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1

Modelling the fathering role: Experience in the family of origin and father involvement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study presented in this paper deals with the effects of experiences with father in the family of origin on the fathering role in the family of procreation. The results of the studies so far point to great importance of such experiences in parental role modelling, while recent approaches have suggested the concept of introjected notion or an internal working model of the fathering role as the way to operationalise the transgenerational transfer. The study included 247 two-parent couple families whose oldest child attended preschool education. Fathers provided information on self-assessed involvement via the Inventory of father involvement, while both fathers and mothers gave information on introjected experiences from the family of origin via the inventory Presence of the father in the family of origin. It was shown that father’s experiences from the family of origin had significant direct effects on his involvement in child-care. Very important experiences were those of negative emotional exchange, physical closeness and availability of the father, as well as beliefs about the importance of the father as a parent. Although maternal experiences from the family of origin did not contribute significantly to father involvement, shared beliefs about father’s importance as a parent in the parenting alliance had an effect on greater involvement in child-care. The data provide confirmation of the hypotheses on modelling of the fathering role, but also open the issue of the factor of intergenerational maintenance of traditional forms of father involvement in families in Serbia.

Mihi? Ivana

2012-01-01

2

The Relationship between Academic Stress and Two Aspects of Father Involvement among University Student Fathers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the associations between academic stress experienced by university student fathers and the behavioral and cognitive involvement these fathers had with their children. Fifty-three fathers enrolled in university classes and residing with at least one child less than 12 years of age responded to questionnaire measures of…

Masciadrelli, Brian P.; Milardo, Robert M.

2008-01-01

3

Another baby? Father involvement and childbearing in fragile families.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An historic number of women in the United States have children outside of marriage, and with more than one father, yet little research has examined the association between family process and women's childbearing decisions. Using a subsample of unmarried women from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 2028), a study of primarily low-income unmarried parents, we conducted discrete-time survival analysis models to predict whether women had another child with the focal child's father (same-father birth) or with a new father (new-father birth). Father involvement was measured by engagement, indirect care, accessibility, and financial support. Overall, mothers who reported greater engagement and indirect care from the focal child's father were more likely to have a same-father birth even when he was not living in her home, and were also less likely to have a new-father birth. Further, mothers who reported greater accessibility and stable financial support from the focal child's nonresident father were also less likely to have a new-father birth. One pathway through which this may have occurred was that single mothers who perceived less indirect care and accessibility from the focal child's nonresident father were more likely to begin new romantic relationships. Indeed, whether or not the mother had a new romantic partner partially mediated the association between indirect care and a same-father birth and fully mediated the association between accessibility and a new-father birth, suggesting that one pathway linking father involvement to a new-father birth was through maternal repartnering. Clinical and policy implications are discussed.

Kotila LE; Kamp Dush CM

2012-12-01

4

Teen Childbearing, Single Parenthood, and Father Involvement  

Science.gov (United States)

... Fathers and Children’s Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 557-573. 15. King, V., & Sobolewski, J. ... 2006). Nonresident Fathers’ Contributions to Adolescent Well-being. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 68 (3), 535-537. 16. Williams, S.K., & Kelly, ...

5

Understanding fatherhood in Greece: father's involvement in child care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study aims to depict a picture of Greek fathers concerning their involvement in family and child-centered tasks over the first year of the child. Eighty fathers from rural areas with low educational and occupational status and eighty fathers from urban districts with high educational and occupational status were asked to talk about their own perceptions of fatherhood and also their participation into two parenting commitments: (a) preparations before and after the birth of the child and (b) involvement in play with the child and a variety of daily child-care tasks. The results show that fathers in urban regions were more involved in these activities than their counterparts in rural areas. All fathers valued fatherhood as a pleasant experience. Many fathers, however, stated that child-rearing responsibilities cause them a lot of psychological strain. The results are discussed in relation to the division of roles between spouses in Greek families.

Maridaki-Kassotaki Katerina

2000-01-01

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Fathers' involvement in preadolescents' diabetes adherence and glycemic control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship of paternal involvement in diabetes care with adherence and glycemic control. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-six mothers and fathers of preadolescents (aged 9-12 years) with type 1 diabetes reported on paternal involvement. Adherence was measured by interview and blood glucose meter downloads. Mothers' and fathers' ratings of paternal involvement in diabetes care were compared. We evaluated three structural equation models linking paternal involvement with adherence and glycemic control. RESULTS: Mothers and fathers reported similar amounts of paternal involvement, yet mothers rated paternal involvement as more helpful. The data supported a model indicating links between more paternal involvement and higher HbA1c and between lower adherence and higher HbA1c. Mediation and moderation models were not supported. DISCUSSION: Although paternal involvement was not directly associated with treatment adherence, it was associated with poorer glycemic control. Some fathers may increase their involvement in response to suboptimal glycemic outcomes.

Hilliard ME; Rohan JM; Carle AC; Pendley JS; Delamater A; Drotar D

2011-09-01

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Reaching Out to Fathers: An Examination of Staff Efforts That Lead to Greater Father Involvement in Early Childhood Programs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, researchers and practitioners have become increasingly interested in father/male involvement in early childhood programs. However, few empirical studies have examined early childhood educators' efforts to involve fathers in such programs. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess early childhood educators' efforts to involve fathers and to determine which efforts lead to greater success at overall father involvement. Surveys were completed by 213 early childhood educators attending regional training events. Findings demonstrate that efforts are being made in a number of areas to increase father involvement. Multiple regression analysis revealed that three factors significantly accounted for early childhood educators' success at involving fathers: (1) including the father's name on the enrollment form, (2) sending written correspondence to fathers even if they live apart from their children, and (3) inviting fathers to the center to participate in educational activities with their children. Implications for practitioners are discussed.

Stephen Green

2003-01-01

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Child Support, Father-Child Contact, and Preteens' Involvement with Nonresidential Fathers: Racial/Ethnic Differences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined how child support, frequency of contact with children, and the relationship between nonresidential parents influenced preteens' reports of the involvement of fathers and mothers in their life. Data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) that has followed the children of NLSY mothers from birth into their twenties. Results showed that increases in child support and in contact with the child over time after separation are linked to a better coparental relationship when children are age 11 or 12. This better relationship between parents is, in turn, associated with greater involvement of both mothers and nonresidential fathers with their children.

Hofferth SL; Forry ND; Peters HE

2010-03-01

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Child Support, Father-Child Contact, and Preteens' Involvement with Nonresidential Fathers: Racial/Ethnic Differences  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined how child support, frequency of contact with children, and the relationship between nonresidential parents influenced preteens’ reports of the involvement of fathers and mothers in their life. Data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) that has followed the children of NLSY mothers from birth into their twenties. Results showed that increases in child support and in contact with the child over time after separation are linked to a better coparental relationship when children are age 11 or 12. This better relationship between parents is, in turn, associated with greater involvement of both mothers and nonresidential fathers with their children.

Forry, Nicole D.; Peters, H. Elizabeth

2010-01-01

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Family structure, nonresident father involvement, and adolescent eating patterns.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between family structure, nonresident father involvement, and adolescent eating patterns. METHODS: Analyses were performed on data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Wave 1, N = approximately 15,550; Wave 2, N = approximately 11,540), and a subsample of adolescents from each wave who had a nonresident father (Wave 1, N = approximately 3,745; Wave 2, N = 2,358). Multivariate regression provides estimates of the independent effects of family structure and nonresident father involvement on adolescent eating patterns while controlling for potentially confounding sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Compared with children in traditional households (i.e., two biological or adoptive parents), adolescents in nontraditional family households (single parent, step-parent, no parent) were more likely to display unhealthy eating habits such as skipping breakfast and lunch, eating fewer vegetables, consuming more fast food, and had less parental monitoring of meals. Nonresident father involvement was associated with an increased frequency of eating breakfast and lunch and increased consumption of vegetables (Wave 1) but did not affect adolescents' consumption of fast food. Child support was positively associated with the odds that adolescents would consume dinner. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents in living in nontraditional families were more likely than adolescents living with two biological/adoptive parents to display unhealthy eating habits. Nonresident father involvement was generally associated with healthier eating patterns. Health professionals should keep in mind that children's and adolescents' living arrangements can be complex and have the potential to affect what and how they eat.

Stewart SD; Menning CL

2009-08-01

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Black Father Involvement in Gifted Education: Thoughts from Black Fathers on Increasing/Improving Black Father-Gifted Teacher Partnerships  

Science.gov (United States)

|Black fathers are important advocates in addressing the underrepresentation of Black students in gifted programs, as well as the achievement gaps between Black and White students. Black fathers increasingly understand the important role that Black mothers have traditionally played in supporting their gifted children's school experiences. As a…

Grantham, Tarek C.; Henfield, Malik S.

2011-01-01

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Single Custodial Fathers' Involvement and Parenting: Implications for Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a sample of 3,977 youths from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), this study examines the unique characteristics of single-custodial-father families with adolescents and the effects of single fathers' involvement and parenting on outcomes in emerging adulthood. Findings suggest that single-custodial-father families are…

Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Scott, Mindy E.; Lilja, Emily

2010-01-01

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THE EFFECTS OF FATHER INVOLVEMENT TRAINING ON FAMILY FUNCTIONING AND ADOLESCENTS’ PEER RELATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to design and determine the effect of Father Involvement Training (FIT), which is based on social-cognitive theory principles, on family functioning in father-adolescent relationships, and (b) to examine the effect of Father Involvement Training (FIT) on the quality of the peer relationships of 9th grade high school students, whose fathers participated in the study. The sample was composed of twenty- six 9th grade students’ fathers. The 2x3 experimental design examined pre-training, post-training and six-month follow-up measurements of an experimental group and control group. Data were collected through Parent Success Indicator (PSI), Parent Adolescent Relationship Scale (PARS) and Peer Relationship Scale (PRS). Data were analyzed by employing Mann Whitney U Test, Friedman Test, and Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test. The results revealed that the Father Involvement Training had significant effects on the father-child relationship and family functioning of experimental group’s fathers. The adolescents, whose fathers participated in the experimental group, had improved in close-relationship and sensitivity dimensions at the end of the study. However, the improvements were not maintained after the six months follow-up measurements. Lastly, there was a significant improvement in the trust and identification dimension of peer relationship levels of children whose fathers received the training compared to children whose fathers did not receive the training.

Ercan KOCAYÖRÜK; Zeynep HAT?PO?LU SÜMER

2009-01-01

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The father at the bedside: patterns of involvement in the NICU.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Father's involvement is important to child development, yet little is known about how fathers are involved with their newborns in neonatal intensive care. The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of fathers' involvement with their infants during hospitalization. Eighteen fathers of infants hospitalized were interviewed and asked to describe how they were involved with their infants. Interview, sociodemographic, and infant medical data were analyzed using cross-case analysis to describe patterns of involvement. Three patterns were identified. Equal to mother fathers perceived their involvement to be the same as the mothers'. They were intrinsically motivated, not working, and spent many hours daily with their infants. They engaged in skin-to-skin care and bathed their infants. Mother more important fathers viewed the mothers' role as more important. They were working, visited a few hours most days, and perceived their role as supporting the mothers. Reluctant fathers were reticent to become involved, described extrinsic sources of motivation, and were fearful of handling their infants. Not all fathers wish to be involved to the same extent with their infants. Nurses need to assess fathers' preferences and facilitate involvement to the extent that they feel comfortable.

Feeley N; Sherrard K; Waitzer E; Boisvert L

2013-01-01

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Swedish child health nurses' views of early father involvement: a qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To explore Swedish child health nurses' views on their role of involving fathers at the Child Health Centres (CHCs). METHODS: Interviews with 17 experienced Swedish Child Health nurses nurses were recorded, transcribed and analysed using systematic text condensation. Following the first analysis, the transtheoretical model of behavioural change was used to interpret the results. RESULTS: Four themes emerged during the analysis: (1) the nurses' own agenda; (2) nurses' opinion about the father's role; (3) nurses' gatekeeping; and (4) wanting more father involvement. Most nurses were in the precontemplation stage according to the transtheoretical model when they expressed their roles as nurses (Theme 1), how they perceived the father's role within the family (Theme 2) and how they actively encouraged mothers, but not fathers, to visit the CHCs (Theme 3/Mothers are our priority). Nurses in the contemplation stage started to consider involving fathers in the CHCs (Theme 3/The gate is closed...). Still others were in the preparation (Theme 4/Fathers are worthy of change) and action stages (Theme 4/Active in involving fathers), respectively. CONCLUSION: Child Health nurses place more emphasis on engaging mothers than fathers in the services. To increase father involvement, nurses need support to become aware, initiate and maintain action.

Wells MB; Varga G; Kerstis B; Sarkadi A

2013-07-01

16

Father Involvement: The Importance of Paternal Solo Care  

Science.gov (United States)

Paternal time spent caring for children alone is qualitatively different from time together mediated by the presence of the mother and may be particularly relevant to father-child relations. Many fathers spend minimal time alone with their children. Indeed, it is still commonly referred to as "babysitting". We explored the concept of Solo Care as…

Wilson, Katherine R.; Prior, Margot R.

2010-01-01

17

[Family perceptions and moderating factors of involvement in non-residential fathers].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The involvement of non-resident fathers with their child was analysed by use of a questionnaire in a sample of 74 divorced or separated families living in the city of Ziurich, Switzerland. Fathers, mothers, and one child separately rated the involvement of the father. The three perspectives were compared and showed significant differences in the dimensions of educational responsibility, cognitive and social support, and the quality of the emotional relationship. The temporal availability and leisure time activities did not show significant differences. The different family perspectives should be considered when assessing a father's involvement with his child. The quality of the relationship of the children to their fathers was primarily fostered by the emotional engagement of the father.

Della Casa A; Spillner M; Winkler-Metzke C; Steinhausen HC

2012-01-01

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Envolvimento paterno aos três meses de vida do bebê/ Fathers' involvement during the baby's third month  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo investigou o envolvimento paterno aos três meses de vida do bebê. Foram entrevistados 38 pais primíparos, com idades entre 20 e 40 anos. Realizou-se uma análise de conteúdo baseada nas dimensões do conceito de envolvimento paterno: interação, acessibilidade e responsabilidade. Os pais revelaram envolverem-se nas atividades de cuidado, embora nem sempre de maneira rotineira. Também relataram preocupações e envolvimento nas decisões relativas a (more) os cuidados, educação e saúde do bebê. Contudo, consideravam que sua participação estava aquém da ideal em função das restrições impostas pelo trabalho. Os resultados apontam para um aumento no envolvimento paterno nos primeiros meses do bebê e para a necessidade de apoio aos pais neste momento de transição familiar. Abstract in english This study investigated the involvement of fathers when their baby was three months old. Participants included 38 primiparous fathers with ages from 20 to 40 years. The fathers' interviews were content analyzed, based on three dimensions of father involvement: interaction, accessibility and responsibility. Fathers reported their involvement in many care activities, although not always routinely. They also mentioned worries and a much involvement in decisions related to ca (more) re, education and baby's health. However, fathers considered their participation less than desired due to work-related time restrictions. These results indicated an increase in father involvement during the baby's third month and the need for emotional support for the fathers during this family transition.

Piccinini, Cesar Augusto; Silva, Milena da Rosa; Gonçalves, Tonantzin Ribeiro; Lopes, Rita de Cássia Sobreira; Tudge, Jonathan

2012-09-01

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Depressive symptoms in nonresident african american fathers and involvement with their sons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether paternal depressive symptoms were associated with less father involvement among African American fathers not living with their children (ie, nonresident fathers). METHODS: We analyzed survey data for 345 fathers enrolled in a program for nonresident African American fathers and their preteen sons. Father involvement included measures of contact, closeness, monitoring, communication, and conflict. We used bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine associations between father involvement and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Thirty-six percent of fathers reported moderate depressive symptoms, and 11% reported severe depressive symptoms. In bivariate analyses, depressive symptoms were associated with less contact, less closeness, low monitoring, and increased conflict. In multivariate analyses controlling for basic demographic features, fathers with moderate depressive symptoms were more likely to have less contact (adjusted odds ratio: 1.7 [95% confidence interval: 1.1-2.8]), less closeness (adjusted odds ratio: 2.1 [95% confidence interval: 1.3-3.5]), low monitoring (adjusted odds ratio: 2.7 [95% confidence interval: 1.4-5.2]), and high conflict (adjusted odds ratio: 2.1 [95% confidence interval: 1.2-3.6]). Fathers with severe depressive symptoms also were more likely to have less contact (adjusted odds ratio: 3.1 [95% confidence interval: 1.4-7.2]), less closeness (adjusted odds ratio: 2.6 [95% confidence interval: 1.2-5.7]), low monitoring (adjusted odds ratio: 2.8 [95% confidence interval: 1.1-7.1]), and high conflict (adjusted odds ratio: 2.6 [95% confidence interval: 1.1-5.9]). CONCLUSION: Paternal depressive symptoms may be an important, but modifiable, barrier for nonresident African American fathers willing to be more involved with their children.

Davis RN; Caldwell CH; Clark SJ; Davis MM

2009-12-01

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African American Fathers: Myths and Realities about Their Involvement with Their Firstborn Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Much of the literature on African American fathers has tended to perpetuate a stereotype of absent and unsupportive parenting. This study employs a life course perspective to investigate the extent and predictors of involvement by young fathers. Data come from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study that has followed a…

Smith, Carolyn A.; Krohn, Marvin D.; Chu, Rebekah; Best, Oscar

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Adolescent fathers: Knowledge of and involvement in the breast-feeding process in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: to understand the ways in which adolescent fathers participate in the breast-feeding process in the family environment in North-eastern Brazil. METHODS: a descriptive, exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken involving 10 couples with infants aged 6-8 months living in a single community in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with questions to guide the interviewer. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis, and interpreted under the theoretical reference of being an adolescent father within the context of breast feeding. FINDINGS: from the data collected, three themes were identified: knowledge of the benefits of breast feeding for the child's health; discontinued participation of the father in breast feeding during the pregnancy-childbearing cycle; and exclusion of the adolescent father from the breast-feeding process. The adolescent fathers knew about the benefits of breast feeding in terms of the child's health, but did not mention benefits for the mother, the family or society. For some adolescent fathers, their participation in the breast-feeding process started during pregnancy, whereas for others, it was only initiated after the infant was born. One of the fathers was prevented, by his wife and mother-in-law, from participating in the breast-feeding process. CONCLUSIONS: the involvement of adolescent fathers in the breast-feeding process oscillated during the pregnancy-childbearing cycle. This may be due to the patriarchal cultural heritage, Brazilian paternity laws, and the fact that these fathers were adolescents. This study showed that adolescent parents were knowledgeable about breast feeding. Finally, fathers want a new model of parenting in which the man participates in child care.

Torres de Lacerda AC; Lucena de Vasconcelos MG; Nascimento de Alencar E; Osório MM; Pontes CM

2013-03-01

22

Doing the Scut Work of Infant Care: Does Religiousness Encourage Father Involvement?  

Science.gov (United States)

Considerable debate exists regarding whether religiousness promotes or impedes greater father involvement in parenting. Our study addresses this issue using a Midwestern longitudinal dataset that tracks the transition to first parenthood for 169 married couples. We focus on performance of the "messier" tasks of infant care. We find little evidence that religiousness enhances father involvement in this domain. Biblically conservative couples exhibit a greater gender gap in childcare than others, with mothers more involved than fathers. The gender gap is also greater the more fathers work outside the home, the greater mothers' knowledge of infant development, and the more unadaptable the infant. Average daily childcare is lower the greater spouses' work hours, but higher with difficult pregnancies or fussy babies. PMID:21966024

Demaris, Alfred; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

2011-04-01

23

Expectant father's stress--due to the mother's expectations?  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the increased attention to the role of the father in the childbearing family, relatively little is known of those factors that facilitate or hinder the transition to parenthood. To study the relationship between stress in the prospective father and congruence of attitudes between husband and wife regarding the projected role of the father with the newborn, 103 prenatal couples were studied. Results supported the position that anxiety in the father increased as discordance between husband and wife increased regarding the projected father role. No relationship was found between anxiety and the amount of projected involvement by the father in child care. PMID:6566819

Fishbein, E G

24

[The involvement of non-resident fathers--a review of the current research].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Non-resident fathers have been forming one of the fastest growing social groups during the last decades. Nevertheless, their involvement and role in the development of their separated children have received a comparatively modest attention in research. Little is known about the possibilities and limits of their influence after parental separation. This review is meant to give a general overview of the current scientific literature about the involvement of non-resident fathers. Various factors influencing the behaviour of fathers after separation such as the circumstances around the visits, the line-up of families, the role of mothers and general parental conflicts are taken into consideration. Finally, the current research in this field is critically discussed and future research perspectives are formulated.

Della Casa A; Käppler C

2009-01-01

25

Improving prenatal health: setting the agenda for increased male involvement.  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. infant mortality rate is among the highest in the developed world, with recent vital statistics reports estimating 6.14 infant deaths per 1,000 live births. Traditional health education and promotion to improve maternal, infant, and child health in the United States has focused only on women, leaving men out of important health messages that may affect pregnancy outcomes as well as family well-being. Recently, public health scholars have suggested that men be included in prenatal health education in an effort to improve birth outcomes and reduce infant mortality. Incorporating men in prenatal health promotion and education has been found to improve overall birth preparedness, reduce the risk of maternal-infant HIV transmission, and reduce perinatal mortality in less-developed nations. Although these results are positive, research on paternal impact in pregnancy outcomes in the United States to date is lacking. This article proposes a U.S.-specific research agenda to understand the current role of men in pregnancy health, as well as actual involvement, barriers, and the influence men can have in prenatal health. A discussion of culture, individual motivations, health care providers, and social marketing is also considered. PMID:23727791

Guadagno, Marie; Mackert, Michael; Rochlen, Aaron

2013-05-30

26

Improving Prenatal Health: Setting the Agenda for Increased Male Involvement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The U.S. infant mortality rate is among the highest in the developed world, with recent vital statistics reports estimating 6.14 infant deaths per 1,000 live births. Traditional health education and promotion to improve maternal, infant, and child health in the United States has focused only on women, leaving men out of important health messages that may affect pregnancy outcomes as well as family well-being. Recently, public health scholars have suggested that men be included in prenatal health education in an effort to improve birth outcomes and reduce infant mortality. Incorporating men in prenatal health promotion and education has been found to improve overall birth preparedness, reduce the risk of maternal-infant HIV transmission, and reduce perinatal mortality in less-developed nations. Although these results are positive, research on paternal impact in pregnancy outcomes in the United States to date is lacking. This article proposes a U.S.-specific research agenda to understand the current role of men in pregnancy health, as well as actual involvement, barriers, and the influence men can have in prenatal health. A discussion of culture, individual motivations, health care providers, and social marketing is also considered.

Guadagno M; Mackert M; Rochlen A

2013-05-01

27

Father's experiences of involvement in the daily care of their child with developmental disability in a Chinese context.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study explored Taiwanese fathers' experience of involvement in the daily care of a child with developmental disability within Chinese culture. BACKGROUND: Most studies on parents' experiences of having a child with a disability have focused on mothers or mixed fathers' voices with mothers'. Focussing only on mothers and ignoring fathers may hinder the latter's engagement with their child's care and encourage traditional or detached fathering roles. DESIGN: A hermeneutic phenomenological approach was applied to explore and interpret fathers' experience. METHOD: Sixteen fathers were purposively sampled from a medical centre in central Taiwan. All participants were interviewed twice with semi-structured and in-depth interviews. All transcripts and journal notes were analysed with the hermeneutic circle to achieve thick descriptions that richly described the meaning of fathers' experience. RESULTS: Analysis of interviews with fathers on their experiences of raising the disabled child at home revealed three shared meanings: keeping hope alive, concerns about quality of medical care and maximising family function. CONCLUSIONS: Hope for their disabled child's good outcome and future was highly significant for these fathers, but hope was diminished when their child received poor medical care or their own ability was too poor to care for the disabled child. However, fathers still did not give up working for their children and for the well-being of their families and society. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Nurses should acknowledge that fathers' involvement in their disabled child's care can contribute to the well-being of both child and family. Also, nurses should educate parents on the best possible ways to help their child. Finally, nurses need to encourage discussions between parents and professionals about their own and the family's situation to develop a trusting and equal parent-professional relationship, thus alleviating fathers' concerns and better meeting the child's care needs.

Huang YP; Chen SL; Tsai SW

2012-11-01

28

Fathers' perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to their involvement with their newborn hospitalised in the neonatal intensive care unit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore what fathers perceive to be facilitators or barriers to their involvement with their infants. BACKGROUND: Fathers make unique and important contributions to the development of their infants. Fathers of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit often feel that they have a limited role to play in their infant's care, and surveys suggest that they are not typically involved in infant caregiving. Paradoxically, qualitative studies have found that fathers do want to be involved, and their lack of involvement is an important source of stress. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive. METHODS: Eighteen fathers of infants, in the neonatal intensive care unit for at least one week, were interviewed and asked to describe what they perceived to be the barriers and facilitators to their involvement. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed, and the data was content analysed. RESULTS: Three major categories of barriers/facilitators were identified: (1) infant factors (size and health status, twin birth and infant feedback), (2) interpersonal factors (the rewards of and attitudes and beliefs regarding fatherhood; family management; previous experiences) and (3) neonatal intensive care unit environmental factors (physical and social). These factors could often be a barrier or facilitator to involvement depending on the context. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into what factors influence involvement, and how nursing staff can support involvement and best meet fathers' needs. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Nurses should explore the forms of involvement that a father desires, as well as the demands on their time, and determine what might be done to promote involvement. Fathers should be assisted to maximise the time that they do have with the infant. Nurses must provide clear and consistent information about whether and when caregiving is advisable, and they can explain and demonstrate how fathers can care for their infant.

Feeley N; Waitzer E; Sherrard K; Boisvert L; Zelkowitz P

2013-02-01

29

Mindful Parenting and Care Involvement of Fathers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities  

Science.gov (United States)

There are few data addressing psychological variables that may explain some variation in parenting by fathers of children with intellectual disabilities. In the present study, we hypothesized that fathers who were more mindful in their parenting role (specifically, fathers who reported more present-centered attention in their relationship with…

MacDonald, Elaine E.; Hastings, Richard P.

2010-01-01

30

Sentimentos sobre a paternidade e o envolvimento paterno: um estudo qualitativo/ Feelings concerning fatherhood and fathers' involvement: a qualitative study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As crenças e as expectativas sobre o papel paterno na criação dos filhos sofreram uma grande transformação nas últimas décadas. Pouco se sabe, porém, sobre como essas mudanças estão afetando a rotina de pais e filhos, e como os pais têm se avaliado nesse papel. O presente estudo buscou compreender, por meio de uma abordagem qualitativa, os sentimentos relacionados à paternidade e o envolvimento paterno de três pais casados que tinham um único filho em idade (more) pré-escolar. Os pais foram entrevistados e as suas respostas foram examinadas pela análise de conteúdo. Os resultados revelaram que os pais dividiam com suas esposas as responsabilidades pelas crianças. Os pais acreditavam, em geral, que sua participação na vida dos filhos era muito importante, e mostravam-se satisfeitos com a paternidade. Foram observadas, contudo, importantes diferenças entre os casos quanto ao envolvimento paterno, principalmente em relação às responsabilidades financeiras e ao tempo disponível para a criança. Abstract in english The beliefs and expectations concerning father's role in childbearing had an extensive transformation in the last decades. However, little is known about how these changes are affecting the routine of parents and children, and how fathers are evaluating themselves in this role. Based on a qualitative approach, the present study aimed to investigate the feelings concerning fatherhood and father involvement in three married fathers who had an only child, preschool-aged. The (more) fathers were interviewed and their answers were examined through content analysis. The results revealed that fathers shared child rearing responsibilities with their wives. Fathers believed that their participation in their children's life was very important and they are generally satisfied with fatherhood. However, there were important differences regarding father involvement, especially related to financial responsibilities and time available to their child.

Silva, Milena da Rosa; Piccinini, Cesar Augusto

2007-12-01

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Involving fathers in prevention of mother to child transmission initiatives – what the evidence suggests  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The current UNAIDS goal towards virtual ending or elimination of infants acquiring HIV by 2015 is perhaps the most achievable goal to date. Yet, models show that delivery of antiretroviral compounds alone will not suffice to achieve this goal, and a broader community-based approach to pregnancy, families and HIV is needed. Such an approach would highlight the important role of men in reproduction. Although early studies have shown it is cost-effective to include males, very few interventions have proceeded to involve men. Methods: This review utilized systematic review techniques to explore the literature on effective interventions for the inclusion of men in the prevention of HIV to infants. A key word search of literature sources generated 248 studies for hand sorting and interrogation. Of these, 13 were found to contain some information on involvement of males in some form of provision. Data were abstracted from these and form the basis of this review. Results: Background descriptive studies painted a picture of low male involvement, poor male inclusion and barriers to engagement at all stages. Yet, pregnancy intentions among men affected by HIV are high and the importance of fathers to family functioning – from relationships, through conception, pregnancy and parenting – is well established. Search strategies for interventions for males in HIV and pregnancy were used to generate studies of sufficient quality to inform strategies on the future of male involvement. Of the 317,434 papers on pregnancy and HIV, only 4178 included the term male (paternal or father). When these were restricted to intervention studies, only 248 remained for hand sorting, generating 13 studies of relevance for data extraction. The results show that all these interventions were concentrated around male partner HIV testing. In general, male partner testing was low and was amenable to change by offering voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) information, providing couple-based testing facilities and encouraging male attendance. All interventions used indirect approaches to men via their pregnant spouse. Non-health facility (clinic or hospital)-based provision (such as testing facilities in the community in bars and churches) were more effective than healthcare facilities in attracting male participation. Conclusions: In conclusion, the review showed that approaches to men are limited to HIV testing with little innovative planning and provision for male treatment and care. As such, initiatives run the risk of alienating rather than including males. Direct approaches and the provision of male-specific facilities and benefits should be explored.

Lorraine Sherr; Natasha Croome

2012-01-01

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Exploring the impact of involving fathers in the treatment of their children: A study using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA)  

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Full Text Available Although fathers have been shown to contribute uniquely to the development of psychopathology in children, they continue to be ignored in research and clinical work. Knowledge about the impact of involving fathers in their child’s treatment – for the child, couple and the family as a whole - is still sparse. The aim of this study was to explore parents’ experiences of having fathers involved in the treatment of their child. Parents, whose children had received cognitive behavioural therapy for an anxiety disorder, were interviewed about this topic. The participating parents had all been involved in the treatment of their child. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to analyze the data in this study. Three higher order themes and 11 subthemes emerged from the six interview accounts. The three higher order themes were as follows: Strengthening the family system, empowerment of parents, and impact on partner relationship. Results indicated that parents’ experiences of the involvement of fathers to be beneficial not only on the child’s treatment but also on other aspects of family life. The parents reported that the family as a whole benefitted from the treatment and that the relationship between the parents was strengthened. A model was created to conceptualize these results.

Anna Elisabeth Iversen; Barbara Hoff Esbjørn; Elisabeth Christensen; Nina Schultz Hansen

2012-01-01

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O envolvimento paterno no processo da amamentação: propostas de incentivo Involving fathers in breast feeding: stimulus proposals  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: desvendar os eixos norteadores e, a partir deles, construir uma proposta de incentivo à participação do homem no processo da amamentação, identificando estratégias nas diversas fases de sua vida, desde criança até tornar-se pai. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo, exploratório e qualitativo, cujos eixos norteadores e a construção da proposta ocorreram a partir da análise das falas oriundas das entrevistas semiestruturadas realizadas com 17 casais, residentes na favela do Bode, Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. As falas foram interpretadas à luz da análise do conteúdo manifesto, ancoradas no referencial teórico - construção histórica, social e cultural da paternidade - para encontrar os eixos norteadores e subsídios à construção da proposta. RESULTADOS: os eixos norteadores encontrados foram família, escola e instituição de saúde, os quais subsidiaram a construção de uma proposta por meio da implantação do ambulatório de amamentação (consulta para família, do pré-natal aos seis meses de vida da criança) e da socialização de meninos e meninas pró-amamentação. Tal proposta consta de atividades para o envolvimento do pai no amamentar. CONCLUSÕES: os eixos norteadores apresentaram aspectos significativos que alijaram o homem do processo da amamentação. Por isso, a essência desta proposta construída foi servir de modelo de incentivo à participação do pai nessa prática, para se estruturar um programa de saúde a ser implementado nas escolas e instituições de saúde, como uma forma de transformar a cultura do amamentar, aumentando o período de duração da amamentação.OBJECTIVES: to reveal the guiding influences and through these to draw up a proposal to stimulate the participation of men in breast feeding, identifying strategies at the various phases in a man's life, from childhood to fatherhood. METHODS: a descriptive, exploratory and qualitative study was carried out, whose guidelines and proposals were based on examination of statements gathered in the course of semi-structured interviews conducted with 17 couples, living on the Bode favela, in Recife, in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The statements were interpreted using manifest content analysis, based on the theoretical notion of the historical, social and cultural construction of fatherhood, and subsequently used to determine the guiding influences and draw up proposals. RESULTS: the principal guiding influences were found to be the family, the school and the health unit, all of which help to draw up a proposal for the initiation of breast feeding at the outpatients clinic (during prenatal family consultations when the child is aged six months) and the socialization of male and female children in favor of breast feeding. This proposal includes activities that aim to involve the father in breast feeding. CONCLUSIONS: some significant features of the guiding influences tend to exclude men from the breast feeding process. The essence of this proposal is therefore to serve as a model for stimulating the participation of fathers in breast feeding and for building up a health program to be introduced in schools and health units, as a way of changing the culture of breast feeding and extending its duration.

Cleide Maria Pontes; Aline Chaves Alexandrino; Mônica Maria Osório

2009-01-01

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Do parentese prosody and fathers' involvement in interacting facilitate social interaction in infants who later develop autism?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Whether development of autism impacts the interactive process between an infant and his/her parents remains an unexplored issue. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using computational analysis taking into account synchronic behaviors and emotional prosody (parentese), we assessed the course of infants' responses to parents' type of speech in home movies from typically developing (TD) infants and infants who will subsequently develop autism aged less than 18 months. Our findings indicate: that parentese was significantly associated with infant responses to parental vocalizations involving orientation towards other people and with infant receptive behaviours; that parents of infants developing autism displayed more intense solicitations that were rich in parentese; that fathers of infants developing autism spoke to their infants more than fathers of TD infants; and that fathers' vocalizations were significantly associated with intersubjective responses and active behaviours in infants who subsequently developed autism. CONCLUSION: The parents of infants who will later develop autism change their interactive pattern of behaviour by both increasing parentese and father's involvement in interacting with infants; both are significantly associated with infant's social responses. We stress the possible therapeutic implications of these findings and its implication for Dean Falk's theory regarding pre-linguistic evolution in early hominins.

Cohen D; Cassel RS; Saint-Georges C; Mahdhaoui A; Laznik MC; Apicella F; Muratori P; Maestro S; Muratori F; Chetouani M

2013-01-01

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Vinculação pré-natal e ansiedade em mães e pais: impacto da ecografia do 1º trimestre de gestação/ Prenatal bonding and anxiety in mothers and fathers: the impact of ultrasound in the 1st trimester of pregnancy  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Com o objectivo de avaliar o impacto da ecografia do 1º trimestre de gravidez na ansiedade e vinculação pré-natal, 22 mães e 22 pais foram recrutados numa Unidade de Medicina Fetal e Diagnóstico Pré-natal. Foram administrados a Bonding Scale (Taylor, Atkins, Kumar, Adams, & Glover, 2005; versão portuguesa de Figueiredo, Marques, Costa, Pacheco, & Pais, 2005b) e o State Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983; versão portuguesa (more) de Silva, 2003), antes e depois da ecografia, a ambos os membros do casal. Os resultados revelaram que a vinculação pré-natal aumenta significativamente enquanto a sintomatologia ansiosa diminui, depois da realização da ecografia. Conclui-se que a ecografia pode ter um papel tranquilizador e potenciador da ligação dos pais ao seu bebé por nascer. Abstract in english In order to analyse the first trimester ultrasound impact on anxiety and prenatal bonding, 22 mothers and 22 fathers were recruited from a Fetal Medicine and Prenatal Diagnosis Unit. The mothers and fathers filled out Portuguese versions of the Bonding Scale (Taylor, Atkins, Kumar, Adams, & Glover, 2005; Figueiredo, Marques, Costa, Pacheco, & Pais, 2005) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983; Portuguese version by Silva (more) , 2003), before and after the ultrasound attendance. The results show that prenatal bonding improves significantly from before to after the ultrasound attendance, while the anxiety levels diminished. We can conclude that the ultrasound scanning seems to have a positive impact on the mother and father prenatal bonding and reassurance.

Samorinha, Catarina; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Cruz, José Matos

2009-01-01

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Psychopathological status, behavior problems, and family adjustment of Kuwaiti children whose fathers were involved in the first gulf war  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Following the end of the Gulf War that resulted in the liberation of Kuwait, there are no reports on the impact of veterans' traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on their children. We compared the severity of anxiety, depression, deviant behavior and poor family adjustment among the children of a stratified random sample of four groups of Kuwaiti military men, viz: the retired; an active -in-the-army group (AIA) (involved in duties at the rear); an in-battle group (IB) (involved in combat); and a prisoners -of- war (POWs) group. Also, we assessed the association of father's PTSD/combat status and mother's characteristics with child psychosocial outcomes. Method Subjects were interviewed at home, 6 years after the war, using: the Child Behavior Index to assess anxiety, depression, and adaptive behavior; Rutter Scale A2 for deviant behavior; and Family Adjustment Device for adjustment at home. Both parents were assessed for PTSD. Results The 489 offspring (250 m, 239 f; mean age 13.8 yrs) belonged to 166 father-mother pairs. Children of POWs tended to have higher anxiety, depression, and abnormal behavior scores. Those whose fathers had PTSD had significantly higher depression scores. However, children of fathers with both PTSD and POW status (N = 43) did not have significantly different outcome scores than the other father PTSD/combat status groups. Mother's PTSD, anxiety, depression and social status were significantly associated with all the child outcome variables. Parental age, child's age and child's level of education were significant covariates. Although children with both parents having PTSD had significantly higher anxiety/depression scores, the mother's anxiety was the most frequent and important predictor of child outcome variables. The frequency of abnormal test scores was: 14% for anxiety/depression, and 17% for deviant behavior. Conclusion Our findings support the impression that child emotional experiences in vulnerable family situations transcend culture and are associated with the particular behavior of significant adults in the child's life. The primacy of the mother's influence has implications for interventions to improve the psychological functioning of children in such families. Mental health education for these families has the potential to help those in difficulty.

Al-Turkait Fawziyah A; Ohaeri Jude U

2008-01-01

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A relação entre o envolvimento paterno e o desempenho acadêmico dos filhos The relationship between father involvement and children's academic performance  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de estudar o impacto da qualidade do relacionamento entre pai e filho sobre o desempenho acadêmico de crianças escolares. Participaram deste estudo 58 pais e seus filhos da 5ª e 6ª séries. Os pais preencheram o questionário "Qualidade da interação familiar na visão paterna" e os filhos preencheram o questionário "Interação pai-filho". Para investigar como o envolvimento dos pais afetou o desempenho acadêmico dos seus filhos, as crianças foram avaliadas com o "Teste de Desempenho Escolar". Observou-se que, quanto maior a freqüência de comunicações entre pai e filho e quanto maior o envolvimento dos pais nas atividades escolares, culturais e de lazer do filho, melhor o desempenho acadêmico das crianças. Tais resultados demonstram a importância do pai para o desempenho acadêmico dos filhos e apontam para a necessidade de educar os homens para conhecerem as muitas ações que podem melhorar seu desempenho enquanto pais.The aim of this paper was to study the impact of the quality of the father-child relationship on children's academic performance. A total of 58 fathers and their children (in the fifth and sixth grades) participated in this study. The fathers completed a questionnaire, "Quality of family interaction - fathers' perspective" and the children completed a questionnaire "Father-child interaction". To investigate how the fathers' involvement affected their children's academic performance, the children were evaluated using the School Performance Test. The results indicate that, the higher the frequency of father-child communication and the greater the fathers' involvement in the children's school, cultural and leisure activities, the higher the children's academic performance. These results indicate the importance of fathers' involvement, to maximize children's academic performance, and the necessity of educating men with respect to the ways in which they can improve their parental performance.

Fabiana Cia; Sabrina Mazo D´Affonseca; Elizabeth Joan Barham

2004-01-01

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Parental Spanking and Subsequent Risk for Child Aggression in Father-Involved Families of Young Children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined separate and combined maternal and paternal use of spanking with children at age 3 and children's subsequent aggressive behavior at age 5. The sample was derived from a birth cohort study and included families (n = 923) in which both parents lived with the child at age 3. In this sample, 44% of 3-year-olds were spanked 2 times or more in the past month by either parent or both parents. In separate analyses, being spanked more than twice in the prior month at age 3, by either mother or father, was associated with increased child aggression at 5 years. In combined analyses, there was a dose-response association; the greatest risk for child aggression was reported when both parents spanked more than twice in the prior month (adjusted odds ratio: 2.01; [confidence interval: 1.03-3.94]). Violence prevention initiatives should target and engage mothers and fathers in anticipatory guidance efforts aimed at increasing the use of effective and non-aggressive child discipline techniques and reducing the use of spanking.

Lee SJ; Taylor CA; Altschul I; Rice JC

2013-08-01

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Are fathers' views important?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey by health visitors of the behaviour of children between the ages of three and eight revealed that mothers consistently rate children's behaviour as significantly more problematic and more intense than fathers do. Both mothers and fathers viewed the behaviour of boys as more difficult than girls. Pamela Mack, Karen Trew discuss the value of using a behaviour checklist as one aide in the assessment of childhood behaviour problems, with particular emphasis on the importance of involving fathers.

Mack P; Trew K

1991-08-01

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Prenatal paternal depression  

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Prenatal depressive symptoms, anxiety, anger and daily hassles were investigated in 156 depressed and non-depressed pregnant women and their depressed and non-depressed partners (fathers-to-be). Depressed versus non-depressed fathers had higher depression, anxiety and daily hassles scores. Although...

Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Deeds, Osvelia; Contogeorgos, Jennifer

 
 
 
 
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Understanding fatherhood in Greece: father's involvement in child care/ Compreendendo a paternidade na Grécia: o envolvimento do pai no cuidado de bebês  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo descreve o envolvimento do pai grego com a família e as tarefas de cuidados da criança, durante o seu primeiro ano de vida. Oitenta pais de zona rural, de nível educacional e status ocupacional baixos, e 80 pais de zona urbana, de nível educacional e status ocupacional altos, falaram sobre as suas percepções de paternidade e de sua participação em duas das responsabilidades dos pais: (a) a preparação antes e após o nascimento de um bebê e (b) (more) o envolvimento em brincadeiras e em uma variedade de tarefas rotineras de cuidados da criança. Os resultados mostram que os pais provenientes de áreas urbanas se envolviam mais nessas atividades que os pais de áreas rurais. Todos os pais valorizaram a paternidade como uma experiência agradável; muitos deles, entretanto, afirmaram que as responsabilidades de educar a criança causaram-lhes muita tensão psicológica. Os resultados são discutidos em relação à divisão de papéis entre o marido e a esposa, nas famílias gregas. Abstract in english The present study aims to depict a picture of Greek fathers concerning their involvement in family and child-centered tasks over the first year of the child. Eighty fathers from rural areas with low educational and occupational status and eighty fathers from urban districts with high educational and occupational status were asked to talk about their own perceptions of fatherhood and also their participation into two parenting commitments: (a) preparations before and after (more) the birth of the child and (b) involvement in play with the child and a variety of daily child-care tasks. The results show that fathers in urban regions were more involved in these activities than their counterparts in rural areas. All fathers valued fatherhood as a pleasant experience. Many fathers, however, stated that child-rearing responsibilities cause them a lot of psychological strain. The results are discussed in relation to the division of roles between spouses in Greek families.

Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina

2000-12-01

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Understanding fatherhood in Greece: father's involvement in child care Compreendendo a paternidade na Grécia: o envolvimento do pai no cuidado de bebês  

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Full Text Available The present study aims to depict a picture of Greek fathers concerning their involvement in family and child-centered tasks over the first year of the child. Eighty fathers from rural areas with low educational and occupational status and eighty fathers from urban districts with high educational and occupational status were asked to talk about their own perceptions of fatherhood and also their participation into two parenting commitments: (a) preparations before and after the birth of the child and (b) involvement in play with the child and a variety of daily child-care tasks. The results show that fathers in urban regions were more involved in these activities than their counterparts in rural areas. All fathers valued fatherhood as a pleasant experience. Many fathers, however, stated that child-rearing responsibilities cause them a lot of psychological strain. The results are discussed in relation to the division of roles between spouses in Greek families.O presente estudo descreve o envolvimento do pai grego com a família e as tarefas de cuidados da criança, durante o seu primeiro ano de vida. Oitenta pais de zona rural, de nível educacional e status ocupacional baixos, e 80 pais de zona urbana, de nível educacional e status ocupacional altos, falaram sobre as suas percepções de paternidade e de sua participação em duas das responsabilidades dos pais: (a) a preparação antes e após o nascimento de um bebê e (b) o envolvimento em brincadeiras e em uma variedade de tarefas rotineras de cuidados da criança. Os resultados mostram que os pais provenientes de áreas urbanas se envolviam mais nessas atividades que os pais de áreas rurais. Todos os pais valorizaram a paternidade como uma experiência agradável; muitos deles, entretanto, afirmaram que as responsabilidades de educar a criança causaram-lhes muita tensão psicológica. Os resultados são discutidos em relação à divisão de papéis entre o marido e a esposa, nas famílias gregas.

Katerina Maridaki-Kassotaki

2000-01-01

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The Study of Male Involvement in Prenatal Care in Shahroud and Sabzevar, Iran  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Male involvement like women empowerment and maternal health is one of the main strategies in achieving millennium development goals. To prepare the theoretical grounds necessary for male involvement, this descriptive study specifically aims to understand the prevalence and the forms of male involvement in maternal health. Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic study. Subjects consisted of women hospitalized for delivery in Shahrood and Sabsevar hospitals, Iran. Inclusion criteria were alive and healthy fetus. Exclusion criteria were illegal pregnancy. The questionnaires were completed by 507 women and 420 husbands. Data were analyzed using t-test, Pearson correlation and descriptive tests.Results: 17% of men didn’t attend at the time of woman’s admission at the hospital. Low level of husband’s companionship to health centers, low male involvement in household tasks and receiving low health recommendation by husbands were reported by 25%, 33% and 61% of the women, respectively. 77% of men had a low level of knowledge concerning pregnancy complications; however, 93% of them were aware of their wives’ problems in pregnancy. Conclusion: The observed awareness of men of their wives’ problems in pregnancy and their companionship in receiving prenatal care indicates their high level of interest in pregnancy health; however, their low level of knowledge concerning pregnancy problems, women’s physical and psychological needs is an important barrier to male involvement in maternal health. Designing and providing reproductive health education programs for men seems to be necessary.

Mortazavi F.; Keramat A.

2012-01-01

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Neuroprotective effect of resveratrol against prenatal stress induced cognitive impairment and possible involvement of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Resveratrol, an active ingredient of red wine extracts, has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects in several experimental models. Hence in the present study, the protective effects of resveratrol on cognitive deficits induced by prenatal stress were evaluated in offspring, and the possible involvement of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in learning deficits were explored. Pregnant rats were subjected to restraint stress during early or late gestational period. Another set of rats received resveratrol during the entire gestational period along with early or late gestational stress. The study parameters included various behavioral tests like open field test and Morris water maze test. At the end of the behavioral tests (on 40th postnatal day), the offspring were sacrificed, and their brain homogenate was subjected to Na(+), K(+)-ATPase estimation. Early and late gestational stress affected spatial learning and memory and prenatal resveratrol has reversed these cognitive deficits. The Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in the offspring brain homogenate was reduced in the late gestational stress group; however prenatal resveratrol treatment has not affected this activity. These data suggest the neuroprotective efficacy of resveratrol against prenatal stress induced cognitive impairment. Though late gestational stress involves Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in rat brain homogenate, this would not be the primary cause in prenatal stress-induced cognitive dysfunction.

Sahu SS; Madhyastha S; Rao GM

2013-01-01

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Prenatal paternal depression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenatal depressive symptoms, anxiety, anger and daily hassles were investigated in 156 depressed and non-depressed pregnant women and their depressed and non-depressed partners (fathers-to-be). Depressed versus non-depressed fathers had higher depression, anxiety and daily hassles scores. Although the pregnant women in general had lower anxiety, anger and daily hassles scores than the men, the scores on the measures for depressed fathers and depressed mothers did not differ. Paternal depression appeared to have less effect than maternal depression on their partners' scores. However, the similarity between the scores of depressed mothers and depressed fathers highlights the importance of screening for depression in fathers-to-be as well as mothers-to-be during pregnancy. PMID:17138311

Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Figueiredo, Barbara; Deeds, Osvelia; Contogeorgos, Jennifer; Ascencio, Angela

2006-11-13

46

The effect on father-infant interaction of demonstrating the neonatal behavioral assessment scale.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Forty-four first-time fathers who had attended prenatal classes and were present during labor and delivery of their healthy infants were divided randomly into an experimental group of 22 who observed the Brazelton neonatal behavioral assessment scale performed on their 2- to 3-day-old infants, or into a control group of 22 who did not receive this intervention. Paternal involvement in, and attitudes toward, infant caretaking and ratings of infant difficultness were compared in the two groups. Father-infant interaction was measured by two-minute videotape analysis at eight weeks postpartum. Paternal attitudes, caretaking activities, and perceptions of their infants were measured by questionnaire self-reports. There were significant differences in the quality, but not quantity, of father-infant interactions, and in one of four measures of infant difficultness (unpredictability) between the two groups.

Beal JA

1989-03-01

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A comparison of father-infant interaction between primary and non-primary care giving fathers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study examined the socio-demographic characteristics and attitudes of primary care giving fathers and non-primary care giving fathers and the quality of their interaction with their infants. METHOD: Two groups of fathers of 11.9-month old infants were compared - 25 primary care giving fathers (20 h per week or more of sole infant care) and 75 non-primary care giving fathers - with regard to socio-demographic characteristics, attitudinal differences and father-infant interaction during play and mealtimes. The quality of father-child interaction in relation to the total number of hours of primary care provided by fathers was also examined. RESULTS: Primary care giving fathers had lower occupational status and earned a smaller proportion of the family income but did not differ in educational level or attitudes compared with non-primary care giving fathers. There were no differences between the partners of the two groups of fathers on any variables, and their infants did not differ in temperament. Primary care giving fathers and their infants exhibited more positive emotional tone during play than non-primary care giving fathers, although fathers did not differ in responsivity. There were no differences between the groups during mealtimes. There was a positive association between total number of child care hours provided by all fathers and infant positive emotional tone. CONCLUSIONS: Primary and non-primary care giving fathers were similar in many respects, but primary care giving fathers and their infants were happier during play. This suggests a possible link between the involvement of fathers in the care of their children and their children's emotional state. The finding of a trend towards increased paternal happiness with increased hours of child care suggests that there may also be a gain for fathers who are more involved in the care of their infants. Further research is needed to determine whether these differences ultimately have an effect on children's development.

Lewis SN; West AF; Stein A; Malmberg LE; Bethell K; Barnes J; Sylva K; Leach P

2009-03-01

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Chaotic Identities, Love and Fathering  

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Full Text Available Fathers today are confronted with constantly changing ideas on theirrole as a parent. The old traditional forms of fathering i.e. the breadwinner and protector roles are being gradually replaced by a more reflexive role that places unconditional love from their children as a central theme in a new type of reflexive parenting. This article examines the role of fatherhood through the theoreticallens of reflexive modernity. It recognises that men are increasingly becoming dependant on their children for unconditional love and this is forcing men to become more involved in the lives of their own children. The theory of reflexive modernisation is applied to a group of 40 fathers from a post-industrial area of Britain to unravel the processes and practices being used in this “new” type of parenting. This research discovers that fathers in the 21st century have numerouspressures from changing ideas about what is a good or bad father, but in the final instance it is their individualised responses to these societal and personal circumstances which create a new reflexive type of fathering. This type of fathering is therefore created by general social changes within a reflexive modern society and also by personal choice.

Stephen Williams

2011-01-01

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A Comparison of Fathers' and Mothers' Involvement in Childcare and Stimulation Behaviors during Free-Play with Their Infants at 9 and 15 Months.  

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Fathers and mothers of firstborn infants completed parental responsibility surveys; recorded accessibility and direct interaction time in caregiving, play, and outings; and were videotaped in free-play with their infants at age 9 and 15 months. Fathers spent less time interacting with their infants than mothers and invested less time in…

Laflamme, Darquise; Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard

2002-01-01

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Involvement of pGluR1, EAAT2 and EAAT3 in offspring depression induced by prenatal stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is widely known that prenatal stress (PS) exposure causes depression-like behaviour to offspring, as well as maladaptive responses including neurobiological and physiological changes. However, the underlying mechanism of PS induced juvenile-onset depression remains largely unravelled. The inadequacies of monoamine deficiency hypothesis, the emerging evidence of altered glutamate neurotransmission in mood disorders, as well as our previous studies inspired us to assess the potential role of glutamatergic system in the pathogenesis of juvenile depression. In this research, we examined the expression of phosphorylated GluR1 subunit of ionotropic receptor alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), the Na+-dependent glutamate transporters excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) and EAAT3 in the hippocampus, striatum and frontal cortex of 1-month-old rat offspring after mid and late PS exposure. Prenatally stressed offspring rats showed significantly prolonged duration of immobility and shortened immobility latency in tail suspension test. We also detected that PS significantly altered the expression of glutamate receptor and glutamate transporters of these depressed rats. In brief, the changes of phosphorylated GluR1 subunit of AMPAR protein level in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, as well as markedly decreased EAAT2 mRNA expression in the hippocampus, striatum and frontal cortex and EAAT3 mRNA expression in the hippocampus of stressed rats were both observed. These results underpinned that glutamate receptors and glutamate transporters might be involved in the progress of depression-like behaviour in juvenile rat offspring induced by PS. PMID:23694703

Zhang, X H; Jia, N; Zhao, X Y; Tang, G K; Guan, L X; Wang, D; Sun, H L; Li, H; Zhu, Z L

2013-05-18

51

Envolvimento paterno durante o nascimento dos filhos: pai "real" e "ideal" na perspectiva materna/ Paternal involvement during their children's birth: mother's perspective of 'real' and 'ideal' father  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O pai é a fonte de apoio materno mais importante durante a transição decorrente do nascimento de filhos. Este estudo objetiva descrever a percepção de 45 mulheres grávidas e 42 mães com bebês de até seis meses sobre a participação e apoio paterno, durante a gestação e nascimento de filhos. A coleta de dados consistiu da aplicação, às mães, de um questionário de caracterização do sistema familiar e de uma entrevista semiestruturada, visando obter inform (more) ações sobre o pai "real" e o "ideal". Os resultados mostram que, apesar de os pais serem percebidos como pouco participativos, as mães estavam satisfeitas com o seu envolvimento. Os dados sugerem que é necessário estimular a participação do pai, por ocasião do nascimento de filhos. Abstract in english The father is a major figure on mother's support network during childbirth transition. This study aims to report father's participation and support during the pregnancy and the birth of their children, according to the point of view of 45 pregnant women and 42 women with six-month-old children. Data was collected through the administration of a family questionnaire and a semi-structured interview answered by the mothers in order to get information about the "real" and the (more) "ideal" father. The results show that, although the mothers were satisfied with the fathers' role in family life, they thought fathers were not as participative as they should be. Data suggest that it is necessary to stimulate father's participation during childbirth.

Dessen, Maria Auxiliadora; Oliveira, Maíra Ribeiro de

2013-01-01

52

Derivative chromosome 11 in a child resulting from a complex rearrangement involving chromosomes 3, 6 and 11 in father: Significance of parental karyotyping  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of derivative chromosome in a child with phenotypic features necessitates the need of parental karyotyping to ascertain the exact amount of loss or gain of the genetic material. The aim of this study was to emphasize the importance of parental karyotyping. Cytogenetic evaluation of the proband and his father were carried out at Laboratory. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on phytohemagglutinin stimulated cultures. The derivative chromosome 11 in proband was ascertained to have additional material from chromosome 6p arising from complex chromosomal rearrangement in the father. Karyotyping is the basic, cost-effective preliminary investigation in a child with mental subnormality or congenital anomalies.

Ranjan, Prabhat; Desai, Kundanbala; Saxena, Shailaja Gada

2013-01-01

53

Derivative chromosome 11 in a child resulting from a complex rearrangement involving chromosomes 3, 6 and 11 in father: Significance of parental karyotyping.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The presence of derivative chromosome in a child with phenotypic features necessitates the need of parental karyotyping to ascertain the exact amount of loss or gain of the genetic material. The aim of this study was to emphasize the importance of parental karyotyping. Cytogenetic evaluation of the proband and his father were carried out at Laboratory. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on phytohemagglutinin stimulated cultures. The derivative chromosome 11 in proband was ascertained to have additional material from chromosome 6p arising from complex chromosomal rearrangement in the father. Karyotyping is the basic, cost-effective preliminary investigation in a child with mental subnormality or congenital anomalies.

Ranjan P; Desai K; Gada Saxena S

2013-04-01

54

Adolescents with Nonresident Fathers: Are Daughters more Disadvantaged than Sons?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined sons' and daughters' involvement with nonresident fathers and associated outcomes (N=4,663). Results indicate that sons and daughters report equal involvement with nonresident fathers on most measures of father investment, although sons report more overnight visits, sports, and movies, and feeling closer to their fathers compared to daughters. Sons and daughters generally benefit from nonresident father involvement in the same way in internalizing and externalizing problems and grades. However, feeling close to one's nonresident father is associated with lower internalizing problems for daughters than sons. These findings suggest that nonresident fathers should be encouraged to be equally involved with their sons and daughters, as such involvement is associated with higher levels of well-being for both sons and daughters.

Mitchell, Katherine Stamps; Booth, Alan; King, Valarie

2009-01-01

55

O envolvimento do pai na gravidez/parto e a ligação emocional com o bebé/ Father?s involvement in pregnancy/childbirth and the emotional bond with the baby/ La participación del padre en el embarazo/parto y el vínculo emocional con el bebé  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Enquadramento: a ligação emocional entre pai e filho é determinante na transição para a paternidade e no desenvolvimento do bebé. Objetivos: pretendemos verificar se existe relação entre as variáveis sóciodemográficas, o envolvimento na gravidez ou o corte do cordão umbilical com a ligação emocional do pai com o bebé. Metodologia: efetuámos um estudo transversal, quantitativo de caráter descritivo analítico. Aplicámos um questionário e a escala bonding (more) validada para a população Portuguesa (Figueiredo et al., 2005), em três momentos diferentes (durante o trabalho de parto, no 1º e no 3º dia após o parto) a 222 pais, entre novembro de 2010 e janeiro de 2011. Resultados: verificámos que a idade (entre 25 e 40 anos), o acompanhamento da grávida às consultas de vigilância da gravidez, o acompanhamento da grávida nos preparativos para o nascimento do bebé, a leitura de informação sobre o bebé em desenvolvimento, o envolvimento na gravidez e o corte do cordão umbilical influenciam positivamente a ligação emocional do pai com o bebé. Conclusão: os resultados apontam para uma melhoria na ligação afetiva entre o pai e o bebé se os profissionais de saúde promoverem o envolvimento do pai na gravidez e no parto. Abstract in spanish Marco: el vínculo emocional entre padre e hijo es crucial en la transición hacia la paternidad y el desarrollo del bebé.Objetivos: pretendemos verificar si existe una relación entre las variables sociodemográficas, la participación en el embarazo o el corte del cordón umbilical y el vínculo emocional entre el padre y el bebé. Metodología: se realizó un estudio transversal, cuantitativo, de corte descriptivo-analítico. Se aplicó un cuestionario y la escala de (more) Bonding validado para la población portuguesa (Figueiredo et al., 2005), en tres momentos diferentes (durante el parto, durante el primer y el tercer día después del parto) a 222 padres, entre noviembre 2010 y enero de 2011. Resultados: se comprobó que la edad (entre 25 y 40 años), el acompañamiento con la mujer embarazada alas citas para la vigilancia del embarazo, el acompañamiento de la mujer embarazada en los preparativos para el nacimiento del bebé, la lectura de información sobre el desarrollo del bebé, la participación en el embarazo y el corte del cordón umbilical influyen positivamente en el vínculo emocional entre el padre y el bebé. Conclusión: los resultados indican una mejora en el vínculo emocional entre el padre y el bebé siempre y cuando los profesionales de la salud promuevan la participación del padre durante el embarazo y el parto. Abstract in english Background: the emotional bond between father and child is crucial in the transition to parenthood and the baby?s development. Objectives: our intention was to verify if there is a relationship between sociodemographic variables, involvement in the pregnancy or cutting the umbilical cord with the emotional bond between father and baby. Methodology: we performed a cross-sectional, quantitative study descriptive and analytical in nature. We administered a questionnaire and (more) the Bonding scale validated for the Portuguese population (Figueiredo et al., 2005), at three different times (during labour, on the 1st and 3rd days after birth) to 222 parents between November 2010 and January 2011. Results: We found that age (between 25 and 40 years), accompanying the pregnant woman to appointments for pregnancy surveillance, monitoring of the pregnancy in preparation for the birth of the baby, reading information about the developing baby involvement in the pregnancy and cutting the umbilical cord positively influence the emotional bond between father and baby. Conclusion: the results indicate an improvement in the emotional bond between father and baby if health professionals promote fathers? involvement during pregnancyand childbirth.

Nogueira, João Rui Duarte Farias; Ferreira, Manuela

2012-12-01

56

O envolvimento do pai na gravidez/parto e a ligação emocional com o bebé La participación del padre en el embarazo/parto y el vínculo emocional con el bebé Father’s involvement in pregnancy/childbirth and the emotional bond with the baby  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Enquadramento: a ligação emocional entre pai e filho é determinante na transição para a paternidade e no desenvolvimento do bebé. Objetivos: pretendemos verificar se existe relação entre as variáveis sóciodemográficas, o envolvimento na gravidez ou o corte do cordão umbilical com a ligação emocional do pai com o bebé. Metodologia: efetuámos um estudo transversal, quantitativo de caráter descritivo analítico. Aplicámos um questionário e a escala bonding validada para a população Portuguesa (Figueiredo et al., 2005), em três momentos diferentes (durante o trabalho de parto, no 1º e no 3º dia após o parto) a 222 pais, entre novembro de 2010 e janeiro de 2011. Resultados: verificámos que a idade (entre 25 e 40 anos), o acompanhamento da grávida às consultas de vigilância da gravidez, o acompanhamento da grávida nos preparativos para o nascimento do bebé, a leitura de informação sobre o bebé em desenvolvimento, o envolvimento na gravidez e o corte do cordão umbilical influenciam positivamente a ligação emocional do pai com o bebé. Conclusão: os resultados apontam para uma melhoria na ligação afetiva entre o pai e o bebé se os profissionais de saúde promoverem o envolvimento do pai na gravidez e no parto.Marco: el vínculo emocional entre padre e hijo es crucial en la transición hacia la paternidad y el desarrollo del bebé.Objetivos: pretendemos verificar si existe una relación entre las variables sociodemográficas, la participación en el embarazo o el corte del cordón umbilical y el vínculo emocional entre el padre y el bebé. Metodología: se realizó un estudio transversal, cuantitativo, de corte descriptivo-analítico. Se aplicó un cuestionario y la escala de Bonding validado para la población portuguesa (Figueiredo et al., 2005), en tres momentos diferentes (durante el parto, durante el primer y el tercer día después del parto) a 222 padres, entre noviembre 2010 y enero de 2011. Resultados: se comprobó que la edad (entre 25 y 40 años), el acompañamiento con la mujer embarazada alas citas para la vigilancia del embarazo, el acompañamiento de la mujer embarazada en los preparativos para el nacimiento del bebé, la lectura de información sobre el desarrollo del bebé, la participación en el embarazo y el corte del cordón umbilical influyen positivamente en el vínculo emocional entre el padre y el bebé. Conclusión: los resultados indican una mejora en el vínculo emocional entre el padre y el bebé siempre y cuando los profesionales de la salud promuevan la participación del padre durante el embarazo y el parto.Background: the emotional bond between father and child is crucial in the transition to parenthood and the baby’s development. Objectives: our intention was to verify if there is a relationship between sociodemographic variables, involvement in the pregnancy or cutting the umbilical cord with the emotional bond between father and baby. Methodology: we performed a cross-sectional, quantitative study descriptive and analytical in nature. We administered a questionnaire and the Bonding scale validated for the Portuguese population (Figueiredo et al., 2005), at three different times (during labour, on the 1st and 3rd days after birth) to 222 parents between November 2010 and January 2011. Results: We found that age (between 25 and 40 years), accompanying the pregnant woman to appointments for pregnancy surveillance, monitoring of the pregnancy in preparation for the birth of the baby, reading information about the developing baby involvement in the pregnancy and cutting the umbilical cord positively influence the emotional bond between father and baby. Conclusion: the results indicate an improvement in the emotional bond between father and baby if health professionals promote fathersinvolvement during pregnancyand childbirth.

João Rui Duarte Farias Nogueira; Manuela Ferreira

2012-01-01

57

Errors in prenatal diagnosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prenatal screening and diagnosis are integral to antenatal care worldwide. Prospective parents are offered screening for common fetal chromosomal and structural congenital malformations. In most developed countries, prenatal screening is routinely offered in a package that includes ultrasound scan of the fetus and the assay in maternal blood of biochemical markers of aneuploidy. Mistakes can arise at any point of the care pathway for fetal screening and diagnosis, and may involve individual or corporate systemic or latent errors. Special clinical circumstances, such as maternal size, fetal position, and multiple pregnancy, contribute to the complexities of prenatal diagnosis and to the chance of error. Clinical interventions may lead to adverse outcomes not caused by operator error. In this review I discuss the scope of the errors in prenatal diagnosis, and highlight strategies for their prevention and diagnosis, as well as identify areas for further research and study to enhance patient safety.

Anumba DO

2013-08-01

58

Becoming a father is an emotional roller coaster - an analysis of first-time fathers' blogs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify and describe the process of fatherhood during the partner's pregnancy among expectant, first-time fathers. BACKGROUND: Pregnancy seems to be a demanding period for expectant fathers, and this period is a part of their transition to fatherhood. Blogs can be seen as personal diaries and offer an alternative method of collecting data as they are an arena for sharing experiences and narratives. DESIGN: An explorative qualitative design. METHODS: Blogs from the Internet by eleven first-time fathers living in Sweden were included in the study. Qualitative content analysis was used for the analysis of the blogs. RESULTS: A theme emerged expressing the latent content of the text: 'Becoming a father for the first time is an emotional roller coaster where the role of the expectant father is not obvious' and five different categories describing the manifest content: the pregnancy, a new life, to make the child real, preparations for the delivery and the arrival of the child, and a new role in life. CONCLUSIONS: The metaphor 'roller coaster' indicates the tension between different feelings about the men's future as fathers. They are searching for answers on how to be a good father. They feel excluded when they visit antenatal care centres and have difficulties finding out how to support their partner. This is an existential period when they understand themselves as adults and also miss relatives who have died. During pregnancy, the men start to communicate with their child, and this interaction gives a sense of reality and creates hope and joy about being a father. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Staff involved in antenatal care can use the knowledge from this study when meeting with expectant fathers. Perspectives expressed in blogs may enhance the professionals' understanding that the transition process of fatherhood is complex.

Asenhed L; Kilstam J; Alehagen S; Baggens C

2013-07-01

59

Friends, family, and foes: the influence of father's social networks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fathers can play an important role in child development and family functioning. However, little is known about the influence of paternal perceptions of fatherhood involvement or the influence of fathers' peer networks. We explored the network characteristics (density, closeness, and degree centrality) and peer norms regarding sex, fatherhood, and other risk behaviors of 52 urban adult males in New Haven, Connecticut. Results identify that engagement in high-risk sexual behavior was associated with fatherhood involvement, with 88% of less involved fathers engaging in high-risk sexual behavior (p = .004). Denser networks were positively correlated with unfavorable peer norms such as cheating on a partner or drinking or using drugs (p < .05). Our findings suggest that peer networks are important to father's health and behavior and that father's behaviors may be affected by peer norms. Interventions designed for men may be strengthened by including peers in programming and by addressing norms and norm changing.

Murphy AD; Gordon D; Sherrod H; Dancy V; Kershaw T

2013-05-01

60

Does Change in Young Men's Employment Influence Fathering?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the association between paternal and maternal employment changes and changes in the frequency of fathers praising, showing affection, disciplining, and reading to children. Data were drawn from the Young Adult supplement to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979). Supporting economic theory, fathers were more involved

Hofferth, Sandra L.; Goldscheider, Frances

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

A minority report: teaching fathers baby massage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infant or baby massage has emerged in the recent decade as an activity promoted by health care professionals, popular with parents and the subject of a growing body of research evidence (Complement. Ther. Nurs. Midwifery 2 (1996) 151; 3 & 8 Tough Ther. 2000). This paper reports on the experience of establishing and facilitating baby massage training. There is a focus in the discussion on teaching fathers, as only one male parent attended the classes over a 6-month period. Recommendations are made in the conclusion, identifying possible ways of promoting fathers involvement in babies massage. The paper, with its images of a father engaged in baby massage, is intended to add to the current limited amount of literature available on this subject.

Mackereth PA

2003-08-01

62

A minority report: teaching fathers baby massage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infant or baby massage has emerged in the recent decade as an activity promoted by health care professionals, popular with parents and the subject of a growing body of research evidence (Complement. Ther. Nurs. Midwifery 2 (1996) 151; 3 & 8 Tough Ther. 2000). This paper reports on the experience of establishing and facilitating baby massage training. There is a focus in the discussion on teaching fathers, as only one male parent attended the classes over a 6-month period. Recommendations are made in the conclusion, identifying possible ways of promoting fathers involvement in babies massage. The paper, with its images of a father engaged in baby massage, is intended to add to the current limited amount of literature available on this subject. PMID:12852931

Mackereth, Peter A

2003-08-01

63

Promoting father-friendly healthcare.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fathers are taking a more active role in their children's lives and healthcare; consequently, healthcare providers need to be more aware of and attentive to fathers in clinical encounters. The literature on healthcare provider inclusion of fathers is sparse. The focus has been mainly on exhortations to include fathers, or has documented treatment of fathers as invisible in healthcare settings. While not overtly hostile to fathers, healthcare providers occasionally marginalize or ignore them. The purpose of this article is to help healthcare providers: (1) become aware of and assess their interactions with fathers and (2) be more intentional in their interactions with them. To that end, this article includes a self-assessment of one's practice, including the following components: introductions, body language, eye contact, obtaining/giving information, and beliefs about the role of fathers. Intentional interactions for developing more father-friendly healthcare are discussed including both small and large changes, guided by the PLISSIT model. Finally, best practices, challenges, issues, and resources related to father inclusion in healthcare are described. The major issue for providers is to no longer question whether to include fathers, but how. PMID:14597825

Tiedje, Linda Beth; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia

64

Promoting father-friendly healthcare.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fathers are taking a more active role in their children's lives and healthcare; consequently, healthcare providers need to be more aware of and attentive to fathers in clinical encounters. The literature on healthcare provider inclusion of fathers is sparse. The focus has been mainly on exhortations to include fathers, or has documented treatment of fathers as invisible in healthcare settings. While not overtly hostile to fathers, healthcare providers occasionally marginalize or ignore them. The purpose of this article is to help healthcare providers: (1) become aware of and assess their interactions with fathers and (2) be more intentional in their interactions with them. To that end, this article includes a self-assessment of one's practice, including the following components: introductions, body language, eye contact, obtaining/giving information, and beliefs about the role of fathers. Intentional interactions for developing more father-friendly healthcare are discussed including both small and large changes, guided by the PLISSIT model. Finally, best practices, challenges, issues, and resources related to father inclusion in healthcare are described. The major issue for providers is to no longer question whether to include fathers, but how.

Tiedje LB; Darling-Fisher C

2003-11-01

65

Preparing fathers for the transition to parenthood: recommendations for the content of antenatal education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fathers now provide more care for their babies and children than they have in the past, and a large body of evidence supports the important role that father involvement plays in determining child and family outcomes. Fathers have also become the primary source of informal support for most mothers and it is now customary for fathers to attend antenatal education in this supporting role. However, many fathers remain unprepared for their personal transition to parenthood and this has important implications for all of the family. Antenatal education is likely to be more effective for fathers when it addresses fathers' needs but the literature is unclear about what fathers need to know. This paper presents evidence-based recommendations for core subject matter to be addressed when preparing men for the important challenges of new fatherhood.

May C; Fletcher R

2013-05-01

66

Childhood obesity prevention: fathers' reflections with healthcare providers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: To prevent childhood obesity, parents and their children's healthcare providers need to engage in effective dialogue. We know much about mothers' experiences, but very little about fathers' experiences. METHODS: We explored African-American, Caucasian, and Latino fathers' perceptions and experiences communicating with their children's provider during clinic visits regarding weight, diet, and physical activity. Focus groups (n=3), grouped by race/ethnicity, including a total of 24 fathers, were conducted. The men were asked open-ended questions; responses were recorded and transcribed, and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. RESULTS: Findings revealed that these fathers were involved in their children's healthcare and found providers to be helpful partners in keeping their children healthy, yet they generally felt "left out" during clinic appointments. The quality of the relationship with their children's provider influenced how receptive fathers were to discussing their children's weight, diet, and physical activity behaviors. Fathers made suggestions to help improve communication between providers and fathers, such as personalizing the discussion. CONCLUSIONS: These fathers expressed strong feelings about the provider-parent relationship when discussing weight, diet, and physical activity.

Lowenstein LM; Perrin EM; Berry D; Vu MB; Pullen Davis L; Cai J; Tzeng JP; Ammerman AS

2013-04-01

67

[Prenatal medicine and prenatal diagnosis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prenatal diagnosis universalization allows knowing the prognostic possibilities in a situation of limited therapeutical resources. Therefore, besides permitting the peace of a normal fetal development, in other circumstances it can provoke parent's requirement to interrupt pregnancy in cases of malformation or chromosomal alteration, situations that parents may conceive as difficult for child's life and family environment. Diagnostic tests reliability and risks, information given to the parents, conversion in an eugenic practice of prenatal diagnosis and OMS recommendations in relation to the optional and voluntary character that this diagnosis should have are analysed.

Valero de Bernabé Martín de Eugenio J

2009-09-01

68

Disentangling the effects of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences on children's cortisol variability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Developmental plasticity models hypothesize the role of genetic and prenatal environmental influences on the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and highlight that genes and the prenatal environment may moderate early postnatal environmental influences on HPA functioning. This article examines the interplay of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences across the first 4.5 years of life on a novel index of children's cortisol variability. Repeated measures data were obtained from 134 adoption-linked families, adopted children and both their adoptive parents and birth mothers, who participated in a longitudinal, prospective US domestic adoption study. Genetic and prenatal influences moderated associations between inconsistency in overreactive parenting from child age 9 months to 4.5 years and children's cortisol variability at 4.5 years differently for mothers and fathers. Among children whose birth mothers had high morning cortisol, adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children with low birth mother morning cortisol adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability. Among children who experienced high levels of prenatal risk, adoptive mothers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability and adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children who experienced low levels of prenatal risk there were no associations between inconsistent overreactive parenting and children's cortisol variability. Findings supported developmental plasticity models and uncovered novel developmental, gene?×?environment and prenatal?×?environment influences on children's cortisol functioning.

Marceau K; Ram N; Neiderhiser JM; Laurent HK; Shaw DS; Fisher P; Natsuaki MN; Leve LD

2013-11-01

69

Disentangling the effects of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences on children's cortisol variability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Developmental plasticity models hypothesize the role of genetic and prenatal environmental influences on the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and highlight that genes and the prenatal environment may moderate early postnatal environmental influences on HPA functioning. This article examines the interplay of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences across the first 4.5 years of life on a novel index of children's cortisol variability. Repeated measures data were obtained from 134 adoption-linked families, adopted children and both their adoptive parents and birth mothers, who participated in a longitudinal, prospective US domestic adoption study. Genetic and prenatal influences moderated associations between inconsistency in overreactive parenting from child age 9 months to 4.5 years and children's cortisol variability at 4.5 years differently for mothers and fathers. Among children whose birth mothers had high morning cortisol, adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children with low birth mother morning cortisol adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability. Among children who experienced high levels of prenatal risk, adoptive mothers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability and adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children who experienced low levels of prenatal risk there were no associations between inconsistent overreactive parenting and children's cortisol variability. Findings supported developmental plasticity models and uncovered novel developmental, gene?×?environment and prenatal?×?environment influences on children's cortisol functioning. PMID:23947477

Marceau, Kristine; Ram, Nilam; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Shaw, Daniel S; Fisher, Phil; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Leve, Leslie D

2013-09-03

70

Disentangling the Effects of Genetic, Prenatal, and Parenting Influences on Children's Cortisol Variability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Developmental plasticity models hypothesize the role of genetic and prenatal environmental influences on the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and highlight that genes and the prenatal environment may moderate early postnatal environmental influences on HPA functioning. This article examines the interplay of genetic, prenatal, and parenting influences across the first 4.5 years of life on a novel index of children's cortisol variability. Repeated measures data were obtained from 134 adoption-linked families, adopted children and both their adoptive parents and birth mothers, who participated in a longitudinal, prospective US domestic adoption study. Genetic and prenatal influences moderated associations between inconsistency in overreactive parenting from child age 9 months to 4.5 years and children's cortisol variability at 4.5 years differently for mothers and fathers. Among children whose birth mothers had high morning cortisol, adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children with low birth mother morning cortisol adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability. Among children who experienced high levels of prenatal risk, adoptive mothers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability and adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children who experienced low levels of prenatal risk there were no associations between inconsistent overreactive parenting and children's cortisol variability. Findings supported developmental plasticity models and uncovered novel developmental, gene X environment, and prenatal X environment influences on children's cortisol functioning.

Marceau K; Ram N; Neiderhiser JM; Laurent HK; Shaw DS; Fisher P; Natsuaki MN; Leve LD

2013-08-01

71

[Laennec's father and slavery].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the legend which grows about Laennec, and also in the remote remembrance preserved in his family, the fame of his father Théophile-Marie remained very unfavorable, appearing to have been a light-headed man unable to do anything. However the studies of Madame Le Douget, magistrate in Quimper, show nevertheless a courageous and efficient judge, opponent to the social plague which was the slavery of black peoples, during a process before the court of justice of Admiralty after a shipwreck. It is the story of this episode concluding to a sort of rehabilitation that we have related in these pages. PMID:12959090

Valentin, Michel

72

[Laennec's father and slavery].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the legend which grows about Laennec, and also in the remote remembrance preserved in his family, the fame of his father Théophile-Marie remained very unfavorable, appearing to have been a light-headed man unable to do anything. However the studies of Madame Le Douget, magistrate in Quimper, show nevertheless a courageous and efficient judge, opponent to the social plague which was the slavery of black peoples, during a process before the court of justice of Admiralty after a shipwreck. It is the story of this episode concluding to a sort of rehabilitation that we have related in these pages.

Valentin M

2003-04-01

73

Exposure to ethanol on prenatal days 19-20 increases ethanol intake and palatability in the infant rat: Involvement of kappa and mu opioid receptors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prenatal exposure to ethanol on gestation Days 19-20, but not 17-18, increases ethanol acceptance in infant rats. This effect seems to be a conditioned response acquired prenatally, mediated by the opioid system, which could be stimulated by ethanol's pharmacological properties (mu-opioid receptors) or by a component of the amniotic fluid from gestation-day 20 (kappa-inducing factor). The latter option was evaluated administering non-ethanol chemosensory stimuli on gestation Days 19-20 and testing postnatal intake and palatability. However, prenatal exposure to anise or vanilla increased neither intake nor palatability of these tastants on postnatal Day 14. In experiment 2, the role of ethanol's pharmacological effect was tested by administering ethanol and selective antagonists of mu and kappa opioid receptors prenatally. Blocking the mu-opioid receptor system completely reversed the effects on intake and palatability, while antagonizing kappa receptors only partially reduced the effects on palatability. This suggests that the pharmacological effect of ethanol on the fetal mu opioid system is the appetitive reinforcer, which induces the prenatally conditioned preference detected in the preweanling period. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol.

Díaz-Cenzano E; Gaztañaga M; Gabriela Chotro M

2013-09-01

74

An updated and expanded meta-analysis of nonresident fathering and child well-being.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since Amato and Gilbreth's (1999) meta-analysis of nonresident father involvement and child well-being, nonmarital childbirths and nonresident father involvement both have increased. The unknown implications of such changes motivated the present study, a meta-analytic review of 52 studies of nonresident father involvement and child well-being. Consistent with Amato and Gilbreth, we found that positive forms of involvement were associated with benefits for children, with a small but statistically significant effect size. Amounts of father-child contact and financial provision, however, were not associated with child well-being. Going beyond Amato and Gilbreth, we analyzed the associations between different types of fathering and overall child well-being, and between overall father involvement and different types of child well-being. We found that nonresident father involvement was most strongly associated with children's social well-being and also was associated with children's emotional well-being, academic achievement, and behavioral adjustment. The forms of father involvement most strongly associated with child well-being were involvement in child-related activities, having positive father-child relationships, and engaging in multiple forms of involvement. Moderator analyses demonstrated variation in effect sizes based on both study characteristics and demographic variables. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23978321

Adamsons, Kari; Johnson, Sara K

2013-08-01

75

An updated and expanded meta-analysis of nonresident fathering and child well-being.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since Amato and Gilbreth's (1999) meta-analysis of nonresident father involvement and child well-being, nonmarital childbirths and nonresident father involvement both have increased. The unknown implications of such changes motivated the present study, a meta-analytic review of 52 studies of nonresident father involvement and child well-being. Consistent with Amato and Gilbreth, we found that positive forms of involvement were associated with benefits for children, with a small but statistically significant effect size. Amounts of father-child contact and financial provision, however, were not associated with child well-being. Going beyond Amato and Gilbreth, we analyzed the associations between different types of fathering and overall child well-being, and between overall father involvement and different types of child well-being. We found that nonresident father involvement was most strongly associated with children's social well-being and also was associated with children's emotional well-being, academic achievement, and behavioral adjustment. The forms of father involvement most strongly associated with child well-being were involvement in child-related activities, having positive father-child relationships, and engaging in multiple forms of involvement. Moderator analyses demonstrated variation in effect sizes based on both study characteristics and demographic variables. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Adamsons K; Johnson SK

2013-08-01

76

Father enrollment and participation in a parenting intervention: personal and contextual predictors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fathers are an important, though often underrepresented, population in family interventions. Notably, the inclusion of ethnic minority fathers is particularly scarce. An understanding of factors that promote and hinder father participation may suggest strategies by which to increase fathers' presence in studies designed to engage the family unit. The current research examined Mexican origin (MO) fathers' involvement in a family-focused intervention study. Participants included 495 fathers from eligible two-parent MO families with an adolescent child. Individual, familial, and culturally relevant predictors based on father, mother, and/or child report data were collected through pretest interviews and included in two separate logistic regression analyses that predicted the following: (1) father enrollment in the study and (2) father participation in the intervention. Results indicated that higher levels of maternal education and lower levels of economic stress and interparental conflict were associated with increased father enrollment in the study. Rates of father participation in the intervention were higher among families characterized by lower levels of interparental conflict, economic stress, and Spanish language use. Results highlight the relevancy of the familial and environmental context to MO fathers' research participation decisions. These findings as well as their implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:24033241

Wong, Jessie J; Roubinov, Danielle S; Gonzales, Nancy A; Dumka, Larry E; Millsap, Roger E

2013-03-18

77

Father enrollment and participation in a parenting intervention: personal and contextual predictors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fathers are an important, though often underrepresented, population in family interventions. Notably, the inclusion of ethnic minority fathers is particularly scarce. An understanding of factors that promote and hinder father participation may suggest strategies by which to increase fathers' presence in studies designed to engage the family unit. The current research examined Mexican origin (MO) fathers' involvement in a family-focused intervention study. Participants included 495 fathers from eligible two-parent MO families with an adolescent child. Individual, familial, and culturally relevant predictors based on father, mother, and/or child report data were collected through pretest interviews and included in two separate logistic regression analyses that predicted the following: (1) father enrollment in the study and (2) father participation in the intervention. Results indicated that higher levels of maternal education and lower levels of economic stress and interparental conflict were associated with increased father enrollment in the study. Rates of father participation in the intervention were higher among families characterized by lower levels of interparental conflict, economic stress, and Spanish language use. Results highlight the relevancy of the familial and environmental context to MO fathers' research participation decisions. These findings as well as their implications for future research and practice are discussed.

Wong JJ; Roubinov DS; Gonzales NA; Dumka LE; Millsap RE

2013-09-01

78

Father's role in parent training for children with developmental delay.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current pilot study was a quasi-experimental examination of the impact of father involvement in parent training among 44 families with a young child who presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems and developmental delay. All families were offered to receive Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), an evidence-based parent-training intervention, at a hospital-based outpatient clinic. Single-mother families were significantly more likely to drop out of treatment than two-parent families. Of the families that completed treatment, children from families in which a father participated in treatment had lower levels of parent-reported externalizing behavior problems than children from single-mother families and children from two-parent families in which the father did not participate in treatment. Additionally, children from father-involved families were significantly more compliant during a cleanup task than children from single-mother families following treatment. The current study is consistent with the limited research examining father involvement in parent training and extends the findings to children with developmental delay. These findings highlight the importance of involving fathers in parent training, particularly when working with children with developmental delay. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Bagner DM

2013-08-01

79

O impacto da interrupção da gravidez por mal formação congénita: a perspectiva do pai/ The interruption of pregnancy due to congenital malformation: the father`s perspective  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os avanços das técnicas de diagnóstico pré-natal, tornaram possível a identificação de alguns problemas de saúde do feto in-útero, e a determinação do risco da sua ocorrência, deixando aos pais a liberdade e responsabilidade de decidir acerca da saúde do feto, muito antes do seu nascimento. A complexidade de tais decisões coloca os casais numa encruzilhada, em que qualquer dos caminhos escolhidos marcará as suas vidas. As vivências do progenitor masculino (more) têm sido quase ignoradas pelos investigadores, pelo que a experiência do pai continua a ser muito pouco conhecida. O presente estudo pretende conhecer e compreender os significados atribuídos pelo Pai à experiência de interrupção da gravidez, por anomalia fetal. Para isso recorremos a uma metodologia qualitativa (Grounded Theory). A amostra é constituída por 12 homens cujas esposas interromperam a gravidez no serviço de obstetrícia do Hospital S. Marcos em Braga. Os resultados apontam a interrupção de gravidez por malformação congénita, como uma experiência emocionalmente intensa, com um intenso envolvimento dos pais ao longo do processo. A tomada de decisão representou a confrontação de dúvidas e incertezas, de sentimentos ambivalentes e de dilemas morais, como consequência do investimento na gravidez e da relação afectiva que já existia com o feto. Os pais tendem a desvalorizar os seus sentimentos e as suas necessidades de apoio, centrando as suas preocupações na companheira. Os profissionais de saúde, na opinião dos pais, não só demonstram pouca sensibilidade face aos seus sentimentos e necessidades como constituem um obstáculo ao envolvimento do pai ao longo do processo. A partilha desta experiência com a esposa e o apoio mútuo entre o casal fortaleceu a relação. Os projectos de nova gravidez evidenciam a busca de um novo sentido de vida para estes pais. Estes resultados enfatizam a necessidade de um olhar mais atento sobre o impacto que este acontecimento tem na vida do pai e da importância dos profissionais de saúde neste processo. Abstract in english The development of prenatal diagnosis techniques have made possible the identification of some health problems in the inborn baby and the determination of the risk of such occurrence, leaving parents with the choice and responsibility of deciding about the fetus? health long before the birth. The complexity of such decisions places the couple in a crossroad and any of the chosen roads will impact their lives forever. The father´ s experience has been neglected by resear (more) chers and, as a result, their experience is not well known. This study aims to understand the meanings fathers give to the pregnancy interruption, due to congenital malformation, of their baby. A qualitative analysis was used (grounded theory). The sample includes 12 men whose wives terminated their pregnancy in the obstetric service of S. Marcos Hospital in Braga. Results show that pregnancy interruption due to congenital malformation is a very intense emotional experience, with a great involvement of fathers during the entire process. The decision making process required a confrontation of doubts and uncertainties, ambivalent feelings and moral dilemmas, as a consequence of the investment on the pregnancy and the emotional relationship that was already established with the baby. Fathers tend not to value their need for support, and centred all their worries on their mates. Health professionals, in their opinion, show low sensibility towards their feelings and needs and are seen as barriers to their involvement through the process. Sharing their experience with their mates and mutual support between the couple strengthen the marital relationship. The project of a new pregnancy revealed the search for a new meaning in these fathers? lives. These results show the need to look in depth into the impact of this life event on the father´ s life and the role of health professionals in the process.

Sousa, Lucília; Pereira, M. Graça

2009-01-01

80

FATHER, SOCIAL BOND AND WOMEN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On the cross-point of two of the most important and inseparable Freudian questions: What is a father?and, What a woman wants?, this paper begins a reflection about the women’s place in the Freudianarticulation of the relationship between the father and the social bond. In fact, the Freudian father, thanksto the law mediation which he is its agent, has as a function the regulation of the pleasure that participatesin the social bond, making this way possible the human community. On the other hand, the support ofthe human community is the bond among brothers, as well as Freud presents it in his foundational textof the Law. How to precise the women’s place in this arrangement? The reflection stands out this thatexceeds the Father’s Law and that Freud sets on women’s account, initially under the figure of heropposition to the culture.

SYLVIA DE CASTRO KORGI

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Support and encouragement of the father in breastfeeding: bibliographic study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The participation of the father in the breastfeeding must be culturally assimilated by health professionals and by the society. This is a bibliographical descriptive and documentary study, aims to present the theoretical production in relation to the father's involvement breastfeeding in and public policy. The collected data was from 1992 to 2006 and the sources for collection were LILACS; SCIELO; MEDLINE; ADOLEC and BDEN from the Health Virtual Library– BIREME in September 2007 with the keywords: Paternity, Breastfeeding and Public Policies. Among the 140 studies found, one, published in a international magazine recommended other directions in research and Public Policies to encourage the father’s involvement. We  hope that this research offers reflections and changes in the practice of nurses to take care/care in maternal and child attention in which the father is included as a participant in breastfeeding and in the mother’s and child care. Urge activities and publications to recognize the father in this process.

Rita Maria Viana Rêgo; Ângela Maria Alves e Souza; Maria Josefina da Silva; Violante Augusto Batista Braga; Maria Dalva Santos Alves; Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão Cardoso

2009-01-01

82

O envolvimento paterno e o desenvolvimento social de crianças iniciando as atividades escolares La participación paterna y el desarrollo social de niños iniciando las actividades escolares Father involvement and the social development of children in the school-entry transition stage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo relacionou indicadores do envolvimento paterno com indicadores de desenvolvimento social dos filhos. Participaram 97 pares de pais e mães (com filhos na 1ª ou 2ª série) e 20 professoras. Para avaliar o envolvimento paterno, pais e mães responderam à Avaliação do bem-estar pessoal e familiar e do relacionamento pai-filho - Versão Paterna, e para avaliar o desenvolvimento social das crianças, os pais, as mães e as professoras preencheram o Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. Quanto maior a freqüência de comunicação entre pai e filho e de participação do pai nos cuidados e nas atividades escolares, culturais e de lazer do filho, menor o índice de hiperatividade e de problemas de comportamento e mais adequado o repertório de habilidades sociais das crianças. Os resultados indicam a provável importância do envolvimento positivo do pai para o desenvolvimento social dos filhos e os prováveis benefícios de programas para promover envolvimento paterno.En este estudio se han relacionado indicadores de la participación paterna con los de desarrollo social de los hijos y participaron 97 padres y madres (con hijos en el primero o en el segundo grado) y 20 profesoras. Para evaluar la participación paterna, padres y madres respondieron a la Evaluación del bienestar personal y familiar y del reracionamiento padre-hijo - Versión Paterna y para evaluar el desarrollo social de los niños, padres, madres y profesoras completaron el Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. Cuanto mayor es la frecuencia de comunicación entre padre e hijo, de la participación del padre en los cuidados y en las actividades escolares, culturales y de ocio del hijo, menor es el índice de hiperactividad, problemas de comportamiento y mayor es el repertorio de destrezas sociales de los niños. Los resultados indican la probable importancia de la participación positiva del padre para el desarrollo social de los hijos.This study aimed to examine the relationships between indicators of parental involvement and their children’s social and included 97 father-mother pairs (parents of children in the first or second grade), and 20 teachers. To evaluate father involvement, fathers and mothers completed an Evaluation of personal and family wellbeing and the parent-child relationship - Fathering Version, and to evaluate the children’s social development, the mothers, fathers and teachers completed the Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. The results indicate that more frequent: communication between father and child, paternal participation in child caregiving and in the child’s school, cultural and leisure activities are each associated with indicators of lower hyperactivity, fewer behavior problems and a wider repertoire of appropriate social skills. These results point to the importance of the constructive involvement of fathers for their children’s social development and the likely benefits of programs to promote father involvement.

Fabiana Cia; Elizabeth Joan Barham

2009-01-01

83

O envolvimento paterno e o desenvolvimento social de crianças iniciando as atividades escolares/ Father involvement and the social development of children in the school-entry transition stage/ La participación paterna y el desarrollo social de niños iniciando las actividades escolares  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo relacionou indicadores do envolvimento paterno com indicadores de desenvolvimento social dos filhos. Participaram 97 pares de pais e mães (com filhos na 1ª ou 2ª série) e 20 professoras. Para avaliar o envolvimento paterno, pais e mães responderam à Avaliação do bem-estar pessoal e familiar e do relacionamento pai-filho - Versão Paterna, e para avaliar o desenvolvimento social das crianças, os pais, as mães e as professoras preencheram o Social Skil (more) ls Rating System-SSRS. Quanto maior a freqüência de comunicação entre pai e filho e de participação do pai nos cuidados e nas atividades escolares, culturais e de lazer do filho, menor o índice de hiperatividade e de problemas de comportamento e mais adequado o repertório de habilidades sociais das crianças. Os resultados indicam a provável importância do envolvimento positivo do pai para o desenvolvimento social dos filhos e os prováveis benefícios de programas para promover envolvimento paterno. Abstract in spanish En este estudio se han relacionado indicadores de la participación paterna con los de desarrollo social de los hijos y participaron 97 padres y madres (con hijos en el primero o en el segundo grado) y 20 profesoras. Para evaluar la participación paterna, padres y madres respondieron a la Evaluación del bienestar personal y familiar y del reracionamiento padre-hijo - Versión Paterna y para evaluar el desarrollo social de los niños, padres, madres y profesoras completa (more) ron el Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. Cuanto mayor es la frecuencia de comunicación entre padre e hijo, de la participación del padre en los cuidados y en las actividades escolares, culturales y de ocio del hijo, menor es el índice de hiperactividad, problemas de comportamiento y mayor es el repertorio de destrezas sociales de los niños. Los resultados indican la probable importancia de la participación positiva del padre para el desarrollo social de los hijos. Abstract in english This study aimed to examine the relationships between indicators of parental involvement and their children?s social and included 97 father-mother pairs (parents of children in the first or second grade), and 20 teachers. To evaluate father involvement, fathers and mothers completed an Evaluation of personal and family wellbeing and the parent-child relationship - Fathering Version, and to evaluate the children?s social development, the mothers, fathers and teachers com (more) pleted the Social Skills Rating System-SSRS. The results indicate that more frequent: communication between father and child, paternal participation in child caregiving and in the child?s school, cultural and leisure activities are each associated with indicators of lower hyperactivity, fewer behavior problems and a wider repertoire of appropriate social skills. These results point to the importance of the constructive involvement of fathers for their children?s social development and the likely benefits of programs to promote father involvement.

Cia, Fabiana; Barham, Elizabeth Joan

2009-03-01

84

Adolescent fathers in the justice system: hoping for a boy and making him a man.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, we explored the development of father identity among boys involved in the juvenile justice system. Youth were recruited from a juvenile detention center and school district in a northern California county with a high teen birth rate. The participants were expecting a child or parenting an infant and had been arrested, incarcerated, or had committed a crime. We collected data through observations and individual interviews. Using constant comparative and dimensional analysis, we found that expectant adolescent fathers hoped for a boy and envisioned their central role as father to be making their son a man. This article contributes to greater understanding of father identity development for youth involved in the justice system. We suggest that teen parenting policies and programs include interventions sensitized by gender, accounting for the influence masculine ideals of manhood have on the development of father identity and the father-child relationship.

Shade K; Kools S; Pinderhughes H; Weiss SJ

2013-04-01

85

Prenatal diagnosis in the Netherlands. Dutch Working Party of Prenatal Diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenatal invasive diagnosis of genetic conditions in the Netherlands is well organised, based on uniform indications and has a sound financial structure. Facilities for fetal karyotyping and DNA analysis are available in the 8 academic centres. Prenatal diagnosis of metabolic diseases is mainly carried out in Rotterdam. Amniocentesis, transcervical and transabdominal chorionic villus sampling are carried out in all centres, including 4 subcentres. The national Working Party on Prenatal Diagnosis started in 1985 and is a useful platform for all obstetricians and geneticists involved in prenatal diagnosis. PMID:9101180

Leschot, N J; Kloosterman, M D

1997-01-01

86

Prenatal diagnosis in the Netherlands. Dutch Working Party of Prenatal Diagnosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prenatal invasive diagnosis of genetic conditions in the Netherlands is well organised, based on uniform indications and has a sound financial structure. Facilities for fetal karyotyping and DNA analysis are available in the 8 academic centres. Prenatal diagnosis of metabolic diseases is mainly carried out in Rotterdam. Amniocentesis, transcervical and transabdominal chorionic villus sampling are carried out in all centres, including 4 subcentres. The national Working Party on Prenatal Diagnosis started in 1985 and is a useful platform for all obstetricians and geneticists involved in prenatal diagnosis.

Leschot NJ; Kloosterman MD

1997-01-01

87

The Transmission of Parenting from Fathers to Sons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We address the extent to which parenting practices of fathers and mothers are associated with their sons' parenting behaviors as young adults and whether adolescent behavior explains this association. DESIGN: Data come from 409 young men interviewed in the 2006 Young Adult study of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. RESULTS: Men whose fathers were positively involved with them when growing up report more positive parenting of their own children, a direct effect. Less harsh mothering and more positive fathering are associated with reduced adolescent behavior problems, and positive mothering is associated with positive adjustment of these young men as adolescents. However, neither adolescent problem behavior nor positive adjustment is associated with young men's fathering of their own children, and thus does not explain the association between the fathering young men received and their own fathering behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Men's parenting of their sons can have a long-term direct effect on how their sons parent their own children. Although parenting is associated with both positive and negative behaviors of sons during adolescence, these adolescent behaviors are not directly linked to later parenting behavior when sons have their own children. More research is needed to examine mediation mechanisms for the intergenerational transmission of parenting.

Hofferth SL; Pleck JH; Vesely CK

2012-10-01

88

Temperamental precursors of infant attachment with mothers and fathers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The degree to which parent sensitivity and infant temperament distinguish attachment classification was examined. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effect of parent sensitivity and infant temperament on infant-mother and infant-father attachment. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, and their infants (N=135) when the infant was 3-, 5-, 7-, 12-, and 14-months old. Temperament was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003); parent sensitivity was coded during the Still Face Paradigm (Tronick, Als, Adamson, Wise, & Brazelton, 1978); attachment was coded using the Strange Situation (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978). Results indicate that mothers and fathers were less sensitive with insecure-avoidant infants. Whereas only one difference was found for infant-mother attachment groups and temperament, five significant differences emerged for infant-father attachment groups, with the majority involving insecure-ambivalent attachment. Infants classified as ambivalent with fathers were higher in perceptual sensitivity and cuddliness and these infants also showed a greater increase in low-intensity pleasure over time compared with other infants. Results indicate the importance of both parent sensitivity and infant temperament, though operating in somewhat different ways, in the development of the infant-mother and infant-father attachment relationship.

Planalp EM; Braungart-Rieker JM

2013-10-01

89

Fathers' coping mechanisms related to parenting a chronically ill child: implications for advanced practice nurses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The presence of a father has been positively associated with outcomes in several aspects of a child's life. This descriptive study investigated coping methods used by fathers of chronically ill children, fathers' perceived severity of the child's illness, and demographic differences related to coping mechanisms. METHOD: A sample of 54 fathers of chronically ill children completed measurements of demographics, coping processes, and severity levels of their child's chronic condition. Data were analyzed with SPSS 14.0 using parametric and nonparametric tests to examine relationships and coping behaviors used by fathers in northwest Florida. RESULTS: A majority of fathers used an emotion-focused coping process with a religious dimension. No association was found between perceived level of severity of their child's illness and eight subscales used to measure coping methods; however, statistical significance was found between the age and marital status of fathers with seven of the subscales. Married and older fathers more often used "positive" coping mechanisms than did younger, unmarried fathers. DISCUSSION: The findings emphasize the need for practitioners, clinicians, and educators to assess, support, and provide appropriate resources to fathers in order to promote positive effective coping and increase the level of involvement in the child's life.

Broger B; Zeni MB

2011-03-01

90

Striking a balance between risk and protection: fathers' attitudes and practices toward child injury prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To gain understanding of fathers' attitudes, decisions, and practices regarding the level of risk they are willing to expose their children to and the level of protection they feel is necessary. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of 32 fathers of children aged 2 to 7 years in British Columbia. Questions addressed fathers' roles and typical activities with their children, child safety concerns and practices. Grounded theory methods guided data analysis. RESULTS: Fathers believed a central aspect of their role involved actively exploring the world with their children through physical and play-based activities. Fathers made decisions about the appropriateness of activities, striking a balance between protecting their child and exposing them to risk and new experiences. Most fathers placed high value on providing their children with risk-taking opportunities and discussed many positive aspects of risk and experiencing minor injuries. The potential for serious injury was considered in weighing decisions regarding risk engagement. A theoretical model outlining 4 decision-making characteristics for striking a balance is proposed. CONCLUSION: Injury prevention interventions can benefit from understanding the meanings and priorities fathers hold about their children's safety, creating programs that resonate with fathers to increase relevance. To maximize success, messaging should consider fathers' decision-making characteristics, incorporate the importance of healthy risk taking for child development, and teach fathers how to minimize likelihood of injury in the context of being active and taking risks with their child.

Brussoni M; Olsen L

2011-09-01

91

Young Unwed Fathers: Report from the Field.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is based on an intensive 18-month ethnographic study of 47 young fathers enrolled in Public/Private Ventures' Young Unwed Fathers Pilot Project. It presents a detailed look at selected aspects of the lives of these fathers before and during program participation, as well as outcomes of the pilot intervention. Following an introductory…

Achatz, Mary; MacAllum, Crystal A.

92

The prenatal care at school program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

School absenteeism and poor compliance with prenatal appointments are concerns for pregnant teens. The Prenatal Care at School (PAS) program is a new model of prenatal care involving local health care providers and school personnel to reduce the need for students to leave school for prenatal care. The program combines prenatal care and education designed specifically for adolescents. Twenty-eight girls attended PAS in the fall of 2010. Program evaluation results showed a 14.2% increase in school attendance among students enrolled compared to peers enrolled the previous year, a 5.7% increase over a local teen clinic's attendance to their group prenatal care program, and a 42% increase in pregnancy and childbirth knowledge. Satisfaction surveys indicated that participants all believed that PAS helped prepare them for labor and delivery and 92% felt encouraged to stay in school. This pilot program benefited pregnant teens by increasing school educational time, improving preparation for labor and delivery, and increasing participation with prenatal care.

Griswold CH; Nasso JT; Swider S; Ellison BR; Griswold DL; Brooks M

2013-06-01

93

Influências das condições de trabalho do pai sobre o relacionamento pai-filho Influences father's work conditions on father-child relationship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo identificar as condições de trabalho que influenciam no envolvimento do pai com seu filho. Participaram deste estudo 58 pais que tinham um filho na 5a ou 6a série do Ensino Fundamental. Os pais preencheram o questionário "Avaliação das condições de trabalho e do envolvimento do pai com seu filho - versão paterna". As medidas das condições de trabalho apresentaram correlações significativas com a satisfação do pai em relação ao seu desempenho familiar. Esta escala, por sua vez, estava positivamente correlacionada com as medidas do envolvimento do pai com seu filho. Assim, a relação entre as condições de trabalho e o envolvimento do pai com seu filho foi mediada pela satisfação do pai com seu desempenho familiar. Tais resultados demonstram a necessidade de identificar e alterar as normas e condições de trabalho que restringem as oportunidades para os pais participarem das rotinas familiares.The aim of this study was to identify the work conditions that influence father-child relationship. A total of 58 fathers, whose child was at fifth or sixth grade, participated in this study. The fathers completed the questionnaire "Evaluation of work conditions and involvement of the father with his child - Paternal version". The measures of work conditions presented significant correlations with father's satisfaction concerning his family performance. This scale, in turn, presented correlations with the measures of father-child involvement. Therefore, the relation between work conditions and father-child involvement was mediated by the satisfaction of the father with his family performance. These results indicate the need to identify and alter the work rules and conditions, which restrict fathers' opportunities to participate in their family routines.

Fabiana Cia; Elizabeth Joan Barham

2006-01-01

94

Prenatal care: difficulties experienced by nurses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to identify the difficulties nurses experience at the start of their professional life in prenatal care activities. Data were collected through interviews with 25 nurses who accompanied prenatal care in the basic health network of Rio Branco-AC, Brazil and were grouped according to the frequency and level of difficulty they mentioned. We observed that nurses did not demonstrate difficulties in a series of important prenatal care activities at the start of their professional life. However, they reported different levels of difficulties in other activities. Furthermore, the participants pointed out difficulties in activities that require knowledge (knowing) as well as abilities (know-how). This study also indicated flaws in undergraduate formation with respect to prenatal care, involving theoretical aspects as well as exclusively practical activities.

Dotto LM; Moulin Nde M; Mamede MV

2006-09-01

95

Prenatal care: difficulties experienced by nurses.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to identify the difficulties nurses experience at the start of their professional life in prenatal care activities. Data were collected through interviews with 25 nurses who accompanied prenatal care in the basic health network of Rio Branco-AC, Brazil and were grouped according to the frequency and level of difficulty they mentioned. We observed that nurses did not demonstrate difficulties in a series of important prenatal care activities at the start of their professional life. However, they reported different levels of difficulties in other activities. Furthermore, the participants pointed out difficulties in activities that require knowledge (knowing) as well as abilities (know-how). This study also indicated flaws in undergraduate formation with respect to prenatal care, involving theoretical aspects as well as exclusively practical activities. PMID:17117250

Dotto, Leila Maria Geromel; Moulin, Nelly de Mendonça; Mamede, Marli Villela

96

Normalization behaviours of rural fathers living with chronically-ill children: an Australian experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article reports findings from a larger qualitative study conducted to gain insight into the experience of fathers living with their chronically-ill children in rural Victoria, Australia. Data were collected via unstructured interviews with four fathers. The findings presented in this article explore the phenomena of normalization for fathers within the chronic illness experience. Fathers described normalizing the experience of living with their chronically-ill child as involving a combination of various coping strategies and behaviours including: (1) accepting the child's condition, (2) changing expectations, (3) focusing energies on a day-to-day basis, (4) minimizing knowledge-seeking behaviours, and (5) engaging in external distraction activities. Findings highlight the complex and unique normalization strategies these men utilized and contribute to knowledge and understanding of the complex nature of raising a chronically-ill child in rural Australia and provide a sound basis upon which to guide an ongoing and holistic assessment of fathers with chronically-ill children.

Peck B; Lillibridge J

2005-03-01

97

Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the article it is argued that contemporary fatherhood and masculinity differ increasingly from hegemonic masculinity according to which men are primarily responsible for ensuring the financial basis of the family. The article “Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark”, based on interviews with 15 Danish men and 8 employers, shows that many men’s ideas about fatherhood and family responsibility tend to revolve around such aspects as close contact and involvement with children. However, it seems that men do not acknowledge fully the significance of gender for their decisions concerning the child, parental leave and domestic affairs. The article also demonstrates that the issue of parental leave may cause a conflict of interest between an employer and en employee although the majority of employers in this study emphasize that parental leave is unproblematic for them.

Reinicke, Kenneth; Cybulski, Franz Wilhelm

2005-01-01

98

Twins abused by their father  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is an important public health problem that recurs unless it is recognized early and protection measures are implemented timely. Multidisciplinary collaboration of related professionals is of paramount importance in assessing and managing cases of child abuse and neglect. The father of the twins presented in this paper, who was employed in odd jobs as the sole bread-winner of his family of five and abused his wife also physically abused his twin children under one year of age. Although the physicians reported these children to law enforcement, the family concealed the abuse and neither the physicians nor the law enforcement reported this family to child protective services. As a consequence, a picture of recurrence of abuse with a cumulative negative medico-social outcome was observed. Since the mother declined to testify on the father abusing his children during the court proceedings, the father returned to the family after a brief incarceration. Child protective measures were established only after the forensic medicine physician interfered with the proceedings on a voluntary basis. This presentation aimed at reviewing the risk factors related to abuse and associated findings and assessment steps of abuse. In addition, these cases confirmed that every child abuse case that is missed by physicians and mismanaged legally or from child protection perspective has the potential to lead to severe, chronic abuse. Therefore, it is important that the family, law, medicine, and social services should collaborate in diagnosis and management of these cases. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 346-50)

Celal; Fatma; Resmiye; Cengiz; Derya; Yutaka

2011-01-01

99

Francis Bacon’S Qualification as The Father of Modern Philosophy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine if there is any basis for regarding Francis Bacon as the father of Modern Philosophy. This involves effort to determine what constitutes, in essence, Modern Philosophy and the goal of Modern Philosophy. Are there criteria that qualify one as the father of Modern Philosophy? Proceeding with this inquiry, our paper examines, on the one hand, the views of those who argue in defence of Bacon’s qualification as the father of Modern Philosophy. Here it is argued that “if Modern Philosophy is, however, understood as beginning from the Renaissance period, it seems more appropriate to regard Francis Bacon as the father of Modern Philosophy” (Omoregbe, 1991, p.v). On the part of those opposed to Bacon’s qualification as the father of Modern Philosophy, it is argued that “Descartes is called the father of Modern Philosophy…. This title of the father of Modern Philosophy has been disputed in favour of Francis Bacon. As Descartes’ reputation rose, that of Bacon fell” (Ozumba 2005, p.146). After a critical examination of the above views, amongst others, we discovered that the major task of Modern Philosophy is getting certainty in knowledge. Bacon did not tackle this question of certainty in knowledge. Perhaps Bacon equated knowledge with certainty. But Descartes tackled this question of certainty in knowledge and reached a foundation (foundationalism) for certainty. And it was on this foundation that Modern Philosophy was built. The above views, among others, strongly question Bacon’s qualification as the father of Modern Philosophy. Our paper, therefore, argues that it is more appropriate to regard Descartes as the father of Modern Philosophy.Key words: Father; Modern Philosophy; Certainty inKnowledge

Chinenye Leo Ochulor; Iheanacho Chukwuemeka Metuonu

2011-01-01

100

Commitments to Fathering and the Well-Being and Social Participation of New, Disadvantaged Fathers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study uses data on 2,494 new fathers from the Fragile Families Study to analyze why and how the arrival of a new child may influence fathers' well-being and social participation. Our regression results indicate that changes in commitments to fathering are positively associated with changes in well-being, religious participation, and hours in…

Knoester, Chris; Petts, Richard J.; Eggebeen, David J.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

You can't put a dollar amount on presence: young, non-resident, low-income, african american fathers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the lived experiences of young, non-resident, low-income, African-American fathers. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 6 men enrolled in the Omaha Healthy Start, Fathers for a Lifetime Program. Results: The following themes were identified: (a) A Work in Progress: Fatherhood Investment; (b) A Little Island by Myself: Barriers to Fathering; (c) I'm Going to be There From Day One to Infinity: Presence; and (d) The Tomorrow Dad: Not Like my Dad. Barriers to fathering created resource-poor environments posing challenges to involvement. Conclusions: Dispelling the myth of the "hit-and-run" father or the "package deal" remains a concern for fathers and their children. Nurses can develop early assessment strategies and interventions to help African American fathers with their parenting involvement. Fathers can be encouraged to attend community-based fathering programs to increase investment opportunities.

Fleck MO; Hudson DB; Abbott DA; Reisbig AM

2013-09-01

102

[The father image in male substance users  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Due to the fact that various research studies have shown that drug users usually have a father with negative characteristics, it is convenient to investigate this phenomenon and take it into consideration in addict treatment efforts. METHODOLOGY: This is a qualitative study that explores the fatherly perception among male substance users. The sample included 25 users who asked for treatment at Youth Integration Center and 25 non-users. Both groups were subjected to projective tests. RESULTS: The father image among substance users emphasizes negative characteristics; in contrast, non-users present a basically positive father perception, considering him as the most valuable family member. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that substance users relate less with the fatherly figure than non-users. They perceive their father as a devaluated member that occupies a secondary place in the family and sometimes does not even have an affective role. The findings of this investigation can be applied in individual psychotherapy, facilitating the revaluation and reflection of the fatherly figure among substance users. It would be convenient to create the necessary conditions to restitute the father role in family therapy and counseling groups for relatives. The findings must consider the size of the sample and limitations of qualitative research methology.

Sánchez Huesca R; Guisa Cruz VM; Cedillo González A; Pascual Blanco Y

2002-01-01

103

Recurrence of DiGeorge syndrome: prenatal detection by FISH of a molecular 22q11 deletion.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report on a prenatal diagnosis by FISH of a familial 22q11 deletion associated with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS). The deletion was seen in the proband with symptoms of full DGS, in the physically normal father, and in a subsequent pregnancy. After birth this child showed hypocalcaemia, a T cell defici...

Van Hemel, J O; Schaap, C; Van Opstal, D; Mulder, M P; Niermeijer, M F; Meijers, J H

104

Sushruta: Father of Plastic Surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sushruta is considered the "Father of Plastic Surgery." He lived in India sometime between 1000 and 800 BC, and is responsible for the advancement of medicine in ancient India. His teaching of anatomy, pathophysiology, and therapeutic strategies were of unparalleled luminosity, especially considering his time in the historical record. He is notably famous for nasal reconstruction, which can be traced throughout the literature from his depiction within the Vedic period of Hindu medicine to the era of Tagliacozzi during Renaissance Italy to modern-day surgical practices. The primary focus of this historical review is centered on Sushruta's anatomical and surgical knowledge and his creation of the cheek flap for nasal reconstruction and its transition to the "Indian method." The influential nature of the Sushruta Samhita, the compendium documenting Sushruta's theories about medicine, is supported not only by anatomical knowledge and surgical procedural descriptions contained within its pages, but by the creative approaches that still hold true today.

Champaneria MC; Workman AD; Gupta SC

2013-06-01

105

Fathers' occupation and pregnancy outcome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Findings from a survey of 56,067 women in Montreal on maternal occupation and pregnancy outcome have been reported. Paternal occupation recorded in the same survey was analysed for spontaneous abortion in 24 occupational groups retaining the six main sectors of maternal occupation and allowing, by means of logistic regression, for seven potentially confounding variables. In only one of the 24 fathers' occupational groups was there a statistically significant excess of spontaneous abortions-mechanics, repairers, and certain assemblers (O/E = 1.10, 90% CI = 1.02-1.20); subdivision of this group suggested that this excess was mainly attributable to the large group of motor vehicle mechanics (O/E = 1.17). No significant excess of known chromosomally determined defects was found in any of the 24 occupational groups. An association of developmental defects was found with food and beverage processing (18 defects observed compared with 8.02 expected; p

1989-01-01

106

Informatics-based, highly accurate, noninvasive prenatal paternity testing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of an informatics-based, noninvasive, prenatal paternity test using array-based single-nucleotide polymorphism measurements of cell-free DNA isolated from maternal plasma. METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 21 adult pregnant women (with gestational ages between 6 and 21 weeks), and a genetic sample was taken from the corresponding biological fathers. Paternity was confirmed by genetic testing of the infant, products of conception, control of fertilization, and/or preimplantation genetic diagnosis during in vitro fertilization. Parental DNA samples and maternal plasma cell-free DNA were amplified and analyzed using a HumanCytoSNP-12 array. An informatics-based method measured single-nucleotide polymorphism data, confirming or rejecting paternity. Each plasma sample with a sufficient fetal cell-free DNA fraction was independently tested against the confirmed father and 1,820 random, unrelated males. RESULTS: One of the 21 samples had insufficient fetal cell-free DNA. The test correctly confirmed paternity for the remaining 20 samples (100%) when tested against the biological father, with P values of <10(-4). For the 36,400 tests using an unrelated male as the alleged father, 99.95% (36,382) correctly excluded paternity and 0.05% (18) were indeterminate. There were no miscalls. CONCLUSION: A noninvasive paternity test using informatics-based analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism array measurements accurately determined paternity early in pregnancy.

Ryan A; Baner J; Demko Z; Hill M; Sigurjonsson S; Baird ML; Rabinowitz M

2013-06-01

107

Prenatal diagnosis of a paraurethral cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paraurethral cysts arising from Skene's gland are a rare cause of urogenital masses in the neonate. We report the case of a pelvic mass noted at the vaginal introitus on prenatal ultrasound that following delivery was found to be a paraurethral cyst. On prenatal ultrasound, there was no evidence of involvement of the urinary, gastrointestinal, or upper genital tract. Serial ultrasounds demonstrated slight enlargement of the cyst without other changes. The patient delivered at 33 weeks and postnatal evaluation demonstrated a paraurethral cyst. The cyst was managed expectantly and drained spontaneously on the second day of life with complete resolution. PMID:23146295

Johnson, Clark T; Millard, Sarah E; Wang, Ming-Hsien; Ehsanipoor, Robert M

2012-11-10

108

Prenatal diagnosis of de novo interstitial deletions involving 5q23.1-q23.3 and 18q12.1-q12.3 by array CGH using uncultured amniocytes in a pregnancy with fetal interrupted aortic arch and atrial septal defect.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present prenatal diagnosis of de novo interstitial deletions involving 5q23.1-q23.3 and 18q12.1-q12.3 by aCGH using uncultured amniocytes in pregnancy with interrupted aortic arch and atrial septal defect in a fetus. The fetus postnatally manifested facial dysmorphisms and long slender fingers. We discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation and the consequence of haploinsufficiency of FBN2, DTNA and CELF4 in this case. PMID:24036431

Chen, Chih-Ping; Huang, Ming-Chao; Chen, Yi-Yung; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Chen, Yu-Ting; Su, Jun-Wei; Wang, Wayseen

2013-09-11

109

Prenatal diagnosis of de novo interstitial deletions involving 5q23.1-q23.3 and 18q12.1-q12.3 by array CGH using uncultured amniocytes in a pregnancy with fetal interrupted aortic arch and atrial septal defect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present prenatal diagnosis of de novo interstitial deletions involving 5q23.1-q23.3 and 18q12.1-q12.3 by aCGH using uncultured amniocytes in pregnancy with interrupted aortic arch and atrial septal defect in a fetus. The fetus postnatally manifested facial dysmorphisms and long slender fingers. We discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation and the consequence of haploinsufficiency of FBN2, DTNA and CELF4 in this case.

Chen CP; Huang MC; Chen YY; Chern SR; Wu PS; Chen YT; Su JW; Wang W

2013-12-01

110

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency: prenatal diagnosis and family studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prenatal diagnosis of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency and family studies were performed because of a severely affected first child in this family. The fetus at risk was found to be heterozygous as confirmed by the enzymatic activity assay performed several times after birth. In the father, MTHFR activity was normal in lymphocytes and decreased in fibroblasts, whereas in the asymptomatic mother, the activity was not detectable in fibroblasts and was very low in lymphocytes. The absence of any clinical symptoms in the mother despite a clear MTHFR deficiency and hyperhomocystinemia emphasizes the heterogeneity of this disease.

Marquet J; Chadefaux B; Bonnefont JP; Saudubray JM; Zittoun J

1994-01-01

111

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency: prenatal diagnosis and family studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenatal diagnosis of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency and family studies were performed because of a severely affected first child in this family. The fetus at risk was found to be heterozygous as confirmed by the enzymatic activity assay performed several times after birth. In the father, MTHFR activity was normal in lymphocytes and decreased in fibroblasts, whereas in the asymptomatic mother, the activity was not detectable in fibroblasts and was very low in lymphocytes. The absence of any clinical symptoms in the mother despite a clear MTHFR deficiency and hyperhomocystinemia emphasizes the heterogeneity of this disease. PMID:8183835

Marquet, J; Chadefaux, B; Bonnefont, J P; Saudubray, J M; Zittoun, J

1994-01-01

112

Comparisons of levels and predictors of mothers' and fathers' engagement with their preschool aged children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Self-report data from 112 two-parent families were used to compare levels and predictors of four types of mothers' and fathers' engagement with their preschool aged children: socialization, didactic, caregiving, and physical play. Mothers were more involved than fathers in socialization, didactic, and caregiving, whereas fathers were more involved than mothers in physical play. Mothers' greatest engagement was in caregiving, whereas fathers were about equally engaged in didactic, caregiving, and physical play. Mothers who contributed more to family income were less engaged in socialization and caregiving, whereas fathers with nontraditional beliefs about their roles were more engaged in didactic and caregiving. Children with greater temperamental effortful control received more didactic and physical play engagement from mothers. Fathers were more likely to engage in socialization activities with earlier-born children, whereas mothers were more likely to engage in socialization with girls high in effortful control. Mothers were more likely to engage in physical play with boys and with later-born children.

Schoppe-Sullivan SJ; Kotila L; Jia R; Lang SN; Bower DJ

2013-01-01

113

Prenatal studies of a family with 4p- mosaicism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mosaicism for an autosomal structural abnormality is rare. Only two cases have been reported for mosaicism involving a deletion of the short arm of number 4 chromosome (one prenatal and one postnatal). We report mosaicism for 4p- in the amniocyte cultures from a G3P2 41-year-old patient who had amniocentesis for advanced maternal age. Chromosome analysis of amniotic cultures by in situ and flask methods in Chang-supplemented McCoy`s medium revealed a mosaic karyotype, 46,XX/46,XX,del(4)(p13) with 15 (62.5%) and 9 (37.5%) metaphases, respectively. Parental blood chromosome studies yielded a paternal mosaic karyotype with 2 out of 98 cells (2%) exhibiting a deletion in the short arm of number 4 chromosome (46,XX,del(4)(p13)) as seen in the fetus. After genetic counseling, the family decided to terminate the pregnancy. Studies of fetal tissue confirmed the amniocentesis results for 4p- mosaicism (18.3%). Cytogenetic studies in father confirmed mosaicism for 4p- in fibroblast cultures from skin (2%). In none of the blood or skin fibroblast cultures was there evidence of a spontaneous fragile site at 4p13. However, cytogenetic studies of peripheral blood under conditions of folate deprivation (medium 199) showed a fragile site at 4q13 in 30% of the metaphases and 4p- cells are absent. The coincidence of the breakpoints and folate-induced fragile site in 4p- may be related phenomena in this family.

Pulijaal, V.; Ben-Yishay, M.; Nitowsky, H.M. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

1994-09-01

114

Prenatal diagnosis of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG4) using direct mutation detection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To present a report on prenatal diagnosis using direct SPG4 gene analysis in a family with autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP). METHODS: Genetic linkage and haplotype analysis were previously carried out with chromosome 2p markers. DNA was obtained from affected individuals, the affected father, the mother, and fetal DNA from an ongoing pregnancy by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) in the first trimester. The spastin gene (SPG4) was completely sequenced. RESULTS: A novel 832insGdelAA frameshift mutation, predicted to cause loss of functional protein, was identified in the affected father and in the fetal DNA. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on direct prenatal diagnosis of chromosome 2p-linked AD-HSP (SPG4). In addition, we report a novel SPG4-combined small insertion/deletion mutation in exon 5, which may be the first SPG4 mutational hot spot.

Nielsen JE; Koefoed P; Kjaergaard S; Jensen LN; Nørremølle A; Hasholt L

2004-05-01

115

Perspectives of fathers and mothers of children in early intervention programmes in assessing family quality of life.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Family quality of life (FQOL), as a family outcome measure of early intervention and other services, has increasingly drawn attention of researchers, policymakers and service providers. Developing an index of family QOL requires a measure suitable for use with multiple family members. The purpose of this study was to test whether mothers and fathers similarly view the conceptual model of FQOL embodied in one measure. METHOD: This study involved fathers and mothers of 107 families who have a young child (birth to five) with a disability enrolled in an early intervention programme. Data from couples completing the Beach Center FQOL measure were analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM) to determine similarities or differences between fathers and mothers with respect to their assessment of FQOL. RESULTS: The analysis of measurement invariance of the FQOL construct across the father and mother groups indicates that the Beach Center FQOL Scale measures equally the underlying FQOL construct across fathers and mothers in this sample. Fathers do not differ from mothers in perceived importance of factors related to FQOL items, nor did they differ in their overall satisfaction with FQOL. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that fathers and mothers respond similarly to the latent constructs within the Beach Center FQOL Scale; therefore, it holds promise for use with both fathers and mothers in assessing FQOL across multiple family members. Further implications for research and practice are discussed.

Wang M; Summers JA; Little T; Turnbull A; Poston D; Mannan H

2006-12-01

116

Father's parenting and father-child relationship among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Western literature documents impaired father-child interactions in addition to strong evidence of impaired mother-child interactions in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the parenting process of fathers and their engagement in the Asian family with children with ADHD remain unexplored. The authors compared fathering and father-child relationships between children with ADHD and those without ADHD and identified the correlates of these paternal measures. METHODS: Fathering and father-child relationships were compared between 296 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 229 children without ADHD in Taiwan. All child participants and their parents received psychiatric interviews for the diagnosis of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders of the children, and their fathers were assessed for ADHD, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Both the fathers and children reported on the father's parenting style, father-child interactions, behavioral problems at home, and perceived family support. RESULTS: The results showed that children with ADHD received less affection/care and more overprotection and authoritarian control from their fathers. They had less active interactions with their fathers, more severe behavioral problems at home; and perceived less family support than children without ADHD. Correlates for impaired father-child interactions included childhood ADHD symptoms, any comorbidity, age at assessment, and the father's neurotic personality and depressive symptoms. In addition, the children reported more negatively on fathering and father-child interactions than the fathers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the negative impacts of ADHD on the father's parenting style and father-child interactions. Clinical interventions aimed at improving father-child interactions warrant more attention.

Chang LR; Chiu YN; Wu YY; Gau SS

2013-02-01

117

Hemimegalencephaly: prenatal diagnosis and outcome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hemimegalencephaly (HME) is a developmental abnormality of the central nervous system (CNS) which may present as either a syndromic or isolated case. Here, we present two cases of early prenatal diagnosis of HME. Prenatal CNS ultrasound and MRI in the first case revealed ventricular asymmetry, midline shift with displacement of the occipital lobe across the midline, large dilatation mainly at the posterior horn of the left lateral ventricle, and a head circumference in the 90th percentile without involvement of the brain stem and cerebellum, as well as abdominal lymphangioma. Right hemispherectomy was performed at 3 months of age due to intractable seizures. The pathological specimen showed findings characteristic of HME, including a disorganized cytoarchitecture with lack of neuronal lamination, focal areas of polymicrogyria, and neuronal heterotopias with dysplastic cells. In the second case, 2D and 3D neurosonography demonstrated similar findings (asymmetry of cerebral hemispheres, midline shift, and dilation of the posterior horn of the left lateral cerebral ventricle). Posterior fossa structures were unremarkable. HME was diagnosed and the pregnancy was terminated. Autopsy findings confirmed the diagnosis of HME.

Alvarez RM; García-Díaz L; Márquez J; Fajardo M; Rivas E; García-Lozano JC; Antiñolo G

2011-01-01

118

Prenatal diagnosis and 47,XXY.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this contribution, we consider detection of 47,XXY by a variety of available methods. These include traditional invasive procedures, screening with maternal serum analytes and fetal ultrasound, and most recently cell-free fetal DNA. Since its introduction in the late 1960s, prenatal genetic diagnosis has evolved greatly. Serendipitious detection of 47,XXY was not infrequent when prenatal genetic diagnosis routinely involved testing by the invasive procedures CVS and amniocentesis. In 2013 this is much less common and relatively few pregnancies in the U.S. and Europe are tested without prior screening protocols, traditionally maternal serum analyte and fetal ultrasound (NT). These protocols are not designed to identify 47,XXY or other X-chromosome aneuploides and with screening by analysis of cell-free DNA in maternal blood, this situation may or may not be altered. Increased numbers of cases could be detected if intake increases and vendors offer information on 47,XXY. A further consideration is that ability of array CGH to detect microdeletions or microduplications below resolution of a karyotype could make return to direct testing using an invasive procedure attractive.

Simpson JL; Samango-Sprouse C

2013-02-01

119

Why fathers are too important to ignore: communication about sexuality between fathers and daughters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This cross-sectional study examined perceptions of sexual communication between 38 dyads of fathers and daughters. Results indicate agreement about the 3 topics most and least frequently discussed but significant differences in perceived extent of sexual communication. These differences indicate that interventions may be needed to increase fathers' comfort with sexual communication.

Miller ME; Ruzek SB; Bass SB; Gordon TF; Ducette JP

2013-03-01

120

The California Prenatal Screening Program: "options and choices" not "coercion and eugenics".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The California Prenatal Screening Program is designed to make prenatal screening available to the state's large and diverse population. The Program provides information to women which will allow them to make informed choices regarding prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis. Since the Program's inception in 1986, women in California have had the option to participate in prenatal screening or to decline prenatal screening. The California Program offers prenatal diagnostic services to women whose screening tests indicate an increased risk for birth defects, including Down syndrome. Women can decline any or all of these follow-up services. Genetic counseling, diagnostic services, and the presentation of diagnostic results are performed by medical professionals (not State staff) who follow established guidelines for nondirective counseling. Program data clearly demonstrate that women in California have a wide range of options and make a wide range of choices regarding prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis. California's comprehensive Prenatal Screening Program promotes optimal care for all women within all options and choices. The important and necessary communication among organizations and stakeholders involved in prenatal screening and diagnosis, and in related care for pregnant women and for people with Down syndrome, is not served by misrepresentation and inflammatory rhetoric.

Flessel MC; Lorey FW

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
121

Congenital epulis: prenatal imaging with MRI and ultrasound  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Congenital epulis is an uncommon benign tumor that originates from the alveolar ridge in newborns. It is also known as congenital gingival granular cell tumor. Although there have been around 200 reports of its postnatal diagnosis, this oral tumor has rarely been diagnosed prenatally. We present fetal MRI and Doppler prenatal imaging of an infant with two congenital epulides (simultaneous involvement of superior and inferior maxillas). (orig.)

2003-01-01

122

Proliferation of prenatal ultrasonography.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The extent to which temporal increases in the use of prenatal ultrasonography reflect changes in maternal risk is unknown. In this population-based study, we examined the use of prenatal ultrasonography from 1996 to 2006 in Ontario. METHODS: With fiscal year 1996/97 as the baseline, we evaluated the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the change in rates of ultrasonography for each subsequent year. The RR was adjusted for maternal age, income, rural residence, maternal comorbidities, receipt of genetics consultation or amniocentesis--all in the index pregnancy--and history of complications in a prior pregnancy. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 1 399 389 singleton deliveries. The rate of prenatal ultrasonography increased from 2055 per 1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 3264 per 1000 in 2006 (adjusted RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.54-1.55). The rate increased among both women with low-risk pregnancies (adjusted RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.53-1.55) and those with high-risk pregnancies (adjusted RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.54-1.57). The proportion of pregnancies with at least four ultrasound examinations in the second or third trimesters rose from 6.4% in 1996 to 18.7% in 2006 (adjusted RR 2.68, 95% CI 2.61-2.74). Paradoxically, this increase was more pronounced among low-risk pregnancies (adjusted RR 2.92, 95% CI 2.83-3.01) than among high-risk pregnancies (adjusted RR 2.25, 95% CI 2.16-2.35). INTERPRETATION: Substantial increases in the use of prenatal ultrasonography over the past decade do not appear to reflect changes in maternal risk. Nearly one in five women now undergo four or more ultrasound examinations during the second and third trimesters. Efforts to promote more appropriate use of prenatal ultrasonography for singleton pregnancies appear warranted.

You JJ; Alter DA; Stukel TA; McDonald SD; Laupacis A; Liu Y; Ray JG

2010-02-01

123

Prenatal cocaine exposure and child welfare outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the relationship between prenatal cocaine exposure and child welfare outcomes. Seventy-six infants positive for cocaine at birth were matched to 76 negative infants. With prenatal care and maternal use of alcohol and tobacco controlled, cocaine-exposed infants had significant decrements in birth weight, length, head circumference, and depressed 5-min Apgar scores. This confirmed the health risk of prenatal cocaine exposure for the sample. Three-year follow-up data were obtained from the State Central Register and foster care records. Adjusting for prior maternal involvement with child welfare services the study groups did not differ in incidents of child maltreatment or foster care placement. These findings suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure is not a marker for abusive parenting. However, from the perspective of a cumulative risk model, the identification of cocaine-exposed infants at birth can form the starting point for the development of appropriate diagnostic and follow-up services for mother and child. PMID:17043317

Doris, John L; Meguid, Victoria; Thomas, Margaret; Blatt, Steven; Eckenrode, John

2006-11-01

124

The total cost of father desertion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The benefits of paternal investment have long been explored by assessing the impact of father's presence on child wellbeing. Previous studies, however, have only examined the average effect of father's presence on child survivorship. Here we assess the total fitness cost to men of deserting (or the benefit of staying), by considering effects on the entire progeny. We estimate the total number of children that a deserting father can expect to lose due to reduced survivorship over the life course in five populations, and compare this loss to the benefit gains from remarrying a younger wife. METHODS: We compiled the observed impacts of father's absence, as well as mortality and fertility schedules, for five foraging or foraging/horticultural populations. We calculate how many additional children a man can expect to lose due to father's absence throughout a marriage. We then calculate the minimum age difference between a first and second spouse that would be necessary to overcome this cost. RESULTS: Because child mortality rates drop so rapidly, the costs that men experience from desertion due to augmented child mortality are modest throughout marriage. Even hypothetically inflated father effects can be overcome with modest age differences between first and second spouses. CONCLUSIONS: Returns to paternal investment in terms of increased child survival are not substantial compared to those received by successfully practicing a serial mating strategy. This suggests that factors other than the ability to enhance child survival, such as female choice, are important to the evolutionary history and continued adaptive functioning of men's unique reproductive strategies.

Winking J; Gurven M

2011-11-01

125

Prenatal substance abuse: short- and long-term effects on the exposed fetus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prenatal substance abuse continues to be a significant problem in this country and poses important health risks for the developing fetus. The primary care pediatrician's role in addressing prenatal substance exposure includes prevention, identification of exposure, recognition of medical issues for the exposed newborn infant, protection of the infant, and follow-up of the exposed infant. This report will provide information for the most common drugs involved in prenatal exposure: nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, opiates, cocaine, and methamphetamine.

Behnke M; Smith VC

2013-03-01

126

Eugenesia y diagnóstico prenatal/ Eugenics and prenatal diagnosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El uso del diagnóstico prenatal en la práctica de la genética médica ha hecho que se recuerden teorías eugenésicas. Se realizó una revisión histórica de este término y se relacionó con el uso del diagnóstico prenatal (DPN) y el aborto selectivo a la luz de los conocimientos bioéticos actuales. Abstract in english The use of the prenatal diagnosis in the practice of medical genetics has led us to remember eugenic theories. A historical review of this term was made and it was connected with the use of prenatal diagnosis (PND) and selective abortion in the light of the present bioethical knowledge.

González Salvat, Rosa María; González Labrador, Ignacio

2002-08-01

127

Eugenesia y diagnóstico prenatal Eugenics and prenatal diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El uso del diagnóstico prenatal en la práctica de la genética médica ha hecho que se recuerden teorías eugenésicas. Se realizó una revisión histórica de este término y se relacionó con el uso del diagnóstico prenatal (DPN) y el aborto selectivo a la luz de los conocimientos bioéticos actuales.The use of the prenatal diagnosis in the practice of medical genetics has led us to remember eugenic theories. A historical review of this term was made and it was connected with the use of prenatal diagnosis (PND) and selective abortion in the light of the present bioethical knowledge.

Rosa María González Salvat; Ignacio González Labrador

2002-01-01

128

Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of MYH7 non-compaction cardiomyopathy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report on two prenatal ultrasound diagnoses of left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) associated with mutation of the cardiac ?-myosin heavy chain gene (MYH7). LVNC is characterized by a trabecular meshwork and deep intertrabecular myocardial recesses communicating with the left ventricular cavity. Clinical features range from non-penetrant disease in adult carriers to heart failure, arrhythmia and thromboembolism. Both cases showed cardiomegaly on prenatal ultrasound examinations, with features indicating non-compaction of the myocardium apparent in the third trimester. Mutations in the MYH7 gene were identified postnatally in each case in both the proband and the father. One infant underwent surgical mitral valvuloplasty and a mechanical valve implant later; in the other, left ventricular function was unimpaired at birth. Cardiac function in both cases remained stable at last follow-up. These cases highlight the importance of prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of LVNC and the need for cardiologic and molecular testing of first-degree relatives who may be unknown carriers of an MYH7 mutation.

Hoedemaekers YM; Cohen-Overbeek TE; Frohn-Mulder IM; Dooijes D; Majoor-Krakauer DF

2013-03-01

129

The Effects of Father Presence and Absence Upon Maternal Attitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

|The Parental Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) was administered to 34 wives of nuclear submarine personnel under counterbalanced conditions of father presence and absence. Significant differences were found on seven subscales as a function of the father's status. (Author/SDH)|

Marsella, Anthony J.; And Others

1974-01-01

130

Congenital dacryocystocele: prenatal MRI findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Congenital dacryocystocele can be diagnosed prenatally by imaging. Prenatal MRI is increasingly utilized for fetal diagnosis. To present the radiological and clinical features of seven fetuses with congenital dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI. The institutional database of 1,028 consecutive prenatal MR examinations performed during a period of 4 years was reviewed retrospectively. The cases of congenital dacryocystocele were identified by reading the report of each MRI study. The incidence of dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI was 0.7% (n=7/1,028). The dacryocystocele was bilateral in three fetuses. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 31 weeks. The indication for prenatal MRI was the presence or the suspicion of central nervous system abnormality in six fetuses and diaphragmatic hernia in one. Dacryocystocele was associated with an intranasal cyst in six of ten eyes. Prenatal sonography revealed dacryocystocele in only two of seven fetuses. Of eight eyes with postnatal follow-up, four did not have any lacrimal symptoms. Prenatal MRI can delineate congenital dacryocystocele more clearly and in a more detailed fashion than ultrasonography. Presence of dacryocystocele was symptomatic in only 50% of our patients, supporting that prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele might follow a benign course. (orig.)

Yazici, Zeynep [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Uludag University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey); Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Rubio, Eva I.; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Linam, Leann E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Yazici, Bulent [Uludag University, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey)

2010-12-15

131

Congenital dacryocystocele: prenatal MRI findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Congenital dacryocystocele can be diagnosed prenatally by imaging. Prenatal MRI is increasingly utilized for fetal diagnosis. To present the radiological and clinical features of seven fetuses with congenital dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI. The institutional database of 1,028 consecutive prenatal MR examinations performed during a period of 4 years was reviewed retrospectively. The cases of congenital dacryocystocele were identified by reading the report of each MRI study. The incidence of dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI was 0.7% (n=7/1,028). The dacryocystocele was bilateral in three fetuses. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 31 weeks. The indication for prenatal MRI was the presence or the suspicion of central nervous system abnormality in six fetuses and diaphragmatic hernia in one. Dacryocystocele was associated with an intranasal cyst in six of ten eyes. Prenatal sonography revealed dacryocystocele in only two of seven fetuses. Of eight eyes with postnatal follow-up, four did not have any lacrimal symptoms. Prenatal MRI can delineate congenital dacryocystocele more clearly and in a more detailed fashion than ultrasonography. Presence of dacryocystocele was symptomatic in only 50% of our patients, supporting that prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele might follow a benign course. (orig.)

2010-01-01

132

78 FR 37429 - Father's Day, 2013  

Science.gov (United States)

...Father's Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Each day, men from every walk of life pour themselves into the hard, proud, rewarding work of raising our sons and daughters. And each June, families all across...

2013-06-20

133

Organizational Patterns in Problem Solving Among Mayan Fathers and Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the social organization of Guatemalan Mayan fathers' engagement with school-age children in a group problem-solving task. Twenty-nine groups of Mayan fathers varying in extent of Western schooling and 3 related school-age children (ages 6-12 years) constructed a puzzle together. Groups with fathers with 0 to 3 grades more often…

Chavajay, Pablo

2008-01-01

134

Exploring the Group Prenatal Care Model: A Critical Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies have compared perinatal outcomes between individual prenatal care and group prenatal care. A critical review of research articles that were published between 1998 and 2009 and involved participants of individual and group prenatal care was conducted. Two middle range theories, Pender’s health promotion model and Swanson’s theory of caring, were blended to enhance conceptualization of the relationship between pregnant women and the group prenatal care model. Among the 17 research studies that met inclusion criteria for this critical review, five examined gestational age and birth weight with researchers reporting longer gestations and higher birth weights in infants born to mothers participating in group prenatal care, especially in the preterm birth population. Current evidence demonstrates that nurse educators and leaders should promote group prenatal care as a potential method of improving perinatal outcomes within the pregnant population.

Thielen, Kathleen

2012-01-01

135

Prenatal and postnatal diagnostic difficulties in a family with rare alleles of the galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase locus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Whole-blood galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (Gal-PUT) (EC 2.7.7.12) activity was absent in a newborn boy with galactosaemic symptoms. The symptoms disappeared on a galactose free diet. In the next pregnancy prenatal diagnosis was performed. Gal-PUT activity was measured by isotope technique and Gal-PUT genotype was determined by gel electrophoresis. The mother was shown to be heterozygous Duarte/heterozygous Los Angeles, the father heterozygous Duarte/heterozygous galactosaemia. The fetus had the same genotype as the father. A normal girl without galactosaemic symptoms was born. Reinvestigation of the index case showed that he was also heterozygous Duarte/heterozygous galactosaemia. It is concluded that the activity of Gal-PUT should always be measured by isotope technique to prove the diagnosis of heteditary galactosaemia. Furthermore, Gal-PUT-genotyping in families with rare alleles is essential for safe prenatal diagnosis.

Christensen E; Brandt NJ

1978-01-01

136

Uncertainty and coping in fathers of children with cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Limited research has been conducted regarding the father's relationship with the chronically ill child, particularly the child with cancer. How fathers cope with their child's illness and treatment is relatively unknown. The purpose of this study was to describe uncertainty and consequential coping patterns in fathers of children with cancer. The sample for this descriptive study was obtained from a computerized, nonalphabetized list of children currently undergoing treatment. The fathers were sent a packet of information that contained a letter introducing the study, a demographic data sheet, Mishel's Parent Perception of Uncertainty Scale, and the Jalowiec Coping Scale. Thirty-one of 150 eligible fathers completed the study. The age of the father, the age of the child, and the length of time since diagnosis showed direct correlation to paternal uncertainty and coping. Fathers used coping styles described as evasive, optimistic, and emotive.

Sterken DJ

1996-04-01

137

Uncertainty and coping in fathers of children with cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Limited research has been conducted regarding the father's relationship with the chronically ill child, particularly the child with cancer. How fathers cope with their child's illness and treatment is relatively unknown. The purpose of this study was to describe uncertainty and consequential coping patterns in fathers of children with cancer. The sample for this descriptive study was obtained from a computerized, nonalphabetized list of children currently undergoing treatment. The fathers were sent a packet of information that contained a letter introducing the study, a demographic data sheet, Mishel's Parent Perception of Uncertainty Scale, and the Jalowiec Coping Scale. Thirty-one of 150 eligible fathers completed the study. The age of the father, the age of the child, and the length of time since diagnosis showed direct correlation to paternal uncertainty and coping. Fathers used coping styles described as evasive, optimistic, and emotive. PMID:8854991

Sterken, D J

1996-04-01

138

Prenatal genetic screening.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article presents a discussion of screening principles and techniques available to screen for common birth defects during pregnancy. Sixty-five to 70% of women have serum screening and /or ultrasound during pregnancy to evaluate the health and well-being of the developing fetus. The most common birth defects identified by screening include neural tube defects and chromosome abnormalities. Nurses employed in prenatal care settings need to have accurate information they can provide to women so they understand the benefits and limitations of screening. Timely presentation of information and identification of available resources will help nurses minimize confusion and provide support for women as they proceed with pregnancy screening.

Grant SS

2000-01-01

139

The Father, the Son, and Obama  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the early 1990s, George H.W. Bush was being inundated with criticism since many individuals believed he had failed to devise an effective plan for bringing the United States out of a serious economic downturn. In the years following his time in the White House, some analysts continued to dwell on Bush’s response to this recession, but there were others who elected to examine his performance in the international arena. Most of the evaluators of his foreign policy were of the opinion that he exercised great caution when he was dealing with developments on the world stage. While George W. Bush was running for president in 2000, it appeared as if he would be guided by this example that had been set by his father since he frequently scrutinized risky endeavors such as nation-building missions. However, once he won that election, a lot of comparisons could not be drawn between him and his father because he proceeded to introduce a rather ambitious agenda on the foreign front. From 2009 to the present, Barack Obama, the sitting U.S. president, has not attempted to accomplish lofty objectives as his predecessor did for eight years. Instead, he has opted to emulate the more circumspect approach of Bush’s father. Inside the following article, this bond between Barack Obama and George H. W. Bush will be looked at in a thorough fashion.

Jason Cooley

2013-01-01

140

Group prenatal care: model fidelity and outcomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care has been demonstrated to improve pregnancy outcomes. However, there is likely variation in how the model is implemented in clinical practice, which may be associated with efficacy, and therefore variation, in outcomes. We examined the association of fidelity to process and content of the CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care model with outcomes previously shown to be affected in a clinical trial: preterm birth, adequacy of prenatal care, and breast-feeding initiation. STUDY DESIGN: Participants were 519 women who received CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care. Process fidelity reflected how facilitative leaders were and how involved participants were in each session. Content fidelity reflected whether recommended content was discussed in each session. Fidelity was rated at each session by a trained researcher. Preterm birth and adequacy of care were abstracted from medical records. Participants self-reported breast-feeding initiation at 6 months postpartum. RESULTS: Controlling for important clinical predictors, greater process fidelity was associated with significantly lower odds of both preterm birth (B = -0.43, Wald ?(2) = 8.65, P = .001) and intensive utilization of care (B = -0.29, Wald ?(2) = 3.91, P = .05). Greater content fidelity was associated with lower odds of intensive utilization of care (B = -0.03, Wald ?(2) = 9.31, P = .001). CONCLUSION: Maintaining fidelity to facilitative group processes in CenteringPregnancy was associated with significant reductions in preterm birth and intensive utilization of care. Content fidelity also was associated with reductions in intensive utilization of care. Clinicians learning to facilitate group care should receive training in facilitative leadership, emphasizing the critical role that creating a participatory atmosphere can play in improving outcomes.

Novick G; Reid AE; Lewis J; Kershaw TS; Rising SS; Ickovics JR

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
141

Father stress during a child's critical care hospitalization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: There is a dearth of research on the experiences of fathers with critically ill children. The specific aim of this study was to examine stress and specific stress symptoms of fathers with a child in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and compare their stress and stress symptoms with those of fathers with a child in a general care unit (GCU). METHOD: In this descriptive, comparative study, fathers were recruited from a large Midwestern children's hospital within 24 hours of their child's admission. The sample included 15 PICU and 10 GCU fathers who completed the Parental Stressor Scale: PICU and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. RESULTS: PICU fathers perceived significantly greater stress than did GCU fathers from the sights and sounds of the unit and by procedures their child underwent. PICU fathers also reported greater frequencies of stress symptoms, such as headache, low energy, annoyance, and worrying. DISCUSSION: Advanced practice and staff nurses should know how fathers of critically ill children feel and what stresses them so they can provide interventions specific for fathers during this stressful time.

Board R

2004-09-01

142

Breast cancer patients with lobular cancer more commonly have a father than a mother diagnosed with cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between lobular breast cancer and family history is not clear. The aim of the study was to possibly identifying new hereditary patterns predisposing for cancer in the different histopathologic subtypes of breast cancer, with focus on patients with lobular breast cancer and cancer in their first degree relatives. Methods In 1676 consecutive breast cancer patients detailed family history of cancer was related to histopathologic subtype of breast cancer. Results Patients with lobular breast cancer were found to be significantly positively associated with having a father diagnosed with cancer, OR 2.17 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37-3.46). The finding persisted after excluding breast cancer in the family. Ductal breast cancer was associated with having a mother diagnosed with cancer. There was a significant association between lobular breast cancer and having a father with prostate cancer, OR 2.4 (CI 1.1-5.3). The occurrence of having a father with prostate cancer for lobular breast cancer patients was higher in the younger patient group, OR 2.9 (CI 1.1-7.8), and was still high but lost statistical significance in the older patient group, OR 1.9 (CI 0.5-7.4). The association between lobular breast cancer and a father remained significant after excluding fathers with prostate cancer, OR 1.94 (CI 1.20-3.14). Other commonly occurring tumor types in the father included sarcoma and leukemia. Conclusion We propose that lobular breast cancer is associated with having a father diagnosed with cancer, most commonly prostate carcinoma. Since the association remained after excluding family history of breast cancer, the association seems independent of classical breast cancer heredity. The association with a father diagnosed with cancer also remained after removing prostate cancer, indicating an independence from prostate cancer as well. The reason for this association is genetically unclear, but could involve sex-specific imprinting.

Ellberg Carolina; Olsson Håkan

2011-01-01

143

Engaging and supporting fathers to promote breast feeding: A concept analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Empirical evidence demonstrates that fathers have a strong influence on a mother's decision to initiate and continue breast feeding. However, no clear delineation of what behaviours and attributes constitute father support or differentiate it from other kinds of support is provided in the current literature. The purpose of this study was to analyse the concept of 'father support' in relation to maternity services and broader health settings, thereby clarifying meaning to enable comprehension and application in practice, education, and research. DESIGN: A concept analysis combining the evolutionary model of concept development with the inter-related theoretical, fieldwork and analytical phases of the hybrid model of concept development. SETTING: Children's Centres in East and West Sussex in Southern England. PARTICIPANTS: Repeated qualitative research over two phases with 16 parents of breast-fed infants through seven focus groups and five telephone interviews. MEASUREMENTS AND FINDINGS: CINAHL, PsycINFO, AMED, MEDLINE, OVID and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published in English between 1999 and 2013 using the keywords breast feeding, father, and support. Seven same-sex focus groups and five individual interviews were also conducted over two research phases with the parents of breast-fed infants to expand and exemplify, and then validate the analysis of the literature search. Five main attributes of father support in relation to breast feeding were identified: (1) knowledge about breast feeding; (2) positive attitude to breast feeding; (3) involvement in the decision-making process; (4) practical support; and (5) emotional support. Multiple antecedents and consequences to these attributes were also identified. KEY CONCLUSION: This study has contributed to clarifying the meaning of father support in relation to breast feeding and provides an important starting point for the development of a theoretical and practical model of optimal breast feeding that takes into account father support. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Identification of attributes, antecedents, and consequences of father support may assist practitioners to reflect on current working practices and service delivery models, and offer important educational opportunities for the training of student midwives and other health professionals.

Sherriff N; Hall V; Panton C

2013-08-01

144

Prenatal Genetic Screening  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents a discussion of screening principles and techniques available to screen for common birth defects during pregnancy. Sixty-five to 70% of women have serum screening and /or ultrasound during pregnancy to evaluate the health and well-being of the developing fetus. The most common birth defects identified by screening include neural tube defects and chromosome abnormalities. Nurses employed in prenatal care settings need to have accurate information they can provide to women so they understand the benefits and limitations of screening. Timely presentation of information and identification of available resources will help nurses minimize confusion and provide support for women as they proceed with pregnancy screening.

Grant, S

2000-01-01

145

The expectations of fathers concerning care provided by midwives to the mothers during labour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Midwives have been criticised for neglecting the expectations and needs of fathers. They either ignore the fathers or pressure them into becoming more involved than they would choose, if allowed to provide support to the mothers during labour. Whilst midwives are providing woman-centred care, it is important that they remember to involve the fathers in decision-making and to acknowledge their role, expectations and needs, because the birth of a child is one of the most important events in a person’s lifetime. This study focused on fathers’ expectations of the care provided to mothers by the midwives during labour. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study design was utilised. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with fathers about the care provided to their partners or wives by midwives. Data were then analysed with an open descriptive method of coding that is appropriate for qualitative research. The results of the interviews were subsequently positioned within a holistic health-promotive nursing theory that encompassed body, mind and spirit. The results revealed that fathers saw the provision of comfort and support as the two main aspects for mothers in labour that they expected from midwives. The findings were that midwives should improve their communication skills with the mothers, as well as with the fathers if they are available. Fathers expected midwives to encourage them to accompany the mother during labour and to facilitate bonding between father, mother and baby. The results of this study should assist midwives to provide holistic quality care to mothers and fathers during labour.OpsommingVroedvroue word daarvan beskuldig dat hulle nie voldoen aan die verwagtinge en behoeftes van die vaders nie. Vaders word, óf deur hulle geïgnoreer, óf druk word op hulle uitgeoefen om meer betrokke te raak as waarmee hulle gemaklik is, indien hulle wel toegelaat word om moeders te ondersteun tydens die kraamproses. Vroedvroue verskaf moeder-gesentreerde sorg, maar dit is nogtans belangrik dat hulle onthou om die vaders te betrek in die besluitneming en hulle rol, verwagtinge en behoeftes te erken omdat die geboorte van ‘n kind een van die belangrikste gebeurtenisse in hulle lewens is. Die studie het gefokus op vaders se verwagtinge van die sorg wat verskaf word aan moeders tydens kraam. ‘n Kwalitatiewe, eksploratiewe, beskrywende en kontekstuele navorsingsontwerp is gebruik. Data is ingesamel deur in-diepte onderhoude met vaders te voer oor die sorg wat aan hul vroue of metgeselle tydens die kraamproses verskaf word deur vroedvroue. Data is daarna geanaliseer deur ‘n oop beskrywende metode te gebruik wat toepaslik is vir kwalitatiewe navorsing. Die resultate van die onderhoude is vervolgens geposisioneer binne ‘n holistiese, gesondheids-bevorderende teorie wat verwys na liggaam, psige en gees. Die resultate toon dat gemak en ondersteuning die twee hoofkategorieë is wat verskaf moet word deur vroedvroue aan moeders tydens die kraamproses. Die ander kategorieë wat aangedui word in die resultate, is dat vroedvroue hulle onderlinge kommunikasievaardighede moet verbeter, asook hul kommunikasie met die moeders en vaders indien laasgenoemde beskikbaar is. Die vaders het van vroedvroue verwag om hulle aan te moedig om moeders by te staan tydens die kraamproses en om binding tussen vader, moeder en baba aan te moedig.How to cite this article: Sengane, M.L.M. & Nolte, A.G.W., 2012, ‘The expectations of fathers concerning care provided by midwives to the mothers during labour’, Health SA Gesondheid 17(1), Art.#527, 10 pages. http://dx.doi. org/10.4102/hsag.v17i1.527

Malmsey L.M. Sengane; Anna G.W. Nolte

2012-01-01

146

Diagnóstico prenatal del Síndrome EEC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de diagnóstico prenatal ecográfico del Síndrome EEC (Ectrodactilia, Displasia Ectodérmica y Labio y Paladar Hendidos), en una familia con tres generaciones de afectados.

Abuchaibe C.; Mantilla J.; Duque JL.; Torres G.; Restrepo CM

2001-01-01

147

Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling. A new technique for prenatal diagnosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Direct access to fetal blood during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy opens new fields of prenatal diagnosis and in utero fetal treatment. Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling, a method that involves ultrasonographically guided needle insertion into the umbilical vein, appears to have an acceptable complication rate. This technique has tremendous potential for use in evaluating fetal status.

Ludomirski A; Nemiroff R; Johnson A; Ashmead GG; Weiner S; Bolognese RJ

1987-04-01

148

Ebstein anomaly: report of a familial occurrence and prenatal diagnosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Ebstein anomaly is a rare congenital heart disease involving the position and structure of the tricuspid valve. Although most cases are sporadic, familial occurrence has been documented. We report on 2 sisters, born to consanguineous parents, who were diagnosed prenatally with severe Ebstein anomaly.

McIntosh N; Chitayat D; Bardanis M; Fouron JC

1992-02-01

149

Characteristics of fathers with depressive symptoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Extensive research shows maternal depression to be associated with poorer child outcomes, and characteristics of these mothers have been described. Recent research describes associations of paternal depressive symptoms and child behavioral and emotional outcomes, but characteristics of these fathers have not been investigated. This study describes characteristics of fathers with depressive symptoms in the USA. Utilizing data from 7,247 fathers and mothers living in households with children aged 5-17 years who participated in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2004-2006, the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 was used to assess parental depressive symptoms, the Short Form-12 was used to examine paternal and maternal physical health, the Columbia Impairment Scale was used to measure child behavioral or emotional problems, and the Children with Special Health Care Needs Screener was used to identify children with special health care needs. In multivariate analyses, poverty (AOR 1.52; 95% CI 1.05-2.22), maternal depressive symptoms (AOR 5.77; 95% CI 4.18-7.95), living with a child with special health care needs (AOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04-1.94), poor paternal physical health (AOR 3.31; 95% CI 2.50-4.38) and paternal unemployment (AOR 6.49; 95% CI 4.12-10.22) were independently associated with increased rates of paternal depressive symptoms. These are the first data that demonstrate that poverty, paternal physical health problems, having a child with special health care needs, maternal depressive symptoms, and paternal unemployment are independently associated with paternal depressive symptoms, with paternal unemployment associated with the highest rates of such problems.

Rosenthal DG; Learned N; Liu YH; Weitzman M

2013-01-01

150

Fathers' engagement in pregnancy and childbirth: evidence from a national survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Early involvement of fathers with their children has increased in recent times and this is associated with improved cognitive and socio-emotional development of children. Research in the area of father's engagement with pregnancy and childbirth has mainly focused on white middle-class men and has been mostly qualitative in design. Thus, the aim of this study was to understand who was engaged during pregnancy and childbirth, in what way, and how paternal engagement may influence a woman's uptake of services, her perceptions of care, and maternal outcomes. METHODS: This study involved secondary analysis of data on 4616 women collected in a 2010 national maternity survey of England asking about their experiences of maternity care, health and well-being up to three months after childbirth, and their partners' engagement in pregnancy, labour and postnatally. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-square, binary logistic regression and generalised linear modelling. RESULTS: Over 80% of fathers were 'pleased or 'overjoyed' in response to their partner's pregnancy, over half were present for the pregnancy test, for one or more antenatal checks, and almost all were present for ultrasound examinations and for labour. Three-quarters of fathers took paternity leave and, during the postnatal period, most fathers helped with infant care. Paternal engagement was highest in partners of primiparous white women, those living in less deprived areas, and in those whose pregnancy was planned. Greater paternal engagement was positively associated with first contact with health professionals before 12 weeks gestation, having a dating scan, number of antenatal checks, offer and attendance at antenatal classes, and breastfeeding. Paternity leave was also strongly associated with maternal well-being at three months postpartum. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the considerable sociodemographic variation in partner support and engagement. It is important that health professionals recognise that women in some sociodemographic groups may be less supported by their partner and more reliant on staff and that this may have implications for how women access care.

Redshaw M; Henderson J

2013-01-01

151

Work Characteristics and Fathers' Vocabulary to Infants in African American Families  

Science.gov (United States)

Fathers' vocabulary to infants has been linked in the literature to early child language development, however, little is known about the variability in fathers' language behavior. This study considered associations between fathers' work characteristics and fathers' vocabulary among a sample of employed African American fathers of 6-month-old…

Pancsofar, Nadya; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Odom, Erika C.

2013-01-01

152

Adaptation themes for prenatal care delivered by public health nurses.  

Science.gov (United States)

An adaptation process involving three cognitive themes provides the framework for community nursing model for prenatal care on the island of Hawaii. The themes are based on the cognitive adaptation model developed by Taylor (1983) and include search for meaning, sense of mastery, and self-esteem. Each theme is used to guide public health nurses and is identified during designated encounters between the nurse and woman throughout the duration of prenatal care. A focus on adaptation themes for each trimester of pregnancy expands on the medical model of prenatal care to highlight developmental processes of childbearing and broaden the scope of practice for public health nurses responsible for assessment and intervention in the community. PMID:1409344

Affonso, D D; Mayberry, L J; Graham, K; Shibuya, J; Kunimoto, J; Kuramoto, M

1992-09-01

153

Preparing Heart and Mind Following Prenatal Diagnosis of Complex Congenital Heart Defect  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on attachment and caregiving theory and the concept of motivation, the purpose of this descriptive study was to examine parents’ retrospective accounts of their prenatal experiences after receiving the diagnosis of a fetal heart defect. These parents constituted a subgroup of participants in a larger longitudinal study of parenting an infant with a complex congenital heart defect. Data were derived from 14 semistructured interviews with 13 mothers and 3 fathers in the home or hospital setting. A directed content analysis yielded a central category of preparing heart and mind for infant caregiving. Preparing heart and mind is a preliminary caregiving goal within the caregiving system that generates intentions and expectations indicative of specific caregiving motivations to relate to the baby, handle circumstances practically, and manage infant medical care. A theoretical model illustrates the prenatal process these parents engaged in to provide care to their infants with life-threatening medical conditions.

McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Pridham, Karen

2013-01-01

154

Preparation for prenatal decision-making: a baseline of knowledge and reflection in women participating in prenatal screening.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This prospective study gathered baseline information about knowledge and intentions regarding prenatal testing from women attending their nuchal translucency (NT) ultrasound and first sequential blood screen. METHOD: Surveys including questions about pregnancy history and hypotheticals about fetal diagnoses were distributed to all willing participants at an urban hospital and a suburban medical building during the waiting time for the NT (N?=?659). RESULTS: The majority "never thought anything could be wrong" with their fetus and had not talked with the father or the health providers about that possibility. Presented with varied fetal diagnoses, the larger group nearly always "had the baby", except in the case of a fatal condition where 28% said they would have the baby in contrast to 26% who would end the pregnancy (remainder undecided). Hypotheticals about varied fetal conditions were generally "undecided" by a quarter to nearly half of the respondents. CONCLUSION: Women's baseline knowledge and reflection about the nature of prenatal screening and diagnosis are minimal in contrast to the large impact positive results could have on their lives. Providers need to weigh the benefit of priming decision-making by exposing women to the possibility of fetal diagnosis, against the cost of raised anxiety.

McCoyd JL

2013-03-01

155

Back to basics: The 'Almighty Father' revisited  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The article focused on the questions of how male dominance came about in theology and the church, what makes it so persistent and what can be done. It argued that patriarchy is based on androcentric ways of thinking, feeling and acting that colour all of culture and society. Patriarchy and androcentrism perpetuate the status quo through language. They provide a template for attributing meaning to reality. They still have a profound effect on theology and ecclesial institu (more) tions. This can be seen clearly in the concept of God, the 'Almighty Father'. The article made a case for a theology that has the courage to analyse how and where it idolises the patriarchal template and that imagines a God other than the patriarchal 'Almighty Father': a God who walks with Her or His friends in gracious, empowering love, not 'almighty' but honouring the responsibility She or He gave them. The article concludes that the life of Jesus as the human being who mirrors God's love, friendship and passion for justice inspires a different way of how God could be imagined.

Bons-Storm, Riet

2011-01-01

156

Possible pitfalls in motherless paternity analysis with related putative fathers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nowadays, more and more paternity cases are carried out investigating only child and putative father, mostly for economical or private reasons. Usually, reliable results can be obtained and the putative father can be included or ruled out with a high certainty. Considerable problems might arise when a relative of the biological father is investigated as being the putative father. In this study, we investigated 164 persons from 27 families creating artificial deficiency cases using the AmpFlSTRIdentifiler kit, which amplifies 15 STRs simultaneously. We analyzed 93 child/biological father pairs and the corresponding uncles, respectively the brothers of the biological fathers. The average paternity probability for the biological father was 99.9699% (paternity index (PI): 3321.26); only in three cases the results were under 99.9%. In five out of 125 child/uncle pairs no STR mismatches were found and paternity probabilities between 99.9726% (PI 3652) and 99.9970% (PI 33,545) were calculated. The average number of excluding loci was 3.4, but in 31.2% of the cases only zero, one or two mismatches were found. When both putative fathers were genetically typed, the biological father usually had a statistically higher paternity probability. Nevertheless, the differences between probabilities for father and uncle were only small. These results show that a reliable investigation of deficiency cases (i.e. child and putative father) seems to be more difficult than generally assumed. Especially in cases with an unknown familiar background and/or when investigating foreigners for immigration purposes, the laboratory expert should include the mother, increase the number of investigated loci or include a second method such as RFLP-analysis, some serological systems or typing of X-chromosome specific STRs to further ascertain the results.

von Wurmb-Schwark N; Mályusz V; Simeoni E; Lignitz E; Poetsch M

2006-06-01

157

The effect of prenatal factors on the development of colon cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is some evidence that prenatal factors can play a role in the development of colon cancer. Children with an old parent age at the time of birth were observed to develop certain childhood cancers more frequently. OBJECTIVE: This trial was designed to investigate the effects of some prenatal factors on colon cancer risk. Particularly, investigation of the effect of advanced parent age on colon cancer development risk was targeted. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study 117 in or out patients diagnosed with colon cancer and 234 control subjects were included. Definitive diagnostic results and dates of diagnosis were determined from pathological reports. Groups were asked for the parent age, smoking habits, sociodemographic, environmental, familial and reproductive traits. The results were compared between the patients and the control group. RESULTS: It was determined that children may have higher risk if mother and father are more than 30 at birth (p = 0.018, p = 0.020). While the mean mother age at birth was 25.6 +/- 5.72 in patients, it was 24.7 +/- 6.90 in the controls. The difference was not statistically significant (p < 0.056). The mean father age at birth was 29.4 +/- 6.58 in patients and 27.4 +/- 7.47 in the controls. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Smoking of mother was one of the important risk factors of colon cancer (p = 0.044). CONCLUSION: Our data supports that some prenatal factors such as high parental age at birth and mother -smoker may be risk factors for some cancers in children. This is the first study to report that high parental age at birth and exposure to smoke prenatally increase the risk or colon cancer (Tab. 7, Ref. 28).

Ozdemir F; Ersoy K; Topbas M; Fidan E; Yildiz B; Kavgaci H; Aydin F

2011-01-01

158

Using an adoption design to separate genetic, prenatal, and temperament influences on toddler executive function.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Poor executive functioning has been implicated in children's concurrent and future behavioral difficulties, making work aimed at understanding processes related to the development of early executive function (EF) critical for models of developmental psychopathology. Deficits in EF have been associated with adverse prenatal experiences, genetic influences, and temperament characteristics. However, our ability to disentangle the predictive and independent effects of these influences has been limited by a dearth of genetically informed research designs that also consider prenatal influences. The present study examined EF and language development in a sample of 361 toddlers who were adopted at birth and reared in nonrelative adoptive families. Predictors included genetic influences (as inherited from birth mothers), prenatal risk, and growth in child negative emotionality. Structural equation modeling indicated that the effect of prenatal risk on toddler effortful attention at age 27 months became nonsignificant once genetic influences were considered in the model. In addition, genetic influences had unique effects on toddler effortful attention. Latent growth modeling indicated that increases in toddler negative emotionality from 9 to 27 months were associated with poorer delay of gratification and poorer language development. Similar results were obtained in models incorporating birth father data. Mechanisms of intergenerational transmission of EF deficits are discussed.

Leve LD; DeGarmo DS; Bridgett DJ; Neiderhiser JM; Shaw DS; Harold GT; Natsuaki MN; Reiss D

2013-06-01

159

Online fathering: the experience of first-time fatherhood in combat-deployed troops.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: More than 90% of fathers in the United States attend the births of their children. Each year, thousands of fathers are absent during this important life transition because of military deployment in combat regions; however, it is unknown how this population experiences new fatherhood. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of first-time fatherhood from the unique perspective of military men deployed to combat regions during birth. METHOD: A phenomenological approach was used. Seventeen men who were stationed in Okinawa, Japan, and had returned recently from a combat deployment participated. Unstructured, in-depth interviews were conducted 2 to 6 months after the births. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using Colaizzi's method. RESULTS: Disruption of the protector and provider role was a main theme that encompassed four theme clusters: (a) worry-a traumatic and lonely childbirth; (b) lost opportunity; (c) guilt-an absent father; and (d) fear of death and dismemberment-who will be the father? Although their absence interfered with their ability to fulfill the fatherhood role as they perceived it, this was offset by the theme cluster Communication: The ties that bind, highlighting the role of online communication with their partner (e.g., e-mail, instant messaging, Facebook, blogs, and chat rooms) in restoring balance to the protector and provider role. DISCUSSION: Insight is provided into the needs of first-time fathers who are combat-deployed during the births of their babies. Understanding these experiences assists nurses in identifying better ways to prepare and to support men in an involved fatherhood role, despite the limitations of a stressful combat environment and geographic separation. This information can set the stage for a healthy reunion, which may take place at military bases and within communities across the globe, and thus is of benefit to all nurses working with military families.

Schachman KA

2010-01-01

160

Interparental Relations, Maternal Employment, and Fathering in Mexican American Families  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined independent and interactive relations between the interparental relationship and maternal employment in predicting fathering within low-income, Mexican American two-parent families (N = 115). Interparental conflict was negatively related to quality fathering, and these relations were noted only for single-earner families. The…

Formoso, Diana; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Barrera, Manuel, Jr.; Dumka, Larry E.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Factors Associated with Multiple-Partner Fertility among Fathers  

Science.gov (United States)

This article uses a sample of 1,731 fathers aged 16 - 45 from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth to identify factors associated with multiple-partner fertility. Almost one third of fathers who reported multiple-partner fertility did so across a series of nonmarital relationships, and nonmarital-only multiple-partner fertility has been…

Manlove, Jennifer; Logan, Cassandra; Ikramullah, Erum; Holcombe, Emily

2008-01-01

162

Father for the first time - development and validation of a questionnaire to assess fathers’ experiences of first childbirth (FTFQ)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A father’s experience of the birth of his first child is important not only for his birth-giving partner but also for the father himself, his relationship with the mother and the newborn. No validated questionnaire assessing first-time fathers' experiences during childbirth is currently available. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to assess first-time fathers’ experiences of childbirth. Method Domains and items were initially derived from interviews with first-time fathers, and supplemented by a literature search and a focus group interview with midwives. The comprehensibility, comprehension and relevance of the items were evaluated by four paternity research experts and a preliminary questionnaire was pilot tested in eight first-time fathers. A revised questionnaire was completed by 200 first-time fathers (response rate?=?81%) Exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed and multitrait scaling analysis was used to test scaling assumptions. External validity was assessed by means of known-groups analysis. Results Factor analysis yielded four factors comprising 22 items and accounting 48% of the variance. The domains found were Worry, Information, Emotional support and Acceptance. Multitrait analysis confirmed the convergent and discriminant validity of the domains; however, Cronbach’s alpha did not meet conventional reliability standards in two domains. The questionnaire was sensitive to differences between groups of fathers hypothesized to differ on important socio demographic or clinical variables. Conclusions The questionnaire adequately measures important dimensions of first-time fathers’ childbirth experience and may be used to assess aspects of fathers’ experiences during childbirth. To obtain the FTFQ and permission for its use, please contact the corresponding author.

Premberg Åsa; Taft Charles; Hellström Anna-Lena; Berg Marie

2012-01-01

163

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Prenatal Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of prenatal stress on psychopathology has been observed in many animal and human studies. In many studies, stress during prenatal period has been shown to result in negative feedback dysregulation and hyperactivity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Prenatal stres also may cause increased risk of birth complications, startle or distress in response to novel and surprising stimuli during infancy; lower Full Scale IQs, language abilities and attention deficiency in period of 3-5 years; increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, anxiety symptoms, depressive disorder and impulsivity during adolescence. Additionally, timing of prenatal stress is also important and 12-22 weeks of gestation seems to be the most vulnerable period. The results underline the need for early prevention and intervention programs for highly anxious women during pregnancy. Administration of prenatal stress monitoring to public health programs or removing pregnant women who have been exposed to life events such as natural disaster, terror attack to secure areas that provide basic needs may be crucial.

M. Genco Usta; Adem Balikci

2012-01-01

164

Public health nurse observations of behavioral characteristics of fathers who contribute to the emotional instability of mothers, as presented in cases of infant abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to look at the understanding and perceptions of public health nurses (PHNs) related to behavioral characteristics of fathers that contribute to emotional instability in mothers by reviewing abuse cases involving infants and very young children. A qualitative descriptive design was applied to the data analysis, based on a semi-structured interview administered to three experienced PHNs who had been in charge of maternal and child health services for at least five years at a public health department or health center; with the data obtained in the interview narratives analyzed. In the observations of the experienced PHNs, the behavioral characteristics of fathers who are instigators of child abuse can be classified into five categories, fathers who are: “Talking to others about marital problems without attempting to solve these by themselves”, “Working on learning about childcare seeking to correct childcare methods”, “Taking the initiative in childcare at cross purposes with mothers”, “Stressing the effort they (the fathers) put into childcare”, and “Failing to notice the own family situation and problems”. The findings of the study suggest the necessity for PHNs to understand fathers, to be aware of the difficulty of building a supportive relationship with fathers, and to improve skills enabling the PHNs to help fathers form good relationships with other family members.

Izumi Ueda

2013-01-01

165

Improvements of postnatal care are required by Swedish fathers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: This paper has two main aims: to explore fathers' postnatal care experiences with a specific focus on deficiencies and to investigate which service deficiencies remained important for fathers one year after childbirth. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: This is a prospective longitudinal study. Two months and one year after birth, the overall satisfaction with care were sought. A care quality index was created, based on perceived reality and subjective importance of the care given. The study excluded fathers not mastering Swedish. Total eligible fathers was consequently not known therefore pregnancies served as an estimate. FINDINGS: In total, 827 fathers answered the questionnaire two months after birth and 655 returned the follow-up questionnaire after one year; 21 per cent were dissatisfied with overall postnatal-care. The most important dissatisfying factors were the way fathers were treated by staff and the women's check-up/medical care. Two months after the birth, information given about the baby's care and needs were most deficient when parents had been cared for in a hotel ward. Furthermore, information about the baby's needs and woman's check-up/medical care was most deficient when fathers had participated in emergency Caesarean section. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Most fathers were satisfied with the overall postnatal care, but how fathers are treated by caregivers; the woman's check-up/medical care and information given about the baby's care and needs can be improved. Professionals should view early parenthood as a joint project and support both parents' needs. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The paper provides knowledge about postnatal service quality including fathers' needs.

Johansson M; Rubertsson C; Rådestad I; Hildingsson I

2013-01-01

166

Marcello Malpighi: the father of microscopic anatomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biographical data of Malpighi to justify naming him "the father of microscopic anatomy", as he used the microscope, soon after its invention, to study and discover and accurately describe many biological, particularly anatomical, structures. Although he utilized the microscope as a scientific instrument, his ideas, innovations and discoveries caused such an opposition that the microscope could be considered as Malpighi's weapon to start a scientific revolution. He was a naturalist for whom the "natural world, known and experienced scientifically, was all that existed". He was also a "cardiocentrist", who opposed Galen's "hepatocentrism". Several anatomical structures known eponymically to honor Malpighi are listed followed by their synonyms. Malpighi is another example of a genius as an extraordinary man who stood on the shoulders of giants, such as Galilei, Hans and Zacharias Janssen, Borelli, Harvey, B. Massari, among others.

DiDio LJ

1995-01-01

167

Guillermo Vargas Paredes: father of Colombian dentistry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents a short biography of dentist Guillermo Vargas Paredes, honored by the Federación Odontológica Colombiana (Colombian Dental Federation) as the Father of Colombian Dentistry. Dr. Vargas was born in the city of Bucaramanga and graduated from the New York Dental School. In 1887, he and several colleagues founded the Sociedad Dental Colombiana (Colombian Dental Society). A year later, he founded the Colegio Dental de Bogotá (Dental School of Bogotá), which was the first dental school in South America. In 1988, at the Colombian Dental Federation's centennial commemoration of the establishment of the first dental school in that country, Dr. Vargas was honored for his numerous and unselfish efforts towards the advancement of the dental profession in Colombia.

Castro Núñez J

2007-01-01

168

Diagnóstico prenatal del pie bot/ Prenatal diagnosis of clubfoot  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción. El pie bot es una de las anomalías músculo- esqueléticas congénitas más frecuentes. La utilización de la ecografía para la detección prenatal del pie bot ha avanzado rápidamente en la última década, pero las publicaciones han presentado una gran variabilidad de opiniones en cuanto a la eficacia del método, la asociación con otras patologías y la necesidad de realizar amniocentesis para análisis del cariotipo. Objetivos. Analizar en qué porce (more) ntaje de pacientes se realizó diagnóstico prenatal del pie bot, evaluar la opinión de las madres al respecto y aclarar algunos conceptos revisando la bibliografía disponible a la fecha. Métodos. Se analizó retrospectivamente un grupo de 54 pacientes consecutivos con diagnóstico de pie bot tratados en el período enero 2008-junio 2010. Se documentaron el número de ecografías realizadas durante el embarazo, el tipo de ecografía realizada (2D, 3D o 4D) y la semana de gestación al momento del diagnóstico. Las madres fueron encuestadas a fin de conocer su opinión con respecto al diagnóstico prenatal de esta deformidad. Resultados. Se realizaron 3,2 ecografías promedio durante el embarazo (r, 1-7). En el 25% (13/52) de los casos se realizó diagnóstico prenatal. El diagnóstico fue realizado en 7 casos con ecografía 2D, en 4 con 3D y en 2 con 4D, y en promedio se efectuó a la semana 22 (r, 20-28). En ningún paciente se llevó a cabo diagnóstico temprano, en 12 fue tardío y en 1 muy tardío. Conclusión. El diagnóstico prenatal permite a los padres de prepararse psicológicamente y asesorarse sobre la patología. En nuestra serie, el 90,4% se mostró a favor de conocer previamente el diagnóstico. Abstract in english Introduction. Clubfoot is one of the most frequent congenital musculoskeletal anomalies. The use of ultrasound for prenatal detection of clubfoot has advanced rapidly in the last decade, but publications report a great variability in opinions regarding the effectiveness of the method, the association with other diseases and the need to perform amniocentesis analysis of the karyotype. Objectives. To analyze the percentage of patients with prenatal diagnosis of clubfoot, ev (more) aluate mothers' opinion on this issue, and clarify some concepts by reviewing the literature available to date. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed a group of 54 consecutive patients diagnosed with clubfoot treated from January 2008 to June 2010. We documented the number of ultrasounds performed during pregnancy, type of ultrasound (2D, 3D or 4D) and the gestational week at diagnosis. Mothers were surveyed to ascertain their opinion with regard to prenatal diagnosis. Results. An average of 3.2 ultrasounds was performed during pregnancy (r, 1-7). Prenatal diagnosis was performed in 25% of cases (13/52 patients). Diagnosis was performed in 7 cases with 2-D ultrasound in 4 with 3-D and in 2 with 4-D. Diagnosis was performed on average at week 22 (r, 20- 28). No patient was diagnosed early, 12 were diagnosed late and 1 very late. Conclusion. Prenatal diagnosis gives parents the opportunity for psychological preparation and counseling regarding clubfoot. In our series, 90.4% supported prenatal diagnosis.

Masquijo, Julio Javier; Marchegiani, Silvio; Allende, Victoria

2011-12-01

169

Diagnóstico prenatal del pie bot Prenatal diagnosis of clubfoot  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción. El pie bot es una de las anomalías músculo- esqueléticas congénitas más frecuentes. La utilización de la ecografía para la detección prenatal del pie bot ha avanzado rápidamente en la última década, pero las publicaciones han presentado una gran variabilidad de opiniones en cuanto a la eficacia del método, la asociación con otras patologías y la necesidad de realizar amniocentesis para análisis del cariotipo. Objetivos. Analizar en qué porcentaje de pacientes se realizó diagnóstico prenatal del pie bot, evaluar la opinión de las madres al respecto y aclarar algunos conceptos revisando la bibliografía disponible a la fecha. Métodos. Se analizó retrospectivamente un grupo de 54 pacientes consecutivos con diagnóstico de pie bot tratados en el período enero 2008-junio 2010. Se documentaron el número de ecografías realizadas durante el embarazo, el tipo de ecografía realizada (2D, 3D o 4D) y la semana de gestación al momento del diagnóstico. Las madres fueron encuestadas a fin de conocer su opinión con respecto al diagnóstico prenatal de esta deformidad. Resultados. Se realizaron 3,2 ecografías promedio durante el embarazo (r, 1-7). En el 25% (13/52) de los casos se realizó diagnóstico prenatal. El diagnóstico fue realizado en 7 casos con ecografía 2D, en 4 con 3D y en 2 con 4D, y en promedio se efectuó a la semana 22 (r, 20-28). En ningún paciente se llevó a cabo diagnóstico temprano, en 12 fue tardío y en 1 muy tardío. Conclusión. El diagnóstico prenatal permite a los padres de prepararse psicológicamente y asesorarse sobre la patología. En nuestra serie, el 90,4% se mostró a favor de conocer previamente el diagnóstico.Introduction. Clubfoot is one of the most frequent congenital musculoskeletal anomalies. The use of ultrasound for prenatal detection of clubfoot has advanced rapidly in the last decade, but publications report a great variability in opinions regarding the effectiveness of the method, the association with other diseases and the need to perform amniocentesis analysis of the karyotype. Objectives. To analyze the percentage of patients with prenatal diagnosis of clubfoot, evaluate mothers' opinion on this issue, and clarify some concepts by reviewing the literature available to date. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed a group of 54 consecutive patients diagnosed with clubfoot treated from January 2008 to June 2010. We documented the number of ultrasounds performed during pregnancy, type of ultrasound (2D, 3D or 4D) and the gestational week at diagnosis. Mothers were surveyed to ascertain their opinion with regard to prenatal diagnosis. Results. An average of 3.2 ultrasounds was performed during pregnancy (r, 1-7). Prenatal diagnosis was performed in 25% of cases (13/52 patients). Diagnosis was performed in 7 cases with 2-D ultrasound in 4 with 3-D and in 2 with 4-D. Diagnosis was performed on average at week 22 (r, 20- 28). No patient was diagnosed early, 12 were diagnosed late and 1 very late. Conclusion. Prenatal diagnosis gives parents the opportunity for psychological preparation and counseling regarding clubfoot. In our series, 90.4% supported prenatal diagnosis.

Julio Javier Masquijo; Silvio Marchegiani; Victoria Allende

2011-01-01

170

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy due to Mitochondrial Disease: Prenatal Diagnosis, Management, and Outcome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A case of prenatally diagnosed fetal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is reported. The mother was referred to our department at 37 weeks' gestation because of suspected congenital heart disease. Prenatal echocardiography showed biventricular hypertrophy and pericardial effusion, without additional abnormalities. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed prenatal diagnosis. Neonatal EKG showed biventricular hypertrophy and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Skeletal muscle biopsy was consistent with mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation defect involving a combined defect of respiratory complexes I and IV. Echocardiographic followup during the first year of life showed progressive regression of hypertrophy and evolution to left ventricular myocardial noncompaction.

García-Díaz L; Coserria F; Antiñolo G

2013-01-01

171

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy due to Mitochondrial Disease: Prenatal Diagnosis, Management, and Outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of prenatally diagnosed fetal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is reported. The mother was referred to our department at 37 weeks' gestation because of suspected congenital heart disease. Prenatal echocardiography showed biventricular hypertrophy and pericardial effusion, without additional abnormalities. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed prenatal diagnosis. Neonatal EKG showed biventricular hypertrophy and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Skeletal muscle biopsy was consistent with mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation defect involving a combined defect of respiratory complexes I and IV. Echocardiographic followup during the first year of life showed progressive regression of hypertrophy and evolution to left ventricular myocardial noncompaction. PMID:23346437

García-Díaz, Lutgardo; Coserria, Félix; Antiñolo, Guillermo

2013-01-03

172

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital dacryocystocele.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Congenital bilateral dacryocystocele was diagnosed prenatally by ultrasonography in 3 female fetuses at 32.5 weeks gestation. After birth, first baby developed respiratory distress and was treated with endoscopic marsupialization of the cysts; the second baby had no respiratory symptoms and had spontaneous resolution of the cysts without surgery. The last one was expected to have a left dacryocystocele in US but the clinical examination after birth showed a bilateral lesion, with predominance on the right side and underwent an endoscopic marsupialization for nasal obstruction. Prenatal diagnosis with ultrasonography facilitated the education of the mothers and staff and helped minimize the risk of potential complications.

Bachelard-Serra M; Chau C; Farinetti A; Roman S; Triglia JM; Nicollas R

2013-05-01

173

[Lethal osteogenesis imperfecta. Prenatal diagnosis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Osteogenesis imparfecta (OI) comprises a group of disorders principally affecting type I collagen, which result in increased bone fragility. Lethal forms are rare and are characterised by micromelia with malformation of the limbs. CASE REPORT: A prenatal diagnosis of lethal OI was made by ultrasonography at 18 weeks of gestation and therapeutic abortion was indicated. COMMENTS: Molecular biology and genetic studies offer new possibilities of prenatal diagnosis, but ultrasonography remains the investigation of choice. It confirms the diagnosis by revealing an increase in bone transparency.

Dhouib M; Guirat N

2004-06-01

174

Prenatal diagnosis of MPPH syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report the prenatal sonographic detection of a fetus with megalencephaly, polymicrogyria, postaxial polydactyly and hydrocephaly. Only 14 patients have been reported in the literature so far, all but one were diagnosed postnatally. The polymicrogyria in the frontoparietal lobe was confirmed by prenatal magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, a hypoplastic thymus as seen in a 22q11 deletion was present. Although polymicrogyria along with pre-axial polydactyly has been described in 22q11 deletion, the diagnosis of Di George syndrome was ruled out. The etiology of megalencephaly, polymicrogyria, postaxial polydactyly and hydrocephaly has not been revealed yet. A dominant as well as recessive inheritance has been suggested.

De Keersmaecker B; Van Esch H; Van Schoubroeck D; Claus F; Moerman P; De Catte L

2013-03-01

175

Autosomal-dominant Leber Congenital Amaurosis Caused by a Heterozygous CRX Mutation in a Father and Son.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Background: Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is most often an autosomal recessive disorder. We report a father and son with autosomal dominant LCA due to a mutation in the CRX gene. Materials and Methods: DNA screening using an allele specific assay of 90 of the most common LCA-causing variations in the coding sequences of AIPL1, CEP290, CRB1, CRX, GUCY2D, RDH12 and RPE65 was performed on the father. Automated DNA sequencing of his son examining exon 3 of the CRX gene was subsequently performed. Results: Both father and son have a heterozygous single base pair deletion of an adenine at codon 153 in the coding sequence of the CRX gene resulting in a frameshift mutation. Conclusion: Mutations involving the CRX gene may demonstrate an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern for LCA.

Arcot Sadagopan K; Battista R; Keep RB; Capasso JE; Levin AV

2013-10-01

176

The health of single fathers: demographic, economic and social correlates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The proportion of families headed by single fathers is increasing in many developed countries. The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of single parenting on the self-rated health of Canadian fathers living with children, and the extent to which this relationship can be explained by social, demographic, and economic factors. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data from a national community health survey. The sample studied consists of 15,662 Canadian men aged 15-64, living with at least one child under the age of 25. RESULTS: Compared to partnered fathers, single fathers had poorer self-rated health. The relationship between partner status and self-rated health could be completely explained by single fathers' older age, lower income, and higher rate of unemployment. CONCLUSIONS: Single fathers experience poorer perceived health. This effect appears to result from the economic and social disadvantage associated with raising children alone rather than from single parenting in and of itself. These findings, in combination with previous research, suggest a need for provincial and federal policies to target the well-being of both single mothers and single fathers.

Janzen BL; Green K; Muhajarine N

2006-11-01

177

[Polish Gynaecological Society guideline on prenatal diagnosis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prenatal diagnosis is a multidisciplinary issue where obstetricians, geneticists, neonatologists and doctors representing other specialities are involved. The guideline will provide up-to-date information, based on clinical evidence optimal techniques and timing, training and competence and clinical governance issues. Prenatal screening for chromosomal defects should be performed in concordance with Polish Gynaecological Society guidelines and recommendations on antenatal care, ultrasound in pregnancy and fetal therapy, and Fetal Medicine Foundation (London, UK) rules. There is no doubt that maternal age alone as a method of screening for chromosomal abnormalities should be abandoned as it has low Detection Rate with high False Positive Rate hence high Invasive Procedure Rate and unnecessary high pregnancy loss rate. The Working Party recommends that screening methods based on ultrasound examination at 11(+0)-13(+6) wks and maternal serum biochemistry should be implemented. Special attention must be paid to ensure that sufficiently high Detection Rate is achieved (at least 75% for 5% False Positive Rate) in screening for trisomy 21.

2009-05-01

178

Effects of prenatal and postnatal parent depressive symptoms on adopted child HPA regulation: independent and moderated influences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study used a prospective adoption design to investigate effects of prenatal and postnatal parent depressive symptom exposure on child hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and associated internalizing symptoms. Birth mother prenatal symptoms and adoptive mother/father postnatal (9-month, 27-month) symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory in a sample of 192 families as part of the Early Growth and Development adoption Study. Child morning/evening cortisol levels and child symptoms of internalizing disorders (according to mother/father report on the Child Behavior Checklist) were assessed at 54 months, and birth mother diurnal cortisol was measured at 48 months postnatal. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test main effects and interactions of parents' symptoms predicting child cortisol, controlling for birth mother cortisol. Prenatal exposure to birth mother symptoms predicted lower child cortisol (main effect), as did postnatal exposure to adoptive parent symptoms (interaction effects). Adoptive mother 9-month symptoms exacerbated cortisol-lowering effects of both concurrent paternal symptoms and later (27-month) maternal symptoms, and the effect of birth mother cortisol. Lower child cortisol, in turn, was associated with higher child internalizing symptoms. Implications are discussed with respect to the intergenerational transmission of depression risk.

Laurent HK; Leve LD; Neiderhiser JM; Natsuaki MN; Shaw DS; Harold GT; Reiss D

2013-05-01

179

Symptom passing in a transvestite father and three sons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three sons of a transvestite father engaged in cross-dressing beginning in early adolescence. The literature suggests that observation may play a role in determining the specificity of the symptoms of conflicted sexual identity. These cases of transvestism in offspring are unusual in that the father played an important role in symptom choice and modeling. It is hoped that in future studies of transvestism in the father will be examined in a more intensive way as a figure with whom an active identification process may evolve.

Krueger DW

1978-06-01

180

Yoga Reduces Prenatal Depression Symptoms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research assessed the effects of yoga on prenatal depression symptoms using archival data. Depressed pregnant women were randomly assigned to either a yoga treatment group (n = 12) or a parenting education control group (n = 12). Women in the yoga group participated in classes two times a week ...

Jennifer Mitchell; Tiffany Field; Miguel Diego; Debra Bendell; Rae Newton; Martha Pelaez

 
 
 
 
181

Fetal Cervical Neuroblastoma: Prenatal Diagnosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neuroblastoma is the most frequent extracranial solid tumor in childhood, but it is seldom diagnosed prenatally. It usually presented with adrenal masses. Presentation of other localization is extremely rare. We report a case of cervical neuroblastoma identified at 20 weeks of gestational age. This ...

Güzelmansur, Ismail; Aksoy, Hatice Tatar; Hakverdi, Sibel; Seven, Mustafa; Dilmen, U?ur; Dilmen, Gülçin

182

Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of amelia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Amelia is a very rare form of limb reduction defect. The incidence of isolated amelia with or without other limb reductions is 0.4 per 100,000 births. We report a cluster of three cases diagnosed prenatally. One was isolated tri-amelia and two were isolated tetra-amelia.

Rijhsinghani A; Yankowitz J; Mazursky J; Williamson R

1995-07-01

183

Postnatal outcome of fetuses with the prenatal diagnosis of gastroschisis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the postnatal outcome and complications that arise in infants with the prenatal diagnosis of gastroschisis. METHODS: Prenatal sonograms with the diagnosis of gastroschisis were identified. Maternal age, indication for sonography, gestational age at diagnosis, other sonographic abnormalities, and postnatal outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Ninety-eight fetuses at 14.3 to 36 weeks' gestation had the diagnosis of gastroschisis on sonography. In 14 cases (14%), other fetal anomalies were identified, including hydronephrosis, hydrocephalus, coarctation of the aorta, and a limb anomaly. Bowel dilatation developed in 72 of 84 cases (86%) followed prenatally with sonography, and bowel wall thickening developed in 40 of 73 cases (55%). On postnatal follow-up, 57 of 68 infants (84%) had postnatal complications, many with multisystem complications, including 6 deaths, 40 with bowel-related complications, 30 with infectious complications, and 32 with anomalies involving other systems (genitourinary, cardiac, and central nervous system). The postnatal outcome did not correlate with the presence of bowel dilatation or bowel wall thickening on prenatal sonography. Only 11 infants (16.2%) had a completely uncomplicated postsurgical course. Hospital stays in survivors (n = 92) ranged from 8 to 307 days (mean, 53 days). CONCLUSIONS: Although reported survival rates are good for gastroschisis, the postoperative hospital stay is often lengthy, and complications are very common, especially those related to the gastrointestinal tract. Associated anomalies were more common in our study than previously reported.

Durfee SM; Benson CB; Adams SR; Ecker J; House M; Jennings R; Katz D; Pettigrew C; Wolfberg A

2013-03-01

184

A systematic review comparing group prenatal care to traditional prenatal care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This systematic review compares pregnancy outcomes and maternal satisfaction for women in group prenatal care versus those in traditional prenatal care. Keyword searches in multiple databases identified 12 studies that compared pregnancy outcomes and/or maternal satisfaction between prenatal group care and traditional care. In 11 of the 12 studies reviewed, women receiving group care had equivalent or improved pregnancy outcomes compared with traditional care, including decreased incidence of preterm birth, increased birth weight, improved weight gain during pregnancy, increased adequacy of prenatal care and greater prenatal knowledge. Maternal satisfaction with group prenatal care was high in all but one study.

Lathrop B

2013-04-01

185

The Relationship Between Father-Absence and Encopresis  

Science.gov (United States)

|A review of the literature on encopresis shows strong emphasis on father-absence as a dominant factor. Other characteristics of patients and their families are listed, and theoretical considerations discussed. (MS)|

Schaengold, Marilyn

1977-01-01

186

Fathers and sons: Freud's discovery of the Oedipus complex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Freud's path to the Oedipus complex reveals conceptual inconsistencies. These uncertainties concern fathers, brothers and sons, and the place of the oedipal triad within the family romance. Freud's uncovering of the Oedipus complex emerged, in large part, from his self-analysis of his childhood years in Freiberg. Freud's father was 20 years older than his third wife, and had two adult sons, all of whom lived in Freiberg. In 1897, when Freud announces the Oedipus complex, he stresses his love of his mother and jealousy of his father. Yet in 1924 Freud wrote that his adult brother, Philipp, had taken his father's place as the child's rival. The oedipal complex alters if there are four players rather than three. Freud's concept of an oedipal triangle does not adequately explain the psychological dynamics of his childhood. Fuller conceptual clarity would occur if the dynamics of the Oedipus complex were placed within the family context in which it unfolds.

Fuchsman KA

2004-01-01

187

Fathers' occupation and pregnancy outcome  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Findings from a survey of 56,067 women in Montreal on maternal occupation and pregnancy outcome have been reported. Paternal occupation recorded in the same survey was analysed for spontaneous abortion in 24 occupational groups retaining the six main sectors of maternal occupation and allowing, by means of logistic regression, for seven potentially confounding variables. In only one of the 24 fathers' occupational groups was there a statistically significant excess of spontaneous abortions-mechanics, repairers, and certain assemblers (O/E = 1.10, 90% CI = 1.02-1.20); subdivision of this group suggested that this excess was mainly attributable to the large group of motor vehicle mechanics (O/E = 1.17). No significant excess of known chromosomally determined defects was found in any of the 24 occupational groups. An association of developmental defects was found with food and beverage processing (18 defects observed compared with 8.02 expected; p < 0.05); however, there was no specificity in type of food, beverage, or congenital defect, and no obvious explanatory mechanism. (author).

McDonald, A.D.; McDonald, J.C.; Armstrong, B.; Cherry, N.M.; Nolin, A.D.; Robert, D.

1989-05-01

188

Jacques Joseph: Father of modern aesthetic surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When we review the history of modern aesthetic surgery, a name that stands out as bright as a beacon and precious as gold is undoubtedly that of Jacques Joseph. A surgeon, par excellence, far ahead of his time, who chose to think out of the box, Joseph, despite all odds set out to give respectability to Aesthetic Surgery without depriving it of any scientific core values. By his words and deeds proved beyond doubt that only the very best in the field of reconstructive surgery, can visualize the hidden perfection in imperfection and formulate a treatment plan and a surgical strategy to achieve that elusive perfection. The rich surgical literature that he has left behind, the wealth of surgical instruments that he had designed and above all a way of thinking that he propagated, that aesthetic surgery is not frivolous but very serious endeavor, and treating the psychology of the patient is as important as treating his disease, undoubtedly makes him the revered ?Father of Modern Aesthetic Surgery?.

Bhattacharya Surajit

2008-01-01

189

Identifying trajectories of birth-related fatigue of expectant fathers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this prospective study were to identify birth-related fatigue trajectories in expectant fathers with the progress of labour and the physiological, psychological and situational factors related to specific trajectory patterns. BACKGROUND: An increasing number of fathers participate in their partner's labour; however, their fatigue experience remains unclear. Previous studies have focused on overall groups without considering the possibility of between-subject heterogeneity. With an advanced data-analytic strategy, it is feasible to identify subgroup variation within the population over time. DESIGN: A prospective, repeated measures design was used. METHOD: A convenience sample of 108 Taiwanese expectant fathers was followed throughout the labour process. Data were collected by visual analogue scales and self-administered questionnaires. The repeated measures of fatigue were analysed by using semi-parametric, group-based modelling. RESULTS: Two distinct groups of individual trajectories among the expectant fathers were identified; the persistent low-fatigue group (49.2%) and the persistent high-fatigue group (50.8%). After birth, a moderate level of fatigue persisted in the high-fatigue group. The fastest period of increasing level in the persistent high-fatigue group was in the latent phase. The persistent high-fatigue group also experienced significantly more sleep difficulties prior to labour and more anxiety than the persistent low-fatigue group. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying and characterising meaningful clusters of trajectories could provide a better understanding of the birth-related fatigue experience of fathers and contributes to recognising the target client and timing for early intervention. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: There are points in time at which professional caregiver actions may have an effect on the birth-related fatigue of fathers. Caregivers should prevent high levels of fatigue, which could accumulate as fathers accompany the women entering the labour phase. Fathers who present with high fatigue at onset of labour should receive early intervention, especially in the rapid-increasing fatigue period.

Tzeng YL; Teng YK; Chou FH; Tu HC

2009-06-01

190

[The ethics of prenatal diagnosis and therapy  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Present ability to diagnose and treat fetal birth defects has achieved considerable sophistication. However, new scientific knowledge and resultant technologies create complex ethical dilemmas for society. Society has a critical stake both in the successful treatment of fetal disorders and in the maintenance of respect for the human dignity of the fetus. Therefore, prenatal diagnosis and therapy raises not only scientific issues but also ethical and legal ones which challenge many of our traditional concepts of the fetus. Undoubtedly, there is a need for involvement of not only individual patients but also society as a whole in setting rules and priorities for fetal therapy. In the meantime, the responsibility of those undertaking fetal therapy includes an obligation to report to the medical profession all results, good or bad, so that the merits and liabilities of fetal treatment can be established as soon as possible.

Kurjak A

1989-08-01

191

Not-patient and not-visitor: a metasynthesis fathers' encounters with pregnancy, birth and maternity care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: the active engagement of fathers in maternity care is associated with long-term health and social benefits for the mother, baby and family. The maternity care expectations and experiences of expectant and new fathers have received little attention to date. AIM: to identify and synthesise good quality qualitative research that explores the views and experiences of fathers who have encountered maternity care in high resource settings. METHODS: based on a pre-determined search strategy, relevant databases were searched for papers published between January 1999 and January 2010. Backchaining of the reference lists in included papers was undertaken. INCLUSION CRITERIA: good quality qualitative research studies exploring fathers' involvement in maternity care through pregnancy, birth, and up to 6 months postnatally, that were undertaken in high resource countries. No language restrictions were imposed. ANALYTIC STRATEGY: the analysis was based on the metaethnographic techniques of Noblit and Hare (1988) as amended by Downe et al. (2007). FINDINGS: from 856 hits 23 papers were included. The emerging themes were as follows: risk and uncertainty, exclusion, fear and frustration, the ideal and the reality, issues of support and experiencing transition. SYNTHESIS: fathers feel themselves to be 'partner and parent' but their experience of maternity care services is as 'not-patient and not-visitor'. This situates them in an interstitial and undefined space (both emotionally and physically) with the consequence that many feel excluded and fearful. CONCLUSIONS: fathers cannot support their partner effectively in achieving the ideal of transition to a successful pregnancy, joyful birth and positive parenthood experience unless they are themselves supported, included, and prepared for the reality of risk and uncertainty in pregnancy, labour and parenthood and for their role in this context.

Steen M; Downe S; Bamford N; Edozien L

2012-08-01

192

[Noninvasive prenatal genetic diagnosis: a bioethical reflection on the use of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis from the analysis of nucleic acids present in maternal peripheral blood].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of techniques that analyse the fetal nucleic acids present in maternal peripheral blood for the preparation of non-invasive prenatal genetic diagnosis, is a clinical reality in the case of certain diseases. In the coming years, it will become part of the routine monitoring for fetal diagnosis. This study analyzes the current status of these techniques as well as the major ethical issues arising from the relationship between - prenatal diagnosis and eugenic abortion, and the specific problems posed by - prenatal genetic diagnosis based an analysis of the nucleic acids present in maternal peripheral blood. Among the conclusions are the following: we make a positive ethical evaluation of the technique when it is aimed at pregnant women who are in a situation of high risk, defined on the basis of medical standards and ethics, without compromising the integrity of the fetus. We make a negative ethical evaluation when non-invasive prenatal genetic diagnosis has a eugenic purpose and will establish a connection between prenatal diagnosis and eugenic abortion in case of a positive result. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis increases the image of the disabled person as an individual that has to be excluded from society. The widespread use of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis will decrease the autonomy of women / couples when it comes to making decisions. Health authorities may use non-invasive prenatal diagnosis as a way of ?preventing? genetic diseases, since it will lower costs, increase the number of malformed fetuses detected and a decrease the number of indirect abortions involving invasive techniques.

González-Melado FJ; Di Pietro ML

2011-01-01

193

[Development and application of a new index for assessment of prenatal care].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To develop and apply a new instrument to evaluate prenatal care based on the guidelines of the Brazilian Humanization Program for Prenatal Care and Birth, including quantitative and qualitative elements distributed according to the evaluation triad of structure, process, and outcomes. METHODS: An analytic, descriptive, quantitative cross-sectional study was carried out with 238 women receiving care in 44 primary care services in the city of João Pessoa, Northeast Brazil, between November 2010 and December 2011. Physicians and nurses involved in prenatal care were also interviewed. The instrument developed by the investigators contains 23 questions relating to structure, process and outcomes of pre-natal care. Based on the information collected, pre-natal care was classified according to an IPR/Pre-Natal index (Índice IPR/Pré-Natal, where I stands for infrastructure, P for work process and R for results). A value of 1 is attributed to each question if it complies with the criteria established for quality, or 2 if it does not comply. The percent of adequate answers in relation to the 23 total questions is used to classify prenatal care as: upper adequate (100% adequate answers); adequate (>75%); intermediate (51 to 74%); and inadequate (<50%). The classification categories for the Pre-Natal/IPR index were compared to those of the Kessner and Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization (APNCU) indices. RESULTS: Questions relating to the work process contributed significantly to the classification of prenatal care as intermediate according to the IPR/Pre-Natal. IPR/Pre-Natal classification categories were consistent to detect prematurity, insufficient weight at birth and absence of exclusive breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: The IPR/Pre-Natal index effectively incorporated quantitative and qualitative elements for the assessment of pre-natal care.

Silva EP; Lima RT; Costa MJ; Batista Filho M

2013-05-01

194

Prenatal birth planning for families of the imperiled newborn.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Guidelines have not been established to address the needs of parents with imperiled newborns due to the infrequency of this obstetric situation. In this article we offer an approach to prenatal care planning for imperiled newborns and their families. Use of an interdisciplinary team and family involvement are the foci of the care planning process, which result in a perinatal birth plan that reflects parental values and ethical guidelines.

English NK; Hessler KL

2013-05-01

195

EUROCAT website data on prenatal detection rates of congenital anomalies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The EUROCAT website www.eurocat-network.eu publishes prenatal detection rates for major congenital anomalies using data from European population-based congenital anomaly registers, covering 28% of the EU population as well as non-EU countries. Data are updated annually. This information can be useful for comparative purposes to clinicians and public health service managers involved in the antenatal care of pregnant women as well as those interested in perinatal epidemiology.

Garne, Ester; Dolk, Helen

2010-01-01

196

Stress in puberty unmasks latent neuropathological consequences of prenatal immune activation in mice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Prenatal infection and exposure to traumatizing experiences during peripuberty have each been associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. Evidence is lacking for the cumulative impact of such prenatal and postnatal environmental challenges on brain functions and vulnerability to psychiatric disease. Here, we show in a translational mouse model that combined exposure to prenatal immune challenge and peripubertal stress induces synergistic pathological effects on adult behavioral functions and neurochemistry. We further demonstrate that the prenatal insult markedly increases the vulnerability of the pubescent offspring to brain immune changes in response to stress. Our findings reveal interactions between two adverse environmental factors that have individually been associated with neuropsychiatric disease and support theories that mental illnesses with delayed onsets involve multiple environmental hits.

Giovanoli, Sandra; Engler, Harald

2013-01-01

197

[Prenatal symptoms and diagnosis of inherited metabolic diseases].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Inherited metabolic diseases are mostly due to enzyme deficiency in one of numerous metabolic pathways, leading to absence of a compound downstream from and the accumulation of a compound upstream from the deficient metabolite(s). Diseases of intoxication by proteins (aminoacidopathies, organic acidurias, urea cycle defects) and by sugars (galactosemia, fructosemia) usually do not give prenatal symptoms since mothers protect their fetuses from pathological metabolite accumulation. A well-known exception is hypoplasia of corpus callosum, as is sometimes observed in nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sulfite oxidase deficiency. Conversely, women with phenylketonuria "poison" their fetus if they are not treated (spontaneous abortions, intrauterine growth restriction [IUGR], cardiac malformations, and brain disease). Amino acid synthesis defects can lead to prenatal symptoms: microcephaly in serine deficiency (detectable by amino acid analysis in fetal cord blood), and brain malformations in glutamine synthetase deficiency. Impaired folate metabolism is involved in a large fraction of neurodevelopmental defects referred to as spina bifida, yet the underlying genetic component(s) are largely unknown. Energy metabolism diseases caused by defects in the synthesis or utilization of relevant metabolites lead to organ dysfunctions or malformations, but prenatal diagnosis is usually impossible unless genetic analysis can rely on a previously affected child in the family. A somewhat intermediate condition is defects of mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids, as they may sometimes be symptomatic prenatally (notably the HELLP syndrome or other presentations), and in this case, organic acid and acylcarnitine analysis in amniotic fluid can be informative in the absence of an index case. In contrast, complex molecule diseases commonly give prenatal symptoms that may permit the diagnosis even in the absence of index cases: hydrops fetalis and skeletal anomalies in lysosomal storage diseases, hydrops fetalis in congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) and transaldolase deficiency, brain malformations in O-glycosylation defects, brain malformations, kidney cysts and skeletal anomalies in peroxysomal diseases (Zellweger syndrome), syndactyly, genitalia malformations, and IUGR in Smith-Lemli-Opitz (SLO) syndrome. Although many metabolic disorders show biochemical abnormalities during fetal development that are informative for prenatal diagnosis, only a fraction of them are clinically/sonographically symptomatic before birth, thus allowing for prenatal diagnosis in the absence of an index case, i.e., serine deficiency, some fatty acid beta-oxidation defects, transaldolase deficiency, lysosomal diseases, CDG, Zellweger syndrome, and SLO syndrome.

Brassier A; Ottolenghi C; Boddaert N; Sonigo P; Attié-Bitach T; Millischer-Bellaiche AE; Baujat G; Cormier-Daire V; Valayannopoulos V; Seta N; Piraud M; Chadefaux-Vekemans B; Vianey-Saban C; Froissart R; de Lonlay P

2012-09-01

198

[Prenatal symptoms and diagnosis of inherited metabolic diseases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Inherited metabolic diseases are mostly due to enzyme deficiency in one of numerous metabolic pathways, leading to absence of a compound downstream from and the accumulation of a compound upstream from the deficient metabolite(s). Diseases of intoxication by proteins (aminoacidopathies, organic acidurias, urea cycle defects) and by sugars (galactosemia, fructosemia) usually do not give prenatal symptoms since mothers protect their fetuses from pathological metabolite accumulation. A well-known exception is hypoplasia of corpus callosum, as is sometimes observed in nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sulfite oxidase deficiency. Conversely, women with phenylketonuria "poison" their fetus if they are not treated (spontaneous abortions, intrauterine growth restriction [IUGR], cardiac malformations, and brain disease). Amino acid synthesis defects can lead to prenatal symptoms: microcephaly in serine deficiency (detectable by amino acid analysis in fetal cord blood), and brain malformations in glutamine synthetase deficiency. Impaired folate metabolism is involved in a large fraction of neurodevelopmental defects referred to as spina bifida, yet the underlying genetic component(s) are largely unknown. Energy metabolism diseases caused by defects in the synthesis or utilization of relevant metabolites lead to organ dysfunctions or malformations, but prenatal diagnosis is usually impossible unless genetic analysis can rely on a previously affected child in the family. A somewhat intermediate condition is defects of mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids, as they may sometimes be symptomatic prenatally (notably the HELLP syndrome or other presentations), and in this case, organic acid and acylcarnitine analysis in amniotic fluid can be informative in the absence of an index case. In contrast, complex molecule diseases commonly give prenatal symptoms that may permit the diagnosis even in the absence of index cases: hydrops fetalis and skeletal anomalies in lysosomal storage diseases, hydrops fetalis in congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) and transaldolase deficiency, brain malformations in O-glycosylation defects, brain malformations, kidney cysts and skeletal anomalies in peroxysomal diseases (Zellweger syndrome), syndactyly, genitalia malformations, and IUGR in Smith-Lemli-Opitz (SLO) syndrome. Although many metabolic disorders show biochemical abnormalities during fetal development that are informative for prenatal diagnosis, only a fraction of them are clinically/sonographically symptomatic before birth, thus allowing for prenatal diagnosis in the absence of an index case, i.e., serine deficiency, some fatty acid beta-oxidation defects, transaldolase deficiency, lysosomal diseases, CDG, Zellweger syndrome, and SLO syndrome. PMID:22884749

Brassier, A; Ottolenghi, C; Boddaert, N; Sonigo, P; Attié-Bitach, T; Millischer-Bellaiche, A-E; Baujat, G; Cormier-Daire, V; Valayannopoulos, V; Seta, N; Piraud, M; Chadefaux-Vekemans, B; Vianey-Saban, C; Froissart, R; de Lonlay, P

2012-08-09

199

Prenatal diagnosis of boomerang dysplasia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Boomerang dysplasia, atelosteogenesis type 1 and Piepkorn dysplasia are bone dysplasias with an overlapping clinical spectrum characterized by deficient formation and ossification of specific elements of the skeleton. Typical symptoms include micromelia with diminished ossification, and a characteristic bowed and boomerang-like aspect of the long tubular bones. We report here a new case of boomerang dysplasia, which was detected prenatally in the 16th week of gestation by ultrasound.

Wessels MW; Den Hollander NS; De Krijger RR; Bonifé L; Superti-Furga A; Nikkels PG; Willems PJ

2003-10-01

200

Introduction of prenatal allowance, 1987.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since 1987, a prenatal allowance has been paid in Bolivia for the last five months of pregnancy. The allowance is equal to the statutory minimum wage and may be drawn in combination with the temporary disability benefit payable in respect of maternity. In 1987, the birth grant was also increased by 50% to be equivalent to the statutory monthly minimum wage. In addition, in 1987, the housing allowance was abolished.

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

[Participation of foreign workers in prenatal care  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

On admission for delivery of foreign patients no or only few results of routine examinations during prenatal visits are available. Therefore the participation of foreign employees in prenatal care was reviewed. Of the 1,383 births in our clinic during 1972 there were 214 foreign mothers, 206 of them could be included in this investigation. Results show that quantity and quality of prenatal routine examinations were clearly not sufficient and adequate compared to German patients.

Strobel E

1975-10-01

202

Advances in prenatal screening: the ethical dimension.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prenatal screening strategies are undergoing rapid changes owing to the introduction of new testing techniques. The overall tendency is towards broadening the scope of prenatal testing through increasingly sensitive ultrasound scans and genome-wide molecular tests. In addition, non-invasive prenatal diagnosis is likely to be introduced in the near future. These developments raise important ethical questions concerning meaningful reproductive choice, the autonomy rights of future children, equity of access and the proportionality of testing.

de Jong A; Dondorp WJ; Frints SG; de Die-Smulders CE; de Wert GM

2011-09-01

203

Consequences of prenatal substance use.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Prenatal substance use is a major public health problem and a social morbidity, with consequences on the drug user and the offspring. OBJECTIVE: This review focuses on the child and adolescent outcomes following in utero drug exposure. METHODS: Studies on the effects of specific substances, legal and illegal; i.e., tobacco or nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, opiates, and methamphetamine were evaluated and analyzed. RESULTS: In general, manifestations of prenatal exposure to legal and illegal substances include varying deficits in birth anthropometric measurements, mild-to-moderate transient neurobehavioral alterations in infancy and long-term behavioral problems noted from early childhood to adolescence. Severity of expression of behavioral problems is influenced by environmental factors. Further, behavioral alterations following in utero drug exposure often exist with mental health co-morbidities. CONCLUSION: Because of the long-term consequences of prenatal drug exposure on child and adolescent mental health, health providers need to promote substance use prevention, screen for exposure effects and provide or refer affected youths for intervention services. Preventive measures and treatment should consider other factors that may further increase the risk of psychopathology in the exposed children.

Sithisarn T; Granger DT; Bada HS

2012-01-01

204

Concept analysis: prenatal obesity, a psychoneuroimmunology perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To analyze the concept of prenatal obesity within a psychoneuroimmunology framework. CONCLUSION: By considering the psychosocial, neurological, endocrine, and immunological contributions, a psychoneuroimmunology framework maintains a holistic focus. Identifying the multidirectional mechanisms linking these systems will provide valuable insight into the mechanisms by which prenatal obesity increases the rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Utilization of the concept of prenatal obesity within a psychoneuroimmunology framework will facilitate multidisciplinary research to identify underlying mechanisms by which prenatal obesity leads to adverse pregnancy outcomes, as well as the development of interventions to treat obesity before, during, and after pregnancy.

Ruyak SL; Corwin E

2013-07-01

205

Working at the Weekend: Fathers' Time with Family in the United Kingdom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whereas most resident fathers are able to spend more time with their children on weekends than on weekdays, many fathers work on the weekends spending less time with their children on these days. There are conflicting findings about whether fathers are able to make up for lost weekend time on weekdays. Using unique features of the United Kingdom's National Survey of Time Use 2000 (UKTUS) I examine the impact of fathers' weekend work on the time fathers spend with their children, family, and partners (N = 595 fathers). I find that weekend work is common among fathers and is associated with less time with children, families, and partners. Fathers do not recover lost time with children on weekdays, largely because weekend work is a symptom of overwork. Findings also reveal that even if fathers had compensatory time, they are unlikely to recover lost time spent as a family or couple. PMID:22844157

Hook, Jennifer L

2012-07-13

206

Fathers’ Experience of Shared Parental Leave in Sweden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the introduction of the Swedish parental leave reform in 1974, fathers have had the same rights to use parental leave as mothers. Between 2000 and 2003, a research project at the Department of Sociology, University of Gothenburg, focused on fathers who had taken more than four months of paid parental leave. The approach of the study was mainly qualitative, based upon a combination of a survey and interviews. A majority of the fathers who answered the questionnaire had been the main caregivers for their children during their parental leave. During the interviews many of the men described their mothers as role models for their fatherhood. The men also described their own partner as both anxious to get back to her work after her own parental leave period and convinced of the importance of a nurturing father. An early decision to take part of the parental leave probably made it easier for the men to reach workplace agreements. Most of the men described themselves as both nurturing fathers and as sharing housework equally. They stressed the importance of being alone with their child during a long period, to be able to develop a deep relationship with their child.

Anders Chronholm

2011-01-01

207

Prenatal care incentives in Europe. Study Group on Barriers and Incentives to Prenatal Care in Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to identify prenatal care incentives and benefits in 17 European countries. All participating countries completed a questionnaire on their prenatal care delivery system, incentives and benefits. Results were analyzed according to their direct or indirect relationship with prenatal care attendance. Direct incentives require a prenatal care visit to be eligible for the benefit. Indirect incentives support the pregnant woman but do not require a prenatal care visit to be eligible for the benefit. All 17 countries offer direct incentives, such as paid maternity leave. In 9 countries, pregnant women receive direct financial incentives. Eleven countries offer indirect incentives, such as transportation benefits. Prenatal care incentives such as financial benefits and social supports are widespread in Europe. The combination of incentives superimposed upon an inclusive health care system create a supportive environment which encourages prenatal care attendance. PMID:9798375

McQuide, P A; Delvaux, T; Buekens, P

1998-01-01

208

Prenatal care incentives in Europe. Study Group on Barriers and Incentives to Prenatal Care in Europe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of the study was to identify prenatal care incentives and benefits in 17 European countries. All participating countries completed a questionnaire on their prenatal care delivery system, incentives and benefits. Results were analyzed according to their direct or indirect relationship with prenatal care attendance. Direct incentives require a prenatal care visit to be eligible for the benefit. Indirect incentives support the pregnant woman but do not require a prenatal care visit to be eligible for the benefit. All 17 countries offer direct incentives, such as paid maternity leave. In 9 countries, pregnant women receive direct financial incentives. Eleven countries offer indirect incentives, such as transportation benefits. Prenatal care incentives such as financial benefits and social supports are widespread in Europe. The combination of incentives superimposed upon an inclusive health care system create a supportive environment which encourages prenatal care attendance.

McQuide PA; Delvaux T; Buekens P

1998-01-01

209

Impaired odor identification in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to behavioral and cognitive impairments across multiple domains. Many of the brain regions impacted by prenatal alcohol exposure are also linked with olfactory processing, and odor identification deficits have been documented in certain neurological disorders associated with these brain regions. As odor identification following prenatal alcohol exposure is not well studied, we compared odor identification in children with prenatal exposure to alcohol (AE) to typically developing controls (CON) (N = 16/group). It was hypothesized that children in the AE group would perform more poorly than children in the CON group on the San Diego Odor Identification Test, an identification test of 8 common household odorants. Children exposed to alcohol during prenatal development were significantly impaired in olfactory identification (M = 5.95, SE = 0.37) compared to typically developing controls (M = 7.24, SE = 0.37). These findings confirmed the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to alcohol is associated with odor identification deficits, and suggest that further research is warranted to identify the mechanisms underlying these deficits, the integrity of brain areas that are involved, and to determine whether olfactory performance might contribute to better identification of children at risk for behavioral and cognitive deficits.

Bower E; Szajer J; Mattson SN; Riley EP; Murphy C

2013-06-01

210

Work Characteristics and Fathers' Vocabulary to Infants in African American Families.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fathers' vocabulary to infants has been linked in the literature to early child language development, however, little is known about the variability in fathers' language behavior. This study considered associations between fathers' work characteristics and fathers' vocabulary among a sample of employed African American fathers of 6-month old infants who were living in low-income rural communities. After controlling for family and individual factors, we found that fathers who worked nonstandard shifts and reported more job flexibility used more diverse vocabulary with their infants.

Pancsofar N; Vernon-Feagans L; Odom EC

2013-01-01

211

Prenatal maternal infection, neurodevelopment and adult schizophrenia: a systematic review of population-based studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Disruption of foetal development by prenatal maternal infection is consistent with a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Whether specific prenatal infections are involved, their timing and the mechanisms of any effect are all unknown. We addressed these questions through a systematic review of population-based studies. METHOD: Electronic and manual searches and rigorous quality assessment yielded 21 studies that included an objective assessment of individual-level prenatal maternal infection and standardized psychotic diagnoses in adult offspring. Methodological differences between studies necessitated a descriptive review. RESULTS: Results for prenatal maternal non-specific bacterial, respiratory or genital and reproductive infection differed between studies, which reported up to a two- to fivefold increased risk of schizophrenia. Evidence for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and Toxoplasma gondii was mixed; some studies reported up to a doubling of schizophrenia risk. Prenatal HSV-1 or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections were not associated with increased risk. Exposure to influenza or other infections during early pregnancy may be more harmful than later exposure. Increased proinflammatory cytokines during pregnancy were also associated with risk. Prenatal infection was associated with structural and functional brain abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to a range of infections and inflammatory responses may be associated with risk of adult schizophrenia. Larger samples, mediation and animal models should be used to investigate whether there is a 'sensitive period' during development, and the effects of prenatal infections on neurodevelopment. Inclusion of genetic and immunological information should help to elucidate to what extent genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia may be explained by vulnerability to infection.

Khandaker GM; Zimbron J; Lewis G; Jones PB

2013-02-01

212

The role of the father in the development of psychosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In psychoanalysis, fathering has not received much analytical at­tention and only little is known about the actual impact of paternity on the development of certain psychopathology. This paper seeks to carefully examine and critically discuss the impact of fathering on psychotic individuals. It elaborates on the importance of the father in the healthy development of the children, as well as on the consequences that his absence entails for their psyche. Drawing on a Lacanian analytical framework, it is argued that, nowadays, the paternal figure has significantly lost its previous status. The gradual extinction of the paternal function, within the contemporary cultural environment, is mainly because of important social and legal changes in the familial structure, such as the increase of single-parent families and the legalization of the adoption of children by gay couples.

Avramaki Elissavet; Tsekeris Charalambos

2011-01-01

213

Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

2002-01-01

214

Improved prenatal detection of chromosomal anomalies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Prenatal screening for karyotype anomalies takes place in most European countries. In Denmark, the screening method was changed in 2005. The aim of this study was to study the trends in prevalence and prenatal detection rates of chromosome anomalies and Down syndrome (DS) over a 22-year period.

FrØslev-Friis, Christina; Hjort-Pedersen, Karina

2011-01-01

215

What's new in prenatal screening and diagnosis?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides clinicians with an overview of current methods for prenatal genetic screening and diagnosis. Topics include developments in prenatal screening procedures such as ethnicity-based carrier testing, maternal serum screening, and ultrasonography. Diagnostic alternatives to amniocentesis include chorionic villus sampling and preimplantation diagnosis. Future endeavors such as three-dimensional ultrasonography and fetal cell sorting are discussed. PMID:15331248

Bubb, Jennifer A; Matthews, Anne L

2004-09-01

216

What's new in prenatal screening and diagnosis?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article provides clinicians with an overview of current methods for prenatal genetic screening and diagnosis. Topics include developments in prenatal screening procedures such as ethnicity-based carrier testing, maternal serum screening, and ultrasonography. Diagnostic alternatives to amniocentesis include chorionic villus sampling and preimplantation diagnosis. Future endeavors such as three-dimensional ultrasonography and fetal cell sorting are discussed.

Bubb JA; Matthews AL

2004-09-01

217

Yoga Reduces Prenatal Depression Symptoms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research assessed the effects of yoga on prenatal depression symptoms using archival data. Depressed pregnant women were randomly assigned to either a yoga treatment group (n = 12) or a parenting education control group (n = 12). Women in the yoga group participated in classes two times a week for a period of 12 weeks. The attention control group received 12 parenting education sessions on the same schedule. The yoga versus control group showed greater decreases on the depressed affect and somatic/ vegetative subscales and the summary score of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Thus, yoga appears to reduce depression symptoms in pregnant women.

Jennifer Mitchell; Tiffany Field; Miguel Diego; Debra Bendell; Rae Newton; Martha Pelaez

2012-01-01

218

Attachment Relationships with Fathers and Mothers during Early Chilhood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the nature of affective relationships between parents and children and to explore representational models in a sample of 111 children aged between 3 and 6, assessed using a projective measure. The results obtained confirm that, globally, security in the representation of attachment is higher with mothers. The figure of the father in the established hierarchy is secondary. The results also reveal a statistically significant relationship between children’s age and the attachment established with their fathers and mothers. The older the child, the greater the security manifested in their relations, and the younger the child, the greater the insecurity.

Nerea Portu-Zapirain

2013-01-01

219

Exploring fathers' perceptions of parenting a child with Asperger syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores Irish fathers' perceptions of parenting a child with Asperger syndrome (AS). Ethical approval was granted by the service provider, and Husserlian phenomenological approach facilitated the exploration. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews of nine fathers in the West region of Ireland. Data were transcribed and analysed using Colaizzi's (1978) method. The study highlighted that parenting a child with AS is an arduous task, but while there are difficulties, many positive aspects to their parenting experience were reported. Overall, the study highlights the importance of listening to parents and their initial concerns regarding their child's development. PMID:23803646

O' Halloran, Maeve; Sweeney, John; Doody, Owen

2013-06-26

220

Exploring fathers' perceptions of parenting a child with Asperger syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study explores Irish fathers' perceptions of parenting a child with Asperger syndrome (AS). Ethical approval was granted by the service provider, and Husserlian phenomenological approach facilitated the exploration. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews of nine fathers in the West region of Ireland. Data were transcribed and analysed using Colaizzi's (1978) method. The study highlighted that parenting a child with AS is an arduous task, but while there are difficulties, many positive aspects to their parenting experience were reported. Overall, the study highlights the importance of listening to parents and their initial concerns regarding their child's development.

O' Halloran M; Sweeney J; Doody O

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

PHACES syndrome (Pascual Castroviejo type II): prenatal and postnatal magnetic resonance imaging.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The neurocutaneous syndrome known by the acronym PHACE consists of the association of a segmental facial hemangioma with, among other entities, posterior fossa anomalies, cerebrovascular anomalies, cardiac involvement/aortic coarctation, and eye abnormalities. When ventral developmental defects are also present, the syndrome is referred to as PHACES. We report the prenatal and postnatal MRI findings in a case of PHACES with involvement of the right posteroinferior cerebellar artery. This case is exceptional because, to our knowledge, it is the first to report the findings at both prenatal and postnatal MRI and because of the unique vascular anomaly that widens the spectrum of possible intracranial arterial anomalies in this syndrome.

Recio-Rodríguez M; Martín Fernández-Mayoralas D; Jiménez-de-la-Peña M; Fernández-Jaén A

2011-07-01

222

Partial trisomy 16p (16p12.2?pter) and partial monosomy 22q (22q13.31 ?qter) presenting with fetal ascites and ventriculomegaly: prenatal diagnosis and array comparative genomic hybridization characterization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To present prenatal diagnosis and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) characterization of partial trisomy 16p (16p12.2?pter) and partial monosomy 22q (22q13.31?qter) presenting with fetal ascites and ventriculomegaly in the second trimester. CASE REPORT: A 31-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 1, was referred to the hospital at 20 weeks of gestation because of fetal ascites. Amniocentesis revealed a derivative chromosome 22. Subsequent parental karyotyping revealed that the father carried a balanced reciprocal translocation between 16p12 and 22q13. Bacterial artificial chromosome-based aCGH using amniocyte DNA demonstrated partial trisomy 16p and partial monosomy 22q [arr cgh 16p13.3p12.2 (CTD-3077J14?RP11-650D5)x3, 22q13.31q13.33 (RP1-111J24?CTD-3035C16)x1]. Oligonucleotide-based aCGH showed a 20.9-Mb duplication of distal 16p and an approximate 3.7-Mb deletion of distal 22q. Level II ultrasound revealed fetal ascites and ventriculomegaly. The pregnancy was terminated and a malformed male fetus was delivered with craniofacial dysmorphism and abnormalities of the digits. The fetal karyotype was 46,XY,der(22)t(16;22)(p12.2;q13.31)pat. The paternal karyotype was 46,XY,t(16;22)(p12.2;q13.31). CONCLUSION: Partial trisomy 16p can be associated with fetal ascites and ventriculomegaly in the second trimester. Prenatal sonographic detection of fetal ascites in association with ventriculomegaly should alert chromosomal abnormalities and prompt cytogenetic investigation, which may lead to the identification of an unexpected parental translocation involving chromosomal segments associated with cerebral and vascular abnormalities.

Chen CP; Su YN; Young RS; Tsai FJ; Wu PC; Chern SR; Town DD; Pan CW; Wang W

2010-12-01

223

Análise descritiva do pai da criança com deficiência mental/ Descriptive analysis of the father of a mentally disabled child  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A interação pai-criança deficiente merece atenção e precisa de mais investigações. Este estudo descreveu características dos pais de crianças com deficiência mental, com idade entre dois e quatro anos, quanto a stress, empoderamento (processo pelo qual os familiares obtêm acesso a conhecimentos, habilidades e recursos que os capacitam a ganhar controle positivo de suas vidas, bem como melhorar a qualidade de seus estilos de vida), apoio social e qualidade do am (more) biente. Treze pais responderam aos seguintes instrumentos: Questionário de Caracterização do Sistema Familiar, Questionário de Recursos e Stress na forma resumida, Guia Geral de Transcrição dos Dados de Entrevista, Entrevista de Caracterização do Papel do Pai na Educação da Criança com Deficiência Mental, Escala de Empoderamento da Família, Escala de Senso de Competência Parental e Observação Domiciliar para Medida do Ambiente - Primeira Infância. Os resultados indicaram pais com baixo nível socioeconômico e de escolaridade, papel tradicional, presença de stress, autoestima adequada e porcentagens elevadas de empoderamento, além de ambiente domiciliar pobre em estimulação à criança. Os participantes se classificaram como bons pais e figuras importantes na vida das crianças, despendendo muitas horas de interação com elas. Percebe-se a necessidade de estudos com diferentes metodologias e de envolvimento do pai nos serviços profissionais para seus filhos. Abstract in english The interaction between a father and his disabled child deserves attention and needs further investigation. This study described characteristics of the fathers of mentally disabled children, aged between two and four years old, in terms of stress, empowerment, social support and quality of the environment. Thirteen fathers answered the following tools: Characterization of Family System Questionnaire, Questionnaire on Resources and Stress - Short Form, General Guide to Tra (more) nscription of Interview Data, Interview in respect of the Characterization of the Role of the Father in the Education of the Mentally Disabled Child, Family Empowerment Scale, Parent Sense of Competence Scale and Early Childhood - The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment. Results pointed to fathers of low socio-economic and educational levels, traditional role, presence of stress, adequate self-esteem and high percentages of empowerment, while the home environment failed to stimulate the child. The participants ranked themselves as good fathers and important figures in the child's life, spending many hours interacting with the child. It can be seen that there is a need for further studies using different methodologies as well as for the father's involvement in professional services for their children.

Silva, Nancy Capretz Batista da; Aiello, Ana Lúcia Rossito

2009-12-01

224

Prenatal and postnatal depression among low income Brazilian women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Postnatal depression is a significant problem affecting 10-15% of mothers in many countries and has been the subject of an increasing number of publications. Prenatal depression has been studied less. The aims of the present investigation were: 1) to obtain information on the prevalence of prenatal and postnatal depression in low income Brazilian women by using an instrument already employed in several countries, i.e., the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS); 2) to evaluate the risk factors involved in prenatal and postnatal depression in Brazil. The study groups included 33 pregnant women interviewed at home during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and once a month during the first six months after delivery. Questions on life events and the mother's relationship with the baby were posed during each visit. Depressed pregnant women received less support from their partners than non-depressed pregnant women (36.4 vs 72.2%, P<0.05; Fisher exact test). Black women predominated among pre- and postnatally depressed subjects. Postnatal depression was associated with lower parity (0.4 ± 0.5 vs 1.1 ± 1.0, P<0.05; Student t-test). Thus, the period of pregnancy may be susceptible to socio-environmental factors that induce depression, such as the lack of affective support from the partner. The prevalence rate of 12% observed for depression in the third month postpartum is comparable to that of studies from other countries.

V.A. Da-Silva; A.R. Moraes-Santos; M.S. Carvalho; M.L.P. Martins; N.A. Teixeira

1998-01-01

225

Effects after prenatal radiation exposures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The mammalian organism is highly radiosensitive during all prenatal developmental periods. For most effects a dose relationship with a threshold is observed. These threshold doses are generally above the exposures from medical diagnostic procedures. The quality and extent of radiation effects are very much dependent on the developmental stage during which an exposure takes place and on the radiation dose. An exposure during the preimplantation period will cause lethality. Malformations are usually induced after exposures during the major organogenesis. Growth retardation is also possible during the late organogenesis and foetal periods. The lower limits of threshold doses for these effects are in the range of 100 mGy. A radiation exposure during the early foetal period can lead to severe mental retardation and impairment of intelligence. There are very serious effects with radiation doses above 0.3 Gy. Carcinogenesis can apparently occur after radiation exposures during the total prenatal development period. The radiation risk factor up to now has not been clear, but it seems that it is in the range of risk factors for cancer that are observed after exposures during childhood. For radiation doses that are used in radiological diagnostics the risk is zero or very low. A termination of pregnancy after doses below 100 mGy should not be considered. (author)

2001-01-01

226

Are men really that bad as fathers? The role of men's investments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human pair-bonding and paternal involvement have long been attributed to the need for biparental rearing of altricial offspring with extended periods of dependency. More recently, researchers have focused on the fertility benefits that pair-bonding offers men and have re-conceptualized paternal care as a stratagem designed to curry favor with the recipient children's mother. These models, however, fail to explain a number of puzzling empirical findings, namely the lack of a significant and robust effect of father-presence cross-culturally, despite what appears to be true paternal involvement. I argue that the record is better explained by conceptualizing reproduction within unions as a joint venture, in which men's contributions are not simply lumped onto women's invariant levels of parental investment, but one in which men's involvement allows wives to reduce their own allocations to parental investment and increase those to fertility (fertility model), thereby maximizing the production of the union, not simply child survivorship.

Winking J

2006-01-01

227

Fatherhood and children with complex healthcare needs: qualitative study of fathering, caring and parenting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Fathers are increasingly providing substantial amounts of technical and nursing care to growing numbers of children with complex healthcare needs. This exploratory study reports some of the first in-depth evidence of fathers' experiences and presents a research agenda in this critically under-researched area. Methods We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 8 fathers who provided a substantial amount of complex technical and nursing care for their child at home. The aim was to describe their experiences of fathering, parenting and caring. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Burnard's approach, which has commonalities with phenomenological and content analysis. Results and Discussion Fathers enjoyed their caring role and found it rewarding and at times stressful. They instituted structured regimes, which focused on the father/child/family. Performing intimate care posed specific challenges for which there is no guidance. Children's community nursing was highly valued. Fathers generally rejected the need for specific father-focussed services, as such provision would induce guilt feelings. Fathers reported positive relationships with their children and partners. Conclusions Key areas for future exploration include gaining a better understanding of fathers' motivations and styles of caring, developing interventions to support fathers' caring role, developing guidance on intimate care, and delivering tailored services to fathers in a family context. There is little understanding of fathering and caring by non-resident, teenage and step-fathers. Finally, knowing more about resilience and coping of fathers in strong relationships with partners and children may help inform interventions to support fathers who do not feel able to stay with their family.

Hobson Lucie; Noyes Jane

2011-01-01

228

Fathers, sons and the political in contemporary Afrikaans fiction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article examines the role of the father in the transferral of ideological beliefs to the son within the Afrikaans-speaking family as represented in the fiction of contemporary male authors, specifically Alexander Strachan, Mark Behr and S.P. Benjamin. The research is guided by the central quest...

Visagie, Andries

229

[From man to father--a review of nursing research].  

Science.gov (United States)

This literature review describes the work that has been done in the field of nursing research on growth into fatherhood starting from pregnancy and through the infant's first year of life. The purpose is to describe and analyse the existing research knowledge on this subject. The material of this review consists of 56 articles derived from the Cinahl (1983/1995) and Medline (1966-9/1995) databases using the keywords father, fathers, fathering and fatherhood. The method of content analysis was employed. The focal concern was with the contents of the articles and with the research designs and methods used. Five main content areas were identified: man's health, growth from manhood into fatherhood from the points of view stress and social support, fatherhood as a significant life experience, the relationship between father and child, the couple relationship and family functioning. It is obvious that more information is needed in Finland on male processes also in nursing research so that we can better understand those processes and further improve nursing interventions. Male processes have primarily been studied by using quantitative methods and cross-sectional settings. The main difficulties with the studies have been their small sample sizes and accordingly lack of generalizability. More qualitative information is required so that we can reach a deeper understanding on male processes, expectations and wishes. PMID:9407792

Kaila-Behm, A; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K

1997-01-01

230

[From man to father--a review of nursing research  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This literature review describes the work that has been done in the field of nursing research on growth into fatherhood starting from pregnancy and through the infant's first year of life. The purpose is to describe and analyse the existing research knowledge on this subject. The material of this review consists of 56 articles derived from the Cinahl (1983/1995) and Medline (1966-9/1995) databases using the keywords father, fathers, fathering and fatherhood. The method of content analysis was employed. The focal concern was with the contents of the articles and with the research designs and methods used. Five main content areas were identified: man's health, growth from manhood into fatherhood from the points of view stress and social support, fatherhood as a significant life experience, the relationship between father and child, the couple relationship and family functioning. It is obvious that more information is needed in Finland on male processes also in nursing research so that we can better understand those processes and further improve nursing interventions. Male processes have primarily been studied by using quantitative methods and cross-sectional settings. The main difficulties with the studies have been their small sample sizes and accordingly lack of generalizability. More qualitative information is required so that we can reach a deeper understanding on male processes, expectations and wishes.

Kaila-Behm A; Vehviläinen-Julkunen K

1997-01-01

231

Fathers' Participation in the Domestic Activities of Everyday Life  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the data from the multi-purpose survey on household "Time Use" conducted by Istat (the Italian National Statistical Institute) in 2002-2003 and the data from this same survey conducted in 1988-1989 will be analysed with the purpose of describing the fathers' daily participation in the domestic activities and of highlighting the…

Romano, Maria Clelia; Bruzzese, Dario

2007-01-01

232

Burnout in Mothers and Fathers of Children Surviving Brain Tumour  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper was to investigate the occurrence of burnout among parents of brain tumour survivors. Burnout was assessed in 24 mothers and 20 fathers of childhood brain tumour survivors, using the Shirom–Melamed Burnout Questionnaire. Parents of children with no history of chronic or serious...

Lindahl Norberg, Annika

233

¿Cómo se llamaba el padre? // What is the father`s name?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Está a punto de estrenarse en cine, o quizás ya se estrenó en otras latitudes, la versión cinematográfica del último libro de Cormack McCarthy: La carretera. Galardonado con el Pulitzer por este último libro y conocido entre los lectores casuales gracias a su anterior novela: No country for old men, llevada al cine de forma impecable por los hermanos Cohen, McCarthy sorprende dejando ver que a lo largo de su obra, en particular en La carretera, aparece una pregunta por el padre. Tema que de continuo tratan los psicoanalistas, desafortunadamente no con la belleza con que lo hace el poeta. La obra de McCarthy es otro de los tantos ejemplos en los que la literatura enseña al psicoanálisis. // The premiere is ready or maybe it was showed in other latitudes the Cormack Mccarthy movie version of his last book: The Road. This last book won the Pulitzer Prize, also known among the casual readers for his previous novel: No country for old men, impeccable movie version by Cohen brothers. Along his work McCarthy surprise allowing to see, especially in The Road, a question for the father. Subject usually worked by the psychoanalysts, unfortunately, not with the same beauty that the poet does it. McCarthy’s work is other among many examples where the literature teaches to psychoanalysis.

Alexander Cruz Aponasenko

2010-01-01

234

Stress in Fathers of Moderately and Late Preterm Infants: A Randomised Controlled Trial  

Science.gov (United States)

The atypical behaviour of preterm infants can elicit stress in fathers and influence their ability to perceive and interpret infants' cues. This study investigated whether fathers of moderately and late preterm infants were more stressed than fathers of term infants. In a randomised controlled trial, we also studied the effect of the Mother-Infant…

Ravn, Ingrid Helen; Lindemann, Rolf; Smeby, Nina Aarhus; Bunch, Eli Haugen; Sandvik, Leiv; Smith, Lars

2012-01-01

235

Perceived Fatherhood Roles and Parenting Behaviors among African American Teen Fathers  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the growing body of research on the topic of adolescent parenthood, few studies have examined the perceptions and lived experiences of African American teen fathers. The primary aim of this study was to examine how this group defines and performs the father role. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 African American fathers aged 14…

Paschal, Angelia M.; Lewis-Moss, Rhonda K.; Hsiao, Tracy

2011-01-01

236

Community Attitudes toward Birth Fathers Motives for Adoption Placement and Single Parenting  

Science.gov (United States)

Community attitudes toward birth fathers were examined using 82 exploratory qualitative interviews and 706 survey respondents in Canada. Community attitudes were more positive toward birth fathers raising their children over adoption, when birth mothers were unable or unwilling to parent the child. Overall, respondents considered birth fathers

Miall, Charlene E.; March, Karen

2005-01-01

237

Mother and Father Language Input to Young Children: Contributions to Later Language Development  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been little research comparing the nature and contributions of language input of mothers and fathers to their young children. This study examined differences in mother and father talk to their 24 month-old children. This study also considered contributions of parent education, child care quality and mother and father language (output,…

Pancsofar, Nadya; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

2006-01-01

238

Neonatal Intensive Care: Mothers' and Fathers' Perceptions of What Is Stressful.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared mothers' (n=32) and fathers' (n=25) perceptions of stress during their preterm infant's hospitalization in a neonatal intensive care unit. Although there were differences between mothers and fathers in number and types of stressors identified, most mothers and fathers chose stressors related to the infant's health and…

Hughes, Mary-Alayne; McCollum, Jeanette

1994-01-01

239

Fathers want to stay close to their partner and new baby in the early postnatal period: the importance of being able to room in after a surgical birth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The early postnatal period can be challenging for new fathers especially when their partner has experienced a caesarean section. The aim of this study was to describe men's perceptions and feelings of staying with their partner and new baby in the context of having experienced a surgical birth. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse telephone interviews collected from 21 Swedish fathers who had experienced elective or emergency caesarean section. Being involved, receiving support and providing support were main reasons men considered it important they be facilitated to stay with their partners. Postnatal care should be oriented towards the whole family.

Johansson M; Hildingsson I; Fenwick J

2013-03-01

240

Differenze di genere e genitorialità: lo stile educativo di padri e madri. Risultati di una ricerca empirica Gender differences and parenting: the educational style of fathers and mothers. Results from an empirical study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quantitative empirical study presented here concern two main dimensions: on the one hand the participation of fathers and mothers to housework and child care, considering the educational outcome that this has on children and on other hand the fathers' and mothers' educational style, comparing also each other's perceptions. The leading objective underlying the investigation consist on understanding whether, in the rapidly changing actual social context, the parental couples reproduce family and educational patterns based on a traditional conception of gender roles, or, instead, present elements of transformation and, in case, in what direction they are going. The data from the sample, couples of parents living in a rural town (222 subjects), showed the presence of some changes that least affect the redistribution of family work between men and women (work that still disadvantage women), and that deal with father’s functions and characteristics: the fathers appear less normative and more inclined to involvement with their children. Finally, mothers and fathers seam found the educational relationship primarily on dialogue, with some differences in the type of approach depending on the children gender.Quantitative empirical study presented here concern two main dimensions: on the one hand the participation of fathers and mothers to housework and child care, considering the educational outcome that this has on children and on other hand the fathers' and mothers' educational style, comparing also each other's perceptions. The leading objective underlying the investigation consist on understanding whether, in the rapidly changing actual social context, the parental couples reproduce family and educational patterns based on a traditional conception of gender roles, or, instead, present elements of transformation and, in case, in what direction they are going. The data from the sample, couples of parents living in a rural town (222 subjects), showed the presence of some changes that least affect the redistribution of family work between men and women (work that still disadvantage women), and that deal with father’s functions and characteristics: the fathers appear less normative and more inclined to involvement with their children. Finally, mothers and fathers seam found the educational relationship primarily on dialogue, with some differences in the type of approach depending on the children gender.

Elisa Truffelli

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Understandings of prenatal nutrition among Argentine women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maternal nutrition is an important determinant of birth outcome and infant health. In this study, we sought to identify the current knowledge of prenatal nutrition among women in Tucumán, Argentina, to examine the extent to which knowledge was implemented and to identify opportunities for improvement in prenatal care and education. We conducted in-depth interviews with 10 women about their eating habits during pregnancy, prenatal nutrition education and knowledge, and attitudes about nutrition and pregnancy. Four major themes were identified: incomplete knowledge or practice, lack of comprehension, cultural beliefs, and noncompliance with medical advice. Suggested interventions are discussed.

Hess CM; Maughan E

2012-01-01

242

[Prenatal genetic test and clinical guidance for 213 hereditary deaf families].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the workflow, strategy and experience of prenatal genetic test for deafness based on the 6-year clinical practice. METHODS: There were 213 families who received prenatal test from 2005 to 2011. Among the 213 families, 205 families had had one deaf child, including 204 couples with normal hearing and one couple of the deaf husband and normal wife, 8 families including 6 couples with normal hearing and 2 deaf couples, had no child before test. Genomic and mitochondrial DNA of each subject was extracted from whole blood. The etiology and recurrent risks in 212 families were confirmed by means of the genetic test of GJB2, SLC26A4 and mtDNA 12sRNA, but one family carried POU3F4 c.647G > A heterozygous mutation causing X-linked hereditary hearing impairment confirmed by pedigree study. The prenatal test was carried out during the pregnancy of all mothers from 11 to 30 weeks, and the following genetic information and counseling were supplied based on the results. RESULTS: The recurrent risk was 25% in 209 families, including 204 families with one deaf child and 5 families without child, among which all couples were GJB2 or SLC26A4 mutation carriers and deaf children were caused by homozygous or compound GJB2/SLC26A4 mutations; The recurrent risk was 50% in 3 families, the father and his child in one family had compound SLC26A4 mutations and the mother with heterozygous SLC26A4 mutation, the wife had POU3F4 c.647G > A heterozygous mutation in another one family, and the husband with compound SLC26A4 mutations and the wife with mtDNA A1555G mutation and heterozygous SLC26A4 mutation simultaneously happened in the rest one family; The recurrent risk was 100% in one family of the deaf couple who were both found to carry homozygous or compound GJB2 mutations, and the deaf wife got pregnant by artificial insemination with the sperm from the local Human Sperm Bank. 226 times of prenatal test were applied in all 213 families that 11 families of them received prenatal test twice, and one family received three times. 46 times of prenatal testing showed that the fetuses carried parental mutations simultaneously or the same mutations with probands; while 180 times of prenatal test showed that the fetuses carried only one parental mutation or did not carry any mutation from parents. The following visit showed that all of these 180 families had given birth to babies who were all revealed to have normal hearing by new born hearing screening test. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal diagnosis for deafness assisted by genetic test can provide efficient information about offspring's hearing condition, and the normative workflow and precise strategy highly guarantee the safe and favorable implementation of prenatal diagnosis.

Han MY; Lu YP; Bian XM; Wang LX; Huang SS; Wang GJ; Wang Y; Kang DY; Zhang X; Dai P

2012-02-01

243

Prenatal cannibalism in an insect  

Science.gov (United States)

Host selection and infection strategies of parasitoids often correlate with high parental investment and low numbers of progeny. In this study, we investigate how additional internal mechanisms might shape brood size and fitness of the offspring. Emblemasoma auditrix is a parasitoid fly in which about 38 larvae hatch simultaneously in utero. After host location, a single larva is deposited into the host, where it rapidly develops and pupates after about 5 days. The search for hosts can take several weeks, and during that time, the larvae arrest their development and remain in the first larval instar. Nevertheless, the larvae increase in weight within the uterus, and this growth correlates to a decrease in the number of larvae, although no larvae are deposited. Thus, our data indicate a first case of prenatal cannibalism in an invertebrate with larvae feeding on each other within the uterus of the adult.

de Vries, Thomas; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

2007-06-01

244

Development of sensitization to methamphetamine in offspring prenatally exposed to morphine, methadone and buprenorphine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Heroin use among young women of reproductive age has drawn much attention around the world. However, there is lack of information on the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to opioids on their offspring. Our previous study demonstrated that prenatally buprenorphine-exposed offspring showed a marked change in the cross-tolerance to morphine compared with other groups. In the current study, this animal model was used to study effects of methamphetamine (METH)-induced behavioral sensitization in the offspring at their adulthood. The results showed no differences in either basal or acute METH-induced locomotor activity in any of the groups of animals tested. When male offspring received METH injections of 2?mg/kg, i.p., once a day for 5?days, behavioral sensitization was induced, as determined by motor activity. Furthermore, the distance and rate of development (slope) of locomotor activity and conditioned place preference induced by METH were significantly increased in the prenatally buprenorphine-exposed animals compared with those in other groups. The dopamine D1 R in the nucleus accumbens of the prenatally buprenorphine-exposed offspring had lower mRNA expression; but no significant changes in the ?-, ?-opioid, nociceptin, D2 R and D3 R receptors were noted. Furthermore, significant alterations were observed in the basal level of cAMP and the D1 R agonist enhanced adenylyl cyclase activity in the prenatally buprenorphine-exposed group. Overall, the study demonstrates that D1 R and its downregulated cAMP signals are involved in enhancing METH-induced behavioral sensitization in prenatally buprenorphine-exposed offspring. The study reveals that prenatal exposure to buprenorphine caused long-term effects on offspring and affected the dopaminergic system-related reward mechanism.

Chiang YC; Hung TW; Ho IK

2013-04-01

245

Cognitive and social function in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia - Influence of prenatally administered dexamethasone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: To assess the cognitive, social, and emotional function in girls prenatally treated with dexamethasone (Dex) due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), compared to CAH female patients not treated prenatally. Patients and methods: 33 girls from CAH families were studied: 17 girls treated prenatally with Dex (9 CAH-affected and 8 non-CAH-affected) and 16 CAH-affected females prenatally untre-ated. Standardized tests to assess cognitive function, tests of memory and learning process, and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were used. Results: There were few statistically significant differences between the results of treated girls (CAH-affected and unaffected) and CAH untreated patients, with a tendency for better results in all tests by Dex treated girls. Among three groups- "CAH-unaffected treated," "CAH-affected treated," and "CAH-affected untreated"- the best results were found in "CAH-affected treated" in almost all tests. The Wechsler test performance scale was significantly higher in treated CAH-affected girls. The comparison between treated and untreated CAH-affected girls revealed better results in all tasks involving the cognitive function in Dex-treated patients. Poor performance in visual perception, analysis of spatial material, and visual memory tasks were obtained in CAH-unaffected treated girls. Conclusions: Prenatal treatment with Dex creates for CAH-affected females better conditions for cognitive development. The prenatal Dex in CAH-unaffected girls can cause the risk of unfavorable influences on the development of some cognitive functions. Therefore, it is recommended that prenatal treatment in CAH-unaffected female fetuses should be stopped as soon as possible after the exclusion of the disease. PMID:23186079

Maryniak, Agnieszka; Ginalska-Malinowska, Maria; Bielawska, Alicja; Ondruch, Agnieszka

2012-11-27

246

Prenatal dopamine and neonatal behavior and biochemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Depressed pregnant women (N=126) were divided into high and low prenatal maternal dopamine (HVA) groups based on a tertile split on their dopamine levels at 20 weeks gestation. The high versus the low dopamine group had lower Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) scores, higher norepinephrine levels at the 20-week gestational age visit and higher dopamine and serotonin levels at both the 20- and the 32-week gestational age visits. The neonates of the mothers with high versus low prenatal dopamine levels also had higher dopamine and serotonin levels as well as lower cortisol levels. Finally, the neonates in the high dopamine group had better autonomic stability and excitability scores on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale. Thus, prenatal maternal dopamine levels appear to be negatively related to prenatal depression scores and positively related to neonatal dopamine and behavioral regulation, although these effects are confounded by elevated serotonin levels. PMID:18774177

Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Figueiredo, Barbara; Deeds, Osvelia; Ascencio, Angela; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia

2008-09-05

247

Counselling considerations for prenatal genetic screening.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document has been developed to aid clinicians in counselling patients about prenatal screening and to provide assistance in counselling about both positive and negative screening results. PMID:22555144

Cartier, Lola; Murphy-Kaulbeck, Lynn; Wilson, R Douglas; Audibert, François; Brock, Jo-Ann; Carroll, June; Gagnon, Alain; Johnson, Jo-Ann; Langlois, Sylvie; Okun, Nanette; Pastuck, Melanie

2012-05-01

248

Prenatal morphogenesis of mammary glands in mouse and rabbit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our understanding of prenatal morphogenesis of mammary glands has recently greatly advanced. This review focuses on morphogenesis proper, as well as cellular processes and tissue interactions involved in the progression of the embryonic mammary gland through sequential morphogenic stages in both the mouse and rabbit embryo. We provide a synthesis of both historical and more recent studies of embryonic mammary gland development, as well as arguments to revise old concepts about mechanisms of mammary line and rudiment formation. Finally, we highlight outstanding issues that remain to be addressed.

Propper AY; Howard BA; Veltmaat JM

2013-06-01

249

Prenatal diagnosis of right diaphragmatic eventration associated with fetal hydrops.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital diaphragmatic eventration (CDE) is a rare diaphragmatic abnormality. Clinical manifestations of CDE may mimic congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Prenatal differential diagnosis of eventration is critical because postnatal managing and prognosis of these conditions vary significantly. Sonographic features of CDE involve presence of abdominal organs in the thorax, shift of cardiac axis and mediastinum. Non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) has been previously reported to be associated with intrathoracic masses as well as CDE. In this report, we present a case of congenital right diaphragmatic eventration associated with NIHF. PMID:22519886

Iskender, Cantekin; Tar?m, Ebru; Yalc?nkaya, Cem

2012-05-01

250

Prenatal diagnosis of right diaphragmatic eventration associated with fetal hydrops.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Congenital diaphragmatic eventration (CDE) is a rare diaphragmatic abnormality. Clinical manifestations of CDE may mimic congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Prenatal differential diagnosis of eventration is critical because postnatal managing and prognosis of these conditions vary significantly. Sonographic features of CDE involve presence of abdominal organs in the thorax, shift of cardiac axis and mediastinum. Non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) has been previously reported to be associated with intrathoracic masses as well as CDE. In this report, we present a case of congenital right diaphragmatic eventration associated with NIHF.

Iskender C; Tar?m E; Yalc?nkaya C

2012-05-01

251

PRENATAL TORSION OF TESTIS: A RARE EMERGENCY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prenatal torsion of testis is an extremely rare surgical emergency with controversial management guidelines. Controversy exists not only with regard to timing and necessity of exploration but also whether or not to fix the contralateral testis as there is no predisposing anatomical defect. Though not life-threatening, it risks fertility of an otherwise healthy newborn male if overlooked. We describe a case of prenatal testicular torsion and discuss pertinent issues.

Neha Singh Shrivastava; Chandrasekhar Gopalaswamy; Ram Mohan Chivukula Venugopal

2012-01-01

252

Prenatal diagnosis of non-ketotic hyperglycinemia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe successful prenatal diagnosis in four pregnancies at risk for non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, two affected and two unaffected, using the glycine level and the glycine/serine ratio in amniotic fluid obtained at 16 weeks gestational age. Although this method of prenatal diagnosis for non-ketotic hyperglycinemia has been effective in our hands the narrow differences between affected and unaffected pregnancies indicate the need for caution concerning its reliability.

Applegarth DA; Levy HL; Shih VE; McGillivray B; Wong JT; Toone JR; Kirby LT

1986-07-01

253

Investigating prenatal genetic screening in Hong Kong as a discourse and an activity type  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this colloquia we take a discourse analytic perspective and examine prenatal genetic screening (PGS) in Hong Kong. Available discourse studies of PGS have focused on monolingual (predominantly English) discourse. In this colloquia we examine Hong Kong data where PGS involve participants with dive...

Zayts, O

254

Prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal anomaly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the ultrasonographic characteristic of a rare malformation comples, Cloacal anomaly on prenatal ultrasonography. From March 1991 to July 2001, eight cases with the persistent cloaca (4 cases in female and 1 case in male) and cloacal exstrophy (3 cases) diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound examination were included, and all of them were pathologically confirmed by autopsy. One radiologist retrospectively analyzed the prenatal sonographic images, including the urinary bladder, kidney, pelvic cyst, abdominal wall defect and amount of amniotic fluid. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was established at 21.8 {+-} 7.8 weeks of gestation. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of the persistent cloaca were absent bladder (n=2), distended bladder (n=2) and small thick bladder (n=1). Sonography of the kidney showed normal (n=2), hydronephrosis (n=1), dysplasia (n=1) and unilateral hydronephrosis with absent contralateral kidney (n=1). Four fetuses showed septated pelvic cyst; three fetuses, oligohydramnios. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal exstrophy included absent bladder (n=3), normal kidney (n=1), hydronephrosis (n=1) and absent kidney (n=1). All fetuses with cloacal exstrophy had abdominal wall defect while two of them had oligohydramnios. A prenatal diagnosis of persistent cloaca can be confidently made when there is septated pelvic cyst combined oligohydramnios, sediments within the cyst and intraluminal calcifications. Cloacal exstrophy should be included in diagnosis if there is a low abdominal wall defect with absent urinary bladder.

Song, Mi Jin [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2002-09-15

255

Prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal anomaly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the ultrasonographic characteristic of a rare malformation comples, Cloacal anomaly on prenatal ultrasonography. From March 1991 to July 2001, eight cases with the persistent cloaca (4 cases in female and 1 case in male) and cloacal exstrophy (3 cases) diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound examination were included, and all of them were pathologically confirmed by autopsy. One radiologist retrospectively analyzed the prenatal sonographic images, including the urinary bladder, kidney, pelvic cyst, abdominal wall defect and amount of amniotic fluid. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was established at 21.8 ± 7.8 weeks of gestation. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of the persistent cloaca were absent bladder (n=2), distended bladder (n=2) and small thick bladder (n=1). Sonography of the kidney showed normal (n=2), hydronephrosis (n=1), dysplasia (n=1) and unilateral hydronephrosis with absent contralateral kidney (n=1). Four fetuses showed septated pelvic cyst; three fetuses, oligohydramnios. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal exstrophy included absent bladder (n=3), normal kidney (n=1), hydronephrosis (n=1) and absent kidney (n=1). All fetuses with cloacal exstrophy had abdominal wall defect while two of them had oligohydramnios. A prenatal diagnosis of persistent cloaca can be confidently made when there is septated pelvic cyst combined oligohydramnios, sediments within the cyst and intraluminal calcifications. Cloacal exstrophy should be included in diagnosis if there is a low abdominal wall defect with absent urinary bladder.

2002-01-01

256

Prenatal genetic screening and diagnosis for pediatricians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prenatal genetic screening and diagnostic testing can identify many disorders that will require specialized newborn care and follow-up. Pediatricians should be aware of recent advances in testing that may have implications for their patients and families. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the last half decade, there have been important changes in the breadth and depth of prenatal screening and diagnostic procedures. Carrier screening for selected genetic disorders is now offered routinely to pregnant women or those contemplating pregnancy. Newly developed strategies for first-trimester screening for fetal chromosome abnormalities have improved the detection rate for these disorders, while maintaining a low screen-positive rate. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American College of Medical Genetics now recommend that invasive prenatal diagnostic testing be made available to all pregnant women, regardless of age or prenatal screening results. And prenatal ultrasound findings of unknown clinical significance require that pediatricians provide appropriate follow-up in the newborn period and beyond. SUMMARY: Prenatal genetic screening and diagnostic tests are changing rapidly, and results of these tests may impact the postnatal evaluation and treatment strategies for pediatric care.

Cunniff C; Hudgins L

2010-12-01

257

Anxiety-Promoting Parenting Behaviors: A Comparison of Anxious Mothers and Fathers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The majority of research identifying anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors has been conducted with mothers, leaving a gap in current knowledge about the role of fathers' parenting behaviors. In an attempt to fill this gap, this study compared anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors of anxious mothers and fathers. Parents completed self-report measures of parenting behavior and independent coders rated parenting behaviors (i.e., overcontrol, granting of autonomy, warmth, hostility, anxious behavior) of mothers (n = 34) and fathers (n = 21) during a challenging parent-child interaction task (children were ages 6-12). Results indicated that anxious fathers were observed to be more controlling than anxious mothers; while anxious mothers reported using more punishment and reinforcement of children's dependence in anxiety provoking situations compared to fathers. Findings extend our knowledge about anxious fathers, and highlight the need for additional research on the impact of fathers' parenting with respect to the development of child anxiety.

Teetsel RN; Ginsburg GS; Drake KL

2013-05-01

258

Paternal Work Stress and Latent Profiles of Father-Infant Parenting Quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine the implications of fathers' experiences of work stress for paternal behaviors with infants across multiple dimensions of parenting in a sample of fathers living in nonmetropolitan communities (N = 492). LPA revealed five classes of fathers based on levels of social-affective behaviors and linguistic stimulation measured during two father-infant interactions. Multinomial logistic regression analyses suggested that a less-supportive work environment was associated with fathers' membership in multiple lower-quality parenting classes. Greater work pressure and a nonstandard work schedule also predicted fathers' membership in the latent parenting classes, although these associations differed depending on the number of hours fathers spent in the workplace. PMID:23152644

Goodman, W Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C; Lanza, Stephanie T; Cox, Martha J; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

2011-06-01

259

Relations between Mattering to Step- and Non-Residential Fathers and Adolescent Mental Health.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relations between perceptions of 133 early adolescents in stepfamilies concerning how much they mattered to their stepfathers and nonresidential biological fathers and adolescents' mental health problems. Mattering to nonresidential biological fathers significantly negatively predicted mother-, teacher-, and youth-reported internalizing problems. Mattering to stepfathers significantly negatively predicted youth-reported internalizing and stepfather- and youth- reported externalizing problems. For teacher-reported externalizing problems, mattering to stepfathers and nonresidential biological fathers significantly interacted. Mattering to either father predicted low externalizing problems; perceptions of mattering to the second father did not predict a further reduction in problems. Results suggest that mattering is an important aspect of father-adolescent relationships, and highlight the importance of considering adolescents' relationships with both nonresidential fathers and stepfathers. PMID:20019889

Schenck, Clorinda E; Braver, Sanford L; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Saenz, Delia; Cookston, Jeffrey T; Fabricius, William V

2009-01-01

260

Relations between Mattering to Step- and Non-Residential Fathers and Adolescent Mental Health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the relations between perceptions of 133 early adolescents in stepfamilies concerning how much they mattered to their stepfathers and nonresidential biological fathers and adolescents' mental health problems. Mattering to nonresidential biological fathers significantly negatively predicted mother-, teacher-, and youth-reported internalizing problems. Mattering to stepfathers significantly negatively predicted youth-reported internalizing and stepfather- and youth- reported externalizing problems. For teacher-reported externalizing problems, mattering to stepfathers and nonresidential biological fathers significantly interacted. Mattering to either father predicted low externalizing problems; perceptions of mattering to the second father did not predict a further reduction in problems. Results suggest that mattering is an important aspect of father-adolescent relationships, and highlight the importance of considering adolescents' relationships with both nonresidential fathers and stepfathers.

Schenck CE; Braver SL; Wolchik SA; Saenz D; Cookston JT; Fabricius WV

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Promoting safer sexual practices among expectant fathers in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Men's decisions and behaviours influence the sexual, reproductive and maternal health of women and the health of their families, but men are rarely included in reproductive and maternal health care services. Men's attendance at antenatal care has the potential to prevent women from becoming infected with HIV during pregnancy and post-partum, when they are more vulnerable to infection and have a high risk of transmission to the infant. Greater involvement of men requires an understanding of social, cultural and organisational barriers in different contexts. In 2006, the Burnet Institute undertook fieldwork to inform a pilot project to encourage expectant fathers to attend antenatal care. A local Lao team conducted focus group discussions and interviews in Vientiane with expectant fathers, pregnant women, older women and health care providers. It was found that myths about the dangers of sex during pregnancy and women's decreased desire resulted in periods of sexual abstinence. Participants reported that unprotected extramarital sex was common but difficult for couples to discuss. Men lacked knowledge about sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Men wanted information so they could better protect the health of their partners and babies during and after pregnancy, and reported being willing to attend antenatal care when invited. Our findings have useful implications for policy and implementation.

Natoli L; Holmes W; Chanlivong N; Chan G; Toole MJ

2012-01-01

262

Prenatal lipopolysaccharide reduces motor activity after an immune challenge in adult male offspring.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure causes reproductive, behavioral and neurochemical injuries in both the mother and pups. Previous investigations by our group showed that prenatal LPS administration (100 microg/kg, i.p.) on gestational day 9.5 impaired the male offspring's social behavior in infancy and adulthood. In the present study, we investigated whether these social behavioral changes were associated with motor activity impairment. Male rat pups treated prenatally with LPS or not were tested for reflexological development and open field general activity during infancy. In adulthood, animals were tested for open field general activity, haloperidol-induced catalepsy and apomorphine-induced stereotypy; striatal dopamine levels and turnover were also measured. Moreover, LPS-treated or untreated control pups were challenged with LPS in adulthood and observed for general activity in the open field. In relation to the control group, the motor behavior of prenatally treated male pups was unaffected at basal levels, both in infancy and in adulthood, but decreased general activity was observed in adulthood after an immune challenge. Also, striatal dopamine and metabolite levels were decreased in adulthood. In conclusion, prenatal LPS exposure disrupted the dopaminergic system involved with motor function, but this neurochemical effect was not accompanied by behavioral impairment, probably due to adaptive plasticity processes. Notwithstanding, behavioral impairment was revealed when animals were challenged with LPS, resulting in enhanced sickness behavior.

Kirsten TB; Taricano M; Flório JC; Palermo-Neto J; Bernardi MM

2010-07-01

263

Attitudes of young adults to prenatal screening and genetic correction for human attributes and psychiatric conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With recent advances in DNA technology, questions have arisen as to how this technology should be appropriately used. In this article, results obtained from a survey designed to elicit attitudes of college students to prenatal testing and gene therapy for human attributes and psychiatric conditions are reported. The eleven hypothetical disease phenotypes included schizophrenia, alcoholism, tendency toward violent behavior, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression requiring medical treatment, obesity, involvement in "dangerous" sports activities, homosexuality, borderline normal IQ (80-100), proportional short stature, and inability to detect perfect pitch. Most students supported prenatal genetic testing for psychiatric disorders and behavior that might result in harm to others (i.e., tendency towards violent behavior) and found prenatal genetic testing for human attributes less desirable. However, the lack of unilateral agreement or disagreement toward any one condition or attribute suggests the potential difficulties ahead in the quest for guidelines for the application of new technologies available to manipulate the human genome.

Milner KK; Collins EE; Connors GR; Petty EM

1998-03-01

264

Fathers sharing about early parental support in health-care - virtual discussions on an Internet forum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Becoming a father is a life changing event and this transition is associated with various emotions. Educational activities aimed at new parents are important in healthcare parental support (HCPS). HCPS has been critiqued for its predominant focus on mothers, while the needs of fathers seem to have been downplayed. As a result, fathers often turn to Internet-based forums for support. As virtual discussions and mutual support among fathers take place in cyberspace, it is important to monitor these forums to observe the ways in which the fathers discuss HCPS. The aim of this study is to explore the ways in which new fathers visiting an Internet-based forum for fathers communicated their experiences of HCPS. A netnographic method consisting of six steps was used to gather and analyse the data. The findings show that fathers shared with one another their experiences of the attitudes expressed by HCPS workers as well as their own attitudes towards HCPS. The attitudes of HCPS workers that were directed towards the fathers were perceived as highly personal and individual, while fathers described their attitudes towards the HCPS in general terms, towards HCPS as a system. Overall, the fathers described HCPS as a valuable confirmatory support that eased their worries concerning sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), colic, weight gain, fever and teething. Although the fathers expressed gratitude towards HCPS, they also shared their negative experiences, such as feeling invisible, disregarded and insulted. In fact, the twofold attitudes that exist in the relationship between the fathers and HCPS can act as a barrier rather than being a confirmatory support. We recommend that HCPS adopts a broader approach using more targeted and strategic didactic methods for supporting fathers in the growth of their own personal awareness, as such an approach would offer a competitive and professional alternative to the support offered in informal experience-based Internet forums.

Salzmann-Erikson M; Eriksson H

2013-07-01

265

Albert Einstein as the father of solid state physics  

CERN Multimedia

Einstein is usually revered as the father of special and general relativity. In this article I demonstrate that he is also the father of Solid State Physics, or even his broader version known as Condensed Matter Physics (including liquids). His 1907 article on the specific heat of solids introduces, for the first time, the effect of lattice vibrations on the thermodynamic properties of crystals, in particular the specific heat. His 1905 article on the photoelectric effect and photoluminescence opened the fields of photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Other important achievements include Bose-Einstein condensation and the Einstein relation between the difussion coefficient an mobility. In this article I discuss Einstein's papers relevant to these topics and their relevance to modern day condensed matter physics.

Cardona, M

2005-01-01

266

Migration and father absence: shifting family structure in Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite many changing demographic processes in Mexico-declining adult mortality, rising divorce, and rising nonmarital fertility-Mexican children's family structure has been most affected by rising migration rates. Data from five national surveys spanning three decades demonstrate that since 1976, migration has shifted from the least common to the most common form of father household absence. Presently, more than 1 in 5 children experience a father's migration by age 15; 1 in 11 experiences his departure to the United States. The proportions are significantly higher among those children born in rural communities and those born to less-educated mothers. The findings emphasize the importance of framing migration as a family process with implications for children's living arrangements and attendant well-being, particularly in resource-constrained countries. The stability of children's family life in these regions constitutes a substantial but poorly measured cost of worldwide increases in migration.

Nobles J

2013-08-01

267

Father-daughter incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self-interview. Nineteen were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 241 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The remaining 1,261 served as controls. Incest victims were more likely than controls to endorse feeling damaged, psychologically injured, estranged from one or both parents, and shamed by others when they tried to open up about their experience. They had been eroticized early on by the incest experience, and it interfered with their adult sexuality. Incest victims experienced coitus earlier than controls and after reaching age 18 had more sex partners and were more likely to have casual sex outside their primary relationship and engage in sex for money than controls. They also had worse scores on scales measuring depression, sexual satisfaction, and communication about sex than controls.

Stroebel SS; O'Keefe SL; Beard KW; Kuo SY; Swindell SV; Kommor MJ

2012-01-01

268

La figura paterna al nido tra centro e periferia The father figure in the early childhood services between center and outskirts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sociological researches highlight that in Italy the division of work and parental care is still very asymetrical, being burdening especially on women (Saraceno: 2003). The care of young children is still predominantly carried out by women at home, and increasingly, within early childhood education institutions although – in relation to the latter – significant differences exists among different geographical areas. The promotion of the encouragement of a culture of gender differences can only go through the services for early childhood. In this context, educational policies play a significant role in the cultural promotion of early childhood services and in the valorization of parental roles in the perspective of educational co-responsibility. In fact, in the last decades, we are witness to significant changes in relation to the role of fathers within the family, changes that are connoted by an increasing involvement of fathers in the life of their child. This paper aims to discuss the findings of a qualitative study that investigated and compared the lived experiences of fathers with the representations of fathers’ parental role produced by mothers and early childhood educators.Sociological researches highlight that in Italy the division of work and parental care is still very asymetrical, being burdening especially on women (Saraceno: 2003). The care of young children is still predominantly carried out by women at home, and increasingly, within early childhood education institutions although – in relation to the latter – significant differences exists among different geographical areas. The promotion of the encouragement of a culture of gender differences can only go through the services for early childhood. In this context, educational policies play a significant role in the cultural promotion of early childhood services and in the valorization of parental roles in the perspective of educational co-responsibility. In fact, in the last decades, we are witness to significant changes in relation to the role of fathers within the family, changes that are connoted by an increasing involvement of fathers in the life of their child. This paper aims to discuss the findings of a qualitative study that investigated and compared the lived experiences of fathers with the representations of fathers’ parental role produced by mothers and early childhood educators.

Michela Schenetti

2011-01-01

269

Lone-father families in Canada, 1971-1996  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available EnglishDemographers and sociologists have paid considerable attention to thesituation of lone-parent families. However, until recently, almost all of this work has focused onfamilies headed by a lone mother. This paper seeks to fill an important gap in our knowledge of familychange by examining the growth and characteristics of lone-father families in Canada. Using data fromthe public-use microfiles (PUMFs) of the census, the paper shows that the number of lone-fatherfamilies has increased significantly in recent years, and that lone fathers are now younger and morelikely to have become lone fathers through marital breakdown. The results also suggest that while lone-father families are not as economically disadvantaged as lone-mother families, income levels lag wellbehind those of two-parent families and have, in relative terms, declined in recent years.FrenchLes démographes et sociologues se sont beaucoup attardés à la situation desfamilles monoparentales. Cependant, jusqu'à récemment, l'ensemble de cetravail ciblait surtout les mères seules. Cet article cherche à combler la brèchede notre connaissance des changements dans la famille en examinantl'augmentation du nombre de pères seuls au Canada et les caractéristiques de cesfamilles. Grâce aux données des microfilms à usage public du recensement,l'article illustre que le nombre de pères seuls a considérablement augmenté aucours des dernières années, que les pères seuls sont plus jeunes et que leursituation résulte vraisemblablement de la rupture de leur mariage. Les résultatsindiquent aussi que bien que les familles dont le père est monoparental ne soientpas aussi défavorisées que les familles dont la mère est monoparentale, lesniveaux de revenu accusent un certain retard par rapport aux famillesbiparentales et qu'ils ont relativement baissé au cours des dernières années.

Belle, Marilyn; McQuillan, Kevin

2001-01-01

270

Infectious mononucleosis hepatitis; an unwelcome present for Father Christmas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe a case of infectious mononucleosis (IM) hepatitis occurring in an elderly thespian, who had recently played the role of 'Father Christmas'. We discuss the importance of differing clinical manifestations in older and younger age groups, the changing epidemiology of Epstein Barr (EB) infection within the United Kingdom and the role of different virology tests in establishing a diagnosis. Raised awareness of this changing pattern of disease could prevent unnecessary investigation and consequent potential iatrogenic complications.

Hussaini SH; Pilkington N; Barnes JN

2013-01-01

271

Awareness among parents of ?-thalassemia major patients, regarding prenatal diagnosis and premarital screening.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge among parents of thalassemia major patients about prenatal diagnosis, premarital screening for carrier detection and impact of consanguineous marriage on disease transmission. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: The Thalassemia Centre, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, from July to September 2009. METHODOLOGY: One hundred and fifteen parents of ?-thalassemia major patients were enrolled in this study. A questionnaire was developed and parents were interviewed to assess their knowledge about preventive measures against thalassemia major. Parents of patients with all other types of blood disorder were excluded from the study. RESULTS: There were 74 male (64.3%) and 41 female (35.7) patients with mean age of 9.5 ± 5.1 years. Eighty-eight patients (76.5%) were accompanied by mothers and the rest by their fathers. Seventy-four parents (32.1%) were illiterate; among the literates only 7 were highly educated (3%). Ninety-four couples (81.7%) had consanguineous marriage. Fiftytwo parents (44.6%) knew that thalassemia is an inherited disorder. Thirty-eight (33%) had heard about the test for detecting thalassemia carrier. Premarital screening and prenatal diagnosis was known to 97 (84.3%) and 88 (76.5%) parents respectively. Ninety-nine parents (86.1%) knew about the termination of pregnancy on positive prenatal test but only 69 considered it acceptable religiously (60%). Major source of information to the parents were doctors. CONCLUSION: Parental knowledge about thalassemia and its preventive measures was inadequate; this requires intervention in the form of public health education programs concentrating on high risk/targeted population.

Ishaq F; Abid H; Kokab F; Akhtar A; Mahmood S

2012-04-01

272

The prenatal environment and type 1 diabetes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is ample evidence that environmental factors are involved in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes, but the nature and timing of the interactions are poorly understood. The intrauterine environment is known to play a role in the later development of type 2 diabetes, and this review considers a possible role in type 1 diabetes. Autoimmune type 1 diabetes is rare in those diagnosed before 6 months of age, but endogenous autoantibodies predictive of future type 1 diabetes may be detectable by 6-12 months of age, suggesting that environmental factors may operate before this age in some cases. Indirect evidence of a protective effect for the intrauterine environment comes from the observation that mothers with type 1 diabetes are less likely than affected fathers to transmit diabetes to their offspring, although the precise role (if any) is unclear. The risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes increases with maternal age at delivery, and with high birthweight, but these associations are weak and heterogeneous, and these factors are unlikely to be directly causally related to type 1 diabetes. No firm conclusion can be drawn from studies of maternal enteroviral infection or from various nutritional exposures. The birth process itself may play a role, as suggested by the slightly increased risk in children born by Caesarean section; lack of contact with maternal bacteria is one suggested mechanism. In sum, there is circumstantial evidence, but no proof of principle, that maternal or intrauterine conditions may modulate genetic risk of type 1 diabetes. The disease process culminating in type 1 diabetes typically begins in early life, but it is not clear whether the trail begins before or after birth.

Stene LC; Gale EA

2013-09-01

273

Bringing work home: the emotional experiences of mothers and fathers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Given the salience of work in our society, this study investigated how intrinsic work motivation, work hours, and taking time for self influenced the interplay between the emotional climates of work and home. The authors examined day-to-day emotional transmission between work and home (spillover) for 143 families using the experience sampling method and interview data from the Sloan Center's 500 Family Study (L. J. Waite & B. Schneider, 1997). Intrinsic work motivation, work hours, and taking time for self were used as predictors of spillover. There was evidence of emotional transmission from work to home for mothers' happiness, anger, and anxiety as well as for father's anxiety. Also, fathers scoring higher on intrinsic work motivation tended to report greater overall anxiety at home after the workday. Anxiety from work was less likely to spill over to the home when fathers reported working longer hours. These findings have practice implications for improving worker productivity and the well-being of two-working-parent families.

Matjasko JL; Feldman AF

2006-03-01

274

Bringing work home: the emotional experiences of mothers and fathers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the salience of work in our society, this study investigated how intrinsic work motivation, work hours, and taking time for self influenced the interplay between the emotional climates of work and home. The authors examined day-to-day emotional transmission between work and home (spillover) for 143 families using the experience sampling method and interview data from the Sloan Center's 500 Family Study (L. J. Waite & B. Schneider, 1997). Intrinsic work motivation, work hours, and taking time for self were used as predictors of spillover. There was evidence of emotional transmission from work to home for mothers' happiness, anger, and anxiety as well as for father's anxiety. Also, fathers scoring higher on intrinsic work motivation tended to report greater overall anxiety at home after the workday. Anxiety from work was less likely to spill over to the home when fathers reported working longer hours. These findings have practice implications for improving worker productivity and the well-being of two-working-parent families. PMID:16569089

Matjasko, Jennifer L; Feldman, Amy F

2006-03-01

275

Molecular characterization and PCR detection of a deletional HPFH: application to rapid prenatal diagnosis for compound heterozygotes of this defect with beta-thalassemia in a Chinese family.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) is one of the hemoglobinopathies in which the fetal gamma-globin genes remain active in adult life. Most HPFHs are caused by a large deletion involving a variable extent of DNA segment on the beta-globin gene cluster. We report the molecular defects associated with a deletional HPFH, which has previously been described in Cambodians and Vietnamese, in two unrelated Chinese individuals. To define the sequence around the breakpoints of the deletion, both the deletion junction fragment and the normal DNA across the breakpoints were cloned by PCR and sequenced. We found that the 5' breakpoint is located between nucleotides 986 and 987 upstream from the startpoint of the beta-globin gene, which further confirmed the Southeast Asian (SEA) HPFH deletion previously determined, whereas the 3' breakpoint, which is clarified for the first time by us, lies approximately 2.3 kb downstream from the 3' HS1 site of the beta-globin gene. It is suggested that deletions were the result of a non-homologous recombination event. Based on our novel sequence data, we designed a PCR amplification method with three primers bridging the 3' breakpoint. With this method and reverse dot blot (RDB) for detecting beta-thalassemia mutations, a Chinese family that had a 6-year-old propositus with severe thalassemia intermediate and that had requested prenatal diagnosis for the second pregnancy was found to be compound heterozygotes of HPFH defects with beta-thalassemia. The fetal genomic DNA diagnosis showed the same results as those in propositus, i.e., both of them inherited the deletion from their mother and inherited a codons 14-15 (+G) frameshift mutation causing beta-thalassemia from their father.

Xu XM; Li ZQ; Liu ZY; Zhong XL; Zhao YZ; Mo QH

2000-11-01

276

Prenatal detection and postnatal outcome of congenital talipes equinovarus in 106 fetuses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: We analyze the incidence, etiology, outcome of pregnancy and therapeutic regimes of prenatally and postnatally detected isolated and complex congenital talipes equinovarus in a tertiary referral center. METHODS: We included fetuses with at least one prenatal ultrasound examination conducted by a sub-specialized practitioner for prenatal medicine. Retrospective evaluation was made of prenatal, obstetrical and neonatal/pediatric records and where applicable pathological records or records of the involved department of pediatric surgery with a minimum follow-up of 24 months. RESULTS: 106 children with uni- or bilateral CTEV were detected prenatally in a period of 17 years. There were 55 liveborn infants. The majority of the liveborn infants had isolated CTEV (37/55), whereas in the group of the stillborns most of the individuals suffered from complex CTEV (46/51). The gender-distribution showed a majority of male individuals in the liveborn group with isolated CTEV 22/37 and 11/18 in fetuses with non-isolated CTEV. Accordingly, 2/5 fetuses with isolated CTEV and 25/46 with complex CTEV in the group of the terminated pregnancies were males. 33/49 children were treated in a conservative manner, 16/49 needed additional surgery on the CTEV. Twenty-nine of forty-nine had excellent and 19/49 very good outcome. One of forty-nine had a good outcome. Fifteen of fifty-five liveborn children suffered from severe additional anomalies, like arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and spina bifida aperta. In the group of the stillborns all non-isolated CTEV were cases with severe additional anomalies (46/51). Mean time of prenatal diagnosis was 23(3/7) gestational weeks. Six cases with CTEV were detected postnatally only. There was one prenatal false positive diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal detection of CTEV is feasible during pregnancy. The outcome of children with isolated CTEV is good. In complex CTEV outcome depends on the additional anomalies the fetus has. In isolated CTEV fetal karyotyping should be offered; in complex CTEV fetal karyotyping is mandatory. The prenatal diagnosis of an (isolated) CTEV should always include an appropriate parental counseling together with pediatric orthopedics and pediatric surgeons. Repeated ultrasound scans can confirm diagnosis and reduce the risk of misjudgement of additional fetal anomalies as those may be frequently seen in fetuses with CTEV.

Hartge DR; Gaertner S; Weichert J

2012-10-01

277

Women's and care providers' perspectives of quality prenatal care: a qualitative descriptive study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Much attention has been given to the adequacy of prenatal care use in promoting healthy outcomes for women and their infants. Adequacy of use takes into account the timing of initiation of prenatal care and the number of visits. However, there is emerging evidence that the quality of prenatal care may be more important than adequacy of use. The purpose of our study was to explore women's and care providers' perspectives of quality prenatal care to inform the development of items for a new instrument, the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire. We report on the derivation of themes resulting from this first step of questionnaire development. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 pregnant women and 40 prenatal care providers recruited from five urban centres across Canada. Data were analyzed using inductive open and then pattern coding. The final step of analysis used a deductive approach to assign the emergent themes to broader categories reflective of the study's conceptual framework. RESULTS: The three main categories informed by Donabedian's model of quality health care were structure of care, clinical care processes, and interpersonal care processes. Structure of care themes included access, physical setting, and staff and care provider characteristics. Themes under clinical care processes were health promotion and illness prevention, screening and assessment, information sharing, continuity of care, non-medicalization of pregnancy, and women-centredness. Interpersonal care processes themes were respectful attitude, emotional support, approachable interaction style, and taking time. A recurrent theme woven throughout the data reflected the importance of a meaningful relationship between a woman and her prenatal care provider that was characterized by trust. CONCLUSIONS: While certain aspects of structure of care were identified as being key dimensions of quality prenatal care, clinical and interpersonal care processes emerged as being most essential to quality care. These processes are important as they have a role in mitigating adverse outcomes, promoting involvement of women in their own care, and keeping women engaged in care. The findings suggest key considerations for the planning, delivery, and evaluation of prenatal care. Most notably, care should be woman-centred and embrace shared decision making as an essential element.

Sword W; Heaman MI; Brooks S; Tough S; Janssen PA; Young D; Kingston D; Helewa ME; Akhtar-Danesh N; Hutton E

2012-01-01

278

Women's and care providers' perspectives of quality prenatal care: a qualitative descriptive study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been given to the adequacy of prenatal care use in promoting healthy outcomes for women and their infants. Adequacy of use takes into account the timing of initiation of prenatal care and the number of visits. However, there is emerging evidence that the quality of prenatal care may be more important than adequacy of use. The purpose of our study was to explore women's and care providers' perspectives of quality prenatal care to inform the development of items for a new instrument, the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire. We report on the derivation of themes resulting from this first step of questionnaire development. Methods A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 pregnant women and 40 prenatal care providers recruited from five urban centres across Canada. Data were analyzed using inductive open and then pattern coding. The final step of analysis used a deductive approach to assign the emergent themes to broader categories reflective of the study's conceptual framework. Results The three main categories informed by Donabedian's model of quality health care were structure of care, clinical care processes, and interpersonal care processes. Structure of care themes included access, physical setting, and staff and care provider characteristics. Themes under clinical care processes were health promotion and illness prevention, screening and assessment, information sharing, continuity of care, non-medicalization of pregnancy, and women-centredness. Interpersonal care processes themes were respectful attitude, emotional support, approachable interaction style, and taking time. A recurrent theme woven throughout the data reflected the importance of a meaningful relationship between a woman and her prenatal care provider that was characterized by trust. Conclusions While certain aspects of structure of care were identified as being key dimensions of quality prenatal care, clinical and interpersonal care processes emerged as being most essential to quality care. These processes are important as they have a role in mitigating adverse outcomes, promoting involvement of women in their own care, and keeping women engaged in care. The findings suggest key considerations for the planning, delivery, and evaluation of prenatal care. Most notably, care should be woman-centred and embrace shared decision making as an essential element.

Sword Wendy; Heaman Maureen I; Brooks Sandy; Tough Suzanne; Janssen Patricia A; Young David; Kingston Dawn; Helewa Michael E; Akhtar-Danesh Noori; Hutton Eileen

2012-01-01

279

Father surrogate: historical perceptions and perspectives of men in nursing and their relationship with fathers in the NICU.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Femininity is often associated with the nursing profession, but is not one of its defining characteristics. Men have been providing care to the sick and injured for many centuries, and they continue to do so for many reasons. Male nurses display a wide range of caring practices, which may not always be interpreted as such by their female counterparts. This article presents the male perspective and approach to caring, including the unique relationship that male nurses can have with fathers in the NICU.

Peterson SW

2008-07-01

280

Prenatal diagnosis of homozygous ?-thalassemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An in vitro test for the prenatal diagnosis of homozygous ?-thalassaemia and its application is described. The basic methodology consists in obtaining a minute specimen of placental blood by blind aspiration or foetoscopy at the 18th to 20th week of gestation, incubating a sample in the presence of 3H-leucine, separating the labelled globin chains by chromatography on sodium carboxymethyl cellulose microcolumns with 8M urea-mercaptoethanol and measuring the radioactivity associated with the ?- and ?-chains. The ?/(pre-?+?) radioactivity ratio is used as an index of adequacy of ?-chain synthesis, a value greater than 0.07 being taken as indicative of freedom from disease and a value less than 0.03 indicative of homozygous ?-thalassaemia. From 350 women seeking the test, 344 samples were tested; 269 were judged normal or heterozygous, 75 homozygous for ?-thalassaemia. Four false negatives were identified, 3 having given borderline ?/(pre-?+?) ratios. Complications leading to foetal loss fell from 16% over the first year's experience to 8% over the second and 5% over the third. The test is now judged suitable for general use and is indeed being so used

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

[Prenatal diagnosis of choledochal cyst].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The choledocal cyst is a defect of the biliary extrahepatic route, the incidence is 1 in 100-150,000 newborns. This paper reports the case of a female newborn with choledocal cyst detected prenatally, from a 32-year-old mother, 2nd term pregnancy, who was diagnosed in the routine obstetric ultrasound as an abdominal fetal cyst. An anatomic obstetric ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis that was defined of a probable hepatic origin. Newborn was delivered at 39 weeks by caesarean section, with weight of 3,980 g and Apgar score 9-9 in conventional time. Newborn presented a maxim bilirubin level of 16 mg, controlled with phototherapy; the hepatic function was normal. Ultrasound showed a choledocal cyst which measured 50 x 49 x 48 mm, with dilatation of the hepatic common conduct, the gall bladder was normal. The abdominal scan reported a cystic mass in the middle abdominal region of 44 x 53 x 52 mm confirming a choledocal cyst. The diagnosis was confirmed after surgery. Patient had a satisfactory post-surgical evolution.

Hernández Herrera RJ; Flores Santos R; Hinojosa Salinas A; Ramos González R; Ramírez González B

2013-02-01

282

[Preimplantation and prenatal counseling. Interdisciplinary and multiprofessional approach].  

Science.gov (United States)

Several new legal regulations and guidelines introduced in 2010 have changed the duties involved in medical information and counseling on preimplantation genetics (PGD) and prenatal diagnosis (PND).These regulations share the goal of a high-quality health service offering patients interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary expertise, especially taking into account psychological and social aspects. This contribution presents crucial elements for cooperating counseling in the PGD and PND fields. It considers results from a nationwide survey of all professional groups involved in counseling after a pathological prenatal diagnosis according to the law. Crucial to interdisciplinary counseling are choosing the appropriate medical specialty for referral, a positive basis for cooperation, and the right time for consulting another doctor. Several central issues have been identified for successful multidisciplinary counseling: identifying the suitable moment and method to establish contact between the patient and psychosocial counselor, focusing on PGD and PND centers as well as on the transparent qualifications of psychosocial counselors, and appreciating the importance of cooperation. PMID:23361213

Woopen, C

2013-02-01

283

Does absence matter?: a comparison of three types of father absence in rural Bangladesh.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper examines the effects of three different types of father absence on the timing of life history events among women in rural Bangladesh. Age at marriage and age at first birth are compared across women who experienced different father presence/absence conditions as children. Survival analyses show that daughters of fathers who divorced their mothers or deserted their families have consistently younger ages at marriage and first birth than other women. In contrast, daughters whose fathers were labor migrants have consistently older ages at marriage and first birth. Daughters whose fathers died when they were children show older ages at marriage and first birth than women with divorced/deserted fathers and women with fathers present. These effects may be mediated by high socioeconomic status and high levels of parental investment among the children of labor migrants, and a combination of low investment, high psychosocial stress, and low alloparental investment among women with divorced/deserted fathers. Our findings are most consistent with the Child Development Theory model of female life history strategies, though the Paternal Investment and Psychosocial Acceleration models also help explain differences between women in low paternal investment situations (e.g., father divorced/abandoned vs. father dead). Father absence in and of itself seems to have little effect on the life history strategies of Bangladeshi women once key reasons for or correlates of absence are controlled, and none of the models is a good predictor of why women with deceased fathers have delayed life histories compared with women whose fathers are present.

Shenk MK; Starkweather K; Kress HC; Alam N

2013-03-01

284

Prenatal Vitamins: Why They Matter, How to Choose  

Science.gov (United States)

... personal, noncommercial use only. Prenatal vitamins: Why they matter, how to choose By Mayo Clinic staff Original ... mail address Sign up Prenatal vitamins: Why they matter, how to choose Wonder if you need to ...

285

Parental involvement after separation/divorce / O envolvimento parental após a separação/divórcio  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the ecological-contextual model and on the concept of parental involvement, this article proposes to discuss the parental practices of separated/divorced fathers and mothers towards their children. In order to do so, 234 subjects (117 fathers/117 mothers) with children at school were interviewed via the Parental Practices Inventory. Such instrument evaluated the parental involvement in 5 areas: affective involvement, didactic involvement, social involvement, disciplinary involvement and, responsibility. The results showed greater maternal involvement with children after the divorce: direct (care, interaction) and indirect (monitoring, preoccupation). The cohabitation with the mother revealed itself as a significant variable associated to her greater involvement with activities in the private/domestic environment while fathers had greater involvement in the public/social space. Contextual characteristics (cohabitation, frequency of visits) and characteristics of the parents (occupation, education, affective and conjugal issues) showed to be strongly associated with the parental involvement after divorce.

Luciana Suárez Grzybowski; Adriana Wagner

2010-01-01

286

Least explored factors associated with prenatal smoking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Poor pregnancy and birth outcomes are major problems in the United States, and maternal smoking during pregnancy has been identified as one of the most preventable risk factors associated with these outcomes. This study examines less explored risk factors of smoking among underserved African American pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at an outpatient obstetrics-gynecology clinic of an inner-city university hospital in Virginia from March 2009 through January 2011 in which pregnant women (N = 902) were interviewed at their first prenatal care visit. Survey questions included items related to women's sociodemographic characteristics as well as their pregnancy history; criminal history; receipt of social services; child protective services involvement; insurance status; and history of substance abuse, domestic violence, and depression. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to calculate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals depicting the relationship between these factors and smoking during pregnancy. The analysis reported that maternal age [OR = 1.08, 95 % CI = 1.05-1.12], less than high school education [OR = 4.30, 95 % CI = 2.27-8.14], unemployed [OR = 2.33, 95 % CI = 1.35-4.04], criminal history [OR = 1.66, 95 % CI = 1.05-2.63], receipt of social services [OR = 2.26, 95 % CI = 1.35-3.79] alcohol use [OR = 2.73, 95 % CI = 1.65-4.51] and illicit drug use [OR = 1.97, 95 % CI = 1.04-3.74] during pregnancy were statistically significant risk factors associated with smoking during pregnancy. In addition to the well known risk factors, public health professionals should be aware that criminal history and receipt of social services are important factors associated with smoking during pregnancy. Social service providers such as WIC and prisons and jails may offer a unique opportunity for education and cessation interventions during the preconception or interconception period.

Masho SW; Bishop DL; Keyser-Marcus L; Varner SB; White S; Svikis D

2013-09-01

287

Maternal Re-Partnering and New-Partner Fertility: Associations with Nonresident Father Investments in Children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research suggests that paternal re-partnering and new-partner fertility are associated with decreased nonresident father investments in children. Few studies, however, have examined the influence of maternal re-partnering and new-partner births on nonresident father investments. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine associations of maternal re-partnering (through cohabitation or marriage with a new partner) and new-partner births with nonresident father visitation and child support payments. Results suggest that maternal re-partnering is associated with a decrease in both yearly father-child contact and child support received by the mother. New-partner fertility for mothers who are co-residing with a partner is associated with an additional decrease in monthly father-child contact, but does not have an additional influence on yearly father-child contact or child support receipt.

Berger LM; Cancian M; Meyer DR

2012-02-01

288

A confidant support and problem solving model of divorced fathers' parenting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study tested a hypothesized social interaction learning (SIL) model of confidant support and paternal parenting. The latent growth curve analysis employed 230 recently divorced fathers, of which 177 enrolled support confidants, to test confidant support as a predictor of problem solving outcomes and problem solving outcomes as predictors of change in fathers' parenting. Fathers' parenting was hypothesized to predict growth in child behavior. Observational measures of support behaviors and problem solving outcomes were obtained from structured discussions of personal and parenting issues faced by the fathers. Findings replicated and extended prior cross-sectional studies with divorced mothers and their confidants. Confidant support predicted better problem solving outcomes, problem solving predicted more effective parenting, and parenting in turn predicted growth in children's reduced total problem behavior T scores over 18 months. Supporting a homophily perspective, fathers' antisociality was associated with confidant antisociality but only fathers' antisociality influenced the support process model. Intervention implications are discussed regarding SIL parent training and social support.

Degarmo DS; Forgatch MS

2012-03-01

289

The paternal component of the "healthy migrant" effect: fathers' natality and infants' low birth weight.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the predictors of birth outcomes among women of European and African ancestry and considers the birthplace of the babies' fathers (foreign born vs. native born) as a protective factor. This is a secondary data analysis of 146,431 singleton births among women of European and African ancestry, both native-born and foreign-born, in a 21 birth hospital region of Central New York State from 1996 to 2003. Foreign born fathers were found to have 15% fewer low birth weight infants than US-born fathers, after controlling for the race and birthplace of the mother, tobacco use and Medicaid. Although this secondary data analysis does not allow us to determine the social determinants of the better birth outcomes among infants of foreign born fathers, it does demonstrate that fathers matter and that foreign born fathers are associated with reduced low birth weight in their infants. PMID:21052803

Krishnakumar, Ambika; Lane, Sandra D; Hall, Meghan; Tso, Evaline; Pinto, Natasha; Oberoi, Navpriya; Suk, William; Badawy, Zaki; Wojtowycz, Martha A; Aubry, Richard

2011-11-01

290

The paternal component of the "healthy migrant" effect: fathers' natality and infants' low birth weight.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examines the predictors of birth outcomes among women of European and African ancestry and considers the birthplace of the babies' fathers (foreign born vs. native born) as a protective factor. This is a secondary data analysis of 146,431 singleton births among women of European and African ancestry, both native-born and foreign-born, in a 21 birth hospital region of Central New York State from 1996 to 2003. Foreign born fathers were found to have 15% fewer low birth weight infants than US-born fathers, after controlling for the race and birthplace of the mother, tobacco use and Medicaid. Although this secondary data analysis does not allow us to determine the social determinants of the better birth outcomes among infants of foreign born fathers, it does demonstrate that fathers matter and that foreign born fathers are associated with reduced low birth weight in their infants.

Krishnakumar A; Lane SD; Hall M; Tso E; Pinto N; Oberoi N; Suk W; Badawy Z; Wojtowycz MA; Aubry R

2011-11-01

291

“L’homme qui n’élève pas ses enfants ne devrait pas être appelé un père” ? Les tendances du discours sur la paternité et le dilemme paternel au Japon “The Man who Doesn’t Raise his Child Shouldn’t Be Called a Father”? The Trends of Discourse on Fatherhood and Father’s Dilemma in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La paternité japonaise a longtemps été caractérisée par un engagement professionnel exacerbé et une absence marquée au niveau familial. Cependant, le contexte économique et politique récent a induit certains changements dans la manière d’appréhender la paternité. Il est ainsi possible d’identifier trois types de positionnements dans les discours récents relatifs à la paternité au Japon : 1) le père “pourvoyeur”, garantissant les ressources économiques nécessaires aux besoins des enfants, 2) le père “socialisateur”, encadrant ses enfants dans l’apprentissage des normes sociales, 3) le père “soigneur”, aidant ses enfants pour ce qu’ils ne peuvent faire. Il n’est pas facile pour les pères de trouver un équilibre par rapport aux responsabilités que ces trois approches supposent. Les codes professionnels valorisant “l’homme dominant” et les carences du système d’encadrement des enfants obligent de nombreux pères à s’investir énormément dans leur vie professionnelle tandis que de nombreuses mères restent à la maison. Les réactions des pères face à cette situation sont variées. Certains valorisent une division genrée des responsabilités parentales et se consacrent pleinement à leur travail. D’autres articulent travail et famille tandis que l’épouse reste à la maison. D’autres, enfin, optent pour une articulation travail/famille impliquant les deux membres du couple, redéfinissant ainsi la signification de la masculinité.Japanese fatherhood has been characterized as preoccupation with work and alienation from family. However, Japan’s recent political and economic conditions have brought about changes and diversification in fatherhood. We can recognize three types of father’s responsibilities in recent discourses on fatherhood in Japan : 1) “provider,” supplying necessary economic resources for the growth of children, 2) “socializer,” supporting children to learn social norms and good manners, 3) “carer,” helping children by doing what children cannot do. It is difficult for fathers to keep a balance between the responsibility as a provider and as a socializer/carer. Male-dominant employment practices and insufficient child-support systems force many fathers to work very long and many mothers to stay home. Fathers’ reactions to the conflict are various. Some affirm gender division of parental responsibilities and justify their insufficient involvement in childcare. Some take a responsibility as a sole provider and make an effort to get involved in childcare as much as possible. Some try to juggle work and childcare and build egalitarian relationship with his wife, rethinking the meaning of masculinity.

Futoshi Taga

2011-01-01

292

Expression profiling of functional genes in prenatal skeletal muscle tissue in Duroc and Pietrain pigs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In livestock, skeletal muscle is a tissue of major economic importance for meat production and muscle mass is largely determined during the prenatal period by the number and the size of muscle fibres. The understanding of gene expression changes during prenatal pig muscle development is still limited. In this study, genes identified as differentially expressed in a previous microarray research and chosen for the function of the coded protein as putative candidate involved in myogenesis were considered to analyse their expression profile during foetal growth of Duroc and Pietrain pigs. The eleven genes were considered by real-time PCR for a time-course evaluation of the transcription level at six stages of prenatal longissimus dorsi development. The results suggest that the most relevant variations in mRNA levels of the analysed genes seem to follow temporal waves of gene expression. Significant changes of transcription were observed at 21-35 and 63-91 days, the two main phases of skeletal muscle development. During the early phases of Pietrain embryos' development, 10 of the 11 genes showed an induction. In Duroc embryos, a second phase of gene up-regulation can be identified in the phase 63-77 days. These results provide new data on developmental changes of expression profile of 11 genes involved in different functional pathways related to prenatal myogenic processes in Duroc and Pietrain pigs.

Davoli R; Braglia S; Russo V; Varona L; te Pas MF

2011-02-01

293

Prenatal assistance of a secondary care service  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This exploratory descriptive study, developed at Integrative Medical Assistance Center (NAMI) in Fortaleza-CE, had as objectives to know about the prenatal care offered to pregnant women, based on the criteria established by the Health Ministry’s Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program; to trace the social-demographic profile of pregnant women submitted to prenatal care follow-up and to investigate the knowledge of pregnant women regarding the examinations performed during pregnancy. Data were collected by means of interviews with thirty pregnant women above 18 years old, at the end of their pregnancies, in the period of September to October, 2004. Of these, 63% (19) had previous pregnancies, and 67% (20) of the predominant age group were between 19 and 25 years old. As for marital status, 73% (22) reported being married or having a stable relationship. 60% (18) reported having a family income between 1 and 3 minimal wages. Also, 40% (12) claimed to work as housemaids. When questioned about pre natal care, 80% (24) of the women acknowledged that it was essential for the pregnancy to run its course without incidents, and 83% (25) were familiar with the examinations carried out during the prenatal period. The percentage of pregnant women that had performed routine examinations was 77% (23). According to the statements on the medical assistance provided by NAMI, an average of 93% (28) of the women began the prenatal care in the first 14 weeks, attending six or more medical appointments and completing the anti-tetanus immunization schedule. In conclusion, 93% (28) of the interviewed women knew that they would benefit from the medical appointments and knew which procedures were performed during prenatal care.

Emanuelle Teixeira da Silva; Joselany Áfio Caetano; Ângela Regina de Vasconcelos Silva

2006-01-01

294

Euchromatic variant 16p+. Implications in prenatal diagnosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Euchromatic imbalances at the cytogenetic level are usually associated with phenotypic consequences. Among the exceptions are euchromatic variants of chromosome 16 (16p+) with normal phenotype. There is a growing list of euchromatic duplications and deletions involving both G-positive and G-negative bands that seem to be phenotypically neutral, but these euchromatic variants are rare. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this report is to describe a new familial case of euchromatic variant 16p+ and to emphasise the misinterpretation of these rare euchromatic variants particularly when ascertained at prenatal diagnosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fluorescence in situ hybridisation with clone RP11-261A7 showed an amplified signal in the larger chromosome 16. This clone contains FLJ43855 gene, similar to sodium- and chloride-dependent creatine transporter. CONCLUSION: So, this 16p+ variant that involves amplification of pseudogenetic sequences is considered a polymorphism in normal individuals.

López Pajares I; Villa O; Salido M; Mori MA; Gonzalez A; Lapunzina P; De Torres ML; Vallcorba I; Palomares M; Fernández L; Delicado A

2006-06-01

295

Prenatally diagnosed de novo complex chromosome rearrangements: Two new cases and review of the literature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCR) are rare structural rearrangements involving at least three chromosomes with three or more breakpoints. Although there have been numerous reports of individuals with CCR, most have been ascertained through the presence of multiple congenital anomalies, recurrent pregnancy loss, or infertility. Few cases have been ascertained prenatally. We present two new cases of prenatally ascertained CCR. In the first case, an amniocentesis revealed an apparently balanced de novo rearrangement in which chromosomes 5, 6 and 11 were involved in a three-way translocation: 46,XY,t(6;5)(5;11)(q23;p14.3;q15;p13). The pregnancy was unevenful. Recently, at the age of 9 months, a physical and developmental evaluation were normal but, height, weight, and head circumference were below the 5th percentile. In the second case an amniocentesis revealed an unbalanced de novo rearrangement involving separate translocations and an interstitial deletion: 46,XY,del(6)(q25.3q27),t(3;8)(p13;q21.3),t(6;18)(p11.2;q11.2). A meconium plug was present at birth and at 6 months of age surgery for Hirschsprung`s disease was required. Currently, at 10 months of age, the patient has hypotonia and developmental delay. The paucity of information regarding prenatally diagnosed CCR poses a problem in counseling families. Of the four prenatally diagnosed balanced de novo CCR cases, three had abnormal outcomes. In a review of the literature, approximately 70% of the postnatally ascertained balanced de novo CCR cases were associated with congenital anomalies, growth retardation and/or mental retardation. More information regarding the outcome of prenatally ascertained balanced de novo CCR is required for accurate risk assessment.

Ruiz, C.; Grubs, R.E.; Jewett, T. [and others

1994-09-01

296

Consulta prenatal: motivos de inasistencia, ¿se justifica?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer qué factores personales (epidemiológicos, socioeconómicos), institucionales y médicos están relacionados con la inasistencia a la consulta prenatal. Ambiente: Departamento de Obstetricia y Ginecología, Hospital "Dr. Adolfo Prince Lara", Puerto Cabello, Estado Carabobo. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo epidemiológico, analítico de corte transversal, basado en una entrevista-encuesta, en 1000 pacientes que en el embarazo actual o pasado no se controlaron durante el año 2008. Resultados: En factores epidemiológicos, predominó residencia en barrios (57,2 %), educación secundaria (59,7%), estado civil soltera (48,1 %) y la edad entre 20-29 años (40,4 %). Con los factores sociales, dominó el domicilio lejano (52,3 %), en los económicos, el desempleo (27,3 %) y en la educación prenatal, el desconocimiento de la importancia del control (48,8 %). En los factores institucionales fue determinante el ambiente inadecuado de la consulta (39,2 %) y la ubicación lejana del centro de salud (19,3 %). En factores de atención médica refirieron, consulta de baja calidad (29,8 %), seguida de la opinión de pocas horas de consulta (23,2 %). Conclusión: La falta a la consulta prenatal está relacionada con múltiples factores, esto conlleva a la instauración de actividades educativas, incluye desarrollar acciones efectivas para elevar la calidad de vida, rescate de programas preventivos de salud, además de reparación y dotación de las instalaciones de salud; sin olvidar mejoras del acto médico.Objective: To know what personal (epidemiological, socioeconomic), institutional and medical factors are related to non attendance to prenatal care. Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital "Dr. Adolfo Prince Lara", Puerto Cabello, Estado Carabobo. Methods: Descriptive, epidemiological, analytical, transversal study, based in a interview-survey, in 1000 patients with no prenatal care in the actual or previous pregnancy during 2008. Results: In epidemiological factors, prevailed suburb residency (57.2 %), high school education (59.7%), marital status single (48.1 %), and age between 20-29 years (40.4 %). In social factors, predominated distant residence (52.3 %), in the economical, unemployment (27.3 %) and in prenatal education, ignorance of the importance of the prenatal care (48.8 %). In the institutional factors was determinant unappropriated environment (39.2 %) and distant location of the health center (19.3 %). In the medical attention factors, reported low quality of the consultation (29.8 %), followed by few hours of attendance (23.2 %). Conclusion: The lack of prenatal care is related to multiple factors, that suggest the instauration of educative activities to elevate the life quality, rescue of the health preventive programs, and repairing and equip of health infrastructure; without forget the improvement of the medical act.

Pedro Faneite A; Clara Rivera; Fátima Rodríguez; Rosanna Amato; Shirley Moreno; Lynmer Cangemi

2009-01-01

297

Prenatal Care Utilization Rate and Patients Satisfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & Objective: Studies show, clients' satisfaction is an important indicator for service quality assessment. Finding causes of dissatisfaction helps to promote health care services quality.  High quality prenatal care services and clients' satisfaction decreases maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. The perceived quality of the prenatal care by the mothers can not be effectively evaluated unless considering the opinions, demands and satisfaction rate of mothers who receive the care. The objective of this study is to measure prenatal care utilization rate and patients satisfaction in the clinics of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2005.Methods & Materials: In this cross-sectional study, 380 pregnant women who had received prenatal care services in two hospitals and eight health centers were selected randomly and interviewed. Data were gathered using a questionnaire including demographic characteristics and satisfaction questions. Data were analyzed using SPSS and tested with chi-square and Pearson exact test.Results: According to the results, 53.4 % and 14.8% of the pregnant women had received complete and incomplete prenatal care, respectively. Most of the pregnant women (54.7%) were completely satisfied, 23.7% and 21.6% were moderately and poorly satisfied, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the utilization rate and satisfaction of mothers (P<0.001). 53.4% of mothers in health centers and 46% in hospitals had received complete prenatal care. Satisfaction with prenatal care in health centers and hospitals were 57.5% and 47%, respectively. This difference was probably related to the amount of emotional and physical care received by the patients in the different settings and the characteristics of the centers in which these services are provided. The kind of setting had significant relationship with the utilization and satisfaction rates (P=0.003, P=0.005, respectively). The results showed that the utilization and satisfaction rates in the health centers in which health-care providers were midwives were better than the hospitals in which health-care providers were medical and midwifery students. But in both settings it was lower than 60%.Conclusion: As a result, the utilization rate and satisfaction of mothers were inadequate in health centers and hospitals (lower than 70%). In the hospitals, they were lower than the health centers. The standardization of prenatal care and improvement of educational programs in hospitals should be considered.

Mirmolaei ST;  Khakbazan Z;  Kazemnejad A;  Azari M

2007-01-01

298

Prenatal effects of Ochratoxin A in hamsters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pregnant golden hamsters were injected ip with 2.5-20 mg/kg ochratoxin A on one of gestation days 7-10. The largest dosages when given on day 7,8, or 9 increased prenatal mortality and on day 9 diminished fetal growth. Malformations, such as micrognathia, hydrocephalus, short tail, oligodactyly, syndactyly, cleft lip, micromelia, and heart defects occurred, but no skeletal malformations were noted. These results add to the prenatal effects of ochratoxin A previously reported in mouse, rat, and chicken embryos.

Hood RD; Naughton MJ; Hayes AW

1976-02-01

299

Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of Majewski syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Majewski syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short ribs, polydactyly, short limbs, and a cleft lip. A 26-year-old woman with no family history of genetic diseases presented at 31 weeks' menstrual age with preterm labor and underwent prenatal sonography to screen for fetal anomalies. Sonography revealed a small thorax, markedly short ribs, micromelia, polydactyly, a cleft lip, dolichocephaly, and severe oligohydramnios. The other structures appeared normal. The most likely diagnosis was Majewski syndrome. Vaginal breech delivery was allowed to proceed. The 1,850-g male newborn died of respiratory failure shortly after birth. The postnatal appearance and radiographs confirmed the prenatal diagnosis.

Sirichotiyakul S; Tongsong T; Wanapirak C; Chanprapaph P

2002-06-01

300

[Prenatal diagnosis of central nervous system malformations].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prenatal diagnosis of fetal malformations have been the subject of numerous publications in the literature. This has dramatically increased in the last 15 years, mainly due to the advent of high-resolution ultrasound. In addition adequate guidelines issued by professional organizations have encouraged the universal approach to the imaging of fetal anatomy as well as malformations. One of the most significant groups of the fetal anomalies is the central nervous system malformation. Due to its prevalence and severity the praenatal diagnostics of central nervous system malformations got basic significance. In this review we attempted to summarize the recent informations concerning the prenatal diagnostics of the central nervous system anomalies.

Langmár Z; Németh M; Csaba A; Szigeti Z; Joó JG

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

Father Figures in the Novels of Jane Austen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Miniaturist as Jane Austen is, she has depicted the life of a few families. In her letter to her niece, Anna Austen, she writes: "three or four families in a country village is the very thing to work on"(Chapman's Edition, 1970, P.10). Jane’s knowledge about these families is, in no way shallow. It is rich in variation and contrasts. Jane Austen is a great novelist due to the universal significance of her novels. This universal significance is achieved in two ways. First, she creates living characters; she penetrates beneath the surface to the underlying principles of personality. She has a full understanding of human psychology and this enables her to draw intricate and complex natures. She lays bare not only the processes of their minds but also those of the heart. Second, she considers them impartially and shows them compounded both of faults and virtues like human beings. They have a universal significance; they are not national types, but representatives of essential human nature. They reveal the weaknesses and virtues of human nature in every age and country. There has been insufficient attention focused on Jane Austen’s father figures: how she created characters and what character types and father figures emerge in the full range of her stories. Characters are centre front in her stories, many of which are chiefly fine vignettes, and in Austen's theoretical statements she has consistently stressed the importance of character creation. The objective of this research is to shed light on those father figures who are the heads of the central families in Jane’s six novels.

Adli Odeh

2011-01-01

302

About the Translation of the Poem by Gabriel Aresti “The House of my Father  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, several versions of the poem “My father’s house” by Gabriel Aresti are analysed. The author studies in depth the theory and the practice of translation with the example of several translators. In the article, several specific examples of diverse translations by K. Gamsakhurdia, M. Tsvetaeva, V. Nabokov, J. Borges, etc, are quoted. At the end of his work, the author suggests his own version of the russian translation of the poem by Gabriel Aresti “My father’s house”.

Luarsabishvili, Vladimer

2010-01-01

303

Barriers to Adequate Prenatal Care Utilization in American Samoa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study is to describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n = 692) were categorized according to the adequacy of prenatal care utilization index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way analysis of variance and independent samples t tests. Between 2001 and 2008 85.4 % of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P = 0.02), maternal unemployment (P = 0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P = 0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initiation. Giving birth in 2007-2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 vs. 25.12 weeks; P < 0.01) and improved adequacy of received services (95.04 vs. 83.8 %; P = 0.02). The poor prenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007-2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population.

Hawley NL; Brown C; Nu'usolia O; Ah-Ching J; Muasau-Howard B; McGarvey ST

2013-09-01

304

[The questionnaire on paternal engagement of separated fathers].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present contribution presents psychometric findings of a newly developed questionnaire on paternal engagement after parental separation based on a sample of 225 separated or divorced fathers living in the German part of Switzerland. Factor analyses led to the following five dimensions: educational responsibility, cognitive and social support, quality of the emotional relationship, temporal availability, and leisure activities. Internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach's Alpha) ranged from .86 to .91. The dimensions reflect significant differences of paternal engagement regarding child custody, living arrangements of the mother, and parental cooperation. These findings clearly indicate that paternal engagement after separation should be considered in a differentiated multidimensional way.

Casa AD; Schildknecht CV; Winkler-Metzke C; Steinhausen HC

2010-01-01

305

Mothers, Fathers, Peers, and Mexican-Origin Adolescents' Sexual Intentions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on a symbolic-interaction perspective and a compensation model, the processes linking mother-and father-adolescent relationship qualities, deviant peer affiliations, and adolescents' sexual intentions were investigated for 246 Mexican-origin youths born in the United States and in Mexico using multiple-group structural equation models. Deviant peer affiliations significantly mediated the relations between paternal acceptance and sexual intentions and between disclosure to mothers and sexual intentions for U.S.-born youths but not for Mexico-born youths. Findings highlight the importance of examining variability as a function of youth nativity. PMID:21278903

Killoren, Sarah E; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Christopher, F Scott; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

2011-02-01

306

Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of the 49,XXXXY syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The 49,XXXXY syndrome is a rare sex chromosome anomaly with an approximate incidence of 1 in 85,000 male live births. The diagnosis is usually ascertained postnatally by the association of mental retardation, variable growth deficiency, Down syndrome-like facial dysmorphy, hypogenitalism and other malformations, especially involving the heart and skeleton. Prenatal diagnosis of the pentasomy 49,XXXXY is generally fortuitous and sonographic features have rarely been described in the literature. We report here on two cases of 49,XXXXY syndrome diagnosed prenatally because of sonographic abnormalities. In the first, amniocentesis was performed at 26 weeks' gestation for polyhydramnios, unilateral clubfoot and micropenis. In the second, a karyotype was carried out on chorionic villi at 13 weeks' gestation for cystic hygroma. These observations and the six previously reported cases demonstrate that cystic hygroma in first or second trimester of pregnancy may be associated with sex chromosome aneuploidy other than Turner syndrome. Moreover, they emphasize the importance of detailed sonographic examination in the second trimester, as small penis and abnormal posturing of the lower extremities are very suggestive of the 49,XXXXY syndrome.

Schluth C; Doray B; Girard-Lemaire F; Kohler M; Langer B; Gasser B; Lindner V; Flori E

2002-12-01

307

Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of the 49,XXXXY syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 49,XXXXY syndrome is a rare sex chromosome anomaly with an approximate incidence of 1 in 85,000 male live births. The diagnosis is usually ascertained postnatally by the association of mental retardation, variable growth deficiency, Down syndrome-like facial dysmorphy, hypogenitalism and other malformations, especially involving the heart and skeleton. Prenatal diagnosis of the pentasomy 49,XXXXY is generally fortuitous and sonographic features have rarely been described in the literature. We report here on two cases of 49,XXXXY syndrome diagnosed prenatally because of sonographic abnormalities. In the first, amniocentesis was performed at 26 weeks' gestation for polyhydramnios, unilateral clubfoot and micropenis. In the second, a karyotype was carried out on chorionic villi at 13 weeks' gestation for cystic hygroma. These observations and the six previously reported cases demonstrate that cystic hygroma in first or second trimester of pregnancy may be associated with sex chromosome aneuploidy other than Turner syndrome. Moreover, they emphasize the importance of detailed sonographic examination in the second trimester, as small penis and abnormal posturing of the lower extremities are very suggestive of the 49,XXXXY syndrome. PMID:12478628

Schluth, Caroline; Doray, Bérénice; Girard-Lemaire, Françoise; Kohler, Monique; Langer, Bruno; Gasser, Bernard; Lindner, Véronique; Flori, Elisabeth

2002-12-01

308

Prenatal diagnosis of haemophilia B: the Italian experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article describes prenatal diagnosis (PND) of haemophilia B (HB) within the framework of Italian haemophilia centres and genetics laboratories. The study details the experience from six haemophilia genetic centres (three in the North, one in the Centre and two in the South of Italy) and summarizes the different techniques used to perform PND of HB during the last 15 years. To date, the Italian HB database includes 373 characterized unrelated patients and their genetic information has permitted the identification of 274 carriers of childbearing age. This database represents the main instrument for timely and precise PND. Sixty-six prenatal diagnoses were performed on 52 HB carriers whose average age at the time was 34 (ranging from 24 to 44 years). In 44 cases, genetic counselling for carrier status determination was performed before pregnancy, while eight were not studied prior to pregnancy. Foetal samples were obtained by chorionic villus sampling in 52 cases, by amniocentesis in 12 while two were diagnosed by analysis of free foetal DNA obtained from maternal peripheral blood. In 35 (53%) pregnancies the foetus was female. For 31 men (47%), haemophilia status was determined by analysis of previously determined informative markers or familial mutations (12 affected and 19 unaffected). There may be more than one laboratory involved in the PND diagnostic pathway (providing DNA extraction, karyotype analysis, gender determination, maternal contamination detection, molecular diagnosis and sequencing). Good communication between all the parties, coordinated by the haemophilia centre, is essential for a successful and rapid process.

Belvini D; Salviato R; Acquila M; Bicocchi MP; Frusconi S; Garagiola I; Sanna V; Santacroce R; Rocino A; Tagariello G

2013-11-01

309

Universal prenatal HIV screening: are we there yet?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with prenatal HIV screening and the availability of HIV test results in medical records in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Three hundred postpartum women were surveyed about demographics and prenatal care provider(s) and practice setting and were asked to recall prenatal HIV screening and reasons for accepting or declining a HIV test. Medical records were reviewed for documentation of HIV results. Overall, 65% of women reported screening. White race, higher annual household income and fewer lifetime sexual partners were independently associated with decreased likelihood of prenatal HIV screening. Provider presentation of screening as standard practice and provider encouragement were associated with prenatal HIV screening. Only 38% of medical records contained HIV results at the time of labour. Universal and routine offering of prenatal HIV screening as standard practice, in conjunction with encouragement from health-care providers, may increase patient acceptability and the uptake of prenatal HIV screening.

Kennedy MR; Meyn LA; Reeves MF; Wiesenfeld HC

2011-04-01

310

Prenatal diagnosis of galactosaemia in six pregnancies -- possible complications with rare alleles of the galactose 1-phosphate uridyl transferase locus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe our experience in prenatal diagnosis of six foetuses at risk for galactosaemia. In one family the parents were both shown to be double heterozygotes at the galactose 1-phosphate uridyl transferase (Gal-PUT) locus, the mother having a Duarte/Los Angeles and the father a Duarte/galactosaemia genotype. The foetus (and an older brother previously thought to have classical galactosaemia) was also a Duarte/galactosaemia double heterozygote. In the other five families, the parents and three foetuses were heterozygous carriers of the galactosaemia gene, one of the foetuses had galactosaemia, and one was homozygous for the normal gene. It is concluded that by a combination of family studies and assay of cultured amniotic cell Gal-PUT, accurate prediction of the foetal Gal-PUT genotype is now possible.

Benson PF; Brandt NJ; Christensen E; Fensom AH

1979-11-01

311

The Evolution of Altruistic Preferences: Mothers versus Fathers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

What can evolutionary biology tell us about male-female differences in preferences concerning family matters? Might mothers be more solicitous toward offspring than fathers, for example? The economics literature has documented gender differences-children benefit more from money put in the hands of mothers rather than fathers, for example-and these differences are thought to be partly due to preferences. Yet for good reason family economics is mostly concerned with how prices and incomes affect behavior against a backdrop of exogenous preferences. Evolutionary biology complements this approach by treating preferences as the outcome of natural selection. We mine the well-developed biological literature to make a prima facie case for evolutionary roots of parental preferences. We consider the most rudimentary of traits-sex differences in gamete size and internal fertilization-and explain how they have been thought to generate male-female differences in altruism toward children and other preferences related to family behavior. The evolutionary approach to the family illuminates connections between issues typically thought distinct in family economics, such as parental care and marriage markets.

Alger I; Cox D

2013-09-01

312

Prenatal cortisol, prematurity and low birthweight  

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Three hundred depressed pregnant women were recruited at approximately 20 weeks gestation. They were then divided by a median split into high and low urinary cortisol level groups. The high cortisol group had higher CES-D depression scores and higher inhibition (BIS) scores prenatally. Their fetus...

Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Diego, Miguel; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia

313

Noninvasive Prenatal Molecular Karyotyping from Maternal Plasma  

Science.gov (United States)

Fetal DNA is present in the plasma of pregnant women. Massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA has been used to detect fetal trisomies 21, 18, 13 and selected sex chromosomal aneuploidies noninvasively. Case reports describing the detection of fetal microdeletions from maternal plasma using massively parallel sequencing have been reported. However, these previous reports were either polymorphism-dependent or used statistical analyses which were confined to one or a small number of selected parts of the genome. In this report, we reported a procedure for performing noninvasive prenatal karyotyping at 3 Mb resolution across the whole genome through the massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. This method has been used to analyze the plasma obtained from 6 cases. In three cases, fetal microdeletions have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In two cases, fetal microduplications have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In the remaining case, the plasma DNA sequencing result was consistent with the pregnant mother being a carrier of a microduplication. Simulation analyses were performed for determining the number of plasma DNA molecules that would need to be sequenced and aligned for enhancing the diagnostic resolution of noninvasive prenatal karyotyping to 2 Mb and 1 Mb. In conclusion, noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma by massively parallel sequencing is feasible and would enhance the diagnostic spectrum of noninvasive prenatal testing.

Yu, Stephanie C. Y.; Jiang, Peiyong; Choy, Kwong W.; Chan, Kwan Chee Allen; Won, Hye-Sung; Leung, Wing C.; Lau, Elizabeth T.; Tang, Mary H. Y.; Leung, Tak Y.; Lo, Yuk Ming Dennis; Chiu, Rossa W. K.

2013-01-01

314

Effect of brain prenatal irradiations (review)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tendency of intellectual deficiency and emotion disturbance among children which were irradiated in womb was found. Study of the risk of endogenic psychic disorder development and, first of all, schizophrenia in pre-natally irradiated children, as a result of Chernobyl catastrophe, is of special interest. 256 refs., 1 tab.

1998-01-01

315

Management of prenatally diagnosed lung lesions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prenatal diagnosis provides insight into the in utero evolution of fetal thoracic lesions such as congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM), bronchopulmonary sequestration (BPS), or hybrid lesions. Serial sonographic study of fetuses with thoracic lesions has helped define the natural history of these lesions, determine the pathophysiologic features that affect clinical outcome, and formulate in utero and postnatal management based on prognosis.

Khalek N; Johnson MP

2013-02-01

316

Noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fetal DNA is present in the plasma of pregnant women. Massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA has been used to detect fetal trisomies 21, 18, 13 and selected sex chromosomal aneuploidies noninvasively. Case reports describing the detection of fetal microdeletions from maternal plasma using massively parallel sequencing have been reported. However, these previous reports were either polymorphism-dependent or used statistical analyses which were confined to one or a small number of selected parts of the genome. In this report, we reported a procedure for performing noninvasive prenatal karyotyping at 3 Mb resolution across the whole genome through the massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. This method has been used to analyze the plasma obtained from 6 cases. In three cases, fetal microdeletions have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In two cases, fetal microduplications have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In the remaining case, the plasma DNA sequencing result was consistent with the pregnant mother being a carrier of a microduplication. Simulation analyses were performed for determining the number of plasma DNA molecules that would need to be sequenced and aligned for enhancing the diagnostic resolution of noninvasive prenatal karyotyping to 2 Mb and 1 Mb. In conclusion, noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma by massively parallel sequencing is feasible and would enhance the diagnostic spectrum of noninvasive prenatal testing.

Yu SC; Jiang P; Choy KW; Chan KC; Won HS; Leung WC; Lau ET; Tang MH; Leung TY; Lo YM; Chiu RW

2013-01-01

317

Recent advances in prenatal diagnosis and treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article is a summary of the prenatal and perinatal management of a variety of congenital lesions as practiced by the fetal treatment program at the University of California in San Francisco. Emphasis is placed on those lesions that are amenable to fetal intervention.

Adzick NS; Flake AW; Harrison MR

1985-10-01

318

[Prenatal diagnosis and evolution of patent urachus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenatal ultrasonographic features of patent urachus consist in anechoic proximal cord cyst communicating with the bladder associated with large umbilicus. Distinction should be made with omphalocele and bladder extrophy. Spontaneous evolution leads to rupture during mid-trimester and bladder protrusion. Karyotyping is not mandatory in isolated typical cases. Early postnatal surgery is usually required. PMID:23523249

Mazeau, P; Curinier, S; Kandem-Simo, A; Delabaere, A; Laurichesse, H; Lemery, D; Gallot, D

2013-03-19

319

Prenatal diagnosis in congenital contractural arachnodactyly.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is a heritable connective tissue disorder caused by defects in the gene encoding fibrillin-2 (FBN2). People with CCA typically have a marfanoid habitus, flexion contractures, severe kyphoscoliosis, abnormal pinnae, and muscular hypoplasia. Because of the relative infrequency of the syndrome and its generally mild to moderate severity, prenatal diagnosis had not previously been sought. Here we report prenatal diagnosis in a family with CCA. Because the course of the disease in the proband was rather severe, she had requested genetic counseling as early as age 17. She delayed childbearing until prenatal diagnosis for CCA became possible. This decision was supported by her mother and later her husband. Because she shared the same genotype with her husband, genetic linkage analysis of this family did not alter the a priori 50% risk of having an affected child. The possibility of unambiguously ascertaining the affected status of a fetus homozygous for the tested FBN2 marker was sufficient for the family to pursue prenatal diagnosis. This case strongly points to the importance of informed decisions now that genetic testing is becoming commonplace.

Belleh S; Spooner L; Allanson J; Godfrey M

1998-01-01

320

Prenatal diagnosis in congenital contractural arachnodactyly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is a heritable connective tissue disorder caused by defects in the gene encoding fibrillin-2 (FBN2). People with CCA typically have a marfanoid habitus, flexion contractures, severe kyphoscoliosis, abnormal pinnae, and muscular hypoplasia. Because of the relative infrequency of the syndrome and its generally mild to moderate severity, prenatal diagnosis had not previously been sought. Here we report prenatal diagnosis in a family with CCA. Because the course of the disease in the proband was rather severe, she had requested genetic counseling as early as age 17. She delayed childbearing until prenatal diagnosis for CCA became possible. This decision was supported by her mother and later her husband. Because she shared the same genotype with her husband, genetic linkage analysis of this family did not alter the a priori 50% risk of having an affected child. The possibility of unambiguously ascertaining the affected status of a fetus homozygous for the tested FBN2 marker was sufficient for the family to pursue prenatal diagnosis. This case strongly points to the importance of informed decisions now that genetic testing is becoming commonplace. PMID:10464661

Belleh, S; Spooner, L; Allanson, J; Godfrey, M

 
 
 
 
321

Prenatal diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta type II.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the prenatal sonographic features of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type II. DESIGN: Descriptive (case series). SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Chiang Mai University. SUBJECTS: Six fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of OI were evaluated. RESULTS: Six fetuses were prenatally diagnosed as OI type II in five mothers without familial history of the disease. One mother had two consecutive pregnancies complicated with this condition. The first five cases were classified as OI type IIA, while the last one was OI type IIB. All of subtype A exhibited typical triad of bone shortening, diffuse hypomineralization and multiple fractures of long bones including beaded ribs whereas the subtype B showed shortening of only femurs, normal bone echodensity and isolated fractures of long bones. The postnatal radiography and autopsy confirmed the prenatal diagnosis in all cases. Other findings may occasionally be found, including polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, hydrop fetalis and small for gestational age. CONCLUSION: The triad of bone shortening, decreased bone density and numerous fractures including beaded ribs permits a confident diagnosis of OI type IIA. Furthermore, sonographic features may differentiate the subtype of OI type II, depending on degree of bone shortening and echodensity.

Tongsong T; Wanapirak C; Siriangkul S

1998-04-01

322

[Prenatal diagnosis of triploidy. II. Biological studies  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In three cases of triploïdy, the origin of extra haploid set is found by chromosomal and HLA markers. It does not confirm a relationship between paternal origin and partial hydatidiform mole. In case of prenatally diagnosed triploïdy, a protocol for biological studies is suggested.

Gilgenkrantz S; Mujica P; Perrier P; Couillin P; Boué J

1985-12-01

323

PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF ?-THALASSEMIAS AND HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Prenatal diagnosis of ?-thalassemia was accomplished for the first time in the 1970s by globin chain synthesis analysis on fetal blood obtained by placental aspiration at 18-22 weeks gestation. Since then, the molecular definition of the ?- globin gene pathology, the development of procedures of DNA analysis, and the introduction of chorionic villous sampling have dramatically improved prenatal diagnosis of this  disease and of related disorders.  Much information is now available about the molecular mechanisms of the diseases and the molecular testing is widespread.As prenatal diagnosis has to provide an accurate, safe and early result, an efficient screening of the population and a rapid molecular characterization of the couple at risk, are necessary prerequisites. In the last decades  earlier and less invasive approaches for prenatal diagnosis were developed . A overview of the most promising procedure will be done.Moreover, in order to reduce the choice of   interrupting  the pregnancy in case of affected fetus, Preimplantation or Preconceptional Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) has been setting up for several diseases including thalassemias.  

Maria Cristina Rosatelli; Luisella Saba

2009-01-01

324

Prenatal Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and Asthma in Children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prevalence of asthma increases with increasing dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) levels. However, the effect of early-life exposure, the fundamental window of exposure, is unknown. We assessed the association between prenatal DDE and other organochlorine compounds, and atopy and asthma during i...

Sunyer, Jordi; Torrent, Maties; Muñoz-Ortiz, Laura; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Carrizo, Daniel; Grimalt, Joan; Antó, Josep M.

325

[Prenatal diangosis of hypospadia--case reports].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypospadia is abnormal sex differentiation of the external genitalia with ventral and proximal displacement of the urethral orifice from its usual location on glans penis. Three prenatally diagnosed cases of hypospadia are presented and the major ultrasound findings of this entity are discussed. PMID:18642570

Markov, D; Bozhilov, D; Dimitrova, V; Sl?ncheva, B; Iar?kova, N

2008-01-01

326

[Prenatal diangosis of hypospadia--case reports  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hypospadia is abnormal sex differentiation of the external genitalia with ventral and proximal displacement of the urethral orifice from its usual location on glans penis. Three prenatally diagnosed cases of hypospadia are presented and the major ultrasound findings of this entity are discussed.

Markov D; Bozhilov D; Dimitrova V; Sl?ncheva B; Iar?kova N

2008-01-01

327

The Word of the Father / the Body of the Mother: Dimensions of Gender in Tarkovsky's Mirror  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Supposed to occur between the ages of six and eighteen months – but at the same time seen as seeping into the ongoing identity formation of the subject – Lacan’s theory of the ‘Mirror Stage’ involves the successful identification of one’s body as one’s own. Yet the wholeness of the body with which the infant identifies is a mirage; experienced as an exterior image, its unity does not correspond with the infant’s as yet underdeveloped physical coordination. Further, the moment of self-identification is, simultaneously, the moment in which the subject is irreducibly split, since the sense of a singular, self-contained self can only be produced by its doubling in some reflective object: the ‘I’ is thus established as dependent on an ‘other’. This article explores Tarkovsky’s Mirror – as a film overtly concerned with the idea of a problematic sense of self – in light of Lacan’s theory. Mixing childhood memories of the director’s mother with the poetry of his father, Arsennii Tarkovsky, the film presents the attempts of a middle-aged, apparently ill man – the film’s narrator – to come to terms with his past. In particular, it is interested in the part played by the mother in that past. Though the father is himself largely absent, his word, in the form of his poetry, still appears to structure the son’s sense of self; the narrator’s relation to his mother, on the other hand, is more ‘visible’, but nonetheless troublesome. Moreover, her significance as the son’s ‘other’ – an essential yet repressed figure in the formation of his identity – is underscored in the film by the association of her image with the motif of mirrors.

Alice Gavin

2007-01-01

328

Prenatal exposure to nanoparticulate titanium dioxide enhances depressive-like behaviors in adult rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have the potential to produce reactive oxygen species and can be transferred from the mother to the fetal brain. The central nervous system exhibits remarkable plasticity in early life and can be altered significantly by environmental stressors encountered during fetal period. Additionally, prenatal stressors are involved with emotional problems in adulthood. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate whether prenatal exposure to TiO2 NPs could induce oxidative damage in the offspring brain and eventually affect the emotional behaviors in adulthood. The results showed that prenatal exposure to TiO2 NPs impaired the antioxidant status, caused a significant oxidative damage to nucleic acids and lipids in the brain of newborn pups, and enhanced the depressive-like behaviors during adulthood in the force swimming test and the sucrose preference test. These results suggest that the stress during fetal life induced by prenatal exposure to TiO2 NPs could be implicated in depressive-like behaviors in adulthood.

Cui Y; Chen X; Zhou Z; Lei Y; Ma M; Cao R; Sun T; Xu J; Huo M; Cao R; Wen C; Che Y

2013-08-01

329

Prenatal ethanol exposure does not cause neurological alterations in adult CD1 mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic factors are involved in variation in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), which is also observed among various inbred mouse strains. The CD1 mouse strain is often used in toxicological and genetic experiments. However, there is little literature using this strain to study long-term neurologic abnormalities of FASD. In the present study, we addressed the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on neurological alterations in adult CD1 mice. The female CD1 mice received exposure to ethanol solution (10 vol%) starting from 2 weeks before mating up to pups born (postnatal day 1). At 24 weeks after the birth, the prenatal ethanol-exposed mice and control mice showed no difference in spatial learning and memory performance in a Morris water maze. Consistently, pathological changes, such as increased neuronal apoptosis, decreased synaptic protein synaptophysin expression, synaptic loss and reactive astrogliosis, were not observed in the hippocampus of mice prenatally exposed to ethanol. These results suggest that CD1 mice are highly resistant to prenatal alcohol exposure and may serve as genetic modification models of FASD.

Wei S; Xu Z; Gao J; Ding J; Xiao M

2013-03-01

330

Bifid uvula and familial Stickler syndrome diagnosed prenatally before the sonographic "equals sign" landmark.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The prenatal ultrasound visualization of the soft palate and especially the uvula may be technically difficult due to its anatomy and presence of surrounding structures. A cleft involving the soft palate and the uvula is one of the clinical features of Stickler syndrome, a rare connective tissue disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Third trimester scan performed at 30 weeks' gestation in a pregnant woman with a familial history of Stickler syndrome using conventional 2D ultrasound. RESULTS: Transabdominal scan performed with the fetal head in oblique plane and following fetal swallowing movements enabled a previously unrecognized median cleft at the level of the uvula. Molecular biology analysis allowed a precise prenatal diagnosis of Stickler syndrome and excluded overlapping syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The prenatal ultrasound diagnosis was achieved time before the "equals signs" was proposed as a useful sonographic marker of a normal uvula. The identification of a bifid uvula by conventional 2D ultrasound led to a prenatal diagnosis of Stickler syndrome in this affected Family and allowed the neonatologist team to be available at the time of birth. Moreover, postnatal multispecialist follow up could be timely planned for targeted organ examination and appropriate management.

Lituania M; Tonni G

2013-09-01

331

Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy: current status and future prospects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for aneuploidy using cell-free DNA in maternal plasma is revolutionizing prenatal screening and diagnosis. We review NIPT in the context of established screening and invasive technologies, the range of cytogenetic abnormalities detectable, cost, counseling and ethical issues. Current NIPT approaches involve whole-genome sequencing, targeted sequencing and assessment of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) differences between mother and fetus. Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of NIPT for Down and Edwards syndromes, and possibly Patau syndrome, in high-risk women. Universal NIPT is not cost-effective, but using NIPT contingently in women found at moderate or high risk by conventional screening is cost-effective. Positive NIPT results must be confirmed using invasive techniques. Established screening, fetal ultrasound and invasive procedures with microarray testing allow the detection of a broad range of additional abnormalities not yet detectable by NIPT. NIPT approaches that take advantage of SNP information potentially allow the identification of parent of origin for imbalances, triploidy, uniparental disomy and consanguinity, and separate evaluation of dizygotic twins. Fetal fraction enrichment, improved sequencing and selected analysis of the most informative sequences should result in tests for additional chromosomal abnormalities. Providing adequate prenatal counseling poses a substantial challenge given the broad range of prenatal testing options now available.

Benn P; Cuckle H; Pergament E

2013-07-01

332

Psychosocial factors associated with becoming a young father in Finland: a nationwide longitudinal study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the characteristics of boys who become fathers at young age. Some studies have suggested that antisocial adolescents are more likely to be young fathers. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of psychosocial factors in childhood with becoming a young father, and to assess if they are independent of criminal behavior in adolescence. Methods The baseline assessment in 1989 included 2,946 boys born in 1981. Information about psychiatric symptoms at age eight was collected with Rutter questionnaires from parents and teachers and with the Child Depression Inventory from the children themselves. Data on criminal offenses at age 16–20 was collected from a police register. Register-based follow-up data on becoming a father under the age of 22 was available for 2,721 boys. Results The factors measured at age eight, which were associated with becoming a young father independently of adolescent criminality, were conduct problems, being born to a young father and having a mother with a low educational level. Having repeatedly committed criminal offences in adolescence was associated with becoming a young father independently of psychosocial factors in childhood. Conclusions Antisocial tendencies both in childhood and adolescence are associated with becoming a young father. They should be taken into consideration when designing preventive or supportive interventions.

Lehti Venla; Sourander Andre; Sillanmäki Lauri; Helenius Hans; Tamminen Tuula; Kumpulainen Kirsti; Almqvist Fredrik

2012-01-01

333

Bidirectional Longitudinal Relations between Father-Child Relationships and Chinese Children's Social Competence during Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a two-year and three-wave cross-lagged design with a sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined bidirectional longitudinal relations between father-child relationships and children's social competence. The results of structural equation modeling showed bidirectional effects between father-child conflict and social…

Zhang, Xiao

2013-01-01

334

Bidirectional Longitudinal Relations between Father-Child Relationships and Chinese Children's Social Competence during Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

|Using a two-year and three-wave cross-lagged design with a sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined bidirectional longitudinal relations between father-child relationships and children's social competence. The results of structural equation modeling showed bidirectional effects between father-child conflict and social…

Zhang, Xiao

2013-01-01

335

Intrusive fathering, children's self-regulation and social skills: a mediation analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Fathers have unique influences on children's development, and particularly in the development of social skills. Although father-child relationship influences on children's social competence have received increased attention in general, research on fathering in families of children with developmental delays (DD) is scant. This study examined the pathway of influence among paternal intrusive behaviour, child social skills and child self-regulatory ability, testing a model whereby child regulatory behaviour mediates relations between fathering and child social skills. METHODS: Participants were 97 families of children with early identified DD enrolled in an extensive longitudinal study. Father and mother child-directed intrusiveness was coded live in naturalistic home observations at child age 4.5, child behaviour dysregulation was coded from a video-taped laboratory problem-solving task at child age 5, and child social skills were measured using independent teacher reports at child age 6. Analyses tested for mediation of the relationship between fathers' intrusiveness and child social skills by child behaviour dysregulation. RESULTS: Fathers' intrusiveness, controlling for mothers' intrusiveness and child behaviour problems, was related to later child decreased social skills and this relationship was mediated by child behaviour dysregulation. CONCLUSIONS: Intrusive fathering appears to carry unique risk for the development of social skills in children with DD. Findings are discussed as they related to theories of fatherhood and parenting in children with DD, as well as implications for intervention and future research.

Stevenson M; Crnic K

2013-06-01

336

From Father to Son: Generative Care and Gradual Conversion in William James's Writing of "The Varieties"  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a historical and biographical, then developmental, approach, this article examines William James's spiritual family history by reviewing key events in the life of his father, Henry James, Sr. It pays particular attention to Henry Sr's tumultuous relationship with his own father, William James of Albany, and Henry Sr's subsequent conversion…

Bridgers, Lynn; Snarey, John R.

2003-01-01

337

Fathers' intentions to accept human papillomavirus vaccination for sons and daughters: exploratory findings from rural Honduras.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Little is known about fathers' attitudes toward human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in low-resource settings. We sought to determine the awareness of HPV vaccination among Honduran fathers, and to assess their intention to accept HPV vaccination for their sons and daughters. METHODS: We conducted 100 structured interviews of fathers recruited from medical and business settings between May 2007 and June 2008. After assessing baseline knowledge, fathers received a brief explanation of HPV infection, cervical cancer, genital warts, and HPV vaccination. They were then asked whether they would accept HPV vaccination for their sons and daughters. RESULTS: Prior to receiving information about HPV, 85% of fathers believed that cervical cancer was preventable, over two-thirds could correctly name some form of prevention, 22% of fathers had heard of HPV, and 17% had heard of HPV vaccination. After receiving HPV-related information, 100% of fathers intended to accept HPV vaccination for their sons and 94% intended to accept HPV vaccination for their daughters. CONCLUSIONS: Few Honduran fathers were aware of HPV or HPV vaccination, but after receiving information, most would accept HPV vaccination for their sons and daughters.

Perkins RB; Mehta PK; Langrish SM

2012-02-01

338

Fathers’ Emotional Intelligence and Their Response towards Their Children’s Behaviors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Emotional intelligence (EI) measures one’s “common sense” and ability to get along with others. The EI construct is a rather novel concept with little empirical support, particularly, in relation to the link between father’s EI and that of his child’s behavior. The specific objective of this research is to determine the relationship between fathers’ EI and their pleasure-anger responses to children’s behavior. The present study was carried out among 107 fathers of Iranian students in the Iranian primary school located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The students were clustered in three different age groups, 8, 9, and 10 years old. Data were collected using the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I) adult version (Bar- on EQ-I, 1997) and Parent Affect Test (PAT, Linehan and Egen, 1983). Pearson’s correlation indicated that fathers with high EI displayed more positive responses to children’s behavior in comparison to the fathers with low EI. In addition, fathers with low EI displayed more anger responses to children’s behavior in comparison to the fathers with high EI.

Mojgan Mirza; Ma’rof Redzuan; Rohani Abdullah; Mariani Mansor

2010-01-01

339

Father-Child Transmission of School Adjustment: A Prospective Intergenerational Study  

Science.gov (United States)

|The intergenerational transmission of school adjustment was explored in a sample of 213 children and their fathers. The fathers were participants in a longitudinal study that began when they were in the 4th grade, and their children have been assessed at the ages of 21 months and 3, 5, and 7 years. Two components of school adjustment were…

Pears, Katherine C.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Capaldi, Deborah; Kerr, David C. R.; Fisher, Philip A.

2013-01-01

340

Old Obligations in the Modern World: The Father as Provider before and after Divorce  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article draws on empirical qualitative research to identify the various ways in which separated or divorced fathers in the Czech Republic relate to the norm of father-provider. It offers an analysis of the plurality of men's approaches to the traditional provider norm of fatherhood, & the change...

Dudova, Radka

 
 
 
 
341

Marital Satisfaction and Parenting Experiences of Mothers and Fathers of Adolescents and Adults with Autism  

Science.gov (United States)

The association of marital satisfaction with parenting burden and quality of the parent-child relationship was examined in 91 married mothers and fathers of co-residing adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders. Within-couple differences between mothers and fathers in how child characteristics related to these parenting experiences…

Hartley, Sigan L.; Barker, Erin T.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.

2011-01-01

342

Parenting Stress, Alliance, Child Contact, and Adjustment of Imprisoned Mothers and Fathers  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study contrasted the parenting stress and adjustment patterns of 100 mothers and 111 fathers incarcerated in one of 11 U.S. prisons. In comparison to inmate mothers, fathers had less contact with children, higher levels of parenting stress, and poorer alliance with caregivers. For inmate mothers, higher levels of contact with…

Loper, Ann Booker; Carlson, L. Wrenn; Levitt, Lacey; Scheffel, Kathryn

2009-01-01

343

Increased frequency of reproductive health problems among fathers of boys with hypospadias  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Some studies have suggested an association between paternal subfertility and hypospadias among their sons, although the association has not been systematically investigated. We therefore compared male reproductive health among a group of fathers of boys with hypospadias and a group of fathers to normal children.

Asklund, Camilla; JØrgensen, Niels

2007-01-01

344

A waitlist-controlled trial of behavioral parent training for fathers of children with ADHD.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fathers, in general, have been underrepresented in studies of parent training outcome for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a behavioral parent training program developed expressly for fathers. The present investigation randomly assigned 55 fathers of children ages 6 to 12 with ADHD to the Coaching Our Acting-out Children: Heightening Essential Skills (COACHES) program or a waitlist control group. Outcomes for the study included objective observations of parent behaviors and parent ratings of child behavior. Results indicated that fathers in the COACHES group reduced their rates of negative talk and increased rates of praise as measured in parent-child observations, and father ratings of the intensity of problem behaviors were reduced, relative to the waitlist condition. Groups did not differ on observations of use of commands or father ratings of child behavior problems. Untreated mothers did not significantly improve on observational measures or behavioral ratings. This study provides preliminary evidence for the efficacy of the COACHES parenting program for fathers of children with ADHD. Results are cast in light of the larger literature on behavioral parent training for ADHD as well as how to best work with fathers of children with ADHD in treatment contexts.

Fabiano GA; Pelham WE; Cunningham CE; Yu J; Gangloff B; Buck M; Linke S; Gormley M; Gera S

2012-01-01

345

Family Relationships during Infancy and Later Mother and Father Vocabulary Use with Young Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Very little previous research has considered the contributions of family relationships and interactions on the language input of mothers and fathers to their young children. This study examined the contributions of marital love and conflict, and broader family-level conflict, cohesion, and expressiveness to mother and father vocabulary in triadic…

Pancsofar, Nadya; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Odom, Erica; Roe, Jacqueline R.

2008-01-01

346

Perceived Attachment Security to Father, Academic Self-Concept and School Performance in Language Mastery  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relations between 8-12-year-olds' perceived attachment security to father, academic self-concept and school performance in language mastery. One hundred and twenty two French students' perceptions of attachment to mother and to father were explored with the Security Scale and their academic self-concept was assessed with…

Bacro, Fabien

2012-01-01

347

Andrew Wyeth and N.C. Wyeth: a psychodynamic perspective on father and son.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper examines the relationship between two extraordinary artists, father and son--N.C. Wyeth (1882-1945) and Andrew Wyeth (1917-2009)--and their art. N.C. Wyeth, the father, the most famous illustrator of his day, painted scenes full of drama and action, often of men engaged in violent life and death struggles. N.C. was unable to separate from his powerful mother and yearned for his iconic father. He thought himself an artistic failure and dedicated himself to raising his children to be geniuses. The youngest son, Andrew Wyeth, who lived a "secret life," painted scenes often characterized by pathos: bleak and barren landscapes, leaden skies, tire tracks, gray framed houses, desiccated fields, and circling buzzards. In the father-son relationship, we often seen three themes perpetuated developmentally: (1) the son's identification with the innermost conflicts of his father; (2) the yearning for the iconic father of his youth; and (3) a continuation and disavowal of his father's life. These themes are played out in the relationship between Andrew Wyeth and his father.

Shaw JA

2013-01-01

348

Prenatal Programming of Sexual Partner Preference  

Science.gov (United States)

In our laboratory the domestic ram is used as an experimental model to study the early programming of neural mechanisms underlying same-sex partner preference. This interest developed from the observation that ?8% of domestic rams are sexually attracted to other rams (male-oriented) in contrast to the majority of rams that are attracted to oestrous ewes (female-oriented). One prominent feature of sexual differentiation in many species is the presence of a sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus that is larger in males than in females. Lesion studies in rats and ferrets implicate the SDN in the expression of sexual preferences. We discovered an ovine SDN (oSDN) in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus that is smaller in male- than in female-oriented rams and similar in size to the oSDN of ewes. Neurons of the oSDN show abundant aromatase expression that is also reduced in male-oriented compared to female-oriented rams. This observation suggests that sexual partner preferences are neurologically hard-wired and could be influenced by hormones. Aromatase-containing neurons constitute a nascent oSDN as early as d 60 of gestation, which becomes sexually dimorphic by d 135 of gestation when it is 2 times larger in males than in females. Exposure of fetal female lambs to exogenous testosterone from d 30 to 90 of gestation resulted in a masculinised oSDN. These data demonstrate that the oSDN develops prenatally and may influence adult sexual preferences. Surprisingly, inhibition of aromatase activity in the brain of ram fetuses during the critical period did not interfere with defeminisation of adult sexual partner preference or oSDN volume. These results fail to support an essential role for neural aromatase in the sexual differentiation of sheep brain and behaviour. Thus, we propose that oSDN morphology and male-typical partner preferences may instead be programmed through an androgen receptor mechanism not involving aromatisation.

Roselli, C.E.; Stormshak, F.

2009-01-01

349

[Tuberous sclerosis with pulmonary involvement  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe the case of a 28 years old caucasian woman with tuberous sclerosis diagnosed at 23 when she underwent nephrectomy for a left renal angiomyolipoma with massive hematuria. She had adenoma but she presented on mental deficit and there was no record of seizures. Familiar history was negative except for the presence of adenoma sebaceum in her father, aged 63, and in her only daughter, aged 10. Five years after nephrectomy she was admitted to our hospital because of exertional dyspnoea and haemoptysis. Pulmonary involvement was confirmed by chest X-rays and CT scans.

Cruz Neto M; Reis PG; Riso MN

1992-01-01

350

Brain plasticity of rats exposed to prenatal immobilization stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim. This histochemical and immunohistochemical study was aimed at examining the brain cellular structures of newborn rats exposed to prenatal immobilization (IMO) stress. Methods. Histochemical method on detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity and ABC immunohistochemical technique. Results. Cell structures with radial astrocytes marker GFAP, neuroepithelial stem cell marker gene nestin, stem-cells marker and the hypothalamic neuroprotective proline-rich polypeptide PRP-1 (Galarmin, a natural cytokine of a common precursor to neurophysin vasopressin associated glycoprotein) have been revealed in several brain regions. Conclusions. Our findings indicate the process of generation of new neurons in response to IMO and PRP-1 involvement in this recovery mechanism, as PRP-1-Ir was detected in the above mentioned cell structures, as well as in the neurons and nerve fibers.

Abrahamyan S. S.,; Meliksetyan I. B.; Sahakyan I. K.; Tumasyan N. V.; Badalyan B. Yu.; Galoyan A. A.

2011-01-01

351

Culture of fetal cells from maternal blood for prenatal diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The isolation and analysis of fetal cells from maternal blood would allow non-invasive prenatal genetic screening and diagnosis. Over the past decade, progress has been made towards this goal using various enrichment strategies and analysis by fluorescence in-situ hybridization with chromosome-specific probes and PCR. One method that is currently being explored involves culturing fetal cells. Developing conditions which allow the number of fetal-derived cells to expand in culture and the number of maternally derived cells to be suppressed in culture may lead to a new selection process for obtaining fetal cells. Culturing of fetal cells from maternal blood could make possible conventional metaphase analysis of fetal cells for diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:12498422

Elicha Gussin, Hélène A; Elias, Sherman

352

Culture of fetal cells from maternal blood for prenatal diagnosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The isolation and analysis of fetal cells from maternal blood would allow non-invasive prenatal genetic screening and diagnosis. Over the past decade, progress has been made towards this goal using various enrichment strategies and analysis by fluorescence in-situ hybridization with chromosome-specific probes and PCR. One method that is currently being explored involves culturing fetal cells. Developing conditions which allow the number of fetal-derived cells to expand in culture and the number of maternally derived cells to be suppressed in culture may lead to a new selection process for obtaining fetal cells. Culturing of fetal cells from maternal blood could make possible conventional metaphase analysis of fetal cells for diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities.

Elicha Gussin HA; Elias S

2002-11-01

353

Infant cardiac surgery and the father-infant relationship: feelings of strength, strain, and caution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the father-infant relationship in infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). METHOD: Sixty-three fathers whose infants had cardiac surgery before 3 months of age reported on their attachment relationship with their infant within two months of hospital discharge using both qualitative and quantitative methods. RESULTS: Mean scores on the Paternal Postnatal Attachment Scale and scores for patience and tolerance were not different from previously published community norms, ps>.05. Scores for pleasure and interaction (t[50]=-2.383, p=.021, CI: -2.93, -.25) and affection and pride subscale (t[56]=-2.935, p=.005, CI: -1.20, -.23) were significantly lower than community norms. Additionally, 37% of fathers described feeling a strong relationship with their infant whereas 17% reported initial apprehension or condition-specific worry. Fathers with infants who spent fewer days at home prior to admission reported feelings of relationship strain as well as lower pleasure in interaction, affection and pride, patience and tolerance, and overall attachment quality. CONCLUSION: Having an infant with CHD affects some father-infant relationships differently than others with some fathers feeling closer to their infant and other fathers feeling reservation about getting too close. One explanation for these differences may be that spending a great deal of time in hospital restricts the number and quality of interactions infants have with their fathers. Opportunities for intervention include clinical psychosocial services encouraging fathers to interact with and provide physical care of their infant, especially if fathers perceive their infant as medically fragile.

Bright MA; Franich-Ray C; Anderson V; Northam E; Cochrane A; Menahem S; Jordan B

2013-08-01

354

Prenatal sonographic and MR imaging findings of extensive fetal lymphangioma: a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the imaging findings in a case of fetal lymphangioma involving the retroperitoneum and right lower extremity, and diagnosed by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 26 weeks of gestation. Prenatal ultrasonograms and T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo MR images clearly revealed an extensive, multilocular cystic mass with internal hemorrhage in the retroperitoneum extending to the lower extremity.

2003-01-01

355

Prenatal sonographic and MR imaging findings of extensive fetal lymphangioma: a case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report the imaging findings in a case of fetal lymphangioma involving the retroperitoneum and right lower extremity, and diagnosed by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 26 weeks of gestation. Prenatal ultrasonograms and T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo MR images clearly revealed an extensive, multilocular cystic mass with internal hemorrhage in the retroperitoneum extending to the lower extremity.

Rha, Sung-Eun; Byun, Jae-Young; Kim, Hak-Hee; Shin, Jong-Chul; Ahn, Hyun-Young; Kim, Dong-Chul; Lee, Kyo-Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2003-12-15

356

Early prenatal diagnosis of type III bilateral congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a case of type III fetal cystic adenomatoid malformation with bilateral total involvement of the lungs. The characteristic sonographic findings are echogenic homogeneous lung mass, fetal ascites and placentomegaly. The early diagnosis at 16 weeks' gestation allows the elective termination of pregnancy because of the likely fatal prognosis. To our knowledge, this is the earliest reported case of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung that has been detected prenatally. PMID:12796992

Chou, M M; Ho, E S; Lee, H S; Lee, Y H; Su, M C; Shih, T P

1992-03-01

357

Early prenatal diagnosis of type III bilateral congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present a case of type III fetal cystic adenomatoid malformation with bilateral total involvement of the lungs. The characteristic sonographic findings are echogenic homogeneous lung mass, fetal ascites and placentomegaly. The early diagnosis at 16 weeks' gestation allows the elective termination of pregnancy because of the likely fatal prognosis. To our knowledge, this is the earliest reported case of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung that has been detected prenatally.

Chou MM; Ho ES; Lee HS; Lee YH; Su MC; Shih TP

1992-03-01

358

Mosaic small supernumerary marker chromosome 1 at amniocentesis: Prenatal diagnosis, molecular genetic analysis and literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic analysis of mosaic small supernumerary marker chromosome 1 [sSMC(1)]. We review the literature of sSMC(1) at amniocentesis and chromosome 1p21.1-p12 duplication syndrome. We discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation of the involved genes of ALX3, RBM15, NTNG1, SLC25A24, GPSM2, TBX15 and NOTCH2 in this case.

Chen CP; Chen M; Su YN; Huang JP; Chern SR; Wu PS; Su JW; Chang SP; Chen YT; Lee CC; Chen LF; Pan CW; Wang W

2013-08-01

359

Neighborhood Contexts, Fathers, and Mexican American Young Adolescents' Internalizing Symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The family stress model posits that contextual stressors, such as neighborhood danger, negatively influence youth adjustment, including internalizing symptoms, via disruptions in parenting and family processes. The current study examined a culturally and contextually modified family stress model in a diverse sample of Mexican origin fathers and their children (N = 463) from the Southwestern U.S. Results supported the hypothesized negative influence of neighborhood danger on youth internalizing symptoms via disruptions in family cohesion. Paternal warmth did not play a role in linking contextual stress to outcomes. The role of harsh parenting was highly nuanced. Results suggest that both culture and context have the potential to moderate putative family stress model associations for specific parenting behaviors and further our understanding of the ways that culture and context may operate in models of family stress and youth outcomes. PMID:22383856

White, Rebecca M B; Roosa, Mark W

2012-02-01

360

Chromosome 18p deletion syndrome presenting holoprosencephaly and premaxillary agenesis: prenatal diagnosis and aCGH characterization using uncultured amniocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present prenatal diagnosis of a de novo distal 18p deletion involving 14.06Mb at 18p11.32-p11.21 by aCGH using uncultured amniocytes in a pregnancy with fetal holoprosencephaly and premaxillary agenesis. QF-PCR analysis showed that distal 18p deletion was from maternal origin. Metaphase FISH analysis confirmed haploinsufficiency of TGIF. We discuss the functions of the genes that are deleted within this region. The present case shows the usefulness of applying aCGH on uncultured amniocytes for rapid aneuploidy diagnosis in cases with prenatally detected fetal structural abnormalities.

Chen CP; Huang JP; Chen YY; Chern SR; Wu PS; Su JW; Pan CW; Wang W

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
361

Improved Adequacy of Prenatal Care and Healthcare Utilization Among Low-Income Latinas Receiving Group Prenatal Care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Background: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care model in improving maternal and child health outcomes, satisfaction with prenatal care, and engagement in prenatal care. Methods: Pregnant Hispanic women ?20 weeks gestation initiating prenatal care at two Palm Beach County, Florida, public health clinics selected CenteringPregnancy or traditional prenatal care. Data on postpartum visit compliance, establishment of a medical home, child emergency room visits, satisfaction with prenatal care, and engagement in prenatal care were obtained through surveys conducted 3 months post-delivery (n=176; 129 CenteringPregnancy, 47 traditional). Data on prenatal care visits were obtained through abstraction of Palm Beach County Health Department medical records (n=214; 144 CenteringPregnancy, 70 traditional). Results: Statistically significant differences were found in satisfaction with prenatal care (84.3 Centering vs. 64.9 traditional, p<.001) and engagement in (39.7 vs. 28.1, p<.001). Centering participants had higher expected prenatal care ratios than traditional care participants (101.9 vs. 83.1, p<.001) and higher percentages receiving adequate prenatal care (90% vs. 63%, p<.001). Centering recipients were more likely to establish a medical home for their child (77% vs. 53%, p<.01) and have a postpartum checkup within six weeks of delivery (99% vs. 94%, p=.04). Conclusions: CenteringPregnancy improves engagement in prenatal care and healthcare utilization outcomes for low-income Latinas. Given disparities that exist between perinatal Latinas and women from other racial/ethnic groups, CenteringPregnancy should be considered as an alternative to traditional 1-on-1 prenatal care for this population.

Tandon SD; Cluxton-Keller F; Colon L; Vega P; Alonso A

2013-10-01

362

Biased Embryos: Prenatal Experience Alters the Postnatal Malleability of Auditory Preferences in Bobwhite Quail.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many precocial birds show a robust preference for the maternal call of their own species before and after hatching. This differential responsiveness to species-specific auditory stimuli by embryos and neonates has been the subject of study for more than four decades, but much remains unknown about the dynamics of this ability. Gottlieb [Gottlieb [1971]. Development of species identification in birds: An enquiry into the prenatal determinants of perception. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press.] demonstrated that prenatal exposure to embryonic vocalizations serves to canalize the formation of species-specific preferences in ducklings. Apart from this, little is known about the features of the developmental system that serve to canalize such species-typical preferences, on the one hand, and generate novel behavioral phenotypes, on the other. In the current study, we show that briefly exposing bobwhite quail embryos to a heterospecific Japanese quail (JQ) maternal call significantly enhanced their acquisition of a preference for that call when chicks were provided with subsequent postnatal exposure to the same call. This was true whether postnatal exposure involved playback of the maternal call contingent upon chick contact vocalizations or yoked, non-contingent exposure to the call. Chicks that received both passive prenatal and contingent postnatal exposure to the JQ maternal call redirected their species-typical auditory preference, showing a significant preference for JQ call over the call of their own species. In contrast, chicks receiving only prenatal or only postnatal exposure to the JQ call did not show this redirection of their auditory preference. Our results indicate that prenatal sensory stimulation can significantly bias postnatal responsiveness to social stimuli, thereby altering the course of early learning and memory. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Harshaw C; Lickliter R

2010-12-01

363

Biased embryos: Prenatal experience alters the postnatal malleability of auditory preferences in bobwhite quail.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many precocial birds show a robust preference for the maternal call of their own species before and after hatching. This differential responsiveness to species-specific auditory stimuli by embryos and neonates has been the subject of study for more than four decades, but much remains unknown about the dynamics of this ability. Gottlieb [Gottlieb [1971]. Development of species identification in birds: An enquiry into the prenatal determinants of perception. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press.] demonstrated that prenatal exposure to embryonic vocalizations serves to canalize the formation of species-specific preferences in ducklings. Apart from this, little is known about the features of the developmental system that serve to canalize such species-typical preferences, on the one hand, and generate novel behavioral phenotypes, on the other. In the current study, we show that briefly exposing bobwhite quail embryos to a heterospecific Japanese quail (JQ) maternal call significantly enhanced their acquisition of a preference for that call when chicks were provided with subsequent postnatal exposure to the same call. This was true whether postnatal exposure involved playback of the maternal call contingent upon chick contact vocalizations or yoked, non-contingent exposure to the call. Chicks that received both passive prenatal and contingent postnatal exposure to the JQ maternal call redirected their species-typical auditory preference, showing a significant preference for JQ call over the call of their own species. In contrast, chicks receiving only prenatal or only postnatal exposure to the JQ call did not show this redirection of their auditory preference. Our results indicate that prenatal sensory stimulation can significantly bias postnatal responsiveness to social stimuli, thereby altering the course of early learning and memory.

Harshaw C; Lickliter R

2011-04-01

364

Prenatal hyperandrogenization induces metabolic and endocrine alterations which depend on the levels of testosterone exposure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prenatal hyperandrogenism is able to induce polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in rats. The aim of the present study was to establish if the levels of prenatal testosterone may determine the extent of metabolic and endocrine alterations during the adult life. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were prenatally injected with either 2 or 5 mg free testosterone (groups T2 and T5 respectively) from day 16 to day 19 day of gestation. Female offspring from T2 and T5 displayed different phenotype of PCOS during adult life. Offspring from T2 showed hyperandrogenism, ovarian cysts and ovulatory cycles whereas those from T5 displayed hyperandrogenism, ovarian cysts and anovulatory cycles. Both group showed increased circulating glucose levels after the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT; an evaluation of insulin resistance). IPGTT was higher in T5 rats and directly correlated with body weight at prepubertal age. However, the decrease in the body weight at prepubertal age was compensated during adult life. Although both groups showed enhanced ovarian steroidogenesis, it appears that the molecular mechanisms involved were different. The higher dose of testosterone enhanced the expression of both the protein that regulates cholesterol availability (the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)) and the protein expression of the transcriptional factor: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma). Prenatal hyperandrogenization induced an anti-oxidant response that prevented a possible pro-oxidant status. The higher dose of testosterone induced a pro-inflammatory state in ovarian tissue mediated by increased levels of prostaglandin E (PG) and the protein expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2, the limiting enzyme of PGs synthesis). In summary, our data show that the levels of testosterone prenatally injected modulate the uterine environment and that this, in turn, would be responsible for the endocrine and metabolic abnormalities and the phenotype of PCOS during the adult life.

Amalfi S; Velez LM; Heber MF; Vighi S; Ferreira SR; Orozco AV; Pignataro O; Motta AB

2012-01-01

365

Too many choices? Hospital and community staff reflect on the future of prenatal screening.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Promoting informed choice is commonly recognised as the chief purpose and benefit of prenatal screening, its very presence being viewed as a key way in which the process can be distanced from eugenics. As the number of conditions and features which can potentially be screened for rises, dilemmas about how to achieve informed choice can only increase. Seventy hospital and community staff working in or attached to two English hospitals were interviewed individually on topics which included their views on genetic developments and moral beliefs and values, and how these affected their daily work. The majority then took part in small discussion groups led by an ethicist. The research identified a paradox. On the one hand, participants recognised the centrality of informed choice to prenatal screening, although they had many doubts about whether it could be achieved. On the other hand, most saw the expansion of screening, which might further compromise informed choice, as an inevitable and inexorable process over which they had little, if any, control. This was despite the fact that many of them decided, managed or implemented prenatal screening policies within their hospitals. The paper explores the factors which staff themselves identified as responsible for this perceived inevitable expansion. It then discusses more generally how the expansion of medical technologies can appear as inexorable to those involved. Finally, the paper calls for more inclusive, integrated and collaborative debate and research around the whole area of prenatal screening. This is to ensure that as far as possible, the wider consequences and implications of any proposed expansion to prenatal screening-both the promises and the potential side-effects-are debated ahead of their implementation, and also to help ensure that public policy represents and serves contemporary society.

William C; Alderson P; Farsides B

2002-09-01

366

Prenatal choline supplementation mitigates behavioral alterations associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure can alter physical and behavioral development, leading to a range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Despite warning labels, pregnant women continue to drink alcohol, creating a need to identify effective interventions to reduce the severity of alcohol's teratogenic effects. Choline is an essential nutrient that influences brain and behavioral development. Recent studies indicate that choline supplementation can reduce the teratogenic effects of developmental alcohol exposure. The present study examined whether choline supplementation during prenatal ethanol treatment could mitigate the adverse effects of ethanol on behavioral development. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intubated with 6 g/kg/day ethanol in a binge-like manner from gestational days 5-20; pair-fed and ad libitum chow controls were included. During treatment, subjects from each group were intubated with either 250 mg/kg/day choline chloride or vehicle. Spontaneous alternation, parallel bar motor coordination, Morris water maze, and spatial working memory were assessed in male and female offspring. RESULTS: Subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol exhibited delayed development of spontaneous alternation behavior and deficits on the working memory version of the Morris water maze during adulthood, effects that were mitigated with prenatal choline supplementation. Neither alcohol nor choline influenced performance on the motor coordination task. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that choline supplementation during prenatal alcohol exposure may reduce the severity of fetal alcohol effects, particularly on alterations in tasks that require behavioral flexibility. These findings have important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy.

Thomas JD; Idrus NM; Monk BR; Dominguez HD

2010-10-01

367

The effectiveness of early intervention on paternal stress for fathers of premature infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This article is a report of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention on fathering ability, perceived nurse's support and paternal stress after a preterm infant's admission to a neonatal intensive care unit. BACKGROUND: The birth of a premature infant who is admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit is a stressful experience. Due to the maternal postpartum practice in Taiwan, the father is the main visitor of the infant during the first few weeks, but interventions have rarely focused on the father. DESIGN: A historical comparison study. METHODS: Between August 2009-July 2010, 35 fathers in the comparison group received routine care; 34 fathers in the intervention group received a booklet designed for the fathers during their visits to the neonatal intensive care unit and nurses' guidance based on the contents of the booklet. Fathering ability, perceived nurse's support and paternal stress were measured. FINDINGS: The intervention group had a significantly higher fathering ability and perceived nurse support than the comparison group. In the intervention group, the increased fathering ability reduced paternal stress. After adjusting for severity of illness, an significant moderating effect of perceived nurse support on the relationship between fathering ability and paternal stress was found, accounting for 59·5% of variance. CONCLUSION: Designing a supportive intervention which provides informational, emotional, instrumental, and esteem support for the father can effectively empower his fathering ability and reduce his stress. The intervention should be initiated from the early admission of the premature infant to the neonatal intensive care unit.

Lee TY; Wang MM; Lin KC; Kao CH

2013-05-01

368

Pregnant women are satisfied with the information they receive about prenatal diagnosis, but are their decisions well informed?  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE. To survey the information about prenatal diagnosis that midwives give to pregnant women and to find out how the women experience the information. Furthermore, to evaluate the midwives' opinion about their knowledge and personal need for education. DESIGN. Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING. The southeast healthcare region of Sweden. METHODS. One hundred and fifty-seven midwives and 150 pregnant women were invited to reply to a confidential questionnaire in 2008. RESULTS. The reply rate was 78% for the midwives and 53% for the women. Ninety-six percentage of the midwives used inform women about prenatal diagnosis. Seventy-two percentage always informed about the advantages and 41% about the choice to continue or terminate the pregnancy if a serious abnormality was detected. In addition, 41% considered that they had sufficient knowledge to inform about prenatal diagnosis, while 84% wanted additional education. Seventy-six percentage of the women took the decision to have prenatal diagnosis as soon as they found out that they were pregnant. A majority considered that they had been given enough time for questions and reflections. CONCLUSIONS. There was discrepancy between the amount of information, which midwives gave to pregnant women about prenatal diagnosis compared to what would be needed for a complete understanding of the relevant medical facts and the risks involved, but even so the women were satisfied with the information. PMID:19642039

Ferm Widlund, Kjerstin; Gunnarsson, Cecilia; Nordin, Karin; Hansson, Mats G

2009-01-01

369

Distortion Of The Interhemispheric Fissure Associated With Impacted Medial Borders Of The Frontal Lobes: Significance And Implications For Prenatal Diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the significance of distortion of the interhemispheric fissure (DIHF) associated with impacted medial borders of the frontal lobes and discuss the relevance of DIHF in prenatal diagnosis. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of 13 foetuses, in which DIHF was identified on prenatal imaging, was conducted to investigate associated biological and anatomical anomalies. RESULTS: Anatomical anomalies associated with DIHF were identified in 10 cases including mainly midline anomalies (syntelencephaly [n=2], lobar holoprosencephaly [n=1], Aicardi syndrome [n=2],), but also schizencephaly (n=1), cortical dysplasia (n=1) and more complex cerebral malformations [n=3], including neural tube defect in 2 cases. Chromosomal anomaly was identified in 2 cases, including 6p deletion in a case without associated CNS anomalies and a complex mosaicism in a case with synthelencephaly. In two prenatal cases, the finding was isolated based on both pre and post-natal imaging resulting in healthy individuals. CONCLUSION: Presence of DIHF on prenatal imaging may provide a clue for diagnosis of cerebral anomalies, especially those involving the midline. If DIHF is "isolated" based on prenatal ultrasound, MRI is recommended for careful analysis of gyration and midline, especially optic and olfactory structures. Karyotyping is also recommended to look for chromosomal anomalies. PMID:23640781

Vinurel, Nicolas; Van Nieuwenhuyse, Aude; Cagneaux, Maud; Garel, Catherine; Quarello, Edwin; Brasseur, Marie; Picone, Olivier; Ferry, Mathilde; Gaucherand, Pascal; des Portes, Vincent; Guibaud, Laurent

2013-05-01

370

Distortion Of The Interhemispheric Fissure Associated With Impacted Medial Borders Of The Frontal Lobes: Significance And Implications For Prenatal Diagnosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the significance of distortion of the interhemispheric fissure (DIHF) associated with impacted medial borders of the frontal lobes and discuss the relevance of DIHF in prenatal diagnosis. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of 13 foetuses, in which DIHF was identified on prenatal imaging, was conducted to investigate associated biological and anatomical anomalies. RESULTS: Anatomical anomalies associated with DIHF were identified in 10 cases including mainly midline anomalies (syntelencephaly [n=2], lobar holoprosencephaly [n=1], Aicardi syndrome [n=2],), but also schizencephaly (n=1), cortical dysplasia (n=1) and more complex cerebral malformations [n=3], including neural tube defect in 2 cases. Chromosomal anomaly was identified in 2 cases, including 6p deletion in a case without associated CNS anomalies and a complex mosaicism in a case with synthelencephaly. In two prenatal cases, the finding was isolated based on both pre and post-natal imaging resulting in healthy individuals. CONCLUSION: Presence of DIHF on prenatal imaging may provide a clue for diagnosis of cerebral anomalies, especially those involving the midline. If DIHF is "isolated" based on prenatal ultrasound, MRI is recommended for careful analysis of gyration and midline, especially optic and olfactory structures. Karyotyping is also recommended to look for chromosomal anomalies.

Vinurel N; Van Nieuwenhuyse A; Cagneaux M; Garel C; Quarello E; Brasseur M; Picone O; Ferry M; Gaucherand P; des Portes V; Guibaud L

2013-05-01

371

A Prenatal Case Report with Patau Syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, prenatal diagnosis and elective pregnancy termination have affected the reported birth prevalence of trisomies. Trisomy 13, or Patau syndrome, represents the third autosomic trisomy in order of frequency, after trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome), with a prevalence at birth estimated as between 1:12000 and 1:29000. In this study, we are presenting the results of cytogenetic analysis and clinic assessment in fetus of a woman at 22 weeks gestation, who were referred to our genetic diagnostic laboratory with abnormal triple test result, omphalosel and hydrocephaly. We performed the cordocentesis and pedigree analysis. We found a karyotype (47,XY,+13) in fetus. Because individuals of the family didn’t want, we were not followed the pregnancy prognosis for the mother and the fetus. We were recommending to the prenatal diagnosis for their further pregnancies.

Mahmut Balkan; Mahmut Erdemo?lu; M.Nail Alp; Turgay Budak

2008-01-01

372

Noninvasive prenatal testing: limitations and unanswered questions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The clinical use of noninvasive prenatal testing to screen high-risk patients for fetal aneuploidy is becoming increasingly common. Initial studies have demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity, and there is hope that these tests will result in a reduction of invasive diagnostic procedures as well as their associated risks. Guidelines on the use of this testing in clinical practice have been published; however, data on actual test performance in a clinical setting are lacking, and there are no guidelines on quality control and assurance. The different noninvasive prenatal tests employ complex methodologies, which may be challenging for health-care providers to understand and utilize in counseling patients, particularly as the field continues to evolve. How these new tests should be integrated into current screening programs and their effect on health-care costs remain uncertain.Genet Med advance online publication 5 September 2013Genetics in Medicine (2013); doi:10.1038/gim.2013.126.

Lutgendorf MA; Stoll KA; Knutzen DM; Foglia LM

2013-09-01

373

Prenatal presentation of cervical congenital neuroblastoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe a cervical neuroblastoma revealed in the prenatal period. METHOD: We were recently confronted with a case of fetal solid neck mass suggestive of teratoma, which proved postnatally to be a neuroblastoma. Combining this case with a review of recent literature, we have evaluated the diagnostic tools required for increased precision in the prenatal diagnosis and perinatal management of fetal solid neck masses. RESULTS: Detailed ultrasound and MRI of fetal neck and liver, in conjunction with amniocentesis for measurement of homovanillic acid levels, should enable fetal medical practitioners to consider the diagnosis of fetal cervical neuroblastoma. CONCLUSION: Fetal cervical neuroblastoma is an extremely rare condition that has not been previously reported, but should be considered in the presentation of fetal solid neck masses.

Gorincour G; Dugougeat-Pilleul F; Bouvier R; Lorthois-Ninou S; Devonec S; Gaucherand P; Pracros JP; Guibaud L

2003-08-01

374

Prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis of acardiac twin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acardiac twinning is a rare complication of monozygotic twin gestation occurring in 1/35,000 pregnancies or in 1% of all monozygotic twins. This condition is characterized by partial or complete lack of development of the heart in one of the twins, and requires that the normal twin (pump twin) provides circulation for itself as well as the acardiac sibling (perfused twin) by means of reverse circulation through large artery-to-artery and vein-to-vein anastomoses. The acardiac anomaly is uniformly fatal for the perfused twin, and the perinatal mortality for the normal twin is about 50%, usually as the result of congestive heart failure, polyhydramnios, and preterm delivery. In this report we present two cases of acardiac twin prenatally diagnosed by ultrasound. The principal sonographic features for prenatal diagnosis and the clinical management are briefly discussed. PMID:8229616

Sepúlveda, W H; Quiroz, V H; Giuliano, A; Henríquez, R

1993-01-01

375

Prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis of acardiac twin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acardiac twinning is a rare complication of monozygotic twin gestation occurring in 1/35,000 pregnancies or in 1% of all monozygotic twins. This condition is characterized by partial or complete lack of development of the heart in one of the twins, and requires that the normal twin (pump twin) provides circulation for itself as well as the acardiac sibling (perfused twin) by means of reverse circulation through large artery-to-artery and vein-to-vein anastomoses. The acardiac anomaly is uniformly fatal for the perfused twin, and the perinatal mortality for the normal twin is about 50%, usually as the result of congestive heart failure, polyhydramnios, and preterm delivery. In this report we present two cases of acardiac twin prenatally diagnosed by ultrasound. The principal sonographic features for prenatal diagnosis and the clinical management are briefly discussed.

Sepúlveda WH; Quiroz VH; Giuliano A; Henríquez R

1993-01-01

376

Prenatal care in the city of Marrakech.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The data reported here come from a survey conducted in 2008, in direct interviews, according to a standard questionnaire, of 1712 women visiting 15 health centers in Marrakech. We selected 1202 women who gave birth during the past five years to examine the impact of socioeconomic and biodemographic determinants on access to prenatal care in this city. We also identified 309 women in our sample who were pregnant during the survey and studied the quality and content of their prenatal care. Around 90% of pregnant women consulted at least once during pregnancy. These results indicate that women in Marrakesh use prenatal care at higher rates than the national and regional population. This is likely to be explained by the large number of public health centers relatively well distributed throughout the city of Marrakech, although periurban areas are much less well endowed. Our analysis nonetheless indicates that 10% of the women in Marrakech do not consult at any time during pregnancy, although free care is provided in public health centers and outreach programs of the Department of Health encourage women to be monitored. Multiple sociocultural, socioeconomic, and biodemographic factors promote recourse to prenatal care. The most vulnerable pregnant women, that is, multiparous women living in periurban areas, the less educated women, and women of rural origin, are also those the least monitored. Most of the obstacles raised by the interviewees are maternal barriers, that is, related to the women themselves. These include indifference, recklessness, and ignorance of the risks: these barriers are related to maternal illiteracy and to a failure to understand the importance of medical surveillance.

El Hamdani FZ; Vimard P; Baali A; Zouini M; Cherkaoui M

2013-06-01

377

Prenatal infection with Fasciola Hepatica in calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

The livers from 16,776 calves 1 to 3 weeks of age slaughtered at Shepparton abattoirs were examined for gross evidence of infection with Fasciola hepatica. Those livers with thickened bile ducts were examined for the presence of liver fluke by slicing. One hundred and eight F. hepatica were collected from 84 of these livers, giving a minimum prevalence rate of prenatal infection of calves of 0.5%. These results are discussed in context with reports from other countries. PMID:1220652

Rees, J B; Sykes, W E; Rickard, M D

1975-11-01

378

Prenatal infection with Fasciola Hepatica in calves.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The livers from 16,776 calves 1 to 3 weeks of age slaughtered at Shepparton abattoirs were examined for gross evidence of infection with Fasciola hepatica. Those livers with thickened bile ducts were examined for the presence of liver fluke by slicing. One hundred and eight F. hepatica were collected from 84 of these livers, giving a minimum prevalence rate of prenatal infection of calves of 0.5%. These results are discussed in context with reports from other countries.

Rees JB; Sykes WE; Rickard MD

1975-11-01

379

Bronchopulmonary sequestration: prenatal diagnosis with clinicopathologic correlation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A patient was referred at 21 weeks' gestation for evaluation of an echogenic mass in the fetal right chest. Color-doppler sonography facilitated the diagnosis of a bronchopulmonary sequestration. Clinicopathologic correlation was possible after termination at 2.3 weeks' gestation. Pathologic examination confirmed the prenatal diagnosis and demonstrated the systemic vascular supply seen on color-doppler sonography. Color doppler is a useful adjunct in the sonographic evaluation of the fetus with an echogenic chest mass.

Morin L; Crombleholme TM; Louis F; D'Alton ME

1994-10-01

380

Isolated fetal ascites: prenatal diagnosis and management.  

Science.gov (United States)

The perinatal outcomes of four patients with isolated fetal ascites were evaluated. The ascites disappeared prior to delivery in 50% of the cases and was resolved shortly after delivery in the remainder. Excellent neonatal outcomes were observed. Thus, isolated fetal ascites may represent a separate condition that significantly differs from the general category of nonimmune hydrops in both perinatal courses and prognoses. The prenatal diagnosis and management of this condition are discussed. PMID:2222632

Winn, H N; Stiller, R; Grannum, P A; Crane, J C; Coster, B; Romero, R

1990-10-01

 
 
 
 
381

Isolated fetal ascites: prenatal diagnosis and management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The perinatal outcomes of four patients with isolated fetal ascites were evaluated. The ascites disappeared prior to delivery in 50% of the cases and was resolved shortly after delivery in the remainder. Excellent neonatal outcomes were observed. Thus, isolated fetal ascites may represent a separate condition that significantly differs from the general category of nonimmune hydrops in both perinatal courses and prognoses. The prenatal diagnosis and management of this condition are discussed.

Winn HN; Stiller R; Grannum PA; Crane JC; Coster B; Romero R

1990-10-01

382

Encephalocystocele - uncommon diagnosis in prenatal medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Encephalocystocele is a developmental malformation characterized by brain herniation accompanied with extracranial cystic protrusion of the ventricular system. This nosological unit is often overlooked and insufficiently classified merely as encephalocele. Herein, two exceptionally clear cases of the parieto-occipital cranioschisis with encephalocystocele and congenital hydrocephalus of the lateral ventricles are documented with 2-dimensional/3-dimensional sonographic images and the corresponding MRI findings. In both cases, prenatal diagnosis was confirmed by autopsy.

Dankovcik R; Vyhnalkova V; Muranska S; Kucera E; Korpova M; Plichtova A; Miklosova M; Ferianec V; Evangelista Jirasek J; Dudas M

2012-01-01

383

Encephalocystocele - uncommon diagnosis in prenatal medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Encephalocystocele is a developmental malformation characterized by brain herniation accompanied with extracranial cystic protrusion of the ventricular system. This nosological unit is often overlooked and insufficiently classified merely as encephalocele. Herein, two exceptionally clear cases of the parieto-occipital cranioschisis with encephalocystocele and congenital hydrocephalus of the lateral ventricles are documented with 2-dimensional/3-dimensional sonographic images and the corresponding MRI findings. In both cases, prenatal diagnosis was confirmed by autopsy. PMID:23095453

Dankovcik, Robert; Vyhnalkova, Vlasta; Muranska, Stela; Kucera, Eduard; Korpova, Maria; Plichtova, Anna; Miklosova, Maria; Ferianec, Vladimir; Evangelista Jirasek, Jan; Dudas, Marek

2012-10-24

384

[Prenatal care in the city of Marrakech].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The data reported here come from a survey conducted in 2008, in direct interviews, according to a standard questionnaire, of 1712 women visiting 15 health centers in Marrakech. We selected 1202 women who gave birth during the past five years to examine the impact of socioeconomic and biodemographic determinants on access to prenatal care in this city. We also identified 309 women in our sample who were pregnant during the survey and studied the quality and content of their prenatal care. Around 90% of pregnant women consulted at least once during pregnancy. These results indicate that women in Marrakesh use prenatal care at higher rates than the national and regional population. This is likely to be explained by the large number of public health centers relatively well distributed throughout the city of Marrakech, although periurban areas are much less well endowed. Our analysis nonetheless indicates that 10% of the women in Marrakech do not consult at any time during pregnancy, although free care is provided in public health centers and outreach programs of the Department of Health encourage women to be monitored. Multiple sociocultural, socioeconomic, and biodemographic factors promote recourse to prenatal care. The most vulnerable pregnant women, that is, multiparous women living in periurban areas, the less educated women, and women of rural origin, are also those the least monitored. Most of the obstacles raised by the interviewees are maternal barriers, that is, related to the women themselves. These include indifference, recklessness, and ignorance of the risks: these barriers are related to maternal illiter