prenatal origin of autism NIH-funded study shows disrupted cell layering process ... study suggests that brain irregularities in children with autism can be traced back to prenatal development. “While ...

  17. William James Morton [1845-1920]: like father, like son (?).

    Aponte-Feliciano, Antonio; Desai, Sukumar P; Desai, Manisha S

    2013-04-01

    William Thomas Green Morton, the man most commonly associated with the introduction of anesthesia in 1846, fathered William James Morton. William James Morton's contributions to society were substantial. He conducted pioneering work in radiology, radiation oncology, and therapeutic electricity. He authored numerous textbooks and articles, and he was an editor of a journal on human behavior. His expertise on diamond mining led to an error in judgment that resulted in a felony conviction. We examine his career and contributions to society, and consider his career in light of his father, William Thomas Green Morton. PMID:24205753

  18. Prenatal Diagnosis and Outcome of Congenital Lung Mass

    Song, Mi Jin [Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    With the widespread use of high-resolution ultrasound examinations, congenital lung masses are frequently detected during a routine prenatal ultrasound examination. The purpose of this pictorial review is to demonstrate the natural history of congenital lung masses through the evaluation of serial prenatal ultrasound examinations and postnatal examinations, and to suggest adequate prenatal management

  19. Prenatal Diagnosis and Outcome of Congenital Lung Mass

    With the widespread use of high-resolution ultrasound examinations, congenital lung masses are frequently detected during a routine prenatal ultrasound examination. The purpose of this pictorial review is to demonstrate the natural history of congenital lung masses through the evaluation of serial prenatal ultrasound examinations and postnatal examinations, and to suggest adequate prenatal management

  20. Early prenatal diagnosis of the ICF syndrome.

    Bjrck, E J; Bui, T H; Wijmenga, C; Grandell, U; Nordenskjld, M

    2000-10-01

    The ICF syndrome (immunodeficiency, (para)centromeric instability and facial abnormalities) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic cytogenetic aberrations of chromosomes 1, 9 and 16 in lymphocytes. Previously, only one case has been diagnosed prenatally in the second trimester of pregnancy by fetal blood sampling. We report the first early prenatal exclusion of the ICF syndrome by chorionic villous sampling (CVS) and linkage analysis in a family with a previous affected child. The fetus was heterozygous for marker D20S850 closely linked to the ICF locus. The family was counselled of a probability of over 90% that the fetus would be unaffected. Postnatal chromosome analysis on peripheral blood was normal and thus confirmed the prenatal diagnosis. PMID:11038463

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly: A case report

    Cerovac Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lissencephaly (“smooth brain” forms a major group of brain malformations due to abnormal neuronal migration. It can cause severe intellectual and motor disability and epilepsy in children. The prenatal diagnosis of this malformation is rare. Case report. We presented a case of the prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly. A 30-year old pregnant woman was reffered to the hospital at the week 35 of gestation for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI after an ultrasound examination demonstrated fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly. Fetal MRI of the brain showed “smooth”, agyrya cortex. The female infant was born at term with birth weight of 2,500 g and Apgar score 8, showing global developmental delay. Postnatal ultrasound and MRI confirmed classical lissencephaly. She is now 8 years old and has spastic quadriparesis, mental retardation and epilepsy. Conclusion. Confirmation of the ultrasound diagnosis with MRI is desirable for the prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly.

  2. Finding the Two-Way Street: Women from Mother-Present/Father-Absent Homes and Their Ability to Make Close Female Friendships

    Marote, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    This heuristic study involving seven coresearchers, which included the author, explores the experiences of women from mother-present/father-absent homes and their ability to form and maintain close female friendships. The heuristic research model was chosen to provide the opportunity to conduct research in a very personalized, collaborative way…

  3. Queer Kinship: An Exploration of the Rewards and Challenges of Planned Parenting among Gay Fathers

    Barr, Ben-David

    2011-01-01

    Gay fathers are creating family forms and parenting practices that reach beyond the nuclear family model. Analysis suggests that fathers in this study are developing unique and queer versions of kinship. Fathers' desire for emotional connection leads to the creative assemblage of paid caregivers, friends, children's non-legal biological kin, and gay men's families of origin into kinship networks. These creative mixtures may be perceived as unusual family formations, but they assist gay father...

  4. Experiences of fathering a baby admitted to neonatal intensive care: A critical gender analysis

    Deeney, Kathleen; Lohan, Maria; Spence, Dale; Parkes, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    More fathers than ever before attend at the birth of their child and, internationally, there is a palpable pressure on maternity and neonatal services to include and engage with fathers. It is, thus, more important than ever to understand how fathers experience reproductive and neonatal health services and to understand how fathers can be successfully accommodated in these environments alongside their partners. In this paper we advance a theoretical framework for re-thinking fatherhood and he...

  5. Fatherhood and children with complex healthcare needs: qualitative study of fathering, caring and parenting

    Noyes Jane

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fathers are increasingly providing substantial amounts of technical and nursing care to growing numbers of children with complex healthcare needs. This exploratory study reports some of the first in-depth evidence of fathers' experiences and presents a research agenda in this critically under-researched area. Methods We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 8 fathers who provided a substantial amount of complex technical and nursing care for their child at home. The aim was to describe their experiences of fathering, parenting and caring. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Burnard's approach, which has commonalities with phenomenological and content analysis. Results and Discussion Fathers enjoyed their caring role and found it rewarding and at times stressful. They instituted structured regimes, which focused on the father/child/family. Performing intimate care posed specific challenges for which there is no guidance. Children's community nursing was highly valued. Fathers generally rejected the need for specific father-focussed services, as such provision would induce guilt feelings. Fathers reported positive relationships with their children and partners. Conclusions Key areas for future exploration include gaining a better understanding of fathers' motivations and styles of caring, developing interventions to support fathers' caring role, developing guidance on intimate care, and delivering tailored services to fathers in a family context. There is little understanding of fathering and caring by non-resident, teenage and step-fathers. Finally, knowing more about resilience and coping of fathers in strong relationships with partners and children may help inform interventions to support fathers who do not feel able to stay with their family.

  6. Prenatally diagnosed de novo complex chromosome rearrangements: Two new cases and review of the literature

    Ruiz, C.; Grubs, R.E.; Jewett, T. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCR) are rare structural rearrangements involving at least three chromosomes with three or more breakpoints. Although there have been numerous reports of individuals with CCR, most have been ascertained through the presence of multiple congenital anomalies, recurrent pregnancy loss, or infertility. Few cases have been ascertained prenatally. We present two new cases of prenatally ascertained CCR. In the first case, an amniocentesis revealed an apparently balanced de novo rearrangement in which chromosomes 5, 6 and 11 were involved in a three-way translocation: 46,XY,t(6;5)(5;11)(q23;p14.3;q15;p13). The pregnancy was unevenful. Recently, at the age of 9 months, a physical and developmental evaluation were normal but, height, weight, and head circumference were below the 5th percentile. In the second case an amniocentesis revealed an unbalanced de novo rearrangement involving separate translocations and an interstitial deletion: 46,XY,del(6)(q25.3q27),t(3;8)(p13;q21.3),t(6;18)(p11.2;q11.2). A meconium plug was present at birth and at 6 months of age surgery for Hirschsprung`s disease was required. Currently, at 10 months of age, the patient has hypotonia and developmental delay. The paucity of information regarding prenatally diagnosed CCR poses a problem in counseling families. Of the four prenatally diagnosed balanced de novo CCR cases, three had abnormal outcomes. In a review of the literature, approximately 70% of the postnatally ascertained balanced de novo CCR cases were associated with congenital anomalies, growth retardation and/or mental retardation. More information regarding the outcome of prenatally ascertained balanced de novo CCR is required for accurate risk assessment.

  7. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  8. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  9. Hydronephrosis: prenatal and postnatal evaluation and management.

    Liu, Dennis B; Armstrong, William R; Maizels, Max

    2014-09-01

    Antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH) is one of the most frequently detected abnormalities found on routine prenatal ultrasounds, affecting 1% to 4.5% of all pregnancies. Despite its prevalence, there continues to be uncertainty regarding the clinical impact after birth. Prognosis depends on the severity of the dilation. Expectant prenatal management is the rule with fetal intervention rarely needed in a few select cases. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction and vesicoureteral reflux are the most common postnatal diagnoses. A renal and bladder ultrasound is essential in the follow-up of patients with ANH and helps dictate further investigation with voiding cystourethrography and/or diuretic renography. PMID:25155734

  10. Presenting the Prenatal Caregiving Experiences Questionnaire

    Røhder, Katrine; Trier, Christopher Høier; Brennan, Jessica; Nayberg, Emilie; Lundy, Jenna Marie; Nyström-Hansen, Maja; Davidsen, Kirstine Agnete; Walsh, Judi; George, Carol; Harder, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The caregiving system was originally described by Bowlby and has been conceptually developed by George and Solomon (1989; 1996; 2008). It is “the other half” of the social bond between parent and child and is described as a behavioural system in its own right that is reciprocally linked to the...... child´s attachment system. The Prenatal Caregiving Experiences Questionnaire (PCEQ) (Brennan, George, & Solomon, 2013) is the first questionnaire that directly assesses prenatal caregiving representation. This poster presentation brings together different researchers who use the instrument in ongoing...

  11. Group prenatal care: has its time come?

    Picklesimer, Amy; Heberlein, Emily; Covington-Kolb, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Group prenatal care is an emerging trend in obstetrics, and for medically low-risk women has been shown to result in lower rates of preterm birth, higher rates of breastfeeding, and higher rates of participation in postpartum family planning. Significant cost savings to the health care system are seen when the lower rates of preterm birth and neonatal intensive care unit admissions are considered. More research is needed about patients' health outcomes as well as the economic and workforce implications to outpatient obstetric practices before widely transitioning prenatal care into group settings. PMID:25775438

  12. Positive Experiences of Mothers and Fathers of Children with Autism

    Kayfitz, Adam D.; Gragg, Marcia N.; Orr, R. Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study examined the positive experiences of parents raising school-aged children with autism within the context of parenting stress. Materials and Methods: Participants included 23 mother/father pairs raising children with autism (ages 5 to 11 years, M = 7.39). Parents completed measures of parenting stress and positive…

  13. Father Presence and Family Formation: A Theoretical Reformulation.

    Krampe, Edythe M.; Fairweather, Paul D.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that studies on transition to parenthood and parent-infant relationship have investigated role of father. Sees family systems perspective focused on triadic and family-of-origin effects in early parenthood. Introduces object relations theory and self-psychology, which permit development of concept of psychic parental coalition, seen as

  14. The Relationship between Father Residency and a Child's ADHD Symptoms

    Sulak, Tracey N.; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Frederick, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a commonly diagnosed neuropsychological disorder among school-aged children. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between father residency status and children's symptoms of ADHD using a large, nationally representative and community-based sample. To achieve this…

  15. The Relationship between Father Residency and a Child's ADHD Symptoms

    Sulak, Tracey N.; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Frederick, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a commonly diagnosed neuropsychological disorder among school-aged children. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between father residency status and children's symptoms of ADHD using a large, nationally representative and community-based sample. To achieve this

  16. Fathering and Mothering of Preschool Boys with Hyperactivity

    Keown, Louise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined links between paternal and maternal parenting factors and preschool hyperactivity in a community sample. Forty-one hyperactive and 38 comparison boys (aged 47-62 months) and their fathers and mothers were assessed on a range of interview, parent questionnaire, and observational measures of parenting and child behavior. Results…

  17. Males, Fathers and Husbands: Changing Roles and Reciprocal Legal Rights

    Aberg, Miriam; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discrimination toward men can be found in the legal definition of marriage, legal age requirements at marriage, support, child custody, unmarried fathers' rights, abortion, and cohabitation. With the increasing equality between the sexes, men will gain in their legal options of roles. (Author)

  18. Fathers' Rights Groups, Domestic Violence and Political Countermobilization

    Crowley, Jocelyn Elise

    2009-01-01

    Domestic violence continues to be a serious problem for women in the United States. As a result, the battered women's movement has been tireless in campaigning for greater awareness of the issue, tougher penalties against offenders, and public vigilance against potential batterers, including fathers from dissolving families. In reaction to this

  19. Father-Child Interactions and Children's Risk of Injury

    StGeorge, Jennifer; Fletcher, Richard; Freeman, Emily; Paquette, Daniel; Dumont, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injury is an important cause of infant and child hospitalisation and parents play a key role in reducing children's risk-taking behaviour. Studies show that maternal and paternal parenting and supervision of children differ, but there is little research showing how fathers' parenting may influence children's tendency to engage in…

  20. Attributions and Attitudes of Mothers and Fathers in Italy.

    Bombi, Anna Silvia; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bacchini, Dario; Di Giunta, Laura; Miranda, Maria C; Zelli, Arnaldo

    2011-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study examined mean level similarities and differences as well as correlations between mothers' and fathers' attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes. DESIGN: Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 177 Italian families from Rome and Naples. RESULTS: Fathers' attributions reflected higher perceived control over failure than did mothers' attributions, whereas mothers reported attitudes that were more progressive than did fathers. Only the difference in progressive attitudes remained significant after controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Site differences emerged for four of the seven attributions and attitudes examined; three remained significant after controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Medium effect sizes were found for concordance between parents in the same family for authoritarian attitudes and modernity of attitudes after controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias. CONCLUSIONS: This work elucidates ways that parent gender and cultural context relate to attributions regarding parents' success and failure in caregiving situations and to progressive versus authoritarian parenting attitudes. PMID:21927586

  1. Preschool children with externalizing behaviors: experience of fathers and mothers.

    Baker, B L; Heller, T L

    1996-08-01

    Childhood behavior disorders are related to family stress and maladjustment. Little is known, however, about the adjustment of families with preschool-aged children at risk for subsequent behavior disorders. Moreover, fathers' perceptions of child problem behavior and their reactions to it generally have been neglected. Subjects were mothers and fathers of 52 preschool-aged children assigned to one of three groups: control, moderate externalizing, and high externalizing. Higher child externalizing behavior was associated with greater negative family impact, lowered parenting sense of efficacy, and child-rearing practices that were more authoritarian and less authoritative. Mothers and fathers did not differ in actual perceived level of child behavior problems, although both believed that mothers saw more problems. Child Group x Parent interactions indicated that mothers experienced increased stress and a need for help with moderate as well as high child externalizing behaviors, whereas fathers were not elevated on these measures unless the child's externalizing behaviors were high. Implications of these findings for early family intervention are considered. PMID:8886946

  2. [Losing one's father at 20 years of age].

    Chapados, C; Migneron, L; Arcand, L

    1997-01-01

    At first intending to describe and understand how all family members experience mourning, three researchers at the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières found that very few studies have dealt with young men's reactions to the deaths of their fathers. The researchers then conducted a qualitative study, using a phenomenological approach, of this as yet little-explored subject. This study, Le deuil tel qu'expérimenté par les fils lors du décès de leur père (Grieving as experienced by sons on their fathers' death), enabled them to describe and better understand what young men experience on their fathers' death. The father was an important figure in the subjects' lives, and his death was a pivotal experience for each of them. The family structure was shattered and, while each subject's experience was unique, their intense reactions resemble those described by grief theorists. In a detailed discussion of the results of the study, the authors relate these results to theories on grief and youth, and suggest applications in nursing practice. PMID:9355417

  3. Mothers' and Fathers' Socialization of Preschoolers' Physical Risk Taking

    Hagan, Lisa Kindleberger; Kuebli, Janet

    2007-01-01

    This study examined how parents influence sex differences in young children's physical risk taking behaviors. Eighty three- and four-year old, mostly middle class and Caucasian children climbed across a five-foot high catwalk and walked across a three-foot high beam under their mother or father's supervision. Based on average preschooler gross…

  4. Paternal Work Stress and Latent Profiles of Father-Infant Parenting Quality

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cox, Martha J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine the implications of fathers' experiences of work stress for paternal behaviors with infants across multiple dimensions of parenting in a sample of fathers living in nonmetropolitan communities (N = 492). LPA revealed five classes of fathers based on levels of social-affective…

  5. Fathers' Emotional Resources and Children's Socioemotional and Behavioral Adjustment among Children with Learning Disabilities

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2011-01-01

    This study examined a cumulative model of risk/protective factors at the individual level (child's sense of coherence; attachment with father) and family level as manifested by fathers' emotional resources (fathers' negative/positive affect; attachment avoidance/anxiety), to explain socioemotional adjustment among children age 8-12 years with or…

  6. Father-Child Contact after Separation: The Influence of Living Arrangements

    Swiss, Liam; Le Bourdais, Celine

    2009-01-01

    Following divorce or separation, father-child contact is deemed an important influence on child development. Previous research has explored the impact of sociodemographic and attitudinal factors on the amount of contact between fathers and their children following a union dissolution. This article revisits this important question using fathers'…

  7. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers

  8. Father's Incarceration and Youth Delinquency and Depression: Examining Differences by Race and Ethnicity

    Swisher, Raymond R.; Michael E Roettger

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines associations between biological father's incarceration and internalizing and externalizing outcomes of depression and serious delinquency, across White, Black, and Hispanic subsamples of youth in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Among respondents whose father was first incarcerated during childhood or adolescence, father's incarceration is found to be associated with increased depression and delinquency. On the whole, results indicate that associations...

  9. A Culturally Responsive Literacy Program for Hispanic Fathers and Their Children

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a language and cultural literacy program for Hispanic fathers to promote their children's literacy development. This study had two phases: (a) training the teachers and (b) educating the fathers. The results indicated that the fathers learned how to promote their Hispanic children's literacy development using their family's…

  10. The Father-Child Relationship, Parenting Styles, and Adolescent Risk Behaviors in Intact Families

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Moore, Kristin A.; Carrano, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    The father-child relationship and father's parenting style are examined as predictors of first delinquency and substance use, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997, Rounds 1 to 3 (N = 5,345), among adolescents in intact families. Discrete time logistic regressions indicate that a more positive father-child relationship…

  11. The Behavioral Effects of Father Absence on Children and Their Mothers.

    McCarthy, E. Doyle; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated effect of father presence or absence in the home in New York City families: welfare AFDC families and lower-middle income families. Results indicated that children of surrogate fathers revealed significantly more behavioral difficulties. Cross-section children and mothers were more adversely affected by father absence than others.…

  12. Community Attitudes toward Birth Fathers Motives for Adoption Placement and Single Parenting

    Miall, Charlene E.; March, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Community attitudes toward birth fathers were examined using 82 exploratory qualitative interviews and 706 survey respondents in Canada. Community attitudes were more positive toward birth fathers raising their children over adoption, when birth mothers were unable or unwilling to parent the child. Overall, respondents considered birth fathers

  13. The Determinants of Fathering during the Child's Second and Third Years of Life: A Developmental Analysis.

    Woodworth, Sharon; And Others

    1996-01-01

    To further the understanding of the determinants of fathering, the parenting of 64 fathers of first-born male toddlers was observed. Assessed the associations between fathering behaviors and variables representing three broad domains of influence on parenting (parent characteristics, social-contextual factors, and child characteristics), as well…

  14. Premisas ticas en el diagnstico prenatal de defectos congnitos en Cuba / Ethical premises in the prenatal diagnosis of congenital defects in Cuba

    Iris Andrea, Rojas Betancourt; Arianne, Llamos Paneque; Beatriz, Marcheco Teruel.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El propsito de este trabajo es presentar una propuesta de premisas ticas para la prctica del diagnstico prenatal de defectos congnitos. Se realiz un estudio sistemtico, profundo y crtico sobre el tema y sobre los resultados de investigaciones realizadas en poblacin cubana y los derivados de [...] talleres realizados con la participacin de especialistas de la Red Nacional de Gentica Mdica; para su elaboracin se tuvieron en cuenta los principios ticos ms universalmente aceptados y recomendados por la OMS y otros organismos internacionales, as como las resoluciones y leyes cubanas relacionadas con este tema. Se presentan normativas generales, sobre el diagnstico prenatal y el aborto selectivo, el asesoramiento gentico y el revelado de informacin; esta propuesta se complementa con otras normativas propias de la investigacin cientfica y relacionadas con el consentimiento informado, las investigaciones que involucran pacientes, aspectos de la tica profesional y de las publicaciones cientficas. Estas normativas en su conjunto conforman las premisas ticas que garantizan el respeto a los derechos y a la dignidad de las personas que son atendidas en los servicios de asesoramiento gentico y diagnstico prenatal y formarn parte de un manual para la provisin de servicios en la red de gentica mdica de Cuba. Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to submit a proposal of ethical premises for prenatal diagnosis of congenital defects. An in-depth systematic and critical study was conducted on the topic and on the results of research works carried out with the Cuban population and those of workshops where the Nati [...] onal Network of Medical Genetics experts participated. For their preparation, the universally accepted ethical principles that are recommended by WHO and other international bodies, as well as the Cuban resolutions and laws in this regard were all taken into account. Some general standards on prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion and on the approach to genetic counseling and the disclosure of information were presented. This proposal was supplemented with other standards inherent to the scientific research, since during prenatal diagnosis practice, some research works can emerge, the results of which may be published, that is, informed consent, research involving patients, ethical aspects of scientific publications and professional ethics elements. These standards are the ethical premises that guarantee the respect to the rights and to the dignity of those persons who are served by the genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis services, and will be part of a manual for the provision of services in the medical genetic network of Cuba.

  15. ¿Cómo se llamaba el padre? // What is the father`s name?

    Alexander Cruz Aponasenko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Está a punto de estrenarse en cine, o quizás ya se estrenó en otras latitudes, la versión cinematográfica del último libro de Cormack McCarthy: La carretera. Galardonado con el Pulitzer por este último libro y conocido entre los lectores casuales gracias a su anterior novela: No country for old men, llevada al cine de forma impecable por los hermanos Cohen, McCarthy sorprende dejando ver que a lo largo de su obra, en particular en La carretera, aparece una pregunta por el padre. Tema que de continuo tratan los psicoanalistas, desafortunadamente no con la belleza con que lo hace el poeta. La obra de McCarthy es otro de los tantos ejemplos en los que la literatura enseña al psicoanálisis. // The premiere is ready or maybe it was showed in other latitudes the Cormack Mccarthy movie version of his last book: The Road. This last book won the Pulitzer Prize, also known among the casual readers for his previous novel: No country for old men, impeccable movie version by Cohen brothers. Along his work McCarthy surprise allowing to see, especially in The Road, a question for the father. Subject usually worked by the psychoanalysts, unfortunately, not with the same beauty that the poet does it. McCarthy’s work is other among many examples where the literature teaches to psychoanalysis.

  16. Eugenesia y diagnóstico prenatal Eugenics and prenatal diagnosis

    Rosa María González Salvat

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available El uso del diagnóstico prenatal en la práctica de la genética médica ha hecho que se recuerden teorías eugenésicas. Se realizó una revisión histórica de este término y se relacionó con el uso del diagnóstico prenatal (DPN y el aborto selectivo a la luz de los conocimientos bioéticos actuales.The use of the prenatal diagnosis in the practice of medical genetics has led us to remember eugenic theories. A historical review of this term was made and it was connected with the use of prenatal diagnosis (PND and selective abortion in the light of the present bioethical knowledge.

  17. Academic Success of Mexican Origin Adolescent Boys and Girls: The Role of Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting and Cultural Orientation.

    Dumka, Larry E; Gonzales, Nancy A; Bonds, Darya; Millsap, Roger E

    2009-04-01

    To understand the role that Mexican origin parents play in their children's academic success, this study used structural equation modeling to evaluate the associations of parents' parenting practices (warmth, monitoring, harshness, and academic involvement) and cultural orientations (enculturation and acculturation) with their adolescents' grades, classroom behavior, and association with peers who get into trouble at school. Data were obtained from teachers, mothers, fathers, and male and female adolescents in 560 Mexican origin families living in the southwest U.S. Results indicated that mothers' and fathers' parenting practices and cultural orientations were linked to adolescents' academic outcomes. However, there were differences for boys and girls. Results are discussed in relation to parent and adolescent gender roles and implications for intervention. PMID:21731172

  18. Mechanisms linking energy balance and reproduction: impact of prenatal environment.

    Rhinehart, Erin M

    2016-01-01

    The burgeoning field of metabolic reproduction regulation has been gaining momentum due to highly frequent discoveries of new neuroendocrine factors regulating both energy balance and reproduction. Universally throughout the animal kingdom, energy deficits inhibit the reproductive axis, which demonstrates that reproduction is acutely sensitive to fuel availability. Entrainment of reproductive efforts with energy availability is especially critical for females because they expend large amounts of energy on gestation and lactation. Research has identified an assortment of both central and peripheral factors involved in the metabolic regulation of reproduction. From an evolutionary perspective, these mechanisms likely evolved to optimize reproductive fitness in an environment with an unpredictable food supply and regular bouts of famine. To be effective, however, the mechanisms responsible for the metabolic regulation of reproduction must also retain developmental plasticity to allow organisms to adapt their reproductive strategies to their particular niche. In particular, the prenatal environment has emerged as a critical developmental window for programming the mechanisms responsible for the metabolic control of reproduction. This review will discuss the current knowledge about hormonal and molecular mechanisms that entrain reproduction with prevailing energy availability. In addition, it will provide an evolutionary, human life-history framework to assist in the interpretation of findings on gestational programming of the female reproductive function, with a focus on pubertal timing as an example. Future research should aim to shed light on mechanisms underlying the prenatal modulation of the adaptation to an environment with unstable resources in a way that optimizes reproductive fitness. PMID:26943613

  19. Trait Verbal Aggressiveness and the Appropriateness and Effectiveness of Fathers' Interaction Plans II: Fathers' Self-Assessments.

    Rudd, Jill E.; Beatty, Michael J.; Dobos, Jean A.; Vogl-Bauer, Sally

    1997-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on family communication, finding that fathers' perceptions of the appropriateness and effectiveness of tactics with oppositional sons was largely a function of their level of trait verbal aggressiveness, which was (1) negatively related to perceptions of appropriateness and effectiveness of supportive tactics, and (2)

  20. Social Behavior of Offspring Following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure in Rodents: A Comparison with Prenatal Alcohol

    SonyaKrishnaSobrian; R.RobertHolson

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) alters the offsprings social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models, a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PC...

  1. Comparing CenteringPregnancy to standard prenatal care plus prenatal education

    Benediktsson Ingunn; McDonald Sheila W; Vekved Monica; McNeil Deborah A; Dolan Siobhan M; Tough Suzanne C

    2013-01-01

    Background There is significant evidence to support the importance of prenatal care in preventing adverse outcomes such as preterm birth and low infant birth weight. Previous studies have indicated that the benefits of prenatal care are not evenly distributed throughout the social strata. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that among particular populations, rates of preterm birth are unchanged or increasing. This suggests that an alternate care model is necessary, one that seeks to addr...

  2. Ultrasound demonstration of prenatal renal vein thrombosis

    This case report illustrates the sonographic appearance of such calcifications which to our knowledge have not been described. We observed abnormalities on a prenatal ultrasound at 37 weeks of gestation and calcifications within the kidney on ultrasound during the neonatal period in an infant of a mother with Class B diabetes mellitus. (orig.)

  3. Prenatal diagnosis and treatment: Pediatric surgical aspect

    Mustafa Meliko?lu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of the congenital surgical abnormalities can be determined prior to birth. Most of these defects are perceived from ultrasonographic examinations during pregnancy. Some of the complicated abnormalities detected in the prenatal period, with the collaboration of obstetrics, neonatology, genetics, pediatrics and pediatric surgery specialists, can also be treated prenatally by taking the decision of family. Prenatal information related with the type of birth, minimal requirements for a possible maternal hospital, possible course of the diasease, management protocols and their effects on the future of unborn patient should be given in detail to tha parents. As the delivery time approaches, many of the pregnant mothers with managable abormalities should be directed to the appropriate centers where the previously mentioned teams work. For those fetuses with severe, life threatening abnormalities, evaluation of the abortion decision should be made earlier. In these centers, either the baby is delivered in the preterm period or the method for the birth could be altered acording to the characteristics of the abnormality. Intrauterin correction is required for some fetuses. Postnatal treatment of the most abnormalities ascertained will be made by pediatric surgeons. By courtesy of these consultations, due to the prenatal follow up and and planned emergent treatment following birth, birth place and method could be changed. (Turk Arch Ped 2010; 45 Suppl: 1-3

  4. Early prenatal sonographic diagnosis of gastroschisis.

    Cerekja, Albana; Piazze, Juan; Cozzi, Denis

    2012-10-01

    We report a case of gastroschisis that was suspected at sonography at 11 weeks + 3 days of amenorrhea. Although early detection does not alter prenatal management of this condition nor does it affect neonatal outcome, it allows early counseling of the parents. PMID:22102424

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of amniotic band syndrome

    Laxmi Devi Padmanabhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic band can cause a broad spectrum of anomalies ranging from simple band constrictions to major craniofacial and visceral defects. It can cause significant neonatal morbidity. Accurate diagnosis will help in the management of the present pregnancy and in counseling with regard to future pregnancies. Here we report three cases of amniotic band syndrome detected in the prenatal period.

  6. Effect of brain prenatal irradiations (review)

    Tendency of intellectual deficiency and emotion disturbance among children which were irradiated in womb was found. Study of the risk of endogenic psychic disorder development and, first of all, schizophrenia in pre-natally irradiated children, as a result of Chernobyl catastrophe, is of special interest. 256 refs., 1 tab

  7. Prenatal Nicotine/Alcohol Exposure and ADHD

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    A retrospective, hospital-based, case-control study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking, drug use, and alcohol was conducted in 280 ADHD cases and 242 non-ADHD controls at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

  8. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Cortical Angiogenesis

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Normandy University, and Rouen and Brest Universities, France studied the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cortical microvascular and the action of alcohol, glutamate, and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF on activity, plasticity, and survival of microvessels in mice.

  9. Psychiatric Conditions Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    O'Connor, Mary J.; Paley, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Since the identification of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) over 35 years ago, mounting evidence about the impact of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy has prompted increased attention to the link between prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and a constellation of developmental disabilities that are characterized by physical, cognitive, and…

  10. Ethical Considerations in Prenatal Sex Selection

    Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

    2005-01-01

    Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…

  11. Noninvasive Prenatal Molecular Karyotyping from Maternal Plasma

    Yu, Stephanie C. Y.; Jiang, Peiyong; Choy, Kwong W.; Chan, Kwan Chee Allen; Won, Hye-Sung; Leung, Wing C.; Lau, Elizabeth T.; Tang, Mary H. Y.; Leung, Tak Y.; Lo, Yuk Ming Dennis; Chiu, Rossa W. K.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal DNA is present in the plasma of pregnant women. Massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA has been used to detect fetal trisomies 21, 18, 13 and selected sex chromosomal aneuploidies noninvasively. Case reports describing the detection of fetal microdeletions from maternal plasma using massively parallel sequencing have been reported. However, these previous reports were either polymorphism-dependent or used statistical analyses which were confined to one or a small number of selected parts of the genome. In this report, we reported a procedure for performing noninvasive prenatal karyotyping at 3 Mb resolution across the whole genome through the massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. This method has been used to analyze the plasma obtained from 6 cases. In three cases, fetal microdeletions have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In two cases, fetal microduplications have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In the remaining case, the plasma DNA sequencing result was consistent with the pregnant mother being a carrier of a microduplication. Simulation analyses were performed for determining the number of plasma DNA molecules that would need to be sequenced and aligned for enhancing the diagnostic resolution of noninvasive prenatal karyotyping to 2 Mb and 1 Mb. In conclusion, noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma by massively parallel sequencing is feasible and would enhance the diagnostic spectrum of noninvasive prenatal testing. PMID:23613765

  12. Socialization Values and Parenting Practices as Predictors of Parental Involvement in Their Children's Educational Process

    Kikas, Eve; Tulviste, Tiia; Peets, Kätlin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/37157224X

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental socialization values (including inconsistency in values), parenting practices, and parental involvement in their children's education. Altogether 242 Estonian mothers and fathers of first-grade children participated in the study. We found that mothers were overall more involved in their children's education than fathers. Whereas emphasis on social values at home was related to paternal and (marginally) t...

  13. Fathers struggling for relevance in the care of their terminally ill child.

    Laws, Tom

    Children with terminal illness receive substantial amounts of care from their parents within their home, a palliative care facility or general hospital. Whilst there is a long history of research exploring child and family experiences and coping styles within these settings, the focus has not been on fathers' participation in care-giving. This phenomenon can be explained by traditional sex-role socialisations whereby men are ostensibly conditioned as breadwinners and mothers remain embedded as the primary carers for children, particularly when illness arises. Nevertheless, nurses report that men do provide direct care-giving or seek to be more involved in caring for their child. This literature review offers opportunities for health professionals to reflect on the significance of gender in parenting the terminally ill child and to develop empathy for men experiencing difficulties in their role as care-givers. As there is little literature available on this topic, this paper portrays men's experiences and importantly the barriers they encounter in meeting their desire to care. The approach provides a suitable basis for developing a research agenda to promote competencies and relevance for fathers in their role as care-giver. PMID:15729796

  14. Prenatal Sonographic Findings of Polysplenic Syndrome

    We report 6 cases of polysplenic syndrome diagnosed on prenatal sonography. The mean menstrual age at the time of presentation was 275 weeks (range 184 to 38 weeks). All cases were examined using level-II prenatal sonography. The sonographic findings of polysplenic syndrome were retrograde analyzed and compared to the autopsy or postnatal findings. Polysplenia was detected in 5 cases on the prenatal sonography. Associated cardiovascular anomalies were detected in all 6 cases, all of which had more than one anomaly, namely complete atrioventricular septal defect in two cases, double outlet right ventricle combined with rudimentary LV or mitral atresia in two cases and VSD and ASD in one case each. There were three cases of interrupted IVC with azygous continuation of the posterior thorax. Bradycardia was observed in 2 cases, one of which showed AV dissociation of rhythm. Visceral abnormalities were present in all cases and there were combined anomalies such as echogenic bowel, pelviectasia, horseshoe kidney, and posterior neck cystic hygroma and fetal hydrops. Four cases terminated pregnancy. The autopsy results of 2 cases were comparable to those of the prenatal sonography, however autopsies were not performed in 2 cases. One fetus near term was delivered and the baby subsequently underwent heart surgery and was still alive at the last follow-up. The remaining one case was lost to follow-up. If multiple fetal anomalies, including complex heart disease and polysplenia, are detected in the prenatal sonography, a diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome can be made. IVC interruption with azygous continuation can also be helpful in the diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome, and this can be observed by detecting the double vessel of the posterior thorax

  15. Anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors: a comparison of anxious mothers and fathers.

    Teetsel, Rebekah N; Ginsburg, Golda S; Drake, Kelly L

    2014-01-01

    The majority of research identifying anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors has been conducted with mothers, leaving a gap in current knowledge about the role of fathers' parenting behaviors. In an attempt to fill this gap, this study compared anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors of anxious mothers and fathers. Parents completed self-report measures of parenting behavior and independent coders rated parenting behaviors (i.e., overcontrol, granting of autonomy, warmth, hostility, anxious behavior) of mothers (n = 34) and fathers (n = 21) during a challenging parent-child interaction task (children were ages 6-12). Results indicated that anxious fathers were observed to be more controlling than anxious mothers; while anxious mothers reported using more punishment and reinforcement of children's dependence in anxiety provoking situations compared to fathers. Findings extend our knowledge about anxious fathers, and highlight the need for additional research on the impact of fathers' parenting with respect to the development of child anxiety. PMID:23677528

  16. Prenatal exposure to gamma/neutron irradiation: Sensorimotor alterations and paradoxical effects on learning

    The effects of prenatal exposure on gamma/neutron radiations (0.5 Gy at about the 18th day of fetal life) were studied in a hybrid strain of mice (DBA/Cne males x C57BL/Cne females). During ontogeny, measurements of sensorimotor reflexes revealed in prenatally irradiated mice (1) a delay in sensorial development, (2) deficits in tests involving body motor control, and (3) a reduction of both motility and locomotor activity scores. In adulthood, the behaviour of prenatally irradiated and control mice was examined in the open field test and in reactivity to novelty. Moreover, their learning performance was compared in several situations. The results show that, in the open field test, only rearings were more frequent in irradiated mice. In the presence of a novel object, significant sex x treatment interactions were observed since ambulation and leaning against the novel object increased in irradiated females but decreased in irradiated males. Finally, when submitted to different learning tasks, irradiated mice were impaired in the radial maze, but paradoxically exhibited higher avoidance scores than control mice, possibly because of their low pain thresholds. Taken together, these observations indicate that late prenatal gamma/neutron irradiation induces long lasting alterations at the sensorimotor level which, in turn, can influence learning abilities of adult mice

  17. Prenatal PAH Exposure is Associated with Chromosome-specific Aberrations in Cord Blood

    Orjuela, Manuela A.; Liu, XinHua; Warburton, Dorothy; Siebert, Aisha L.; Cujar, Claudia; Tang, DeLiang; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Perera, Frederica P.

    2010-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are associated with increased cancer risk in adults. Previously, we demonstrated that stable aberrations involving chromosomes 1-6 in cord blood are associated with prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) measured in air and are disproportionate to genomic content. We now examine whether the association with air PAHs is chromosome-specific and extends to smaller chromosomes. Using Whole Chromosome Paints for chromosomes 1-6, 11,12,14,19, and a 6q sub-telomere specific probe, we scored 48 cord bloods (1500 metaphases per sample) from newborns monitored prenatally for airborne PAH exposure in the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health cohort. Frequencies of stable aberrations were calculated as incident aberrations per 100 Cell Equivalents scored, and examined for association with airborne PAHs. Aberrations in chromosome 6 occurred more frequently than predicted by genomic content (p0.8). Aberrations in chromosomes 11,12,14,19 and 6 were associated with prenatal exposure to PAHs in air, even at lower levels of PAH in air. The observed chromosome-specific effects of prenatal airborne PAHs raise concern about potential cancer risk. PMID:20709184

  18. Prenatal exposures to persistent and non-persistent organic compounds and effects on immune system development.

    Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Park, Hye-Youn; Dostal, Miroslav; Kocan, Anton; Trnovec, Tomas; Sram, Radim

    2008-02-01

    Immune system development, particularly in the prenatal period, has far-reaching consequences for health during early childhood, as well as throughout life. Environmental disturbance of the complex balances of Th1 and Th2 response mechanisms can alter that normal development. Dysregulation of this process or an aberrant trajectory or timing of events can result in atopy, asthma, a compromised ability to ward off infection, or other auto-immune disease. A wide range of chemical, physical and biological agents appear to be capable of disrupting immune development. This MiniReview briefly reviews developmental milestones of the immune system in the prenatal period and early life, and then presents examples of environmentally induced alterations in immune markers. The first example involves a birth cohort study linked to an extensive programme of air pollution monitoring; the analysis shows prenatal ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and fine particle (PM2.5) exposures to be associated with altered lymphocyte immunophenotypic distributions in cord blood and possible changes in cord serum immunoglobulin E levels. The second example is a study of prenatal-polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures and the foetal development of the thymus, the organ responsible for lymphocyte maturation. Mothers with higher serum concentrations of PCBs gave birth to neonates having smaller indices of thymus size. Finally, this report underscores the tight connection between development of the immune system and that of the central nervous system, and the plausibility that disruption of critical events in immune development may play a role in neurobehavioural disorders. PMID:18226068

  19. Prenatal exposure to permethrin influences vascular development of fetal brain and adult behavior in mice offspring.

    Imanishi, Satoshi; Okura, Masahiro; Zaha, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Toshifumi; Akanuma, Hiromi; Nagano, Reiko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Fujimaki, Hidekazu; Sone, Hideko

    2013-11-01

    Pyrethroids are one of the most widely used classes of insecticides and show neurotoxic effects that induce oxidative stress in the neonatal rat brain. However, little is still known about effects of prenatal exposure to permethrin on vascular development in fetal brain, central nervous system development, and adult offspring behaviors. In this study, the effects of prenatal exposure to permethrin on the development of cerebral arteries in fetal brains, neurotransmitter in neonatal brains, and locomotor activities in offspring mice were investigated. Permethrin (0, 2, 10, 50, and 75 mg/kg) was orally administered to pregnant females once on gestation day 10.5. The brains of permethrin-treated fetuses showed altered vascular formation involving shortened lengths of vessels, an increased number of small branches, and, in some cases, insufficient fusion of the anterior communicating arteries in the area of circle of Willis. The prenatal exposure to permethrin altered neocortical and hippocampus thickness in the mid brain and significantly increased norepinephrine and dopamine levels at postnatal day 7 mice. For spontaneous behavior, the standing ability test using a viewing jar and open-field tests showed significant decrease of the standing ability and locomotor activity in male mice at 8 or 12 weeks of age, respectively. The results suggest that prenatal exposure to permethrin may affect insufficient development of the brain through alterations of vascular development. PMID:24150868

  20. Least explored factors associated with prenatal smoking.

    Masho, Saba W; Bishop, Diane L; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Varner, Sara B; White, Shannon; Svikis, Dace

    2013-09-01

    Poor pregnancy and birth outcomes are major problems in the United States, and maternal smoking during pregnancy has been identified as one of the most preventable risk factors associated with these outcomes. This study examines less explored risk factors of smoking among underserved African American pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at an outpatient obstetrics-gynecology clinic of an inner-city university hospital in Virginia from March 2009 through January 2011 in which pregnant women (N = 902) were interviewed at their first prenatal care visit. Survey questions included items related to women's sociodemographic characteristics as well as their pregnancy history; criminal history; receipt of social services; child protective services involvement; insurance status; and history of substance abuse, domestic violence, and depression. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to calculate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals depicting the relationship between these factors and smoking during pregnancy. The analysis reported that maternal age [OR = 1.08, 95 % CI = 1.05-1.12], less than high school education [OR = 4.30, 95 % CI = 2.27-8.14], unemployed [OR = 2.33, 95 % CI = 1.35-4.04], criminal history [OR = 1.66, 95 % CI = 1.05-2.63], receipt of social services [OR = 2.26, 95 % CI = 1.35-3.79] alcohol use [OR = 2.73, 95 % CI = 1.65-4.51] and illicit drug use [OR = 1.97, 95 % CI = 1.04-3.74] during pregnancy were statistically significant risk factors associated with smoking during pregnancy. In addition to the well known risk factors, public health professionals should be aware that criminal history and receipt of social services are important factors associated with smoking during pregnancy. Social service providers such as WIC and prisons and jails may offer a unique opportunity for education and cessation interventions during the preconception or interconception period. PMID:22903305

  1. Albert Einstein as the father of solid state physics

    Cardona, M

    2005-01-01

    Einstein is usually revered as the father of special and general relativity. In this article I demonstrate that he is also the father of Solid State Physics, or even his broader version known as Condensed Matter Physics (including liquids). His 1907 article on the specific heat of solids introduces, for the first time, the effect of lattice vibrations on the thermodynamic properties of crystals, in particular the specific heat. His 1905 article on the photoelectric effect and photoluminescence opened the fields of photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Other important achievements include Bose-Einstein condensation and the Einstein relation between the difussion coefficient an mobility. In this article I discuss Einstein's papers relevant to these topics and their relevance to modern day condensed matter physics.

  2. Chinese adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles of fathers and mothers.

    Shek, D T

    1995-06-01

    Father Treated and Mother Treated subscales of the Parent Image Differential were used to assess recalled parental treatment styles of 2,150 Chinese secondary school students. Results from reliability and factor analyses showed that both scales were internally consistent, and two factors (Concern and Restrictiveness) were abstracted from each of these scales. The data on gender differences in parenting revealed significant differences, across socioeconomic classes, between paternal and maternal treatment styles, with the fathers perceived to be relatively more restrictive and showing less concern than the mothers. The data suggest that differences between paternal and maternal treatment styles exist in the Chinese context but that signs of gradual change in the differences are appearing. PMID:7798077

  3. Fathers, daughters, and self-objectification: does bonding style matter?

    Miles-McLean, Haley; Liss, Miriam; Erchull, Mindy J

    2014-09-01

    As women are exposed to objectification and the "male gaze," they self-objectify, which predicts negative psychological outcomes. Given the centrality of the "male gaze," positive father/child relationships may have a buffering effect. In this study, women (N=447) completed a survey measuring paternal bonding (care and overprotection), self-objectification, negative eating attitudes, and depression. Women were categorized into four groups based on bonding style. Analyses indicated an interaction such that women who reported high care and low overprotection reported the fewest negative eating attitudes. A path model was tested for each group. The fit of the high care/high overprotection group's model significantly differed from that of the high care/low overprotection group. The relationships between body surveillance and shame as well as between shame and negative eating attitudes were stronger in the former group. These findings suggest that caring but overprotective fathers may exacerbate the negative effects of body surveillance and shame. PMID:25194310

  4. Vter vom Aufbruch berfordert? Fathers Overwhelmed by Change

    Sebastian Scheele

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Wie erfahren Vter die Vernderungen, die im Gefolge der Frauenbewegungen in heterosexuellen Partnerschaften und Familien stattgefunden haben? Wie gehen sie damit um, dass an sie als Neue Vter Anforderungen gestellt werden, die teilweise inkompatibel mit ihren Mnnlichkeitsbildern sind? Eine Reaktion, die sich groer medialer Aufmerksamkeit erfreut, ist das Engagement in Vterinitiativen. Anja Wolde analysiert die kollektiven Deutungsmuster dieser Vereinigungen zwischen Selbsthilfegruppe und Lobby-Organisation.How do fathers experience the changes that have occurred in heterosexual partnerships and families following the womens movement? How do they deal with the requirements placed on them as new fathers, which can be partially incompatible with their own images of masculinity? One reaction that has received great media attention has been their engagement in fatherhood initiatives. Anja Wolde analyses the collective patterns of interpretation of these initiatives, formed of a union between self-help group and lobby organization.

  5. Heterosexual Gender Relations and Masculinity in Fathers Who Smoke

    Kwon, Jae-Yung; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L.; Kelly, Mary T

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the role of masculinity and heterosexual gender relations in new and expectant fathers’ explanations of their continued smoking. We conducted a secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with 20 fathers. Two themes were identified: (1) reconciling with partners to maintain a smoke-free family home; and (2) smoking to self-regulate emotions and maintain relationships. Fathers’ decisions to smoke and changes in smoking behavior were shaped by ideals of...

  6. Consistent individual differences in fathering in threespined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Stein, Laura R.; Bell, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that individual animals show consistent differences in behavior. For example, individual threespined stickleback fish differ in how they react to predators and how aggressive they are during social interactions with conspecifics. A relatively unexplored but potentially important axis of variation is parental behavior. In sticklebacks, fathers provide all of the parental care that is necessary for offspring survival; therefore paternal care is directly tied to fitness...

  7. Neighborhood Contexts, Fathers, and Mexican American Young Adolescents’ Internalizing Symptoms

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W

    2012-01-01

    The family stress model posits that contextual stressors, such as neighborhood danger, negatively influence youth adjustment, including internalizing symptoms, via disruptions in parenting and family processes. The current study examined a culturally and contextually modified family stress model in a diverse sample of Mexican origin fathers and their children (N = 463) from the Southwestern U.S. Results supported the hypothesized negative influence of neighborhood danger on youth internalizin...

  8. Physical activity barriers and facilitators among working mothers and fathers

    Mailey, Emily L.; Huberty, Jennifer; Dinkel, Danae; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background The transition to parenthood is consistently associated with declines in physical activity. In particular, working parents are at risk for inactivity, but research exploring physical activity barriers and facilitators in this population has been scarce. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine perceptions of physical activity among working parents. Methods Working mothers (n = 13) and fathers (n = 12) were recruited to participate in one of four focus group sessions a...

  9. Foster Fathers: their experiences and contributions to fostering

    Wilson, Kate; Fyson, Rachel; Newstone, Simon

    2007-01-01

    The paper reports some of the findings of an exploratory study which looks at foster fathers’ experiences of fostering and discusses their routes into foster care and their perspectives on their roles and tasks. The study collected quantitative and qualitative data by approaching all foster fathers registered with a single independent fostering agency based in southeast England. They were asked about their personal and professional attributes, and their experiences of and views concerning the...

  10. Mothers, Fathers and Children after Divorce: The Role of Institutions

    DEL BOCA, Daniela

    2002-01-01

    In recent years the increase in the divorce rate in many advanced countries and the predominance of female-headed families among the poor has generated much interest in the relationship between divorce and the welfare of mothers and children. In this paper I will review a small body of economic literature which has been recently developed in order to analyze the economic consequence of divorce on the welfare of fathers, mothers and children under alternative behavioral assumptions. Important ...

  11. Pierre Jacquinot: a scientist, a professor and a father

    Jacquinot, Jean

    2007-10-01

    The milestones of Pierre Jacquinot's scientific career are deeply linked to his personal life. For the author, Pierre Jacquinot was primarily and fully a father. At home, he occasionally talked about science but was discreet about the impressive progress of his work. However a combined passion for both science and teaching would emerge at all times. This paper is an account of the evolution of his career and of his thoughts through the eyes of an admiring son who is also a scientist.

  12. After domestic abuse: children's perspectives on contact with fathers

    Morrison, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Contact between children and their fathers following parental separation is a sensitive and controversial subject. This is especially so where there has been a history of domestic abuse before parental separation. This briefing outlines the findings of a Master’s thesis that aimed to gain children’s perspectives on this issue. Key findings included: 1. Children were acutely aware of the domestic abuse that had occurred and of the impact it had on their and their mother’s relationship...

  13. Support Needs of Expectant Mothers and Fathers: A Qualitative Study

    Widarsson, Margareta; Kerstis, Birgitta; Sundquist, Kristina; Engstrm, Gabriella; Sarkadi, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe expectant mothers and fathers perceived needs of support during pregnancy. Twenty-two women and 10 men were interviewed in four focus groups and 13 individual interviews. Systematic text condensation was performed to analyze the data. Parents described not only a broad spectrum of social support needs but also needs of psychological and physical support. They also requested to share their experiences with others. The foci of care and parents needs of s...

  14. Fathers of the Nation: Barack Obama Addresses Nelson Mandela

    Elisa Bordin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes Barack Obama’s Nelson Mandela Memorial speech together with other seminal texts of Obama’s political and personal creed, such as his book Dreams from My Father (1995 and his speech “A More Perfect Union” (2008. This reading becomes helpful to understand Mandela’s transnational power, which Obama uses to comment on the United States by comparing Madiba to other American “fathers of the nation.” Thus, he uproots Mandela’s from a specifically South African legacy, expands his figure, and addresses him as a transnational father of his own nation, whose power, influence, and example transcend South African borders. As a consequence of this enlargement and transnational validation of Mandela’s figure, the speech delivered at the Memorial becomes an occasion to tackle American past and future, while the memory of Madiba and his driving example in Obama’s life serve to reinforce previous positions conveyed in other discourses by the American President, such as the “A More Perfect Union” speech delivered in Philadelphia in 2008.

  15. Patrimony, Solitude and Obligation: Prodigal Sons and Absent Fathers

    Isabel Duran Gimenez-Rico

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the verifiable moment that auto/biographical explorations of the father are undergoing in the first two decades of the 21st century, my paper focuses on four authors whose relational memoirs "go beyond the subject." In particular, I focus on a comparative analysis of three hybrid texts -Paul Auster's The Invention of Solitude (1982, Philip Roth's Patrimony (1991, and Richard Rodriguez's Days of Obligation: an Argument with my Mexican Father (1992-, and I include a parallel reading of Dutch author Henri J. M. Nouwen's spiritual journey The Return of the Prodigal Son (1992. My transnational, transethnic reading of these very disparate versions of what has been called "patremoir" (Andre Gerard, 2012 or "patriography" (Couser, 2011 will explore how these authors mix their own portrait with the extended portrait of their (real or metaphoric father, applying different myths, borrowing forms and strategies from literary antecedents, transgressing norms of familial secrecy and privacy, but -in the end- paying homage to their paternal legacy.This article was submitted on December 15th 2013 and first published on November 26th.

  16. Treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: the fathers' perspective.

    McGrath, P

    2001-01-01

    Research on parental adaptation to a child's chronic illness is still scant, and this is particularly so in relation to the experience of treatment for paediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL). The work that does exist on parental reactions tends to conflate maternal responses with paternal responses, as fathers are usually seen as having a secondary role. Consequently, little is known about how fathers cope with treatment for childhood ALL. The present discussion seeks to make a contribution to this area by presenting findings on the paternal experience of treatment for paediatric ALL from a longitudinal study conducted at Royal Children's Hospital in Brisbane, Queensland. The findings from this research clearly indicate the emotional pain that fathers face in their struggle to accept the diagnosis of a serious, life-threatening illness such as ALL in their child. The findings challenge the notion of the make stereotype by showing that the shock of diagnosis, the emotional pain of coping with the illness, the expression of pain through tears, the desire to be with the child, the struggle to cope with the medical interventions, and concerns about other family members are not gender specific, but are rather issues common to both parents. PMID:11496455

  17. Couple-oriented prenatal HIV counseling for HIV primary prevention: an acceptability study.

    Kamkamidze George; Kulkarni Sanjeevani; Darak Shrinivas; Perez-Then Eddy; Eboko Fred; Butsashvili Maia; Gadgil Mukta; Miric Marija; Tchendjou Patrice T; Orne-Gliemann Joanna; Balestre Eric; du Loû Annabel; Dabis Francois

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A large proportion of the 2.5 million new adult HIV infections that occurred worldwide in 2007 were in stable couples. Feasible and acceptable strategies to improve HIV prevention in a conjugal context are scarce. In the preparatory phase of the ANRS 12127 Prenahtest multi-site HIV prevention trial, we assessed the acceptability of couple-oriented post-test HIV counseling (COC) and men's involvement within prenatal care services, among pregnant women, male partners and hea...

  18. Prenatal Aneuploidies Computerized Screening (SCA TEST): a pilot study on 1000 women

    Sacco, Alessandro; Coco, Claudio; Mangiafico, Lucia; Cignini, Pietro; Tiezzi, Alessandra; Giorlandino, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    The SCA-TEST, Prenatal Aneuploidies Screening, is an innovating program with very articulated and differentiated calculation potentials. It is a software which allows executing a sequence-like rational screening involving the ultrasound study of the first and second trimester. The program enables to execute a complete and different- levels combined screening, through very sophisticated mathematic analysis methods. In particular, it enables to make: a first trimester screening combining it wit...

  19. Prenatal VPA Exposure and Changes in Sensory Processing by the Superior Colliculus

    Dendrinos, Georgia; Hemelt, Marie; Keller, Asaf

    2011-01-01

    Disorders involving dysfunctional sensory processing are characterized by an inability to filter sensory information, particularly simultaneously arriving multimodal inputs. We examined the effects of prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), a teratogen linked to sensory dysfunction, on the behavior of juvenile and adult rats, and on the anatomy of the superior colliculus, a critical multisensory integration center in the brain. VPA-exposed rats showed deficits in colliculus-dependent behavi...

  20. Functional connectivity disruption in neonates with prenatal marijuana exposure

    Karen Grewen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal marijuana exposure (PME is linked to neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments, however findings in childhood and adolescence are inconsistent. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R modulate fetal neurodevelopment, mediating PME effects on growth of functional circuitry sub-serving behaviors critical for academic and social success. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal marijuana on development of early brain functional circuitry prior to prolonged postnatal environmental influences. We measured resting state functional connectivity during unsedated sleep in infants at 2-6 weeks (+MJ: 20 with PME in combination with nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and/or SSRI; -MJ: 23 exposed to the same other drugs without marijuana, CTR: 20 drug free controls. Connectivity of subcortical seed regions with high fetal CB1R expression was examined. Marijuana-specific differences were observed in insula and three striatal connections: anterior insula – cerebellum, right caudate – cerebellum, right caudate – right fusiform gyrus/inferior occipital, left caudate – cerebellum. +MJ neonates had hypoconnectivity in all clusters compared with -MJ and CTR groups. Altered striatal connectivity to areas involved in visual spatial and motor learning, attention, and in fine-tuning of motor outputs involved in movement and language production may contribute to neurobehavioral deficits reported in this at-risk group. Disrupted anterior insula connectivity may contribute to altered integration of interoceptive signals with salience estimates, motivation, decision-making, and later drug use. Compared with CTRs, both +MJ and -MJ groups demonstrated hyperconnectivity of left amygdala seed with orbital frontal cortex and hypoconnectivity of posterior thalamus seed with hippocampus, suggesting vulnerability to multiple drugs in these circuits.

  1. Working with Urban, African American Fathers: The Importance of Service Provision, Joining, Accountability, the Father-Child Relationship, and Couples Work

    Greif, Geoffrey L.; Jones, Joseph T., Jr.; Worthy, James; White, Eddie; Davis, Will; Pitchford, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Urban, African American fathers have been a difficult population for social workers and other helping professionals to effectively serve. This article, based on interviews with front-line African American service professionals at a father-focused program, who also participated in writing this article, provides information about and suggestions for

  2. What Are the Parenting Experiences of Fathers? The Use of Household Survey Data to Inform Decisions about the Delivery of Evidence-Based Parenting Interventions to Fathers

    Sanders, Matthew R.; Dittman, Cassandra K.; Keown, Louise J.; Farruggia, Sue; Rose, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Participants were 933 fathers participating in a large-scale household survey of parenting practices in Queensland Australia. Although the majority of fathers reported having few problems with their children, a significant minority reported behavioral and emotional problems and 5% reported that their child showed a potentially problematic level of…

  3. Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor

    Smith, Desmond J. (Oakland, CA); Rubin, Edward M. (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

  4. Behavioural Outcomes of Four-Year-Old Children Prenatally Exposed to Methadone or Buprenorphine: A Test of Three Risk Models

    Konijnenberg, Carolien; Lund, Ingunn Olea; Melinder, Annika

    2015-01-01

    It is still under debate whether the reported effects of opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) on child behaviour are a direct effect of prenatal exposure, or whether other factors are involved. This prospective cohort study investigated three models: the teratogenic risk model, the maternal risk model, and a combined risk model in a group of 35…

  5. Behavioural Outcomes of Four-Year-Old Children Prenatally Exposed to Methadone or Buprenorphine: A Test of Three Risk Models

    Konijnenberg, Carolien; Lund, Ingunn Olea; Melinder, Annika

    2015-01-01

    It is still under debate whether the reported effects of opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) on child behaviour are a direct effect of prenatal exposure, or whether other factors are involved. This prospective cohort study investigated three models: the teratogenic risk model, the maternal risk model, and a combined risk model in a group of 35

  6. Estado del programa de diagnstico prenatal citogentico / Behavior of the program of cytogenetic prenatal diagnosis

    Irenia, Blanco Prez; Sahily, Mioso Prez; Caridad, Barroso Gazquez; Ada, Socarras Gmez; Elena, Cu Perdomo.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin: las alteraciones cromosmicas son cambios que afectan el nmero y la estructura de los cromosomas. El riesgo de padecer una enfermedad gentica cromosmica aumenta con el incremento de la edad materna. La amniocentesis constituye un importante medio de diagnstico prenatal citogentico [...] para la deteccin temprana de las mismas. Objetivo: analizar el comportamiento del programa de diagnstico prenatal citogentico en la provincia de Pinar del Ro durante el ao 2013. Material y mtodo: se realiz un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y de corte longitudinal al total de gestantes con indicacin de amniocentesis durante el ao 2013 en la provincia de Pinar del Ro, analizando los principales parmetros relacionados con el diagnstico prenatal citogentico. Resultados: en el perodo analizado se realizaron un total de 481 estudios prenatales, siendo el municipio de Pinar del Ro el de mayor nmero de casos. La edad materna avanzada constituye la principal indicacin y se diagnosticaron un total de 10 casos positivos para un 2.3%. Conclusiones: en el diagnstico prenatal citogentico se logr precisar el cariotipo fetal en las gestantes con riesgo, por lo que contina siendo el DPC un importante programa en la deteccin precoz de cromosomopatas, proporcionando un punto de partida para un adecuado asesoramiento gentico a la familia. Abstract in english Introduction: Chromosomal abnormalities are changes that affect the number and structure of chromosomes. The risk of a chromosomal genetic disease increases with increasing maternal age. Amniocentesis is an important means of cytogenetic prenatal diagnosis for early detection of the same. Objective: [...] to analyze the behavior of the program of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis in the province of Pinar del Rio in 2013. Material and methods: a descriptive, retrospective study slitting the total of pregnant women was performed with amniocentesis indication in 2013 in the province of Pinar del Rio, analyzing the main parameters related to the cytogenetic prenatal diagnosis. Results: in the analyzed period a total of 481 prenatal studies were conducted, with the city of Pinar del Ro the highest number of cases. Advanced maternal age is the main display and a total of 10 positive cases were diagnosed to 2.3%. Conclusions: prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis was achieved clarify the fetal karyotype in pregnant women at risk, so the DPC remains an important program in the early detection of chromosomal abnormalities, providing a starting point for proper genetic counseling to the family.

  7. Effect of prenatal neutron irradiation on expression of myelin genes and glycoprotein genes in developing rat brain

    The effect of prenatal neutron irradiation on the expression of myelin genes and glycoprotein genes in the brain of rats is studied. The observed postradiation enhancement of the expression of glial and neuronal genes involved in the process of myelinization and differentiation in the central nervous system, is related to a necessity to compensate the functional disorders of the brain caused by radiation death of neuroblasts. A specific molecular mechanism of compensation reaction of brain cells of prenatally irradiated rats is described for the first time; the mechanism consists in the activation of the expression of specific glial genes and genes of neuronal surface glycoproteins

  8. Recruiting Fathers to Parenting Programs: Advice from Dads and Fatherhood Program Providers.

    Stahlschmidt, Mary Jo; Threlfall, Jennifer; Seay, Kristen D; Lewis, Ericka M; Kohl, Patricia L

    2013-10-01

    The benefits of high-quality father-child relationships for fathers and children alike are well documented. While evidence suggests parenting programs can improve the quality of father-child relationships, few fathers participate in such programs. This qualitative study aims to fill the gap in knowledge on best practices for recruiting urban African American fathers, a group of fathers with unique parenting challenges, to parenting programs. Focus groups were conducted with 29 fathers to gain their perspectives on recruitment strategies. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with a nationwide sample of 19 fatherhood program providers to learn about their most successful recruitment strategies. Recruitment strategies based on emergent themes from the focus groups and interviews are presented here. Themes included using word-of-mouth recruitment, increasing advertising, targeting advertising specifically to urban African American fathers, providing transportation and incentives, recruiting through the courts, collaborating with other community agencies, and offering parenting programming along with other programming valued by fathers such as employment assistance. Implications for developing strategies for recruiting urban African American fathers to parenting programs are discussed. PMID:24791035

  9. Father absence and reproduction-related outcomes in Malaysia, a transitional fertility population.

    Sheppard, Paula; Snopkowski, Kristin; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    Father absence is consistently associated with children's reproductive outcomes in industrialized countries. It has been suggested that father absence acts as a cue to particular environmental conditions that influence life history strategies. Much less is known, however, about the effects of father absence on such outcomes in lower-income countries. Using data from the 1988 Malaysian Family Life Survey (n = 567), we tested the effect of father absence on daughters' age at menarche, first marriage, and first birth; parity progression rates; and desired completed family size in Malaysia, a country undergoing an economic and fertility transition. Father absence during later childhood (ages 8 to 15), although not during earlier childhood, was associated with earlier progressions to first marriage and first birth, after controlling for other confounders. Father absence does not affect age at menarche, desired family size, or progression from first to second birth. The patterns found in this transitional population partly mirror those in developed societies, where father absence accelerates reproductive events. There is, however, a notable contrast between the acceleration in menarche for father-absent girls consistently found in developed societies and the lack of any association in our findings. The mechanisms through which father absence affects reproduction may differ in different ecological contexts. In lower-income contexts, direct paternal investment or influence may be of more importance in determining reproductive behavior than whether fathers act as a cue to environmental conditions. PMID:24610662

  10. Prenatal and acute cocaine exposure affects neural responses and habituation to visual stimuli

    Elizabeth Brooke Riley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants have many effects on visual function, from adverse, following acute and prenatal exposure to therapeutic, on attention deficit. To determine the impact of prenatal and acute cocaine exposure on visual processing, we studied neuronal responses to visual stimuli in two brain regions of a transgenic larval zebrafish expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP-HS. We found that both red light (LF and dark (DF flashes elicited similar responses in the optic tectum neuropil (TOn, while the dorsal telencephalon (dTe responded only to LF. Acute cocaine (0.5 μM reduced neuronal responses to LF in both brain regions but did not affect responses to DF. Repeated stimulus presentation led to habituation of dTe neurons to LF. Acute cocaine prevented habituation. TOn habituated to DF, but not LF, and DF habituation was not modified by cocaine. Remarkably, prenatal cocaine exposure prevented the effects of acute cocaine on LF response amplitude and habituation later in development in both brain regions, but did not affect DF responses. We discovered that, in spite of similar neural responses to LF and DF in the TO (superior colliculus in mammals, responses to LF are more complex, involving dTe (homologous to the cerebral cortex, and are more vulnerable to cocaine. Our results demonstrate that acute cocaine exposure affects visual processing differentially by brain region, and that prenatal cocaine exposure modifies zebrafish visual processing in multiple structures in a stimulus-dependent manner. These findings are in accordance with the major role that the optic tectum and cerebral cortex play in sustaining visual attention, and support the hypothesis that modification of these areas by prenatal cocaine exposure may be responsible for visual deficits noted in humans. This model offers new methodological approaches for studying the adverse and therapeutic effects of psychostimulants on attention, and for the development of new pharmacological interventions.

  11. Does absence matter?: a comparison of three types of father absence in rural Bangladesh.

    Shenk, Mary K; Starkweather, Kathrine; Kress, Howard C; Alam, Nurul

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines the effects of three different types of father absence on the timing of life history events among women in rural Bangladesh. Age at marriage and age at first birth are compared across women who experienced different father presence/absence conditions as children. Survival analyses show that daughters of fathers who divorced their mothers or deserted their families have consistently younger ages at marriage and first birth than other women. In contrast, daughters whose fathers were labor migrants have consistently older ages at marriage and first birth. Daughters whose fathers died when they were children show older ages at marriage and first birth than women with divorced/deserted fathers and women with fathers present. These effects may be mediated by high socioeconomic status and high levels of parental investment among the children of labor migrants, and a combination of low investment, high psychosocial stress, and low alloparental investment among women with divorced/deserted fathers. Our findings are most consistent with the Child Development Theory model of female life history strategies, though the Paternal Investment and Psychosocial Acceleration models also help explain differences between women in low paternal investment situations (e.g., father divorced/abandoned vs. father dead). Father absence in and of itself seems to have little effect on the life history strategies of Bangladeshi women once key reasons for or correlates of absence are controlled, and none of the models is a good predictor of why women with deceased fathers have delayed life histories compared with women whose fathers are present. PMID:23355056

  12. BACs-on-Beads Technology: A Reliable Test for Rapid Detection of Aneuploidies and Microdeletions in Prenatal Diagnosis

    Martínez-Conejero, José Antonio; Serra, Vicente; Olmo, Inés; Lara, Coral; Simón, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The risk of fetal aneuploidies is usually estimated based on high resolution ultrasound combined with biochemical determination of criterion in maternal blood, with invasive procedures offered to the population at risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a new rapid aneuploidy screening test on amniotic fluid (AF) or chorionic villus (CV) samples based on BACs-on-Beads (BoBs) technology and to compare the results with classical karyotyping by Giemsa banding (G-banding) of cultured cells in metaphase as the gold standard technique. The prenatal-BoBs kit was used to study aneuploidies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y as well as nine microdeletion syndromes in 321 AF and 43 CV samples. G-banding of metaphase cultured cells was performed concomitantly for all prenatal samples. A microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was also carried out in a subset of samples. Prenatal-BoBs results were widely confirmed by classical karyotyping. Only six karyotype findings were not identified by Prenatal-BoBs, all of them due to the known limitations of the technique. In summary, the BACs-on-Beads technology was an accurate, robust, and efficient method for the rapid diagnosis of common aneuploidies and microdeletion syndromes in prenatal samples. PMID:24795887

  13. Prenatal and adult stress interplay - behavioral implications

    Kjr, Sanna Lemming; Wegener, G; Rosenberg, Raben; Lund, S P; Hougaard, Karin Srig

    stressful events, but also that this interaction is complex and could influence the interplay between PPI and basal startle. Our results suggest that circumstances dating back to early development may have implications for adult life behavior, and based on this we propose a new theory of a threshold in the......The origin of adult behavior and the possible pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders remain elusive, but extensive research indicates that interaction of genes and environment play a crucial role for adult phenotype. Differences in susceptibility may arise by earlier experiences and genomic...... that a single aversive procedure would induce long-term hyperactivity in the HPA-axis of rats that had become vulnerable by prenatal stress, and thereby change reactivity in the ASR. Prenatal stress was achieved by maternal gestational exposure to Chronic Mild Stress (CMS). At age 3 months, the...

  14. Teaching prenatal ultrasound to family medicine residents.

    Dresang, Lee T; Rodney, William MacMillan; Dees, Jason

    2004-02-01

    Prenatal ultrasound is a powerful diagnostic tool, but there has been little research on how to teach ultrasound to family physicians. The available evidence supports teaching through didactics followed by supervised scanning. Didactic topics include physics and machine usage, indications, fetal biometry, anatomic survey, practice management, ethical issues, and resources. Supervised scanning reinforces the didactic components of training. A "hand-on-hand" supervised scanning technique is recommended for the transmission of psychomotor skills in these sessions. Curricula for teaching ultrasound should include information on which residents will be taught prenatal ultrasound, who will teach them, how to create time for learning ultrasound skills, and how to test for competency. The literature suggests that competency can be achieved within 25-50 supervised scans. Measures of competency include examination and qualitative analysis of scanning. Competency-based testing needs further development because no uniform standards have been established. PMID:14872356

  15. A Prenatal Case Report with Patau Syndrome

    Mahmut Balkan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, prenatal diagnosis and elective pregnancy termination have affected the reported birth prevalence of trisomies. Trisomy 13, or Patau syndrome, represents the third autosomic trisomy in order of frequency, after trisomy 21 (Down syndrome and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome, with a prevalence at birth estimated as between 1:12000 and 1:29000. In this study, we are presenting the results of cytogenetic analysis and clinic assessment in fetus of a woman at 22 weeks gestation, who were referred to our genetic diagnostic laboratory with abnormal triple test result, omphalosel and hydrocephaly. We performed the cordocentesis and pedigree analysis. We found a karyotype (47,XY,+13 in fetus. Because individuals of the family didn’t want, we were not followed the pregnancy prognosis for the mother and the fetus. We were recommending to the prenatal diagnosis for their further pregnancies.

  16. Rapid prenatal diagnosis of chromosome abnormalities.

    Tan, S Y; Chan, W B; Cheng, W C; Hagarty, A; Lim, K T; Quaife, R

    2000-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine the efficacy of using FISH for the rapid prenatal diagnosis of common chromosome aneuploidies. A total of 100 analyses over a six month period were included in the study. Diagnosis was possible in all cases. A mosaic for trisomy 21 proved, by comparison with an extensive analysis of long term cultures, to be an apparent false positive. Otherwise the technique was reliable, accurate and relatively straightforward to perform. Results could be available within 24 hrs. In most cases an additional long term full analysis was also done, so as to exclude rarer aneuploidies and structural rearrangements. This methodology is seen as a useful addition to the prenatal diagnostic repertoire. PMID:11281441

  17. Prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function.

    Evans, Neil P; Bellingham, Michelle; Robinson, Jane E

    2016-07-01

    It is now well recognized that the gestational environment can have long-lasting effects not only on the life span and health span of an individual but also, through potential epigenetic changes, on future generations. This article reviews the "prenatal programming" of the neuroendocrine systems that regulate reproduction, with a specific focus on the lessons learned using ovine models. The review examines the critical roles played by steroids in normal reproductive development before considering the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens, the effects of maternal nutrition and stress during gestation, and the effects of exogenous chemicals such as alcohol and environment chemicals. In so doing, it becomes evident that, to maximize fitness, the regulation of reproduction has evolved to be responsive to many different internal and external cues and that the GnRH neurosecretory system expresses a degree of plasticity throughout life. During fetal life, however, the system is particularly sensitive to change and at this time, the GnRH neurosecretory system can be "shaped" both to achieve normal sexually differentiated function but also in ways that may adversely affect or even prevent "normal function". The exact mechanisms through which these programmed changes are brought about remain largely uncharacterized but are likely to differ depending on the factor, the timing of exposure to that factor, and the species. It would appear, however, that some afferent systems to the GnRH neurons such as kisspeptin, may be critical in this regard as it would appear to be sensitive to a wide variety of factors that can program reproductive function. Finally, it has been noted that the prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function can be associated with epigenetic changes, which would suggest that in addition to direct effects on the exposed offspring, prenatal programming could have transgenerational effects on reproductive potential. PMID:27142489

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of placental chorioangioma: our experience.

    Napolitano, R; Maruotti, G M; Mazzarelli, L L; Quaglia, F; Tessitore, G; Pecoraro, M; Agangi, A; Mallia Milanes, G; Martinelli, P

    2005-12-01

    Placental chorioangioma is the most common benign tumor of placenta. The relationship of vascularized chorioangiomas to adverse pregnancy outcome is well recognized. We report 3 cases of placental chorioangioma. Hypervascularization of the lesions in all patients and the immune hydrops with adverse fetal outcome in 2 cases are the complications of our mini-series. Ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasonography findings were useful in establishing the prenatal diagnosis and the prognosis. PMID:16306870

  19. Prenatal stress and the NMDA receptor

    Kerkhofs, A.

    2012-01-01

    Early adversity, including prenatal stress (PS), is a prevalent problem in our modern world. The affected unborn child experiences severe problems later in life, such as learning-related diseases and memory problems. A possible mechanism by which these learning deficits arise, is by the elevation of the corticosterone levels that reach the fetus, affecting the HPA-axis in later life. PS is also accompanied by alterations in brain organization that are long-lasting and related to learning defi...

  20. Malformations and maturation disturbances after prenatal irradiation

    Risk estimates for prenatally exposed humans in view to malformations and maturation disturbances are incomplete despite numerous single cases being described. In this situation support from animal data has necessarily to be taken into consideration. Outlines of recent knowledge in the field of experimental radioembryology will be given. Possibilities and limits of the transfer of animal data to man will be discussed and correlated with new medical evaluations. The discussions are focussed on developmental defects of the central nervous system. (orig.)

  1. [PRENATAL GENETIC DIAGNOSIS-- "DAYS OF FUTURE PAST"].

    Feferkorn, Ido; Auslender, Ron; Lavie, Ofer

    2015-06-01

    This review describes the history and the evolvement of prenatal genetic screening tests. We start in the era prior to the understanding that certain syndromes are genetic, continue through the identification of their genetic basis and the changes in markers in the pregnant woman's serum and conclude in the present when assays such as cell free D.N.A are offered to high risk women. PMID:26281084

  2. Prenatal intervention for urinary obstruction and myelomeningocele

    Swana Hubert S.; Sutherland Ronald S.; Baskin Laurence

    2004-01-01

    Widespread use of ultrasonography has resulted in an increase in the recognition of fetal hydronephrosis. The enthusiasm that accompanied early interventions has been tempered by the experience and results obtained over the past 2 decades. The goal has remained the same: to identify patients with serious prenatal obstruction and to identify those which may benefit from intervention. Myelomeningocele remains a devastating congenital anomaly. Fetal and experimental studies suggested that patien...

  3. Prenatal and familial associations of testicular cancer.

    Swerdlow, A. J.; Huttly, S R; Smith, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    In a case-control study of testis cancer 259 cases with testicular cancer, 238 controls treated at radiotherapy centres and 251 non-radiotherapy hospital in-patient controls were interviewed about some possible prenatal and familial risk factors for the tumour. For firstborn men, the risk of testis cancer increased significantly according to maternal age at the subject's birth, and this effect was most marked for seminoma. The association with maternal age was not apparent for cases other tha...

  4. Prenatal cortisol, prematurity and low birthweight

    Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Diego, Miguel; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Three hundred depressed pregnant women were recruited at approximately 20 weeks gestation. They were then divided by a median split into high and low urinary cortisol level groups. The high cortisol group had higher CES-D depression scores and higher inhibition (BIS) scores prenatally. Their fetuses had smaller head circumference, abdominal circumference, biparietal diameter and fetal weight. The high cortisol group neonates were shorter gestational age and lower birthweight and they...

  5. Two cases of double-outlet left ventricle detected prenatally.

    Cassater, Daiana; Rossetti, Lucia; Prioli, Maria Antonia; Errico, Gabriella; Cristofaletti, Alessandra; Zanarotti, Roberta; Rita, Fabrizio De; Vassanelli, Corrado; Zaglia, Federico; Luciani, Giovanni Battista

    2011-07-01

    Double-outlet left ventricle is an exceedingly rare congenital heart defect. Its prenatal detection and precise anatomical definition are challenging for a variety of reasons and have never been previously reported. Here described are 2 cases of prenatally diagnosed double-outlet left ventricle. The technical limitations of prenatal diagnosis and its implications for the surgical management of patients affected by such a rare condition are discussed. PMID:23804006

  6. Long-term behavioral consequences of prenatal MDMA exposure

    Thompson, Valerie B.; Heiman, Justin; Chambers, James B; Benoit., Stephen C.; Buesing, William R.; Norman, Mantana K; Norman, Andrew B.; Lipton, Jack W.

    2008-01-01

    The current study sought to determine whether prenatal 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) exposure from E14-20 in the rat resulted in behavioral sequelae in adult offspring. Prenatal MDMA exposure results in increased dopaminergic fiber density in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and nucleus accumbens of young rats. Since these areas are critical in response to novelty, reward, attention and locomotor activity, we hypothesized that prenatal MDMA exposure would produce significant chan...

  7. Healthy pregnancy and prenatal disorders followed by blood plasma metabolomics

    Pinto, Joana Isabel Monteiro

    2015-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis aimed to investigate the impact of healthy pregnancy and selected prenatal disorders on the metabolome and lipidome of maternal blood plasma, in order to define new potential biomarkers for non-invasive prediction and diagnosis. Chapter 1 describes the present status and challenges of the clinically relevant prenatal disorders, along with a presentation of the metabolomics strategy applied and the state of the art of metabolomics in prenatal research. All ...

  8. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use

    DELANEY-BLACK, VIRGINIA; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; HUESTIS, MARILYN A.; Partridge, Robert T.; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adul...

  9. International symposium on developmental disturbances after prenatal irradiation

    This book contains abstracts of 31 papers from the 'International symposium on developmental disturbances after prenatal radiation' exposure. Most of the papers deal with the effects of externally applied, prenatal radiation exposure in mice, rats, and humans, in the latter radiation exposure was mostly due to X-ray examinations during pregnancy. The effects of prenatal exposure to internal radionuclides, expecially tritium, are discussed in some of the papers, as well as enhanced radiation effects due to the action of radiosensitizers. (MG)

  10. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in offspring of fathers working in biomedical research laboratories

    Magnusson, Linda L; Bodin, Lennart; Wennborg, Helena

    2006-01-01

    significant increased ORs concerning birth weight and/or gestational age, but work specifically with radioactive isotopes gave OR 1.8 (CI 1.0-3.2) for high birth weight and a relative risk of 1.2 (CI 1.0-1.4) for sex ratio (male/female). CONCLUSIONS: There was no clear association between periconceptional......BACKGROUND: Laboratory work may constitute a possible health hazard for workers as well as for their offspring, and involves a wide range of exposures, such as organic solvents, carcinogenic agents, ionizing radiation, and/or microbiological agents. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in the offspring of...... male employees in biomedical research laboratories are examined. METHODS: Offspring to males employed 1970-1989 at four Swedish universities were identified via the Medical Birth Register (MBR), along with other pregnancy parameters. Offspring of fathers with laboratory work (n = 2,281) is considered...

  11. In defense of prenatal genetic interventions.

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-09-01

    Jürgen Habermas has argued against prenatal genetic interventions used to influence traits on the grounds that only biogenetic contingency in the conception of children preserves the conditions that make the presumption of moral equality possible. This argument fails for a number of reasons. The contingency that Habermas points to as the condition of moral equality is an artifact of evolutionary contingency and not inviolable in itself. Moreover, as a precedent for genetic interventions, parents and society already affect children's traits, which is to say there is moral precedent for influencing the traits of descendants. A veil-of-ignorance methodology can also be used to justify prenatal interventions through its method of advance consent and its preservation of the contingency of human identities in a moral sense. In any case, the selection of children's traits does not undermine the prospects of authoring a life since their future remains just as contingent morally as if no trait had been selected. Ironically, the prospect of preserving human beings as they are--to counteract genetic drift--might even require interventions to preserve the ability to author a life in a moral sense. In light of these analyses, Habermas' concerns about prenatal genetic interventions cannot succeed as objections to their practice as a matter of principle; the merits of these interventions must be evaluated individually. PMID:23025348

  12. Prenatal care in the family health estrategy

    Hélcia Carla dos Santos Pitombeira, Liana Mara Rocha Teles, Jamile de Souza Pacheco Paiva, Maysa Oliveira Rolim, Lydia Vieira Freitas, Ana Kelve de Castro Damasceno

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the prenatal care offered in Sao Goncalo do Amarante city based on information from SIAB, SISPRENATAL, SINASC, SINANNET and SIM. Method: this is about a descriptive study, from quantitative approach, performed with 632 pregnant women enrolled from January 2007 to December 2008. The sample was obtained by sense, using the entire study population. Data were collected from information systems: SIAB, SISPRENATAL, SINASC, SINANNET and SIM, recorded in a standard form and analyzed according to criteria established by PHPN. The study was approved by the Ethics in Research Committee of the Federal University of Ceará/UFC (protocol number 241/07. Results: it was observed that 86,8% of women began prenatal care in first trimester of pregnancy in 2008, the coverage of immunization against tetanus reached 98,4%, there was detection of syphilis and seropositivity for HIV, resulting in the adoption of remedial measures and resulting in avoidable neonatal infection. Conclusion: the district has good adequacy of prenatal care, based primarily on prevention and health promotion.

  13. Prenatally diagnosed fetal ventriculomegaly; prognosis and outcome.

    den Hollander, N S; Vinkesteijn, A; Schmitz-van Splunder, P; Catsman-Berrevoets, C E; Wladimiroff, J W

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the postnatal outcome and prognostic factors of prenatally diagnosed ventriculomegaly, and to establish the relationship between prenatal sonographic measurements and postnatal psychomotor development. A total of 42 singleton pregnancies with sonographically determined fetal ventriculomegaly at 20-38 weeks' gestation were reviewed, together with follow-up data on postnatal outcome at a mean of 29 months after delivery. Sonographic measurements included head circumference, cerebral lateral ventricular diameter at the anterior and posterior horn level, and hemisphere diameter. Classification of psycho-motor development consisted of assessment of motoric behaviour, speech, communication and social skills ('Van Wiechen' classification). Perinatal mortality rate was 38 per cent, of which half were directly associated with cephalocentesis. Only the ventricle/hemisphere ratio for the anterior and posterior horn of the lateral cerebral ventricles was significantly higher among perinatal deaths than amongst the survivors. Within the subset of survivors (n = 26), psycho-motor development was normal in 46 per cent. Postnatal examination revealed syndrome anomalies in five infants, of which four were associated with psycho-motor retardation. Prenatally diagnosed ventriculomegaly has a poor postnatal outcome with more than 50 per cent of the live-born infants demonstrating abnormal psycho-motor development. The predictive value of fetal biometric measurements is poor. The presence of syndromal anomalies emphasizes the need for genetic counselling in future pregnancies. PMID:9664600

  14. Couple-oriented prenatal HIV counseling for HIV primary prevention: an acceptability study

    Kamkamidze George

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of the 2.5 million new adult HIV infections that occurred worldwide in 2007 were in stable couples. Feasible and acceptable strategies to improve HIV prevention in a conjugal context are scarce. In the preparatory phase of the ANRS 12127 Prenahtest multi-site HIV prevention trial, we assessed the acceptability of couple-oriented post-test HIV counseling (COC and men's involvement within prenatal care services, among pregnant women, male partners and health care workers in Cameroon, Dominican Republic, Georgia and India. Methods Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used: direct observations of health services; in-depth interviews with women, men and health care workers; monitoring of the COC intervention and exit interviews with COC participants. Results In-depth interviews conducted with 92 key informants across the four sites indicated that men rarely participated in antenatal care (ANC services, mainly because these are traditionally and programmatically a woman's domain. However men's involvement was reported to be acceptable and needed in order to improve ANC and HIV prevention services. COC was considered by the respondents to be a feasible and acceptable strategy to actively encourage men to participate in prenatal HIV counseling and testing and overall in reproductive health services. Conclusions One of the keys to men's involvement within prenatal HIV counseling and testing is the better understanding of couple relationships, attitudes and communication patterns between men and women, in terms of HIV and sexual and reproductive health; this conjugal context should be taken into account in the provision of quality prenatal HIV counseling, which aims at integrated PMTCT and primary prevention of HIV.

  15. Sensory Processing Disorder in a Primate Model: Evidence From a Longitudinal Study of Prenatal Alcohol and Prenatal Stress Effects

    Mary L Schneider; Moore, Colleen F.; Gajewski, Lisa L.; Larson, Julie A.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Converse, Alexander K.; Onofre T DeJesus

    2008-01-01

    Disrupted sensory processing, characterized by over- or underresponsiveness to environmental stimuli, has been reported in children with a variety of developmental disabilities. This study examined the effects of prenatal stress and moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure on tactile sensitivity and its relationship to striatal dopamine system function in thirty-eight 5- to 7-year-old rhesus monkeys. The monkeys were from four experimental conditions: (a) prenatal alcohol exposed, (b) prenata...

  16. The Antecedents and Consequences of Adolescents' Relationships With Stepfathers and Nonresident Fathers

    King, Valarie

    2006-01-01

    Using data from a sample of 1,149 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health who have both a resident stepfather and a nonresident biological father, this study examines the prevalence, antecedents, and consequences of adolescents' closeness to their stepfathers and nonresident fathers. Findings demonstrate that adolescents vary greatly in their likelihood of having close relationships with one or both of their fathers, but when they do so, they appear to benefit. Clo...

  17. Father Absence due to Migration and Child Illness in Rural Mexico

    SCHMEER, KAMMI

    2009-01-01

    Little research to date has assessed the importance of the presence of fathers in the household for protecting child health, particularly in developing country contexts. Although divorce and nonmarital childbearing are low in many developing countries, migration is a potentially important source of father absence that has yet to be studied in relation to child health. This study utilizes prospective, longitudinal data from Mexico to assess whether father absence due to migration is associated...

  18. Negotiating Work/Life Balance : The Experience of Fathers and Mothers in Ireland

    Eileen Drew; Gwen Daverth

    2011-01-01

    Working arrangements are still not sufficiently flexible to enable parents to manage their roles as workers and as carers and there remains a dearth of flexible working arrangements and work-life balance policies especially for fathers. This paper examines the degree of work/life balance among fathers, and mothers, employed in 5 major Irish organisations surveyed in 2002. It concentrates on the access to, and takes up of, flexible working time and leave arrangements by fathers and mothers and...

  19. Paternal Work Stress and Latent Profiles of Father-Infant Parenting Quality

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; LANZA, STEPHANIE T.; COX, MARTHA J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine the implications of fathers’ experiences of work stress for paternal behaviors with infants across multiple dimensions of parenting in a sample of fathers living in nonmetropolitan communities (N = 492). LPA revealed five classes of fathers based on levels of social-affective behaviors and linguistic stimulation measured during two father-infant interactions. Multinomial logistic regression analyses suggested that a less-supporti...

  20. Social Support for Divorced Fathers' Parenting: Testing a Stress-Buffering Model*

    DeGarmo, David S.; Patras, Joshua; Eap, Sopagna

    2008-01-01

    A stress-buffering hypothesis for parenting was tested in a county-representative sample of 218 divorced fathers. Social support for parenting (emergency and nonemergency child care, practical support, financial support) was hypothesized to moderate effects of stress (role overload, coparental conflict, and daily hassles) on fathers’ quality parenting. No custody fathers relied more on relatives compared with custodial fathers, who relied more on new partners for parenting support. No differe...

  1. Exploring First-Time Fathers Feelings and Experiences during Labor - Delivery of their Partner/Wife

    Leodoro J. Labrague; Jelly R. Cario; Rojuana C. Catap; Ma. Naizza B. Uy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Considerable studies have been undertaken to assess and evaluate fathers feelings and experiences during labor and delivery of their partner/wife, however, investigation describing first-time fathers who are known to be especially vulnerable during labor and delivery remains under explored.Aim: This study aimed to assess and determine the feelings and experiences of first-time fathers during labor and delivery of their partner/wife.Methodology: A descriptive design was utilized...

  2. Maternal Re-Partnering and New-Partner Fertility: Associations with Nonresident Father Investments in Children

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that paternal re-partnering and new-partner fertility are associated with decreased nonresident father investments in children. Few studies, however, have examined the influence of maternal re-partnering and new-partner births on nonresident father investments. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine associations of maternal re-partnering (through cohabitation or marriage with a new partner) and new-partner births with nonresident father visitat...

  3. Parental Spanking and Subsequent Risk for Child Aggression in Father-Involved Families of Young Children

    Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Altschul, Inna; RICE, JANET C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined separate and combined maternal and paternal use of spanking with children at age 3 and children's subsequent aggressive behavior at age 5. The sample was derived from a birth cohort study and included families (n = 923) in which both parents lived with the child at age 3. In this sample, 44% of 3-year-olds were spanked 2 times or more in the past month by either parent or both parents. In separate analyses, being spanked more than twice in the prior month at age 3, by eith...

  4. Paternal Depression and Risk for Child Neglect in Father-Involved Families of Young Children

    Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of paternal depression with risk for parental neglect of young children. Study design: The sample was derived from a birth cohort study of 1,089 families in which both biological parents resided in the home when the target child was 3- and 5-years old. Prospective analyses examined the contribution of paternal…

  5. Father Knows Best: Paternal Presence and Sexual Debut in African-American Adolescents Living in Poverty.

    Langley, Cheri

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents found within single-parent families without a residential father have reported higher levels of sexual debut and higher levels of reported pregnancy. Using data from the Mobile Youth Survey, the purpose of this study is to determine the impact of the presence of a father figure on the sexual debut of African-American adolescents living in poverty and to determine if gender moderates the relationship between the presence of a father figure and sexual debut. Additionally, this study will examine the family processes in which the presence of a father figure can affect the sexual debut of African-American adolescents who live within economically and socially disadvantaged communities. The results revealed that African-American adolescents reporting a father figure had lower rates of sexual debut than those youth reporting no father figure. Gender was not found to be a significant moderator in the relationship between father figure presence and sexual debut. However, existing curfews and family rules did account for some of the effects of presence of a father figure and sexual debut. The results suggest that when adolescents have a father figure in their lives, it may reduce the possibility of early sexual debut. PMID:25582779

  6. Fathering and the Consolidation of Masculinity: Notes on the Paternal Function in Andrey Zvyagintsev's The Return.

    Barratt, Barnaby B

    2015-06-01

    The film The Return, directed by Andrey Zvyagintsev, depicts a weeklong "crash course" in masculinity offered by a father who returns after a prolonged absence. It is here analyzed here in terms of paternal functions related to love, work, and play. The story culminates in the father's "accidental" death. The image of his corpse sinking into a watery grave suggests that this "[not so] good enough" father both returns to his former condition as mythic-and-absent, and also assumes the position of the "always already dead" symbolic father. Psychoanalysis has admirably explored many fathering issues (specifically the experiential qualities of presence and absence, both emotionally and physically). This paper presents the argument that more attention should be directed to the (mis)alliance between the actual and the symbolic father (both of whom are always both present and absent in psychic life). It is noted that an actual father can be killed and mourned, whereas the symbolic father is "always already dead," and can neither be killed nor be mourned except in the crucial sense wherein we are all called to grieve the omnipotent fantasy/phantasy that we might not be "castrated"--to grieve the delusion that we might be able to speak from the locus of the "phallus," which is the generative position held exclusively by the symbolic father. PMID:26080094

  7. Predictors of parenting stress among gay adoptive fathers in the United States.

    Tornello, Samantha L; Farr, Rachel H; Patterson, Charlotte J

    2011-08-01

    The authors examined correlates of parenting stress among 230 gay adoptive fathers across the United States through an Internet survey. As with previous research on adoptive parents, results showed that fathers with less social support, older children, and children who were adopted at older ages reported more parenting stress. Moreover, gay fathers who had a less positive gay identity also reported more parenting stress. These 4 variables accounted for 33% of the variance in parenting stress; effect sizes were medium to large. Our results suggest the importance of social support and a positive gay identity in facilitating successful parenting outcomes among gay adoptive fathers. PMID:21688901

  8. Prenatal care in a primary healthcare center for imprisoned pregnant women

    Maria do Carmo Silva Fochi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This experience report aimed to describe the prenatal care undertaken in a primary care center in the non-metropolitan area of the State of São Paulo, offered to the female prison population. The data and related information refer to the period June 2010 – June 2012. The article describes the construction of the work process by the local team, the dynamics of providing the attendance, the human resources involved and the consultations undertaken. The prenatal care provided to the pregnant women made it possible to investigate the pluralized universe of imprisoned women and their needs resulting from the condition of being pregnant in the prison environment. Thus, decent attendance to the prison population’s health - a human and constitutional right - is considered important, so as to avoid physical, emotional and social problems, which in the pregnant woman may be passed on to her child.

  9. Prenatal VPA exposure and changes in sensory processing by the superior colliculus

    Georgia Dendrinos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Disorders involving dysfunctional sensory processing are characterized by an inability to filter sensory information, particularly simultaneously arriving multimodal inputs. We examined the effects of prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA, a teratogen linked to sensory dysfunction, on the behavior of juvenile and adult rats, and on the anatomy of the superior colliculus, a critical multisensory integration center in the brain. VPA-exposed rats showed deficits in colliculus-dependent behaviors including startle response, prepulse inhibition and nociceptive responses. Some deficits reversed with age. Stereological analyses revealed that colliculi of VPA-treated rats had significantly fewer parvalbumin-positive neurons, a subset of GABAergic cells. These results suggest that prenatal VPA treatment affects the development of the superior colliculus and leads to persistent anatomical changes evidenced by aberrant behavior in tasks that require sensory processing.

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of schizencephaly with septo-optic dysplasia by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Shen, Shu-Huei; Guo, Wan-You; Chen, Chih-Yao; Chao, Kuan-Chong; Yang, Ming-Jie; Hung, Chia-Yi Selena

    2008-08-01

    A 28-year-old woman, gravida 1, para 0, was referred to our fetal diagnosis unit at 28(+2) gestational weeks because no fetal movements were detected. On 2-D ultrasonography, the cephalic axial view showed multiple hypoechoic spaces in the fetal brain, both cerebral cortex and occipital lobe showed bilateral defects, and the septum pellucidum was absent. Multiple irregularly shaped cystic lesions connected with subarachnoid spaces were observed by three-dimensional ultrasonography in surface rendering mode. Septo-optic dysplasia with dysgenesis of corpus callosum was confirmed by prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The fetus was complicated with cleft schizencephaly involving bilateral frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, which can often lead to learning disability, epilepsy and cerebral palsy after birth. The flaccid mobility of all four extremities of the fetus, demonstrated prenatally by real-time ultrasound and functional MRI, forecast the risk of postnatal spastic quadriplegia. PMID:18840179

  11. The features of human heart internal relief structure in prenatal ontogenesis

    Savenkova О.О.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have reviewed the development of internal relief of 101 human hearts during prenatal ontogenesis. It was used a macroscopic, immunohystochemical research methods, which enabled us to trace the processes of vessel’s development, proliferation of cardiac wall cells, heteromorphy of its structure in various stages of development. The data indicate the involvement of cardiogel, primary cardiomyocytes, as well as mesenchymal cells in the development and statement of the structural components, which form the internal relief of the heart chambers. The process of heart wall’s delamination is a separate morphological mechanism. Delamination plates are embryo material for the formation of tendinous chords, papillary muscles and muscle trabecula. Process of forming of the internal structures of relief occurs during the prenatal period of 5-20 weeks ontogenesis. One of the first parts of the heart, in which the process of papillary-trabecular apparatus forming occurs, is the atrium’s wall.

  12. What matters for working fathers? Job characteristics, work-family conflict and enrichment, and fathers' postpartum mental health in an Australian cohort.

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Giallo, Rebecca; Strazdins, Lyndall; Martin, Angela; Leach, Liana S; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-12-01

    One in ten fathers experience mental health difficulties in the first year postpartum. Unsupportive job conditions that exacerbate work-family conflict are a potential risk to fathers' mental health given that most new fathers (95%) combine parenting with paid work. However, few studies have examined work-family conflict and mental health for postpartum fathers specifically. The aim of the present study was to identify the particular work characteristics (e.g., work hours per week, job quality) associated with work-family conflict and enrichment, and fathers' mental health in the postpartum period. Survey data from 3243 fathers of infants (aged 6-12 months) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were analysed via path analysis, considering key confounders (age, education, income, maternal employment, maternal mental health and relationship quality). Long and inflexible work hours, night shift, job insecurity, a lack of autonomy and more children in the household were associated with increased work-family conflict, and this was in turn associated with increased distress. Job security, autonomy, and being in a more prestigious occupation were positively associated with work-family enrichment and better mental health. These findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian fathers contribute novel evidence that employment characteristics, via work-family conflict and work-family enrichment, are key determinants of fathers' postnatal mental health, independent from established risk factors. Findings will inform the provision of specific 'family-friendly' conditions protective for fathers during this critical stage in the family life-cycle, with implications for their wellbeing and that of their families. PMID:26520473

  13. Endocrine and neuroendocrine regulation of fathering behavior in birds.

    Lynn, Sharon E

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Although paternal care is generally rare among vertebrates, care of eggs and young by male birds is extremely common and may take on a variety of forms across species. Thus, birds provide ample opportunities for investigating both the evolution of and the proximate mechanisms underpinning diverse aspects of fathering behavior. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the endocrine and neuroendocrine influences on paternal care in this vertebrate group. In this review, I focus on proximate mechanisms of paternal care in birds. I place an emphasis on specific hormones that vary predictably and/or unpredictably during the parental phase in both captive and wild birds: prolactin and progesterone are generally assumed to enhance paternal care, whereas testosterone and corticosterone are commonly-though not always correctly-assumed to inhibit paternal care. In addition, because endocrine secretions are not the sole mechanistic influence on paternal behavior, I also explore potential roles for certain neuropeptide systems (specifically the oxytocin-vasopressin nonapeptides and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone) and social and experiential factors in influencing paternal behavior in birds. Ultimately, mechanistic control of fathering behavior in birds is complex, and I suggest specific avenues for future research with the goal of narrowing gaps in our understanding of this complexity. Such avenues include (1) experimental studies that carefully consider not only endocrine and neuroendocrine mechanisms of paternal behavior, but also the ecology, phylogenetic history, and social context of focal species; (2) investigations that focus on individual variation in both hormonal and behavioral responses during the parental phase; (3) studies that investigate mechanisms of maternal and paternal care independently, rather than assuming that the mechanistic foundations of care are similar between the sexes; (4) expansion of work on interactions of the neuroendocrine system and fathering behavior to a wider array of paternal behaviors and taxa (e.g., currently, studies of the interactions of testosterone and paternal care largely focus on songbirds, whereas studies of the interactions of corticosterone, prolactin, and paternal care in times of stress focus primarily on seabirds); and (5) more deliberate study of exceptions to commonly held assumptions about hormone-paternal behavior interactions (such as the prevailing assumptions that elevations in androgens and glucocorticoids are universally disruptive to paternal care). Ultimately, investigations that take an intentionally integrative approach to understanding the social, evolutionary, and physiological influences on fathering behavior will make great strides toward refining our understanding of the complex nature by which paternal behavior in birds is regulated. PMID:25896117

  14. Nobel Price for Father of the Efficient Market Hypothesis

    Musílek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Dear readers, Followers of the efficient market hypothesis finally lived to see and me among them when Eugene F. Fama, of the University of Chicago, has earned on 14th October 2013 the Nobel Prize in economics. To be more precise: the Sweden's Central Bank's prize in economic sciences for the development of economics in memory of A. Nobel. The father of the efficient market hypothesis, E. F. Fama assumes that stock prices are influenced by both fundamental and non-fundamental information. A l...

  15. Prenatal exposure to vanilla or alcohol induces crawling after these odors in the neonate rat: The role of mu and kappa opioid receptor systems.

    Gaztañaga, Mirari; Aranda-Fernández, P Ezequiel; Chotro, M Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    Rat fetuses can perceive chemosensory stimuli derived from their mother's diet, and they may learn about those stimuli. In previous studies we have observed that prenatal exposure to alcohol during the last days of gestation increases the acceptance and liking of an alcohol flavor in infant and adolescent rats. While these results were not found after prenatal exposure to vanilla, cineole or anise, suggesting that the pharmacological properties of alcohol, mediated by the opioid system, underlie the effects observed with this drug. Considering that other studies report enhanced acceptance of non-alcohol flavors experienced prenatally when subjects were tested before infancy, we explore the possibility of observing similar results if testing 1-day old rats exposed prenatally to vanilla. Using an "odor-induced crawling" testing procedure, it was observed that neonates exposed prenatally to vanilla or alcohol crawl for a longer distance towards the experienced odor than to other odors or than control pups. Blocking mu, but not kappa opioid receptors, reduced the attraction of vanilla odor to neonates exposed to vanilla in utero, while the response to alcohol in pups exposed prenatally to this drug was affected by both antagonists. Results confirm that exposure to a non-alcohol odor enhances postnatal responses to it, observable soon after birth, while also suggesting that the mu opioid receptor system plays an important role in generating this effect. The results also imply that with alcohol exposure, the prenatal opioid system is wholly involved, which could explain the longer retention of the enhanced attraction to alcohol following prenatal experience with the drug. PMID:25554482

  16. The Paradigm of Unity in Prenatal Education and Pedagogy

    Kornas-Biela Dorota

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional approach to the relation between parents and their prenatal child presents the child as a fetus, a mainly passive recipient of the mother’s vital biological resources. Contemporary prenatal psychology and pedagogy recognizes this relationship in a quite different perspective: the prenatal child is a member of the family and may be seen as an active member of the wider family as a community, extended to grandparents and other relatives. Between parents and their child in the womb exists a reciprocal relationship at a physiological (hormonal, psychological and spiritual level. The prenatal child communicates with the parents in different ways and reacts to their stimulation (acoustic, tactile, loco-motoric, chemo-receptive, thermo-receptive, and emotional. This dialogue of the parents and their prenatal child enriches each member of the family community. In this sense, the prenatal child is a gift and a challenge for the parents to develop their personality, social competences and spiritual life. The reflections presented in this paper fit the conception of the paradigm of unity applied into the area of prenatal education and prenatal pedagogy as a new pedagogical subdisciline.

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital renal and urinary tract malformations

    Hindryckx, A.; De Catte, L.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidneys and the urinary tract are the most common sonographically identified malformations in the prenatal period. Obstructive uropathies account for the majority of cases. The aim of prenatal diagnosis and management is to detect those anomalies having impact on the prognosis of the affected child and requiring early postnatal evaluation or treatment to minimize adverse outcomes.

  18. Urodynamics in boys after prenatally diagnosed vesicoureteric reflux

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens

    1996-01-01

    Over the years, several theories have been presented regarding the pathogenesis of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children without neurological disease or posterior urethral valves. Primary VUR is one of many fetal uropathies detectable by prenatal sonography. Thirteen boys with a prenatal...

  19. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Infant Information Processing Ability.

    Jacobson, Sandra W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A total of 403 black, inner-city infants born to women recruited prenatally on basis of their alcohol consumption during pregnancy were assessed on a battery of tests focusing on information processing and complexity of play. Increased prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with longer fixation duration, a result indicative of less efficient…

  20. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin; Chicz-Demet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that prenatal maternal and fetal processes can have a lasting influence on infant and child development. Results from animal models indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal stress and stress hormones has lasting consequences for development of the offspring. Few prospective studies of human pregnancy