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Sample records for father prenatal involvement

  1. THE IMPORTANCE OF PATERNAL INVOLVEMENT DURING PRENATAL CARE: PERCEPTION OF THE MOTHER AND FATHER IN THE CITY OF CACERES – MT.

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    Taíse Neves Ferreira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In society, pregnancy has always been treated as a uniquely female experience, however, it is observed that the concepts and functions predetermined for men and women in the family are in full transformation. Describe the importance of parental involvement in monitoring prenatal vision of father and pregnant. This is a descriptive and quantitative study. The research had as reference Strategies Family Health Cáceres - MT. Participants were 30 pregnant women and their companions. When asked whether women talked to his companions about the importance of paternal participation in prenatal care, 67% of women answered yes and 33% did not talk. It is important to note that prenatal quality is achieved through pipelines necessary for pregnant women and hospitable. Geared this progress is the father figure who demonstrates an interest in participating, however, the work prevent them from contributing effectively.

  2. Adolescent Fathers' Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Involvement with Infants

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    Fagan, Jay; Bernd, Elisa; Whiteman, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between concurrent measures of adolescent fathers' parenting stress, social support, and fathers' care-giving involvement with the 3-month-old infant, controlling for fathers' prenatal involvement. The study sample consisted of 50 teenage father-mother dyads. Findings from multivariate regression…

  3. Involving fathers in psychology services for children

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    Carr, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a commentary on five papers in a special series on father-involvement in child psychology services. The following themes are addressed: the effects of fathers on child development; benefits of father-involvement in child psychology services; obstacles to fatherinvolvement ; engaging fathers; specific interventions for fathers; and implications for service development, training and research.

  4. Neighborhood Disorder and Paternal Involvement of Nonresident and Resident Fathers

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    Zhang, Saijun; Fuller, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Using data of 775 nonresident father families and 1,407 resident father families from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined whether neighborhood disorder was associated with fathers' supportive involvement in child care. Bivariate analysis indicated that mothers and children of nonresident father families were more…

  5. Non-resident Fathers’ Social Networks: The Relationship between Social Support and Father Involvement

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    Castillo, Jason T.; Sarver, Christian M.

    2012-01-01

    Literature and research examining non-resident fathers’ involvement with their chidren has focused primarily on the fathers’ relationship with their child’s mother. Receiving limited attention in the literature has been the inclusion of examining non-resident fathers’ social support networks, the function of these social networks—perceived and received social support, and how these social support networks affect non-resident fathers’ involvement with their children. Using data from Wave One o...

  6. Modelling the fathering role: Experience in the family of origin and father involvement

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    Mihi? Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presented in this paper deals with the effects of experiences with father in the family of origin on the fathering role in the family of procreation. The results of the studies so far point to great importance of such experiences in parental role modelling, while recent approaches have suggested the concept of introjected notion or an internal working model of the fathering role as the way to operationalise the transgenerational transfer. The study included 247 two-parent couple families whose oldest child attended preschool education. Fathers provided information on self-assessed involvement via the Inventory of father involvement, while both fathers and mothers gave information on introjected experiences from the family of origin via the inventory Presence of the father in the family of origin. It was shown that father’s experiences from the family of origin had significant direct effects on his involvement in child-care. Very important experiences were those of negative emotional exchange, physical closeness and availability of the father, as well as beliefs about the importance of the father as a parent. Although maternal experiences from the family of origin did not contribute significantly to father involvement, shared beliefs about father’s importance as a parent in the parenting alliance had an effect on greater involvement in child-care. The data provide confirmation of the hypotheses on modelling of the fathering role, but also open the issue of the factor of intergenerational maintenance of traditional forms of father involvement in families in Serbia.

  7. Father Involvement Program Effects on Fathers, Father Figures, and Their Head Start Children: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

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    Fagan, Jay; Iglesias, Aquiles

    1999-01-01

    This study examined effects of participation in a Head Start-based father involvement intervention program. Findings suggested a positive association between high level participation in the intervention and increased father involvement at post- treatment. Children in the high participation group showed higher mathematics readiness change scores.…

  8. Resident Black Fathers' Involvement: A Comparative Analysis of Married and Unwed, Cohabitating Fathers

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    Perry, Armon R.; Harmon, Dana K.; Leeper, James

    2012-01-01

    Increasing fathers' involvement with their children has become a priority in recent years. Marriage promotion programs have been offered as the primary vehicles for increasing paternal involvement. Although marriage is likely to provide fathers with increased access and opportunity for paternal involvement, much less is known about the ways in…

  9. Parental Childrearing Attitudes as Correlates of Father Involvement during Infancy

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    Gaertner, Bridget M.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Greving, Karissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Using daily diary data to document involvement with infants at 6-8 months of age (n = 142) and 6 months later (n = 95), we examined relations between reported childrearing attitudes and resident fathers' relative (as compared to mothers') involvement with children. Fathers' authoritarian views related negatively to their relative involvement on…

  10. Involved fathering: Expanding conceptualisations of men’s paternal caring

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    R. Smit

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Fatherhood has received increased attention during the past few decades in both scholarly writings and public forums, yet the conceptualisation of involved fathering has remained largely limited to the idea that men are merely childcare assistants. In this article the generativity perspective on fathering is considered as a possible theoretical expansion of what paternal involvement may entail. Taking the concept of generativity, as defined by Erik Erikson in his psychosocial development theory, as point of departure, generative fathering refers to paternal conduct that responds to the physical, emotional and cognitive needs of a child. This kind of involved fathering implies that a father is focused on lovingly nurturing his child and improving the wellbeing of his offspring, instead of merely conforming to what is stipulated by society and cultural norms with regard to paternal role obligations.

  11. Why Could Father Involvement Benefit Children? Theoretical Perspectives

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    Pleck, Joseph H.

    2007-01-01

    Four theoretical perspectives about why father involvement could have positive consequences for child development are briefly reviewed: attachment theory, social capital theory, Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory, and "essential father" theory. Strengths and weaknesses of each perspective are discussed, and the prospects for an integrated…

  12. Fathers of Children With Type 1 Diabetes: Perceptions of a Father's Involvement From a Health Promotion Perspective.

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    Boman, Ase; Povlsen, Lene; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth; Hanas, Ragnar; Borup, Ina K

    2014-06-19

    This study describes how fathers of children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes understand their involvement in their child's daily life from a health promotion perspective. Sixteen Swedish fathers of children living with type 1 diabetes were interviewed. Manifest and latent content analysis was used to identify two themes: the inner core of the father's general parental involvement and the additional involvement based on the child's diabetes. The former was underpinned by the fathers' prioritization of family life and the fathers being consciously involved in raising the child, and the latter by the fathers promoting and controlling the child's health and promoting and enabling the child's autonomy. The results highlight that the quality of the fathers' involvement is essential in the management of a child's chronic illness. It is important for pediatric diabetes health care professionals to assess the quality of fathers' involvement to promote the child's health. PMID:24948001

  13. Adolescent fathers involved with child protection: social workers speak.

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    Gordon, Derrick M; Watkins, Natasha D; Walling, Sherry M; Wilhelm, Sara; Rayford, Brett S

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent paternity through structured interviews with their social workers. It adds to the literature by exploring if there were young men involved with the child protection services (CPS) system who are fathers, identifying their unique needs, and beginning discussions on working with these young men. CPS social workers from six area offices and one juvenile detention facility completed surveys for each father on their caseload. A 3.5% rate of adolescent paternity was observed across these offices. Information about the nature of the young men's involvement with CPS, their involvement with their children, and their unique needs as fathers are provided. This paper also identifies some practice and policy implications for adolescent fathers and CPS charged with their care. PMID:22533056

  14. Hispanic Fathers and Risk for Maltreatment in Father-Involved Families of Young Children.

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    Lee, Shawna J; Altschul, Inna; Shair, Sarah R; Taylor, Catherine A

    2011-09-01

    The Hispanic population is the fastest growing segment of U.S. population. However, risks for child maltreatment in the foreign-born and native-born Hispanic populations are largely understudied. To address this knowledge gap, we explore the association of sociodemographic factors, psychosocial parenting factors, and nativity status with Hispanic fathers' aggression toward their young children (3 to 5 years). Using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and the follow-up In-Home Longitudinal Study of Pre-School Aged Children, we examine data for 372 foreign-born (FB; n = 155) and native-born (NB; n = 217) Hispanic biological fathers residing in the home when the study target child was 3 years old. Results of analysis at the bivariate level show FB Hispanic fathers engage in fewer aggressive behaviors than NB Hispanic, White, or Black fathers. Time-lagged path models of Hispanic fathers show FB Hispanic fathers use less aggression than NB Hispanic fathers. Length of time in the United States was not associated with parenting aggression. Path models also examine paternal psychosocial factors such as alcohol use, depression, parenting stress, and involvement in caregiving, and control for the child's aggressive behavior. Results suggest one reason Hispanic children do not face heightened risk for child welfare involvement, despite socioeconomic risks, is that FB Hispanic fathers use less aggression toward their young children. An implication of this finding is that socioeconomic and parenting behavior risks must be considered separately when practitioners are considering issues related to the representation of minority children in the child welfare system. PMID:22624074

  15. FATHERS' AND MOTHERS' REPRESENTATIONS OF THE INFANT: ASSOCIATIONS WITH PRENATAL RISK FACTORS.

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    Vreeswijk, Charlotte M J M; Rijk, Catharina H A M; Maas, A Janneke B M; van Bakel, Hedwig J A

    2015-11-01

    Parents' representations of their infants consist of parents' subjective experiences of how they perceive their infants. They provide important information about the quality of the parent-infant relationship and are closely related to parenting behavior and infant attachment. Previous studies have shown that parents' representations emerge during pregnancy. However, little is known about prenatal (risk) factors that are related to parents' representations. In a prospective study, 308 mothers and 243 fathers were followed during pregnancy and postpartum. Prenatal risk factors were assessed with an adapted version of the Dunedin Family Services Indicator (T.G. Egan et al., ; R.C. Muir et al., ). At 26 weeks' gestation and 6 months' postpartum, parents' representations of their children were assessed with the Working Model of the Child Interview (C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, L. Hirshberg, M.L. Barton, & C. Regan). Results showed stability between pre- and postnatal representations, with fathers having more disengaged representations than did mothers. In addition, prenatal risk factors of parenting problems were associated with the quality of parents' prenatal (only in mothers) and postnatal representations. This study provides valuable information concerning parents at risk of developing nonbalanced representations of their children. In clinical practice, these families could be monitored more intensively and may be supported in developing a more optimal parent-infant relationship. PMID:26536277

  16. Reciprocal Longitudinal Relations between Nonresident Father Involvement and Adolescent Delinquency

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    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Medeiros, Bethany L.

    2007-01-01

    Using a representative sample of low-income, primarily minority adolescents (N=647, aged 10-14 years at Wave 1), this study examined bidirectional longitudinal relations between nonresident father involvement, defined as contact and responsibility for children's care and behavior, and adolescent engagement in delinquent activities. Autoregressive…

  17. Adolescent Fathers Involved with Child Protection: Social Workers Speak

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    Gordon, Derrick M.; Watkins, Natasha D.; Walling, Sherry M.; Wilhelm, Sara; Rayford, Brett S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent paternity through structured interviews with their social workers. It adds to the literature by exploring if there were young men involved with the child protection services (CPS) system who are fathers, identifying their unique needs, and beginning discussions on working with these young men. CPS social workers from…

  18. Non-resident father-child contact across divorce cohorts : The role of father involvement during marriage

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    Westphal, Sarah Katharina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357426010; Poortman, Anne Rigt|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298807335; Van Der Lippe, Tanja|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416320

    2014-01-01

    Using retrospective data from the Divorce in the Netherlands Survey 1998 (SIN98, N=808), we investigate changes in children's daytime contact and overnight stays with non-resident fathers across four divorce cohorts from 1949 to 1998. Our findings show that daytime contact and overnight stays increased over time. A modest part of this increase can be explained by a rise in fathers' child-rearing involvement during marriage. Involved fathers are more likely to remain in contact with their chil...

  19. Cultural Influences on Positive Father Involvement in Two-Parent Mexican-Origin Families

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    Cruz, Rick A.; King, Kevin M; Widaman, Keith F.; Leu, Janxin; Cauce, Ana Mari; Conger, Rand D.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research documents the importance of positive father involvement in children’s development. However, research on fathers in Latino families is sparse, and research contextualizing the father-child relationship within a cultural framework is needed. The current study examined how father's cultural practices and values predicted their fifth-grade child’s report of positive father involvement among a sample of 450 two-parent Mexican-origin families. Predictors included Spanish ...

  20. Symptoms of Major Depression in a Sample of Fathers of Infants: Sociodemographic Correlates and Links to Father Involvement

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    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Moore, Kristin A.; Matthews, Gregory; Carrano, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Depression has been extensively studied for mothers but not for fathers. This study examines the sociodemographic correlates of symptoms of depression and how depression is associated with father involvement using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form (CIDI-SF) for major depression. The study uses a sample of 2,139 resident…

  1. Paternal involvement in a group of fathers of elementary school children

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    Simões, Rita; Leal, Isabel Pereira; Maroco, João

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of paternal involvement in Portuguese parents of children between 5 and 9 years old, exploring factors of interindividual variability (father´s age, education, socioeconomic status and number of children), as well as the association between father involvement and a number of factors identified in the literature: parental satisfaction, parental stress and marital adjustment. The sample consists of 145 married fathers aged betw...

  2. Walking a high beam: the balance between employment stability, workplace flexibility, and nonresident father involvement.

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    Castillo, Jason T; Welch, Greg W; Sarver, Christian M

    2012-03-01

    Compared with resident fathers, nonresident fathers are more likely to be unemployed or underemployed and less likely, when they are employed, to have access to flexible work arrangements. Although lack of employment stability is associated with lower levels of father involvement, some research shows that increased stability at work without increased flexibility is negatively related to involvement. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 895), the authors examined the relationship between nonresident fathers' employment stability, workplace flexibility, and father involvement. Results indicate that workplace flexibility, but not employment stability, is associated with higher levels of involvement. Policy and practice implications are discussed. PMID:21862567

  3. Black Father Involvement in Gifted Education: Thoughts from Black Fathers on Increasing/Improving Black Father-Gifted Teacher Partnerships

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    Grantham, Tarek C.; Henfield, Malik S.

    2011-01-01

    Black fathers are important advocates in addressing the underrepresentation of Black students in gifted programs, as well as the achievement gaps between Black and White students. Black fathers increasingly understand the important role that Black mothers have traditionally played in supporting their gifted children's school experiences. As a…

  4. Cultural influences on positive father involvement in two-parent Mexican-origin families.

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    Cruz, Rick A; King, Kevin M; Widaman, Keith F; Leu, Janxin; Cauce, Ana Mari; Conger, Rand D

    2011-10-01

    A growing body of research documents the importance of positive father involvement in children's development. However, research on fathers in Latino families is sparse, and research contextualizing the father-child relationship within a cultural framework is needed. The present study examined how fathers' cultural practices and values predicted their fifth-grade children's report of positive father involvement in a sample of 450 two-parent Mexican-origin families. Predictors included Spanish- and English-language use, Mexican and American cultural values, and positive machismo (i.e., culturally related attitudes about the father's role within the family). Positive father involvement was measured by the child's report of his or her father's monitoring, educational involvement, and warmth. Latent variable regression analyses showed that fathers' machismo attitudes were positively related to children's report of positive father involvement and that this association was similar across boys and girls. The results of this study suggest an important association between fathers' cultural values about men's roles and responsibilities within a family and their children's perception of positive fathering. PMID:21842992

  5. Relations between coparenting and father involvement in families with preschool-age children.

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    Jia, Rongfang; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    A sample (N = 112) composed primarily of European American and middle-class two-parent families with a resident father and a 4-year-old child (48% girls) participated in a longitudinal study of associations between coparenting and father involvement. At the initial assessment and 1 year later, fathers reported on their involvement in play and caregiving activities with the focal child, and coparenting behavior was observed during triadic family interactions. Structural equation modeling was used to test cross-lagged associations between coparenting behavior and father involvement. Overall, paths from father involvement to coparenting behavior were significant, but paths from coparenting behavior to father involvement were not. Specifically, greater father involvement in play was associated with an increase in supportive and a decrease in undermining coparenting behavior over time. In contrast, greater father involvement in caregiving was associated with a decrease in supportive and an increase in undermining coparenting behavior. Multigroup analysis further showed that these cross-lagged relations did not differ for dual-earner families and single-earner (father) families, but these relations appeared to differ for families with focal daughters and families with focal sons. These findings highlight the potential for fathering to affect coparenting and the importance of the role of contextual factors in coparenting-fathering relations. PMID:21244153

  6. Demographic Variables and Fathers' Involvement with Their Child with Disabilities

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    Bragiel, Józefa; Kaniok, Przemyslaw E.

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine whether fathers' involvement with their child with disabilities is correlated with some of the demographic variables. Data were collected from 243 Polish fathers who were married and who had at least one child with disabilities. The issue was assessed by two measures: a Questionnaire and the Father…

  7. Single Custodial Fathers' Involvement and Parenting: Implications for Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood

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    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Scott, Mindy E.; Lilja, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 3,977 youths from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), this study examines the unique characteristics of single-custodial-father families with adolescents and the effects of single fathers' involvement and parenting on outcomes in emerging adulthood. Findings suggest that single-custodial-father families are…

  8. Father Involvement and Young, Rural African American Men's Engagement in Substance Misuse and Multiple Sexual Partnerships.

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    Barton, Allen W; Kogan, Steven M; Cho, Junhan; Brown, Geoffrey L

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to examine the associations of biological father and social father involvement during childhood with African American young men's development and engagement in risk behaviors. With a sample of 505 young men living in the rural South of the United States, a dual mediation model was tested in which retrospective reports of involvement from biological fathers and social fathers were linked to young men's substance misuse and multiple sexual partnerships through men's relational schemas and future expectations. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that levels of involvement from biological fathers and social fathers predicted young men's relational schemas; only biological fathers' involvement predicted future expectations. In turn, future expectations predicted levels of substance misuse, and negative relational schemas predicted multiple sexual partnerships. Biological fathers' involvement evinced significant indirect associations with young men's substance misuse and multiple sexual partnerships through both schemas and expectations; social fathers' involvement exhibited an indirect association with multiple sexual partnerships through relational schemas. Findings highlight the unique influences of biological fathers and social fathers on multiple domains of African American young men's psychosocial development that subsequently render young men more or less likely to engage in risk behaviors. PMID:26362297

  9. THE EFFECTS OF FATHER INVOLVEMENT TRAINING ON FAMILY FUNCTIONING AND ADOLESCENTS’ PEER RELATION

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    Ercan KOCAYÖRÜK; Zeynep HAT?PO?LU SÜMER

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to design and determine the effect of Father Involvement Training (FIT), which is based on social-cognitive theory principles, on family functioning in father-adolescent relationships, and (b) to examine the effect of Father Involvement Training (FIT) on the quality of the peer relationships of 9th grade high school students, whose fathers participated in the study. The sample was composed of twenty- six 9th grade students’ fathers. The 2x3 ex...

  10. THE EFFECTS OF FATHER INVOLVEMENT TRAINING ON FAMILY FUNCTIONING AND ADOLESCENTS’ PEER RELATION

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    Ercan KOCAYÖRÜK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was twofold: (a to design and determine the effect of Father Involvement Training (FIT, which is based on social-cognitive theory principles, on family functioning in father-adolescent relationships, and (b to examine the effect of Father Involvement Training (FIT on the quality of the peer relationships of 9th grade high school students, whose fathers participated in the study. The sample was composed of twenty- six 9th grade students’ fathers. The 2x3 experimental design examined pre-training, post-training and six-month follow-up measurements of an experimental group and control group. Data were collected through Parent Success Indicator (PSI, Parent Adolescent Relationship Scale (PARS and Peer Relationship Scale (PRS. Data were analyzed by employing Mann Whitney U Test, Friedman Test, and Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test. The results revealed that the Father Involvement Training had significant effects on the father-child relationship and family functioning of experimental group’s fathers. The adolescents, whose fathers participated in the experimental group, had improved in close-relationship and sensitivity dimensions at the end of the study. However, the improvements were not maintained after the six months follow-up measurements. Lastly, there was a significant improvement in the trust and identification dimension of peer relationship levels of children whose fathers received the training compared to children whose fathers did not receive the training.

  11. Salvadoran fathers' attendance at prenatal care, delivery, and postpartum care La presencia de los padres salvadoreños durante la atención prenatal, el parto y la atención posparto

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    Marion W. Carter

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide a baseline perspective on the prevalence of Salvadoran men's attendance at prenatal care, delivery, and postpartum well-baby care and on sociodemographic factors associated with their attendance, with the goal of informing efforts to help men play more positive roles in maternal-child health. METHODS: The data came from the 2003 Salvadoran National Male Health Survey. The data focused on fathers (n = 418 and their most recent live-born child in the preceding five years. Factors associated with the fathers' participation in prenatal care visits, attendance at delivery, and participation in postnatal well-baby visits were explored using logistic and multinomial regression models. RESULTS: Ninety percent of the recent Salvadoran fathers who were surveyed participated in a prenatal care visit, attended the delivery, or participated in a postpartum well-baby care visit; 34% participated in all three of the activities. Attendance at delivery was most common, reported by 81% of fathers; the most common reason that subjects cited for not attending was that they had had to work. CONCLUSIONS: A large majority of the Salvadoran fathers participated in at least one prenatal care visit, delivery, or a postpartum well-baby care visit. While attendance alone does not necessarily indicate that men are supporting their partners, the results suggest that norms are in place for men to play positive roles in maternal-child health matters. Furthermore, the participation of fathers in these maternal and child health care activities may provide new opportunities to educate and further support men in both their own health and their family's health.OBJETIVO: Proporcionar información de base acerca de la frecuencia con la cual los hombres salvadoreños acuden a la atención prenatal, al parto y a la atención del bebé sano después del parto, así como acerca de los factores sociodemográficos que se asocian con su asistencia a esas actividades, a fin de orientar acciones encaminadas a ayudar a los hombres a participar de una forma más útil en la salud maternoinfantil. MÉTODOS: Los datos, que se obtuvieron de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud Masculina de 2003 (ENSM-03 de El Salvador, se centran en los padres (n = 418 y en el hijo más joven que haya nacido vivo durante los cinco años anteriores a la encuesta. Mediante modelos de regresión logística y multinomial se exploraron factores asociados con la presencia de los padres en las consultas prenatales, en el parto y en las consultas para la atención del neonato sano. RESULTADOS: Noventa por ciento de los padres salvadoreños que fueron encuestados participaron en una consulta prenatal, asistieron al parto o estuvieron en una consulta para la atención del bebé sano; 34% de ellos participaron en las tres actividades. Lo más frecuente fue la asistencia al parto, notificada por 81% de los padres, y la razón dada con mayor frecuencia para no haber asistido fue la necesidad de ir a trabajar. CONCLUSIONES: La gran mayoría de los padres salvadoreños habían estado en por lo menos una consulta prenatal, en el parto o en una consulta para la atención del bebé sano. Aunque la participación en estas actividades no necesariamente significa que los cónyuges les estén dando a sus parejas el apoyo debido, los resultados parecieran indicar que ya están sentadas ciertas normas para que los hombres puedan desempeñar un papel positivo en el área de la salud maternoinfantil. Además, la participación de los padres en estas actividades relacionadas con la atención de madre e hijo podría ofrecer nuevas oportunidades para educar a los hombres y darles más apoyo en el cuidado de su propia salud y la de su familia.

  12. Father Involvement: The Importance of Paternal Solo Care

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    Wilson, Katherine R.; Prior, Margot R.

    2010-01-01

    Paternal time spent caring for children alone is qualitatively different from time together mediated by the presence of the mother and may be particularly relevant to father-child relations. Many fathers spend minimal time alone with their children. Indeed, it is still commonly referred to as "babysitting". We explored the concept of Solo Care as…

  13. Father Involvement and Coparenting Behavior: Parents’ Nontraditional Beliefs and Family Earner Status as Moderators

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    Buckley, Catherine K.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relations between father involvement in caregiving and play and coparenting behavior using self-report and observational data from 80 two-parent families of preschool-aged children, and examined parents’ nontraditional beliefs about fathers’ roles and family earner status as moderators of these relations. Results indicated that greater father involvement in caregiving and play was associated with less observed undermining coparenting behavior in dual-earner families. C...

  14. RELATIONS BETWEEN COPARENTING AND FATHER INVOLVEMENT IN FAMILIES WITH PRESCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

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    Jia, Rongfang; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    One-hundred twelve primarily European American and middle-class two-parent families with resident fathers and a 4-year-old child (48% girls) participated in a longitudinal study of associations between coparenting and father involvement. At the initial assessment and one year later, fathers reported on their involvement in play and caregiving activities with the focal child, and coparenting behavior was observed during triadic family interactions. SEM was used to test cross-lagged association...

  15. Mother-to-infant and father-to-infant initial emotional involvement

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    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Raquel A. Costa; Alexandra P. Pacheco; Pais, A

    2007-01-01

    While infant attachment has been largely studied, parental attachment is still relatively unknown, especially when referred to fathers. However, it is mainly recognised that parents’ emotional involvement with the newborn contributes to the quality of the interaction and the care they provide. The aim of this study was to study mother-to-infant and father-to-infant initial emotional involvement; namely, differences between mothers and fathers and changes in mother’s emotions t...

  16. Work Environment and Japanese Fathers' Involvement in Child Care

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    Ishii-Kuntz, Masako

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies mainly examined individual and family factors affecting Japanese fathers' involvement in child care. Along with these factors, we examine how work-related factors such as father-friendly environment at work, workplace's accommodation of parental needs, job stress, and autonomy are associated with Japanese men's…

  17. Perceptions and Satisfaction with Father Involvement and Adolescent Mothers' Postpartum Depressive Symptoms

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    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescent mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms and their perceptions of amount of father care giving and satisfaction with father involvement with the baby. The sample included 100 adolescent mothers (ages 13-19; mainly African-American and Latina) whose partners were recruited for a randomized…

  18. Toddler Development in the Family: Impact of Father Involvement and Parenting Characteristics.

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    Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Goldberg, Wendy A.

    1984-01-01

    To determine the impact of quantitative and qualitative aspects of fathering, relationships among father involvement in childrearing, parenting characteristics, and child adaptation were investigated. Results from 70 infants 20 months of age and their parents highlighted the salience of qualitative characteristics of parenting for toddler…

  19. Children of Divorced Parents: Action Steps for the Counselor to Involve Fathers.

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    Frieman, Barry B.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that many school counseling programs designed to help children of divorce focus on child and custodial parent, usually mother. Contends that, to help child cope with divorce and maintain academic performance level in school, counselor needs to involve child's noncustodial father as well. Considers fathers in therapy, examines characteristics…

  20. Hispanic Fathers and Risk for Maltreatment in Father-Involved Families of Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Shawna J. Lee; Altschul, Inna; Shair, Sarah R.; Taylor, Catherine A

    2011-01-01

    The Hispanic population is the fastest growing segment of U.S. population. However, risks for child maltreatment in the foreign-born and native-born Hispanic populations are largely understudied. To address this knowledge gap, we explore the association of sociodemographic factors, psychosocial parenting factors, and nativity status with Hispanic fathers’ aggression toward their young children (3 to 5 years). Using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and the follow-up In-Home Longi...

  1. Another Baby? Father Involvement and Childbearing in Fragile Families

    OpenAIRE

    Kotila, Letitia E.; Dush, Claire M. Kamp

    2012-01-01

    An historic number of women in the US have children outside of marriage, and with more than one father, yet little research has examined the association between family process and women’s childbearing decisions. Using a subsample of unmarried women from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=2028), a study of primarily low-income unmarried parents, we conducted discrete-time survival analysis models to predict whether women had another child with the focal child’s father (same-fath...

  2. Coparenting and Nonresident Fathers’ Involvement with Young Children after a Nonmarital Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARLSON, MARCIA J.; MCLANAHAN, SARA S.; BROOKS-GUNN, JEANNE

    2008-01-01

    We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to investigate the association between coparenting quality and nonresident fathers’ involvement with children over the first five years after a nonmarital birth. We find that about one year after a nonmarital birth, 48% of fathers are living away from their child, rising to 56% and then to 63% at three and five years, respectively. Using structural equation models to estimate cross-lagged effects, we find that positive coparenting is a strong predictor of nonresident fathers’ future involvement, whereas fathers’ involvement is only a weak (but significant) predictor of future coparenting quality. The positive effect of coparenting quality on fathers’ involvement is robust across several techniques designed to address unobserved heterogeneity and across different strategies for handling missing data. We conclude that parents’ ability to work together in rearing their common child across households helps keep nonresident fathers connected to their children and that programs aimed at improving parents’ ability to communicate may have benefits for children irrespective of whether the parents’ romantic relationship remains intact. PMID:18613490

  3. Father Involvement, Dating Violence, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among a National Sample of Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. PMID:25475102

  4. Coparenting and Nonresident Fathers’ Involvement with Young Children after a Nonmarital Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Marcia J.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2008-01-01

    We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to investigate the association between coparenting quality and nonresident fathers’ involvement with children over the first five years after a nonmarital birth. We find that about one year after a nonmarital birth, 48% of fathers are living away from their child, rising to 56% and then to 63% at three and five years, respectively. Using structural equation models to estimate cross-lagged effects, we find that positive coparentin...

  5. African American Fathers' Involvement in Their Children's School-Based Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated African American fathers' involvement in the school-based lives of their elementary-aged children using the Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler model of parent involvement and Epstein's framework of involvement. Questionnaires were administered to 101 African American males in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States.…

  6. Are Mothers Really "Gatekeepers" of Children?: Rural Mothers' Perceptions of Nonresident Fathers' Involvement in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yoshie; Richards, Leslie N.; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by symbolic interactionism, this qualitative study based on interviews with 83 rural mothers investigated mothers' perceptions of nonresident fathers' involvement in low-income families. Contrary to some fathers' claims that mothers "gatekeep" their access to children, the majority of mothers in our study wanted increased father…

  7. 'Who's the guy in the room?' Involving fathers in antenatal care screening for sickle cell disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Karl; Berghs, Maria; Dyson, Simon

    2015-03-01

    Fathers are increasingly invited to take part in antenatal care of which screening for sickle cell trait is a part. Expectations about involvement reflect changing perceptions of fatherhood and negotiation of gendered identities. Current policy supports male involvement, but is less clear on what basis and with what consequences. In exploring this, our qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews, presents the experiences of fathers who have recently undergone antenatal screening for sickle cell. The sample was generated in discussion with eight non-governmental organisations. We recruited 24 fathers from nine UK cities. Our analysis outlines the importance of 'presence', in which fathers rely on nurturing definitions of fatherhood to display their sense of responsibility. Fathers, however, struggled to find a meaningful role as traditional masculinities became juxtaposed with new and complex forms of gender organisation, creating the potential for estrangement. To conclude, screening policy makes an appeal to emergent masculinities. It also generates risks and compromises choice, due to the normative values implicit in the screening process, reinforced by the more controlling aspects of health surveillance. This creates confusion among fathers, who are not sure why they have been invited into the antenatal space. PMID:25621401

  8. Relationships Among Involvement, Attachment, and Behavioral Problems in Adolescence: Examining Father's Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan K.; Kelly, F. Donald

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the nature of the parent-child relationship during early adolescence. Differences between the mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships and possible behavioral correlates of parental involvement and attachment are examined. A multimodal data collection procedure was used to gather information from adolescents (N =…

  9. Mother-to-Infant and Father-to-Infant Initial Emotional Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Barbara; Costa, Raquel; Pacheco, Alexandra; Pais, Alvaro

    2007-01-01

    While infant attachment has been largely studied, parental attachment is still relatively unknown, especially when referred to fathers. However, it is mainly recognised that parents' emotional involvement with the newborn contributes to the quality of the interaction and the care they provide. The aim of this study was to study mother-to-infant…

  10. Involvement in Childrearing and Mothers' and Fathers' Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riina, Elizabeth M.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Combining social construction of gender and equity perspectives on parents' division of labor, this study extended research on associations between parents' childrearing involvement and adjustment by (a) differentiating between types of childrearing activities (task focused vs. relationship focused), (b) examining patterns of differences in these…

  11. Parental Involvement, Child Temperament, and Parents’ Work Hours: Differential Relations for Mothers and Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; McBride, Brent A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Shin, Nana

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how child temperament was related to parents’ time spent accessible to and interacting with their 2-year-olds. Bivariate analyses indicated that both fathers and mothers spent more time with temperamentally challenging children than easier children on workdays, but fathers spent less time with challenging children than easier children on non-workdays. After accounting for work hours, some associations between temperament and fathers’ workday involvement dropped to non-significance. For fathers, work hours also moderated the relation between irregular temperament and workday play. For mothers, work hours moderated the relation between both difficult and irregular temperament and workday interaction. Mothers also spent more time with girls (but not boys) who were temperamentally irregular. Results speak to the influence of child temperament on parenting behavior, and the differential construction of parenting roles as a function of child characteristics and patterns of work. PMID:25960588

  12. Distinguishing the Influences of Father's and Mother's Involvement on Adolescent Academic Achievement: Analyses of Taiwan Education Panel Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsien-Yuan; Zhang, Dalun; Kwok, Oi-Man; Li, Yan; Ju, Song

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample drawn from Taiwan, this study evaluated the role of mother and father involvement in adolescent academic achievement. The participants were drawn from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS) and consisted of 8,108 adolescents who studied seventh grade in 2001. Father and mother involvement related to academic achievement was…

  13. Effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior on father involvement in care of a pre-school child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihi? Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research so far indicates that the context in which the father’s role takes place significantly influences the form and level of father involvement in taking care of the child. The primary goal of this research was to describe the forms and effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior as a characteristic form of interaction between parents which is, as part of the context, considered a significant factor in father involvement in care of the child. Research participants were 247 parental couples from complete families whose oldest child attended a pre-school institution. Fathers provided assessments of their own involvement via the Father Involvement Inventory, as well as assessments of prominence of gate-keeping behavior in their wives via the checklist of maternal gate-keeping behavior. Mothers reported on their beliefs about the importance and possibilities of father involvement in care of the child, as well as on their personal satisfaction with the current involvement of their husband in the joint care of the child. The results point out to the particular forms of mothers’ ambivalence when it comes to the joint care of the child, which is a form of gate-keeping behavior. The frequency of gate-keeping behavior, assessed by the checklist, significantly changes the possibilities of father involvement in taking care of the child in the developmental phase of the family, having in mind that the task of this phase is precisely the definition of parental roles and formation of parent cooperative principle.

  14. The Differential Impact of Early Father and Mother Involvement on Later Student Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Brent A.; Dyer, W. Justin; Liu, Ying; Brown, Geoffrey L; Hong, Sungjin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of early parenting on later parental school involvement and student achievement. The sample, pulled from the first and second waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics – Child Development Supplement data set, consisted of 390 children ages 2–5 at time 1 and their families. Fathers’ and mothers’ participation in five dimensions of early parenting behaviors were assessed at time 1, while later parental school...

  15. Father involvement moderates the effect of maternal depression during a child's infancy on child behavior problems in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezulis, Amy H; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Clark, Roseanne

    2004-12-01

    This research investigated whether father involvement in infancy may reduce or exacerbate the well-established adverse effect of maternal depression during a child's infancy on behavior problems in childhood. In a community sample (N = 350), the authors found that fathers' self-reported parenting styles interacted with the amount of time fathers spent caring for their infants to moderate the longitudinal effect of maternal depression during the child's infancy on children's internalizing, but not externalizing, behaviors. Low to medium amounts of high-warmth father involvement and high amounts of medium- or high-control father involvement at this time were associated with lower child internalizing behaviors. Paternal depression during a child's infancy exacerbated the effect of maternal depression, but this moderating effect was limited to depressed fathers spending medium to high amounts of time caring for their infants. Results emphasize the moderating role fathers may play in reducing or exacerbating the adverse long-term effects of maternal depression during a child's infancy on later child behavior problems. PMID:15598163

  16. Mothers' and fathers' involvement with school-age children's care and academic activities in Navajo Indian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Ziarat; Anziano, Michael C

    2008-04-01

    This exploratory study examined mothers' and fathers' reports of time involvement in their school-age children's care and academic activities. The study also explored the relationship between parents' socioeconomic status (SES) variables (age, education, income, work hours, and length of marriage) and their relative involvement with children. Mother and father dyads from 34 two-parent Navajo (Diné) Indian families with a second- or third-grade child participated in the study. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that mothers invested significantly more time in children's care on demand and academic activities than fathers, but the differences in maternal and paternal perceptions of time involvement in routine care were not significant. The gender of the child did not influence the amount of time parents invested in children's care and academic activities. Mothers' involvement with children was not related to any of the SES variables. Fathers' involvement was significantly associated with work hours and length of marriage, and work hours produced significant interaction with fathers' involvement with children. Findings are discussed in light of gender role differences in parental involvement with children within Navajo families. PMID:18426283

  17. The Need for More Effective Father Involvement in Early Autism Intervention: A Systematic Review and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippin, Michelle; Crais, Elizabeth R.

    2011-01-01

    Fathers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are underrepresented in both early intervention and research. However, fathers have unique interaction styles that make important contributions to the language and symbolic play development of typically developing children. Fathers may make similar contributions to the development of their…

  18. Participación paterna en la experiencia del parto / Father involvement in childbirth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hernán, Villalón U; Rosario, Toro G; Isidora, Riesco C; Mauricio, Pinto C; Cristián, Silva V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Recientes iniciativas, han promovido la participación de los padres en los cuidados tempranos de sus hijos. Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados de un programa de estímulo a la participación paterna en el parto. Se incluyeron padres de RN de término sanos, asignados aleatoriamente para par [...] ticipar en la experiencia del parto o control. Pacientes y Metodos: El protocolo incluyó: secado de la piel, corte de cordón umbilical, peso, estatura, y finalmente, entrega a la madre para el contacto piel a piel. Se evaluó frecuencia cardiaca (FC), respiratoria (FR) y temperatura una hora después. En el primer control ambulatorio, las madres completaron un cuestionario. 127 padres participaron en la experiencia del parto o control. Resultados: 62 asignados al protocolo y 65 al control. Ambos grupos de RN resultaron comparables. También los padres, en edad, escolaridad, ruralidad, y las madres, en primiparidad. Diferencias significativas: asistencia nocturna (37/62, 59,6% vs 10/65, 15,4%, p Abstract in english Introduction: Recent initiatives have promoted the participation of fathers in the early care of their children. Objective: To assess the results of a program to encourage parental involvement in childbirth. Parents of healthy term newborns were randomly allocated to participate either in the birth [...] experience or control. Patients and Methods: The protocol included: to dry the skin, umbilical cord cutting off, weight, height, and finally give him/her to the mother for the skin-to-skin contact. Heart rate (HR), respiratory (RR) and temperature were evaluated one hour later. In the first outpatient clinic assessment, mothers completed a questionnaire. 127 fathers participated either in the birth experience or control. Results: 62 followed the protocol and 65 the control. Both newborn groups were comparable. Also were fathers in age, education and rurality; mothers in primiparity. Significant differences: night care (37/62, 10/65 59.6% vs 15.4%, p

  19. Mothers' and Fathers' Involvement in Home Activities with Their Children: Psychosocial Factors and the Role of Parental Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, Rebecca; Treyvaud, Karli; Cooklin, Amanda; Wade, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Parent involvement in play, learning, and everyday home activities is important for promoting children's cognitive and language development. The aims of the study were to (a) examine differences between mothers' and fathers' self-reported involvement with their children, (b) explore the relationship between child, parent and family factors, and…

  20. Parental Involvement, Child Temperament, and Parents' Work Hours: Differential Relations for Mothers and Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; McBride, Brent A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Shin, Nana

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how child temperament was related to parents' time spent accessible to and interacting with their 2-year-olds. Bivariate analyses indicated that both fathers and mothers spent more time with temperamentally challenging children than easier children on workdays, but fathers spent less time with challenging children than easier…

  1. Parental Involvement, Child Temperament, and Parents' Work Hours: Differential Relations for Mothers and Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; McBride, Brent A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Shin, Nana

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how child temperament was related to parents' time spent accessible to and interacting with their 2-year-olds. Bivariate analyses indicated that both fathers and mothers spent more time with temperamentally challenging children than easier children on workdays, but fathers spent less time with challenging children than easier…

  2. Exploring the impact of involving fathers in the treatment of their children: A study using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elisabeth Iversen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although fathers have been shown to contribute uniquely to the development of psychopathology in children, they continue to be ignored in research and clinical work. Knowledge about the impact of involving fathers in their child’s treatment – for the child, couple and the family as a whole - is still sparse. The aim of this study was to explore parents’ experiences of having fathers involved in the treatment of their child. Parents, whose children had received cognitive behavioural therapy for an anxiety disorder, were interviewed about this topic. The participating parents had all been involved in the treatment of their child. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA was used to analyze the data in this study. Three higher order themes and 11 subthemes emerged from the six interview accounts. The three higher order themes were as follows: Strengthening the family system, empowerment of parents, and impact on partner relationship. Results indicated that parents’ experiences of the involvement of fathers to be beneficial not only on the child’s treatment but also on other aspects of family life. The parents reported that the family as a whole benefitted from the treatment and that the relationship between the parents was strengthened. A model was created to conceptualize these results.

  3. O envolvimento paterno no processo da amamentação: propostas de incentivo / Involving fathers in breast feeding: stimulus proposals

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cleide Maria, Pontes; Aline Chaves, Alexandrino; Mônica Maria, Osório.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: desvendar os eixos norteadores e, a partir deles, construir uma proposta de incentivo à participação do homem no processo da amamentação, identificando estratégias nas diversas fases de sua vida, desde criança até tornar-se pai. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo, exploratório e qualitativo, cujo [...] s eixos norteadores e a construção da proposta ocorreram a partir da análise das falas oriundas das entrevistas semiestruturadas realizadas com 17 casais, residentes na favela do Bode, Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. As falas foram interpretadas à luz da análise do conteúdo manifesto, ancoradas no referencial teórico - construção histórica, social e cultural da paternidade - para encontrar os eixos norteadores e subsídios à construção da proposta. RESULTADOS: os eixos norteadores encontrados foram família, escola e instituição de saúde, os quais subsidiaram a construção de uma proposta por meio da implantação do ambulatório de amamentação (consulta para família, do pré-natal aos seis meses de vida da criança) e da socialização de meninos e meninas pró-amamentação. Tal proposta consta de atividades para o envolvimento do pai no amamentar. CONCLUSÕES: os eixos norteadores apresentaram aspectos significativos que alijaram o homem do processo da amamentação. Por isso, a essência desta proposta construída foi servir de modelo de incentivo à participação do pai nessa prática, para se estruturar um programa de saúde a ser implementado nas escolas e instituições de saúde, como uma forma de transformar a cultura do amamentar, aumentando o período de duração da amamentação. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: to reveal the guiding influences and through these to draw up a proposal to stimulate the participation of men in breast feeding, identifying strategies at the various phases in a man's life, from childhood to fatherhood. METHODS: a descriptive, exploratory and qualitative study was carr [...] ied out, whose guidelines and proposals were based on examination of statements gathered in the course of semi-structured interviews conducted with 17 couples, living on the Bode favela, in Recife, in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The statements were interpreted using manifest content analysis, based on the theoretical notion of the historical, social and cultural construction of fatherhood, and subsequently used to determine the guiding influences and draw up proposals. RESULTS: the principal guiding influences were found to be the family, the school and the health unit, all of which help to draw up a proposal for the initiation of breast feeding at the outpatients clinic (during prenatal family consultations when the child is aged six months) and the socialization of male and female children in favor of breast feeding. This proposal includes activities that aim to involve the father in breast feeding. CONCLUSIONS: some significant features of the guiding influences tend to exclude men from the breast feeding process. The essence of this proposal is therefore to serve as a model for stimulating the participation of fathers in breast feeding and for building up a health program to be introduced in schools and health units, as a way of changing the culture of breast feeding and extending its duration.

  4. Perceptions of Fathers' Involvement in Their Daughters' Sports: The Relationship to Self-Esteem and Fear of Failure in Specialized AAU Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinot, Jan E.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate and describe a daughter's perception of father involvement in her sports; and the relationship to her self-esteem and fear of failure. The purpose of the study was exploratory in nature and it was hypothesized that quality father involvement would be positively associated with a daughter's self-esteem and…

  5. Do Parentese Prosody and Fathers' Involvement in Interacting Facilitate Social Interaction in Infants Who Later Develop Autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David; Cassel, Raquel S.; Saint-Georges, Catherine; Mahdhaoui, Ammar; Laznik, Marie-Christine; Apicella, Fabio; Muratori, Pietro; Maestro, Sandra; Muratori, Filippo; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Background Whether development of autism impacts the interactive process between an infant and his/her parents remains an unexplored issue. Methodology and Principal Findings Using computational analysis taking into account synchronic behaviors and emotional prosody (parentese), we assessed the course of infants' responses to parents' type of speech in home movies from typically developing (TD) infants and infants who will subsequently develop autism aged less than 18 months. Our findings indicate: that parentese was significantly associated with infant responses to parental vocalizations involving orientation towards other people and with infant receptive behaviours; that parents of infants developing autism displayed more intense solicitations that were rich in parentese; that fathers of infants developing autism spoke to their infants more than fathers of TD infants; and that fathers' vocalizations were significantly associated with intersubjective responses and active behaviours in infants who subsequently developed autism. Conclusion The parents of infants who will later develop autism change their interactive pattern of behaviour by both increasing parentese and father's involvement in interacting with infants; both are significantly associated with infant's social responses. We stress the possible therapeutic implications of these findings and its implication for Dean Falk's theory regarding pre-linguistic evolution in early hominins. PMID:23650498

  6. Young Mothers' Involvement in a Prenatal and Postpartum Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaoli; Korfmacher, Jon; Hans, Sydney L.; Henson, Linda G.

    2010-01-01

    The involvement of 124 young mothers in a doula support program was measured in two dimensions--quantity of program contact and quality of mother-doula helping relationship. The study examined each dimension's differential associations with maternal outcomes, as well as the moderating effects of mother characteristics on these associations.…

  7. Parenting from Abroad: Migration, Nonresident Father Involvement, and Children's Education in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna

    2011-01-01

    In Mexico, a country with high emigration rates, parental migration matches divorce as a contributor to child-father separation. Yet little has been written about children's relationships with migrating parents. In this study, I use nationally representative data from the 2005 Mexican Family Life Survey to model variation in the interaction…

  8. Links between Different Measures of Mother/Father Involvement and Child Social Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubeau, Diane; Coutu, Sylvain; Lavigueur, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    The relative integration of fathers into the parental unit clearly poses numerous conceptual and methodological challenges despite the considerable progress that has been made in this area. Important social changes that have occurred over a relatively short period of time have resulted in a redefinition of parental roles which supports the…

  9. Non-Residential Father-Child Involvement, Interparental Conflict and Mental Health of Children Following Divorce: A Person-Focused Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Kit K; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2016-03-01

    Variable-centered research has found complex relationships between child well-being and two critical aspects of the post-divorce family environment: the level of non-residential father involvement (i.e., contact and supportive relationship) with their children and the level of conflict between the father and mother. However, these analyses fail to capture individual differences based on distinct patterns of interparental conflict, father support and father contact. Using a person-centered latent profile analysis, the present study examined (1) profiles of non-residential father contact, support, and interparental conflict in the 2 years following divorce (N = 240), when children (49 % female) were between 9 and 12 years of age and (2) differences across profiles in concurrent child adjustment outcomes as well as outcomes 6 years later. Four profiles of father involvement were identified: High Contact-Moderate Conflict-Moderate Support, Low Contact-Moderate Conflict-Low Support, High Conflict-Moderate Contact-Moderate Support, and Low Conflict-Moderate Contact-Moderate Support. Concurrently, children with fathers in the group with high conflict were found to have significantly greater internalizing and externalizing problems compared to all other groups. Six years later, children with fathers in the group with low contact and low support were found to have greater internalizing and externalizing problems compared to children with fathers in the high conflict group, and also greater internalizing problems compared to children with fathers in the low conflict group. These results provide insight into the complex relationship among non-residential fathers' conflict, contact, and support in child adjustment within divorcing families. PMID:26692236

  10. DOES FATHER INVOLVEMENT INFLUENCE THE AFFECT, LANGUAGE ACQUISITION, SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT AND BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG AUTISTIC CHILDREN? AN EARLY INTERVENTION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tabitha LOUIS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study adopts a randomized experimental design to evaluate the impact of a father-mediated therapy to improve the play skills, affect, language, social skills and behavior among 30 clinically diagnosed autistic children at the age of 3-5 years. Standardized inventories such as, The Play Based Observation (PBO, The Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS, The Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS and the Rendel Shorts Questionnaire were administered pre and post intervention. A special program that involved fathers in the caregiving and nurturing processes of these children was designed and implemented for 6 months after which the children were reassessed. Prior to the intervention, deficits in play skills and developmental delays across expressive and receptive language were observed Scores on the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Rendel Shorts revealed behavioral markers. Post intervention, we noticed significant differences in the play, language acquisition, social engagement and behavior in the treatment group in comparison to the control group. The results suggested that father-mediated therapeutic involvement significantly has proven to positively foster development in young autistic children and this is an important implication for practitioners in developing early intervention programs.

  11. [On the value of "informational evening classes for mothers and fathers" within the scope of prenatal care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, W; Wechselberg, A; Bolte, A

    1992-07-01

    In 1989, the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, University of Cologne, questioned the 288 participants of the "informative evenings for mothers and fathers", a primarily preventive measure offered as a preparation for childbirth. The survey aimed at reviewing these evenings, i.e. to make a critical and exact evaluation of their usefulness and quality as one of the numerous events offered to expectant mothers. The following results were obtained: The women who visited the informative evenings were mostly pregnant for the first time, educated above average, for the most part working women and of German nationality. Their attitude towards preventive measures, i.e. regular check-ups during pregnancy as well as smoking behaviour, the wish to breast-feed and the attendance of other birth preparation courses, is well founded. Consequently, this group of women can be described as a highly selected. Their motivation to come to the evenings resulted mostly from the wish to obtain specific clinical information, to become familiar with the maternity ward, to meet midwives and doctors, in order to lose some of their fears and to increase confidence. Contents and structure of these evenings were mostly able to meet the expectations of the visitors. Unsatisfactory, however, was the low number of foreign woman, those with difficult pregnancies and women of a low social status i.e. patients, who above all, need intensive assistance and attention. PMID:1499952

  12. Psychopathological status, behavior problems, and family adjustment of Kuwaiti children whose fathers were involved in the first gulf war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohaeri Jude U

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Following the end of the Gulf War that resulted in the liberation of Kuwait, there are no reports on the impact of veterans' traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on their children. We compared the severity of anxiety, depression, deviant behavior and poor family adjustment among the children of a stratified random sample of four groups of Kuwaiti military men, viz: the retired; an active -in-the-army group (AIA (involved in duties at the rear; an in-battle group (IB (involved in combat; and a prisoners -of- war (POWs group. Also, we assessed the association of father's PTSD/combat status and mother's characteristics with child psychosocial outcomes. Method Subjects were interviewed at home, 6 years after the war, using: the Child Behavior Index to assess anxiety, depression, and adaptive behavior; Rutter Scale A2 for deviant behavior; and Family Adjustment Device for adjustment at home. Both parents were assessed for PTSD. Results The 489 offspring (250 m, 239 f; mean age 13.8 yrs belonged to 166 father-mother pairs. Children of POWs tended to have higher anxiety, depression, and abnormal behavior scores. Those whose fathers had PTSD had significantly higher depression scores. However, children of fathers with both PTSD and POW status (N = 43 did not have significantly different outcome scores than the other father PTSD/combat status groups. Mother's PTSD, anxiety, depression and social status were significantly associated with all the child outcome variables. Parental age, child's age and child's level of education were significant covariates. Although children with both parents having PTSD had significantly higher anxiety/depression scores, the mother's anxiety was the most frequent and important predictor of child outcome variables. The frequency of abnormal test scores was: 14% for anxiety/depression, and 17% for deviant behavior. Conclusion Our findings support the impression that child emotional experiences in vulnerable family situations transcend culture and are associated with the particular behavior of significant adults in the child's life. The primacy of the mother's influence has implications for interventions to improve the psychological functioning of children in such families. Mental health education for these families has the potential to help those in difficulty.

  13. Teen Father Handbook for Teen Fathers and Teen Fathers-To-Be: Straight Talk for Young Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybury, Karol K.

    This handbook, published by the Teen Father's Program of the Sacramento (California) YWCA, outlines options available to teen fathers-to-be, as well as adolescent males who are already fathers, and where they can find help. While the final decision about pregnancy legally rests with the mother, the father can be involved in the process by helping…

  14. Prenatal paternal depression

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Deeds, Osvelia; Contogeorgos, Jennifer; Ascencio, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal depressive symptoms, anxiety, anger and daily hassles were investigated in 156 depressed and non-depressed pregnant women and their depressed and non-depressed partners (fathers-to-be). Depressed versus non-depressed fathers had higher depression, anxiety and daily hassles scores. Although the pregnant women in general had lower anxiety, anger and daily hassles scores th...

  15. Neuroprotective effect of resveratrol against prenatal stress induced cognitive impairment and possible involvement of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Sudhanshu Sekhar; Madhyastha, Sampath; Rao, Gayathri M

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol, an active ingredient of red wine extracts, has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects in several experimental models. Hence in the present study, the protective effects of resveratrol on cognitive deficits induced by prenatal stress were evaluated in offspring, and the possible involvement of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in learning deficits were explored. Pregnant rats were subjected to restraint stress during early or late gestational period. Another set of rats received resveratrol during the entire gestational period along with early or late gestational stress. The study parameters included various behavioral tests like open field test and Morris water maze test. At the end of the behavioral tests (on 40th postnatal day), the offspring were sacrificed, and their brain homogenate was subjected to Na(+), K(+)-ATPase estimation. Early and late gestational stress affected spatial learning and memory and prenatal resveratrol has reversed these cognitive deficits. The Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in the offspring brain homogenate was reduced in the late gestational stress group; however prenatal resveratrol treatment has not affected this activity. These data suggest the neuroprotective efficacy of resveratrol against prenatal stress induced cognitive impairment. Though late gestational stress involves Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in rat brain homogenate, this would not be the primary cause in prenatal stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23044472

  16. The effects of parental sensitivity and involvement in caregiving on mother-infant and father-infant attachment in a Portuguese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Marina; Faria, Anabela; Beeghly, Marjorie; Lopes-Dos-Santos, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    In the present longitudinal study, we investigated attachment quality in Portuguese mother-infant and in father-infant dyads, and evaluated whether attachment quality was related to parental sensitivity during parent-infant social interaction or to the amount of time each parent spent with the infant during play and in routine caregiving activities (e.g., feeding, bathing, play). The sample consisted of 82 healthy full-term infants (30 girls, 53 boys, 48 first born), and their mothers and fathers from mostly middle-class households. To assess parental sensitivity, mothers and fathers were independently observed during free play interactions with their infants when infants were 9 and 15 months old. The videotaped interactions were scored by masked coders using the Crittenden's CARE-Index. When infants were 12 and 18 months old, mother-infant and father-infant dyads were videotaped during an adaptation of Ainsworth's Strange Situation. Parents also described their level of involvement in infant caregiving activities using a Portuguese version of the McBride and Mills Parent Responsibility Scale. Mothers were rated as being more sensitive than fathers during parent-infant free play at both 9 and 15 months. There also was a higher prevalence of secure attachment in mother-infant versus father-infant dyads at both 12 and 18 months. Attachment security was predicted by the amount of time mothers and fathers were involved in caregiving and play with the infant, and with parents' behavior during parent-infant free play. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26437145

  17. Resident Father-Child Involvement: Associations with Young Children's Social Development and Kindergarten Readiness in the ECLS-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meece, Darrell

    2013-01-01

    The current investigation examined continuity from 9-months to 4-years of age in father-child interaction in instrumental child care activities, as well as enrichment and play activities, using data collected from 8,450 children with residential fathers included in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Additionally, social…

  18. Fathers' and Mothers' Home Literacy Involvement and Children's Cognitive and Social Emotional Development: Implications for Family Literacy Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    The relations between fathers' and mothers' home literacy involvement at 24 months and children's cognitive and social emotional development in preschool were examined using a large sample of African American and Caucasian families ("N" = 5190) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Hierarchical…

  19. Paternal involvement in a group of fathers of elementary school children / Envolvimento paterno num grupo de pais de crianças do 1º ciclo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rita, Simões; Isabel, Leal; João, Maroco.

    Full Text Available O estudo pretendeu avaliar o grau de envolvimento paterno de pais Portugueses de crianças entre os 5 e os 9 anos de idade, explorando factores de variabilidade interindividual (idade do pai, educação, nível socioeconómico e número de filhos), bem como a associação entre envolvimento paterno e alguns [...] factores identificados na literatura: satisfação parental, stress parental e ajustamento conjugal. A amostra é constituída por 145 pais casados, com idades entre os 28 e os 59 anos (M=40,14), a maioria dos quais com um nível de escolaridade secundário e superior e um nível socioeconómico médio. A recolha de dados foi realizada através da aplicação de questionários de auto-­resposta, juntamente com um questionário para caracterização sócio­-demográfica. Os principais resultados mostram um grau relativamente elevado de envolvimento paterno, sobretudo nas dimensões Cuidados e Disponibilidade, embora em termos relativos os pais atribuam às mães uma maior percentagem de tempo como principais figuras cuidadoras da criança. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os pais em função das variáveis individuais estudadas. Contudo, foi encontrada uma associação negativa moderada entre o envolvimento paterno e o stress parental, bem como uma associação positiva igualmente moderada entre o envolvimento e o ajustamento diádico, o que vai ao encontro de outros estudos realizados nesta área. Estes resultados suportam a conceptualização multidimensional do envolvimento paterno, sugerindo diferentes dimensões de comportamento paterno face aos cuidados e educação das crianças. Adicionalmente, confirmam a natureza multideterminada do envolvimento, sugerindo que factores pessoais e relacionais podem ter impacto na forma como os homens desempenham a paternidade. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of paternal involvement in Portuguese parents of children between 5 and 9 years old, exploring factors of interindividual variability (father´s age, education, socioeconomic status and number of children), as well as the association between father [...] involvement and a number of factors identified in the literature: parental satisfaction, parental stress and marital adjustment. The sample consists of 145 married fathers aged between 28 and 59 years (M = 40.14), most of them with a high and college degree of education and a middle socioeconomic status. Data collection was based on self-­report assessment scales, along with a questionnaire for socio-­demographic characterization. The main results point to a relatively high degree of paternal involvement, particularly in the dimensions Care and Availability, although in relative terms the father’s reports indicate a higher percentage of time given to mothers as primary caregivers of children. There were no significant differences between the fathers depending on the individual variables studied. However, we found a moderate negative association between father involvement and parental stress, and also a moderate positive association between father involvement and dyadic adjustment, which is consistent with other studies in this area. The results support the multidimensional conceptualization of father involvement, suggesting different dimensions of paternal behavior in relation to the care and education of children. In addition, the study confirms the multi­-determined nature of paternal involvement, suggesting that personal and relational factors may have an impact on how men perform paternity.

  20. Father involvement and marital relationship during transition to parenthood : differences between dual and single-earner families

    OpenAIRE

    Menéndez Álvarez-Dardet, Susana; Hidalgo García, María Victoria; Jiménez García, Lucía; Moreno Rodríguez, Mª Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Research into the process of becoming mother or father shows very conclusively that this important life transition is accompanied by both a decrease in marital quality and a more traditional division of labour. In this paper these changes are analyzed with special emphasis on the relationships between them and exploring the role played in this process by the mother's work status. Results showed a significant link between the development of marital quality and violated expectations regarding f...

  1. Rediscovering Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Harold R.

    1983-01-01

    As divorce, single parenthood, and remarriage have a profound effect on today's American families, the subject of fathers and fatherhood is now attracting major attention from researchers and mass market paperback writers. (Author/GC)

  2. Familial ainhum: A case report of multiple toe involvement in a father and son, staging of ainhum with insight into different types of constricting bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B T Priya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ainhum, also known as dactylolysis spontanea, is a painful constriction of the base of the fifth toe, frequently followed by spontaneous amputation a few years later. The disease is often symmetrical on both the feet, but, occasionally, other toes are also affected and rarely the distal phalanx of the fifth finger. Pseudoainhum is a similar condition that occurs as a secondary event resulting from certain hereditary and nonhereditary diseases that lead to annular constriction of digits. We hereby present a case of familial ainhum in father and son with multiple toes affected, autoamputation, and more involvement of fourth toe than the fifth toe, which is a very rare finding.

  3. Parenting behaviors of homosexual and heterosexual fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigner, J J; Jacobsen, R B

    1989-01-01

    Responses of 33 homosexual (gay) fathers were compared with those of 33 heterosexual (nongay) fathers on the Iowa Parent Behavior Inventory, an empirical measure of dimensions of parenting behavior. Gay fathers did not differ significantly from nongay fathers in their reported degree of involvement nor in intimacy level with children. Gay fathers tended to be more strict, more responsive to children's needs, and to provide reasons for appropriate behavior to children more consistently than nongay fathers. Several explanations are explored for these similarities and differences in parenting styles. PMID:2794498

  4. A EXPERIÊNCIA DE PAIS PARTICIPANTES DE UM GRUPO DE EDUCAÇÃO PARA SAÚDE NO PRÉ-NATAL / THE EXPERIENCE OF FATHERS PARTICIPANTS OF HEALTH EDUCATION GROUP IN PRENATAL CARE / LA EXPERIENCIA DE PADRES PARTICIPANTES DE UN GRUPO DE EDUCACIÓN EN SALUD EN LA ATENCIÓN PRENATAL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana, Magnoni Reberte; Luiza Akiko, Komura Hoga.

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de descrever a experiência de pais que participaram em um grupo de educação para a saúde realizado na assistência pré-natal. O grupo foi desenvolvido mediante a estratégia da pesquisa-ação em um hospital Universitário da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil e contou com a partic [...] ipação de oito gestantes e quatro maridos. Das entrevistas individuais feitas com os maridos, integralmente gravadas, transcritas e analisadas de forma indutiva e interpretativa, emergiram três categorias descritivas: a) A participação no grupo permitiu compartilhar das experiências de forma mais intensa, b) a participação no grupo permitiu melhor compreensão da mulher grávida e promoveu a qualidade do suporte oferecido a ela, c) o aprendizado e o desenvolvimento das técnicas corporais promoveram a integração do casal e entre os participantes no grupo. A participação ativa do pai nas atividades educativas da assistência pré-natal deve ser incentivada porque este medida produz benefícios para ele e, conseqüentemente, para sua família e a sociedade. Abstract in spanish Esta investigación tuvo el objetivo de describir la experiencia de padres que habían participado de un grupo de educación en salud realizado en la atención prenatal. El grupo fue desarrollado con empleo de la metodología de investigación-acción en el hospital Universitario de la ciudad de São Paulo, [...] Brasil y tuvo la participación de ocho embarazadas y cuatro acompañantes. De las entrevistas individuales hechas con los maridos, las que fueron completamente grabadas, transcritas y analizadas de forma inductiva e interpretativa, surgieron tres categorías descriptivas: a) La participación en el grupo permitió compartir las experiencias de forma más intensa, b) la participación en el grupo permitió mejorar la comprensión de la mujer embarazada y promovió la calidad en el soporte ofrecido a ella, c) el aprendizaje y el desarrollo de las técnicas corporales promovió la integración entre las parejas y entre los participantes del grupo. La participación activa de los padres en las actividades educativas del cuidado prenatal debe ser incentivada, pues esta medida produce beneficios para él y, consecuentemente, a su familia y la sociedad. Abstract in english The aim of this research was to describe the experience of fathers, participating in a health education group during prenatal care. An action research strategy was adopted to carry out the study and handle the group, at a University hospital, city of São Paulo, Brazil. The group was conformed by eig [...] ht pregnant women and four husbands. From the individual interviews carried out with the husbands, fully recorded, transcribed and analyzed in an inductive and interpretive way, three descriptive categories emerged from the experience: a) The participation in the group permitted to share the experiences in a more intensive way, b) the participation in the group permitted a better understanding of the pregnant woman and promoted the quality of support offered to her, c) the knowledge and the development of body techniques promoted the integration of the couples and among the participants of the group. The fathers´ active participation in the educational activities carried out in prenatal care should be encouraged to produce benefits for him and, consequently, to his family and the society.

  5. A EXPERIÊNCIA DE PAIS PARTICIPANTES DE UM GRUPO DE EDUCAÇÃO PARA SAÚDE NO PRÉ-NATAL LA EXPERIENCIA DE PADRES PARTICIPANTES DE UN GRUPO DE EDUCACIÓN EN SALUD EN LA ATENCIÓN PRENATAL THE EXPERIENCE OF FATHERS PARTICIPANTS OF HEALTH EDUCATION GROUP IN PRENATAL CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Magnoni Reberte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de descrever a experiência de pais que participaram em um grupo de educação para a saúde realizado na assistência pré-natal. O grupo foi desenvolvido mediante a estratégia da pesquisa-ação em um hospital Universitário da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil e contou com a participação de oito gestantes e quatro maridos. Das entrevistas individuais feitas com os maridos, integralmente gravadas, transcritas e analisadas de forma indutiva e interpretativa, emergiram três categorias descritivas: a A participação no grupo permitiu compartilhar das experiências de forma mais intensa, b a participação no grupo permitiu melhor compreensão da mulher grávida e promoveu a qualidade do suporte oferecido a ela, c o aprendizado e o desenvolvimento das técnicas corporais promoveram a integração do casal e entre os participantes no grupo. A participação ativa do pai nas atividades educativas da assistência pré-natal deve ser incentivada porque este medida produz benefícios para ele e, conseqüentemente, para sua família e a sociedade.Esta investigación tuvo el objetivo de describir la experiencia de padres que habían participado de un grupo de educación en salud realizado en la atención prenatal. El grupo fue desarrollado con empleo de la metodología de investigación-acción en el hospital Universitario de la ciudad de São Paulo, Brasil y tuvo la participación de ocho embarazadas y cuatro acompañantes. De las entrevistas individuales hechas con los maridos, las que fueron completamente grabadas, transcritas y analizadas de forma inductiva e interpretativa, surgieron tres categorías descriptivas: a La participación en el grupo permitió compartir las experiencias de forma más intensa, b la participación en el grupo permitió mejorar la comprensión de la mujer embarazada y promovió la calidad en el soporte ofrecido a ella, c el aprendizaje y el desarrollo de las técnicas corporales promovió la integración entre las parejas y entre los participantes del grupo. La participación activa de los padres en las actividades educativas del cuidado prenatal debe ser incentivada, pues esta medida produce beneficios para él y, consecuentemente, a su familia y la sociedad.The aim of this research was to describe the experience of fathers, participating in a health education group during prenatal care. An action research strategy was adopted to carry out the study and handle the group, at a University hospital, city of São Paulo, Brazil. The group was conformed by eight pregnant women and four husbands. From the individual interviews carried out with the husbands, fully recorded, transcribed and analyzed in an inductive and interpretive way, three descriptive categories emerged from the experience: a The participation in the group permitted to share the experiences in a more intensive way, b the participation in the group permitted a better understanding of the pregnant woman and promoted the quality of support offered to her, c the knowledge and the development of body techniques promoted the integration of the couples and among the participants of the group. The fathers´ active participation in the educational activities carried out in prenatal care should be encouraged to produce benefits for him and, consequently, to his family and the society.

  6. Adolescents with Nonresident Fathers: Are Daughters More Disadvantaged than Sons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Katherine Stamps; Booth, Alan; King, Valarie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sons' and daughters' involvement with nonresident fathers and associated outcomes (N = 4,663). Results indicated that sons and daughters reported equal involvement with nonresident fathers on most measures of father investment, although sons reported more overnight visits, sports, and movies and feeling closer to their fathers…

  7. Divorced Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, E. Mavis; And Others

    1976-01-01

    In this paper the results of a longitudinal study of the two years following divorce are presented. Divorced parents (N=48) and their preschool child and a matched group of 48 intact families were studied following divorce. The process of disruption, coping and adjustment by fathers is examined. (Author)

  8. Nonresident Fathering and School Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menning, Chadwick L.

    2006-01-01

    Does involvement by nonresident fathers affect adolescents' propensity to remain in school? If so, is some involvement necessarily better than none, and are changes in involvement with time associated with changes in the odds of school failure? What aspects of involvement matter the most? This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study…

  9. Involvement of Nitric Oxide, Neurotrophins and HPA Axis in Neurobehavioural Alterations Induced by Prenatal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maur, Damian G; Pascuan, Cecilia G; Genaro, Ana M; Zorrilla-Zubilete, Maria A

    2015-01-01

    Several studies suggest that negative emotions during pregnancy generate adverse effects on the cognitive, behavioural and emotional development of the descendants. The psychoneuroendocrine pathways involve the transplacentary passage of maternal glucocorticoids in order to influence directly on fetal growth and brain development.Nitric oxide is a gaseous neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the control of neural activity by diffusing into neurons and participates in learning and memory processes. It has been demonstrated that nitric oxide is involved in the regulation of corticosterone secretion. Thus, it has been found that the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is an endogenous inhibitor of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus and that nNOS in the hippocampus may participate in the modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity via GR.Neurotrophins are a family of secreted growth factors consisting of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and NT4. Although initially described in the nervous system, they regulate processes such as cell survival, proliferation and differentiation in several other compartments. It has been demonstrated that the NO-citrulline cycle acts together with BDNF in maintaining the progress of neural differentiation.In the present chapter, we explore the interrelation between nitric oxide, glucocorticoids and neurotrophins in brain areas that are key structures in learning and memory processes. The participation of this interrelation in the behavioural and cognitive alterations induced in the offspring by maternal stress is also addressed. PMID:25287536

  10. Patterns of Nonresident Father Contact

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob E. Cheadle; Amato, Paul R.; King, Valarie

    2010-01-01

    We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (NLSY79) from 1979 to 2002 and the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (CNLSY) from 1986 to 2002 to describe the number, shape, and population frequencies of U.S. nonresident father contact trajectories over a 14-year period using growth mixture models. The resulting four-category classification indicated that nonresident father involvement is not adequately characterized by a single population with a monotonic pa...

  11. Chaotic Identities, Love and Fathering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Williams

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Fathers today are confronted with constantly changing ideas on theirrole as a parent. The old traditional forms of fathering i.e. the breadwinner and protector roles are being gradually replaced by a more reflexive role that places unconditional love from their children as a central theme in a new type of reflexive parenting. This article examines the role of fatherhood through the theoreticallens of reflexive modernity. It recognises that men are increasingly becoming dependant on their children for unconditional love and this is forcing men to become more involved in the lives of their own children. The theory of reflexive modernisation is applied to a group of 40 fathers from a post-industrial area of Britain to unravel the processes and practices being used in this “new” type of parenting. This research discovers that fathers in the 21st century have numerouspressures from changing ideas about what is a good or bad father, but in the final instance it is their individualised responses to these societal and personal circumstances which create a new reflexive type of fathering. This type of fathering is therefore created by general social changes within a reflexive modern society and also by personal choice.

  12. [Preparation for labor, labor experience and parent-child contact during the clinical stay: an empirical analysis with special reference to the role of the father].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszyk, J; Nickel, H

    1986-06-01

    The present pilot study is embedded in a larger longitudinal investigation on early parent-child interaction. Variables related to pregnancy, emotional birth experience and hospital conditions have been assessed in a sample of 69 parents who were given questionnaires before and after the birth of their first child. A critical evaluation of delivery room and hospital conditions indicated new ways of psychological support during the period of early parent-child contact. Further, the effect of infant caretaking courses on later paternal behaviour was evaluated by comparing two groups of fathers: "pretrained" fathers who had attended prenatal classes in infant care and untrained fathers who had not. The questionnaire data revealed that pretrained fathers diapered and fed the newborn significantly more often than the untrained fathers. Besides, there were already considerable differences between the two groups in the experience of feelings when fathers first saw their child. The present study suggests that the general trend of father's involvement in pregnancy, birth and infant care could be facilitated by adequate preparatory courses. PMID:3744004

  13. Envolvimento paterno durante o nascimento dos filhos: pai "real" e "ideal" na perspectiva materna Paternal involvement during their children's birth: mother's perspective of 'real' and 'ideal' father

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Dessen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O pai é a fonte de apoio materno mais importante durante a transição decorrente do nascimento de filhos. Este estudo objetiva descrever a percepção de 45 mulheres grávidas e 42 mães com bebês de até seis meses sobre a participação e apoio paterno, durante a gestação e nascimento de filhos. A coleta de dados consistiu da aplicação, às mães, de um questionário de caracterização do sistema familiar e de uma entrevista semiestruturada, visando obter informações sobre o pai "real" e o "ideal". Os resultados mostram que, apesar de os pais serem percebidos como pouco participativos, as mães estavam satisfeitas com o seu envolvimento. Os dados sugerem que é necessário estimular a participação do pai, por ocasião do nascimento de filhos.The father is a major figure on mother's support network during childbirth transition. This study aims to report father's participation and support during the pregnancy and the birth of their children, according to the point of view of 45 pregnant women and 42 women with six-month-old children. Data was collected through the administration of a family questionnaire and a semi-structured interview answered by the mothers in order to get information about the "real" and the "ideal" father. The results show that, although the mothers were satisfied with the fathers' role in family life, they thought fathers were not as participative as they should be. Data suggest that it is necessary to stimulate father's participation during childbirth.

  14. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kou, Hao; Liu, Yansong; Liang, Gai; Huang, Jing; Hu, Jieqiong; Yan, You-e; Li, Xiaojun [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Yuanzhen [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Center for Reproductive Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Feng, Jianghua, E-mail: jianghua.feng@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg · d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose–effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time–course study were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure elevated maternal blood glucocorticoid levels. • Prenatal caffeine exposure altered maternal blood metabonomes. • Maternal metabonome alterations were associated with glucocorticoid elevation. • Maternal metabonomes were altered at early stage after caffeine exposure. • Maternal glucocorticoid and associated metabolites may be involved in fetal programming.

  15. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg · d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose–effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time–course study were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (?/?-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, ?-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure elevated maternal blood glucocorticoid levels. • Prenatal caffeine exposure altered maternal blood metabonomes. • Maternal metabonome alterations were associated with glucocorticoid elevation. • Maternal metabonomes were altered at early stage after caffeine exposure. • Maternal glucocorticoid and associated metabolites may be involved in fetal programming

  16. Perspective on the technical challenges involved in the implementation of array-CGH in prenatal diagnostic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Jonathan L A; Huang, Shuwen; Karampetsou, Evangelia; Crolla, John A

    2014-04-01

    Our aim was to construct a streamlined technical workflow to facilitate a prospective, multi-centre evaluation of array comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) in the prenatal diagnostic context. A collection of commercially available DNA extraction and quantification techniques were evaluated and compared using minimal quantities of amniotic fluid, chorionic villi and cultured cells. When prenatal DNA of suitable quality and quantity was obtained, array-CGH was performed using Oxford Gene Technology's (OGT, Oxford, UK) CytoSure™ ISCA 8 × 60 K oligo array platform. With starting quantities of 2-4 ml amniotic fluid, 2-5 mg chorionic villi or under 150,000 cultured cells the following optimised technical workflow was identified: DNA extraction using the iGENatal™ kit (igenbiotech, Madrid, Spain) and quantification by the Qubit® 2.0 Fluorometer with the Qubit® dsDNA BR assay kit (Invitrogen™, Eugene, OR, USA). In addition, it was elucidated that array-CGH can be successfully performed with as little as 125 ng DNA in the experiment using the OGT CytoSure™ ISCA 8 × 60 K oligo array platform. Amidst an on-going debate on whether array-CGH should be applied in the prenatal diagnostic setting, by following the technical recommendations described here genetics laboratories can now gain exposure to prenatal array-CGH testing without compromising the conventional karyotype result. PMID:24146428

  17. Fathers' Reinforcement and Task Persistence of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Laura Lynn; Price-Bonham, Sharon

    1978-01-01

    In this study involving 20 four- and five-year-old children, the boys were more motivated by intermittent reinforcement from their fathers, while girls were more motivated by fathers' continuous reinforcement. (RL)

  18. Origins of Mothers’ and Fathers’ Beliefs about Infant Crying

    OpenAIRE

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Parade, Stephanie H.; Burney, Regan V.

    2010-01-01

    Origins of mothers’ and fathers’ beliefs about infant crying were examined in 87 couples. Parents completed measures of emotion minimization in the family of origin, depressive symptoms, empathy, trait anger, and coping styles prenatally. At 6 months postpartum, parents completed a self-report measure of their beliefs about infant crying. Mothers endorsed more infant-oriented and less parent-oriented beliefs about crying than did fathers. Consistent with prediction, a history of emotion minim...

  19. Prenatal and Lactational Exposure to Bisphenol A in Mice Alters Expression of Genes Involved in Cortical Barrel Development without Morphological Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported that premature infants in neonatal intensive care units are exposed to a high rate of bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupting chemical. Our previous studies demonstrated that corticothalamic projection was disrupted by prenatal exposure to BPA, which persisted even in adult mice. We therefore analyzed whether prenatal and lactational exposure to low doses of BPA affected the formation of the cortical barrel, the barreloid of the thalamus, and the barrelette of the brainstem in terms of the histology and the expression of genes involved in the barrel development. Pregnant mice were injected subcutaneously with 20 µg/kg of BPA daily from embryonic day 0 (E0) to postnatal 3 weeks (P3W), while the control mice received a vehicle alone. The barrel, barreloid and barrelette of the adult mice were examined by cytochrome C oxidase (COX) staining. There were no significant differences in the total and septal areas and the patterning of the posterior medial barrel subfield (PMBSF), barreloid and barrelette, between the BPA-exposure and control groups in the adult mice. The developmental study at postnatal day 1 (PD1), PD4 and PD8 revealed that the cortical barrel vaguely appeared at PD4 and completely formed at PD8 in both groups. The expression pattern of some genes was spatiotemporally altered depending on the sex and the treatment. These results suggest that the trigeminal projection and the thalamic relay to the cortical barrel were spared after prenatal and lactational exposure to low doses of BPA, although prenatal exposure to BPA was previously shown to disrupt the corticothalamic projection

  20. Prenatal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > FAQs: Prenatal Tests Print A A A Text Size What's in this ... Tests: Third Trimester Prenatal Tests: Second Trimester Prenatal Tests: First Trimester Having a Healthy Pregnancy Contact Us Print Additional resources Send to a friend Reprint guidelines ...

  1. Becoming a Father

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Becoming a Father Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 January ... I find out I am going to be a father? When you find out you are going ...

  2. Fathering in Intact and Divorced Families: Ethnic Differences in Retrospective Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Finley, Gordon E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether ethnicity moderates the effects of divorce on young adults' retrospective reports of fathering. An ethnically diverse sample of 1,989 university students completed measures of nurturant fathering, reported father involvement, and desired father involvement. Compared with participants from…

  3. Celebrating Fathers as a Resource in Early Child Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlakian, Rebecca; Rovaris, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    In many child care programs, father involvement is still not on a par with that of mothers. For these programs, "parent" typically means "mother". There are a host of possible reasons for this difference, including fathers' work schedules, a belief that child care is a mother's domain, and fathers feeling unwelcome or out of place in the child…

  4. Strengthening the father-child bond : using groups to improve the fatherhood skills of incarcerated fathers

    OpenAIRE

    Prinsloo, Christina (Reineth)

    2007-01-01

    Incarceration of men causes many children to lose their fathers to imprisonment temporarily. Parenting programs often ignore or exclude incarcerated fathers. The involvement in criminal activities and the resulting incarceration does not exempt the fathers of their roles and responsibilities. The human element of rehabilitation and family relationships cannot be ignored. For many children of incarcerated parents, the best permanency plan is one in which the parent continues ...

  5. Bay Area Fatherhood Initiatives: Policymaker and Practitioner Perspectives on Intergrating Fathering Efforts. A Report from the Bay Area Fathering Integrated Data System (BAyFIDS) II Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadsden, Vivian L.; Rethemeyer, R. Karl

    The past 10 years have been a period of enormous growth in efforts around father involvement, with local government systems attempting to meet the needs of the diverse father population. The Bay Area Fathering Indicators Data System (BAYFIDS) Project is designed to track and analyze the operation and impact of fathering programs and describe the…

  6. Father attendance in nurse home visitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, John R; Olds, David L

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the rates and predictors of father attendance at nurse home visits in replication sites of the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP). Early childhood programs can facilitate father involvement in the lives of their children, but program improvements require an understanding of factors that predict father involvement. The sample consisted of 29,109 low-income, first-time mothers who received services from 694 nurses from 80 sites. We conducted mixed-model multiple regression analyses to identify population, implementation, site, and nurse influences on father attendance. Predictors of father attendance included a count of maternal visits (B = 0.12, SE = 0.01, F = 3101.77), frequent contact between parents (B = 0.61, SE = 0.02, F = 708.02), cohabitation (B = 1.41, SE = 0.07, F = 631.51), White maternal race (B = 0.77, SE = 0.06, F = 190.12), and marriage (B = 0.42, SE = 0.08, F = 30.08). Random effects for sites and nurses predicted father-visit participation (2.7 & 6.7% of the variance, respectively), even after controlling for population sociodemographic characteristics. These findings suggest that factors operating at the levels of sites and nurses influence father attendance at home visits, even after controlling for differences in populations served. Further inquiry about these influences on father visit attendance is likely to inform program-improvement efforts. PMID:25521707

  7. Origins of Mothers' and Fathers' Beliefs about Infant Crying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Parade, Stephanie H.; Burney, Regan V.

    2010-01-01

    Origins of mothers' and fathers' beliefs about infant crying were examined in 87 couples. Parents completed measures of emotion minimization in the family of origin, depressive symptoms, empathy, trait anger, and coping styles prenatally. At 6 months postpartum, parents completed a self-report measure of their beliefs about infant crying. Mothers…

  8. Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment and molecular (DNA mutation analysis tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessary precautions and treatments, both before and after birth. Upon prenatal diagnosis of some diseases, termination of the pregnancy could be possible according to the family's wishes and within the legal frameworks. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 80-94

  9. O envolvimento do pai na gravidez/parto e a ligação emocional com o bebé La participación del padre en el embarazo/parto y el vínculo emocional con el bebé Father’s involvement in pregnancy/childbirth and the emotional bond with the baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Rui Duarte Farias Nogueira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Enquadramento: a ligação emocional entre pai e filho é determinante na transição para a paternidade e no desenvolvimento do bebé. Objetivos: pretendemos verificar se existe relação entre as variáveis sóciodemográficas, o envolvimento na gravidez ou o corte do cordão umbilical com a ligação emocional do pai com o bebé. Metodologia: efetuámos um estudo transversal, quantitativo de caráter descritivo analítico. Aplicámos um questionário e a escala bonding validada para a população Portuguesa (Figueiredo et al., 2005, em três momentos diferentes (durante o trabalho de parto, no 1º e no 3º dia após o parto a 222 pais, entre novembro de 2010 e janeiro de 2011. Resultados: verificámos que a idade (entre 25 e 40 anos, o acompanhamento da grávida às consultas de vigilância da gravidez, o acompanhamento da grávida nos preparativos para o nascimento do bebé, a leitura de informação sobre o bebé em desenvolvimento, o envolvimento na gravidez e o corte do cordão umbilical influenciam positivamente a ligação emocional do pai com o bebé. Conclusão: os resultados apontam para uma melhoria na ligação afetiva entre o pai e o bebé se os profissionais de saúde promoverem o envolvimento do pai na gravidez e no parto.Marco: el vínculo emocional entre padre e hijo es crucial en la transición hacia la paternidad y el desarrollo del bebé.Objetivos: pretendemos verificar si existe una relación entre las variables sociodemográficas, la participación en el embarazo o el corte del cordón umbilical y el vínculo emocional entre el padre y el bebé. Metodología: se realizó un estudio transversal, cuantitativo, de corte descriptivo-analítico. Se aplicó un cuestionario y la escala de Bonding validado para la población portuguesa (Figueiredo et al., 2005, en tres momentos diferentes (durante el parto, durante el primer y el tercer día después del parto a 222 padres, entre noviembre 2010 y enero de 2011. Resultados: se comprobó que la edad (entre 25 y 40 años, el acompañamiento con la mujer embarazada alas citas para la vigilancia del embarazo, el acompañamiento de la mujer embarazada en los preparativos para el nacimiento del bebé, la lectura de información sobre el desarrollo del bebé, la participación en el embarazo y el corte del cordón umbilical influyen positivamente en el vínculo emocional entre el padre y el bebé. Conclusión: los resultados indican una mejora en el vínculo emocional entre el padre y el bebé siempre y cuando los profesionales de la salud promuevan la participación del padre durante el embarazo y el parto.Background: the emotional bond between father and child is crucial in the transition to parenthood and the baby’s development. Objectives: our intention was to verify if there is a relationship between sociodemographic variables, involvement in the pregnancy or cutting the umbilical cord with the emotional bond between father and baby. Methodology: we performed a cross-sectional, quantitative study descriptive and analytical in nature. We administered a questionnaire and the Bonding scale validated for the Portuguese population (Figueiredo et al., 2005, at three different times (during labour, on the 1st and 3rd days after birth to 222 parents between November 2010 and January 2011. Results: We found that age (between 25 and 40 years, accompanying the pregnant woman to appointments for pregnancy surveillance, monitoring of the pregnancy in preparation for the birth of the baby, reading information about the developing baby involvement in the pregnancy and cutting the umbilical cord positively influence the emotional bond between father and baby. Conclusion: the results indicate an improvement in the emotional bond between father and baby if health professionals promote fathers’ involvement during pregnancyand childbirth.

  10. Origins of Mothers' and Fathers' Beliefs about Infant Crying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M; Parade, Stephanie H; Burney, Regan V

    2010-11-01

    Origins of mothers' and fathers' beliefs about infant crying were examined in 87 couples. Parents completed measures of emotion minimization in the family of origin, depressive symptoms, empathy, trait anger, and coping styles prenatally. At 6 months postpartum, parents completed a self-report measure of their beliefs about infant crying. Mothers endorsed more infant-oriented and less parent-oriented beliefs about crying than did fathers. Consistent with prediction, a history of emotion minimization was linked with more parent-oriented and fewer infant-oriented beliefs about infant crying for both mothers and fathers either as a main effect or in conjunction with the partners' infant-oriented beliefs. Contrary to expectation, parents' own emotional dispositions had little effect on parents' beliefs about crying. The pattern of associations varied for mothers and fathers in a number of ways. Implications for future research and programs promoting sensitive parenting are discussed. PMID:21152107

  11. Envolvimento paterno da gestação ao primeiro ano de vida do bebê / Father involvement from pregnancy to the infant´s first year of life / Participación paterna desde el embarazo hasta el primer año de vida del bebé

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana, Castoldi; Tonantzin Ribeiro, Gonçalves; Rita de Cássia Sobreira, Lopes.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo longitudinal analisou o envolvimento paterno por meio de um estudo de casos coletivos com seis casais primíparos entrevistados na gestação, aos três e 12 meses do bebê. A análise qualitativa dos dados se baseou no conceito de envolvimento paterno e no enfoque psicodinâmico, revelando ser [...] em os modelos familiares de parentalidade aspectos muito influentes no envolvimento dos pais. Por outro lado, a ausência de uma matriz de apoio e as percepções das mães sobre o desempenho do marido como pai não pareceram influenciar diretamente o nível de envolvimento com o bebê. Percebeu-se que os pais continuavam seguindo modelos tradicionais de paternidade quanto à acessibilidade e à responsabilidade, centrando-se no papel de provedor financeiro. O engajamento dos pais foi maior em atividades lúdicas do que nos cuidados do filho, pois para cuidados parecia lhes faltarem modelos efetivos. São discutidas as influências intergeracionais e do discurso sobre o "novo pai" na prática da paternidade. Abstract in spanish Este estudio longitudinal analizó la participación paterna por medio de un estudio de casos colectivos con seis parejas primíparas entrevistadas en la gestación, a los tres y a los 12 meses de vida del bebé. El análisis cualitativo de los datos se basó en el concepto de participación paterna y en el [...] enfoque psicodinámico, revelando los modelos familiares de parentalidad como aspectos muy influyentes en la participación de los padres. Por otro lado, la ausencia de una matriz de apoyo, así como las percepciones de las madres sobre el desempeño del esposo como padre, no parecieron influir directamente en el nivel de participación con el bebé. Se observó que los padres aún estaban siguiendo los modelos tradicionales de la paternidad en cuanto a la accesibilidad y responsabilidad, centrándose en el papel de proveedor financiero. El compromiso de los padres fue mayor en las actividades lúdicas que en los cuidados al hijo, por los que parecía carecer de modelos efectivos. Se discuten las influencias intergeneracionales y del discurso sobre el "nuevo padre" en la práctica de la paternidad. Abstract in english This longitudinal study examined the parental involvement through a collective case study with six primiparous couples interviewed in the last trimester of pregnancy, at three and 12 months of baby's life. A qualitative analysis of the data, based on father involvement as well as in psychodynamic ap [...] proach, revealed the familiar models of parenting had important influences in the father involvement. On the other hand, the absence of a support matrix, as well as the perceptions of mothers on the performance of their husbands as fathers, did not seem to directly influence the level of father involvement with the baby. It seems that the parents were still following traditional models of fatherhood in relation to accessibility and accountability, focusing on their role as financial provider. The involvement of parents was higher in recreational activities than in child care for which it seemed lacking effective models. We discuss intergenerational and discourse influences on the "new father" in the practice of fatherhood.

  12. Participação dos pais no nascimento em maternidade pública: dificuldades institucionais e motivações dos casais Fathers' participation in childbirth at a public hospital: institutional difficulties and motivations of couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Mello de Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A participação dos pais no nascimento, presente na humanização da assistência ao parto, afina-se com o crescente envolvimento dos homens nos cuidados com as crianças. Possibilita o suporte psicossocial à gestante, o compartilhamento da experiência pelo casal e a formação de vínculo pai-bebê. Procurando conhecer o impacto desta experiência entre os pais numa maternidade pública no Rio de Janeiro, foi desenvolvida uma pesquisa etnográfica, em duas etapas: observação-participante do trabalho de parto e do parto, e onze entrevistas com pais participantes do parto. A participação dos pais se mostrou atravessada por: dificuldades institucionais; motivações das mães e dos pais; representações sociais sobre parto e paternidade; e exclusão dos pais nos serviços de saúde reprodutiva e pediátrica. A presença dos pais não foi valorizada pela equipe nem como suporte à gestante nem como evento da paternidade. O estudo indica: a necessidade de incentivo à participação dos pais no pré-natal, parto, pós-parto e nas consultas pediátricas; a preparação das equipes para trabalho com as famílias; a ampliação da discussão social sobre paternidade e a formulação de políticas trabalhistas que garantam a presença dos pais nos serviços de saúde.Participation by fathers in the process of childbirth, an aspect of the humanization of obstetric care, helps foster the fathers' involvement in raising their children. This participation provides psychosocial support for pregnant women during labor and delivery, sharing of the experience by the couple, and father-child bonding. The focus of this ethnographic research was the impact of this process on fathers participating in childbirth at a State hospital in Rio de Janeiro, with two stages: participant observation of labor and delivery and eleven interviews with fathers who had been present at delivery. Fathers' participation was influenced by: the motivation of mothers and fathers; social representations of delivery and fatherhood; and exclusion of fathers from reproductive health and pediatrics services. The father's participation was not valued by the attending staff as either a source of emotional support for the mother or as part of fatherhood. The following are necessary: inclusion of fathers in prenatal care, delivery, and pediatrics services; the training of staff to work with the families; social discussion of fatherhood and health services policies to ensure the presence of fathers during labor and childbirth.

  13. Fathers, divorce, and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, M K; Pruett, K D

    1998-04-01

    To minimize many of the negative consequences of divorce, it is beneficial to support a father's ongoing involvement in his child's life. Although the research literature isn't unequivocal on this point, it does strongly suggest that men who are "visitors" do not have as much impact on their children and that visits are a poor substitute for having a parental figure. The answer lies in creating meaningful roles for noncustodial fathers that elevate men's opportunities to contribute to their children's overall development. One of the most important messages parents can impart to children is that some commitments outlive change and that working together in the child's best interests is one of them. PMID:9894071

  14. 75 FR 35947 - Father's Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ...dedication and love. Fathers are our first teachers...An active, committed father makes a lasting difference in the life of a child. When fathers are not present, their...raised by a father and mother, a single father,...

  15. Prenatal diagnosis: whose right?

    OpenAIRE

    Heyd, D

    1995-01-01

    The question who is the subject of the right to prenatal diagnosis may be answered in four ways: the parents, the child, society, or no one. This article investigates the philosophical issues involved in each of these answers, which touch upon the conditions of personal identity, the principle of privacy, the scope of social responsibility, and the debate about impersonalism in ethics.

  16. Fathers' and Mothers' Performances in Father-Mother-Baby Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frascarolo, France; Favez, Nicolas; Fivaz-Depeursinge, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    Until now studies comparing fathers and mothers have mostly been realized in dyadic situations, father-infant versus mother-infant. The aim of the present paper was to bring to the core similarities and differences, between fathers and mothers, in terms of performance (N = 42 families) in a triadic context. Father, mother and baby, seated in a…

  17. Human prenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filkins, K.; Russo, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Advances in the field of prenatal diagnosis have been rapid during the past decade. Moreover, liberal use of birth control methods and restriction of family size have placed greater emphasis on optimum outcome of each pregnancy. There are many prenatal diagnostic techniques of proven value; the risks, including false negatives and false positives, are known. With the rapid proliferation of new and experimental techniques, many disorders are potential diagnosable or even treatable; however, risk factors are unknown and issues relating to quality control have not been resolved. These problems are readily appreciated in the dramatic new techniques involving recombinant DNA, chorion villus sampling, and fetal surgery. Unfortunately, clinicians may not appreciate the difficulties that may also be encountered in the more mundane prenatal diagnostic tests such as ultrasonography or enzymatic testing. The aim of this volume is to clarify and rationalize certain aspects of diagnosis, genetic counseling, and intervention. New and experimental techniques are presented in the light of current knowledge.

  18. What makes a man a man? Prenatal antennapedia expression is involved in the formation of the male phenotype in Daphnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenberger, Anke; Von Elert, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic parthenogenetic organisms show a switch in reproductive strategy from asexual to sexual reproduction upon the occurrence of unfavourable environmental conditions. The sexual reproductive mode involves the production of ameiotic diploid males and the fertilization of meiotic haploid eggs. One beautiful example for this switch between parthenogenesis and sexual reproduction is Daphnia. Male and female Daphnia from the same clone are genetically identical. Morphological differences should therefore only be due to differential gene expression. This differential gene expression leads to sexually dimorphic phenotypes with elongated and moveable (i.e. leg-like) first antennae in males in comparison to females. For other arthropods, it has been demonstrated that the formation of differential morphology of legs and antennae involves the regulation of the Hox gene antennapedia (antp). Here, we show that antp is expressed during the embryogenesis of Daphnia, and that adults contain much lower amounts of antp mRNA than eggs. The eggs of mothers that were treated with the juvenile hormone methyl farnesoate (responsible for the production of male offspring) showed lower expression of antp than parthenogenetically produced female eggs. We therefore conclude that differential antp expression is involved in the molecular pathways inducing the male phenotype of Daphnia. PMID:26754486

  19. Comparisons of Levels and Predictors of Mothers' and Fathers' Engagement with Their Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kotila, Letitia E.; Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N.; Bower, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Self-report data from 112 two-parent families were used to compare levels and predictors of four types of mothers' and fathers' engagement with their preschool-aged children: socialisation, didactic, caregiving, and physical play. Mothers were more involved than fathers in socialisation, didactic, and caregiving, whereas fathers were more involved…

  20. Friends, Family, and Foes: The Influence of Father’s Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Alexandrea Danielle; Gordon, Derrick; Sherrod, Hans; Dancy, Victoria; Kershaw, Trace

    2012-01-01

    Fathers can play an important role in child development and family functioning. However, little is known about the influence of paternal perceptions of fatherhood involvement or the influence of fathers’ peer networks. We explored the network characteristics (density, closeness, and degree centrality) and peer norms regarding sex, fatherhood, and other risk behaviors of 52 urban adult males in New Haven, Connecticut. Results identify that engagement in high-risk sexual behavior was associated...

  1. Father Influences on Employed Mothers' Work-Family Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Press, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This study employed the ecological systems perspective and gender ideology theory to examine the influence of fathers' paid work-family crossover and family involvement on self-reports of work-family balance by employed mothers with children under the age of 13 (N = 179). Multiple regression analyses revealed that fathers' crossover factors had a…

  2. Fatores associados ao envolvimento do pai nos cuidados do lactente / Factors associated with father involvement in infant care / Factores asociados al envolvimiento del papá en los cuidados del lactante

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Olga G, Falceto; Carmen L, Fernandes; Claudia, Baratojo; Elsa R J, Giugliani.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores associados à falta de envolvimento ativo do pai nos cuidados de crianças aos quatro meses. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo famílias de 153 crianças aos quatro meses de vida, entrevistadas em suas casas por dois terapeutas de famílias. Além do envolvimento do pai [...] nos cuidados do lactente foram examinadas características sociodemográficas, saúde mental dos pais (utilizando a escala Self Report Questionnaire-20 e avaliação com os critérios do Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV) e qualidade do relacionamento conjugal (usando a escala Global Assessment of Relational Functioning do Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV). Utilizou-se regressão de Poisson para avaliar a associação entre falta de envolvimento do pai nos cuidados do filho e variáveis selecionadas. A magnitude das associações foi estimada pela razão de prevalências. RESULTADOS: Os pais de 13% dos lactentes não tinham qualquer contato com seus filhos. Entre as famílias em que os pais coabitavam (78% do total), 33% dos pais relataram não participar ativamente nos cuidados de seus filhos. Relação conjugal problemática e mãe ser "do lar" mostraram-se associadas à falta de envolvimento dos pais nos cuidados do filho. CONCLUSÕES: É alta a prevalência de famílias nas quais o pai não tem envolvimento ativo no cuidado de seu filho, ocorrendo em especial quando a relação conjugal é problemática e a mãe não tem trabalho remunerado Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Identificar factores asociados a la falta del envolvimiento activo del papá en los cuidados de niños a los cuatro meses. MÉTODOS: Se realizó estudio transversal involucrando familias de 153 niños de cuatro meses de edad, y se entrevistaron en sus casas por dos terapeutas de familias en Por [...] to Alegre (Sureste de Brasil), 1998-2000. Además de involucrar al padre en los cuidados del lactante se examinaron características sociodemográficas, salud mental de los papás (utilizando la escala Self Report Questionnaire-20 y evaluación con los criterios del Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV) y calidad de la relación de pareja (usando la escala GlobalAssesment of Relational Functioning del Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV). Se utilizó la regresión de Poisson para evaluar la asociación entre falta de envolvimiento del papá en los cuidados del hijo y variables seleccionadas. La magnitud de las asociaciones fue estimada por la razón de prevalencia. RESULTADOS: Los papás de 13% de los lactantes no tenían contacto alguno con sus hijos. Entre las familias en que los papás cohabitaban (78% del total), 33% de ellos expresaron no participar activamente en los cuidados de sus hijos. La relación de pareja problemática y la mamá ser "del hogar" se mostraron asociados a la falta de envolvimiento de los papás en los cuidados del hijo. CONCLUSIONES: Es alta la prevalencia de familias en las cuales el papá no se involucra de manera activa en el cuidado de su hijo, ocurriendo en especial cuando la relación de pareja es problemática y la mamá no tiene trabajo remunerado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with the lack of active father involvement in infant care at four months of age. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving families of 153 infants at four months of age, interviewed in their homes by two family therapists. In addition to father involvement in [...] infant care, sociodemographic, parental mental health (using the Self Report Questionnaire-20 scale and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria assessment) and quality of couple relationship characteristics (using the Assessment of Relational Functioning from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV) were analyzed. Poisson regression was employed to assess the association between lack of father involvement in child care and the variables selected. Prevalence ratio was used to estimate the magnitude of

  3. The Effects of Pre- and Postnatal Depression in Fathers: A Natural Experiment Comparing the Effects of Exposure to Depression on Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandani, Paul G.; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Evans, Jonathan; Heron, Jon; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Depression in fathers in the postnatal period is associated with an increased risk of behavioural problems in their offspring, particularly for boys. The aim of this study was to examine for differential effects of depression in fathers on children's subsequent psychological functioning via a natural experiment comparing prenatal and…

  4. Supporting Fathering Through Infant Massage

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Carolynn Darrell; Volk, Anthony A.; Marini, Zopito A.

    2011-01-01

    Fathers may feel dissatisfied with their ability to form a close attachment with their infants in the early postpartum period, which, in turn, may increase their parent-related stress. Our study sought to determine if an infant massage intervention assisted fathers with decreasing stress and increasing bonding with their infants during this time. To address the complex father–infant relationship, we conducted a pilot study using a mixed methodology approach. Twelve infant–father dyads partici...

  5. Deporting Elena's Father

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Melissa Bollow

    2010-01-01

    As a bilingual teacher in Milwaukee Public Schools, this author has seen many students deal with deportation. In this article, she shares a story of Elena, whose father was deported, that casts light on a growing crisis. She is using Elena as an example because this is "not" a unique story. It has many similarities to the experiences of all her…

  6. When Father Gets Custody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Karen W.; Witcher, Wayne C.

    1978-01-01

    Issues that arise when fathers get custody of their children after divorce are: conditions of custody, coping with the role of parent and homemaker, adjustments which have to be made by the children, and the effect of custody on other social relationships. (CM)

  7. Fatherhood Intervention Development in Collaboration with African American Non-resident Fathers

    OpenAIRE

    Julion, Wrenetha A.; Breitenstein, Susan M.; Waddell, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Because interventions developed in partnership with African American fathers not residing with their children are virtually non-existent, existing interventions fail to address the multiple factors that constrain these fathers’ positive involvement with their children. We developed a video tape fatherhood intervention: Building Bridges to Fatherhood. In collaboration with a Fathers Advisory Council composed of 12 African American fathers, we used Aranda’s framework for community-based nursing...

  8. Children of imprisoned fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, W H

    1977-05-01

    John Bowlby's influential 1951 World Health Organization monograph, Maternal Care and Mental Health, pointed to a causal relationship between loss of maternal care and disturbed personality development, and had a profound effect on psychiatrists' thinking about antisocial behavior in particular, and character formation in general. More recently, psychiatric investigators have been increasingly interested in the effects of a child separation from his father. This has been stimulated by sociological concerns for one-parent, fatherless families (Adams, 1973) and by our realizing how historically neglected has been the paternal role in theories of child development. Herzog and Sudia (1971) have recently compiled an extensive bibliography of the fatherless family. Numerous clinical studies of loss of the father, through death (Nagera, 1970; Wolfenstein, 1966; Bonnard, 1964), suicide (Cain and Fast 1966), divorce (McDermott, 1970), military service (Crumley and Blumenthal, 1973), occupations (Rosenfeld et al., 1973), desertion (Thomes, 1968), and mental hospitalization (Schiff, 1965), have all reported various adverse effects, particularly on male children. It has been difficult, however, to sort out the effects of the loss itself from more general prevailing and prior family relationships. My interest in this subject was quickened when I began to see boys brought to a neighborhood clinic for aggressive and antisocial behavior soon after their fathers were imprisoned. I was impressed by the lack of reports in the literature on this form of father separation. I am presenting here my clinical observations of six families seen over a three-year period as part of a general child psychiatric experience at a comprehensive neighborhood health center sponsored by the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. Although there are obvious selection biases that limit generalization when families referred to psychiatrists are the only source of information, it seems a useful place to begin an examination of the consequences for children of father-separation as a result of imprisonment. PMID:870921

  9. Prenatal Care for the 80s

    OpenAIRE

    Mohide, P. T.

    1981-01-01

    Despite improvements in the last decade, Canada's perinatal mortality rate is still higher than those of many other developed countries. Consumer expectations have increased not only for a good outcome, but also a more personal and humane process. The physician has to make a decision to be involved in prenatal care. Appropriate steps are suggested for initial assessment, genetic evaluation, and ongoing prenatal care.

  10. Effects of Prenatal and Postnatal Parent Depressive Symptoms on Adopted Child HPA Regulation: Independent and Moderated Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Harold, Gordon T.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    This study used a prospective adoption design to investigate effects of prenatal and postnatal parent depressive symptom exposure on child hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and associated internalizing symptoms. Birth mother prenatal symptoms and adoptive mother/father postnatal (9-month, 27-month) symptoms were assessed with the Beck…

  11. Teen Childbearing, Single Parenthood, and Father Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lichter, D.T. (2007). Marriage patters among unwed mothers: Before and after PRWORA (NPC Working Paper Series 07-13). Ann Arbor, MI: National ... 2012, from http://npc.umich.edu/ publications/u/working_paper07-13.pdf. 9. ... When Unwed Mothers Marry: The Marital and Cohabiting Partners of Midlife ...

  12. Daily Parenting Engagement among New Mothers and Fathers: The Role of Romantic Attachment in Dual-Earner Families

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Sarah N.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kotila, Letitia E.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the association of prenatal assessments of mothers’ and fathers’ self-reported romantic attachment anxiety and avoidance with the time mothers and fathers reported in proximity-focused and exploration-focused engagement with their infants at nine months postpartum. Our sample of 136 dual-earner couples came from a larger longitudinal study of the transition to parenthood. Time in proximity-focused (interactions that emphasize physical or emotional connection) and exploration-f...

  13. Experiences of young adult women with emotionally absent fathers / Emené Peyper

    OpenAIRE

    Peyper, Emené

    2013-01-01

    For many years the focus of research on child well-being and development has been primarily on the dynamics of the mother-child relationship. The mother was seen as the more influential parent as she spends more time with the children. The father’s role in the development process was thus undermined. Fortunately research on the father’s involvement in a child’s life has improved over the past thirty years. Where previously fathers were mostly perceived as the breadwinners and p...

  14. Adult non-response bias from a child perspective. Using child reports to estimate father's non-response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastaits, Kim; Pasteels, Inge; Ponnet, Koen; Mortelmans, Dimitri

    2015-01-01

    Most parenting research on paternal involvement uses data from a father perspective. Nevertheless, research on bias in father non-response is scarce. In this study, we examine the non-response bias of fathers, hypothesizing that fathers who engage in parenting studies might already be fathers who are more involved with their children than fathers who do not engage in these studies. Furthermore, we expect a double non-response bias by socio-demographic characteristics of the father, which impacts both paternal participation as well as paternal involvement. Using the multi-actor dataset from the "Divorce in Flanders"-project, which provides data from children whose fathers actually participated (N=461) as well as data from children whose fathers did not (N=137) with children reporting on paternal involvement, we are able to test our hypotheses. Results confirm our first hypothesis, indicating that non-participating fathers are significantly more uninvolved than participating fathers. Regarding our second hypothesis, an indirect effect of father's educational level and age on non-response was revealed for one out of three indicators of paternal involvement. PMID:25432601

  15. O envolvimento paterno e o desenvolvimento social de crianças iniciando as atividades escolares / Father involvement and the social development of children in the school-entry transition stage / La participación paterna y el desarrollo social de niños iniciando las actividades escolares

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiana, Cia; Elizabeth Joan, Barham.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo relacionou indicadores do envolvimento paterno com indicadores de desenvolvimento social dos filhos. Participaram 97 pares de pais e mães (com filhos na 1ª ou 2ª série) e 20 professoras. Para avaliar o envolvimento paterno, pais e mães responderam à Avaliação do bem-estar pessoal e famil [...] iar e do relacionamento pai-filho - Versão Paterna, e para avaliar o desenvolvimento social das crianças, os pais, as mães e as professoras preencheram o Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. Quanto maior a freqüência de comunicação entre pai e filho e de participação do pai nos cuidados e nas atividades escolares, culturais e de lazer do filho, menor o índice de hiperatividade e de problemas de comportamento e mais adequado o repertório de habilidades sociais das crianças. Os resultados indicam a provável importância do envolvimento positivo do pai para o desenvolvimento social dos filhos e os prováveis benefícios de programas para promover envolvimento paterno. Abstract in spanish En este estudio se han relacionado indicadores de la participación paterna con los de desarrollo social de los hijos y participaron 97 padres y madres (con hijos en el primero o en el segundo grado) y 20 profesoras. Para evaluar la participación paterna, padres y madres respondieron a la Evaluación [...] del bienestar personal y familiar y del reracionamiento padre-hijo - Versión Paterna y para evaluar el desarrollo social de los niños, padres, madres y profesoras completaron el Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. Cuanto mayor es la frecuencia de comunicación entre padre e hijo, de la participación del padre en los cuidados y en las actividades escolares, culturales y de ocio del hijo, menor es el índice de hiperactividad, problemas de comportamiento y mayor es el repertorio de destrezas sociales de los niños. Los resultados indican la probable importancia de la participación positiva del padre para el desarrollo social de los hijos. Abstract in english This study aimed to examine the relationships between indicators of parental involvement and their children’s social and included 97 father-mother pairs (parents of children in the first or second grade), and 20 teachers. To evaluate father involvement, fathers and mothers completed an Evaluation of [...] personal and family wellbeing and the parent-child relationship - Fathering Version, and to evaluate the children’s social development, the mothers, fathers and teachers completed the Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. The results indicate that more frequent: communication between father and child, paternal participation in child caregiving and in the child’s school, cultural and leisure activities are each associated with indicators of lower hyperactivity, fewer behavior problems and a wider repertoire of appropriate social skills. These results point to the importance of the constructive involvement of fathers for their children’s social development and the likely benefits of programs to promote father involvement.

  16. O envolvimento paterno e o desenvolvimento social de crianças iniciando as atividades escolares La participación paterna y el desarrollo social de niños iniciando las actividades escolares Father involvement and the social development of children in the school-entry transition stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Cia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo relacionou indicadores do envolvimento paterno com indicadores de desenvolvimento social dos filhos. Participaram 97 pares de pais e mães (com filhos na 1ª ou 2ª série e 20 professoras. Para avaliar o envolvimento paterno, pais e mães responderam à Avaliação do bem-estar pessoal e familiar e do relacionamento pai-filho - Versão Paterna, e para avaliar o desenvolvimento social das crianças, os pais, as mães e as professoras preencheram o Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. Quanto maior a freqüência de comunicação entre pai e filho e de participação do pai nos cuidados e nas atividades escolares, culturais e de lazer do filho, menor o índice de hiperatividade e de problemas de comportamento e mais adequado o repertório de habilidades sociais das crianças. Os resultados indicam a provável importância do envolvimento positivo do pai para o desenvolvimento social dos filhos e os prováveis benefícios de programas para promover envolvimento paterno.En este estudio se han relacionado indicadores de la participación paterna con los de desarrollo social de los hijos y participaron 97 padres y madres (con hijos en el primero o en el segundo grado y 20 profesoras. Para evaluar la participación paterna, padres y madres respondieron a la Evaluación del bienestar personal y familiar y del reracionamiento padre-hijo - Versión Paterna y para evaluar el desarrollo social de los niños, padres, madres y profesoras completaron el Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. Cuanto mayor es la frecuencia de comunicación entre padre e hijo, de la participación del padre en los cuidados y en las actividades escolares, culturales y de ocio del hijo, menor es el índice de hiperactividad, problemas de comportamiento y mayor es el repertorio de destrezas sociales de los niños. Los resultados indican la probable importancia de la participación positiva del padre para el desarrollo social de los hijos.This study aimed to examine the relationships between indicators of parental involvement and their children’s social and included 97 father-mother pairs (parents of children in the first or second grade, and 20 teachers. To evaluate father involvement, fathers and mothers completed an Evaluation of personal and family wellbeing and the parent-child relationship - Fathering Version, and to evaluate the children’s social development, the mothers, fathers and teachers completed the Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. The results indicate that more frequent: communication between father and child, paternal participation in child caregiving and in the child’s school, cultural and leisure activities are each associated with indicators of lower hyperactivity, fewer behavior problems and a wider repertoire of appropriate social skills. These results point to the importance of the constructive involvement of fathers for their children’s social development and the likely benefits of programs to promote father involvement.

  17. Parent-Infant Psychotherapy and Postpartum Depression: The Fathers Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena da Rosa Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the specificities of postpartum maternal depression, the literature recommends that fathers become involved in psychological interventions within this context. This study presents an investigation of the participation of fathers in parent-infant psychotherapy in the context of maternal postpartum depression. Two families participated in this study, both with a child aged between 7 and 8 months old, whose mothers showed depressive symptoms. These families participated in parent-infant psychotherapy lasting approximately 12 sessions. Analysis of the fathers’ participation in psychotherapy showed that their presence during sessions enables the therapy to address aspects of parenthood, and also reduce the feeling of mothers as being the only ones responsible for the family’s process of change. In regard to the technique, the presence of fathers during sessions allows the therapist to see and address the issues concerning mother-father-infant during sessions.

  18. Child welfare caseworkers' characteristics and their attitudes toward non-custodial fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Julia; Peek, Chuck W

    2015-09-01

    Despite increased attention to the caseworker's role in the successful engagement of fathers and in producing successful child welfare outcomes more generally, little is known about child welfare caseworkers' attitudes toward non-custodial fathers. Using generalized ordinal logistic regression to analyze attitudes in a sample of child welfare caseworkers from four U.S. states, the present study examines how caseworkers' demographic, education, and employment characteristics affect their attitudes toward non-custodial fathers. Race/ethnicity and employment characteristics predicted differences in opinion on whether fathers want to be involved, increase children's well-being, need help parenting, and whether involving fathers is troublesome and complicated. Results suggest that caseworkers' backgrounds serve as inputs into their approach to fathers and indicate a need for further study of the relationship between caseworkers' characteristics and attitudes, and how these might influence case outcomes. PMID:26205505

  19. The Father's Impact on Mother and Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke-Stewart, Alison

    This study investigates the father's contribution to child development in the context of a triadic family constellation, integrating data that parallel previous investigations of fathers: differences in children's behavior to mother and father, differences in mothers' and fathers' behavior to the child, and correlations between parental and child…

  20. Father’s Role in Parent Training for Children with Developmental Delay

    OpenAIRE

    Bagner, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    The current pilot study was a quasi-experimental examination of the impact of father involvement in parent training among 44 families with a young child who presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems and developmental delay. All families were offered to receive Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), an evidence-based parent-training intervention, at a hospital-based outpatient clinic. Single-mother families were significantly more likely to drop out of treatment than two-parent...

  1. The effects of pre- and postnatal depression in fathers: a natural experiment comparing the effects of exposure to depression on offspring.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramchandani, PG; O'Connor, TG; Evans, J.; Heron, J.; Murray, L.; Stein, A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression in fathers in the postnatal period is associated with an increased risk of behavioural problems in their offspring, particularly for boys. The aim of this study was to examine for differential effects of depression in fathers on children's subsequent psychological functioning via a natural experiment comparing prenatal and postnatal exposure. METHODS: In a longitudinal population cohort study (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)) we examined the...

  2. What about the Child's Tie to the Father? A New Insight into Fathering, Father-Child Attachment, Children's Socio-Emotional Development and the Activation Relationship Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Caroline; Paquette, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The broad aim of this study on father-child attachment was to verify whether the Risky Situation (RS) procedure is a more valid means than the Strange Situation (SS) procedure of predicting children's socio-emotional development, and to evaluate the moderator effect of day-to-day involvement on attachment and activation. Participants were 53…

  3. A novel PIGN mutation and prenatal diagnosis of inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Taku; Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko; Murakami, Yoshiko; Nakamura, Shota; Motooka, Daisuke; Emoto, Tomomi; Satake, Wataru; Nishiyama, Masahiro; Toyoshima, Daisaku; Morisada, Naoya; Takada, Satoshi; Tairaku, Shinya; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Morioka, Ichiro; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Toda, Tatsushi; Kinoshita, Taroh; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors tether proteins to the extracellular face of eukaryotic plasma membranes. Defects in the human GPI anchor biosynthetic pathway cause inherited GPI deficiencies (IGDs) characterized by multiple congenital anomalies: dysmorphic faces, developmental delay, hypotonia, and epilepsy. We report the case of a 6-year-old boy with severe psychomotor developmental delay, epilepsy, and decreased granulocyte surface expression of GPI-anchored protein that suggested autosomal recessive GPI deficiency. The case underwent target exome sequencing to screen for IGDs. Target exome sequencing of the proband identified an apparently homozygous c.808T?>?C (p.Ser270Pro) mutation in PIGN, a gene involved in the GPI anchor biosynthetic pathway. As his parents were expecting another child, genetic carrier screening was conducted for the parents. Direct sequencing of the parents identified a heterozygous c.808T?>?C PIGN mutation in the father but none in the mother. To identify the mother's mutation, we performed semi-quantitative real-time PCR of the PIGN exons and long PCR, identifying a microdeletion in PIGN (del exons 2-14). The proband had inherited this microdeletion from his mother. Prenatal diagnosis of the fetus revealed that it was a heterozygous carrier of the mother's pathogenic allele. Here, we report a sporadic case of inherited GPI deficiency with a PIGN mutation and the first case of prenatal diagnosis for GPI deficiency. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26419326

  4. Fathers' behaviors and children's psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2010-04-01

    The psychological literature on how fathers' behaviors may be related to children's psychopathology has grown substantially in the last three decades. This growth is the result of research asking the following three overarching questions: (1) what is the association between family structure, and particularly biological fathers' non-residence, and children's psychopathology, (2) what is the association between fathers' parenting and children's psychopathology, and (3) what is the association between fathers' psychopathology and children's psychopathology. The three broad theoretical perspectives relevant to this literature are the standard family environment model, the passive genetic model, and the child effects model. The evidence from studies comparing the first two models seems to suggest that the origin of the association between parental divorce and children's emotional and behavioral problems is largely shared environmental in origin, as is the association between resident fathers' parenting and children's emotional and behavioral problems, according to studies comparing the standard family environment model with the child effects model. However, research needs to compare appropriately all theoretical perspectives. The paper discusses this, and also points to the importance of considering theory-driven specificity in modeling effects. PMID:20149945

  5. What Does It Mean to Be Accountable When One Is a Divorced, Noncustodial Father?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Lorna

    This paper explores what divorced, noncustodial fathers may be considered responsible for in society and the possible consequences such accountability may have for educators. The resistance that noncustodial fathers may find to their involvement with their childrens education at their children's schools in highlighted. The author concludes by…

  6. The role of the father in child sleep disturbance: child, parent, and parent-child relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millikovsky-Ayalon, Maaian; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Meiri, Gal

    2015-01-01

    The majority of studies on child sleep problems focus primarily on mothers, neglecting paternal influences. Guided by the transactional framework, we explored how child temperament, paternal and maternal stress, and the parent-child interactions differ between families having children with sleep disturbances and a selected comparison group. The role of paternal involvement in child caregiving as a moderator of these differences was assessed. The sample consisted of 51 children (1-3 years old) and their mothers and fathers. Data were collected during home visits, when mothers and fathers completed questionnaires and were interviewed. In addition, mother-child and father-child interactions were videotaped. Results indicate that compared to the comparison group, fathers rated children with sleep disturbances as fussier, both their mothers and fathers experienced higher levels of stress, and reported using more bedtime interactions that interfere with child's sleep-wake self-regulation. In addition, their fathers were less sensitive during father-child interaction and less involved in child caregiving. Finally, paternal involvement moderated the group differences seen in maternal stress, suggesting that high paternal involvement acted as a buffer to protect parents of children with sleep disturbances from experiencing parental stress. The important role of fathers in families having children with sleep disturbances is discussed. PMID:25501300

  7. Talking to Daddy's Little Girl about Sex: Daughters' Reports of Sexual Communication and Support from Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Cederbaum, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Although mothers are widely acknowledged as the primary in-home sexual educators of children, fathers also play an important role in sexual socialization. Paternal involvement is linked to positive social and psychological outcomes; an increased father-daughter communication can delay sexual debut and decrease frequency of engagement in…

  8. Fathers' Frightening Behaviours and Sensitivity with Infants: Relations with Fathers' Attachment Representations, Father-Infant Attachment, and Children's Later Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Nancy L.; McFarland, Laura; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Boyd-Soisson, Erin

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 125 families investigated whether negative child outcomes related to fathers' frightening (FR) behaviours with infants would be mitigated if fathers were also sensitive. Results indicated that children whose fathers were frightening and insensitive with them during infancy showed the highest emotional under-regulation at…

  9. Single-Parent Fathers: A New Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Keshet; Rosenthal, Kristine M.

    1978-01-01

    Reports on a study of single-parent fathers who are rearing their young children after marital separation. Discusses what fathers do for and with their children and how being a single parent affects work responsibilities and lifestyle. (BR)

  10. Responsible Fathering: An Educational Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhon, Tommie

    1996-01-01

    Family/consumer science professionals can support fatherhood by advocating for parenting classes as a graduation requirement and part of divorce proceedings and for marital education before marriage licenses are issued. They can promote family-friendly workplaces and distribute information about the impact of fathers on children's health and…

  11. Latent profiles of nonresidential father engagement six years after divorce predict long-term offspring outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modecki, Kathryn Lynn; Hagan, Melissa J; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined profiles of nonresidential father engagement (i.e., support to the adolescent, contact frequency, remarriage, relocation, and interparental conflict) with their adolescent children (N = 156) 6 to 8 years following divorce and the prospective relation between these profiles and the psychosocial functioning of their offspring, 9 years later. Parental divorce occurred during late childhood to early adolescence; indicators of nonresidential father engagement were assessed during adolescence, and mental health problems and academic achievement of offspring were assessed 9 years later in young adulthood. Three profiles of father engagement were identified in our sample of mainly White, non-Hispanic divorced fathers: Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict, Low Involvement/Moderate Conflict, and High Involvement/High Conflict. Profiles differentially predicted offspring outcomes 9 years later when they were young adults, controlling for quality of the mother-adolescent relationship, mother's remarriage, mother's income, and gender, age, and offspring mental health problems in adolescence. Offspring of fathers characterized as Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict had the highest academic achievement and the lowest number of externalizing problems 9 years later compared to offspring whose fathers had profiles indicating either the highest or lowest levels of involvement but higher levels of conflict. Results indicate that greater paternal psychosocial support and more frequent father-adolescent contact do not outweigh the negative impact of interparental conflict on youth outcomes in the long term. Implications of findings for policy and intervention are discussed. PMID:24484456

  12. A single center study of the effects of trained fathers' participation in constant breastfeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Raeisi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Constant breastfeeding that depends on the family support. Fathers' involvement is as an important factor of successful breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fathers' participation in constant breastfeeding in Vali-E-Asr Hospital, Tehran, Iran. This interventional study was piloted on spouses of pregnant women participating in pregnancy courses. The case group consisted of fathers attending training courses of breastfeeding during pregnancy (Group A, and the control group was made up of fathers who did not take part in training courses (Group B. The courses were held three times from the 30th week of gestation to the end of pregnancy in a family health research center. Fathers attended three training sessions where they were trained by brochures. After delivery newborns were weighted and examined for jaundice (3-5 days, 30 days, three and six months after birth. According to mothers' views, spouses' participation, encouragement and support in group A, was 11 times more than group B. It means that 47 (94% of spouses in the group A participated in mothers' constant breastfeeding, but fathers' participation in group B was 60% (30 spouses. This study showed that breastfeeding was more constant in the group that fathers participated in breastfeeding training course. One of the reasons for such a significant difference was spouses' participation, encouragement and support in the trained group. This study showed that fathers' involvement in training programs may influence constancy of breastfeeding.

  13. Influências das condições de trabalho do pai sobre o relacionamento pai-filho / Influences father's work conditions on father-child relationship

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiana, Cia; Elizabeth Joan, Barham.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo identificar as condições de trabalho que influenciam no envolvimento do pai com seu filho. Participaram deste estudo 58 pais que tinham um filho na 5a ou 6a série do Ensino Fundamental. Os pais preencheram o questionário "Avaliação das condições de trabalho e do e [...] nvolvimento do pai com seu filho - versão paterna". As medidas das condições de trabalho apresentaram correlações significativas com a satisfação do pai em relação ao seu desempenho familiar. Esta escala, por sua vez, estava positivamente correlacionada com as medidas do envolvimento do pai com seu filho. Assim, a relação entre as condições de trabalho e o envolvimento do pai com seu filho foi mediada pela satisfação do pai com seu desempenho familiar. Tais resultados demonstram a necessidade de identificar e alterar as normas e condições de trabalho que restringem as oportunidades para os pais participarem das rotinas familiares. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify the work conditions that influence father-child relationship. A total of 58 fathers, whose child was at fifth or sixth grade, participated in this study. The fathers completed the questionnaire "Evaluation of work conditions and involvement of the father with hi [...] s child - Paternal version". The measures of work conditions presented significant correlations with father's satisfaction concerning his family performance. This scale, in turn, presented correlations with the measures of father-child involvement. Therefore, the relation between work conditions and father-child involvement was mediated by the satisfaction of the father with his family performance. These results indicate the need to identify and alter the work rules and conditions, which restrict fathers' opportunities to participate in their family routines.

  14. Influências das condições de trabalho do pai sobre o relacionamento pai-filho Influences father's work conditions on father-child relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Cia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo identificar as condições de trabalho que influenciam no envolvimento do pai com seu filho. Participaram deste estudo 58 pais que tinham um filho na 5a ou 6a série do Ensino Fundamental. Os pais preencheram o questionário "Avaliação das condições de trabalho e do envolvimento do pai com seu filho - versão paterna". As medidas das condições de trabalho apresentaram correlações significativas com a satisfação do pai em relação ao seu desempenho familiar. Esta escala, por sua vez, estava positivamente correlacionada com as medidas do envolvimento do pai com seu filho. Assim, a relação entre as condições de trabalho e o envolvimento do pai com seu filho foi mediada pela satisfação do pai com seu desempenho familiar. Tais resultados demonstram a necessidade de identificar e alterar as normas e condições de trabalho que restringem as oportunidades para os pais participarem das rotinas familiares.The aim of this study was to identify the work conditions that influence father-child relationship. A total of 58 fathers, whose child was at fifth or sixth grade, participated in this study. The fathers completed the questionnaire "Evaluation of work conditions and involvement of the father with his child - Paternal version". The measures of work conditions presented significant correlations with father's satisfaction concerning his family performance. This scale, in turn, presented correlations with the measures of father-child involvement. Therefore, the relation between work conditions and father-child involvement was mediated by the satisfaction of the father with his family performance. These results indicate the need to identify and alter the work rules and conditions, which restrict fathers' opportunities to participate in their family routines.

  15. Fathers' characteristics and their children's scores on college entrance exams: a comparison of intact and divorced families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr, L A

    1998-01-01

    Previous research shows that the educational performance of children may be impaired when their parents divorce. However, noncustodial fathers' postdivorce behavior, especially compliance with child support orders, can greatly offset educational disadvantages. The present study investigated the impact of fathers' behavior on their children's performance on college entrance examinations (CEEs) in a sample of 231 college students. Results indicated that, in intact families, fathers' ethnicity and income were related to CEE scores. Further, when these students perceived their fathers as encouraging and involved in their education, their scores were higher. For students with divorced parents, however, noncustodial fathers' ethnicity, income, encouragement, involvement, child support compliance, and visitation were not statistically linked to CEE performance. These findings suggest that joint custodial arrangements, which may enhance the social relationships between fathers and their children, may lead to improved educational outcomes. PMID:9831870

  16. Parenting Needs of Urban, African American Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L

    2015-07-01

    Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than 18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers. PMID:25147096

  17. Surrogacy commissioning fathers and HIV

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D W, Jordaan.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogacy is not regulated by a single legal instrument only, nor is confirmation of a surrogacy agreement by the High Court an unqualified green light for the surrogacy process to proceed. In the context of the HIV status of the commissioning father, whose gametes are to be used for the conception [...] of the child in pursuance of a surrogacy agreement, the intended in vitro fertilisation of the surrogate mother may only take place on condition that the commissioning father, and his semen, have been tested for HIV; that he has consented to his HIV status being made available to the surrogate mother, and if he is HIV-positive, that sperm washing will be used to minimise the risk of infection and that the surrogate mother has been informed of his HIV status, and given her informed consent.

  18. A Prospective Three Generational Study of Fathers’ Constructive Parenting: Influences from Family of Origin, Adolescent Adjustment, and Offspring Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, David C. R.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Pears, Katherine C.; Owen, Lee. D.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective, intergenerational study considered multiple influences on 102 fathers’ constructive parenting of 181 children. Fathers in the second generation (G2) were recruited as boys on the basis of neighborhood risk for delinquency and assessed through early adulthood. The fathers’ parents (G1) and the G2 mothers of G3 also participated. A multiagent, multimethod approach was used to measure G1 and G2 constructive parenting (monitoring, discipline, warmth, and involvement), G2 positiv...

  19. Perception of fathers as for their involvement in activities with their children / A percepção dos pais frente ao seu envolvimento nas atividades com o(s) filho(s) / La percepción de los padres en su compromiso en las actividades con su(s) hijo(s)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mara Regina Santos da, SILVA; Maria Emilia Nunes, BUENO; Juliane Portella, RIBEIRO.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo descritivo exploratório com abordagem quantitativa, que buscou identificar a percepção do pai em relação à importância das necessidades do(s) filho(s); as estratégias utilizadas pelo pai para aproximar-se do(s) filho(s); analisar a influência das tarefas domésticas e da educaçã [...] o do(s) filho(s) na vida do pai. Os sujeitos foram 92 homens com filhos de idade até seis anos, residentes na cidade de Rio Grande, RS. Os resultados apontaram um pai mais participativo nas atividades com os filhos, que valoriza a confiança, a segurança e a proximidade com a família como principais necessidades da criança, e que priorizaram os progressos dos filhos bem como a atenção para ouvir e conversar. A educação dos filhos não agrega mais problemas do que imaginavam, permitindo-lhes planejar a vida como gostariam. Esses achados mostram que, na amostra estudada, o pai está conseguindo desenvolver ações mais afetivas e direcionadas para o envolvimento com o(s) filho(s). Abstract in spanish Es un estudio descriptivo exploratorio con abordaje cuantitativo buscando identificar la percepción del padre con relación a la importancia de las necesidades de su(s) hijo(s); las estrategias utilizadas por el padre para aproximarse del hijo y analizar la influencia de tareas domésticas y educación [...] del hijo en la vida del padre. Los sujetos fueron 92 hombres con hijos de edades hasta seis años, residiendo en Rio Grande/RS. Los resultados apuntaron un padre más participativo en actividades con sus hijos, valorando confianza, seguridad y proximidad con la familia como principales necesidades para el niño, y priorizaron los progresos del hijo bien como atención para oír y conversar. La educación de los hijos no agrega más problemas que lo imaginado, consiguiendo planear la vida como les gustaría. Estos hallazgos muestran que, en la muestra estudiada, el padre está consiguiendo desarrollar acciones más afectivas y dirigidas a la participación con su(s) hijo(s). Abstract in english This is an exploratory, descriptive study with a quantitative approach and the aim to identify the perception of fathers regarding their children's needs; strategies used by fathers to get closer to their children as well as to analyze the influence of household chores and children's education in th [...] eir fathers' lives. Study subjects were 92 men with six-year-old children, residing in the city of Rio Grande, state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS). The results revealed fathers who are more engaged in activities with their children, valuing confidence, safety, as well as proximity to family as children's main needs, having prioritized the progress children make as well as attention to listening and conversation. Children's education does not aggregate more problems than they imagined, managing to plan life the way they seek to. These findings show that, in the sample studied, fathers have been able to develop more affectionate actions aimed at being more involved with their children.

  20. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T; Ettorre, E; Hemminki, E; Jalinoja, P; Santalahti, P; Tymstra, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection with...... precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  1. Invasive Prenatal Testing

    OpenAIRE

    A. Hunter

    1988-01-01

    Invasive prenatal diagnosis is a major diagnostic tool which is used in modern obstetrical care. A synopsis of these techniques is provided to assist the family practitioner in providing this information to his patients.

  2. Unheard voices: a qualitative exploration of fathers' access of child safety information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lise L; Kruse, Sami; Brussoni, Mariana

    2013-02-01

    To gain an understanding about fathers' perspectives and practices related to accessing information on childhood safety. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 32 fathers of children aged 2-7 years in British Columbia, Canada. Interview questions investigated whether fathers accessed information on child safety issues, the type of information they searched for, and the resources they used. Transcripts were examined using thematic content analysis. Fathers reported varied processes for searching for information and emphasized a need for credible, synthesized information. The internet was the source of child safety information fathers mentioned most frequently. Published information, resources from community organizations including general, educational and health organizations and access to personal connections were also seen as important. Fathers' involvement in childcare is growing and they play a significant role in ensuring children's safety. Increasing fathers' knowledge on safety related practices can contribute to a reduction in childhood injuries. The results of this study provide an in-depth exploration of fathers' perspectives and practices that can inform the design of materials and dissemination strategies to help increase and optimize access to safety information. PMID:22875235

  3. Francis Bacon’S Qualification as The Father of Modern Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinenye Leo Ochulor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of this paper is to determine if there is any basis for regarding Francis Bacon as the father of Modern Philosophy. This involves effort to determine what constitutes, in essence, Modern Philosophy and the goal of Modern Philosophy. Are there criteria that qualify one as the father of Modern Philosophy? Proceeding with this inquiry, our paper examines, on the one hand, the views of those who argue in defence of Bacon’s qualification as the father of Modern Philosophy. Here it is argued that “if Modern Philosophy is, however, understood as beginning from the Renaissance period, it seems more appropriate to regard Francis Bacon as the father of Modern Philosophy” (Omoregbe, 1991, p.v. On the part of those opposed to Bacon’s qualification as the father of Modern Philosophy, it is argued that “Descartes is called the father of Modern Philosophy…. This title of the father of Modern Philosophy has been disputed in favour of Francis Bacon. As Descartes’ reputation rose, that of Bacon fell” (Ozumba 2005, p.146. After a critical examination of the above views, amongst others, we discovered that the major task of Modern Philosophy is getting certainty in knowledge. Bacon did not tackle this question of certainty in knowledge. Perhaps Bacon equated knowledge with certainty. But Descartes tackled this question of certainty in knowledge and reached a foundation (foundationalism for certainty. And it was on this foundation that Modern Philosophy was built. The above views, among others, strongly question Bacon’s qualification as the father of Modern Philosophy. Our paper, therefore, argues that it is more appropriate to regard Descartes as the father of Modern Philosophy.

    Key words: Father; Modern Philosophy; Certainty inKnowledge

  4. Non-Custodial Gay Fathers: Considering the Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Scott C.

    This paper applies what is currently known about gay fathers to the more specific issues of the non-custodial gay father. Good parenting is not easy for any father, but being a successful gay father is even more difficult. Since the gay father is typically a non-custodial parent, he must deal with his grief about the loss of contact and quality…

  5. Twins abused by their father

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is an important public health problem that recurs unless it is recognized early and protection measures are implemented timely. Multidisciplinary collaboration of related professionals is of paramount importance in assessing and managing cases of child abuse and neglect. The father of the twins presented in this paper, who was employed in odd jobs as the sole bread-winner of his family of five and abused his wife also physically abused his twin children under one year of age. Although the physicians reported these children to law enforcement, the family concealed the abuse and neither the physicians nor the law enforcement reported this family to child protective services. As a consequence, a picture of recurrence of abuse with a cumulative negative medico-social outcome was observed. Since the mother declined to testify on the father abusing his children during the court proceedings, the father returned to the family after a brief incarceration. Child protective measures were established only after the forensic medicine physician interfered with the proceedings on a voluntary basis. This presentation aimed at reviewing the risk factors related to abuse and associated findings and assessment steps of abuse. In addition, these cases confirmed that every child abuse case that is missed by physicians and mismanaged legally or from child protection perspective has the potential to lead to severe, chronic abuse. Therefore, it is important that the family, law, medicine, and social services should collaborate in diagnosis and management of these cases. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 346-50

  6. Do Coparenting and Social Support Have a Greater Effect on Adolescent Fathers than Adult Fathers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether coparenting support and social support had a stronger effect on father engagement with 3-year-olds among adolescent fathers compared with adult fathers. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,540), we found that coparenting support and paternal social support had a significantly stronger…

  7. „Breasting” father. Father's influence on the eating problems in children. Psychodynamic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Teresa Turyna

    2015-09-01

    “Breasting” father can affect eating difficulties in children. His role is often mediated by the mother's feeleings as the main child’s feeder. Despite the change in the social role of the father image it appears to be vital to maintain diversity in the roles of mother and father in the first period of a child's life.

  8. Longitudinal Effects of Divorce on the Quality of the Father-Child Relationship and on Fathers' Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Adam; Lambert, James David

    1999-01-01

    States that the effect of divorce on the quality of the father-child relationship and fathers' psychological well being is moderated by the residence of children. Divorce is associated with lower relationship quality only for nonresident fathers and is associated with a decline in happiness for nonresident fathers. Divorced fathers are more…

  9. Fathers' engagement in pregnancy and childbirth: evidence from a national survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Redshaw, M.; Henderson, J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early involvement of fathers with their children has increased in recent times and this is associated with improved cognitive and socio-emotional development of children. Research in the area of father's engagement with pregnancy and childbirth has mainly focused on white middle-class men and has been mostly qualitative in design. Thus, the aim of this study was to understand who was engaged during pregnancy and childbirth, in what way, and how paternal engagement may influence a ...

  10. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non-laboratory aspects such as information and counseling), education of professionals, systematic evaluation of all aspects of prenatal screening, development of better evaluation tools in the light of the aim of the practice, accountability to all stakeholders including children born from screened pregnancies and persons living with the conditions targeted in prenatal screening and promotion of equity of access. PMID:25782669

  11. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-11-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non-laboratory aspects such as information and counseling), education of professionals, systematic evaluation of all aspects of prenatal screening, development of better evaluation tools in the light of the aim of the practice, accountability to all stakeholders including children born from screened pregnancies and persons living with the conditions targeted in prenatal screening and promotion of equity of access. PMID:25782669

  12. Father's Unemployment and Adolescent's Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Larry Paul Andres; Farrell, Michael P.

    1993-01-01

    Examined families affected by steel mill shutdown. Compared families with adolescents in which father was continuously unemployed, unemployed with slight income loss, unemployed with significant income loss. Adolescents' relationships with fathers were more negative when income loss was significant; relationships with mothers were not more…

  13. Becoming an Adolescent Father: Precursors and Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagot, Beverly I.; Pears, Katherine C.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Crosby, Lynn; Leve, Craig S.

    1998-01-01

    In a longitudinal study of a cohort of boys, compared the characteristics of those who became adolescent fathers with those who did not, and of their children with other children. The adolescent fathers had more arrests and substance abuse problems than the other adolescents. Their children had more health problems than a group of normal control…

  14. Adult responses to child behavior and attitudes toward fathering: gay and nongay fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigner, J J; Jacobsen, R B

    1992-01-01

    This study examines gay and nongay fathers' responses to instruments measuring parenting style and orientation to the fathering role. Fifty-three respondents (24 gay and 29 nongay fathers) completed two surveys, and responses to each were analyzed. Both groups of fathers were found to have a developmental orientation toward their role as fathers, and no discernible parenting style could be found to distinguish one group from the other. Thus, gay and nongay fathers were found to be more similar than different with regard to parenting styles and attitudes toward fathering. This finding supports previous work (Bigner & Jacobsen, 1989a, 1989b) and expands the available knowledge based on the parenting styles of homosexual parents. PMID:1431084

  15. Congenital epulis: prenatal imaging with MRI and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital epulis is an uncommon benign tumor that originates from the alveolar ridge in newborns. It is also known as congenital gingival granular cell tumor. Although there have been around 200 reports of its postnatal diagnosis, this oral tumor has rarely been diagnosed prenatally. We present fetal MRI and Doppler prenatal imaging of an infant with two congenital epulides (simultaneous involvement of superior and inferior maxillas). (orig.)

  16. Human affection exchange: II. Affectionate communication in father-son relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Kory; Morman, Mark T

    2003-10-01

    The father-son dyad might be the most socially significant male-male relationship in the life course, yet its negative qualities have been the sole focus in most research on the relationship. One communicative aspect that has received little scholarly attention is the expression of affection between fathers and sons, despite the strong correlation of affectionate communication with positive involvement, closeness, and relational satisfaction for fathers and sons. In 2 studies, the authors tested hypotheses about father-son affection that were derived from affection exchange theory (K. Floyd, in press). Results indicated that U.S. men are more affectionate with biological sons than with stepsons or adopted sons and that they are more affectionate with their biological sons than their biological sons are with them. PMID:14609055

  17. Are fathers underused advocates for breastfeeding?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenosi, M

    2011-11-01

    Fathers\\' knowledge base and attitudes influence breastfeeding practice. We aimed to evaluate if Irish fathers felt included in the breastfeeding education and decision process. 67 fathers completed questionnaires, which assessed their role in the decision to breastfeed, knowledge regarding the benefits of breastfeeding and attitude towards breastfeeding.Forty-two (62.7%) of their partners were breastfeeding. Antenatal classes were attended by 38 (56.7%); 59 (88.1%) discussed breastfeeding with their partners and 26 (38.8%) felt that the decision was made together. Twelve (48%) fathers of formula fed infants were unaware that breastfeeding was healthier for the baby. Most fathers (80.6%) felt that breastfeeding was the mother\\'s decision and most (82.1%) felt that antenatal information was aimed at mothers only. Irish fathers remain relatively uninformed regarding the benefits of breastfeeding. This may contribute to their exclusion from the decision to breastfeed. Antenatal education should incorporate fathers more, and this may result in an improvement in our breastfeeding rates.

  18. Fathers matter: The role of father parenting in preschoolers' executive function development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwissen, Alyssa S; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2015-12-01

    Although previous work has shown that mothers' parenting influences the development of child executive function (EF; important self-control skills developed during the preschool years), the role of fathers' parenting has not been thoroughly investigated. We observed fathers' autonomy support and control in dyadic play with their 3-year-old children (N pairs=110) and measured father and child EF independently with laboratory tasks. We found that fathers' controlling parenting was significantly inversely related to the child EF composite, above and beyond family income and child verbal ability. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fathers are important for the development of EF in their children and suggest that fathers should be included in both research and parenting interventions. PMID:26209884

  19. The emergence of new fatherhood and the role of father in child raising prior to entering school

    OpenAIRE

    Vu?ko, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    The role of the father in the family has changed over time. Traditionally, fathers were not involved with the care and upbringing of their children, this role belonged to mothers only. Social and environmental changes have brought about the changes in family life, since women began to involve in the public sphere and politics. Due to a changed way of life, the problem regarding active parenting arouse. The role of fathers in childcare has become more and more important, and this led to greate...

  20. Eugenesia y diagnóstico prenatal Eugenics and prenatal diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María González Salvat

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available El uso del diagnóstico prenatal en la práctica de la genética médica ha hecho que se recuerden teorías eugenésicas. Se realizó una revisión histórica de este término y se relacionó con el uso del diagnóstico prenatal (DPN y el aborto selectivo a la luz de los conocimientos bioéticos actuales.The use of the prenatal diagnosis in the practice of medical genetics has led us to remember eugenic theories. A historical review of this term was made and it was connected with the use of prenatal diagnosis (PND and selective abortion in the light of the present bioethical knowledge.

  1. Human prenatal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis

  2. 76 FR 36853 - Father's Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ...cares for another's child. Every family is different...is the unconditional support, guidance, and love fathers and mentors give us throughout life. Today, too many children in our country grow up without such support and guidance. A...

  3. Fathers and mothers developing skills in managing children’s long-term medical conditions: how do their qualitative accounts compare?

    OpenAIRE

    Swallow V, Lambert H, Macfadyen A, and Santacroce S

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about the respective experience of fathers and mothers within couples when managing their child’s long-term medical condition. This study therefore aimed to obtain and compare fathers’ and mothers’ accounts of managing long-term kidney conditions. Methods Qualitative study involving individual then joint semi-structured interviews with 14 couples (biological fathers and mothers of 15 children whose care is managed at a specialist unit). Interviews were digitally ...

  4. Prenatal Genetic Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, S.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of screening principles and techniques available to screen for common birth defects during pregnancy. Sixty-five to 70% of women have serum screening and /or ultrasound during pregnancy to evaluate the health and well-being of the developing fetus. The most common birth defects identified by screening include neural tube defects and chromosome abnormalities. Nurses employed in prenatal care settings need to have accurate information they can provide to women...

  5. Fathers' occupation and pregnancy outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findings from a survey of 56,067 women in Montreal on maternal occupation and pregnancy outcome have been reported. Paternal occupation recorded in the same survey was analysed for spontaneous abortion in 24 occupational groups retaining the six main sectors of maternal occupation and allowing, by means of logistic regression, for seven potentially confounding variables. In only one of the 24 fathers' occupational groups was there a statistically significant excess of spontaneous abortions-mechanics, repairers, and certain assemblers (O/E = 1.10, 90% CI = 1.02-1.20); subdivision of this group suggested that this excess was mainly attributable to the large group of motor vehicle mechanics (O/E = 1.17). No significant excess of known chromosomally determined defects was found in any of the 24 occupational groups. An association of developmental defects was found with food and beverage processing (18 defects observed compared with 8.02 expected; p < 0.05); however, there was no specificity in type of food, beverage, or congenital defect, and no obvious explanatory mechanism. (author)

  6. Some founding fathers of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Colin A.

    1987-01-01

    In the rise of early modern science, Christian concepts were crucially important in shaping men's thoughts about the world. An endemic 'conflict' between science and religion has been wrongly predicted on a few isolated, if dramatic, examples (notably those of Galileo and Darwin), when men of science were persecuted by elements of the organised Church. This thesis has been nourished from time to time by anti-clerical groups in various countries. The implausibility of such a 'conflict thesis' is indicated by the large numbers of leading scientists from the seventeenth to the twentieth centuries who have cheerfully professed a Christian faith. The generation and use of scientific theories have never been unconditioned by social and cultural forces, and these have often included those that one can label 'religion'. Whereas science owes many of its fundamental attributes to the Judaeo-Christian religion, such a dependence is now often forgotten, or at least relegated to the subconscious. The persistence of a Christian belief in some form among many physical scientists has continued to this day. The author is concerned to indicate, very briefly, this same tendency in the lives and work of five of the most notable founding fathers of physics.

  7. Relationship of Marital Satisfaction, Family Support and Family-Work Conflict Factors Among Malaysian Fathers with Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahayudin, A.A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study on contextual factors in Malaysian family is more concentrated among mothers compared to the fathers. Malaysian fathers are often influenced by these factors embedded in the family. This study examines the level of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The survey was conducted using a simple sampling method, on a group of 413 fathers with adolescent children from all districts in the state of Selangor, West Peninsular of Malaysia. A set of questionnaires was used to derive data from the fathers? contextual factors which are marriage satisfaction, family support and work-family conflict among fathers of adolescents. Analysis on frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, analysis of Variance (ANOVA and the Pearson correlations were used to investigate the level and correlation of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The Pearson correlation shows that there is a significant correlation between work-family conflict and marriage satisfaction and between family support and marriage satisfaction. However, there is no significant correlation between family support and work-family conflict. The study proficiently contributes towards the exploration of influencing factors for the involvement of fathers in parenting.

  8. Congenital dacryocystocele: prenatal MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital dacryocystocele can be diagnosed prenatally by imaging. Prenatal MRI is increasingly utilized for fetal diagnosis. To present the radiological and clinical features of seven fetuses with congenital dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI. The institutional database of 1,028 consecutive prenatal MR examinations performed during a period of 4 years was reviewed retrospectively. The cases of congenital dacryocystocele were identified by reading the report of each MRI study. The incidence of dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI was 0.7% (n=7/1,028). The dacryocystocele was bilateral in three fetuses. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 31 weeks. The indication for prenatal MRI was the presence or the suspicion of central nervous system abnormality in six fetuses and diaphragmatic hernia in one. Dacryocystocele was associated with an intranasal cyst in six of ten eyes. Prenatal sonography revealed dacryocystocele in only two of seven fetuses. Of eight eyes with postnatal follow-up, four did not have any lacrimal symptoms. Prenatal MRI can delineate congenital dacryocystocele more clearly and in a more detailed fashion than ultrasonography. Presence of dacryocystocele was symptomatic in only 50% of our patients, supporting that prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele might follow a benign course. (orig.)

  9. Congenital dacryocystocele: prenatal MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Zeynep [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Uludag University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey); Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Rubio, Eva I.; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Linam, Leann E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Yazici, Bulent [Uludag University, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Congenital dacryocystocele can be diagnosed prenatally by imaging. Prenatal MRI is increasingly utilized for fetal diagnosis. To present the radiological and clinical features of seven fetuses with congenital dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI. The institutional database of 1,028 consecutive prenatal MR examinations performed during a period of 4 years was reviewed retrospectively. The cases of congenital dacryocystocele were identified by reading the report of each MRI study. The incidence of dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI was 0.7% (n=7/1,028). The dacryocystocele was bilateral in three fetuses. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 31 weeks. The indication for prenatal MRI was the presence or the suspicion of central nervous system abnormality in six fetuses and diaphragmatic hernia in one. Dacryocystocele was associated with an intranasal cyst in six of ten eyes. Prenatal sonography revealed dacryocystocele in only two of seven fetuses. Of eight eyes with postnatal follow-up, four did not have any lacrimal symptoms. Prenatal MRI can delineate congenital dacryocystocele more clearly and in a more detailed fashion than ultrasonography. Presence of dacryocystocele was symptomatic in only 50% of our patients, supporting that prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele might follow a benign course. (orig.)

  10. South African gay fathers' parenting practices:  from pathology to 'normalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Rothmann, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: South African gay fathers’ parenting practices: from pathology to ‘normalisation’ The article reflects the findings of a qualitative sociological study in which in-depth interviews and self-administered questionnaires were employed with gay fathers. The article highlights the realisation of the principles of generative fathering in the parenting practices of the fathers and the manner in which pathological views of gay men, in general, influenced these practices of the fathers. O...

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of chromosome mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, P; Hsu, L Y; Perlis, T; Schonhaut, A

    1984-01-01

    The frequency of mosaicism and pseudomosaicism in the prenatal diagnosis of cytogenetic disorders is reported, based on 3000 pregnancies studied in our laboratory. Diagnosis of true mosaicism was only made when an abnormality was detected in two or more independent cultures established from an amniotic fluid sample. On this basis, 0.37 per cent of all cases were diagnosed as true mosaics. 1.07 per cent of all cases had pseudomosaicism involving more than one cell from the same culture with an identical abnormality. 4.13 per cent of cases had a single abnormal cell with an extra chromosome, loss of a sex chromosome (or part of a sex chromosome), or translocation. Details of the outcome and follow-up of cases is given. Particularly problematical were cases where multiple cells from one culture contained an abnormality which could have been clinically significant. A crude estimate of the extent to which true mosaicism might currently be misinterpreted as pseudomosaicism or entirely missed has been made, based on data from the U.S. survey (Hsu and Perlis , in press). It was concluded that even when two, and if necessary a third culture is extensively analysed with an average of 24 cells per culture counted, at least 4.5 per cent of cases of true mosaicism may be completely missed and at least 7 per cent could be misdiagnosed as pseudomosaicism . There is an urgent need for improved laboratory techniques which allow growth of a greater number of cell colonies and therefore a more broadly based analysis. Detailed long term follow-up of prenatally diagnosed mosaics is also essential for assessing the clinical significance of the laboratory findings. PMID:6728823

  12. Dilemas bioéticos del diagnóstico prenatal / Bioethical dilemmas of prenatal diagnosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lázaro, López Baños; Zonia, Fernández Pérez; Luis Gustavo, García Baños; Zenia, García Cartaya.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo del diagnóstico prenatal ha modificado radicalmente el manejo de los embarazos y de los resultados perinatales. Con este trabajo se pretende identificar los principales dilemas bioéticos del diagnóstico prenatal de los defectos congénitos en la provincia Artemisa. Se realizó un estudio [...] observacional, descriptivo. Los criterios para la indicación del proceder, el aborto selectivo, estatus moral del feto se identifican entre los conflictos bioéticos del diagnóstico prenatal. Se concluye que los principios generales de la bioética deben servir de base para el análisis y la solución de los dilemas que han surgido en el campo del diagnóstico prenatal y que el desarrollo tecnológico no puede cambiar los principios bioéticos, ni los valores humanos de los profesionales de la salud pública. Abstract in english The development of the prenatal diagnosis has radically modified the handling of pregnancies and of perinatal results. An observational, descriptive study is carried out with the objective of identifying the main bioethical dilemmas of prenatal diagnosis of congenital defects Artemisia. Approaches f [...] or indicating procedures, the selective abortion, and the fetus moral status are identified among the bioethical conflicts of the prenatal diagnosis.It is concluded that the general bioethics principles should serve as base for analysis and solution of these dilemmas, which have arisen in the field of prenatal diagnosis. Additionally it is concluded that technological development cannot change bioethical principles, neither human values of health professionals.

  13. Father for the first time - development and validation of a questionnaire to assess fathers’ experiences of first childbirth (FTFQ)

    OpenAIRE

    Premberg Åsa; Taft Charles; Hellström Anna-Lena; Berg Marie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A father’s experience of the birth of his first child is important not only for his birth-giving partner but also for the father himself, his relationship with the mother and the newborn. No validated questionnaire assessing first-time fathers' experiences during childbirth is currently available. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to assess first-time fathers’ experiences of childbirth. Method Domains and items were initially derived fr...

  14. A Single Father's Shopping Bag: Purchasing Decisions in Single-Father Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the 1980 to 2003 panels of the Consumer Expenditure Survey, this article examines purchasing decisions in father-headed single-parent families. Single-father expenditures are compared to both married-parent expenditures and single-mother expenditures on 17 broad categories of household-level goods and services. Multivariate…

  15. Social behavior of offspring following prenatal cocaine exposure in rodents: a comparison with prenatal alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SonyaKrishnaSobrian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure(PCEalters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models,a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PCE on social behaviors involving conspecifics in animal models. Social relationships are critical to the developing organism; maternally-directed interactions are necessary for initial survival. Juvenile rats deprived of play behavior, one of the earliest forms of non-mother directed social behaviors in rodents, show deficits in learning tasks and sexual competence. Social behavior is inherently conmplex. Because the emergence of appropriate social skills involves the interplay between various conceptual and biological facets of behavior and social information, it may be a particularly sensitive measure of prenatal insult. The social behavior surveyed include social interactions, play behavior/fighting, scent marking and aggressive behavior in the offspring, as well as aspects of maternal behavior. The goal is to determine if there is a consensus of results in the literature with respect to PCE and social behaviors, and to discuss discrepant findings in terms of exposure models, the paradigms and dependent variables, as well as housing conditions, and the sex and age of the offspring at testing. As there is increasing evidence that deficits in social behavior may be sequelae of developmental exposure alcohol, we compare changes in social behaviors reported for prenatal alcohol with those reported for prenatal cocaine. Shortcomings in the both literatures are identified and addressed in an effort to improve the translational value of future experimentation.

  16. Prenatal adaptations to overload.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peševski, Živorad; Sedmera, David

    New York : Springer, 2013 - (Oš?ádal, B.; Dhalla, N.), s. 41-57 ISBN 978-1-4614-5202-7. - (Advances in Biochemistry in Health and Disease) R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA304/08/0615; GA ?R(CZ) GAP302/11/1308 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : chick embryo * fetal sheep * hyperplasia * hypertrophy * aortic banding * pulmonary artery banding * conotruncal banding * left atrial ligation * prenatal myocardium Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  17. An Impact and Feasibility Evaluation of a Six-Week (Nine Hour) Active Play Intervention on Fathers' Engagement with Their Preschool Children: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Laura J.; O'Dwyer, Mareesa; Foweather, Lawrence; Watson, Paula; Alford, Simon; Knowles, Zoe R.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the benefits of father involvement with their children and a link between uninvolved fatherhood and societal problems. Children's Centres (n?=?15) received 6?×?90-minute active play sessions designed to foster 6 aspects of parental engagement. Fathers' engagement and attitudes to child physical activity were…

  18. Social mobility in the context of fathering: the intergenerational link in parenting among co-resident fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Christina J

    2014-09-01

    Intergenerational transmissions extend across a number of family-related behaviors, including marriage timing, fertility, and divorce. Surprisingly, few studies investigate the link between the fathering men experience and the fathering they ultimately engage in. I use data on the grandfathers and fathers of the 2001 U.S. birth cohort - measured in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (N=4050) - to test whether men's perception of the parenting they received influences their subsequent paternal self-assessments and behaviors. I find a nonlinear association between experiencing warm fathering and men's self-assessed parenting quality and stress. Men with particularly warm fathers are more likely to report being good fathers themselves. Those who report having the harshest fathers also exhibit better paternal self-perceptions and lower stress. Perceptions of paternal warmth show similar associations with men's fathering engagement. This research sheds light on the significance of family dynamics and how a legacy of fathering may contribute to inequality. PMID:24913941

  19. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review.

  20. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review

  1. Michael Pupin Idvorsky and father Vasa Zivkovic

    CERN Document Server

    Cucic, Dragoljub A

    2008-01-01

    There is often a bond between two great men of a society at the time when one is at the peak of his life and the other at its beginning. The great Serbian 19th century poet, clergyman and educator father Vasa Zivkovic, interceding in favour of his student Mihajlo Pupin, significantly influenced the conditions necessary for Pupin`s development into the person he later became. Mihajlo Pupin was certainly not the only student to benefit from father Vasa Zivkovic advice and material support. However their relationship is a perfect example of an acclaimed person successfully influencing a person yet to win acclaim.

  2. Prenatal care effectiveness and utilization in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    George L. Wehby; Jeffrey C Murray; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; Jorge S. Lopez-Camelo; Ohsfeldt, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    The impact of prenatal care use on birth outcomes has been understudied in South American countries. This study assessed the effects of various measures of prenatal care use on birth weight (BW) and gestational age outcomes using samples of infants born without and with common birth defects from Brazil, and evaluated the demand for prenatal care. Prenatal visits improved BW in the group without birth defects through increasing both fetal growth rate and gestational age, but prenatal care visi...

  3. [Prenatal diagnosis. Ethics - counselling.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, I

    2001-05-01

    During the last years great progress has been made in the field of prenatal diagnosis. The possibility of monitoring the growth, development and well being of a child in the womb is priceless and can offer the mother a sense of security regarding the pregnancy. But the growing technology leads at the same time to various questions and discussions and it is good for all those who are a part of the maternal care to think about them. Is it unquestionable to eliminate all those fetuses that are diagnosed with an abnormality of any kind? Where would such a development lead us? Are we, with the means of a continuing better technology, bit by bit "eliminating" certain groups within the society? Is it to be an unquestioned "routine" or even duty, that every woman should be subjected to those diagnoses that are possible? We have within the field of ethics many different views on those questions. One view stresses the complete freedom of abortion. Another demands that all life should be protected, and a fetus should never be terminated, even if it is sick or disabled. The author of this article wants to demonstrate the rule of the sanctity of all life, that all human life should be respected, that this rule should always be applied within the field of medicine. At the same time it should be stressed that this respect for life is not always best given by sustaining and saving all life. Death is not always the worst choise. We must evaluate each and every case, that each and every parents to be should make their own decision based on their own ethical views, after having received appropriate information, professional support and counselling. It is important that professionals deal with these matters with respect for life and respect for the parents who already have disabled children and the disabled themselves. All the prenatal diagnosis which is available may lead to that parents to be have to take difficult decisions regarding the pregnancy. It is therefore of the utmost importance that a pregnant woman and her partner should know the meaning and purpose of the prenatal care which is offered and that they are fully aware of the decisions they may have to face. If the results are not in the favor of the fetus, the couple should receive the support and care whatever their decision may be. PMID:17018988

  4. Mothers' and Fathers' Behaviors toward the Toy Play of Their Infant Sons and Daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.

    1986-01-01

    The sex-typed toy play of infants and their parents' behavior toward their activities were observed. Girls were more likely to play with dolls than boys, and infants' sex and age affected parental behaviors toward children's toy play. Mothers and fathers apear equally involved in the socialization of their children. (KH)

  5. Are Fathers Really Necessary to the Family Unit in Early Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Dawn

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the effects on children, especially boys, of living in a family in which the father is absent. Suggests that there is a distinction between the culture, or beliefs about men's parenting, and the conduct of fatherhood and that discussions of parental involvement should address parents' engagement, accessibility, and responsibility.…

  6. Prenatal management of anencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rebecca J; Erdman, Joanna N; Hevia, Martin; Dickens, Bernard M

    2008-09-01

    About a third of anencephalic fetuses are born alive, but they are not conscious or viable, and soon die. This neural tube defect can be limited by dietary consumption of foliates, and detected prenatally by ultrasound and other means. Many laws permit abortion, on this indication or on the effects of pregnancy and prospects of delivery on a woman's physical or mental health. However, abortion is limited under some legal systems, particularly in South America. To avoid criminal liability, physicians will not terminate pregnancies, by induced birth or abortion, without prior judicial approval. Argentinian courts have developed means to resolve these cases, but responses of Brazilian courts are less clear. Ethical concerns relate to late-term abortion, meaning after the point of fetal viability, but since anencephalic fetuses are nonviable, many ethical concerns are overcome. Professional guidance is provided by several professional and institutional codes on management of anencephalic pregnancies. PMID:18603246

  7. Early prenatal syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Rathod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis in pregnancy still remains a challenge despite the availability of adequate diagnostic tests for serological screening and penicillin therapy. We report a case of 2 month old female infant who presented with runny nose, papulosquamous lesions over both palms and soles and perianal erosions since 1 month after birth. Cutaneous examination revealed moist eroded areas in the perianal region and fine scaly lesions over palms and soles. Radiograph of both upper limbs and limbs revealed early periosteal changes in lower end of humerus and lower end of tibia. Diagnosis of early pre-natal syphilis was confirmed by Child?s Serum Rapid Plasma Reagin Antibody test [S.RPR] being positive with 1:64 dilution while that of mother was 1:8.

  8. Associations Between Father Absence and Age of First Sexual Intercourse

    OpenAIRE

    Mendle, Jane; Harden, K Paige; Turkheimer, Eric; Van Hulle, Carol A.; D’Onofrio, Brian M; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Rodgers, Joseph L.; Emery, Robert E.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Children (N = 14–21 years) raised without a biological father in the household have earlier average ages of first sexual intercourse than children raised in father-present households. Competing theoretical perspectives have attributed this either to effects of father absence on socialization and physical maturation, or to nonrandom selection of children predisposed for early sexual intercourse into father absent households. Genetically informative analyses of the children of sister dyads supp...

  9. Family Fathers Lost in Theatre Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlmann, Annelis

    2008-01-01

    Diderot's influence on theatre is well known through The Paradox of Acting (Paradoxe sur le comédien). However, Diderot also wrote a few drames bourgeois, among which is The Family Father (Le Père de famille), which still in Diderot's days was edited in Copenhagen in French, and which in Danish t...

  10. Knighthood for 'father of the web'

    CERN Multimedia

    Uhlig, R

    2003-01-01

    "Tim Berners-Lee, the father of the world wide web, was awarded a knighthood for services to the internet, which his efforts transformed from a haunt of computer geeks, scientists and the military into a global phenomenon" (1/2 page).

  11. 78 FR 37429 - Father's Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...our communities. We see it in our schools, where dads attend assemblies and parent-teacher conferences, and help out with homework. We see it on our playing fields and in our congregations, where fathers instill the life lessons that set...

  12. Caring Fathers and Gender (In)Equality?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ma?íková, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 48, ?. 162 (2008), s. 135-152. ISSN 1231-1413 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA700280504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : fathering * gender in/equality * hegemonic masculinity * shared parenting Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.118, year: 2008

  13. Establishing paternity using minisatellite DNA probes when the putative father is unavailable for testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odelberg, S J; Demers, D B; Westin, E H; Hossaini, A A

    1988-07-01

    A paternity case involving a putative father who had died a few years earlier in an automobile accident was referred to the laboratory for testing. The child and his mother, the deceased's parents, and nine of the deceased's siblings were available for analysis. As previously reported, paternity testing using red blood cell groups, human leukocyte antigens (HLA), red blood cell enzymes, serum proteins, and immunoglobulin allotypes gave a cumulative paternity index of 43,300 and a combined probability of paternity equal to 99.998%. RFLP analysis using Hinf I and Sau 3A single digests and the minisatellite deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes 15.1.11.4 and 6.3 showed no exclusion of paternity and gave nearly conclusive evidence that the putative father was the biological father of the child. PMID:2902188

  14. Associations among Attachment Classifications of Mothers, Fathers, and Their Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Howard; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tested 90 infants in the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) with both parents. Found that mothers' Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) scores predicted infant-mother SSPs and fathers' AAIs predicted infant-father SSPs. Counter to expectation, infant-father SSPs were associated with infant-mother SSPs, which might be explained by the influence of…

  15. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary insurance... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts....

  16. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Challenges, Strategies, and Resources in Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Han, Suejung; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Bingham, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined mothers' and fathers' parenting challenges and strategies/resources used when parenting toddlers. Through a qualitative interview protocol, implemented with mothers and fathers separately at a university laboratory, this study found that both fathers and mothers appeared to be transitioning from traditional gender roles towards…

  17. Fathers' Trait Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness as Predictors of Adult Sons' Perceptions of Fathers' Sarcasm, Criticism, and Verbal Aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Michael J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Finds that approximately 40% of the variance in adult sons' reports of fathers' messages (sarcasm, criticism, and verbal aggressiveness) was attributable to fathers' self-reported argumentativeness and verbal aggression. (SR)

  18. THE ‘UNCANNY’ SUITCASE OF ORHAN PAMUK -Reading My Father’s Suitcase through the Notion ‘Uncanny’-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda ZAMBAK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orhan Pamuk’s book My Father’s Suitcase, which was published in 2007, combines of three of his speeches. They are, the speech he gave before taking the Nobel Literature Prize in 2006, the speech he gave at Oklahoma Puterbaugh Conference with the title The implied Author and In Kars and In Frankfurt his speech before taking German Publishers’ Association’s Peace Prize. In the study, only the text My Father’s Suitcase will be emphasized, the uncanniness which was created by the dilemma of the state of the teller’s and the suitcase’s being both familiar and unfamiliar to one another, son’s relation with the act of writing, contradictory states of son caused by being a son of a father who has writing habits, and dynamics of the uneasy processes caused by those contradictions will also be dwelled on. While examining this process, Freud’s concept of the uncanny will be used to demonstrate how the suitcase as an object exists both as a physical/concrete reality and also as an abstract and complicated space for meaning. For the suitcase in the text is not limited to the object itself. It is a central image containing not only the father’s manuscripts but also the foreign travels, the smell of foreign countries, hotel rooms, and the writing adventures of both the father and the son. The suitcase, seen as a physical object in the beginning of the text, becomes an uncanny object through the narrator’s account of the past experiences and finally is trapped into an ambivalence of meaning. Going back to Freud’s essay “The Uncanny,” this study examines the suitcase in the text as an uncanny object and discusses the multi layered structure of the other elements of the text contributing to this uncanniness.

  19. Differential neural responses to child and sexual stimuli in human fathers and non-fathers and their hormonal correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Mascaro, Jennifer S.; Hackett, Patrick D.; Rilling, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the well-documented importance of paternal caregiving for positive child development, little is known about the neural changes that accompany the transition to fatherhood in humans, or about how changes in hormone levels affect paternal brain function. We compared fathers of children aged 1–2 with non-fathers in terms of hormone levels (oxytocin and testosterone), neural responses to child picture stimuli, and neural responses to visual sexual stimuli. Compared to non-fathers, fathers...

  20. Child Health USA 2013: Barriers to Prenatal Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Utilization > Barriers to Prenatal Care Barriers to Prenatal Care Narrative Early and adequate prenatal care is important ... Data Mothers Who Experienced Barriers to Receiving Prenatal Care as Early as Desired, by Maternal Age, 2009– ...

  1. Prenatal - Glossary Entry - Genetics Home Reference [Genetics Home Reference (Glossary)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Glossary A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H ... performed, or used before birth, such as prenatal care , the prenatal period, prenatal testing, prenatal v ...

  2. An association of adult personality with prenatal and early postnatal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Revsbech, Rasmus; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2014-01-01

    individuals participated in a follow-up at 20–34 years and was administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) which includes a lie-scale (indicating social acquiescence or self-insight). Associations between lie-scale scores and weight, length and head circumference respectively were analysed by...... multiple linear regression adjusting for single-mother status, parity, mother’s age, father’s age, parental social status, age at EPQ measurement, intelligence, and adult size. Results: Male infants with lower weight, length, and head-circumference at birth and the following three years grew up to have...... influence of prenatal and early postnatal development on personality growth and development. Keywords: Eysenck personality questionnaire, Lie-scale, Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism, Birth weight, Birth length, Birth head-circumference...

  3. She said, he said: Comparing mothers' and fathers' reports on the non-resident father's contact with his children

    OpenAIRE

    Ragni Hege Kitterød; Jan Lyngstad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Analyses of contact frequency between non-resident fathers and children have often been based on samples of non-resident fathers or resident mothers only. It is well established that non-resident fathers tend to report more contact than the resident mothers do, but it is less clear if it matters which parent we ask, when the aim is to explore predictors of father-child contact. Objective: We wish to add to the literature on predictors of father-child contact, especially if it m...

  4. Prenatal exercise research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise. PMID:22721740

  5. Securing Fatherhood through Kin Work: A Comparison of Black Low Income Fathers and Families in South Africa and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Sangeetha; Roy, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we examine how low income black men in South Africa and the US work with their kin to secure fathering and ensure the well-being of children. We use ethnographic and life history data on men who fathered children from 1992-2005 to demonstrate how fathers' roles as kin workers enable them to meet culturally-defined criteria for responsible fatherhood in two contexts marked by legacies of racism, increasing rates of incarceration and HIV/AIDS, and a web of interlocking inequalities that effectively precludes them from accessing employment with good wages. Using a comparative framework based on kin work, we identify three common processes in both contexts - negotiation between maternal and paternal kin, pedifocal approach and flexible fathering - that enable men and their kin networks to secure father involvement in economically marginalized communities. We conclude with a discussion of the policy implications of our findings. PMID:24273365

  6. Early Life Disease Programming during the Preconception and Prenatal Period: Making the Link between Stressful Life Events and Type-1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Li, Jiong; Vestergaard, Mogens; Obel, Carsten; Lu, Michael; Olsen, Jørn

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To assess the risk of developing Type-1 diabetes among children who were exposed to maternal bereavement during the prenatal or 1-year preconception period. METHODS: We identified N = 1,548,746 singleton births born in Denmark between January 1(st) 1979 through December 31(st) 2004, and...... father or sibling deaths (aIRR: 2.03, 1.22-3.38); the association was mainly seen for girls (aIRR: 2.91, 1.61-5.26). CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence to suggest that female fetuses exposed to severe prenatal stress are at increased risk for developing type-1 diabetes....

  7. Tyrannical omnipotence in the archetypal father.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, W

    2000-10-01

    This paper sets the archetypal relationship between the tyrannical, devouring father and his sons in the context of a disjunction in the parental couple (syzygy) whereby the role of the maternal feminine is eclipsed and excluded. This is shown to originate in an omnipotent defence against infantile dependence on the mother. Successful liberation from the father's tyranny requires the restoration of mutuality between the internal couple. Although the main focus is on the internal world (and a detailed clinical illustration is given, showing the working out of this process in the analytical relationship), reference is also made to political tyranny, attitudes to the control of Nature by technological means and patriarchal forms of masculinity. The Chronos myth is amplified through the use of two modern variants in the films The Terminator and Star Wars. PMID:11077759

  8. Using an adoption design to separate genetic, prenatal, and temperament influences on toddler executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; DeGarmo, David S; Bridgett, David J; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Harold, Gordon T; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David

    2013-06-01

    Poor executive functioning has been implicated in children's concurrent and future behavioral difficulties, making work aimed at understanding processes related to the development of early executive function (EF) critical for models of developmental psychopathology. Deficits in EF have been associated with adverse prenatal experiences, genetic influences, and temperament characteristics. However, our ability to disentangle the predictive and independent effects of these influences has been limited by a dearth of genetically informed research designs that also consider prenatal influences. The present study examined EF and language development in a sample of 361 toddlers who were adopted at birth and reared in nonrelative adoptive families. Predictors included genetic influences (as inherited from birth mothers), prenatal risk, and growth in child negative emotionality. Structural equation modeling indicated that the effect of prenatal risk on toddler effortful attention at age 27 months became nonsignificant once genetic influences were considered in the model. In addition, genetic influences had unique effects on toddler effortful attention. Latent growth modeling indicated that increases in toddler negative emotionality from 9 to 27 months were associated with poorer delay of gratification and poorer language development. Similar results were obtained in models incorporating birth father data. Mechanisms of intergenerational transmission of EF deficits are discussed. PMID:22799580

  9. Cystic Fibrosis: Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Cystic Fibrosis: Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis Home For Patients Search ... Screening and Diagnosis FAQ171, February 2016 PDF Format Cystic Fibrosis: Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis Pregnancy What is cystic ...

  10. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Prenatal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Genco Usta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of prenatal stress on psychopathology has been observed in many animal and human studies. In many studies, stress during prenatal period has been shown to result in negative feedback dysregulation and hyperactivity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Prenatal stres also may cause increased risk of birth complications, startle or distress in response to novel and surprising stimuli during infancy; lower Full Scale IQs, language abilities and attention deficiency in period of 3-5 years; increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, anxiety symptoms, depressive disorder and impulsivity during adolescence. Additionally, timing of prenatal stress is also important and 12-22 weeks of gestation seems to be the most vulnerable period. The results underline the need for early prevention and intervention programs for highly anxious women during pregnancy. Administration of prenatal stress monitoring to public health programs or removing pregnant women who have been exposed to life events such as natural disaster, terror attack to secure areas that provide basic needs may be crucial.

  11. The Uniqueness of the Child-Father Attachment Relationship: Fathers' Sensitive and Challenging Play as a Pivotal Variable in a 16-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Karin; Grossmann, Klaus, E.; Fremmer-Bombik, Elisabeth; Kindler, Heinz; Scheuerer-English, Hermann; Zimmermann, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Explored fathers' specific contribution to their children's attachment representation at various ages. Found fathers' play sensitivity to be a better predictor of the child's long-term attachment representation than the early infant-father security of attachment. (Author)

  12. A qualitative analysis of father-son relationships among HIV-positive young black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussen, Sophia A; Gilliard, Danielle; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Andes, Karen; Chakraborty, Rana; Malebranche, David J

    2014-08-01

    Young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are experiencing high and rising rates of HIV infection, more than any other age-risk group category in the USA. Contributors to HIV risk in this group remain incompletely elucidated. We conducted exploratory qualitative interviews with 20 HIV-positive YBMSM aged 17-24 and found that father-son relationships were perceived to be important sociocontextual influences in participants' lives. Participants discussed the degree of their fathers' involvement in their lives, emotional qualities of the father-son relationship, communication about sex, and masculine socialization. Participants also described pathways linking father-son relationships to HIV risk, which were mediated by psychological and situational risk scenarios. Our thematic analysis suggests that father-son relationships are important to the psychosocial development of YBMSM, with the potential to either exacerbate or attenuate sexual risk for HIV. Interventions designed to strengthen father-son relationships may provide a promising direction for future health promotion efforts in this population. PMID:24549437

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of musculoskeletal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetgen, Matthew E; Kelly, Shannon M; Sellier, Leanne S; Du Plessis, Adre

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasonography is a safe, cost-effective tool used to prenatally detect common musculoskeletal conditions, including clubfoot, skeletal dysplasias, limb-length discrepancies, spinal abnormalities, and hand and other upper extremity deformities. With increased detection of such abnormalities, prenatal parental counseling by orthopaedic surgeons is being requested more frequently. Counseling is important for family education on prognosis and treatment options. A thorough understanding of the common musculoskeletal conditions diagnosed on prenatal ultrasonography, classification of these conditions, and the correlations of these classifications to postnatal severity allows the orthopaedic surgeon to conduct well-informed counseling sessions with families. Accurate information and counseling aids parents in understanding their child's diagnosis, assists clinicians in planning treatment algorithms, and optimizes family preparedness. PMID:25808685

  14. Maternal citrulline supplementation prevents prenatal dexamethasone-induced programmed hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, Y L; Sheen, J M; Chen, C C; Yu, H R; Tiao, M M; Kuo, H C; Huang, L T

    2014-05-01

    Glucocorticoids are administered to premature infants to accelerate pulmonary maturation. In experimental model, prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) results in reduced nephron number and adulthood hypertension. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), can cause oxidative stress and is involved in the development of hypertension. L-citrulline can be converted to l-arginine (the substrate for NOS) in the body. Thus we intended to determine if maternal L-citrulline therapy can prevent prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension by restoration ADMA/nitric oxide (NO) balance, alterations of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and sodium transporters, and epigenetic regulation by histone deacetylases (HDACs). Male offspring were assigned to four groups: control, pregnancy rats received intraperitoneal DEX (0.2 mg/kg body weight) daily on gestational days 15 and 16 (DEX), pregnancy rats received 0.25% L-citrulline in drinking water during the entire pregnancy and lactation period (CIT), and DEX + CIT. We found DEX group developed hypertension at 16 weeks of age, which was prevented by maternal L-citrulline therapy. Prenatal DEX exposure increased plasma ADMA concentrations and reduced renal NO production. However, L-citrulline reduced plasma ADMA level and increased renal level of NO in DEX + CIT group. Next, prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension is related to increased mRNA expression of angiotensin and angiotensin II type 1 receptor, and class I HDACs in the kidney. Prenatal DEX exposure increased renal protein abundance of Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), which was prevented by L-citrulline therapy. The beneficial effects of L-citrulline therapy include restoration of ADMA/NO balance and alteration of NCC, to prevent the prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension. PMID:24555785

  15. Sibylle Lacan. The father’s name, the daughter’s voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Teroni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With the date ‘August 1991-June 1994’ Sibylle Lacan’s book A Father, explicitly affirms that the year she began writing marked the tenth anniversary of the death of a father also celebrated by another daughter, Judith Miller, with her lavish Album Jacques Lacan, conceived as a ‘monument’ worthy of his memory.  Sibylle’s ‘puzzle’, conversely, expresses fragmentation: that of memory, of discourse and of narrative; of the family; of communication garbled by the unspoken; and of the Self.  She portrays a hopeless search for a father – and the resulting devastation.  Comparison with the conversations recorded by Elizabeth Roudinesco in her biography of Lacan (1993 throws an interesting light on the gestation of the book and on its contribution to a rebirth, the birth, as a writer, sanctioned by Sibylle Lacan’s subsequent book, Points de suspension (2000, even as it enigmatically announces the irreparable loss of that vocation.

  16. PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS IN ORGANIC ACIDEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedieh SANEIFARD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic acidemias are the group of metabolic disorders which define by high anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypo or hyperglycemia & hyperammonemia.Because of the severity of disease in children and its fatality in severe form of disease and also need for life long treatment, prenatal diagnosis is an important diagnostic tool.Three approaches to prenatal diagnosis may be possible, including measurement of analytes in amniotic fluid or use of cells obtained by Choronic Villus sampling (CVS or amniocentesis to either assay enzyme activity or extract DNA for molecular genetic testing.Biochemical genetic testing: Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia, biotin-unresponsive3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, glutaric acidemia type 1, ketothiolase deficiency, methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblC type, and isovaleric acidemia is possible by analysis of amniotic fluid if highly accurate quantitative methods are used to measure the appropriate analytes. Amniocentesis is usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for MSUD is possible by measurement of enzyme activity in fetal cells obtained by chorionic villous sampling(CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks gestation or amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.(If cells from CVS are used, extreme care must be taken to assure that they are fetal rather than maternal cells.Molecular genetic testing:Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for all disorders is possible by analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells obtained by amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks of gestation or chorionic villous sampling (CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks of gestation. Both disease-causing allels of an affected family member must be identified before prenatal testing.Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD may be available for families in which the disease causing mutation has been identified.

  17. The expectations of fathers concerning care provided by midwives to the mothers during labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G.W. Nolte

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Midwives have been criticised for neglecting the expectations and needs of fathers. They either ignore the fathers or pressure them into becoming more involved than they would choose, if allowed to provide support to the mothers during labour. Whilst midwives are providing woman-centred care, it is important that they remember to involve the fathers in decision-making and to acknowledge their role, expectations and needs, because the birth of a child is one of the most important events in a person’s lifetime. This study focused on fathers’ expectations of the care provided to mothers by the midwives during labour. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study design was utilised. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with fathers about the care provided to their partners or wives by midwives. Data were then analysed with an open descriptive method of coding that is appropriate for qualitative research. The results of the interviews were subsequently positioned within a holistic health-promotive nursing theory that encompassed body, mind and spirit. The results revealed that fathers saw the provision of comfort and support as the two main aspects for mothers in labour that they expected from midwives. The findings were that midwives should improve their communication skills with the mothers, as well as with the fathers if they are available. Fathers expected midwives to encourage them to accompany the mother during labour and to facilitate bonding between father, mother and baby. The results of this study should assist midwives to provide holistic quality care to mothers and fathers during labour.

    Opsomming

    Vroedvroue word daarvan beskuldig dat hulle nie voldoen aan die verwagtinge en behoeftes van die vaders nie. Vaders word, óf deur hulle geïgnoreer, óf druk word op hulle uitgeoefen om meer betrokke te raak as waarmee hulle gemaklik is, indien hulle wel toegelaat word om moeders te ondersteun tydens die kraamproses. Vroedvroue verskaf moeder-gesentreerde sorg, maar dit is nogtans belangrik dat hulle onthou om die vaders te betrek in die besluitneming en hulle rol, verwagtinge en behoeftes te erken omdat die geboorte van ‘n kind een van die belangrikste gebeurtenisse in hulle lewens is. Die studie het gefokus op vaders se verwagtinge van die sorg wat verskaf word aan moeders tydens kraam. ‘n Kwalitatiewe, eksploratiewe, beskrywende en kontekstuele navorsingsontwerp is gebruik. Data is ingesamel deur in-diepte onderhoude met vaders te voer oor die sorg wat aan hul vroue of metgeselle tydens die kraamproses verskaf word deur vroedvroue. Data is daarna geanaliseer deur ‘n oop beskrywende metode te gebruik wat toepaslik is vir kwalitatiewe navorsing. Die resultate van die onderhoude is vervolgens geposisioneer binne ‘n holistiese, gesondheids-bevorderende teorie wat verwys na liggaam, psige en gees. Die resultate toon dat gemak en ondersteuning die twee hoofkategorieë is wat verskaf moet word deur vroedvroue aan moeders tydens die kraamproses. Die ander kategorieë wat aangedui word in die resultate, is dat vroedvroue hulle onderlinge kommunikasievaardighede moet verbeter, asook hul kommunikasie met die moeders en vaders indien laasgenoemde beskikbaar is. Die vaders het van vroedvroue verwag om hulle aan te moedig om moeders by te staan tydens die kraamproses en om binding tussen vader, moeder en baba aan te moedig.

    How to cite this article: Sengane, M.L.M. & Nolte, A.G.W., 2012, ‘The expectations of fathers concerning care provided by midwives to the mothers during labour’, Health SA Gesondheid 17(1, Art.#527, 10 pages. http://dx.doi. org/10.4102/hsag.v17i1.527

  18. Prenatal buprenorphine exposure decreases neurogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Cheng; Hung, Chih-Jen; Shen, Ching-Hui; Chen, Wen-Ying; Chang, Cheng-Yi; Pan, Hung-Chuan; Liao, Su-Lan; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2014-02-10

    Perinatal opioid exposure has a negative effect on neurogenesis and produces neurological consequences. However, its mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. Buprenorphine, a mixed opioid agonist/antagonist, is an alternative medication for managing pregnant opioid addicts. This study provides evidence of decreased neurogenesis and depression-like consequences following prenatal exposure to buprenorphine and sheds light on mechanisms of action in a rat model involving administration of intraperitoneal injection to pregnant rats starting from gestation day 7 and lasting for 14 days and a cultured neurosphere model. Results of forced swimming test and tail suspension test showed that pups at postnatal day 21 had worse parameters of depression-like neurobehaviors, independent of gender. Neurobehavioral changes were accompanied by reduction of neuronal composition, biochemical parameters of neural stem/progenitor cells, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B phosphorylation, protein kinase A (PKA) activity, and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation. Results of parallel cell studies further demonstrated a negative impact of buprenorphine on cultured neurospheres, including proliferation, differentiation, BDNF expression and signaling, and PKA activity. Taken together, our results suggest that prenatal exposure to buprenorphine might result in depression-like phenotypes associated with impaired BDNF action and decreased neurogenesis in the developing brain of weanlings. PMID:24321744

  19. The role of the father in the development of psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Avramaki Elissavet; Tsekeris Charalambos

    2011-01-01

    In psychoanalysis, fathering has not received much analytical at­tention and only little is known about the actual impact of paternity on the development of certain psychopathology. This paper seeks to carefully examine and critically discuss the impact of fathering on psychotic individuals. It elaborates on the importance of the father in the healthy development of the children, as well as on the consequences that his absence entails for their psyche. Drawing on a Lacanian analytical f...

  20. Migration and Father Absence: Shifting Family Structure in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Nobles, Jenna

    2013-01-01

    Despite many changing demographic processes in Mexico—declining adult mortality, rising divorce, and rising nonmarital fertility—Mexican children’s family structure has been most affected by rising migration rates. Data from five national surveys spanning three decades demonstrate that since 1976, migration has shifted from the least common to the most common form of father household absence. Presently, more than 1 in 5 children experience a father’s migration by age 15; 1 in 11 experiences h...

  1. Fathers and Maternal Risk for Physical Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong; Lee, Shawna J.; Waldfogel, Jane; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    This study set out to examine father-related factors predicting maternal physical child abuse risk in a national birth cohort of 1,480 families. In-home and phone interviews were conducted with mothers when index children were 3 years old. Predictor variables included the mother–father relationship status; father demographic, economic, and psychosocial variables; and key background factors. Outcome variables included both observed and self-reported proxies of maternal physical child abuse ris...

  2. Stress among Fathers of Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie J. Mitchell; Hilliard, Marisa E.; Mednick, Lauren; Henderson, Celia; Cogen, Fran R.; Streisand, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Although fathers’ stress has been shown to have important implications for children’s health and well-being, few studies of children with type 1 diabetes have considered paternal parenting stress. The current study contributes to the literature by exploring correlates of fathers’ pediatric parenting stress in a sample of young children with type 1 diabetes. Forty-three fathers of children 2–6 years old with type 1 diabetes completed self-report questionnaires examining pediatric parenting str...

  3. Supporting and Sharing-Home Birth: Fathers' Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhki, Maija-Riitta; Suominen, Tarja; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2015-09-01

    The planned home birth has provoked discussion around the world. Home birth has been described as a positive experience, but results regarding the safety of home birth are controversial. To date, the phenomenon has mainly been examined from the mother's point of view, and there is only one previous study reporting fathers' perspective. The purpose of the present phenomenological qualitative interview study was to investigate fathers' experiences of planned home birth. Eleven fathers were interviewed, and the data were analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. The fathers followed the woman's wish in choosing the birthplace and set aside their own views. Furthermore, hospital birth was not an option for the fathers due to their own prior negative experiences of hospital births such as disturbing the natural progress of birth. The fathers' experience of home birth included sharing the responsibility, supporting the woman, and participating in the home birth process. The experience was challenging; fathers had to take the role of a midwife, and no support or information on organizing home birth was offered by public health services. The fathers felt that the home birth connected them as family, and the experience was empowering. Our study results suggest that the health care professionals need more education and information on home birth and that the families (including fathers) interested in home birth need greater support from health care professionals. There is a need for proper national home birth guidelines, while family-and client-centered care has to be improved in birthing hospitals. PMID:25204590

  4. Work Characteristics and Fathers' Vocabulary to Infants in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancsofar, Nadya; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Odom, Erika C.

    2013-01-01

    Fathers' vocabulary to infants has been linked in the literature to early child language development, however, little is known about the variability in fathers' language behavior. This study considered associations between fathers' work characteristics and fathers' vocabulary among a sample of employed African American fathers of 6-month-old…

  5. Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing

    OpenAIRE

    McGillivray, Barbara C.

    1988-01-01

    Non-invasive modalities to assess the ongoing pregnancy may assist the clinician to identify risk factors requiring additions or alteration to routine prenatal care. These modalities include pedigree analysis, maternal serum alphafetoprotein screening, fetal ultrasonography, and Doppler ultrasound. These methods should be used when there are appropriate clinical indications and awareness of their limitations.

  6. Characteristics of fathers with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, David G; Learned, Nicole; Liu, Ying-Hua; Weitzman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research shows maternal depression to be associated with poorer child outcomes, and characteristics of these mothers have been described. Recent research describes associations of paternal depressive symptoms and child behavioral and emotional outcomes, but characteristics of these fathers have not been investigated. This study describes characteristics of fathers with depressive symptoms in the USA. Utilizing data from 7,247 fathers and mothers living in households with children aged 5-17 years who participated in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2004-2006, the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 was used to assess parental depressive symptoms, the Short Form-12 was used to examine paternal and maternal physical health, the Columbia Impairment Scale was used to measure child behavioral or emotional problems, and the Children with Special Health Care Needs Screener was used to identify children with special health care needs. In multivariate analyses, poverty (AOR 1.52; 95% CI 1.05-2.22), maternal depressive symptoms (AOR 5.77; 95% CI 4.18-7.95), living with a child with special health care needs (AOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04-1.94), poor paternal physical health (AOR 3.31; 95% CI 2.50-4.38) and paternal unemployment (AOR 6.49; 95% CI 4.12-10.22) were independently associated with increased rates of paternal depressive symptoms. These are the first data that demonstrate that poverty, paternal physical health problems, having a child with special health care needs, maternal depressive symptoms, and paternal unemployment are independently associated with paternal depressive symptoms, with paternal unemployment associated with the highest rates of such problems. PMID:22362259

  7. Discriminating the Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure From Other Behavioral and Learning Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Coles, Claire D.

    2011-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are underdiagnosed in general treatment settings. Among the factors involved in identifying the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure are (1) the evidence for prenatal alcohol exposure; (2) the effects of the postnatal, caregiving environment; (3) comorbidities; and (4) differential diagnosis, which includes identifying the neurodevelopmental effects of alcohol and discriminating these effects from those characterizing other condition...

  8. Health-related quality of life--from the perspective of mothers and fathers of adult children suffering from long-term mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anita; Ewertzon, Mats; Andershed, Birgitta; Anderzen-Carlsson, Agneta; Nasic, Salmir; Ahlin, Arne

    2015-06-01

    There is a lack of studies on mothers' and fathers' experiences of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) associated with caregiving of adult children suffering from mental disorder. A cross-sectional study was therefore carried out with 108 mothers and 43 fathers. Data were collected by means of the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Family Involvement and Alienation Questionnaire (FIAQ) and the Burden Assessment Scale (BAS). Mothers' HRQOL was affected more than fathers' and lower compared to Swedish age related norms. HRQOL was predominantly related to ratings on HADS and BAS. PMID:26001718

  9. Fathers Are Important People: A Study of Father-Son Sexual Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiIorio, Colleen; Lehr, Sally; Wasserman, Jill L.; Eichler, Michelle; Cherry, Chauncey; Denzmore, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived role of African-American fathers in educating their sons about sex and HIV prevention. Given that some studies have shown a relationship between parent-adolescent sexual communication and adolescent sexual behavior, and the disproportionately high rates of teen pregnancy and HIV (and other…

  10. Supporting Fathers in a NICU: Effects of the HUG Your Baby Program on Fathers’ Understanding of Preterm Infant Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kadivar, Maliheh; Mozafarinia, Seyedeh Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Fathers of preterm babies in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are under stress. Lack of knowledge about a preterm infant’s behavior challenges new fathers who may be required to make decisions about the hospitalized infant, to update concerned family and friends, and to provide support to the mother while she recovers from giving birth. The NICU nurses have the opportunity to support and guide these new fathers, although no previous research has confirmed how to do so effectively. This s...

  11. Addressing policy barriers to paternal involvement during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alio, Amina P; Bond, M Jermane; Padilla, Yolanda C; Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Lu, Michael; Parker, Willie J

    2011-05-01

    Efforts to reduce infant mortality in the United States have failed to incorporate paternal involvement. Research suggests that paternal involvement, which has been recognized as contributing to child development and health for many decades, is likely to affect infant mortality through the mother's well-being, primarily her access to resources and support. In spite of that, systemic barriers facing the father and the influence on his involvement in the pregnancy have received little attention. The Commission on Paternal Involvement in Pregnancy Outcomes (CPIPO) has identified the most important social barriers to paternal involvement during pregnancy and outlined a set of key policy priorities aimed at fostering paternal involvement. This article summarizes the key recommendations, including equitable paternity leave, elimination of marriage as a tax and public assistance penalty, integration of fatherhood initiatives in MCH programs, support of low-income fathers through employment training, father inclusion in family planning services, and expansion of birth data collection to include father information. PMID:21472512

  12. Anticipation with phenotypic variation in three father-son pairs with affective disorder: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, R P

    2014-12-01

    Anticipation is a phenomenon in which successive generations within a family experience an earlier age of onset and a more severe form of a given illness. It has been observed in various neurological and psychiatric conditions, including bipolar disorder. The molecular basis of anticipation involves trinucleotide repeat expansions in genes, but this has not been conclusively demonstrated in bipolar disorder. The histories of 3 father-son pairs are presented. In each pair, the son presented with an early-onset bipolar disorder, and the father developed severe depression after the age of 50 years. No female relatives were affected. The implications of these observations are discussed. Genetic, epigenetic, and environmental mechanisms that may have contributed to this phenomenon are briefly described. The study of such patients may throw light on the "extended phenotype" of mood disorders, as well as the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in the phenomena of anticipation and phenotypic variation. PMID:25482836

  13. The comparative study of the impact of antenatal training care infants to fathers and couple on the fathers' participations after birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahin Tafzoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of the impact of antenatal training care infants to fathers and couple on the fathers' participations. Objectives: Increasing number of working mothers and changes in viewpoints on fathers’ roles in families has increased fathers’ participations. Fathers’ participation is his broad, positive and active participation in different stages of children’s life. Wives possess the main role in enhancing and limiting father’s participation. Fathers and couples require training to define father’s role in infant care and the significance of his role in infant’s health and foundation of family. Therefore, the present study is done to determine the impact of training couples and fathers how to take care of infants on the rate of father’s participation to take care of infants after birth. Method: the study was done as a clinical trial in three groups, on 150 people in hygienic- clinical centers of Medical University of Mashhad. Fathers of training group and couples of training group took part in two training sessions of infant care in weeks 35 to 37 of pregnancy. The questionnaires of role of father’s training in infant care were filled by mothers in three groups and were analyzed by SPSS software (version 18 and ANOVA with repeated measure, Bonferroni tests. Findings: role of fathers’ participation in infants care in father’s training group and couple training group than control group increased significantly. (p=0/0003 Results: training fathers and couples before birth will enhance rate of their participation in infant care. Key words: fathers’ participation, care of infant, training.

  14. Back to basics: The 'Almighty Father' revisited

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Riet, Bons-Storm.

    Full Text Available The article focused on the questions of how male dominance came about in theology and the church, what makes it so persistent and what can be done. It argued that patriarchy is based on androcentric ways of thinking, feeling and acting that colour all of culture and society. Patriarchy and androcent [...] rism perpetuate the status quo through language. They provide a template for attributing meaning to reality. They still have a profound effect on theology and ecclesial institutions. This can be seen clearly in the concept of God, the 'Almighty Father'. The article made a case for a theology that has the courage to analyse how and where it idolises the patriarchal template and that imagines a God other than the patriarchal 'Almighty Father': a God who walks with Her or His friends in gracious, empowering love, not 'almighty' but honouring the responsibility She or He gave them. The article concludes that the life of Jesus as the human being who mirrors God's love, friendship and passion for justice inspires a different way of how God could be imagined.

  15. Back to basics: 'The Almighty Father' revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riet Bons-Storm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focused on the questions of how male dominance came about in theology and the church, what makes it so persistent and what can be done. It argued that patriarchy is based on androcentric ways of thinking, feeling and acting that colour all of culture and society. Patriarchy and androcentrism perpetuate the status quo through language. They provide a template for attributing meaning to reality. They still have a profound effect on theology and ecclesial institutions. This can be seen clearly in the concept of God, the ‘Almighty Father’. The article made a case for a theology that has the courage to analyse how and where it idolises the patriarchal template and that imagines a God other than the patriarchal ‘Almighty Father’: a God who walks with Her or His friends in gracious, empowering love, not ‘almighty’ but honouring the responsibility She or He gave them. The article concludes that the life of Jesus as the human being who mirrors God’s love, friendship and passion for justice inspires a different way of how God could be imagined.

  16. Síndrome de Moebius, comunicación interventricular asociado a exposición prenatal a misoprostol / Moebius syndrome, ventricular septal defect due to prenatal exposure to misoprostol

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Harry, Pachajoa L; Carolina, Isaza de L.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El síndrome o secuencia de Moebius se caracteriza por la afectación del nervio facial y nervio abducens y puede estar asociado a defectos congênitos orofaciales y de las extremidades. Adicionalmente en las dos últimas décadas se han reortada una posible asociación con exposición prenat [...] al a misoprostol. Objetivo: Presentar un caso de síndrome de Moebius con cardiopatía compleja (comunicación interventricular y pseudocoartación de aorta) asociado a exposición prenatal a misoprostol. Caso clínico: Paciente de 5 años quien consulta por antecedente de retardo en el desarrollo psicomotor, anomalías craneofaciales, cardiacas y de las extremidades, con antecedente de exposición prenatal a misoprostol, a quien se le diagnóstica síndrome de Moebius. Conclusiones: Aunque la etiología de este síndrome no es clara, un mecanismo fisiopatológico involucrado es el de la hipoxia que puede ser secundario a la exposición prenatal a misoprostol. Abstract in english Introduction: Moebius syndrome/sequence is characterized by facial and abducens nerve damage and may be associated with congenital orofacial and limb defects. Additionally, in the last two decades, a possible association with prenatal exposure to misoprostol has been reported. Objective: To present [...] a case of Moebius Syndrome with complex heart disease (ventricular septal defect and pseudocoarctation of the aorta) associated with prenatal exposure to misoprostol. Case report: A 5 year old patient diagnosed with Moebius Syndrome who consulted specialists due to psychomotor retardation, craniofacial, heart and limb defects, and with a history of prenatal exposure to misoprostol is presented. Conclusions: Although the etiology of this syndrome is not clear, hypoxia is a pathophysiological mechanism involved, which can be secondary to prenatal exposure to misoprostol.

  17. EUROCAT website data on prenatal detection rates of congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Dolk, Helen; Loane, Maria; Boyd, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    The EUROCAT website www.eurocat-network.eu publishes prenatal detection rates for major congenital anomalies using data from European population-based congenital anomaly registers, covering 28% of the EU population as well as non-EU countries. Data are updated annually. This information can be useful for comparative purposes to clinicians and public health service managers involved in the antenatal care of pregnant women as well as those interested in perinatal epidemiology.

  18. Surrogate pregnancy: a guide for Canadian prenatal health care providers

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Dan R.

    2007-01-01

    Providing health care for a woman with a surrogate pregnancy involves unique challenges. Although the ethical debate surrounding surrogacy continues, Canada has banned commercial, but not altruistic, surrogacy. In the event of a custody dispute between a surrogate mother and the individual(s) intending to parent the child, it is unclear how Canadian courts would rule. The prenatal health care provider must take extra care to protect the autonomy and privacy rights of the surrogate. There is l...

  19. Segmental Maternal UPD6 with Prenatal Growth Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Poke, G.; Doody, M.; Prado, J; Gattas, M.

    2012-01-01

    We report a child with segmental maternal uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 6, involving most of the long arm distal to 6q16, detected by SNP microarray. Clinical features include prenatal growth restriction, global developmental delay, and severe gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 6 has previously been reported to cause intrauterine growth restriction. Paternal UPD of this chromosome is well known to cause transient neonatal diabetes mellitus....

  20. Congenital mesoblastic nephroma and ovarian cyst. Prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesoblastic nephroma is the most common solid renal tumor observed in newborns. the ultrasound study discloses a solid mass that can not be distinguished from Wilms' tumor or adrenal neuroblastoma. A case is presented involving a 37-week-old fetus in which ultrasound study revealed a solid renal mass and a cyst located in the abdominal cavity. The prenatal diagnosis was mesoblastic nephroma and ovarian cyst. Surgery performed after the birth of the infant confirmed both diagnosis. (Author) 10 refs

  1. Prenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of Non-classical Cystic Lymph angioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report two cases of non-classical fetal lymph angioma, which were diagnosed at prenatal ultrasonography and confimed at autopsy. The tumor involved axilla and anterior mediastinum in one case and lower back and thigh in the other case. The common ultrasonographic findings in both cases were cystic masses with irregular margin and prominent internal septa. In one case, Doppler ultrasonography demonstrated the absence of flow signal in the mass

  2. The Possible Selves of Young Fathers in Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Rosie

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on the social psychological concept of possible selves, this study explores the future self concept of young fathers in prison. In considering life after release from prison, qualitative data relating to hoped-for, feared and expected possible selves was generated by 34 young fathers aged between 18 and 21 years. The most common categories…

  3. Emotion Socialization in Adolescence: The Roles of Mothers and Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Ann E.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    This chapter provides a review of the literature that examines the role of mothers and fathers in socializing emotion in their sons and daughters during adolescence. Within the context of this chapter, we focus on mother-father similarities, differences, and coordinated efforts in socializing the emotion of their adolescent children. Empirical…

  4. Ambivalence toward Adult Children: Differences between Mothers and Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillemer, Karl; Munsch, Christin L.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas; Riffin, Catherine; Suitor, J. Jill

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined how ambivalence toward adult children within the same family differs between mothers and fathers and whether patterns of maternal and paternal ambivalence can be explained by the same set of predictors. Using data collected in the Within-Family Differences Study, they compared older married mothers' and fathers' (N = 129)…

  5. A Definition of Gender Role Conflict among Black Professional Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ora

    2011-01-01

    There is very little literature that depicts the parental role of Black professional fathers positively or that samples Black participants from the upper economic strata. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into how Black professional fathers experience or perceive gender role conflict and identify clinical implications. Grounded in…

  6. A Community Support Group for Single Custodial Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sandra L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a five-session group experience within the context of establishing a support group for single custodial fathers. Includes topics of dating, remarriage, homemaking and house maintenance, and the effects of divorce on children. A follow-up showed fathers appreciated the sense of community and specific information and coping strategies.…

  7. Physical Punishment by Mothers and Fathers in British Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobes, Gavin; Smith, Marjorie; Upton, Penney; Heverin, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    British mothers (n=362) and fathers (n=103) of randomly selected children from 366 two-parent families were interviewed concerning physically punishing their children. The proportion of mothers and fathers who had used physical punishments were similar. Percentages of types and severity of punishments varied. These findings are discussed in…

  8. Father Contributions to Cortisol Responses in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Barnett, Melissa; Granger, Douglas A.; Blair, Clancy; Cox, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study is one of the first prospective examinations of longitudinal associations between observed father caregiving behaviors and child cortisol reactivity and regulation in response to emotional arousal. Observations of father and mother caregiving behaviors and child cortisol levels in response to challenges at 7 months and 24 months…

  9. Fathers' Roles in the Process of Talent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon-Young

    2010-01-01

    In the process of children's talent development, fathers have been largely ignored compared to mothers who are mostly identified as the initial and primary influence for their children. Though modern fathers are becoming more engaged in childrearing and interacting more with their children and changes in family systems lead to new challenges and…

  10. Gay Men: Negotiating Procreative, Father, and Family Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Dana; Marsiglio, William

    2007-01-01

    Our qualitative study examines the social psychology of gay men's experiences with their procreative, father, and family identities. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 childless gay men and 20 gay men in the United States who have fathered using diverse means excluding heterosexual intercourse. By focusing on men aged 19-55 residing…

  11. Father for the first time - development and validation of a questionnaire to assess fathers’ experiences of first childbirth (FTFQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premberg Åsa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A father’s experience of the birth of his first child is important not only for his birth-giving partner but also for the father himself, his relationship with the mother and the newborn. No validated questionnaire assessing first-time fathers' experiences during childbirth is currently available. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to assess first-time fathers’ experiences of childbirth. Method Domains and items were initially derived from interviews with first-time fathers, and supplemented by a literature search and a focus group interview with midwives. The comprehensibility, comprehension and relevance of the items were evaluated by four paternity research experts and a preliminary questionnaire was pilot tested in eight first-time fathers. A revised questionnaire was completed by 200 first-time fathers (response rate?=?81% Exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed and multitrait scaling analysis was used to test scaling assumptions. External validity was assessed by means of known-groups analysis. Results Factor analysis yielded four factors comprising 22 items and accounting 48% of the variance. The domains found were Worry, Information, Emotional support and Acceptance. Multitrait analysis confirmed the convergent and discriminant validity of the domains; however, Cronbach’s alpha did not meet conventional reliability standards in two domains. The questionnaire was sensitive to differences between groups of fathers hypothesized to differ on important socio demographic or clinical variables. Conclusions The questionnaire adequately measures important dimensions of first-time fathers’ childbirth experience and may be used to assess aspects of fathers’ experiences during childbirth. To obtain the FTFQ and permission for its use, please contact the corresponding author.

  12. Associations Between Father Absence and Age of First Sexual Intercourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige; Turkheimer, Eric; Van Hulle, Carol A.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Rodgers, Joseph L.; Emery, Robert E.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Children (N = 14–21 years) raised without a biological father in the household have earlier average ages of first sexual intercourse than children raised in father-present households. Competing theoretical perspectives have attributed this either to effects of father absence on socialization and physical maturation, or to nonrandom selection of children predisposed for early sexual intercourse into father absent households. Genetically informative analyses of the children of sister dyads support the selection hypothesis: this association seems attributable to confounded risks, most likely genetic in origin, which correlated both with likelihood of father absence and early sexual behavior. This holds implications for environmental theories of maturation and suggests previous research may have inadvertently overestimated the role of family structure in reproductive maturation. PMID:19765012

  13. FUNCTIONAL CONSEQUENCES OF PRENATAL METHYLMERCURY EXPOSURE: EFFECTS ON RENAL AND HEPATIC RESPONSES TO TROPHIC STIMULI AND ON RENAL EXCRETORY MECHANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of prenatal exposure to methylmercury on the functional development of renal and hepatic response systems was examined in the developing rat. Methylmercury produced an elevation of basal activity of renal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, an enzyme involved in regulation ...

  14. Stress in puberty unmasks latent neuropathological consequences of prenatal immune activation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovanoli, Sandra; Engler, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal infection and exposure to traumatizing experiences during peripuberty have each been associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. Evidence is lacking for the cumulative impact of such prenatal and postnatal environmental challenges on brain functions and vulnerability to psychiatric disease. Here, we show in a translational mouse model that combined exposure to prenatal immune challenge and peripubertal stress induces synergistic pathological effects on adult behavioral functions and neurochemistry. We further demonstrate that the prenatal insult markedly increases the vulnerability of the pubescent offspring to brain immune changes in response to stress. Our findings reveal interactions between two adverse environmental factors that have individually been associated with neuropsychiatric disease and support theories that mental illnesses with delayed onsets involve multiple environmental hits.

  15. Radioimmunoassays in prenatal genetic diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenatal medicine strives to reveal hereditary disorders and congenital malformations before delivery. The application of RIA significantly widened the spectrum of available diagnostic possibilities. We first focused our attention on determining alpha-1-fetoprotein in the amniotic fluid and the serum. We used the results of 33 examinations of the amniotic fluid and 100 samples of the blood serum to compile a graph of physiological values during pregnancy. The graph is used in assessing clinical samples in suspect congenital disorders of neural tube closure and other malformations. In the last two years we have tested testosterone determination in the amniotic fluid to ascertain prenatally the fetal sex in early pregnancy. The results were satisfactory and agreed in 70.6%. (author)

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of Bruck syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, C; Geipel, A; Noack, F; Smrcek, J; Krapp, M; Germer, U; Bender, G; Gembruch, U

    2005-07-01

    Bruck syndrome is an autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder combining features of osteogenesis imperfecta and arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. There are only few reports describing this rare syndrome of multiple fractures and joint contractures that is thought to be a subtype of osteogenesis imperfecta. We report the first case of prenatal diagnosis of this syndrome in a fetus at 23 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound findings included brachycephaly, retrognathia marked shortening and bowing of both femurs, bilateral fixed flexion of the elbows, bilateral fixed extension of the wrists and partially fixed flexion of the knees. The parents opted for termination of pregnancy. Macroscopic and radiologic examination of the aborted fetus confirmed the prenatal diagnosis, whereas morphological studies of the bone tissue found no hard evidence of osteogenesis imperfecta, probably due to the early stage of pregnancy and the heterogeneity of the syndrome itself. PMID:16034828

  17. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Cuckle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

  18. 'n Prakties-teologiese ondersoek na die uitwerking van afwesige vaders: 'n Verkennende kwalitatiewe ondersoek in die Promosa-gemeenskap / A practical theological investigation into the effect of absent fathers: An exploratory qualitative investigation in the Promosa community

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.E., Freeks; G.A., Lotter.

    Full Text Available In this article it is shown that empirical research can be used to confirm important findings in literature studies about the understanding of absent fathers and the devastating consequences such as social problems, socio-economic problems and psychological problems. A literature study was done on t [...] he role of the father and all the relevant aspects are viewed in a broader context. The results obtained through a qualitative investigation of eight women from Promosa (Potchefstroom) as a focus group confirmed the trends found in the preliminary literary research. The outcomes may have important implications in the field of practical theology and pastoral guidance for absent fathers, the women involved with those fathers and fatherless children. Some guidelines are proposed towards an effort to help fathers to become more involved.

  19. Why women want prenatal ultrasound in normal pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudex, Claire; Nielsen, Bentt LØwe

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate women's reasons for requesting prenatal ultrasound in the absence of clinical indications. Methods A postal questionnaire was completed by 370 pregnant women with no apparent obstetric risk factors, who had expressed a desire to have ultrasound scanning in their current pregnancy. The women were asked to indicate, from a list of 12 items, their three most important reasons for wanting scanning. Ninety per cent of the women were in the first trimester of pregnancy, and 10% in the second trimester. Results The items most frequently identified as important reasons for ultrasound were to check for fetal abnormalities (60% of women) to see that all was normal (55%) and for own reassurance (44%). Lower income was related to wanting to see the baby (P=0.028) and wanting an ultrasound picture (P=0.017); higher income was related to checking that all was normal (P=0-003) and for own reassurance (P=0.015). Women in their first pregnancy were more likely to want themselves and the father to see the baby (P=0.001); women who had given birth previously were more likely to want reassurance (P=0.002), as were women with a previous miscarriage or induced abortion. Women who believed that the presence of fetal trisomy justifies abortion or who would vote for free abortion were more likely to want to know about abnormalities (P<0.001 and P<0.004, respectively). Women in the second trimester were more likely to want to check for abnormalities (P=0.047) than those in the first trimester. Conclusions It would appear that women in normal pregnancy have specific reasons for wanting prenatal ultrasound that are influenced by sociodemographic, obstetric and attitudinal factors

  20. Understanding the Impact of Micro-Aggressions on the Engagement of Undocumented Latino Immigrant Fathers: Debunking Deficit Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Castellanos, Oscar; Gonzalez, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to refute the deficit-thinking perspectives that permeate the parent involvement literature to better understand the micro-aggressions experienced by undocumented Latino immigrant fathers as they engage with their children. We explore the following 3 questions: (a) What types of micro-aggressions do undocumented Latino…

  1. The Constitutionality of a Biological Father's Recognition as a Parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Louw

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increased recognition afforded to biological fathers as legal parents, the Children's Act 38 of 2005 still does not treat fathers on the same basis as mothers as far as the automatic allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned. This article investigates the constitutionality of the differential treatment of fathers in this respect, given South Africa's international obligations, especially in terms of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, to ensure that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing of their child. After a brief consideration of the constitutionality of the mother's position as parent, the constitutionality of the father's position is investigated, firstly, with reference to Section 9 of the Constitution and the question of whether the differentiation between mothers and fathers as far as the allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, amounts to unfair discrimination. The inquiry also considers whether the differentiation between committed fathers (that is, those who have shown the necessary commitment in terms of Sections 20 and 21 of the Children's Act to acquire parental responsibilities and rights and uncommitted fathers may amount to discrimination on an unspecified ground. Since the limitation of the father's rights to equality may be justifiable, the outcomes of both inquiries are shown to be inconclusive. Finally, the legal position of the father is considered in relation to the child's constitutional rights – the rights to parental care and the right of the child to the paramountcy of its interests embodied in Section 28 of the Constitution. While there appears to be some justification for the limitation of the child's right to committed paternal care, it is submitted that an equalisation of the legal position of mothers and fathers as far as the automatic acquisition of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, is not only justified but imperative if the constitutional rights of children are to be advanced and protected.

  2. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  3. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23–37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  4. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Howard Cuckle

    2014-01-01

    Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs), chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application ...

  5. Prenatal Development: How Your Baby Grows During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACOG Prenatal Development: How Your Baby Grows During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal Development: How ... Format Prenatal Development: How Your Baby Grows During Pregnancy Pregnancy How does pregnancy begin? What is the ...

  6. Prenatal diagnosis of horseshoe lung and esophageal atresia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of horseshoe lung (HL) and esophageal atresia suspected prenatally on US imaging and confirmed with fetal MRI. Prenatal diagnosis of HL and esophageal atresia allowed for prenatal counseling and informed parental decisions. (orig.)

  7. Preferences for prenatal tests for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Melissa; Johnson, Jo-Ann; Langlois, Sylvie; Lee, Hyun; Winsor, Stephanie; Dineley, Brigid; Horniachek, Marisa; Lalatta, Faustina; Ronzoni, Luisa; Barrett, Angela N; Advani, Henna V; Choolani, Mahesh; Rabinowitz, Ron; Pajkrt, Eva; van Schendel, Rachèl V; Henneman, Lidewij; Rommers, Wieke; Bilardo, Caterina M; Rendeiro, Paula; Ribeiro, Maria João; Rocha, José; Lund, Ida Charlotte Bay; Petersen, Olav B; Becher, Naja; Vogel, Ida; Stefánsdottir, Vigdis; Ingvarsdottir, Sigrun; Gottfredsdottir, Helga; Morris, Stephen; Chitty, Lyn S

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing is increasingly available worldwide and stakeholder viewpoints are essential to guide implementation. Here we compare the preferences of women and health professionals from nine different countries towards attributes of non-invasive and invasive prenatal tests for Down syndrome. A discrete choice experiment was used to obtain participants' stated preference for prenatal tests that varied according to four attributes: accuracy, time of test, risk of miscarriage, and ...

  8. PRENATAL STRESS AND RISK FOR AUTISM

    OpenAIRE

    Kinney, Dennis K.; Munir, Kerim M; Crowley, David J; Miller, Andrea M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews several converging lines of research that suggest that prenatal exposure to environmental stress may increase risk for Autistic Disorder (AD). We first discuss studies finding that prenatal exposure to stressful life events is associated with significantly increased risk of AD, as well as other disorders, such as schizophrenia and depression. We then review evidence from animal and human studies that prenatal stress can produce both (a) abnormal postnatal behaviors that res...

  9. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of omphalocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect at the midline characterized by herniation of abdominal contents and covered by peritoneum and amnion. The aim of this paper is to present a case of omphalocele with gestational age of 23 weeks and prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography. Using ultrasound diagnosis in a patient inquest made 40 years of age in the second trimester (gestational age 23 weeks) showed a level of the anterior fetal echogenic image that sticks through the abdominal wall and then locate the cord umbilical. Stomach is seen displaced and loss of normal anatomy of the abdominal circumference. Genetic counseling was conducted at the Municipal Center for Genetics of Manzanillo. Pathologically the fetus presented short and wide neck, low-set ears, defect omphalomesenteric of ductal closure, hernia sac occupied by the caudate lobe of the liver and gallbladder bed, wide base heart dissection showing cava-cava absence of interventricular septum was observed pulmonary valve stenosis most dilation of supravalvular pulmonary artery, large defect and aorta intraventricular septum ride, which speaks in favor of a heart rate troncoconal fallop trilogy over the omphalocele. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is an efficient and reliable method for prenatal diagnosis of omphalocele

  10. Implementation of an electronic genomic and family health history tool in primary prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Emily A; Lin, Bruce K; Doksum, Teresa; Drohan, Brian; Edelson, Vaughn; Dolan, Siobhan M; Hughes, Kevin S; O'Leary, James; Galvin, Shelley L; Degroat, Nicole; Pardanani, Setul; Feero, W Gregory; Adams, Claire; Jones, Renee; Scott, Joan

    2014-03-01

    "The Pregnancy and Health Profile," (PHP) is a free genetic risk assessment software tool for primary prenatal providers that collects patient-entered family (FHH), personal, and obstetrical health history, performs risk assessment, and presents the provider with clinical decision support during the prenatal encounter. The tool is freely available for download at www.hughesriskapps.net. We evaluated the implementation of PHP in four geographically diverse clinical sites. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted for patients seen prior to the study period and for patients who used the PHP to collect data on documentation of FHH, discussion of cystic fibrosis (CF) and hemoglobinopathy (HB) carrier screening, and CF and HB interventions (tests, referrals). Five hundred pre-implementation phase and 618 implementation phase charts were reviewed. Documentation of a 3-generation FHH or pedigree improved at three sites; patient race/ethnicity at three sites, father of the baby (FOB) race/ethnicity at all sites, and ancestry for the patient and FOB at three sites (P?PHP can improve documentation of FHH, race, and ancestry, as well as the compliance with current CF counseling and intervention guidelines in some prenatal clinics. Future evaluation of the PHP should include testing in a larger number of clinical environments, assessment of additional performance measures, and evaluation of the system's overall clinical utility. PMID:24616345

  11. [Harald Selmer - the father of Danish psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Per

    2014-01-01

    Harald Selmer is rightly called the father of Danish psychiatry. He was born in 1814, and received in 1831 his degree in medicine from the University of Copenhagen. At the age of 32 he published his famous book on the "general rules ..." of a national system of psychiatric hospitals with high professional standards. He was chosen to lead the erection of the first of these hospitals, the later university psychiatric hospital in Aarhus, opening in 1852. Not only was Harald Selmer in charge of the construction of this monumental hospital, he was also the appointed director of the hospital for the first 27 years of the hospital's history, until his retirement in 1879. Harald Selmer was recognized as a great builder, a great leader and - very important - as an excellent writer, who understood the art of communicating his messages in a clear and convincing language. Harald Selmers tombstone is still to be found on the old hospital burial ground. PMID:25639070

  12. DIAGNOSTICO PRENATAL DE SITUS INVERSUS TOTALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Paublo M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso clínico de diagnostico prenatal por ultrasonografía de Situs Inversus completo en la Unidad de ultrasonografía del Hospital San Juan de Dios con su confirmación post natal por radiología y ultrasonografía. Es de notar la baja incidencia de esta patología y la importancia del diagnostico prenatal por las posibles múltiples malformaciones asociadas.We have reviewed a clinical history of ultrasonographic prenatal diagnosis of Complete Situs Inversus at the Ultrasonography Unit of the Hospital San Juan de Dios, which was confirmed with postnatal radiology and ultrasonography. Although the low incidence of this pathology, it´s prenatal diagnosis is important since it presents association with multiple abnormalities.

  13. Perfil de adolescentes com repetição da gravidez atendidas num ambulatório de pré-natal / Profile of adolescents with repeated pregnancies attended at a prenatal clinic / Perfil de las adolescentes con repetición del embarazo atendidas en un ambulatorio de prenatal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lia, Persona; Antonieta Keiko Kakuda, Shimo; Maria Celina, Tarallo.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho identificou o perfil biopsicossocial das adolescentes com repetição da gravidez, atendidas num ambulatório de pré-natal. Os dados obtidos através do prontuário médico e entrevista foram analisados quantitativamente. Através dos resultados encontrados e de acordo com a literatura, foram [...] selecionados, do perfil das adolescentes, fatores mais fortemente associados à ocorrência da repetição da gravidez. São eles: menarca precoce, primeira relação sexual após curto intervalo da menarca, repetência escolar, abandono escolar, ausência de ocupação remunerada, baixa renda familiar, envolvimento com parceiros mais velhos, residir com o parceiro, união consensual com o parceiro, um parceiro fixo, baixo uso de condon, história familiar de gravidez na adolescência, ausência do pai por morte ou abandono, reação positiva da família à gravidez anterior, aborto anterior, parto anterior bem conceituado pela adolescente, e ausência à revisão pós-parto anterior. Abstract in spanish Este trabajo identificó el perfil biopsicosocial de las adolescentes con repetición del embarazo, atendidas en un ambulatorio de prenatal. Los datos obtenidos por medio del prontuario médico y entrevista, fueron analizados cuantitativamente. Por medio de los resultados y de acuerdo con la literatura [...] , fueron seleccionados, entre los perfiles de las adolescentes, factores más fuertemente asociados a la ocurrencia de la repetición del embarazo. Ellos son: menarca precoz; primera relación sexual tras corto intervalo de la menarca; repetición escolar; abandono escolar; ausencia de ocupación remunerada; baja renta familiar; envolvimiento con parejas más viejas; residir con la pareja; unión consensual con la pareja; pareja fija; bajo uso de condón; historia familiar de embarazo en la adolescencia; ausencia del padre por muerte o abandono; reacción positiva de la familia al embarazo anterior; aborto anterior; parto anterior bien conceptuado por la adolescente; y ausencia a la revisión pos-parto anterior. Abstract in english This study identified the biopsychosocial profile of adolescent with repeated pregnancies, who were attended at a prenatal clinic. Data were collected through patient records and interviews and were subject to quantitative analysis. Based on the obtained results and in accordance with literature, fa [...] ctors that are strongly associated with the occurrence of pregnancy repetition were selected in the adolescents' profiles. These are: early menarche; first sexual intercourse shortly after menarche; school repetition; school dropout; non remunerated occupation; low family income; involvement with older partners; living with the partner; consensual union with the partner; one partner; low condom use; family history of adolescent pregnancy; father's absence because of death or abandonment; positive family reaction to previous pregnancy; previous abortion; adolescent's positive concepts about previous delivery; and absence from previous postpartum consultations.

  14. Perfil de adolescentes com repetição da gravidez atendidas num ambulatório de pré-natal Perfil de las adolescentes con repetición del embarazo atendidas en un ambulatorio de prenatal Profile of adolescents with repeated pregnancies attended at a prenatal clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Persona

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho identificou o perfil biopsicossocial das adolescentes com repetição da gravidez, atendidas num ambulatório de pré-natal. Os dados obtidos através do prontuário médico e entrevista foram analisados quantitativamente. Através dos resultados encontrados e de acordo com a literatura, foram selecionados, do perfil das adolescentes, fatores mais fortemente associados à ocorrência da repetição da gravidez. São eles: menarca precoce, primeira relação sexual após curto intervalo da menarca, repetência escolar, abandono escolar, ausência de ocupação remunerada, baixa renda familiar, envolvimento com parceiros mais velhos, residir com o parceiro, união consensual com o parceiro, um parceiro fixo, baixo uso de condon, história familiar de gravidez na adolescência, ausência do pai por morte ou abandono, reação positiva da família à gravidez anterior, aborto anterior, parto anterior bem conceituado pela adolescente, e ausência à revisão pós-parto anterior.Este trabajo identificó el perfil biopsicosocial de las adolescentes con repetición del embarazo, atendidas en un ambulatorio de prenatal. Los datos obtenidos por medio del prontuario médico y entrevista, fueron analizados cuantitativamente. Por medio de los resultados y de acuerdo con la literatura, fueron seleccionados, entre los perfiles de las adolescentes, factores más fuertemente asociados a la ocurrencia de la repetición del embarazo. Ellos son: menarca precoz; primera relación sexual tras corto intervalo de la menarca; repetición escolar; abandono escolar; ausencia de ocupación remunerada; baja renta familiar; envolvimiento con parejas más viejas; residir con la pareja; unión consensual con la pareja; pareja fija; bajo uso de condón; historia familiar de embarazo en la adolescencia; ausencia del padre por muerte o abandono; reacción positiva de la familia al embarazo anterior; aborto anterior; parto anterior bien conceptuado por la adolescente; y ausencia a la revisión pos-parto anterior.This study identified the biopsychosocial profile of adolescent with repeated pregnancies, who were attended at a prenatal clinic. Data were collected through patient records and interviews and were subject to quantitative analysis. Based on the obtained results and in accordance with literature, factors that are strongly associated with the occurrence of pregnancy repetition were selected in the adolescents' profiles. These are: early menarche; first sexual intercourse shortly after menarche; school repetition; school dropout; non remunerated occupation; low family income; involvement with older partners; living with the partner; consensual union with the partner; one partner; low condom use; family history of adolescent pregnancy; father's absence because of death or abandonment; positive family reaction to previous pregnancy; previous abortion; adolescent's positive concepts about previous delivery; and absence from previous postpartum consultations.

  15. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    -based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening...... technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and...... screening, development of better evaluation tools in the light of the aim of the practice, accountability to all stakeholders including children born from screened pregnancies and persons living with the conditions targeted in prenatal screening and promotion of equity of access....

  16. Relationship between a father and a child after divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Traven, Jerneja

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, there are a lot of divorces and consequently children, who live with one of the parents and have occasional contacts with the other one. In my diploma I want to find out what kind of relationship father and a child have after divorce, father's feelings about that relationship and the conseqences of this relationship for a father and a child. Parents decide to divorce because of different reasons. After divorce a child lives with only one parent, meanwhile he rarely sees the other on...

  17. Inheritance of CMT1A duplication from a mosaic father.

    OpenAIRE

    Sorour, E; Thompson, P.; MacMillan, J.; M. Upadhyaya

    1995-01-01

    We describe a case with molecular duplication of chromosome 17 (p11.2-p12) whose duplicated chromosome was inherited from a mosaic father. The patient has clinical manifestations consistent with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), while the mosaic father has minimal findings of CMT1A. The father was found to be homozygous with DNA markers VAW409R3A (D17S122) and p132G8RI (PMP-22) which are duplicated in CMT1A cases. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis with YAC clone 49...

  18. Pai syndrome: challenging prenatal diagnosis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouet, Marie [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Belloy, Frederique [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); Jeanne-Pasquier, Corinne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Pathology, Caen (France); Leporrier, Nathalie [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Genetics, Caen (France); Benoist, Guillaume [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Pole Femmes-Enfants, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Caen (France)

    2014-09-15

    Pai syndrome is a rare disorder that includes midline cleft lip, pericallosal lipoma and cutaneous polyp of the face. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis using sonography and MRI. We emphasize the importance of facial examination with prenatal association of midline cleft lip and pericallosal lipoma in making the diagnosis of Pai syndrome. (orig.)

  19. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  20. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  1. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  2. Pai syndrome: challenging prenatal diagnosis and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai syndrome is a rare disorder that includes midline cleft lip, pericallosal lipoma and cutaneous polyp of the face. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis using sonography and MRI. We emphasize the importance of facial examination with prenatal association of midline cleft lip and pericallosal lipoma in making the diagnosis of Pai syndrome. (orig.)

  3. Prenatal Diagnosis and Postnatal Outcome of Schizencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutuk, Mehmet Serdar; Gorkem, Sureyya Burcu; Bayram, Ayse; Doganay, Selim; Canpolat, Mehmet; Basbug, Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to present our experience with 5 cases of fetal schizencephaly in terms of prenatal diagnostic features, and postnatal outcome. The database of prenatal diagnosis unit was searched for antenatally diagnosed cases with schizencephaly. Maternal characteristics, ultrasonography, prenatal-postnatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and postnatal outcome were noted. Of 5 cases, 2 had definitive prenatal diagnoses on ultrasound and 3 cases were diagnosed by fetal MRI. All cases had cerebral cortical migration anomalies including polymicrogyria, subependymal heterotopia, and lissencephaly, and 2 cases had additional extracranial malformations. Three cases showed regression of the cerebral clefts on follow-up postnatal MRIs. Three cases had moderate to severe psychomotor retardation, and 1 case needed repeated ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation due to hydrocephaly. Prenatal diagnosis of schizencephaly with ultrasonography is not straightforward and required further evaluation with fetal MRI. Additional cerebral anomalies worsen the prognosis of schizencephaly. PMID:25535059

  4. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Dermal Sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Sakr

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background - Congenital dermal sinus (CDS is an uncommon form of spinal dysraphism. Although postdelivery identification in the neonate is aided by several associated physical examination findings, establishing this diagnosis prenatally has proven to be elusive. Case Report - We present a case of CDS where the prenatal findings at 20 weeks gestation led to the diagnosis, which was confirmed postnatally. The associated protrusion of fibrotic membranes through the sinus tract helped in the identification of this lesion prenatally, but created confusion with a more common type of lesion, an open neural tube defect. This is the first case report in the literature describing prenatal diagnosis of fetal CDS. Conclusion - Prenatal diagnosis with postnatal confirmation of CDS leads to early intervention, better long-term outcomes, and lesser complications.

  5. Prenatal exposition on ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sessions on Prenatal Exposition on Ionizing Radiations was organized by the Argentine Radioprotection Society, in Buenos Aires, between 8 and 9, November 2001. In this event, were presented papers on: biological effects of ionizing radiation; the radiation protection and the pregnant woman; embryo fetal development and its relationship with the responsiveness to teratogens; radioinduced delayed mental; neonatal irradiation: neurotoxicity and modulation of pharmacological response; pre implanted mouse embryos as a model of uranium toxicity studies; hereditary effects of the radiation and new advances from the UNSCEAR 2001; doses estimation in embryo

  6. Prenatal radiation doses from radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiopharmaceutical administration with diagnostic or therapeutic purpose during pregnancy implies a prenatal radiation dose. The dose assessment and the evaluation of the radiological risks become relevant due to the great radiosensitivity of the fetal tissues in development. This paper is a revision of the available data for estimating fetal doses in the cases of the more frequently used radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine, taking into account recent investigation in placental crossover. The more frequent diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were analyzed according to the radiation doses implied. (author)

  7. Biological Effects after Prenatal Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Task Group of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has finished a report Biological Effects after Prenatal Irradiation (Embryo and Fetus) which has been approved by the Main Commission and Will be Published. Some new important scientific data shall be discussed in this contribution. During the preimplantation period lethality of the mammalian embryo is the dominating radiation effect. However, in mouse strains with genetic predispositions it has been shown that also malformations can be caused. This effect is genetically determined and its mechanisms is different from the induction of malformations during major organogenesis. Radiation exposures during this prenatal period leads ato an increase of genomic instability of cells in the normal appearing fetuses. These radiation effects can be transmitted to the next generation. A renewed analysis of individuals with severe mental retardation after exposures during the 8th to 15th week post conception in Hiroshima and Nagasaki gives evidence that a threshold dose exists for this effect around 300 mGy. This is supported by a number of experimental animal data which have been obtained from cellular and molecular investigations during the brain development. The data show the high radiosensitivity of the developing brain but also the various compensatory mechanisms and the enormous plasticity of these processes. The radiosensitivity varies strongly during the prenatal development. The highest sensitivity is found during the early and mid fetal period which is coinciding with weeks 8-15 post conception in humans. The lowest doses causing persistent damage are in the range of 100 to 300 mGy. For intelligence quotient scores a linear dose response model provides a satisfactory fit. From the experimental data it can be concluded that the fetal stage is most sensitive to the carcinogenic effect in comparison to the other prenatal stages. Such as clear situation cannot be obtained from the epidemiological studies with humans. in general the magnitude of cancer risk from in-utero exposures may be similar to that from radiation exposures in early childhood. This is especially the case when the follow-up is extended to adulthood. RBE values for fast neutrons as well as DREF values have been reported for various biological endpoints after exposures at various developmental stages. These will be discussed. (Author)

  8. The effect of incarceration on urban fathers' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Marah A

    2011-07-01

    This study examines the effects of incarceration on the health of urban fathers. Using the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, which surveys parents in 20 large U.S. cities across the country, the relationship between fathers' incarceration patterns and health status was examined while controlling for poor preexisting health and individual impulsivity. Findings indicate that fathers who have previously been incarcerated at some time are markedly more likely to rely on medications for physical or mental health problems, whereas recently incarcerated repeat offenders have reduced odds of being in poor health relative to those who have never been to prison. Improvements in health among recently incarcerated repeat offenders relative to those who have not been incarcerated may be related to prison health care and the overall disadvantaged circumstances of these fathers. PMID:21059693

  9. Father-daughter relationships during girls’ adolescence in urban China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Xu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Contextualization Contemporary Chinese families are experiencing tremendous changes, with the adoption of economic reform and the implementation of the one-child-per-family policy. These changes are inevitably leading to changing parent-child relationships in families, especially for girls’ relationships with their parents. The paper is to research girls’ and fathers’ perceptions of father-daughter relationships among two cohorts of girls aged 13/14 and aged 16/17. It will seek to understand, from fathers’ and daughters’ perspectives, fathers’ influences on girls’ lives in the domains of education, work and career aspirations. In addition, how their relationships change across adolescent girls’ lives will also be explored.

  10. Three physiological responses in fathers and non-fathers' to vocalizations of typically developing infants and infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gianluca; Valenzi, Stefano; Islam, Tanvir; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-01-01

    Children with ASD, even before receiving a formal diagnosis, express atypical patterns of distress vocalizations (namely, episodes of crying). Their cries have higher fundamental frequencies, shorter inter-bout pauses, and fewer utterances. Cries of children with ASD are also perceived differently from other cries, and these perceptual differences may alter parent-infant interaction. This study assessed multiple physiological responses in fathers and non-fathers to atypical distress vocalizations (cries of children with ASD), acoustically matched typical distress vocalizations (cries of typically developing children), and positive vocalizations (laughter of typically developing children). The experimental procedures were designed to measure how components of the autonomic nervous system respond to typical and atypical infant vocalizations. Three convergent methodologies (Galvanic Skin Response-GSR; cardiac dynamics via Inter-Beat Interval-IBI; right hand temperature change-RHTC) were performed on two groups with contrasting caregiving experience: fathers of typically developing children (n=10) and non-fathers (n=10). Inferential statistical analysis compared the two groups (fathers, non-fathers) and three stimulus types (ASD cry, typical cry, laughter) for the three measures (GSR, IBI, RHTC). Both fathers and non-fathers showed greater negative responses (increased GSR) to ASD cries compared to typical cries and laughter. Fathers showed higher IBI and greater temperature increases (RHTC) than non-fathers while listening to typical and atypical cries. Fathers and non-fathers showed more emotional arousal mediated by sympathetic activation while listening to cries of children with ASD. Fathers were calmer and acted more promptly than non-fathers while listening to typical cries, perhaps because the fathers had more experience in caring for crying infants. These findings point to similarities and differences in fathers' and non-fathers' physiological responsiveness to cries of children with ASD and might guide specific intervention programs for parents of children at risk of ASD. PMID:26151442

  11. First-time Taiwanese expectant fathers' life experiences during the third trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chien-Huei; Long, Ann

    2004-03-01

    This descriptive phenomenological study was designed to explore the life experiences of 14 Taiwanese first-time expectant fathers while their wives were in the third trimester of pregnancy. The authors used unstructured interviews to obtain the data from each participant. Data were analyzed by Colaizzi ' s (1978) method as a qualitative content analysis. In addition, the researcher used the work of Lincoln and Guba (1985) to enhance the rigorousness of this study. The findings demonstrated that during the third trimester of their wives ' pregnancy eight key themes emerged among the first-time expectant fathers, as follows: (1). Jubilation; (2). Feelings of uuncertainty (3). Adjustment; (4). Preparation for fatherhood; (5). Engagement; (6). Gender concerns; (7). The wonder of fetal movement, and (8). Expanded vision. The findings from this study have an important contribution to make to an advancement of practice, education and research concerning first-time fathers ' needs and aspirations. In addition, the findings showed that there is a need to reaffirm the place of caring in nursing and midwifery if our goal is to provide a high quality service which meets the needs of the woman and her family. It is essential for nurses to champion the advancement of family-centred care which involves their partners in pregnancy. PMID:15136964

  12. Coeliac disease in the father affects the newborn

    OpenAIRE

    Ludvigsson, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Untreated coeliac disease in the mother is associated with lower birth weight. We examined the risk of adverse neonatal outcome when the infant's mother, father, or other relative suffered from known coeliac disease.?METHODS—Mothers answered a questionnaire a few days after the birth of their infant. Of a total of 10597 single birth infants from Southeast Sweden, 53 infants had a mother with coeliac disease (father 27, sibling 70, other close relative 442). Adjusted odds r...

  13. Albert Einstein as the father of solid state physics

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Einstein is usually revered as the father of special and general relativity. In this article I demonstrate that he is also the father of Solid State Physics, or even his broader version known as Condensed Matter Physics (including liquids). His 1907 article on the specific heat of solids introduces, for the first time, the effect of lattice vibrations on the thermodynamic properties of crystals, in particular the specific heat. His 1905 article on the photoelectric effect and photoluminescenc...

  14. Fathering in Family Context and Child Adjustment: A Longitudinal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schacht, Patricia M.; CUMMINGS, E. MARK; DAVIES, PATRICK T.

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on relations between fathers’ behavior in family context and children’s adjustment, including the roles of paternal depressive symptoms, paternal marital conflict behaviors, paternal parenting, and children’s emotional security. Participants included 235 families with a six year old child, with families followed longitudinally each year for three years. In terms of fathers’ adjustment, paternal problem drinking was related to paternal negative marital conflict behaviors and...

  15. Philosophical Assumptions of the Church Fathers: God and Creation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raúl, Kerbs.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to show that early Church Fathers didn´t take the basic presuppositions of their theology from the Scriptures but from Greek philosophy. Furthermore, it demonstrates that they resorted to Greek philosophy to justify their procedure. In doing so, they abandoned the biblical identit [...] y of Christianity. Specifically, this article evinces it through a study of the early Church Father's doctrine of God and Christ, and St. Augustine's doctrine of the creation of the world.

  16. Father-Time: Welcome to the Rest of Your Life

    OpenAIRE

    Friedewald, Mark; Newing, Carol

    2006-01-01

    This guest editorial reports on the expansion of a program for expectant and new fathers within a local health service on the Central Coast of New South Wales, Australia. The program, titled “Father-Time: Welcome to the Rest of Your Life,” incorporates, and is an extension to, the all-male discussion forum previously reported in this journal (Spring 2005, Volume 14, No. 2).

  17. Temperamental precursors of infant attachment with mothers and fathers?

    OpenAIRE

    Planalp, Elizabeth M.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which parent sensitivity and infant temperament distinguish attachment classification was examined. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effect of parent sensitivity and infant temperament on infant–mother and infant–father attachment. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, and their infants (N = 135) when the infant was 3-, 5-, 7-, 12-, and 14-months old. Temperament was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003); parent sens...

  18. Father-daughter relationships during girls’ adolescence in urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiong Xu

    2009-01-01

    Contextualization Contemporary Chinese families are experiencing tremendous changes, with the adoption of economic reform and the implementation of the one-child-per-family policy. These changes are inevitably leading to changing parent-child relationships in families, especially for girls’ relationships with their parents. The paper is to research girls’ and fathers’ perceptions of father-daughter relationships among two cohorts of girls aged 13/14 and aged 16/17. It will seek to ...

  19. Hippocrates. The father of spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marketos, S G; Skiadas, P

    1999-07-01

    Hippocrates (5th-4th century B. C.), the founder of scientific medicine, left a valuable heritage of knowledge and methodology, which extends to almost all branches of modern medicine. Among the many fields of medicine he explored, he devoted much of his scientific interest to the study of orthopedics. In fact, some of the principles found in the Hippocratic treatises On Fractures and On Joints are still valid today. This great physician also was the first to deal with the anatomy and the pathology of human spine. In his books, he provides a precise description of the segments and the normal curves of the spine, the structure of the vertebrae, the tendons attached to them, the blood supply to the spine, and even its anatomic relations to adjacent vessels. The Hippocratic list of spinal diseases includes tuberculous spondylitis, post-traumatic kyphosis, scoliosis, concussion, dislocations of the vertebrae, and fractures of the spinous processes. Hippocrates devised two apparatuses, known as the Hippocratic ladder and the Hippocratic board, to reduce displaced vertebrae. Those pioneer methods are deemed to be the precursors to the sophisticated techniques used in spine surgery today. Because of his thorough study of spinal diseases and their management, which was the first such study in orthopedics in the history of medicine, Hippocrates should be regarded as the father of spine surgery. PMID:10404583

  20. Jacques Joseph: Father of modern aesthetic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Surajit

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available When we review the history of modern aesthetic surgery, a name that stands out as bright as a beacon and precious as gold is undoubtedly that of Jacques Joseph. A surgeon, par excellence, far ahead of his time, who chose to think out of the box, Joseph, despite all odds set out to give respectability to Aesthetic Surgery without depriving it of any scientific core values. By his words and deeds proved beyond doubt that only the very best in the field of reconstructive surgery, can visualize the hidden perfection in imperfection and formulate a treatment plan and a surgical strategy to achieve that elusive perfection. The rich surgical literature that he has left behind, the wealth of surgical instruments that he had designed and above all a way of thinking that he propagated, that aesthetic surgery is not frivolous but very serious endeavor, and treating the psychology of the patient is as important as treating his disease, undoubtedly makes him the revered ?Father of Modern Aesthetic Surgery?.

  1. LEARNING MATH WITH MY FATHER: A MEMOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda De La CRUZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We all build our own houses of wisdom, each of us; we cannot build them for each other. Teachers cannot simply invite students into their “houses of wisdom,” but can often find ways to help learners to enter and explore their own minds. While Constructivism has had a positive impact on the teaching and learning of literacy mathematics instruction continues to rely heavily on rote memorization and drills. As a young child, I learned to love math. My love of math stems from learning math with my father. He did not focus on rote memorization and drills. The primary emphasis was for a real purpose. My self-confidence was enforced when he started me out with problems that were less difficult and had many different solutions. These solutions were valued and respected, which allowed me to trust in my own problem solving abilities. How can we hope to lead children to the thresholds of their own minds when we remain intent on forcing them into our ‘houses of wisdom’? What alternative ways can we devise of interacting with children that respect their confidence and leave intact their levels of understanding, that lead them to the thresholds of their own minds excited about entering?

  2. "Not all men are fathers": Experiences of African women from families with absent fathers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mankwane, Makofane.

    Full Text Available A qualitative exploratory-descriptive inquiry was undertaken to gain insight into the experiences of young African women raised in families with absent fathers. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to procure a sample comprising 14 women aged 24 to 41 years. Data were collected through online g [...] uiding open-ended questions. The findings suggest that participants have emerged from their experiences as victorious, strong, assertive, empowered and self-reliant individuals whose lives were shaped by their maternal extended families. however, further insight into the manifestation of such attributes in their intimate heterosexual relationships is required to gain insight into their construction of relationships with men.

  3. Including fathers in preventing non-accidental head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Lisa; Collins, Lynne

    2009-04-01

    Health visitors identified fathers as a marginalised, difficult-to-reach group when aiming for universal implementation of a public health programme to prevent non-accidental head injury (NAHI) in babies. Follow-on research with 30 fathers from disadvantaged backgrounds, including some in prison, explored barriers and facilitating factors to preventing NAHI through focus groups and interviews. Fathers expressed both responsibility and helplessness in managing a baby, but many felt excluded from gaining skills and knowledge by healthcare staff. Barriers to implementing a prevention programme included a lack of knowledge about head injuries in babies and poor understanding of prevention as a reduction of risk factors. Fear of blame for a head injury could lead to injury concealment, indicating a taboo subject. Facilitators for fathers to learn about preventing head injuries in babies included concerns of their masculinity being at odds with the frailty of the newborn, recognition of fathers' needs to be valued in their own right, and a need for individualised plans for gaining information and increasing confidence. The modifiable barriers to prevention, from the fathers' perspectives, add to the theoretical and applied evidence base for the prevention of NAHI. PMID:19397079

  4. Effects after prenatal radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mammalian organism is highly radiosensitive during all prenatal developmental periods. For most effects a dose relationship with a threshold is observed. These threshold doses are generally above the exposures from medical diagnostic procedures. The quality and extent of radiation effects are very much dependent on the developmental stage during which an exposure takes place and on the radiation dose. An exposure during the preimplantation period will cause lethality. Malformations are usually induced after exposures during the major organogenesis. Growth retardation is also possible during the late organogenesis and foetal periods. The lower limits of threshold doses for these effects are in the range of 100 mGy. A radiation exposure during the early foetal period can lead to severe mental retardation and impairment of intelligence. There are very serious effects with radiation doses above 0.3 Gy. Carcinogenesis can apparently occur after radiation exposures during the total prenatal development period. The radiation risk factor up to now has not been clear, but it seems that it is in the range of risk factors for cancer that are observed after exposures during childhood. For radiation doses that are used in radiological diagnostics the risk is zero or very low. A termination of pregnancy after doses below 100 mGy should not be considered. (author)

  5. Diagnóstico prenatal de catarata congénita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elena, De Diego Allué; Ricardo, Savirón Cornudella; Mercedes, Odriozola Grijalba; Diego, Lerma Puertas; Tanit, Corbacho Garza; M. Aranzazu, Pérez Íñigo.

    Full Text Available La catarata congénita (CC) es una patología poco frecuente en nuestro medio frente a los países en desarrollo donde constituye la etiología más frecuente de ceguera infantil. La prevención de deterioro visual debido a esta patología es parte del programa de la OMS cuyo objetivo es la eliminación de [...] ceguera evitable en el año 2020. Presentamos el caso de una gestante en la que el diagnóstico prenatal se realizó en la ecografía morfológica. Si somos capaces de realizar este diagnóstico podremos evitar el deterioro precoz de la función visual del recién nacido. Así, la identificación de ambos cristalinos debe de formar parte de las estructuras a reconocer de forma obligada en la ecografía morfológica. Abstract in english Congenital cataract is a rare disease in our environment opposite developing countries where it is the most frequent etiology of childhood blindness. Prevention of visual impairment due to this pathology is a part of the WHO programme whose objective is the elimination of avoidable blindness by the [...] year 2020. We present the case of a pregnant woman that prenatal diagnosis was made on mid- trimester ultrasound. If we are able to perform this diagnosis, we will be able to prevent early deterioration of visual function of the newborn. Thus, identification of both crystalline should be part of the structures to recognize in the mid- trimester ultrasound.

  6. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  7. How Teenage Fathers Matter for Children: Evidence From the ECLS-B

    OpenAIRE

    MOLLBORN, STEFANIE; LOVEGROVE, PETER J.

    2011-01-01

    Much is known about how having a teenage mother influences children’s outcomes, but the relationship between teenage fatherhood and children’s health and development is less well documented. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Birth Cohort, the authors investigated how teenage fathers matter for children. They expected teenage fathers’ influence on children to differ from adult fathers’ in three domains: the household context, the father–mother relationship, and the father–child rela...

  8. Prenatal and postnatal depression among low income Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Da-Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal depression is a significant problem affecting 10-15% of mothers in many countries and has been the subject of an increasing number of publications. Prenatal depression has been studied less. The aims of the present investigation were: 1 to obtain information on the prevalence of prenatal and postnatal depression in low income Brazilian women by using an instrument already employed in several countries, i.e., the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; 2 to evaluate the risk factors involved in prenatal and postnatal depression in Brazil. The study groups included 33 pregnant women interviewed at home during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and once a month during the first six months after delivery. Questions on life events and the mother's relationship with the baby were posed during each visit. Depressed pregnant women received less support from their partners than non-depressed pregnant women (36.4 vs 72.2%, P<0.05; Fisher exact test. Black women predominated among pre- and postnatally depressed subjects. Postnatal depression was associated with lower parity (0.4 ± 0.5 vs 1.1 ± 1.0, P<0.05; Student t-test. Thus, the period of pregnancy may be susceptible to socio-environmental factors that induce depression, such as the lack of affective support from the partner. The prevalence rate of 12% observed for depression in the third month postpartum is comparable to that of studies from other countries.

  9. Following in your father's footsteps: A note on the intergenerational transmission of income between twin fathers and their sons

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Vikesh; Lundborg, Petter; Rooth, Dan-Olof

    2011-01-01

    We provide the first twin-based estimates of the intergenerational transmission of income between fathers and sons. Using Swedish register data on the income of monozygotic twin fathers and their sons, we are able to control for unobserved endowments at the twin-pair level when estimating the intergenerational relationship. We find a cross-sectional intergenerational income elasticity of 0.276, while our twin-based intergenerational income elasticity is 0.12. This is close to the estimate of ...

  10. Managing the self and other relationships: a father’s role when his partner and baby are hospitalised in a perinatal mental health unit

    OpenAIRE

    Marrs, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the father’s role when his partner and child are admitted to a perinatal mental health unit. Background Establishing attachment in the first months of life is crucial for infant mental health. Parental mental health and separation can interrupt the formation of attachment. Maternal postnatal mental health is known to affect the father’s well-being and mental health. A systematic review conducted found paternal depression in the first year after bir...

  11. Was your father a problem drinker?: The challenges of life story interviewing in researching adult sons of problem drinking fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Pirskanen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the challenges of carrying out life story interview research on the adult sons of problem-drinking fathers will be discussed. Earlier studies have shown that parents’ problem drinking can disturb family life and be harmful in various ways to children. In the case of a problem-drinking father and his son, aspects of the father-son relationship and of the father as a male role model also assume major importance. Consequently, fathers’ drinking may continue to be a sensitive and a painful topic for their sons in adulthood. Moreover, several studies indicate that recruiting young men as a focus group for interview study is complicated. In addition, family matters are often perceived as something private, not to be talked about or shared with outsiders.For these reasons the life story interview method can be problematic for the researcher interested in collecting and interpreting interview data on sons’ childhood experiences. In my study, both finding interviewees, carrying out interviews on a sensitive topic and interpreting the data “truthfully” were challenging tasks presenting a number of ethical considerations. The data used in the study consist of 21 life story interviews with young Finnish men aged 21-42. While these young men were growing up, their fathers were problem drinkers. In the interviews the young men produced narratives or stories about their lives from an adult perspective. Thus narrative analysis is suggested to be applied in analysing the interviews.

  12. Opportunities and limitations of poor South African fathers: the Child Support Grant and the capabilities of fathers to practice fatherhood in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Brils, F.A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to enhance understanding on how fathers perceive their fatherhood and if they see the CSG facilitating or constraining their opportunities as a father. This broadens the knowledge about the impact of the CSG by which policymakers can be informed. The data can also help to develop other appropriate interventions for poor fathers.

  13. Prenatal genetic diagnosis by chorionic villus sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenatal diagnosis of severe congenital disease with termination of affected pregnancies is an accepted part of the contemporary practice of clinical genetics. First-trimester prenatal tissue sampling has been studied for years with various results. The key to success in sampling came with the application of ultrasound to guide the sampling procedure. The use of the Portex catheter or canula for sampling is the most common method today. There are other variations available and under trial by European investigators. All of these methods appear to have a high rate of success in obtaining prenatal tissue with a low rate of immediate complications. The author discusses how the sampling is done

  14. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening

    OpenAIRE

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as...

  15. Situs anomalies on prenatal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Situs anomalies refer to an abnormal organ arrangement, which may be associated with severe errors of development. Due regard being given to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US), this study sought to demonstrate the in utero visualization of situs anomalies on MRI, compared to US. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 12 fetuses with situs anomalies depicted on fetal MRI using prenatal US as a comparison modality. With an MRI standard protocol, the whole fetus was assessed for anomalies, with regard to the position and morphology of the following structures: heart; venous drainage and aorta; stomach and intestines; liver and gallbladder; and the presence and number of spleens. Results: Situs inversus totalis was found in 3/12 fetuses; situs inversus with levocardia in 1/12 fetuses; situs inversus abdominis in 2/12 fetuses; situs ambiguous with polysplenia in 3/12 fetuses, and with asplenia in 2/12 fetuses; and isolated dextrocardia in 1/12 fetuses. Congenital heart defects (CHDs), vascular anomalies, and intestinal malrotations were the most frequent associated malformations. In 5/12 cases, the US and MRI diagnoses were concordant. Compared to US, in 7/12 cases, additional MRI findings specified the situs anomaly, but CHDs were only partially visualized in six cases. Conclusions: Our initial MRI results demonstrate the visualization of situs anomalies and associated malformations in utero, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Using a standard protocol, MRI may identify additional findings, compared to US, which confirm and specify the situs anomaly, but, with limited MRI visualization of fetal CHDs.

  16. Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drain brain fluid. So how does prenatal surgery work? The most common types are: Open fetal surgery: In this type of procedure, the mother is given anesthesia, then the surgeon makes an incision in the ...

  17. Prenatal care in your second trimester

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in weeks, rather than months or trimesters. The second trimester begins at week 14 and goes through week ... In your second trimester, you will have a prenatal visit every month. The visits may be quick, but they are still important. ...

  18. DIAGNOSTICO PRENATAL DE SITUS INVERSUS TOTALIS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mario, Paublo M; Juan Carlos, Bustos V; Pedro, Ramírez H.

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso clínico de diagnostico prenatal por ultrasonografía de Situs Inversus completo en la Unidad de ultrasonografía del Hospital San Juan de Dios con su confirmación post natal por radiología y ultrasonografía. Es de notar la baja incidencia de esta patología y la importancia del diag [...] nostico prenatal por las posibles múltiples malformaciones asociadas. Abstract in english We have reviewed a clinical history of ultrasonographic prenatal diagnosis of Complete Situs Inversus at the Ultrasonography Unit of the Hospital San Juan de Dios, which was confirmed with postnatal radiology and ultrasonography. Although the low incidence of this pathology, it´s prenatal diagnosis [...] is important since it presents association with multiple abnormalities.

  19. Fathers’ Experience of Shared Parental Leave in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Chronholm

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the Swedish parental leave reform in 1974, fathers have had the same rights to use parental leave as mothers. Between 2000 and 2003, a research project at the Department of Sociology, University of Gothenburg, focused on fathers who had taken more than four months of paid parental leave. The approach of the study was mainly qualitative, based upon a combination of a survey and interviews. A majority of the fathers who answered the questionnaire had been the main caregivers for their children during their parental leave. During the interviews many of the men described their mothers as role models for their fatherhood. The men also described their own partner as both anxious to get back to her work after her own parental leave period and convinced of the importance of a nurturing father. An early decision to take part of the parental leave probably made it easier for the men to reach workplace agreements. Most of the men described themselves as both nurturing fathers and as sharing housework equally. They stressed the importance of being alone with their child during a long period, to be able to develop a deep relationship with their child.

  20. Challenging behaviors in young children: the father's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbach, Ann D; Fox, Robert A; Nicholson, Bonnie C

    2004-06-01

    In this study, the authors examined the parenting practices, developmental expectations, and stress levels of 136 fathers and the challenging and prosocial behaviors of their 1- to 5-year-old children. In addition, the authors systematically addressed fathers' qualitative concerns about their parenting. The authors divided the participants into 4 groups and controlled for family socioeconomic status (SES) and the focus child's gender. Results showed a significantly higher use of corporal and verbal punishment and parenting stress among lower income fathers. Secondary analyses demonstrated a significant effect of paternal disciplinary practices that emphasized the frequent use of corporal and verbal punishment on child behavior problems, regardless of SES level. On a positive note, fathers from both lower and higher SES groups had reasonable developmental expectations for their boys and girls, and they reported similar frequencies of their children's prosocial behavior. The authors discuss the need for early parent education programs that include fathers and that teach specific strategies to address child behavior problems. PMID:15259875

  1. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation.

    OpenAIRE

    Yaw-Ren Hsu; Shin-Yi Lee

    2004-01-01

    Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) of the lung is a rare pulmonarylesion. The prognosis is variable ranging from perinatal death to spontaneous in uteroregression, with no neonatal morbidity. We present a case of CCAM diagnosed at 23 weeks'gestation using results of prenatal sonograms. Both prenatal Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional sonograms revealed multiple cystic lesions at the right lower lung field.Regular serial antenatal sonograms revealed the fetus had persistent r...

  2. Prenatal Depression Effects and Interventions: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This review covers research on the negative effects of prenatal depression and cortisol on fetal growth, prematurity and low birthweight. Although prenatal depression and cortisol were typically measured at around 20 weeks gestation, other research suggests the stability of depression and cortisol levels across pregnancy. Women with Dysthymia as compared to Major Depression Disorder had higher cortisol levels, and their newborns had lower gestational age and birthweight. The cortisol effects ...

  3. Locus of control and prenatal depression

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Amber; Field, Tiffany; Newton, Rae; Bendell, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal depression is a significant predictor of postpartum depression and is detrimental to fetal development. Locus of control was examined in this study as a potential predictor of prenatal depression. 133 rural pregnant women recruited from obstetricians’ offices completed the Levenson Scale on Locus of Control and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Multiple regression analysis indicated that after controlling for previous or current mental health problems, the External Locus of C...

  4. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital lung malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenatal diagnosis of congenital lung anomalies has increased in recent years as imaging methods have benefitted from technical improvements. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate typical imaging findings of a wide spectrum of congenital lung anomalies on prenatal US and MRI. Moreover, we propose an algorithm based on imaging findings to facilitate the differential diagnosis, and suggest a follow-up algorithm during pregnancy and in the immediate postnatal period. (orig.)

  5. Prenatal Programming and Toxicity (PPTOX) Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Birnbaum, Linda S.; Miller, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    The developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis posits that early-life exposures, including prenatal, can influence disease outcomes throughout the entire lifespan of an organism. Over the past 30 years, scientific researchers have compiled robust epidemiological and mechanistic data showing the effects of early-life nutrition, chemical exposures, and stress on prenatal programing and toxicity. Using novel techniques in genomics and epigenetics, science is now establishing strong li...

  6. Caregiver Interaction Behavior with Prenatally Cocaine-Exposed and Nonexposed Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Roberta Brobeil; Thurman, S. Kenneth; Brodsky, Nancy; Betancourt, Laura; Giannetta, Joan; Hurt, Hallam

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the quality of caregiver-child interaction using the Parent/Caregiver Involvement Scale with 41 preschoolers (who were prenatally exposed to cocaine) and 39 nonexposed preschoolers. Both biological mothers and foster caregivers of exposed children were significantly less emotionally and developmentally appropriate in…

  7. Prologue: Understanding Children Who Have Been Affected by Maltreatment and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyter, Yvette D.

    2007-01-01

    This prologue introduces an important topic for multiple disciplines involved with children and their families. This introduction includes a review of some of the current literature on the effects of maltreatment and prenatal alcohol exposure on child development, an explanation of why this topic is essential learning for communication…

  8. Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Desmond J. (Oakland, CA); Rubin, Edward M. (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

  9. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation is one of a rare congenital malformation usually unilateal in volving a part of lobe or a whole lobe of the fetal lung, characterized by excessive growing of terminal respiratory element. We made a prenatal diagnosis in a case of congenital cystic adenomdtoid malformation with diffuse bilateral involvement, Stocker Type III which is associated with fetal hydrops

  10. Development of Swallowing and Feeding: Prenatal through First Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Amy L.; Arvedson, Joan C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of feeding and swallowing involves a highly complex set of interactions that begin in embryologic and fetal periods and continue through infancy and early childhood. This article will focus on swallowing and feeding development in infants who are developing normally with a review of some aspects of prenatal development that provide…

  11. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu'usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n = 692) were categorized according to the adequacy of prenatal care utilization index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way analysis of variance and independent samples t tests. Between 2001 and 2008 85.4 % of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P = 0.02), maternal unemployment (P = 0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P = 0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initiation. Giving birth in 2007-2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 vs. 25.12 weeks; P American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007-2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  12. Family structure and use of prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04, an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02, and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively. The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.

  13. Prenatal stress exposure hypothesis for infantile spasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiu-Yu; Zou, Li-Ping; Yang, Guang; Ding, Ying-Xue

    2012-06-01

    Infantile spasms (IS) are an age-specific epileptic syndrome associated with diverse etiological factors. In recent years, several hypotheses and animal models have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of IS, but none has elucidated the pathophysiology of IS. In the current case-control study, prenatal stress degree was identified to be higher among the mothers of IS patients than those among the control group. The onset risk of IS increased with the degree of prenatal stress within a certain range. We have recently exposed pregnant rats to forced cold swimming and have given intraperitoneal injection of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) to rat pups with prenatal stress exposure. Prenatal stress exposure was found to alter the hormonal levels and neurotransmitter receptor expression of developing rats, sensitizing rat pups to develop NMDA-induced spasms and rendering the spasms to be sensitive to adrenocorticotropic hormone therapy. The studies above indicate that prenatal stress plays an important role in the onset of IS. Based on previous hypotheses and the current findings, we propose a prenatal stress exposure hypothesis for IS (also called Zou's hypothesis). PMID:22429779

  14. Prenatal nicotine exposure and child behavioural problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiesler, Carla M T; Heinrich, Joachim

    2014-10-01

    In utero exposure to tobacco smoke has been related to numerous adverse health effects in new-borns, infants, children, adolescents and adults. The aim of this review was to summarise findings on prenatal nicotine exposure and its relationship with behavioural problems in the offspring. The majority of studies, and especially several recent epidemiological studies, observed a higher likelihood for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD symptoms in exposed subjects. However, both human and animal studies have failed to provide clear evidence on causality. Existing literature on studies investigating the association between prenatal nicotine exposure and conduct or externalising problems in the offspring suggests a causal effect. The establishment of a final conclusion concerning the relationship between prenatal nicotine exposure and internalising problems in the offspring is complicated by insufficient data and mixed results in epidemiological studies. Prenatal nicotine exposure has been associated with altered brain structure and function in human offspring, and a proposed biological mechanism is related to nicotine's adverse influence on neurotransmitter systems during brain development. In conclusion, establishing a statement on the causality of the relationship between prenatal nicotine exposure and behavioural problems in children remains a challenging task. Nevertheless, considering the results of an increasing number of studies which link prenatal exposure to nicotine to externalising problems applying different methodologies to account for confounding and in view of other adverse health effects known to be caused by this exposure, parents should consider smoking cessation. PMID:25241028

  15. “Occupational Careers and Social Origin Revisited: The Father's Micro- Class and Individuals’ Careers”

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent social stratification scholarship examines the influence of parental status or big-class on individuals’ career attainment. The authors draw on the recent micro-class approach to hypothesize on the influence of the father’s micro-class or occupation-specific resources on individuals’ careers, and study (1) how often individuals work in their father’s occupation and (2) how the father’s micro-class resources affect career progression. Using life-course data on the careers of Dutch me...

  16. How are they doing? Listening as fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder compare themselves to fathers of children who are typically developing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuk, Samantha; Lashewicz, Bonnie

    2016-04-01

    The growing prevalence of autism spectrum disorder is accompanied by ongoing efforts to understand and support parents in the face of challenges related to their child's autism spectrum disorder. Although fathers are increasingly hands-on in raising children, research focus on parenting children with autism spectrum disorder continues to be skewed toward experiences of mothers. Our purpose in this article is to contribute understandings of how fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder perceive themselves to be managing, and we undertake this by examining comparisons fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder make between their parenting experiences and experiences of fathers of typically developing children. A purposive sample of 28 fathers of children (aged 2-13 years) with autism spectrum disorder living in an urban center in Western Canada participated in in-depth interviews about their parenting successes and challenges. We found fathers speak of universal fathering experiences yet articulate their own sense of loss and efforts to come to terms with unanticipated demands associated with autism spectrum disorder. Fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder feel "pangs of jealousy" toward fathers of typically developing children, yet they are keenly attentive to their own child's development and convey a sense of gratitude for their child's capabilities and personality amidst an appreciation for trials and triumphs of fathering in general and fathering a child with autism spectrum disorder in particular. PMID:25976158

  17. A interação pai-bebê entre pais adolescentes e adultos The father-baby interaction between adolescent and adult fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Centenaro Levandowski

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora muitos estudos investiguem a maternidade na adolescência, poucos têm investigado a paternidade adolescente. Uma vez que o adolescente precisa cumprir diversas tarefas próprias da fase na qual se encontra, ele tenderia a ficar sobrecarregado com as tarefas adicionais decorrentes da paternidade. Em virtude disso, sua interação com o bebê seria menos responsiva do que a de pais adultos. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste estudo foi examinar eventuais diferenças entre pais adolescentes e adultos na interação com o bebê aos 3 meses de vida. Participaram do estudo 20 pais, sendo 9 adolescentes e 11 adultos, que esperavam seu primeiro filho. Quando o bebê completou 3 meses, foi realizada uma observação domiciliar da interação da díade pai-bebê. As análises não revelaram diferenças significativas na interação pai-bebê entre adolescentes e adultos. Estes resultados sugerem que a idade não é necessariamente um fator determinante da responsividade do pai em relação ao bebê. Ao contrário da expectativa inicial, estes adolescentes mostraram-se tão responsivos ao bebê quanto os pais adultos.Although many studies have investigated adolescent motherhood, only a few have focused on adolescent fatherhood. It is believed that since the adolescent already has several tasks to deal with concerning his own adolescent period, he would be overwhelmed by the additional tasks regarding fatherhood. As a result, his interaction with his baby would be less responsive than an adult father´s. This study aimed at examining possible differences between adolescent and adult fathers´ interaction with their 3-month-old baby. Twenty fathers, 9 adolescents and 11 adults, participated in the study. A home observation of the father-baby interaction was carried out when the baby was 3 months old. The analyses did not reveal significant differences between adolescent and adult fathers´ interaction with the baby. These results suggest that age is not necessarily a determinant factor of father´s responsivity towards his baby. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, the adolescents were as responsive to the baby as the adult fathers.

  18. Characterization of the cognitive impairments induced by prenatal exposure to stress in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Markham

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that male rats exposed to gestational stress exhibit phenotypes resembling what is observed in schizophrenia, including hypersensitivity to amphetamine, blunted sensory gating, disrupted social behavior, impaired stress axis regulation, and aberrant prefrontal expression of genes involved in synaptic plasticity. Maternal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse cognitive outcomes among children, as well as an increased risk for developing schizophrenia, which is characterized by significant cognitive deficits. We sought to characterize the long-term cognitive outcome of prenatal stress using a preclinical paradigm, which is readily amenable to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Rats exposed to repeated variable prenatal stress during the third week of gestation were evaluated using a battery of cognitive tests, including the novel object recognition task, cued and contextual fear conditioning, the Morris water maze, and iterative versions of a paradigm in which working and reference memory for both objects and spatial locations can be assessed (the ‘Can Test’. Prenatally stressed males were impaired relative to controls on each of these tasks, confirming the face validity of this preclinical paradigm and extending the cognitive implications of prenatal stress exposure beyond the hippocampus. Interestingly, in experiments where both sexes were included, the performance of females was found to be less affected by prenatal stress compared to that of males. This could be related to the finding that women are less vulnerable than men to schizophrenia, and merits further investigation.

  19. The Effect of Prenatal Exposure to Restraint Stress on Hippocampal Granule Neurons of Adult Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-sharifabad, Mohammad; Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Hosseini-sharifabad, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) It is well known that prenatal stresses (PS) induce a variety of neurobiological and behavioral alterations, some of them involving the hippocampal formation. This study aimed to determine whether restraint stress influences the neuronal volume and number of granule cells in the hippocampus of adult rat offspring. Materials and Methods Ten Wistar pregnant rats were randomly divided: stressed and control groups. Pregnant dams in the stressed group were placed in a Plexiglas restraint tube for 1 hr daily from days 15-21 of gestation. Neuroendocrinological consequences of prenatal stress exposure were evaluated in the male offspring on postnatal day 60. The total numbers and the individual volume of granule cells in the hippocampus were also estimated with the optical fractionator and the rotator methods, respectively. Results Prenatally stressed rats exhibited prolonged elevation in plasma glucocorticoid levels following acute exposure to restraint stress. Data also indicated that there is a decrease in neuronal volume of hippocampal granule cells in prenatally stressed compared with their controls (625±64.1 µm3 vs. 741±80.6 µm3). There was no significant difference in the total number of granule cells between prenatally stressed and control animals. Conclusion The present study indicated that exposure of pregnant female during last week of pregnancy leads to a decline in neuronal size in hippocampus of adult male rats without neuronal loss. The present results may provide a basis for the understanding of the reported disturbances in behavior and learning of PS offspring. PMID:23493456

  20. The role of the father in the development of psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramaki Elissavet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In psychoanalysis, fathering has not received much analytical at­tention and only little is known about the actual impact of paternity on the development of certain psychopathology. This paper seeks to carefully examine and critically discuss the impact of fathering on psychotic individuals. It elaborates on the importance of the father in the healthy development of the children, as well as on the consequences that his absence entails for their psyche. Drawing on a Lacanian analytical framework, it is argued that, nowadays, the paternal figure has significantly lost its previous status. The gradual extinction of the paternal function, within the contemporary cultural environment, is mainly because of important social and legal changes in the familial structure, such as the increase of single-parent families and the legalization of the adoption of children by gay couples.

  1. Michael Longley’s Father: Memory, Mourning and History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Sloan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael Longley’s father has been a recurring presence in the poet’s work from his earliest to his most recent collection. This paper examines the exceptional strength of that bond reflected in the varied and changing ways in which the poet has responded to it – memorizing and mourning his loss; discovering through his father’s First World War stories a means of memorialising loss of life in contemporary conflicts and a way of facing the history of the twentieth century; confronting his own ageing and sense of mortality; and marking the specific, but also representative, generational history of his family. Close readings of key poems are offered to highlight Longley’s skills in meeting his own exacting standards of aesthetic propriety and moral and social responsibility for writers of elegy in order to avoid either exploitation of tragedy and loss, or facile gestures of consolation.

  2. Paternal Involvement in the Statutory Assessment of Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert

    2011-01-01

    There are manifold benefits of parental involvement in a child's education, but there is evidence of gender imbalances in parental involvement. This article describes research into fathers' involvement with educational psychologists (EPs) working with children undergoing statutory assessment. A content analysis of children's files from one…

  3. Parental Involvement in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Patterns and Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Marni L.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined dimensions of mothers' and fathers' involvement in adolescents' romantic relationships when offspring were age 17. Using cluster analysis, parents from 105 White, working and middle class families were classified as positively involved, negatively involved, or autonomy-oriented with respect to their adolescents' romantic…

  4. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events comparison with the effects of prenatal dexamethasone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L; Hansen, Ase M; Werge, Thomas; Lund, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...

  5. Prenatal care: difficulties experienced by nurses Atención prenatal: dificultades vivenciadas por las enfermeras Assistência pré-natal: dificuldades vivenciadas pelas enfermeiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Maria Geromel Dotto

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the difficulties nurses experience at the start of their professional life in prenatal care activities. Data were collected through interviews with 25 nurses who accompanied prenatal care in the basic health network of Rio Branco-AC, Brazil and were grouped according to the frequency and level of difficulty they mentioned. We observed that nurses did not demonstrate difficulties in a series of important prenatal care activities at the start of their professional life. However, they reported different levels of difficulties in other activities. Furthermore, the participants pointed out difficulties in activities that require knowledge (knowing as well as abilities (know-how. This study also indicated flaws in undergraduate formation with respect to prenatal care, involving theoretical aspects as well as exclusively practical activities.La finalidad de este estudio fue identificar las dificultades vividas por las enfermeras en el inicio de su vida profesional, en las actividades relacionadas con la atención prenatal. Los datos fueron recopilados a través de entrevistas con 25 enfermeras que acompañaban el prenatal en la red básica de salud del municipio de Rio Branco-AC, Brasil, y fueron agrupados según la frecuencia y el grado de dificultad mencionado por ellas. Constatamos que las enfermeras no presentaron dificultades en una serie de actividades importantes en la atención prenatal, en el inicio de su vida profesional. Sin embargo, relataron que enfrentaron dificultades en otras. Estas dificultades se mostraron como siendo de diferentes grados. Señalaron dificultades en actividades que exigen conocimientos (saber, y también en actividades que necesitan de habilidades (saber-hacer. El estudio todavía indicó fallas en la formación de pregrado respecto a la atención al prenatal, tanto para aspectos teóricos como para actividades exclusivamente prácticas.Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar as dificuldades vivenciadas pelas enfermeiras, no início de sua vida profissional, nas atividades relacionadas à assistência pré-natal. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas com 25 enfermeiras que acompanhavam o pré-natal, na rede básica de saúde do município de Rio Branco-AC, e foram agrupados conforme a freqüência e o grau de dificuldade referido por elas. Constatamos que as enfermeiras não apresentaram dificuldades em uma série de atividades importantes na assistência pré-natal, no início do exercício profissional. No entanto, relataram que enfrentaram dificuldades em outras. Essas dificuldades eram de diferentes graus. Apontaram dificuldades em atividades que exigem conhecimentos (saber como também em atividades que necessitam de habilidades (saber-fazer. O estudo apontou ainda falhas na formação da graduação com relação à atenção ao pré-natal, tanto para aspectos teóricos como para atividades exclusivamente práticas.

  6. William James Morton [1845-1920]: like father, like son (?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte-Feliciano, Antonio; Desai, Sukumar P; Desai, Manisha S

    2013-04-01

    William Thomas Green Morton, the man most commonly associated with the introduction of anesthesia in 1846, fathered William James Morton. William James Morton's contributions to society were substantial. He conducted pioneering work in radiology, radiation oncology, and therapeutic electricity. He authored numerous textbooks and articles, and he was an editor of a journal on human behavior. His expertise on diamond mining led to an error in judgment that resulted in a felony conviction. We examine his career and contributions to society, and consider his career in light of his father, William Thomas Green Morton. PMID:24205753

  7. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events comparison with the effects of prenatal dexamethasone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L; Hansen, Ase M; Werge, Thomas; Lund, Søren

    2005-01-01

    naïve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring that......Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...... of the acoustic startle response. Further, a single aversive life event showed capable of changing the reactivity of prenatally stressed offspring, whereas offspring of dams going through a less stressful gestation was largely unaffected by this event. This suggests that circumstances dating back to...

  8. Prenatal Care Services in Aydin Province

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    Erdal BESER

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care in Aydin province. It was a cross-sectional study. 195 women (pregnant/women at postpartum period living in the Aydin province participated in the study. Cluster and simple random sampling method was used in the selection of women from 10 health centers (one rural-one urban health station each. Data obtained by face to face interview technique. Turkey Demografic Health Survey criteria were used for evaluation of the quantity of prenatal care as ?sufficient? or ?insufficient? and quality of prenatal care was scored as ?1-2?(bad, ?3-4?(moderate and ?5-6?(good. Chi-square, Mann Whitney-U and t tests were used for analysis. One fifth of each pregnant women who were in last trimester and 11.3% of women in postpartum period stated that they were not followed up by an health personnel during pregnancy. One third of pregnant women who were in last trimester and 58.5% of women in postpartum period said they weren?t visited by an health personnel in the first trimester. Besides, quality points of prenatal care were found low, both in pregnant women and women in post partum period. It was found that living in urban areas, high education level and presence of social security effected getting adequate prenatal care. The quality and quantity of prenatal care was found less than expected in Aydin province which is located in the western region of Turkey. It is necessary that, health personnel must be more sensitive to convey ?adequate? prenatal care especially women who are living in rural areas, who have low educational level and who have no social security. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(2: 137-141

  9. Women's and care providers' perspectives of quality prenatal care: a qualitative descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sword Wendy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been given to the adequacy of prenatal care use in promoting healthy outcomes for women and their infants. Adequacy of use takes into account the timing of initiation of prenatal care and the number of visits. However, there is emerging evidence that the quality of prenatal care may be more important than adequacy of use. The purpose of our study was to explore women's and care providers' perspectives of quality prenatal care to inform the development of items for a new instrument, the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire. We report on the derivation of themes resulting from this first step of questionnaire development. Methods A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 pregnant women and 40 prenatal care providers recruited from five urban centres across Canada. Data were analyzed using inductive open and then pattern coding. The final step of analysis used a deductive approach to assign the emergent themes to broader categories reflective of the study's conceptual framework. Results The three main categories informed by Donabedian's model of quality health care were structure of care, clinical care processes, and interpersonal care processes. Structure of care themes included access, physical setting, and staff and care provider characteristics. Themes under clinical care processes were health promotion and illness prevention, screening and assessment, information sharing, continuity of care, non-medicalization of pregnancy, and women-centredness. Interpersonal care processes themes were respectful attitude, emotional support, approachable interaction style, and taking time. A recurrent theme woven throughout the data reflected the importance of a meaningful relationship between a woman and her prenatal care provider that was characterized by trust. Conclusions While certain aspects of structure of care were identified as being key dimensions of quality prenatal care, clinical and interpersonal care processes emerged as being most essential to quality care. These processes are important as they have a role in mitigating adverse outcomes, promoting involvement of women in their own care, and keeping women engaged in care. The findings suggest key considerations for the planning, delivery, and evaluation of prenatal care. Most notably, care should be woman-centred and embrace shared decision making as an essential element.

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of homozygous ?-thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in vitro test for the prenatal diagnosis of homozygous ?-thalassaemia and its application is described. The basic methodology consists in obtaining a minute specimen of placental blood by blind aspiration or foetoscopy at the 18th to 20th week of gestation, incubating a sample in the presence of 3H-leucine, separating the labelled globin chains by chromatography on sodium carboxymethyl cellulose microcolumns with 8M urea-mercaptoethanol and measuring the radioactivity associated with the ?- and ?-chains. The ?/(pre-?+?) radioactivity ratio is used as an index of adequacy of ?-chain synthesis, a value greater than 0.07 being taken as indicative of freedom from disease and a value less than 0.03 indicative of homozygous ?-thalassaemia. From 350 women seeking the test, 344 samples were tested; 269 were judged normal or heterozygous, 75 homozygous for ?-thalassaemia. Four false negatives were identified, 3 having given borderline ?/(pre-?+?) ratios. Complications leading to foetal loss fell from 16% over the first year's experience to 8% over the second and 5% over the third. The test is now judged suitable for general use and is indeed being so used

  11. [Prenatal diagnosis of ovarian cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémond, B; Guibert, L; Jouan, H; Milon, J; Tekou, H; Duval, J M; Babut, J M

    1986-01-01

    The authors report 10 cases of ante-natally diagnosed ovarian cysts. Ultrasonography greatly contributed to the diagnosis of this condition rarely described before. These cysts are usually follicular cysts. Physiopathological explanation still remain unclear: excessive fetal gonadotrope activity, enzymatic abnormality of the theca interna, abnormal stimulation by the mother's HCG are the main hypothesis. Ultrasonographic prenatal diagnosis is based on the discovery of an intra-abdominal round liquid area in a female fetus with normal kidneys and bladder. Obstetrical management is very simple: observation and vaginal delivery. After birth, diagnosis is assessed by clinical examination and ultrasonography which may be able to recognize a possible torsion (intracystic fluid septation). Treatment is conditioned by two facts: first these cysts are usually follicular benign lesions, second there is a high risk of complications, mainly torsion or rupture. Non-operative treatment and observation can be justified for very small cysts which have low risk of torsion. Laparotomy confirms the diagnosis: regarding non complicated cysts, surgery must be as conservative as possible: cystectomy is often feasible, leaving a laminated but functional ovary. Percutaneous puncture under ultrasonography could be considered. PMID:3533290

  12. Biological effects of prenatal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After large releases of radionuclides, exposure of the embryo or fetus can take place by external irradiation or uptake of radionuclies. The embryo and fetus are radiosensitive throughout prenatal development. The quality and extent of radiation effects depend on the development stage. During the preimplantation period (one to 10 days postconception, p.c.) a radiation exposure of at least 0.2 Gy can cause the death of the embryo. Malformations are only observed in rare cases when genetic predisposition exist. Macroscopic, anatomical malformations are induced only after irradiation during the major organogenesis (two to eight weeks p.c.). A radiation dose of about 0.2 Gy is a doubling dose for the malformation risks as extrapolated from experiments with rodents. The human embryo may be more radioresistant. During early fetogenesis (8-15 weeks p.c.) a high radiosensitivity exists for the developmental of the brain. Radiation doses of 1.0 Gy cause severe mental retardation in about 40% of the exposed fetuses. It must be taken into account that a radiation exposure during the fetal period can also induce cancer. It is generally assumed that the risk exists at about the same level as for children. (Author)

  13. Problems in prenatal diagnosis of the ichthyosis congenita group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, M L; Anton-Lamprecht, I

    1985-01-01

    The late onset of normal keratinization after week 24 menstrual age (MA) of fetal life is the cause of considerable problems with the prenatal diagnosis of congenital ichthyosis. This paper summarizes the experiences with prenatal diagnosis in nine pregnancies at risk of congenital ichthyosis and one at risk of chondrodysplasia punctata, rhizomelic type. An important prerequisite--and the main problem--is the manifestation of the mutant genes early enough in fetal life to allow a safe exclusion. Continuous precocious keratinization of the interfollicular epidermis, hyperkeratosis, and/or specific markers of congenital ichthyosis such as various types of lipid inclusions had been expected. With a normal ultrastructure and development of fetal epidermis no evidence of ichthyosis was present in eight cases; all eight children were born healthy. Regional variations of the onset of keratinization of the interfollicular epidermis, observed in one of these eight fetuses as well as in one fetus at risk (but normal for) recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, posed considerable problems and might lead to a false-positive diagnosis. Examination after birth allowed one to localize these regions to areas close to the mamillae. Regional variations in addition to the well-known cranio-caudal gradient thus are normal findings: both children have normal skin. One fetus at risk of non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (type II) was involved without prenatal manifestation of interfollicular keratinization, specific markers, or increased numbers of cornified cells in the pilosebaceous follicles at 20 weeks MA. A slightly more irregular pattern of the horn cell contents was not regarded as sufficient evidence alone to indicate congenital ichthyosis. A severely affected boy was born in week 34 MA. Similarly the fetus at risk of chondrodysplasia punctata showed no skin abnormalities, neither at fetoscopy (week 22 MA) nor after abortion (week 24 MA) although based on other clinical features it was clearly affected. Thus, this genodermatosis cannot be diagnosed prenatally by its keratinization disturbances. In future cases, precocious keratinization and hyperkeratosis cannot be expected to be expressed before week 24 MA, and minor signs, such as irregularities of horn cell contents, have to be taken as an indication of involvement. Multiple biopsies are required, and a safe exclusion may be impossible before week 22 MA. PMID:4077047

  14. Fathers under fire: the revolution in child support enforcement in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    GARFINKEL, IRWIN; McLanahan, Sara; Meyer, Daniel; Seltzer, Judith

    1998-01-01

    In the shadow of rising divorce and non-marital birth rates, nearly two-thirds of all American children today will live apart from at least one of their parents, usually the father. Clearly this astonishing proportion of non-resident fathers has serious implications for the economic, employment, and educational status of mothers and the development and wellbeing of children. But according to the authors of Fathers Under Fire, a more comprehensive perspective on non-resident fathers - understa...

  15. Fathers on Leave Alone: Does It Make a Difference to Their Lives?

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, Karin, 1955-

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades there has been a continuing enhancement of fathers’ leave entitlements. Depending on eligibility criteria and type of leave, fathers may be on leave at the same time as the mother or alone. Despite these developments, little is known about men on leave in a “home alone” manner. The experiences of fathers were explored through a qualitative study using a purposive sample of fourteen Portuguese fathers who took leave alone for one month. Lived experiences are diverse b...

  16. Coercive and Prosocial Fathering, Antisocial Personality, and Growth in Children's Post-Divorce Noncompliance

    OpenAIRE

    DeGarmo, David S.

    2010-01-01

    The study employed multiple methods including direct observation of fathering behaviors and child noncompliance to better address our understanding of the quantity and quality of divorced father contact. A weighted county sample of 230 divorced-father families with a focal child aged 4 to 11 years was employed to test whether fathers' antisocial personality (ASP) moderated effects of monthly contact with children in predicting children's observed noncompliance over 18 months. Latent growth mo...

  17. Fatherhood and children with complex healthcare needs: qualitative study of fathering, caring and parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noyes Jane

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fathers are increasingly providing substantial amounts of technical and nursing care to growing numbers of children with complex healthcare needs. This exploratory study reports some of the first in-depth evidence of fathers' experiences and presents a research agenda in this critically under-researched area. Methods We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 8 fathers who provided a substantial amount of complex technical and nursing care for their child at home. The aim was to describe their experiences of fathering, parenting and caring. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Burnard's approach, which has commonalities with phenomenological and content analysis. Results and Discussion Fathers enjoyed their caring role and found it rewarding and at times stressful. They instituted structured regimes, which focused on the father/child/family. Performing intimate care posed specific challenges for which there is no guidance. Children's community nursing was highly valued. Fathers generally rejected the need for specific father-focussed services, as such provision would induce guilt feelings. Fathers reported positive relationships with their children and partners. Conclusions Key areas for future exploration include gaining a better understanding of fathers' motivations and styles of caring, developing interventions to support fathers' caring role, developing guidance on intimate care, and delivering tailored services to fathers in a family context. There is little understanding of fathering and caring by non-resident, teenage and step-fathers. Finally, knowing more about resilience and coping of fathers in strong relationships with partners and children may help inform interventions to support fathers who do not feel able to stay with their family.

  18. Paternal Depression in the Postnatal Period and Early Father–Infant Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Sethna, Vaheshta; Murray, Lynne; Netsi, Elena; Psychogiou, Lamprini; Ramchandani, Paul G

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Paternal depressive disorder is associated with adverse effects on child development. One possible mechanism for this is through the effects of the disorder on parenting capacities. The link between paternal depression and father–infant interactions was investigated at three-months postpartum. Design. Major depressive disorder was assessed in N = 192 fathers using a structured clinical interview (SCID). Altogether, 54 fathers met criteria for depression, and 99 fathers were categor...

  19. Social Support for Divorced Fathers' Parenting: Testing a Stress-Buffering Model*

    OpenAIRE

    DeGarmo, David S.; Patras, Joshua; Eap, Sopagna

    2008-01-01

    A stress-buffering hypothesis for parenting was tested in a county-representative sample of 218 divorced fathers. Social support for parenting (emergency and nonemergency child care, practical support, financial support) was hypothesized to moderate effects of stress (role overload, coparental conflict, and daily hassles) on fathers’ quality parenting. No custody fathers relied more on relatives compared with custodial fathers, who relied more on new partners for parenting support. No differe...

  20. Prenatal influenza exposure and cardiovascular events in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cocoros, Noelle M; Lash, Timothy L; Ozonoff, Al; Nørgaard, Mette; Demaria, Alfred; Andreasen, Viggo; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between prenatal exposure to pandemic influenza and cardiovascular events in adulthood.......This study examined the association between prenatal exposure to pandemic influenza and cardiovascular events in adulthood....

  1. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Disorganized cortical patches suggest prenatal origin of autism NIH-funded study shows disrupted cell layering process ... study suggests that brain irregularities in children with autism can be traced back to prenatal development. “While ...

  2. The Relationship between Father Residency and a Child's ADHD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Tracey N.; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Frederick, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a commonly diagnosed neuropsychological disorder among school-aged children. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between father residency status and children's symptoms of ADHD using a large, nationally representative and community-based sample. To achieve this…

  3. Parenting Disruptive Preschoolers: Experiences of Mothers and Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Esther J.; Eyberg, Sheila M.; Rich, Brendan; Querido, Jane G.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined parental functioning and interactions with young children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), with emphasis on differences between mothers and fathers in their responses to their child and in their unique contributions to the prediction of child disruptive behavior. Participants were 53 3- to 6-year olds with ODD who…

  4. Fathers' Rights Groups, Domestic Violence and Political Countermobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Jocelyn Elise

    2009-01-01

    Domestic violence continues to be a serious problem for women in the United States. As a result, the battered women's movement has been tireless in campaigning for greater awareness of the issue, tougher penalties against offenders, and public vigilance against potential batterers, including fathers from dissolving families. In reaction to this…

  5. [Losing one's father at 20 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapados, C; Migneron, L; Arcand, L

    1997-01-01

    At first intending to describe and understand how all family members experience mourning, three researchers at the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières found that very few studies have dealt with young men's reactions to the deaths of their fathers. The researchers then conducted a qualitative study, using a phenomenological approach, of this as yet little-explored subject. This study, Le deuil tel qu'expérimenté par les fils lors du décès de leur père (Grieving as experienced by sons on their fathers' death), enabled them to describe and better understand what young men experience on their fathers' death. The father was an important figure in the subjects' lives, and his death was a pivotal experience for each of them. The family structure was shattered and, while each subject's experience was unique, their intense reactions resemble those described by grief theorists. In a detailed discussion of the results of the study, the authors relate these results to theories on grief and youth, and suggest applications in nursing practice. PMID:9355417

  6. Beyond Father Absence: Conceptualization of Effects of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, E. Mavis; And Others

    An investigation of changes in functioning of mothers and fathers following divorce is presented in this paper. Subjects were 24 white middle class boys and 24 girls and their divorced parents, from homes in which custody had been granted to the mother, and the same number of children and parents from intact homes. A multimethod approach,…

  7. Effects of Father Absence on Personality Development in Adolescent Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, E. Mavis

    1972-01-01

    Study suggests that the effects of father absence on daughters appear during adolescence and are manifested mainly as an inability to interact appropriately with males, rather than in other deviations from appropriate sex typing or in interactions with females. (Author/CB)

  8. Positive Experiences of Mothers and Fathers of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayfitz, Adam D.; Gragg, Marcia N.; Orr, R. Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study examined the positive experiences of parents raising school-aged children with autism within the context of parenting stress. Materials and Methods: Participants included 23 mother/father pairs raising children with autism (ages 5 to 11 years, M = 7.39). Parents completed measures of parenting stress and positive…

  9. Father Presence and Family Formation: A Theoretical Reformulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampe, Edythe M.; Fairweather, Paul D.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that studies on transition to parenthood and parent-infant relationship have investigated role of father. Sees family systems perspective focused on triadic and family-of-origin effects in early parenthood. Introduces object relations theory and self-psychology, which permit development of concept of psychic parental coalition, seen as…

  10. Positive Experiences of Mothers and Fathers of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayfitz, Adam D.; Gragg, Marcia N.; Orr, R. Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study examined the positive experiences of parents raising school-aged children with autism within the context of parenting stress. Materials and Methods: Participants included 23 mother/father pairs raising children with autism (ages 5 to 11 years, M = 7.39). Parents completed measures of parenting stress and positive…

  11. Males, Fathers and Husbands: Changing Roles and Reciprocal Legal Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Miriam; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discrimination toward men can be found in the legal definition of marriage, legal age requirements at marriage, support, child custody, unmarried fathers' rights, abortion, and cohabitation. With the increasing equality between the sexes, men will gain in their legal options of roles. (Author)

  12. Mothers' and Fathers' Socialization of Preschoolers' Physical Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Lisa Kindleberger; Kuebli, Janet

    2007-01-01

    This study examined how parents influence sex differences in young children's physical risk taking behaviors. Eighty three- and four-year old, mostly middle class and Caucasian children climbed across a five-foot high catwalk and walked across a three-foot high beam under their mother or father's supervision. Based on average preschooler gross…

  13. In honor of my father and my son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, I M

    1998-01-01

    The author advises survivors on the four tasks of grief and reflects on the suicide of her college-age son in 1977 and the recent death of her father, a suicidologist, from age-related causes. She describes current collaborative efforts by organizations dedicated to the prevention and aftermath of suicide. PMID:9894303

  14. The Relationship between Father Residency and a Child's ADHD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Tracey N.; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Frederick, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a commonly diagnosed neuropsychological disorder among school-aged children. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between father residency status and children's symptoms of ADHD using a large, nationally representative and community-based sample. To achieve this…

  15. Fathering and Mothering of Preschool Boys with Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Louise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined links between paternal and maternal parenting factors and preschool hyperactivity in a community sample. Forty-one hyperactive and 38 comparison boys (aged 47-62 months) and their fathers and mothers were assessed on a range of interview, parent questionnaire, and observational measures of parenting and child behavior. Results…

  16. Mothers, Fathers, Peers, and Mexican-Origin Adolescents' Sexual Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Sarah E.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Christopher, F. Scott; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a symbolic-interaction perspective and a compensation model, the processes linking mother- and father-adolescent relationship qualities, deviant peer affiliations, and adolescents' sexual intentions were investigated for 246 Mexican-origin youths born in the United States and in Mexico using multiple-group structural equation models.…

  17. Father-School Communication in Preschool and Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Zhang, Yubo

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the frequency, characteristics, and predictors of father-school communication in preschool and kindergarten in a sample of children "at risk" for school failure based on family sociodemographic characteristics. Data were gathered during the implementation of the National Center for Early Development and Learning Transition…

  18. Father-Child Interactions and Children's Risk of Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    StGeorge, Jennifer; Fletcher, Richard; Freeman, Emily; Paquette, Daniel; Dumont, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injury is an important cause of infant and child hospitalisation and parents play a key role in reducing children's risk-taking behaviour. Studies show that maternal and paternal parenting and supervision of children differ, but there is little research showing how fathers' parenting may influence children's tendency to engage in…

  19. Mother-Father Differences in Screening for Developmental Delay in Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepanec, Maja; Lice, Karolina; Simlesa, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In most cases, caregiver questionnaires are completed by mothers and seldom by fathers. Although parents tend to have moderate to high congruence, some studies suggest that differences between the mothers' and the fathers' answers can complicate diagnostic decision-making. The aim of this study was to determine mother-father response…

  20. Mother and Father Language Input to Young Children: Contributions to Later Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancsofar, Nadya; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    There has been little research comparing the nature and contributions of language input of mothers and fathers to their young children. This study examined differences in mother and father talk to their 24 month-old children. This study also considered contributions of parent education, child care quality and mother and father language (output,…

  1. Coercive and Prosocial Fathering, Antisocial Personality, and Growth in Children's Postdivorce Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGarmo, David Scott

    2010-01-01

    To better understand quantity and quality of divorced father contact, a weighted county sample of 230 divorced fathers with a child aged 4-11 years was employed to test whether fathers' antisocial personality (ASP) moderated effects of monthly contact with children in predicting children's observed noncompliance. Eighteen-month latent growth…

  2. Intrusive Fathering, Children's Self-Regulation and Social Skills: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, M.; Crnic, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fathers have unique influences on children's development, and particularly in the development of social skills. Although father-child relationship influences on children's social competence have received increased attention in general, research on fathering in families of children with developmental delays (DD) is scant. This…

  3. Father's Incarceration and Youth Delinquency and Depression: Examining Differences by Race and Ethnicity

    OpenAIRE

    Swisher, Raymond R.; Roettger, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines associations between biological father's incarceration and internalizing and externalizing outcomes of depression and serious delinquency, across White, Black, and Hispanic subsamples of youth in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Among respondents whose father was first incarcerated during childhood or adolescence, father's incarceration is found to be associated with increased depression and delinquency. On the whole, results indicate that associations...

  4. Talking to a Tiger: Fathers Reveal Their Difficulties in Communicating about Sexuality with Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Maggie; Rosenthal, Doreen A.; Feldman, S. Shirley

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties experienced by fathers in carrying out what they accept as their parental responsibility to communicate with their children about sexuality. Includes examples from interviews with fathers, their wives, and their adolescent children. Finds that fathers' difficulties result from conflicts between traditional masculinity…

  5. Father-Child Contact after Separation: The Influence of Living Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiss, Liam; Le Bourdais, Celine

    2009-01-01

    Following divorce or separation, father-child contact is deemed an important influence on child development. Previous research has explored the impact of sociodemographic and attitudinal factors on the amount of contact between fathers and their children following a union dissolution. This article revisits this important question using fathers

  6. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  7. Coping as Divorced Single Parents: A Comparative Study of Fathers and Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrain, John; Eirick, Rod

    1981-01-01

    A study of divorced single parents with custody found little difference between fathers and mothers on most measures and lifestyles. Fathers tended to have more education and income and were less likely to move following the divorce. Fathers were more likely to encourage the children to take sides. (Author/JAC)

  8. Community Attitudes toward Birth Fathers Motives for Adoption Placement and Single Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miall, Charlene E.; March, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Community attitudes toward birth fathers were examined using 82 exploratory qualitative interviews and 706 survey respondents in Canada. Community attitudes were more positive toward birth fathers raising their children over adoption, when birth mothers were unable or unwilling to parent the child. Overall, respondents considered birth fathers…

  9. Fathers' Early Emotion Talk: Associations with Income, Ethnicity, and Family Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Zerwas, Stephanie; Cox, Martha; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Contextual, mother-, child-, and father-level variables were examined in association with fathers' emotion talk to infants during a shared picture book activity, in an ethnically diverse, low-income sample (N = 549). Significant main effects included the rate of emotion talk from fathers' romantic partners (i.e., the infant's mother), infant…

  10. Well-Being, Involvement in Paid Work and Division of Child-Care in Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, M. B.; Hwang, C. P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to compare mothers' and fathers' involvement in paid work and child-care in families of children with intellectual disability (ID) and control families and to test if differences in well-being between mothers and fathers of children with ID can be explained by differences in involvement in paid work and…

  11. Parenting across Racial and Class Lines: Assortative Mating Patterns of New Parents Who Are Married, Cohabiting, Dating or No Longer Romantically Involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joshua R.; Harknett, Kristen

    2006-01-01

    We examine the assortative mating patterns of new parents who are married, cohabiting, romantically involved and no longer romantically involved. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study, we find that relationship status at the time of a birth depends mainly on father's race rather than on whether mother and father's…

  12. ¿Cómo se llamaba el padre? // What is the father`s name?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Cruz Aponasenko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Está a punto de estrenarse en cine, o quizás ya se estrenó en otras latitudes, la versión cinematográfica del último libro de Cormack McCarthy: La carretera. Galardonado con el Pulitzer por este último libro y conocido entre los lectores casuales gracias a su anterior novela: No country for old men, llevada al cine de forma impecable por los hermanos Cohen, McCarthy sorprende dejando ver que a lo largo de su obra, en particular en La carretera, aparece una pregunta por el padre. Tema que de continuo tratan los psicoanalistas, desafortunadamente no con la belleza con que lo hace el poeta. La obra de McCarthy es otro de los tantos ejemplos en los que la literatura enseña al psicoanálisis. // The premiere is ready or maybe it was showed in other latitudes the Cormack Mccarthy movie version of his last book: The Road. This last book won the Pulitzer Prize, also known among the casual readers for his previous novel: No country for old men, impeccable movie version by Cohen brothers. Along his work McCarthy surprise allowing to see, especially in The Road, a question for the father. Subject usually worked by the psychoanalysts, unfortunately, not with the same beauty that the poet does it. McCarthy’s work is other among many examples where the literature teaches to psychoanalysis.

  13. Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinicke, Kenneth; Cybulski, Franz Wilhelm; Drews, Lea Vedel; Sørensen, Bo Wagner

    Danish men and 8 employers, shows that many men’s ideas about fatherhood and family responsibility tend to revolve around such aspects as close contact and involvement with children. However, it seems that men do not acknowledge fully the significance of gender for their decisions concerning the child...

  14. Parental involvement after separation/divorce / O envolvimento parental após a separação/divórcio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Suárez Grzybowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the ecological-contextual model and on the concept of parental involvement, this article proposes to discuss the parental practices of separated/divorced fathers and mothers towards their children. In order to do so, 234 subjects (117 fathers/117 mothers with children at school were interviewed via the Parental Practices Inventory. Such instrument evaluated the parental involvement in 5 areas: affective involvement, didactic involvement, social involvement, disciplinary involvement and, responsibility. The results showed greater maternal involvement with children after the divorce: direct (care, interaction and indirect (monitoring, preoccupation. The cohabitation with the mother revealed itself as a significant variable associated to her greater involvement with activities in the private/domestic environment while fathers had greater involvement in the public/social space. Contextual characteristics (cohabitation, frequency of visits and characteristics of the parents (occupation, education, affective and conjugal issues showed to be strongly associated with the parental involvement after divorce.

  15. Prenatal Diagnosis and Outcome of Congenital Lung Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the widespread use of high-resolution ultrasound examinations, congenital lung masses are frequently detected during a routine prenatal ultrasound examination. The purpose of this pictorial review is to demonstrate the natural history of congenital lung masses through the evaluation of serial prenatal ultrasound examinations and postnatal examinations, and to suggest adequate prenatal management

  16. Prenatal Diagnosis and Outcome of Congenital Lung Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi Jin [Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    With the widespread use of high-resolution ultrasound examinations, congenital lung masses are frequently detected during a routine prenatal ultrasound examination. The purpose of this pictorial review is to demonstrate the natural history of congenital lung masses through the evaluation of serial prenatal ultrasound examinations and postnatal examinations, and to suggest adequate prenatal management

  17. Early prenatal diagnosis of the ICF syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björck, E J; Bui, T H; Wijmenga, C; Grandell, U; Nordenskjöld, M

    2000-10-01

    The ICF syndrome (immunodeficiency, (para)centromeric instability and facial abnormalities) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic cytogenetic aberrations of chromosomes 1, 9 and 16 in lymphocytes. Previously, only one case has been diagnosed prenatally in the second trimester of pregnancy by fetal blood sampling. We report the first early prenatal exclusion of the ICF syndrome by chorionic villous sampling (CVS) and linkage analysis in a family with a previous affected child. The fetus was heterozygous for marker D20S850 closely linked to the ICF locus. The family was counselled of a probability of over 90% that the fetus would be unaffected. Postnatal chromosome analysis on peripheral blood was normal and thus confirmed the prenatal diagnosis. PMID:11038463

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerovac Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lissencephaly (“smooth brain” forms a major group of brain malformations due to abnormal neuronal migration. It can cause severe intellectual and motor disability and epilepsy in children. The prenatal diagnosis of this malformation is rare. Case report. We presented a case of the prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly. A 30-year old pregnant woman was reffered to the hospital at the week 35 of gestation for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI after an ultrasound examination demonstrated fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly. Fetal MRI of the brain showed “smooth”, agyrya cortex. The female infant was born at term with birth weight of 2,500 g and Apgar score 8, showing global developmental delay. Postnatal ultrasound and MRI confirmed classical lissencephaly. She is now 8 years old and has spastic quadriparesis, mental retardation and epilepsy. Conclusion. Confirmation of the ultrasound diagnosis with MRI is desirable for the prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly.

  19. Co-Parenting Relationship Experiences of Black Adolescent Mothers in Active Romantic Partnerships With the Fathers of Their Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, LaRon E; Thach, Chia T; Shelton, Melissa M; Boyer, Cherrie B

    2015-08-01

    We conducted an interpretive description of co-parenting relationship experiences of romantically involved Black adolescent mothers and fathers with shared biological children. The study was conducted in Brooklyn, New York, using data from individual in-depth interviews with adolescent mothers and fathers (n = 10). Four themes were identified: (a) putting our heads together; (b) balancing childhood and parenthood; (c) less money, more problems; and (d) if we use condoms, it is for contraception. The co-parenting couples managed very complex relationships, but their mutual interest in the welfare of their children was a relational asset. Co-parents had sparse financial resources but used a moral economy strategy to provide mutual support. Future research is needed that focuses on identifying other co-parent relationship assets and integrating and evaluating their utility for enhancing interventions for adolescent families. PMID:25486931

  20. Trait Verbal Aggressiveness and the Appropriateness and Effectiveness of Fathers' Interaction Plans II: Fathers' Self-Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Jill E.; Beatty, Michael J.; Dobos, Jean A.; Vogl-Bauer, Sally

    1997-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on family communication, finding that fathers' perceptions of the appropriateness and effectiveness of tactics with oppositional sons was largely a function of their level of trait verbal aggressiveness, which was (1) negatively related to perceptions of appropriateness and effectiveness of supportive tactics, and (2)…

  1. Model of cryptogenic infantile spasms after prenatal corticosteroid priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velíšek, Libor; Chachua, Tamar; Yum, Mi-Sun; Poon, Ka-Lai; Velíšková, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Infantile spasms (IS) is a devastating epilepsy syndrome of childhood. They occur in 3-12 month old infants and are characterized by spasms, interictal EEG hypsarrhythmia and profound mental retardation. Hormonal therapy (ACTH, corticosteroids) are frequently used, their efficacy is however tainted by severe side effects. For research of novel therapies, a validated animal model of IS is required. We propose the model of spastic seizures triggered by NMDA in infant rats prenatally exposed to betamethasone. The spasms have remarkable similarity to human IS, including motor flexion spasms, ictal EEG electrodecrement, and responsiveness to ACTH. Interestingly, the spasms do not involve the hippocampus. Autoradiographic metabolic mapping as well as tagging the areas of neuronal excitation with c-fos indicate a strong involvement of hypothalamic structures such as the arcuate nucleus, which has significant bilateral connections with other hypothalamic nuclei as well as with the brainstem. PMID:20618421

  2. Group prenatal care: has its time come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklesimer, Amy; Heberlein, Emily; Covington-Kolb, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Group prenatal care is an emerging trend in obstetrics, and for medically low-risk women has been shown to result in lower rates of preterm birth, higher rates of breastfeeding, and higher rates of participation in postpartum family planning. Significant cost savings to the health care system are seen when the lower rates of preterm birth and neonatal intensive care unit admissions are considered. More research is needed about patients' health outcomes as well as the economic and workforce implications to outpatient obstetric practices before widely transitioning prenatal care into group settings. PMID:25775438

  3. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  4. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  5. Presenting the Prenatal Caregiving Experiences Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røhder, Katrine; Trier, Christopher Høier; Brennan, Jessica; Nayberg, Emilie; Lundy, Jenna Marie; Nyström-Hansen, Maja; Davidsen, Kirstine Agnete; Walsh, Judi; George, Carol; Harder, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    child´s attachment system. The Prenatal Caregiving Experiences Questionnaire (PCEQ) (Brennan, George, & Solomon, 2013) is the first questionnaire that directly assesses prenatal caregiving representation. This poster presentation brings together different researchers who use the instrument in ongoing......The caregiving system was originally described by Bowlby and has been conceptually developed by George and Solomon (1989; 1996; 2008). It is “the other half” of the social bond between parent and child and is described as a behavioural system in its own right that is reciprocally linked to the...

  6. Prenatally diagnosed de novo complex chromosome rearrangements: Two new cases and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, C.; Grubs, R.E.; Jewett, T. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCR) are rare structural rearrangements involving at least three chromosomes with three or more breakpoints. Although there have been numerous reports of individuals with CCR, most have been ascertained through the presence of multiple congenital anomalies, recurrent pregnancy loss, or infertility. Few cases have been ascertained prenatally. We present two new cases of prenatally ascertained CCR. In the first case, an amniocentesis revealed an apparently balanced de novo rearrangement in which chromosomes 5, 6 and 11 were involved in a three-way translocation: 46,XY,t(6;5)(5;11)(q23;p14.3;q15;p13). The pregnancy was unevenful. Recently, at the age of 9 months, a physical and developmental evaluation were normal but, height, weight, and head circumference were below the 5th percentile. In the second case an amniocentesis revealed an unbalanced de novo rearrangement involving separate translocations and an interstitial deletion: 46,XY,del(6)(q25.3q27),t(3;8)(p13;q21.3),t(6;18)(p11.2;q11.2). A meconium plug was present at birth and at 6 months of age surgery for Hirschsprung`s disease was required. Currently, at 10 months of age, the patient has hypotonia and developmental delay. The paucity of information regarding prenatally diagnosed CCR poses a problem in counseling families. Of the four prenatally diagnosed balanced de novo CCR cases, three had abnormal outcomes. In a review of the literature, approximately 70% of the postnatally ascertained balanced de novo CCR cases were associated with congenital anomalies, growth retardation and/or mental retardation. More information regarding the outcome of prenatally ascertained balanced de novo CCR is required for accurate risk assessment.

  7. Premisas éticas en el diagnóstico prenatal de defectos congénitos en Cuba / Ethical premises in the prenatal diagnosis of congenital defects in Cuba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iris Andrea, Rojas Betancourt; Arianne, Llamos Paneque; Beatriz, Marcheco Teruel.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es presentar una propuesta de premisas éticas para la práctica del diagnóstico prenatal de defectos congénitos. Se realizó un estudio sistemático, profundo y crítico sobre el tema y sobre los resultados de investigaciones realizadas en población cubana y los derivados de [...] talleres realizados con la participación de especialistas de la Red Nacional de Genética Médica; para su elaboración se tuvieron en cuenta los principios éticos más universalmente aceptados y recomendados por la OMS y otros organismos internacionales, así como las resoluciones y leyes cubanas relacionadas con este tema. Se presentan normativas generales, sobre el diagnóstico prenatal y el aborto selectivo, el asesoramiento genético y el revelado de información; esta propuesta se complementa con otras normativas propias de la investigación científica y relacionadas con el consentimiento informado, las investigaciones que involucran pacientes, aspectos de la ética profesional y de las publicaciones científicas. Estas normativas en su conjunto conforman las premisas éticas que garantizan el respeto a los derechos y a la dignidad de las personas que son atendidas en los servicios de asesoramiento genético y diagnóstico prenatal y formarán parte de un manual para la provisión de servicios en la red de genética médica de Cuba. Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to submit a proposal of ethical premises for prenatal diagnosis of congenital defects. An in-depth systematic and critical study was conducted on the topic and on the results of research works carried out with the Cuban population and those of workshops where the Nati [...] onal Network of Medical Genetics experts participated. For their preparation, the universally accepted ethical principles that are recommended by WHO and other international bodies, as well as the Cuban resolutions and laws in this regard were all taken into account. Some general standards on prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion and on the approach to genetic counseling and the disclosure of information were presented. This proposal was supplemented with other standards inherent to the scientific research, since during prenatal diagnosis practice, some research works can emerge, the results of which may be published, that is, informed consent, research involving patients, ethical aspects of scientific publications and professional ethics elements. These standards are the ethical premises that guarantee the respect to the rights and to the dignity of those persons who are served by the genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis services, and will be part of a manual for the provision of services in the medical genetic network of Cuba.

  8. Depression-like effect of prenatal buprenorphine exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chih-Jen; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Wen-Ying; Chang, Cheng-Yi; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang; Pan, Hung-Chuan; Liao, Su-Lan; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Studies indicate that perinatal opioid exposure produces a variety of short- and long-term neurobehavioral consequences. However, the precise modes of action are incompletely understood. Buprenorphine, a mixed agonist/antagonist at the opioid receptors, is currently being used in clinical trials for managing pregnant opioid addicts. This study provides evidence of depression-like consequence following prenatal exposure to supra-therapeutic dose of buprenorphine and sheds light on potential mechanisms of action in a rat model involving administration of intraperitoneal injection to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats starting from gestation day 7 and lasting for 14 days. Results showed that pups at postnatal day 21 but not the dams had worse parameters of depression-like neurobehaviors using a forced swimming test and tail suspension test, independent of gender. Neurobehavioral changes were accompanied by elevation of oxidative stress, reduction of plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and serotonin, and attenuation of tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (TrkB) phosphorylation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, protein kinase A activity, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, and CREB DNA-binding activity. Since BDNF/serotonin and CREB signaling could orchestrate a positive feedback loop, our findings suggest that the induction of oxidative stress, reduction of BDNF and serotonin expression, and attenuation of CREB signaling induced by prenatal exposure to supra-therapeutic dose of buprenorphine provide evidence of potential mechanism for the development of depression-like neurobehavior. PMID:24367510

  9. Anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors: a comparison of anxious mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teetsel, Rebekah N; Ginsburg, Golda S; Drake, Kelly L

    2014-01-01

    The majority of research identifying anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors has been conducted with mothers, leaving a gap in current knowledge about the role of fathers' parenting behaviors. In an attempt to fill this gap, this study compared anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors of anxious mothers and fathers. Parents completed self-report measures of parenting behavior and independent coders rated parenting behaviors (i.e., overcontrol, granting of autonomy, warmth, hostility, anxious behavior) of mothers (n = 34) and fathers (n = 21) during a challenging parent-child interaction task (children were ages 6-12). Results indicated that anxious fathers were observed to be more controlling than anxious mothers; while anxious mothers reported using more punishment and reinforcement of children's dependence in anxiety provoking situations compared to fathers. Findings extend our knowledge about anxious fathers, and highlight the need for additional research on the impact of fathers' parenting with respect to the development of child anxiety. PMID:23677528

  10. Social Behavior of Offspring Following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure in Rodents: A Comparison with Prenatal Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    SonyaKrishnaSobrian; R.RobertHolson

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) alters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models, a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PC...

  11. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events comparison with the effects of prenatal dexamethasone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L; Hansen, Ase M; Werge, Thomas; Lund, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed gestationally by chronic mild stress (CMS, a variable schedule of different stressors) or dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid, i.e., a pharmacological stressor) was tested for reactivity by testing ...

  12. Comparing CenteringPregnancy® to standard prenatal care plus prenatal education

    OpenAIRE

    Benediktsson Ingunn; McDonald Sheila W; Vekved Monica; McNeil Deborah A; Dolan Siobhan M; Tough Suzanne C

    2013-01-01

    Background There is significant evidence to support the importance of prenatal care in preventing adverse outcomes such as preterm birth and low infant birth weight. Previous studies have indicated that the benefits of prenatal care are not evenly distributed throughout the social strata. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that among particular populations, rates of preterm birth are unchanged or increasing. This suggests that an alternate care model is necessary, one that seeks to addr...

  13. Antecedentes y actualidades en el diagnóstico prenatal History and latest advances of the prenatal diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gloria Díaz Martínez

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza una revisión del desarrollo y evolución del diagnóstico prenatal a partir de la información obtenida en las bases de datos MEDLINE, LILACS y la de Literatura Cubana de Medicina, de los años 1988 a 1994, localizadas en los órganos de información del Sistema Nacional de Información de Ciencias Médicas. Se ofrece la importancia del diagnóstico prenatal, así como los aspectos a tener en cuenta en su aplicación. Se concluye que la decisión de poner en práctica una u otra técnica de diagnóstico prenatal en la madre depende de los resultados de las exploraciones realizadas y de las enfermedades que van a ser investigadas, considerando los riesgos y beneficios que éste implica.It is made a review of the development and evolution of the prenatal diagnosis based on the information obtained from the MEDLINE, LILACS and Cuban Medical Literature databases, from 1988 to 1994,located at the information organs from the National Medical Sciences Information System. It is explained the importance of the prenatal diagnosis as well as the aspects that should be taken into account for its application. It is concluded that the decision to put into practice one or another prenatal diagnosis technique on the mother depends on the results of the screening carried out and on the diseases to be investigated, considering its risks and benefits.

  14. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events comparison with the effects of prenatal dexamethasone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed gestationally by chronic mild stress (CMS, a variable schedule of different stressors) or dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid, i.e., a pharmacological stressor) was tested for reactivity by testing their acoustic startle response (ASR). Two subsets of offspring were tested. One was experimentally naïve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring that had been blood sampled 3 months previously. In conclusion, similarity of the effects of maternal gestational exposure to aregular stress schedule and of exposure to a synthetic glucocorticoid suggests that maternal glucocorticoids may be a determining factor for changes in the regulatory mechanisms of the acoustic startle response. Further, a single aversive life event showed capable of changing the reactivity of prenatally stressed offspring, whereas offspring of dams going through a less stressful gestation was largely unaffected by this event. This suggests that circumstances dating back to the very beginning of life affect the individual's sensitivity towards experiences in life after birth. The prenatal environment may thus form part of the explanation of the considerable individual variation in the development of psychopathology.

  15. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

  16. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Cortical Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Normandy University, and Rouen and Brest Universities, France studied the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cortical microvascular and the action of alcohol, glutamate, and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF on activity, plasticity, and survival of microvessels in mice.

  17. Effect of brain prenatal irradiations (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendency of intellectual deficiency and emotion disturbance among children which were irradiated in womb was found. Study of the risk of endogenic psychic disorder development and, first of all, schizophrenia in pre-natally irradiated children, as a result of Chernobyl catastrophe, is of special interest. 256 refs., 1 tab

  18. Ultrasound demonstration of prenatal renal vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case report illustrates the sonographic appearance of such calcifications which to our knowledge have not been described. We observed abnormalities on a prenatal ultrasound at 37 weeks of gestation and calcifications within the kidney on ultrasound during the neonatal period in an infant of a mother with Class B diabetes mellitus. (orig.)

  19. Prenatal diagnosis and treatment: Pediatric surgical aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Meliko?lu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of the congenital surgical abnormalities can be determined prior to birth. Most of these defects are perceived from ultrasonographic examinations during pregnancy. Some of the complicated abnormalities detected in the prenatal period, with the collaboration of obstetrics, neonatology, genetics, pediatrics and pediatric surgery specialists, can also be treated prenatally by taking the decision of family. Prenatal information related with the type of birth, minimal requirements for a possible maternal hospital, possible course of the diasease, management protocols and their effects on the future of unborn patient should be given in detail to tha parents. As the delivery time approaches, many of the pregnant mothers with managable abormalities should be directed to the appropriate centers where the previously mentioned teams work. For those fetuses with severe, life threatening abnormalities, evaluation of the abortion decision should be made earlier. In these centers, either the baby is delivered in the preterm period or the method for the birth could be altered acording to the characteristics of the abnormality. Intrauterin correction is required for some fetuses. Postnatal treatment of the most abnormalities ascertained will be made by pediatric surgeons. By courtesy of these consultations, due to the prenatal follow up and and planned emergent treatment following birth, birth place and method could be changed. (Turk Arch Ped 2010; 45 Suppl: 1-3

  20. Fathers, daughters, and self-objectification: does bonding style matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles-McLean, Haley; Liss, Miriam; Erchull, Mindy J

    2014-09-01

    As women are exposed to objectification and the "male gaze," they self-objectify, which predicts negative psychological outcomes. Given the centrality of the "male gaze," positive father/child relationships may have a buffering effect. In this study, women (N=447) completed a survey measuring paternal bonding (care and overprotection), self-objectification, negative eating attitudes, and depression. Women were categorized into four groups based on bonding style. Analyses indicated an interaction such that women who reported high care and low overprotection reported the fewest negative eating attitudes. A path model was tested for each group. The fit of the high care/high overprotection group's model significantly differed from that of the high care/low overprotection group. The relationships between body surveillance and shame as well as between shame and negative eating attitudes were stronger in the former group. These findings suggest that caring but overprotective fathers may exacerbate the negative effects of body surveillance and shame. PMID:25194310

  1. Albert Einstein as the father of solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cardona, M

    2005-01-01

    Einstein is usually revered as the father of special and general relativity. In this article I demonstrate that he is also the father of Solid State Physics, or even his broader version known as Condensed Matter Physics (including liquids). His 1907 article on the specific heat of solids introduces, for the first time, the effect of lattice vibrations on the thermodynamic properties of crystals, in particular the specific heat. His 1905 article on the photoelectric effect and photoluminescence opened the fields of photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Other important achievements include Bose-Einstein condensation and the Einstein relation between the difussion coefficient an mobility. In this article I discuss Einstein's papers relevant to these topics and their relevance to modern day condensed matter physics.

  2. Väter vom Aufbruch überfordert? Fathers Overwhelmed by Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Scheele

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Wie erfahren Väter die Veränderungen, die im Gefolge der Frauenbewegungen in heterosexuellen Partnerschaften und Familien stattgefunden haben? Wie gehen sie damit um, dass an sie als „Neue Väter“ Anforderungen gestellt werden, die teilweise inkompatibel mit ihren Männlichkeitsbildern sind? Eine Reaktion, die sich großer medialer Aufmerksamkeit erfreut, ist das Engagement in Väterinitiativen. Anja Wolde analysiert die kollektiven Deutungsmuster dieser Vereinigungen zwischen Selbsthilfegruppe und Lobby-Organisation.How do fathers experience the changes that have occurred in heterosexual partnerships and families following the women’s movement? How do they deal with the requirements placed on them as “new fathers,” which can be partially incompatible with their own images of masculinity? One reaction that has received great media attention has been their engagement in fatherhood initiatives. Anja Wolde analyses the collective patterns of interpretation of these initiatives, formed of a union between self-help group and lobby organization.

  3. Migration and father absence: shifting family structure in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna

    2013-08-01

    Despite many changing demographic processes in Mexico-declining adult mortality, rising divorce, and rising nonmarital fertility-Mexican children's family structure has been most affected by rising migration rates. Data from five national surveys spanning three decades demonstrate that since 1976, migration has shifted from the least common to the most common form of father household absence. Presently, more than 1 in 5 children experience a father's migration by age 15; 1 in 11 experiences his departure to the United States. The proportions are significantly higher among those children born in rural communities and those born to less-educated mothers. The findings emphasize the importance of framing migration as a family process with implications for children's living arrangements and attendant well-being, particularly in resource-constrained countries. The stability of children's family life in these regions constitutes a substantial but poorly measured cost of worldwide increases in migration. PMID:23355282

  4. Chinese adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles of fathers and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1995-06-01

    Father Treated and Mother Treated subscales of the Parent Image Differential were used to assess recalled parental treatment styles of 2,150 Chinese secondary school students. Results from reliability and factor analyses showed that both scales were internally consistent, and two factors (Concern and Restrictiveness) were abstracted from each of these scales. The data on gender differences in parenting revealed significant differences, across socioeconomic classes, between paternal and maternal treatment styles, with the fathers perceived to be relatively more restrictive and showing less concern than the mothers. The data suggest that differences between paternal and maternal treatment styles exist in the Chinese context but that signs of gradual change in the differences are appearing. PMID:7798077

  5. Support and encouragement of the father in breastfeeding: bibliographic study

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Maria Viana Rêgo; Ângela Maria Alves e Souza; Maria Josefina da Silva; Violante Augusto Batista Braga; Maria Dalva Santos Alves; Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    The participation of the father in the breastfeeding must be culturally assimilated by health professionals and by the society. This is a bibliographical descriptive and documentary study, aims to present t...

  6. Support Needs of Expectant Mothers and Fathers: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Widarsson, Margareta; Kerstis, Birgitta; Sundquist, Kristina; Engström, Gabriella; Sarkadi, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe expectant mothers’ and fathers’ perceived needs of support during pregnancy. Twenty-two women and 10 men were interviewed in four focus groups and 13 individual interviews. Systematic text condensation was performed to analyze the data. Parents described not only a broad spectrum of social support needs but also needs of psychological and physical support. They also requested to share their experiences with others. The foci of care and parents’ needs of s...

  7. Pierre Jacquinot: a scientist, a professor and a father

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquinot, Jean

    2007-10-01

    The milestones of Pierre Jacquinot's scientific career are deeply linked to his personal life. For the author, Pierre Jacquinot was primarily and fully a father. At home, he occasionally talked about science but was discreet about the impressive progress of his work. However a combined passion for both science and teaching would emerge at all times. This paper is an account of the evolution of his career and of his thoughts through the eyes of an admiring son who is also a scientist.

  8. Fathers, sons and the political in contemporary Afrikaans fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Visagie, Andries

    2001-01-01

    This article examines the role of the father in the transferral of ideological beliefs to the son within the Afrikaans-speaking family as represented in the fiction of contemporary male authors, specifically Alexander Strachan, Mark Behr and S.P. Benjamin. The research is guided by the central question of ideological factors regulating the relation between gender and politics. Kaja Silverman's interpretation of Jacques Lacan's work and her psychoanalytical distinction between the penis and th...

  9. Mothers, Fathers and Children after Divorce: The Role of Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    DEL BOCA, Daniela

    2002-01-01

    In recent years the increase in the divorce rate in many advanced countries and the predominance of female-headed families among the poor has generated much interest in the relationship between divorce and the welfare of mothers and children. In this paper I will review a small body of economic literature which has been recently developed in order to analyze the economic consequence of divorce on the welfare of fathers, mothers and children under alternative behavioral assumptions. Important ...

  10. Fathers in Portugal: from old to new masculinities

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, Karin, 1955-

    2015-01-01

    Major shifts in gender cultures, policies, and practices in Portugal have brought about substantial changes in fathers' roles and practices over the last few decades. ln contrast to a still,strong male breadwinner model in other southern European countries, public policies since the transition to democracy in 1974 have promoted gender equality in employment and in the care of young children. This has made for a public gender culture that has eroded the male provider-female care...

  11. Father, Son, Wife, Husband: Philanthropy as Exchange and Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kwok-bun

    2010-01-01

    This essay attempts to use exchange and balance theories to explain philanthropy. For exchange, such theoretical components as attractions or rewards, costs, barriers and alternatives are invoked to make sense of the biography of a Chinese philanthropist in Hong Kong who donated two schools to remember his father and wife. The balance theory was also used, which argues that people do not seek to maximize their pleasure or to minimize their pain, but to balance, advancing one purpose or concer...

  12. Mothers, Fathers, Peers, and Mexican-Origin Adolescents’ Sexual Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    KILLOREN, SARAH E.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Christopher, F. Scott; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a symbolic-interaction perspective and a compensation model, the processes linking mother-and father-adolescent relationship qualities, deviant peer affiliations, and adolescents’ sexual intentions were investigated for 246 Mexican-origin youths born in the United States and in Mexico using multiple-group structural equation models. Deviant peer affiliations significantly mediated the relations between paternal acceptance and sexual intentions and between disclosure to mothers and ...

  13. Prenatal Sonographic Findings of Polysplenic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Suh, Jeong Soo [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ho [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    We report 6 cases of polysplenic syndrome diagnosed on prenatal sonography. The mean menstrual age at the time of presentation was 275 weeks (range 184 to 38 weeks). All cases were examined using level-II prenatal sonography. The sonographic findings of polysplenic syndrome were retrograde analyzed and compared to the autopsy or postnatal findings. Polysplenia was detected in 5 cases on the prenatal sonography. Associated cardiovascular anomalies were detected in all 6 cases, all of which had more than one anomaly, namely complete atrioventricular septal defect in two cases, double outlet right ventricle combined with rudimentary LV or mitral atresia in two cases and VSD and ASD in one case each. There were three cases of interrupted IVC with azygous continuation of the posterior thorax. Bradycardia was observed in 2 cases, one of which showed AV dissociation of rhythm. Visceral abnormalities were present in all cases and there were combined anomalies such as echogenic bowel, pelviectasia, horseshoe kidney, and posterior neck cystic hygroma and fetal hydrops. Four cases terminated pregnancy. The autopsy results of 2 cases were comparable to those of the prenatal sonography, however autopsies were not performed in 2 cases. One fetus near term was delivered and the baby subsequently underwent heart surgery and was still alive at the last follow-up. The remaining one case was lost to follow-up. If multiple fetal anomalies, including complex heart disease and polysplenia, are detected in the prenatal sonography, a diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome can be made. IVC interruption with azygous continuation can also be helpful in the diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome, and this can be observed by detecting the double vessel of the posterior thorax

  14. Prenatal Sonographic Findings of Polysplenic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report 6 cases of polysplenic syndrome diagnosed on prenatal sonography. The mean menstrual age at the time of presentation was 275 weeks (range 184 to 38 weeks). All cases were examined using level-II prenatal sonography. The sonographic findings of polysplenic syndrome were retrograde analyzed and compared to the autopsy or postnatal findings. Polysplenia was detected in 5 cases on the prenatal sonography. Associated cardiovascular anomalies were detected in all 6 cases, all of which had more than one anomaly, namely complete atrioventricular septal defect in two cases, double outlet right ventricle combined with rudimentary LV or mitral atresia in two cases and VSD and ASD in one case each. There were three cases of interrupted IVC with azygous continuation of the posterior thorax. Bradycardia was observed in 2 cases, one of which showed AV dissociation of rhythm. Visceral abnormalities were present in all cases and there were combined anomalies such as echogenic bowel, pelviectasia, horseshoe kidney, and posterior neck cystic hygroma and fetal hydrops. Four cases terminated pregnancy. The autopsy results of 2 cases were comparable to those of the prenatal sonography, however autopsies were not performed in 2 cases. One fetus near term was delivered and the baby subsequently underwent heart surgery and was still alive at the last follow-up. The remaining one case was lost to follow-up. If multiple fetal anomalies, including complex heart disease and polysplenia, are detected in the prenatal sonography, a diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome can be made. IVC interruption with azygous continuation can also be helpful in the diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome, and this can be observed by detecting the double vessel of the posterior thorax

  15. Patrimony, Solitude and Obligation: Prodigal Sons and Absent Fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Duran Gimenez-Rico

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the verifiable moment that auto/biographical explorations of the father are undergoing in the first two decades of the 21st century, my paper focuses on four authors whose relational memoirs "go beyond the subject." In particular, I focus on a comparative analysis of three hybrid texts -Paul Auster's The Invention of Solitude (1982, Philip Roth's Patrimony (1991, and Richard Rodriguez's Days of Obligation: an Argument with my Mexican Father (1992-, and I include a parallel reading of Dutch author Henri J. M. Nouwen's spiritual journey The Return of the Prodigal Son (1992. My transnational, transethnic reading of these very disparate versions of what has been called "patremoir" (Andre Gerard, 2012 or "patriography" (Couser, 2011 will explore how these authors mix their own portrait with the extended portrait of their (real or metaphoric father, applying different myths, borrowing forms and strategies from literary antecedents, transgressing norms of familial secrecy and privacy, but -in the end- paying homage to their paternal legacy.  This article was submitted on December 15th 2013 and first published on November 26th.

  16. Treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: the fathers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, P

    2001-01-01

    Research on parental adaptation to a child's chronic illness is still scant, and this is particularly so in relation to the experience of treatment for paediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL). The work that does exist on parental reactions tends to conflate maternal responses with paternal responses, as fathers are usually seen as having a secondary role. Consequently, little is known about how fathers cope with treatment for childhood ALL. The present discussion seeks to make a contribution to this area by presenting findings on the paternal experience of treatment for paediatric ALL from a longitudinal study conducted at Royal Children's Hospital in Brisbane, Queensland. The findings from this research clearly indicate the emotional pain that fathers face in their struggle to accept the diagnosis of a serious, life-threatening illness such as ALL in their child. The findings challenge the notion of the make stereotype by showing that the shock of diagnosis, the emotional pain of coping with the illness, the expression of pain through tears, the desire to be with the child, the struggle to cope with the medical interventions, and concerns about other family members are not gender specific, but are rather issues common to both parents. PMID:11496455

  17. Fathers of the Nation: Barack Obama Addresses Nelson Mandela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bordin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes Barack Obama’s Nelson Mandela Memorial speech together with other seminal texts of Obama’s political and personal creed, such as his book Dreams from My Father (1995 and his speech “A More Perfect Union” (2008. This reading becomes helpful to understand Mandela’s transnational power, which Obama uses to comment on the United States by comparing Madiba to other American “fathers of the nation.” Thus, he uproots Mandela’s from a specifically South African legacy, expands his figure, and addresses him as a transnational father of his own nation, whose power, influence, and example transcend South African borders. As a consequence of this enlargement and transnational validation of Mandela’s figure, the speech delivered at the Memorial becomes an occasion to tackle American past and future, while the memory of Madiba and his driving example in Obama’s life serve to reinforce previous positions conveyed in other discourses by the American President, such as the “A More Perfect Union” speech delivered in Philadelphia in 2008.

  18. Prenatal exposure to gamma/neutron irradiation: Sensorimotor alterations and paradoxical effects on learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of prenatal exposure on gamma/neutron radiations (0.5 Gy at about the 18th day of fetal life) were studied in a hybrid strain of mice (DBA/Cne males x C57BL/Cne females). During ontogeny, measurements of sensorimotor reflexes revealed in prenatally irradiated mice (1) a delay in sensorial development, (2) deficits in tests involving body motor control, and (3) a reduction of both motility and locomotor activity scores. In adulthood, the behaviour of prenatally irradiated and control mice was examined in the open field test and in reactivity to novelty. Moreover, their learning performance was compared in several situations. The results show that, in the open field test, only rearings were more frequent in irradiated mice. In the presence of a novel object, significant sex x treatment interactions were observed since ambulation and leaning against the novel object increased in irradiated females but decreased in irradiated males. Finally, when submitted to different learning tasks, irradiated mice were impaired in the radial maze, but paradoxically exhibited higher avoidance scores than control mice, possibly because of their low pain thresholds. Taken together, these observations indicate that late prenatal gamma/neutron irradiation induces long lasting alterations at the sensorimotor level which, in turn, can influence learning abilities of adult mice

  19. Prenatal exposure to permethrin influences vascular development of fetal brain and adult behavior in mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanishi, Satoshi; Okura, Masahiro; Zaha, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Toshifumi; Akanuma, Hiromi; Nagano, Reiko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Fujimaki, Hidekazu; Sone, Hideko

    2013-11-01

    Pyrethroids are one of the most widely used classes of insecticides and show neurotoxic effects that induce oxidative stress in the neonatal rat brain. However, little is still known about effects of prenatal exposure to permethrin on vascular development in fetal brain, central nervous system development, and adult offspring behaviors. In this study, the effects of prenatal exposure to permethrin on the development of cerebral arteries in fetal brains, neurotransmitter in neonatal brains, and locomotor activities in offspring mice were investigated. Permethrin (0, 2, 10, 50, and 75 mg/kg) was orally administered to pregnant females once on gestation day 10.5. The brains of permethrin-treated fetuses showed altered vascular formation involving shortened lengths of vessels, an increased number of small branches, and, in some cases, insufficient fusion of the anterior communicating arteries in the area of circle of Willis. The prenatal exposure to permethrin altered neocortical and hippocampus thickness in the mid brain and significantly increased norepinephrine and dopamine levels at postnatal day 7 mice. For spontaneous behavior, the standing ability test using a viewing jar and open-field tests showed significant decrease of the standing ability and locomotor activity in male mice at 8 or 12 weeks of age, respectively. The results suggest that prenatal exposure to permethrin may affect insufficient development of the brain through alterations of vascular development. PMID:24150868

  20. Prenatal exposure to gamma/neutron irradiation: Sensorimotor alterations and paradoxical effects on learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Cicco, D.; Antal, S.; Ammassari-Teule, M. (Istituto di Psicobiologia e Psicofarmacologia del CNR, Rome (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    The effects of prenatal exposure on gamma/neutron radiations (0.5 Gy at about the 18th day of fetal life) were studied in a hybrid strain of mice (DBA/Cne males x C57BL/Cne females). During ontogeny, measurements of sensorimotor reflexes revealed in prenatally irradiated mice (1) a delay in sensorial development, (2) deficits in tests involving body motor control, and (3) a reduction of both motility and locomotor activity scores. In adulthood, the behaviour of prenatally irradiated and control mice was examined in the open field test and in reactivity to novelty. Moreover, their learning performance was compared in several situations. The results show that, in the open field test, only rearings were more frequent in irradiated mice. In the presence of a novel object, significant sex x treatment interactions were observed since ambulation and leaning against the novel object increased in irradiated females but decreased in irradiated males. Finally, when submitted to different learning tasks, irradiated mice were impaired in the radial maze, but paradoxically exhibited higher avoidance scores than control mice, possibly because of their low pain thresholds. Taken together, these observations indicate that late prenatal gamma/neutron irradiation induces long lasting alterations at the sensorimotor level which, in turn, can influence learning abilities of adult mice.

  1. Working with Urban, African American Fathers: The Importance of Service Provision, Joining, Accountability, the Father-Child Relationship, and Couples Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Geoffrey L.; Jones, Joseph T., Jr.; Worthy, James; White, Eddie; Davis, Will; Pitchford, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Urban, African American fathers have been a difficult population for social workers and other helping professionals to effectively serve. This article, based on interviews with front-line African American service professionals at a father-focused program, who also participated in writing this article, provides information about and suggestions for…

  2. Coming out to dad: Young gay and bisexual men’s experiences disclosing same-sex attraction to their fathers

    OpenAIRE

    Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura A.; Pingel, Emily S.; Harper, Gary; Bauermeister, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between young gay and bisexual men and their fathers. Using a phenomenological framework, this study investigated the role of fathers in young gay and bisexual men’s coming out experience, focusing on how fathers responded to disclosure of same-sex attraction, how fathers’ responses compared with sons’ expectations, and what sons perceived as having influenced their fathers’ responses. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with 30 gay and bisexual men ...

  3. Psychological Well-being in Fathers of Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, and Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick.; Head, Lara; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    The psychological well-being of fathers of children with developmental disabilities remains poorly understood. The present study examined depressive symptoms, pessimism, and coping in fathers of adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS; n = 59), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; n = 135), and fragile X syndrome (FXS; n = 46) Fathers of sons/daughters with ASDs reported a higher level of depressive symptoms than the other groups of fathers. Fathers of sons/daughters with DS reported ...

  4. Recruiting Fathers to Parenting Programs: Advice from Dads and Fatherhood Program Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlschmidt, Mary Jo; Threlfall, Jennifer; Seay, Kristen D; Lewis, Ericka M; Kohl, Patricia L

    2013-10-01

    The benefits of high-quality father-child relationships for fathers and children alike are well documented. While evidence suggests parenting programs can improve the quality of father-child relationships, few fathers participate in such programs. This qualitative study aims to fill the gap in knowledge on best practices for recruiting urban African American fathers, a group of fathers with unique parenting challenges, to parenting programs. Focus groups were conducted with 29 fathers to gain their perspectives on recruitment strategies. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with a nationwide sample of 19 fatherhood program providers to learn about their most successful recruitment strategies. Recruitment strategies based on emergent themes from the focus groups and interviews are presented here. Themes included using word-of-mouth recruitment, increasing advertising, targeting advertising specifically to urban African American fathers, providing transportation and incentives, recruiting through the courts, collaborating with other community agencies, and offering parenting programming along with other programming valued by fathers such as employment assistance. Implications for developing strategies for recruiting urban African American fathers to parenting programs are discussed. PMID:24791035

  5. Father absence and reproduction-related outcomes in Malaysia, a transitional fertility population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Paula; Snopkowski, Kristin; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    Father absence is consistently associated with children's reproductive outcomes in industrialized countries. It has been suggested that father absence acts as a cue to particular environmental conditions that influence life history strategies. Much less is known, however, about the effects of father absence on such outcomes in lower-income countries. Using data from the 1988 Malaysian Family Life Survey (n = 567), we tested the effect of father absence on daughters' age at menarche, first marriage, and first birth; parity progression rates; and desired completed family size in Malaysia, a country undergoing an economic and fertility transition. Father absence during later childhood (ages 8 to 15), although not during earlier childhood, was associated with earlier progressions to first marriage and first birth, after controlling for other confounders. Father absence does not affect age at menarche, desired family size, or progression from first to second birth. The patterns found in this transitional population partly mirror those in developed societies, where father absence accelerates reproductive events. There is, however, a notable contrast between the acceleration in menarche for father-absent girls consistently found in developed societies and the lack of any association in our findings. The mechanisms through which father absence affects reproduction may differ in different ecological contexts. In lower-income contexts, direct paternal investment or influence may be of more importance in determining reproductive behavior than whether fathers act as a cue to environmental conditions. PMID:24610662

  6. Does absence matter?: a comparison of three types of father absence in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K; Starkweather, Kathrine; Kress, Howard C; Alam, Nurul

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines the effects of three different types of father absence on the timing of life history events among women in rural Bangladesh. Age at marriage and age at first birth are compared across women who experienced different father presence/absence conditions as children. Survival analyses show that daughters of fathers who divorced their mothers or deserted their families have consistently younger ages at marriage and first birth than other women. In contrast, daughters whose fathers were labor migrants have consistently older ages at marriage and first birth. Daughters whose fathers died when they were children show older ages at marriage and first birth than women with divorced/deserted fathers and women with fathers present. These effects may be mediated by high socioeconomic status and high levels of parental investment among the children of labor migrants, and a combination of low investment, high psychosocial stress, and low alloparental investment among women with divorced/deserted fathers. Our findings are most consistent with the Child Development Theory model of female life history strategies, though the Paternal Investment and Psychosocial Acceleration models also help explain differences between women in low paternal investment situations (e.g., father divorced/abandoned vs. father dead). Father absence in and of itself seems to have little effect on the life history strategies of Bangladeshi women once key reasons for or correlates of absence are controlled, and none of the models is a good predictor of why women with deceased fathers have delayed life histories compared with women whose fathers are present. PMID:23355056

  7. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in offspring of fathers working in biomedical research laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, Linda L; Bodin, Lennart; Wennborg, Helena

    2006-01-01

    exposed, and of non-laboratory employees unexposed (n = 1,909). Exposure data were obtained by questionnaires to research group leaders. Logistic regression analysis estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Paternal laboratory work in general showed no statistically......BACKGROUND: Laboratory work may constitute a possible health hazard for workers as well as for their offspring, and involves a wide range of exposures, such as organic solvents, carcinogenic agents, ionizing radiation, and/or microbiological agents. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in the offspring of...... male employees in biomedical research laboratories are examined. METHODS: Offspring to males employed 1970-1989 at four Swedish universities were identified via the Medical Birth Register (MBR), along with other pregnancy parameters. Offspring of fathers with laboratory work (n = 2,281) is considered...

  8. Prenatal Aneuploidies Computerized Screening (SCA TEST): a pilot study on 1000 women

    OpenAIRE

    Sacco, Alessandro; Coco, Claudio; Mangiafico, Lucia; Cignini, Pietro; Tiezzi, Alessandra; Giorlandino, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    The SCA-TEST, Prenatal Aneuploidies Screening, is an innovating program with very articulated and differentiated calculation potentials. It is a software which allows executing a sequence-like rational screening involving the ultrasound study of the first and second trimester. The program enables to execute a complete and different- levels combined screening, through very sophisticated mathematic analysis methods. In particular, it enables to make: a first trimester screening combining it wit...

  9. Prenatal cocaine exposure alters functional activation in ventral prefrontal cortex and its structural connectivity with amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhihao; Santhanam, Priya; Coles, Claire D.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Hamann, Stephan; Peltier, Scott; Hu, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is associated with arousal dysregulation, and alterations of amygdala activity in response to emotional arousal were previously reported. However, voluntary regulation of emotional affect, enabling appropriate neural response to different streams of stimuli, must also engage prefrontal regions, yet PCE impact on these prefrontal mechanisms has not been investigated. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown the involvement of ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) in th...

  10. Prenatal VPA Exposure and Changes in Sensory Processing by the Superior Colliculus

    OpenAIRE

    Dendrinos, Georgia; Hemelt, Marie; Keller, Asaf

    2011-01-01

    Disorders involving dysfunctional sensory processing are characterized by an inability to filter sensory information, particularly simultaneously arriving multimodal inputs. We examined the effects of prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), a teratogen linked to sensory dysfunction, on the behavior of juvenile and adult rats, and on the anatomy of the superior colliculus, a critical multisensory integration center in the brain. VPA-exposed rats showed deficits in colliculus-dependent behavi...

  11. Functional Connectivity Disruption in Neonates with Prenatal Marijuana Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewen, Karen; Salzwedel, Andrew P.; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) is linked to neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments; however, findings in childhood and adolescence are inconsistent. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) modulate fetal neurodevelopment, mediating PME effects on growth of functional circuitry sub-serving behaviors critical for academic and social success. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal marijuana on development of early brain functional circuitry prior to prolonged postnatal environmental influences. We measured resting state functional connectivity during unsedated sleep in infants at 2–6?weeks (+MJ: 20 with PME in combination with nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and/or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; ?MJ: 23 exposed to the same other drugs without marijuana, CTR: 20 drug-free controls). Connectivity of subcortical seed regions with high fetal CB1R expression was examined. Marijuana-specific differences were observed in insula and three striatal connections: anterior insula–cerebellum, right caudate–cerebellum, right caudate–right fusiform gyrus/inferior occipital, left caudate–cerebellum. +MJ neonates had hypo-connectivity in all clusters compared with ?MJ and CTR groups. Altered striatal connectivity to areas involved in visual spatial and motor learning, attention, and in fine-tuning of motor outputs involved in movement and language production may contribute to neurobehavioral deficits reported in this at-risk group. Disrupted anterior insula connectivity may contribute to altered integration of interoceptive signals with salience estimates, motivation, decision-making, and later drug use. Compared with CTRs, both +MJ and ?MJ groups demonstrated hyper-connectivity of left amygdala seed with orbital frontal cortex and hypo-connectivity of posterior thalamus seed with hippocampus, suggesting vulnerability to multiple drugs in these circuits. PMID:26582983

  12. Functional connectivity disruption in neonates with prenatal marijuana exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Grewen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal marijuana exposure (PME is linked to neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments, however findings in childhood and adolescence are inconsistent. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R modulate fetal neurodevelopment, mediating PME effects on growth of functional circuitry sub-serving behaviors critical for academic and social success. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal marijuana on development of early brain functional circuitry prior to prolonged postnatal environmental influences. We measured resting state functional connectivity during unsedated sleep in infants at 2-6 weeks (+MJ: 20 with PME in combination with nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and/or SSRI; -MJ: 23 exposed to the same other drugs without marijuana, CTR: 20 drug free controls. Connectivity of subcortical seed regions with high fetal CB1R expression was examined. Marijuana-specific differences were observed in insula and three striatal connections: anterior insula – cerebellum, right caudate – cerebellum, right caudate – right fusiform gyrus/inferior occipital, left caudate – cerebellum. +MJ neonates had hypoconnectivity in all clusters compared with -MJ and CTR groups. Altered striatal connectivity to areas involved in visual spatial and motor learning, attention, and in fine-tuning of motor outputs involved in movement and language production may contribute to neurobehavioral deficits reported in this at-risk group. Disrupted anterior insula connectivity may contribute to altered integration of interoceptive signals with salience estimates, motivation, decision-making, and later drug use. Compared with CTRs, both +MJ and -MJ groups demonstrated hyperconnectivity of left amygdala seed with orbital frontal cortex and hypoconnectivity of posterior thalamus seed with hippocampus, suggesting vulnerability to multiple drugs in these circuits.

  13. “L’homme qui n’élève pas ses enfants ne devrait pas être appelé un père” ? Les tendances du discours sur la paternité et le dilemme paternel au Japon “The Man who Doesn’t Raise his Child Shouldn’t Be Called a Father”? The Trends of Discourse on Fatherhood and Father’s Dilemma in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futoshi Taga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La paternité japonaise a longtemps été caractérisée par un engagement professionnel exacerbé et une absence marquée au niveau familial. Cependant, le contexte économique et politique récent a induit certains changements dans la manière d’appréhender la paternité. Il est ainsi possible d’identifier trois types de positionnements dans les discours récents relatifs à la paternité au Japon : 1 le père “pourvoyeur”, garantissant les ressources économiques nécessaires aux besoins des enfants, 2 le père “socialisateur”, encadrant ses enfants dans l’apprentissage des normes sociales, 3 le père “soigneur”, aidant ses enfants pour ce qu’ils ne peuvent faire. Il n’est pas facile pour les pères de trouver un équilibre par rapport aux responsabilités que ces trois approches supposent. Les codes professionnels valorisant “l’homme dominant” et les carences du système d’encadrement des enfants obligent de nombreux pères à s’investir énormément dans leur vie professionnelle tandis que de nombreuses mères restent à la maison. Les réactions des pères face à cette situation sont variées. Certains valorisent une division genrée des responsabilités parentales et se consacrent pleinement à leur travail. D’autres articulent travail et famille tandis que l’épouse reste à la maison. D’autres, enfin, optent pour une articulation travail/famille impliquant les deux membres du couple, redéfinissant ainsi la signification de la masculinité.Japanese fatherhood has been characterized as preoccupation with work and alienation from family. However, Japan’s recent political and economic conditions have brought about changes and diversification in fatherhood. We can recognize three types of father’s responsibilities in recent discourses on fatherhood in Japan : 1 “provider,” supplying necessary economic resources for the growth of children, 2 “socializer,” supporting children to learn social norms and good manners, 3 “carer,” helping children by doing what children cannot do. It is difficult for fathers to keep a balance between the responsibility as a provider and as a socializer/carer. Male-dominant employment practices and insufficient child-support systems force many fathers to work very long and many mothers to stay home. Fathers’ reactions to the conflict are various. Some affirm gender division of parental responsibilities and justify their insufficient involvement in childcare. Some take a responsibility as a sole provider and make an effort to get involved in childcare as much as possible. Some try to juggle work and childcare and build egalitarian relationship with his wife, rethinking the meaning of masculinity.

  14. Behavioural Outcomes of Four-Year-Old Children Prenatally Exposed to Methadone or Buprenorphine: A Test of Three Risk Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konijnenberg, Carolien; Lund, Ingunn Olea; Melinder, Annika

    2015-01-01

    It is still under debate whether the reported effects of opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) on child behaviour are a direct effect of prenatal exposure, or whether other factors are involved. This prospective cohort study investigated three models: the teratogenic risk model, the maternal risk model, and a combined risk model in a group of 35…

  15. Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Desmond J. (Oakland, CA); Rubin, Edward M. (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

  16. Estado del programa de diagnóstico prenatal citogenético / Behavior of the program of cytogenetic prenatal diagnosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Irenia, Blanco Pérez; Sahily, Miñoso Pérez; Caridad, Barroso Gazquez; Ada, Socarras Gámez; Elena, Cué Perdomo.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las alteraciones cromosómicas son cambios que afectan el número y la estructura de los cromosomas. El riesgo de padecer una enfermedad genética cromosómica aumenta con el incremento de la edad materna. La amniocentesis constituye un importante medio de diagnóstico prenatal citogenético [...] para la detección temprana de las mismas. Objetivo: analizar el comportamiento del programa de diagnóstico prenatal citogenético en la provincia de Pinar del Río durante el año 2013. Material y método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y de corte longitudinal al total de gestantes con indicación de amniocentesis durante el año 2013 en la provincia de Pinar del Río, analizando los principales parámetros relacionados con el diagnóstico prenatal citogenético. Resultados: en el período analizado se realizaron un total de 481 estudios prenatales, siendo el municipio de Pinar del Río el de mayor número de casos. La edad materna avanzada constituye la principal indicación y se diagnosticaron un total de 10 casos positivos para un 2.3%. Conclusiones: en el diagnóstico prenatal citogenético se logró precisar el cariotipo fetal en las gestantes con riesgo, por lo que continúa siendo el DPC un importante programa en la detección precoz de cromosomopatías, proporcionando un punto de partida para un adecuado asesoramiento genético a la familia. Abstract in english Introduction: Chromosomal abnormalities are changes that affect the number and structure of chromosomes. The risk of a chromosomal genetic disease increases with increasing maternal age. Amniocentesis is an important means of cytogenetic prenatal diagnosis for early detection of the same. Objective: [...] to analyze the behavior of the program of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis in the province of Pinar del Rio in 2013. Material and methods: a descriptive, retrospective study slitting the total of pregnant women was performed with amniocentesis indication in 2013 in the province of Pinar del Rio, analyzing the main parameters related to the cytogenetic prenatal diagnosis. Results: in the analyzed period a total of 481 prenatal studies were conducted, with the city of Pinar del Río the highest number of cases. Advanced maternal age is the main display and a total of 10 positive cases were diagnosed to 2.3%. Conclusions: prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis was achieved clarify the fetal karyotype in pregnant women at risk, so the DPC remains an important program in the early detection of chromosomal abnormalities, providing a starting point for proper genetic counseling to the family.

  17. An association of adult personality with prenatal and early postnatal growth : the EPQ lie-scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Revsbech, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Recent studies have noted differences in social acquiescence and interpersonal relations among adults born preterm or with very low birth weight compared to full term adults. In addition, birth weight has been observed to be negatively correlated with lie-scale scores in two studies. We attempted to replicate and extend these studies by examining young adult lie-scale scores in a Danish birth cohort. Method: Weight, length and head circumference of 9125 children from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort were measured at birth and at 1, 3 and 6 years. A subsample comprising 1182 individuals participated in a follow-up at 20–34 years and was administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) which includes a lie-scale (indicating social acquiescence or self-insight). Associations between lie-scale scores and weight, length and head circumference respectively were analysed by multiple linear regression adjusting for single-mother status, parity, mother’s age, father’s age, parental social status, age at EPQ measurement, intelligence, and adult size. Results: Male infants with lower weight, length, and head-circumference at birth and the following three years grew up to have higher scores on the lie-scale as young adults. Most of these associations remained significant after adjustment for the included covariates. No associations were found for females. Analyses were also conducted with neuroticism, extraversion and psychoticism as outcome variables, but no significant associations were found for these traits after adjustment. Conclusions: The findings replicate and extend findings from previous studies suggesting that size at birth and during the first three years of life is significantly associated with social acquiescence in adult men. They highlight the potential influence of prenatal and early postnatal development on personality growth and development. Keywords: Eysenck personality questionnaire, Lie-scale, Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism, Birth weight, Birth length, Birth head-circumference

  18. Effect of prenatal neutron irradiation on expression of myelin genes and glycoprotein genes in developing rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of prenatal neutron irradiation on the expression of myelin genes and glycoprotein genes in the brain of rats is studied. The observed postradiation enhancement of the expression of glial and neuronal genes involved in the process of myelinization and differentiation in the central nervous system, is related to a necessity to compensate the functional disorders of the brain caused by radiation death of neuroblasts. A specific molecular mechanism of compensation reaction of brain cells of prenatally irradiated rats is described for the first time; the mechanism consists in the activation of the expression of specific glial genes and genes of neuronal surface glycoproteins

  19. Father Involvement, Sex-Typing and the Toy Play of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adubato, Susan A.

    Children are encouraged early in life to adopt socially appropriate sex-role activities and behaviors. Parents influence their children's behavior and attitudes through the toys they choose for the children and the toy play they sanction. The term androgynous is used to indicate the blending of masculine and feminine characteristics. This study…

  20. Paternal Depression and Risk for Child Neglect in Father-Involved Families of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of paternal depression with risk for parental neglect of young children. Study design: The sample was derived from a birth cohort study of 1,089 families in which both biological parents resided in the home when the target child was 3- and 5-years old. Prospective analyses examined the contribution of paternal…

  1. Prenatal and acute cocaine exposure affects neural responses and habituation to visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Brooke Riley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants have many effects on visual function, from adverse, following acute and prenatal exposure to therapeutic, on attention deficit. To determine the impact of prenatal and acute cocaine exposure on visual processing, we studied neuronal responses to visual stimuli in two brain regions of a transgenic larval zebrafish expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP-HS. We found that both red light (LF and dark (DF flashes elicited similar responses in the optic tectum neuropil (TOn, while the dorsal telencephalon (dTe responded only to LF. Acute cocaine (0.5 μM reduced neuronal responses to LF in both brain regions but did not affect responses to DF. Repeated stimulus presentation led to habituation of dTe neurons to LF. Acute cocaine prevented habituation. TOn habituated to DF, but not LF, and DF habituation was not modified by cocaine. Remarkably, prenatal cocaine exposure prevented the effects of acute cocaine on LF response amplitude and habituation later in development in both brain regions, but did not affect DF responses. We discovered that, in spite of similar neural responses to LF and DF in the TO (superior colliculus in mammals, responses to LF are more complex, involving dTe (homologous to the cerebral cortex, and are more vulnerable to cocaine. Our results demonstrate that acute cocaine exposure affects visual processing differentially by brain region, and that prenatal cocaine exposure modifies zebrafish visual processing in multiple structures in a stimulus-dependent manner. These findings are in accordance with the major role that the optic tectum and cerebral cortex play in sustaining visual attention, and support the hypothesis that modification of these areas by prenatal cocaine exposure may be responsible for visual deficits noted in humans. This model offers new methodological approaches for studying the adverse and therapeutic effects of psychostimulants on attention, and for the development of new pharmacological interventions.

  2. Informed consent - Providing information about prenatal examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone; Olesen, Frede

    than proportions. Using medical words or lay terms can significantly alter risk perception. The way information is presented affects understanding. Information can increase knowledge level and reduce decisional conflict, without raising anxiety scores. A clarification of the women's expectations seems......Prenatal care has gradually moved away from paternalism, to a state where patient autonomy and information is vital. It is known from other health care settings that the way information is presented affects understanding.The objective is to summarize current knowledge on aspects of informing...... pregnant women about prenatal examinations. Women's knowledge, decisional conflict, satisfaction and anxiety will be explored as compared with different ways and different groups of health professionals providing information. To what extent information empowers informed decision making will be explored as...

  3. Cardiopatías congénitas: diagnóstico prenatal y seguimiento

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla, Mayorga H; Juan Guillermo, Rodríguez A; Gabriela, Enríquez G; Jaime, Alarcón R; Constanza, Gamboa W; Daniela, Capella S; Daniela, Fischer F.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Valorar la capacidad diagnóstica y el seguimiento de las cardiopatías congénitas con diagnóstico prenatal realizadas en el Centro de Referencia Perinatal Oriente (CERPO). Método: Se analizan todas las cardiopatías congénitas con diagnóstico prenatal que ingresaron al CERPO entre abril 2003 [...] y diciembre de 2011. Se realiza seguimiento postnatal, se evalúa la concordancia entre el diagnóstico pre y postnatal, y se compara el pronóstico con la experiencia previamente reportada en la literatura. Resultados: Se detectaron 568 cardiopatías congénitas, el 53% correspondían a pacientes referidas desde otras regiones del país. En relación a la edad materna y paterna el 28% y el 35% tenían 35 años o más, respectivamente. De las 568 cardiopatías congénitas controladas, el 75% fueron pesquisadas con la ecocardiografía por visión de 4 cámaras y el 25% por visión de tractos de salida. La concordancia entre la ecocardiografía prenatal y postnatal fue de 87%. Los diagnósticos más frecuentes correspondieron a comunicación interventricular, síndrome de hipoplasia ventricular izquierdo, arritmias y canal aurículoventricular. Se detectaron 60 cromosomopatías, 8 síndromes genéticos y 145 malformaciones extracardiacas asociadas. Se pudo realizar seguimiento de sobrevida al año en 390 pacientes, la sobrevida global en este grupo (excluidas las aneuploidías incompatibles con la vida) alcanzó un 44%. Conclusión: Existe una alta tasa de diagnóstico prenatal de cardiopatías congénitas a nivel terciario, con un 87% de concordancia entre ecocardiografía pre y postnatal. La sobrevida global de pacientes con cardiopatías congénitas fue de 44% al año de seguimiento. Por las características territoriales de nuestro país debiera contarse con más centros de referencia perinatal, al menos en las zonas norte y sur del país. Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic and follow-up congenital heart disease with prenatal diagnosis performed in the Centro de Referencia Perinatal Oriente (CERPO). Method: We analyzed all the congenital heart disease with prenatal diagnosis admitted to CERPO between April 2003 and December 2011. P [...] ostnatal follow-up is performed, evaluating the correlation between pre and postnatal diagnosis and prognosis compared with the experience previously reported in the literature. Results: We detected 568 congenital heart diseases of which 53% were patients referred from other regions of the country. In relation to maternal and paternal age, 28% and 35% were 35 years or older, respectively. From 568 controlled congenital heart diseases, 75% could be researched to ultrasound echocardiography 4-chamber view and 25% per-view outflow tracts. The correlation between prenatal and postnatal echocardiography in this series was 87%. The most frequent diagnosis was interventricular communication, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, arrhythmias and atrioventricular canal. In this series we detected 60 chromosomal, 8 genetic syndromes and 145 extracardiac malformations. Follow-up could be performed one year survival in 390 patients, overall survival in this group (excluding aneuploidies with life incompatibility) reached 44%. Conclusion: There is a high rate of prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease at the tertiary level, with 87% concordance between pre-and postnatal echocardiography. Overall survival of patients with congenital heart disease is 44% at one year. For the territorial characteristics of our country should be counted more perinatal referral centers, at least in the north and south.

  4. Prenatal and adult stress interplay - behavioral implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Sanna Lemming; Wegener, G; Rosenberg, Raben; Lund, S P; Hougaard, Karin Sørig

    stressful events, but also that this interaction is complex and could influence the interplay between PPI and basal startle. Our results suggest that circumstances dating back to early development may have implications for adult life behavior, and based on this we propose a new theory of a threshold in the......The origin of adult behavior and the possible pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders remain elusive, but extensive research indicates that interaction of genes and environment play a crucial role for adult phenotype. Differences in susceptibility may arise by earlier experiences and genomic...... that a single aversive procedure would induce long-term hyperactivity in the HPA-axis of rats that had become vulnerable by prenatal stress, and thereby change reactivity in the ASR. Prenatal stress was achieved by maternal gestational exposure to Chronic Mild Stress (CMS). At age 3 months, the...

  5. A Prenatal Case Report with Patau Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Balkan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, prenatal diagnosis and elective pregnancy termination have affected the reported birth prevalence of trisomies. Trisomy 13, or Patau syndrome, represents the third autosomic trisomy in order of frequency, after trisomy 21 (Down syndrome and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome, with a prevalence at birth estimated as between 1:12000 and 1:29000. In this study, we are presenting the results of cytogenetic analysis and clinic assessment in fetus of a woman at 22 weeks gestation, who were referred to our genetic diagnostic laboratory with abnormal triple test result, omphalosel and hydrocephaly. We performed the cordocentesis and pedigree analysis. We found a karyotype (47,XY,+13 in fetus. Because individuals of the family didn’t want, we were not followed the pregnancy prognosis for the mother and the fetus. We were recommending to the prenatal diagnosis for their further pregnancies.

  6. Exploring First-Time Fathers’ Feelings and Experiences during Labor - Delivery of their Partner/Wife

    OpenAIRE

    Leodoro J. Labrague; Jelly R. Cariño; Rojuana C. Catap; Ma. Naizza B. Uy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Considerable studies have been undertaken to assess and evaluate fathers’ feelings and experiences during labor and delivery of their partner/wife, however, investigation describing first-time fathers who are known to be especially vulnerable during labor and delivery remains under explored.Aim: This study aimed to assess and determine the feelings and experiences of first-time fathers during labor and delivery of their partner/wife.Methodology: A descriptive design was utilized...

  7. The Antecedents and Consequences of Adolescents' Relationships With Stepfathers and Nonresident Fathers

    OpenAIRE

    King, Valarie

    2006-01-01

    Using data from a sample of 1,149 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health who have both a resident stepfather and a nonresident biological father, this study examines the prevalence, antecedents, and consequences of adolescents' closeness to their stepfathers and nonresident fathers. Findings demonstrate that adolescents vary greatly in their likelihood of having close relationships with one or both of their fathers, but when they do so, they appear to benefit. Clo...

  8. Undiagnosed coeliac disease in a father does not influence birthweight and preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khashan, Ali S; Kenny, Louise C; McNamee, Roseanne; Mortensen, Preben B; Pedersen, Marianne G; McCarthy, Fergus P; Henriksen, Tine B

    2010-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence regarding the effect of coeliac disease (CD) in the father on birthweight and preterm birth. We investigated the association between paternal CD and birthweight and preterm birth. Medical records of all singleton live-born children in Denmark between 1 January 1979 and 31 December 2004 were linked to information about parents' diseases. Fathers who were diagnosed with CD were then identified. Fathers with CD were considered treated if they were diagnosed before preg...

  9. Negotiating Work/Life Balance : the Experience of Fathers and Mothers in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    DREW, EILEEN PATRICIA

    2007-01-01

    Working arrangements are still not sufficiently flexible to enable parents to manage to fulfil their roles as workers and as carers and there remains a dearth of flexible working arrangements and work-life balance policies especially for fathers. This paper examines the degree of work/life balance among fathers, and mothers, employed in 5 major Irish organisations surveyed in 2002. It concentrates on the access to, and take up of, flexible working time and leave arrangements by fathers and mo...

  10. Maternal Re-Partnering and New-Partner Fertility: Associations with Nonresident Father Investments in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that paternal re-partnering and new-partner fertility are associated with decreased nonresident father investments in children. Few studies, however, have examined the influence of maternal re-partnering and new-partner births on nonresident father investments. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine associations of maternal re-partnering (through cohabitation or marriage with a new partner) and new-partner births with nonresident father visitat...

  11. B.K.’s Story: His Path to Becoming an Inner-City Custodial Father

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Deborah; GOLUB, ANDREW; DUNLAP, ELOISE; Johnson., Bruce D.; Benoit, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    African American males are regularly cast as deadbeat dads and non-contributors to family life. However, a growing literature has been documenting that African American males do contribute in many ways, including as custodial fathers. 5% of African American children live in single-parent father-only households. This paper presents B.K.’s story which describes his overcoming drug abuse and his becoming a custodial father. His story illustrates the powerful contribution African American males c...

  12. Mexican American Fathers’ Occupational Conditions: Links to Family Members’ Psychological Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Crouter, Ann C.; Davis, Kelly D.; Updegraff, Kimberly; Delgado, Melissa; Fortner, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    To examine the implications of fathers’ occupational conditions (i.e., income, work hours, shift work, pressure, workplace racism, and underemployment) for family members’ psychological adjustment, home interviews were conducted with fathers, mothers, and two adolescent offspring in each of 218 Mexican American families. Results underscored the importance of acculturation as a moderator. Fathers’ income was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in highly acculturated families but not...

  13. Paternal Work Stress and Latent Profiles of Father-Infant Parenting Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; LANZA, STEPHANIE T.; COX, MARTHA J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine the implications of fathers’ experiences of work stress for paternal behaviors with infants across multiple dimensions of parenting in a sample of fathers living in nonmetropolitan communities (N = 492). LPA revealed five classes of fathers based on levels of social-affective behaviors and linguistic stimulation measured during two father-infant interactions. Multinomial logistic regression analyses suggested that a less-supporti...

  14. Father Absence due to Migration and Child Illness in Rural Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    SCHMEER, KAMMI

    2009-01-01

    Little research to date has assessed the importance of the presence of fathers in the household for protecting child health, particularly in developing country contexts. Although divorce and nonmarital childbearing are low in many developing countries, migration is a potentially important source of father absence that has yet to be studied in relation to child health. This study utilizes prospective, longitudinal data from Mexico to assess whether father absence due to migration is associated...

  15. The effect of social learning on a conditioned avoidance response of rats treated prenatally with aluminum lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Z; Miklósi, A; Lehotzky, K

    1997-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) has been proven to be a behavioral teratogenic agent in a number of experimental studies. Prenatal exposures to Al lactate have been shown to cause cognitive deficits in a variety of species. The present experiment was carried out on SPRD rat pups treated prenatally with Al lactate to determine whether observational conditioning (social learning) would reverse the impairment in learning described previously following such treatment. A conditioned avoidance response was used as an observational learning task. The results provide evidence that Al-treated pups are capable of social learning (i.e., the performance of the avoidance response improved as a result that Al-treated learning); however, the response latency of the avoidance response was not different in these animals from those that were not exposed to such facilitation, suggesting that additional factors are involved in the effects of prenatal aluminum intoxication on cognitive processes. PMID:9088011

  16. Malformations and maturation disturbances after prenatal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk estimates for prenatally exposed humans in view to malformations and maturation disturbances are incomplete despite numerous single cases being described. In this situation support from animal data has necessarily to be taken into consideration. Outlines of recent knowledge in the field of experimental radioembryology will be given. Possibilities and limits of the transfer of animal data to man will be discussed and correlated with new medical evaluations. The discussions are focussed on developmental defects of the central nervous system. (orig.)

  17. Prenatal Serotonin and Neonatal Outcome: Brief Report

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Figueiredo, Barbara; Deeds, Osvelia; Ascencio, Angela; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    In a study on prenatal dopamine and its association with depression and other neurotransmitters, serotonin was a confounding variable (Field, Diego, Hernandez-Reif, Figueiredo, Deeds et al., 2007). Serotonin has long been associated with depression (Cubala & Landwski, 2006; Neumeister, 2003; Neumeister, Young, & Stastny, 2004). Serotonin receptors and serotonin transporters are reduced in depression, suggesting that serotonin systems play a key role in the pathophysiology of depression (Neume...

  18. Prenatal nicotine exposure and child behavioural problems

    OpenAIRE

    Tiesler, Carla M.T.; Heinrich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    In utero exposure to tobacco smoke has been related to numerous adverse health effects in new-borns, infants, children, adolescents and adults. The aim of this review was to summarise findings on prenatal nicotine exposure and its relationship with behavioural problems in the offspring. The majority of studies, and especially several recent epidemiological studies, observed a higher likelihood for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD symptoms in exposed subjects. However, b...

  19. [PRENATAL GENETIC DIAGNOSIS-- "DAYS OF FUTURE PAST"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feferkorn, Ido; Auslender, Ron; Lavie, Ofer

    2015-06-01

    This review describes the history and the evolvement of prenatal genetic screening tests. We start in the era prior to the understanding that certain syndromes are genetic, continue through the identification of their genetic basis and the changes in markers in the pregnant woman's serum and conclude in the present when assays such as cell free D.N.A are offered to high risk women. PMID:26281084

  20. Prenatal stress and the NMDA receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Kerkhofs, A.

    2012-01-01

    Early adversity, including prenatal stress (PS), is a prevalent problem in our modern world. The affected unborn child experiences severe problems later in life, such as learning-related diseases and memory problems. A possible mechanism by which these learning deficits arise, is by the elevation of the corticosterone levels that reach the fetus, affecting the HPA-axis in later life. PS is also accompanied by alterations in brain organization that are long-lasting and related to learning defi...