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Sample records for fast time response

  1. Response time characterization of fast responding pressure-sensitive paint

    Ozaki, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Sakaue, Hirotaka

    2010-11-01

    Response time characterization of a fast responding pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) is important information in measuring an unsteady flow field. PSP is an optical pressure sensor. The luminescent image from the PSP is related to a pressure map. In the previous works, a time delay from a step change of pressure is generally used to characterize the response time. The thickness of the PSP as well as the PSP binding material greatly influences the response time. Because the temperature influences the diffusion or permeation of a PSP binder, it is also an important parameter to influence the response time. We build a shock tube to create a step change of pressure for response time characterization. This can control the temperature of the PSP. We discuss the PSP response times related to the temperature of the binder as well as the binding materials.

  2. Fast-Response-Time Shape-Memory-Effect Foam Actuators

    Jardine, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Bulk shape memory alloys, such as Nitinol or CuAlZn, display strong recovery forces undergoing a phase transformation after being strained in their martensitic state. These recovery forces are used for actuation. As the phase transformation is thermally driven, the response time of the actuation can be slow, as the heat must be passively inserted or removed from the alloy. Shape memory alloy TiNi torque tubes have been investigated for at least 20 years and have demonstrated high actuation forces [3,000 in.-lb (approximately equal to 340 N-m) torques] and are very lightweight. However, they are not easy to attach to existing structures. Adhesives will fail in shear at low-torque loads and the TiNi is not weldable, so that mechanical crimp fits have been generally used. These are not reliable, especially in vibratory environments. The TiNi is also slow to heat up, as it can only be heated indirectly using heater and cooling must be done passively. This has restricted their use to on-off actuators where cycle times of approximately one minute is acceptable. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) has been used in the past to make porous TiNi metal foams. Shape Change Technologies has been able to train SHS derived TiNi to exhibit the shape memory effect. As it is an open-celled material, fast response times were observed when the material was heated using hot and cold fluids. A methodology was developed to make the open-celled porous TiNi foams as a tube with integrated hexagonal ends, which then becomes a torsional actuator with fast response times. Under processing developed independently, researchers were able to verify torques of 84 in.-lb (approximately equal to 9.5 Nm) using an actuator weighing 1.3 oz (approximately equal to 37 g) with very fast (less than 1/16th of a second) initial response times when hot and cold fluids were used to facilitate heat transfer. Integrated structural connections were added as part of the net shape process, eliminating the need for welding, adhesives, or mechanical crimping. Inexpensive net-shape processing was used, which reduces the cost of the actuator by over a factor of 10 over nonporous TiNi made by hot drawing of tube or electrical discharge machining. By forming the alloy as an open-celled foam, the surface area for heat transfer is dramatically increased, allowing for much faster response times. The technology also allows for netshape fabrication of the actuator, which allows for structural connections to be integrated into the actuator material, making these actuators significantly less expensive. Commercial applications include actuators for concepts such as the variable area chevron and nozzle in jet aircraft. Lightweight tube or rod components can be supplied to interested parties.

  3. Digital timing algorithms applied to fast scintillators response

    The future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will house the calorimeter and spectrometer CALIFA, whose design, construction and testing are currently being carried out by the R3B collaboration. The mentioned calorimeter is an array of scintillation detectors displayed in a barrel configuration, which covers the total solid angle. These new fast scintillation materials have been developed in last few years and their main interest lies on their versatility, which allows their use both for applications and fundamental research. In the same way, fast digitizers let the collection of signals at increasingly higher sampling frequencies. Our research takes advantage of these fair properties and is therefore focused on the analysis of digitized pulses for several aims: understanding the behaviour of radiation inside new fast scintillators and the development or improvement of digital algorithms which yield accurate resolution for fast timing and may be also applied to particle identification.

  4. Study of the time response of a LuAG(Pr) crystal for fast timing applications

    Fraile, L.M., E-mail: fraile@nuc2.fis.ucm.es [Grupo de Fsica Nuclear, Facultad de CC. Fsicas, Universidad Complutense, CEI Moncloa, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mach, H. [Grupo de Fsica Nuclear, Facultad de CC. Fsicas, Universidad Complutense, CEI Moncloa, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Picado, E.; Vedia, V.; Udas, J.M. [Grupo de Fsica Nuclear, Facultad de CC. Fsicas, Universidad Complutense, CEI Moncloa, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-06-11

    The recently developed praseodymium-doped lutetium aluminum garnet, LuAG(Pr), holds a strong potential for fast timing applications. In this study we report on the time response of LuAG(Pr) at {sup 22}Na and {sup 60}Co photon energies. The measurements were performed using a small crystal cube of 1 cm{sup 3} coupled to a Hamamatsu R5320 photomultiplier tube. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) time resolution is found to be 1472 ps at {sup 60}Co energies, and 2382 ps at {sup 22}Na.

  5. Study of the time response of a LuAG(Pr) crystal for fast timing applications

    The recently developed praseodymium-doped lutetium aluminum garnet, LuAG(Pr), holds a strong potential for fast timing applications. In this study we report on the time response of LuAG(Pr) at 22Na and 60Co photon energies. The measurements were performed using a small crystal cube of 1 cm3 coupled to a Hamamatsu R5320 photomultiplier tube. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) time resolution is found to be 1472 ps at 60Co energies, and 2382 ps at 22Na

  6. What do fast response times tell us about attentional control?

    Leber, Andrew B; Lechak, Jennifer R; Tower-Richardi, Sarah M

    2013-01-01

    The mental experience of attention capture has attracted a great deal of intrigue among researchers seeking to explain the interactions between stimulus-driven and goal-driven attentional control. In recent years, researchers have increasingly begun to analyze cumulative response time (RT) distributions to test modern accounts of the capture phenomenon, particularly accounts claiming that there are changes in susceptibility to distraction as a function of time. In this paper, we raise a criticism of this approach, which centers on a problematic assumption. The assumption is that variability in these distributions is primarily determined by fluctuations in the observer's internal control state (e.g., readiness for the trial). However, it is also the case that faster segments of the distributions are overrepresented by trials that are objectively easy, while slower segments are overrepresented by trials that are objectively difficult. That is, incidental aspects of the trial stimuli influence task performance independently of the observer's internal control state. Here, we demonstrate empirically that contributions of incidental stimulus factors distort cumulative RT distributions in such a way that confounds proper interpretation of experimental data. The results have implications for theoretical accounts of attentional control, and they also raise caution about the assumptions that are sometimes made when analyzing cumulative RT distributions. PMID:24133295

  7. Development of multi-layer thin film bolometer with fast time response and high sensitivity

    Impurity radiation loss is one of major cooling mechanisms in a fusion plasma. A multi-layer thin film bolometer with high sensitivity and fast time response has been developed for the measurement of radiation energy loss of a screw pinch plasma in TPE-2 device. The construction and test of the bolometer are described. High sensitivity of 2.5 mV/μ Joule and fast time response of 10 μsec with cooling time of 50 msec are obtained. (author)

  8. Timing and position response of a block detector for fast neutron time-of-flight imaging

    Our research effort seeks to improve the spatial and timing performance of a block detector made of a pixilated plastic scintillator (EJ-200), first demonstrated as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Advanced Portable Neutron Imaging System. Improvement of the position and time response is necessary to achieve better resolution and contrast in the images of shielded special nuclear material. Time-of-flight is used to differentiate between gamma and different sources of neutrons (e.g., transmission and fission neutrons). Factors limiting the timing and position performance of the neutron detector have been revealed through simulations and measurements. Simulations have suggested that the degradation in the ability to resolve pixels in the neutron detector is due to those interactions occurring near the light guide. The energy deposition within the neutron detector is shown to affect position performance and imaging efficiency. This examination details how energy cuts improve the position performance and degrade the imaging efficiency. Measurements have shown the neutron detector to have a timing resolution of σ=238 ps. The majority of this timing uncertainty is from the depth-of-interaction (DOI) of the neutron which is confirmed by simulations and analytical calculations

  9. Timing and position response of a block detector for fast neutron time-of-flight imaging

    Laubach, M.A., E-mail: mlaubach@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Hayward, J.P., E-mail: jhayward@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Zhang, X., E-mail: xzhang39@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Cates, J.W., E-mail: jcates7@vols.utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Our research effort seeks to improve the spatial and timing performance of a block detector made of a pixilated plastic scintillator (EJ-200), first demonstrated as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Advanced Portable Neutron Imaging System. Improvement of the position and time response is necessary to achieve better resolution and contrast in the images of shielded special nuclear material. Time-of-flight is used to differentiate between gamma and different sources of neutrons (e.g., transmission and fission neutrons). Factors limiting the timing and position performance of the neutron detector have been revealed through simulations and measurements. Simulations have suggested that the degradation in the ability to resolve pixels in the neutron detector is due to those interactions occurring near the light guide. The energy deposition within the neutron detector is shown to affect position performance and imaging efficiency. This examination details how energy cuts improve the position performance and degrade the imaging efficiency. Measurements have shown the neutron detector to have a timing resolution of σ=238 ps. The majority of this timing uncertainty is from the depth-of-interaction (DOI) of the neutron which is confirmed by simulations and analytical calculations.

  10. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory: Fast Response Space Missions for Early Time Phase of Gamma Ray Bursts

    Park, I.H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.; Brandt, Sren; Budtz-Jrgensen, Carl; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Chen, P.; Choi, J.N.; Choi, Y.J.; Connell, P.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Eyles, C.; Grossan, B.; Huang Huang, M.-H.A.; Jung, A.; Jeong, S.; Kim, J.E.; Kim, M.B.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, Y.W.; Krasnov, A.S.; Lee, J.; Lim, H.; Linder, E.V.; Liu, T.-C.; Min, K.W.; Na, G.W.; Nam, J.W.; Panasyuk, M.I.; Park, H.W.; Ripa, J.; Reglero, V.; Rodrigo, J.M.; Smoot, G.F.; Svertilov, S.; Vedenkin, N.; Wang, M.-Z.; Yashin, I.

    2013-01-01

    equipped with a fast-response Slewing Mirror Telescope that uses a rapidly moving mirror or mirror array to redirect the optical beam rather than slewing the entire spacecraft or telescope to aim the optical instrument at the GRB position. The UFFO will probe the early optical rise of GRBs with sub...

  11. Real-time Holographic Display Based on a Super Fast Response Thin Film

    Real-time dynamic holographic display is obtained with super fast response in a thin film without any applied electric field. Holograms can be refreshed in the order of a millisecond and there is no cross talk between the recorded holograms because the hologram formed in the film is transient and can be completely self erased, and the hologram formation time and self-erasure time are both ∼1 ms. Holographic video display is achieved, which shows the real-time holographic image display capability of the thin film, and its much higher resolution than those of commercially available spatial light modulators. Furthermore, multiplexed hologram display using two polarization directions of a recorded light and multiple color holographic display at different laser wavelengths are presented, which demonstrate the feasibility of a RGB color holographic three-dimensional display with the thin film. Because the sample is easy to be fabricated into a large size screen and needs no external applied electric field, we think that the film can be developed into a large-size, dynamic, and color holographic three-dimensional display in the future.

  12. Characterizing a fast-response, low-afterglow liquid scintillator for neutron time-of-flight diagnostics in fast ignition experiments

    The characteristics of oxygen-enriched liquid scintillators with very low afterglow are investigated and optimized for application to a single-hit neutron spectrometer for fast ignition experiments. It is found that 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene has better characteristics as a liquid scintillator solvent than the conventional solvent, p-xylene. In addition, a benzophenon-doped BBQ liquid scintillator is shown to demonstrate very rapid time response, and therefore has potential for further use in neutron diagnostics with fast time resolution

  13. Characterizing a fast-response, low-afterglow liquid scintillator for neutron time-of-flight diagnostics in fast ignition experiments

    Abe, Y., E-mail: abe-y@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Hosoda, H.; Arikawa, Y.; Nagai, T.; Kojima, S.; Sakata, S.; Inoue, H.; Iwasa, Y.; Iwano, K.; Yamanoi, K.; Fujioka, S.; Nakai, M.; Sarukura, N.; Shiraga, H.; Norimatsu, T.; Azechi, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    The characteristics of oxygen-enriched liquid scintillators with very low afterglow are investigated and optimized for application to a single-hit neutron spectrometer for fast ignition experiments. It is found that 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene has better characteristics as a liquid scintillator solvent than the conventional solvent, p-xylene. In addition, a benzophenon-doped BBQ liquid scintillator is shown to demonstrate very rapid time response, and therefore has potential for further use in neutron diagnostics with fast time resolution.

  14. Design of a test system for fast time response fibre optic oxygen sensors

    A test system has been developed that can be used to calibrate and determine the time response, linearity and temperature sensitivity of a fibre optic oxygen sensor. The simple system obviates the need for precision gas standards and the requirement to generate a true square wave step response, which is seldom achievable. The sensor is mounted in a small chamber containing air or a known fraction of oxygen. By means of a computer-controlled switch, the absolute pressure within the chamber can be changed rapidly to a new steady state value. The partial pressure of oxygen changes in direct proportion to the absolute pressure, and so the accuracy and linearity and response time of the PO2 calibration are limited only by those of the absolute pressure sensor. The temperature sensitivity of a commercial sensor and a means of correction are also described. (note)

  15. Sampling frequency, response times and embedded signal filtration in fast, high efficiency liquid chromatography: A tutorial.

    Wahab, M Farooq; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Kadjo, Akinde F; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-02-11

    With increasingly efficient columns, eluite peaks are increasingly narrower. To take full advantage of this, choice of the detector response time and the data acquisition rate a.k.a. detector sampling frequency, have become increasingly important. In this work, we revisit the concept of data sampling from the theorem variously attributed to Whittaker, Nyquist, Kotelnikov, and Shannon. Focusing on time scales relevant to the current practice of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and optical absorbance detection (the most commonly used method), even for very narrow simulated peaks Fourier transformation shows that theoretical minimum sampling frequency is still relatively low (diode source can reveal the nature of the embedded filter. We discuss time uncertainties related to the choice of sampling frequency. Finally, we suggest steps to obtain optimum results from a given system. PMID:26803000

  16. A fast-time-response extreme ultraviolet spectrometer for measurement of impurity line emissions in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    Zhang, Ling; Xu, Zong; Wu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Pengfei; Wu, Chengrui; Gao, Wei; Shen, Junsong; Chen, Yingjie; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Yumin; Gong, Xianzu; Hu, Liqun; Chen, Junlin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wan, Baonian; Li, Jiangang [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230026, Anhui (China); Morita, Shigeru; Ohishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Department of Fusion Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Dong, Chunfeng [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); and others

    2015-12-15

    A flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in the 20-500 Å wavelength range with fast time response has been newly developed to measure line emissions from highly ionized tungsten in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with a tungsten divertor, while the monitoring of light and medium impurities is also an aim in the present development. A flat-field focal plane for spectral image detection is made by a laminar-type varied-line-spacing concave holographic grating with an angle of incidence of 87°. A back-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) with a total size of 26.6 × 6.6 mm{sup 2} and pixel numbers of 1024 × 255 (26 × 26 μm{sup 2}/pixel) is used for recording the focal image of spectral lines. An excellent spectral resolution of Δλ{sub 0} = 3-4 pixels, where Δλ{sub 0} is defined as full width at the foot position of a spectral line, is obtained at the 80-400 Å wavelength range after careful adjustment of the grating and CCD positions. The high signal readout rate of the CCD can improve the temporal resolution of time-resolved spectra when the CCD is operated in the full vertical binning mode. It is usually operated at 5 ms per frame. If the vertical size of the CCD is reduced with a narrow slit, the time response becomes faster. The high-time response in the spectral measurement therefore makes possible a variety of spectroscopic studies, e.g., impurity behavior in long pulse discharges with edge-localized mode bursts. An absolute intensity calibration of the EUV spectrometer is also carried out with a technique using the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum at 20-150 Å for quantitative data analysis. Thus, the high-time resolution tungsten spectra have been successfully observed with good spectral resolution using the present EUV spectrometer system. Typical tungsten spectra in the EUV wavelength range observed from EAST discharges are presented with absolute intensity and spectral identification.

  17. Enhanced surface anchoring energy for the photo-alignment layer with reactive mesogens for fast response time of liquid crystal displays

    We propose a method for enhancing the surface anchoring energy in photo-alignment (PA) through a two-step ultraviolet (UV) exposure process using reactive mesogens (RM) for fast response time characteristics of liquid crystal displays. We establish the azimuthal alignment direction through the first linearly polarized UV exposure process, as the conventional PA method does. We then achieve the stable alignment and strong surface anchoring energies of our method through the second unpolarized UV exposure process, which polymerizes the RM monomers within the vertical alignment layer. As a result, the fast response time characteristics are remarkably improved, and thermal stability is obtained. (paper)

  18. Quantum tunneling effects of 2-dimensional materials and their application for fast time response of deep UV detectors

    Feng, Peter Xianping; Aldalbahi, Ali

    2015-03-01

    We report on our approach to low substrate temperature, digital control, fast (~ 1 minute) synthesis of 2D single crystalline BNNSs. We focus our experiments on studies of various effects (temperature, tunneling, breakdown, polarization, subtract, thickness) on electrical and electronic properties, as well as on sensitivity, response and recovery times, repeatability, lifetime of BNNSs-based deep UV detectors. Raman scattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrometer were used to characterize the BNNSs. SEM and TEM measurements clearly indicate that each sample/membrane consists of a large amount of ultra-thin, high-quality BNNSs with distribution over entire surfaces of substrates (3x3 cm2) . Electrical characterization reveals the effects of temperature on the electrical conductivity of transparent BNNSs highly depend on the directions of observations in the 2D case but vanished from the 3D bulk materials or thick films. This work is financially supported by Army research office/DoD grant (62826-RT-REP), as well as visiting professor program/KSU at KSA. Aldalbahi acknowledges the financial support by King Saud University

  19. response timing.

    Andrea Hasenstaub

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Gamma frequency oscillatory activity of inhibitory sub-networks has been hypothesized to regulate information processing in the cortex as a whole. Inhibitory neurons in these sub-networks synchronize their firing and selectively innervate the perisomatic compartments of their target neurons, generating both tonic and rapidly fluctuating inhibition that is hypothesized to enforce temporal precision and coordinate the activity of their post-synaptic targets. Indeed, in vivo and in vitro recordings have demonstrated that many neurons firing is entrained to these oscillations, although to varying extents and at various phases. Cortical networks are composed of diverse populations of cells that differ in their chemical content, biophysical characteristics, laminar location, and connectivity. Thus, different types of neurons may vary in the amplitude and timing of the synchronized inhibition they receive, as well as in the effects of pattern of inhibitory inputs on response timing and precision. What accounts for this heterogeneity of response timing between cell types, and are these response properties fixed or flexible? To answer these questions, we use a combination of in vitro electrophysiology, dynamic clamp, and modeling to characterize the interactions between a neurons intrinsic properties, the degree of gamma-band synchrony among its inhibitory inputs, and its spike timing. We apply these techniques to study six distinct types of cortical neurons. We find that neuron types systematically vary in the phase and precision of their spike timing relative to the peak of gamma frequency input, and the degree to which their spike time depended on changes in inhibitory synchrony. Biophysical characterizations of real neurons suggest that the membrane time constant (Tm, afterhyperpolarization amplitude and duration, and sodium channel properties are the key features governing gamma control of response timing. We confirmed these findings both in a single compartment model, and by using dynamic clamp to alter intrinsic features of neurons physiology. Shortening neurons time constant by adding artificial leak conductance enhanced neurons ability to entrain their firing and phase-precess, while adding an artificial afterhyperpolarization conductance reduced neurons ability to phase-precess. We conclude that a neurons intrinsic physiology substantially affects the ability of gamma-synchronized inhibitory inputs to control its response timing, and that different excitatory and inhibitory neuron types systematically differ in this regard. These results suggest that the characteristic phase relationship of the discharges of neurons during gamma activity may be explained by differences in intrinsic properties rather than differences in connectivity. Further, we note that the relevant physiology is not static, but may be altered by contextual or neuromodulatory factors; for instance, a neurons time constant decreases during intense synaptic activity, while its afterhyperpolarization is altered by neuromodulators such as noradrenaline and acetylcholine. We therefore suggest that the ability of gamma oscillations to control response timing is not fixed, but may be dynamically shaped to suit the cortexs computational requirements during attention or cognition.

  20. Fast water oil spill response

    Of the many manuals currently available for oil spill response, few have any information on fast-water conditions even though just more than half of all oil spilled by volume in the United States between 1992 and 1997 happened in waterways with currents exceeding one knot. The Coast Guard recognized the absence of standard terminology that could be used for fast-water responses. For that reason, an initiative was undertaken to create a document that addresses only fast-water issues. Two major parts of the project were to provide information on deployment strategies and techniques to identify equipment that could improve recovery capabilities where existing systems do not work well. This paper described field demonstrations where boom deflectors and boom vanes were used. Efforts to increase the capability of booms and skimmers were also described. A field guide was developed for training and response purposes for spills in fast-water which makes it possible for on-scene commanders and area supervisors to define techniques and terminology for responders in the field. It is particularly useful for Coast Guard Marine Safety Units when working with Coast Guard operational units during an emergency response. 20 refs., 4 figs

  1. Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer

    We report the response time of fringe-field switching (FFS) liquid crystal (LC) mode devices using an ultraviolet-curable reactive mesogen (RM) mixed in a planar alignment layer. The RM polymers within the alignment layer increase the surface azimuthal anchoring energy and the order parameter of the LC molecules. As a result, the falling time and the rising time in the FFS mode are improved by the enhanced azimuthal anchoring energy and the increased dielectric torque induced by higher order parameter of LCs. (paper)

  2. a Fast TIME-DOMAIN Integration Method for Computing Non-Stationary Response Histories of Linear Oscillators with Discrete-Time Random Forcing

    DUNNE, J. F.

    2002-07-01

    A new approach is presented for computing displacement histories of single linear oscillators with arbitrarily light damping and general forcing—of particular use for efficient Monte Carlo simulation of modal systems with ultra-light damping and very broadband non-Gaussian excitation. Solution methods are initially presented within a state transition context, to show limitations of FFT solutions, and to establish, for long-run non-stationary stochastic analysis via fast Laplace, the need for appropriate zero-padding, high cut-off frequency, and fixed-step sampling. Truncation errors arising in single-transition time-domain convolution are then examined via the Euler-Maclaurin summation formula. Errors are shown to be minimum when transition intervals are chosen as integer multiples of the damped natural period, precisely where the O (Δτ2Δf‧) error can be evaluated, and the velocity transition equation can be dispensed with. The paper shows that an optimum O (Δτ4Δf‴) integration scheme can be used for fast time-domain convolution in a two-stage algorithm. First, phased-pairs of accurate displacements are efficiently predicted at selected transition times. These are then used as boundary conditions in adaptive Chebychev polynomial solution giving continuous displacement histories for selected cycles—this considerably reduces the number of multiplications and integrations normally required. Two-stage integration turns out to be at least 100 times faster than explicit short-transition time-domain solution, and for general applications, at least as fast as the Laplace/IFFT approach. But for non-stationary probability density estimation, involving far-future history prediction the speed advantage over fast Laplace can be enormous.

  3. Response of fast plastic scintillator detector

    Plastic scintillator detector is widely used now a days for the time of flight measurement of high velocity charged and non charged particle in many experiment of nuclear and high energy physics. The important parameters of a plastic scintillator are its luminescence response to various types of radiation, its time response characteristics (i.e., rise time, decay time, transit time of the light), and the attenuation of the light traveling through it. We are planning to build an array of detectors for TOF measurements of high energy reaction fragments. For this purpose, various types of ultra fast plastic scintillator with different types of readout have been tested using different types of sources and cosmic muons at our SINP Laboratory. Details of the testing results on the response of these detectors to electron (137Cs), gamma (60Co) and heavy charge particle like alpha (from 241Am) will be presented in the symposium

  4. Preoperative fasting time in children.

    Adeel, S

    2012-02-01

    The aim of preoperative fasting is to prevent regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration while limiting potential problems of thirst, dehydration and hypoglycaemia. The American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) has suggested guidelines for preoperative fasting for children undergoing elective surgery. We did a postal survey to determine the current practice regarding these guidelines amongst all specialist registrars in anaesthesia in Ireland. A questionnaire was sent to all specialist registrars in anaesthesia (90 in total), 60 (67%) were returned and analysed. The question asked was how long children should be kept fasting before elective surgery. The results of our survey suggest that most of the respondents are following the ASA guidelines for clear fluids and solids however there were differing opinion regarding the duration of fasting for formula milk and breast milk. In conclusion, we would recommend greater awareness and collaboration between anaesthetists, nurses and surgeons to ensure that fasting instructions are consistent with the ASA guidelines and that patient and their parents understand these directives as well.

  5. The high contrast ratio and fast response time of a liquid crystal display lit by a carbon nanotube field emission backlight unit

    We report on the fabrication of a carbon nanotube field emission backlight unit (CNT-BLU) and its application for liquid crystal displays (LCD). The CNT-BLU was operated with locally controllable luminance and impulse-type scanning. The local luminance control, which is based on a very small block size of 1 cm2, consisted of local dimming and local brightening. This resulted in the contrast ratio of the LCD-TV to be as high as 300 000:1. A fast response time of ∼5.7 ms was also achieved from the LCD-TV lit by CNT-BLU, originating from the impulse-type scanning. In addition, the CNT-BLU showed long-term emission stability and high luminance uniformity

  6. Short-Time-Response measurements of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate by fast capillary gas chromatography with luminol detection.

    Marley, N. A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Drayton, P. J.

    2000-12-07

    The interaction of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in sunlight to produce photochemical smog has been well studied over the years. In the past, the workhorse for the measurement of NO{sub 2}and NO was the chemiluminescent reaction with ozone. This method has detection limits of approximately 0.5 ppb in most commercial instruments, but it cannot detect NO{sub 2} directly; the instrument detects NO and uses hot catalytic surfaces to decompose all other nitrogen oxides (including NO{sub 2}) to NO for detection (l). The main problem with the method is the inherent difficulty in detecting excited NO{sub 2}, which emits over a broad region beginning at approximately 660 nm and has a maximum at 1270 nm, thus requiring a red-shifted photomultiplier for detection. The use of luminol for direct chemiluminescent detection of NO{sub 2} was demonstrated to have greater inherent sensitivity (detection limits of 5 ppt) than the indirect ozone chemiluminescence detection (2). In the luminol system, a gas-liquid reaction leads to light emission with a maximum at approximately 425 nm, at the maximum sensitivity for most photomultiplier tubes. This emission is responsible for the increased detection sensitivities. The biggest problem with this method for direct measurement of NO{sub 2} has been interference due to other soluble oxidants, particularly peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs).

  7. LCD response time estimation

    Adam, Pierre; Bertolino, Pascal; Chassery, Jean-Marc; Lebowsky, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Techniques to reduce LCD motion blur are extensively used in industry and they depend on an inherent LCD parameter: response time. However, normative response time is not a sufficient reference to improve LCD performance. Rather, all the gray-to-gray response times quantities are required to obtain a good improvement quality. Consequently, we propose a novel LCD model to simulate as well as compute gray-to-gray transitions (response time and behavior) from a reduced measurement set.

  8. A new scintillation counter with very fast resolving time (1961)

    The rare gases used as scintillators are characterized by their short time of luminescence and by the linearity of their response as a function of the total energy imparted to the gas by the incident particle. It is possible with these scintillators, when associated with a fast response photomultiplier, to solve certain problems of nuclear physics demanding a linear detector with a very fast resolving time (a few nanoseconds). Two examples of the construction of this apparatus are described. The results obtained and future possibilities are briefly outlined. (author)

  9. Ultra-fast timing with plastic scintillators

    Hoischen, Robert [Department of Physics, Lund University, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Pietri, Stephane; Prokopowicz, Wawrzyniec; Schaffner, Henning; Gerl, Juergen; Wollersheim, Hans Juergen; Kurz, Nikolaus [Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Rudolph, Dirk [Department of Physics, Lund University, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    Fast timing detectors for time-of-flight measurements are essential identification tools for isotopes studied at fragment separators at major heavy-ion research facilities. While today's standard technique of utilizing a plastic scintillator read out by few photomultiplier tubes proofs to be efficient, it does not provide the required time resolution for future key experiments at, for example, the Super-FRS at FAIR. A common present-day approach is to use diamond detectors instead. While they do provide a better time resolution compared to scintillators, they are more difficult to use and far more expensive. Results from tests using a new design approach with standard materials will be presented. This leads to a much improved performance, but remains both cost-efficient, compact, and reliable. The design goals and how to accomplish them will be exemplified by the LYCCA (Lund-York-Cologne CAlorimeter) detector aiming for fast-beam experiments at HISPEC within NUSTAR.

  10. Ultra-fast timing with plastic scintillators

    Fast timing detectors for time-of-flight measurements are essential identification tools for isotopes studied at fragment separators at major heavy-ion research facilities. While today's standard technique of utilizing a plastic scintillator read out by few photomultiplier tubes proofs to be efficient, it does not provide the required time resolution for future key experiments at, for example, the Super-FRS at FAIR. A common present-day approach is to use diamond detectors instead. While they do provide a better time resolution compared to scintillators, they are more difficult to use and far more expensive. Results from tests using a new design approach with standard materials will be presented. This leads to a much improved performance, but remains both cost-efficient, compact, and reliable. The design goals and how to accomplish them will be exemplified by the LYCCA (Lund-York-Cologne CAlorimeter) detector aiming for fast-beam experiments at HISPEC within NUSTAR.

  11. Response measurement of single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond radiation detector for intense X-rays aiming at neutron bang-time and neutron burn-history measurement on an inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition

    Shimaoka, T., E-mail: t.shimaoka@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Kaneko, J. H.; Tsubota, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Arikawa, Y.; Nagai, T.; Kojima, S.; Abe, Y.; Sakata, S.; Fujioka, S.; Nakai, M.; Shiraga, H.; Azechi, H. [Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Isobe, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Sato, Y. [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Chayahara, A.; Umezawa, H.; Shikata, S. [Diamond Research Laboratory, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    A neutron bang time and burn history monitor in inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition are necessary for plasma diagnostics. In the FIREX project, however, no detector attained those capabilities because high-intensity X-rays accompanied fast electrons used for plasma heating. To solve this problem, single-crystal CVD diamond was grown and fabricated into a radiation detector. The detector, which had excellent charge transportation property, was tested to obtain a response function for intense X-rays. The applicability for neutron bang time and burn history monitor was verified experimentally. Charge collection efficiency of 99.5% ± 0.8% and 97.1% ± 1.4% for holes and electrons were obtained using 5.486 MeV alpha particles. The drift velocity at electric field which saturates charge collection efficiency was 1.1 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 7} cm/s and 1.0 ± 0.3 × 10{sup 7} cm/s for holes and electrons. Fast response of several ns pulse width for intense X-ray was obtained at the GEKKO XII experiment, which is sufficiently fast for ToF measurements to obtain a neutron signal separately from X-rays. Based on these results, we confirmed that the single-crystal CVD diamond detector obtained neutron signal with good S/N under ion temperature 0.5–1 keV and neutron yield of more than 10{sup 9} neutrons/shot.

  12. Response measurement of single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond radiation detector for intense X-rays aiming at neutron bang-time and neutron burn-history measurement on an inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition

    A neutron bang time and burn history monitor in inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition are necessary for plasma diagnostics. In the FIREX project, however, no detector attained those capabilities because high-intensity X-rays accompanied fast electrons used for plasma heating. To solve this problem, single-crystal CVD diamond was grown and fabricated into a radiation detector. The detector, which had excellent charge transportation property, was tested to obtain a response function for intense X-rays. The applicability for neutron bang time and burn history monitor was verified experimentally. Charge collection efficiency of 99.5% ± 0.8% and 97.1% ± 1.4% for holes and electrons were obtained using 5.486 MeV alpha particles. The drift velocity at electric field which saturates charge collection efficiency was 1.1 ± 0.4 × 107 cm/s and 1.0 ± 0.3 × 107 cm/s for holes and electrons. Fast response of several ns pulse width for intense X-ray was obtained at the GEKKO XII experiment, which is sufficiently fast for ToF measurements to obtain a neutron signal separately from X-rays. Based on these results, we confirmed that the single-crystal CVD diamond detector obtained neutron signal with good S/N under ion temperature 0.5–1 keV and neutron yield of more than 109 neutrons/shot

  13. Time of flight fast neutron radiography

    Neutron radiography with fast or thermal neutrons is a standard technique for non-destructive testing (NDT). Here we report results for fast neutron radiography both as an adjunct to pulsed fast neutron analysis (PFNA) and as a stand-alone method for NDT. PFNA is a new technique for utilizing a collimated pulsed neutron beam to interrogate items and determine their elemental composition. By determining the time of flight for gamma-rays produced by (n,n' gamma X) reactions, a three dimensional image can be produced. Neutron radiography data taken with the same beam provides an important constraint for image reconstruction, and in particular is important in inferring the amount of hydrogen within the interrogated item. As a stand-alone device, the radiography measurement can be used to image items as large as cargo containers as long as their density is not too high. The use of a pulsed beam gives the further advantage of a time of flight measurement on the transmitted neutrons. By gating the radiography signal on the time of flight appropriate to the energy of the primary neutrons, most build-up from scattered neutrons can be eliminated. The pulsed beam also greatly improves the signal to background and extends the range of the neutron radiography. Simulation results will be presented which display the advantage of this constraint in particular for statistically limited data. Experimental results will be presented which show some of the limitations likely in a PFNA system utilizing neutron radiography data. Experimental and simulation results will demonstrate possible uses for this type of radiographic data in identifying contraband substances such as drugs. (orig.)

  14. Long-time behaviour of fast breeders

    For studying the long-time behaviour of fast breeders, a suitable O-dimensional model of fissile (plutonium), fertile (U238) and absorbing material (structural material and coolant) is investigated. Charging, discharging and re-charging of fissile and fertile material are idealized as continuous processes. Criticality requires continuous discharge of each specific Pu-composition . The time behaviour of the isotope composition is described by a first-order-differential- equation system whose solution was determined numerically for different initial conditions. Calculating the stationary isotope composition (stationary after a long time) leads to an eigenvalue problem with the plutonium current, to be discharged as eigenvalue and the Pu-isotope concentrations as eigenvector components. Generally, this eigenvalue problem has but one physically reasonable solution with the so-called Pu? as eigenvector. The eigenvalue determines the breeding rate. The principal structure of fuel recycling is investigated. (author)

  15. Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Vortex Prediction Models

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Current fast-time wake models are reviewed and three basic types are defined. Predictions from several of the fast-time models are compared. Previous statistical evaluations of the APA-Sarpkaya and D2P fast-time models are discussed. Root Mean Square errors between fast-time model predictions and Lidar wake measurements are examined for a 24 hr period at Denver International Airport. Shortcomings in current methodology for evaluating wake errors are also discussed.

  16. Time non-variant and time variant fast random pulse generator

    The construction and specifications of a fast random pulse generator is described. It consists of a fast LED light source, a PMT, a fast discriminator, a fast amplifier, a fast counter and a negative feedback stable circuit. The counting rate of time non-variant random pulses is near 103 cps. Time variant random pulses can vary with the shape of time variant pulse

  17. The Fast Tracker Real Time Processor

    Annovi, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    As the LHC luminosity is ramped up to the SLHC Phase I level and beyond, the high rates, multiplicities, and energies of particles seen by the detectors will pose a unique challenge. Only a tiny fraction of the produced collisions can be stored on tape and immense real-time data reduction is needed. An effective trigger system must maintain high trigger efficiencies for the physics we are most interested in, and at the same time suppress the enormous QCD backgrounds. This requires massive computing power to minimize the online execution time of complex algorithms. A multi-level trigger is an effective solution for an otherwise impossible problem. The Fast Tracker (FTK)[1], is a proposed upgrade to the current ATLAS trigger system that will operate at full Level-1 output rates and provide high quality tracks reconstructed over the entire detector by the start of processing in Level-2. FTK solves the combinatorial challenge inherent to tracking by exploiting massive parallelism of associative memories [2] that ...

  18. Fast Simulation of Tsunamis in Real Time

    Fryer, G. J.; Wang, D.; Becker, N. C.; Weinstein, S. A.; Walsh, D.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Tsunami Warning Centers primarily base their wave height forecasts on precomputed tsunami scenarios, such as the SIFT model (Standby Inundation Forecasting of Tsunamis) developed by NOAA's Center for Tsunami Research. In SIFT, tsunami simulations for about 1600 individual earthquake sources, each 100x50 km, define shallow subduction worldwide. These simulations are stored in a database and combined linearly to make up the tsunami from any great earthquake. Precomputation is necessary because the nonlinear shallow-water wave equations are too time consuming to compute during an event. While such scenario-based models are valuable, they tacitly assume all energy in a tsunami comes from thrust at the décollement. The thrust assumption is often violated (e.g., 1933 Sanriku, 2007 Kurils, 2009 Samoa), while a significant number of tsunamigenic earthquakes are completely unrelated to subduction (e.g., 1812 Santa Barbara, 1939 Accra, 1975 Kalapana). Finally, parts of some subduction zones are so poorly defined that precomputations may be of little value (e.g., 1762 Arakan, 1755 Lisbon). For all such sources, a fast means of estimating tsunami size is essential. At the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, we have been using our model RIFT (Real-time Inundation Forecasting of Tsunamis) experimentally for two years. RIFT is fast by design: it solves only the linearized form of the equations. At 4 arc-minutes resolution calculations for the entire Pacific take just a few minutes on an 8-processor Linux box. Part of the rationale for developing RIFT was earthquakes of M 7.8 or smaller, which approach the lower limit of the more complex SIFT's abilities. For such events we currently issue a fixed warning to areas within 1,000 km of the source, which typically means a lot of over-warning. With sources defined by W-phase CMTs, exhaustive comparison with runup data shows that we can reduce the warning area significantly. Even before CMTs are available, we routinely run models based on the local tectonics, which provide a useful first estimate of the tsunami. Our runup comparisons show that Green's Law (i.e., 1-D runup estimates) works very well indeed, especially if computations are run at 2 arc-minutes. We are developing an experimental RIFT-based product showing expected runups on open coasts. While these will necessarily be rather crude they will be a great help to emergency managers trying to assess the hazard. RIFT is typically run using a single source, but it can already handle multiple sources. In particular, it can handle multiple sources of different orientations such as 1993 Okushiri, or the décollement-splay combinations to be expected during major earthquakes in accretionary margins such as Nankai, Cascadia, and Middle America. As computers get faster and the number-crunching burden is off-loaded to GPUs, we are convinced there will still be a use for a fast, linearized, modeling capability. Rather than applying scaling laws to a CMT, or distributing slip over 100x50 km sub-faults, for example, it would be preferable to model tsunamis using the output from a finite-fault analysis. To accomplish such a compute-bound task fast enough for warning purposes will demand a rapid, approximate technique like RIFT.

  19. Minimising maximum response time

    García Villoria, Alberto; Pastor Moreno, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The minmax response time problem (mRTP) is a scheduling problem that has recently appeared in the literature and can be considered as a fair sequencing problem. This kind of problems appears in a wide range of real-world applications in mixed-model assembly lines, computer systems, periodic maintenance and others. The mRTP arises whenever products, clients or jobs need to be sequenced in such a way that the maximum time between the points at which they receive the necessary resources is minim...

  20. Testing Time Dilation on Fast Ion Beams

    We report the status of an experimental test of time dilation in Special Relativity. This is accomplished by simultaneously measuring the forward and backward Doppler shifts of an electronic transition of fast moving ions, using high-precision laser spectroscopy. From these two Doppler shifts both the ion velocity β = v/c and the time dilation factor can be derived. From measurements based on saturation spectroscopy on lithium ions stored at β = 0.03 and β = 0.06 in the TSR heavy-ion storage ring, we achieved an upper limit for a O[β2] deviation from Special Relativity of α≤ 8x10-8. In recent measurements on a β = 0.34 Li+ beam in the ESR storage ring we used optical-optical double-resonance spectroscopy which, in combination with the TSR result, gives improved sensitivity on the O[β4] term of α2 ≤1.2x10-5. We discuss current limitations and possible improvements that promise an enhancement of the sensitivity by at least one order of magnitude in the future.

  1. Fast-response beam loss monitor

    By connecting a polyethylene fiber to a photo-multiplier, a beam loss monitor with a fast response has been fabricated. The beam loss is measured by Cherenkov light generated by a charged particle penetrating a fiber. Although this monitor has the merits that the structure of the monitor is simple and cheap, it has the demerits that the signal has an energy dependence, and deterioration caused by radiation occurs. A plastic scintillating fiber and a quartz fiber have also been tested. The signal of the former fiber is strong and does not depend on the energy of the circulating beam. However, the deterioration is also very severe. On the contrary, the latter fiber has a long lifetime, though its signal is small. Some measurements are discussed here concerning various cases of extraction conditions. (author)

  2. Time-resolved and time-integrated radiography of fast reactor fuel elements

    The fast-reactor safety program has some unusual requirements in radiography. Applications may be divided into two areas: time-resolved or time-integrated radiography. The fast-neutron hodoscope has supplied all recent time-resolved cineradiographic in-pile fuel-motion data, and various x-ray and photographic techniques have been used for out-of-pile experiments. Thick containers and the large number of radioactive fuel pins involved in safety research have been responsible for some nonconventional applications of time-integrated radiography of stationary objects. Hodoscopes record fuel-motion during transient experiments at the TREAT reactor in the United States and CABRI in France. Other special techniques have been under development for out-of-pile nondestructive radiography of fuel element subassemblies, including fast-neutron and gamma-ray tomographic methods

  3. A proposal for fast neutron personal real time dosimetry in mixed n, γ fields

    A method for fast neutron monitoring has been studied, resulting from computer simulation analysis of fast neutron and gamma interaction responses in silicon counters. A real time personal dosemeter with a response accuracy better than 30% in a mixed n, γ field for neutron energies between 0.75 and 15 MeV is proposed. (author)

  4. Combined digital divice with fast response

    The article deals with a fast-acting, high-capacity counter. The first stages of the counter are built around a flip-flop circuit employing tunnel diodes and transistors. The integrated section of the circuit employs the NOR gates. The flip-flops are connected through the direct current-coupled circuit. Use is made of the fast-acting elements with emitter-coupled logic which makes it possible to insure the speediest operation of the flip-flop at a frequency of at least 70 MHz. Coupling with the flip-flops employing transistor-transistor logic is effected through a transition stage using the transistors. Resetting of the flip-flop is accomplished by one trigger pulse. The reset pulse is applied to each next flip-flop at a delay equal to the previous flip-flop operation time. Such a delay is insured by the RC-circuits. The information about the state of the flip-flops can be transferred to the pulse analyzer via buffer stages. The state of the flip-flops is visually checked through miniature glow lamps NCM-9-60 BM. The counter does not call for good shaping of input pulses with respect to amplitude and width. The maximum counting rate is 270 MHz

  5. Fission-neutrons source with fast neutron-emission timing

    Rusev, G.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E. M.; Jandel, M.

    2016-05-01

    A neutron source with fast timing has been built to help with detector-response measurements. The source is based on the neutron emission from the spontaneous fission of 252Cf. The time is provided by registering the fission fragments in a layer of a thin scintillation film with a signal rise time of 1 ns. The scintillation light output is measured by two silicon photomultipliers with rise time of 0.5 ns. Overall time resolution of the source is 0.3 ns. Design of the source and test measurements using it are described. An example application of the source for determining the neutron/gamma pulse-shape discrimination by a stilbene crystal is given.

  6. Fast response time alcohol gas sensor using nanocrystalline F-doped SnO2 films derived via sol–gel method

    Sarbani Basu; Yeong-Her Wang; C Ghanshyam; Pawan Kapur

    2013-08-01

    Pure and fluorine-modified tin oxide (SnO2) thin films (250–300 nm) were uniformly deposited on corning glass substrate using sol–gel technique to fabricate SnO2-based resistive sensors for ethanol detection. The characteristic properties of the multicoatings have been investigated, including their electrical conductivity and optical transparency in visible IR range. Pure SnO2 films exhibited a visible transmission of 90% compared with Fdoped films (80% for low doping and 60% for high doping). F-doped SnO2 films exhibited lower resistivity (0.12 × 10-4 cm) compared with the pure (14.16 × 10-4 cm) one. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to analyse the structure and surface morphology of the prepared films. Resistance change was studied at different temperatures (523–623 K) with metallic contacts of silver in air and in presence of different ethanol vapour concentrations. Comparative gas-sensing results revealed that the prepared F-doped SnO2 sensor exhibited the lowest response and recovery times of 10 and 13 s, respectively whereas that of pure SnO2 gas sensor, 32 and 65 s, respectively. The maximum sensitivities of both gas sensors were obtained at 623 K.

  7. The relationship between shock response spectrum and fast Fourier transform

    In this paper the basic relationship between response spectrum and fast Fourier transform is laid down. Since a long time the response spectrum has been used by structural engineers in the seismic domain and nowadays it is going to be used to define transient motions. This way to define the excitation is more general and more real than the use of classical shape pulses for the reproduction of real environment. Nevertheless the response spectrum of a real excitation represents a loss of some information with respect to the Fourier transform. A useful discussion could arise from these observations. Appendix A gives the relationship between the mathematic Fourier transform and the digital Fourier transform given by computers, while Appendix B gives some examples of response spectra and Fourier transforms of simple functions. (author)

  8. A thermometer for fast response in cryogenic flow

    The measurement of transient temperatures in cryogenic fluid flow requires a highly sensitive, intrinsically fast sensor that is in good thermal contact with the fluid but in poor thermal contact with the solid walls confining the fluid. A resistance thermometer made from a 1 μm thick silicon layer on a 125 μm thick sapphire substrate has a calculated intrinsic response time of about 10 ns at 4 K, and its sensitivity is comparable to germanium or carbon thermometers in the range of 1-80 K. This paper describes a novel construction method to mount the small silicon-on-sapphire thermometer in an oscillating fluid flow. The large surface area of the thermometer provides good thermal contact with the fluid, while the suspension ensures poor thermal contact with the holder, maintains its fast response time, and withstands high velocities and frequencies of fluid oscillation. A self-heating response time of 300 ns was measured at 4 K in liquid and gaseous helium. Repeatability of the thermometer is + or - 10 mK at 4 K. Examples of the performance of this thermometer for helium gas oscillations in the frequency range of 1 Hz to 12 kHz are given

  9. Constructions of Fast-Decodable Distributed Space-Time Codes

    Barreal, Amaro; Hollanti, Camilla; Markin, Nadya

    2015-01-01

    Fast-decodable distributed space-time codes are constructed by adapting the iterative code construction introduced in [1] to the N -relay multiple-input multiple-output channel, leading to the first fast-decodable distributed space-time codes for more than one antenna per user. Explicit constructions are provided alongside with a performance comparison to non-iterated (non-) fast-decodable codes.

  10. Investigating Two Different Training Time Frames during Ramadan Fasting

    Kordi, Ramin; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Memari, Amir-Hossein; Najafabadi, Mahboubeh Ghayour

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Muslim athletes may continue training and competing while they are fasting. There is a concern about negative effects of fasting on sports performance. This study aimed to investigate the influence of two training time frames on athletes’ body composition and performance during Ramadan fasting. Methods An observational study was conducted and thirty four male volunteer athletes from different sports including volleyball, karate, taekwondo and football were assigned in two groups. The ...

  11. Initial Report of the Fast Timing Working Group

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A preliminary set of results highlighting the unique capabilities of fast-timing for resolving information from individual collisions at the High-Luminosity LHC (HL- LHC) is presented. These results explore the possibilities made available by using fast timing to enhance the reconstruction and physics capabilities of the CMS detector in terms of pileup mitigation and searches for new physics. Fast timing applications in calorimetry, for electromagnetic showers, and for MIPs, to time-tag tracks, are demonstrated as are first examples of what is possible with their combination.

  12. A new and highly selective turn-on fluorescent sensor with fast response time for the monitoring of cadmium ions in cosmetic, and health product samples.

    Khani, Rouhollah; Ghiamati, Ebrahim; Boroujerdi, Ramin; Rezaeifard, Abdolreza; Zaryabi, Mohadeseh Hosseinpour

    2016-06-15

    Cadmium (Cd) which is an extremely toxic could be found in many products like plastics, fossil fuel combustion, cosmetics, water resources, and wastewaters. It is capable of causing serious environmental and health problems such as lung, prostate, renal cancers and the other disorders. So, the development of a sensor to continually monitor cadmium is considerably demanding. Tetrakis(4-nitrophenyl)porphyrin, T(4-NO2-P)P, was synthesized and used as a new and highly selective fluorescent probe for monitoring cadmium ions in the "turn-on" mode. There was a linear relationship between fluorescence intensity and the concentration of Cd(II) in the range of 1.0×10(-6) to 1.0×10(-5)molL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.276μM. To examine the most important parameters involved and their interactions in the sensor optimization procedure, a four-factor central composite design (CCD) combined with response surface modeling (RSM) was implemented. The practical applicability of the developed sensor was investigated using real cosmetic, and personal care samples. PMID:27045784

  13. Stem Cells Matter in Response to Fasting

    Badi Sri Sailaja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The molecular processes underlying intestinal adaptation to fasting and re-feeding remain largely uncharacterized. In this issue of Cell Reports, Richmond et al. report that dormant intestinal stem cells are regulated by PTEN and nutritional status.

  14. Fast timing methods for semiconductor detectors. Revision

    This tutorial paper discusses the basic parameters which determine the accuracy of timing measurements and their effect in a practical application, specifically timing with thin-surface barrier detectors. The discussion focusses on properties of the detector, low-noise amplifiers, trigger circuits and time converters. New material presented in this paper includes bipolar transistor input stages with noise performance superior to currently available FETs, noiseless input terminations in sub-nanosecond preamplifiers and methods using transmission lines to couple the detector to remotely mounted preamplifiers. Trigger circuits are characterized in terms of effective rise time, equivalent input noise and residual jitter

  15. Fast-timing methods for semiconductor detectors

    The basic parameters are discussed which determine the accuracy of timing measurements and their effect in a practical application, specifically timing with thin-surface barrier detectors. The discussion focusses on properties of the detector, low-noise amplifiers, trigger circuits and time converters. New material presented in this paper includes bipolar transistor input stages with noise performance superior to currently available FETs, noiseless input terminations in sub-nanosecond preamplifiers and methods using transmission lines to couple the detector to remotely mounted preamplifiers. Trigger circuits are characterized in terms of effective rise time, equivalent input noise and residual jitter

  16. Ultra-Fast Shapelets for Time Series Classification

    Wistuba, Martin; Grabocka, Josif; Schmidt-Thieme, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Time series shapelets are discriminative subsequences and their similarity to a time series can be used for time series classification. Since the discovery of time series shapelets is costly in terms of time, the applicability on long or multivariate time series is difficult. In this work we propose Ultra-Fast Shapelets that uses a number of random shapelets. It is shown that Ultra-Fast Shapelets yield the same prediction quality as current state-of-the-art shapelet-based time series classifi...

  17. Response time of internauts

    Johansen, Anders

    2001-07-01

    A new experiment measuring the dynamical response of the Internet population to a “point-like” perturbation has been performed. The nature of the perturbation was that of an announcement, specifically a web-interview on stock market crashes, which contained the URL to the author's articles on the subject. It was established that the download rate obeys the relation ≈1/ t in qualitative agreement with previously reported results.

  18. Response time of internauts

    Johansen, Anders

    2001-01-01

    A new experiment measuring the dynamical response of the Internet population to a ``point-like'' perturbation has been performed. The nature of the perturbation was that of an announcement, specifically a web-interview on stock market crashes, which contained the URL to the author's articles on the subject. It was established that the download rate obeys the relation ~ 1/t in qualitative agreement with previously reported results.

  19. Response of reverse convection to fast IMF transitions

    Taguchi, S.; Tawara, A.; Hairston, M. R.; Slavin, J. A.; Le, G.; Matzka, J.; Stolle, C.

    2015-01-01

    The nature of the transition that high-latitude reverse convection makes in response to fast interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) changes is investigated using observations from multiple spacecraft and a ground magnetometer array. We focused on two fast IMF-transition events on 22 April 2006. Imme...

  20. Fast Timing for High-Rate Environments with Micromegas

    Papaevangelou, Thomas; Ferrer-Ribas, Esther; Giomataris, Ioannis; Godinot, Cyprien; Diaz, Diego Gonzalez; Gustavsson, Thomas; Kebbiri, Mariam; Oliveri, Eraldo; Resnati, Filippo; Ropelewski, Leszek; Tsiledakis, Georgios; Veenhof, Rob; White, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The current state of the art in fast timing resolution for existing experiments is of the order of 100 ps on the time of arrival of both charged particles and electromagnetic showers. Current R&D on charged particle timing is approaching the level of 10 ps but is not primarily directed at sustained performance at high rates and under high radiation (as would be needed for HL-LHC pileup mitigation). We demonstrate a Micromegas based solution to reach this level of performance. The Micromegas acts as a photomultiplier coupled to a Cerenkov-radiator front window, which produces sufficient UV photons to convert the ~100 ps single-photoelectron jitter into a timing response of the order of 10-20 ps per incident charged particle. A prototype has been built in order to demonstrate this performance. The first laboratory tests with a pico-second laser have shown a time resolution of the order of 27 ps for ~50 primary photoelectrons, using a bulk Micromegas readout.

  1. A Fast Time-to-Pulse Height Converter

    A fast time-to-pulse height converter representing a development of Green and Bell's gated beam converter is described. The converter is compatible with 2 input pulses in the stop channel and exhibits excellent linearity and time resolution properties. High stability and large output pulses are obtained by using a large time constant in the converting network

  2. The Generalized Centroid Difference method for lifetime measurements via ?-? coincidences using large fast-timing arrays

    Rgis J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for direct electronic fast-timing lifetime measurements of nuclear excited states via ?-? coincidences using an array equipped with N very fast high-resolution LaBr3(Ce scintillator detectors is presented. The generalized centroid difference method provides two independent start and stop time spectra obtained without any correction by a superposition of the N(N 1/2 calibrated ?-? time difference spectra of the N detector fast-timing system. The two fast-timing array time spectra correspond to a forward and reverse gating of a specific ?-? cascade and the centroid difference as the time shift between the centroids of the two time spectra provides a picosecond-sensitive mirror-symmetric observable of the set-up. The energydependent mean prompt response difference between the start and stop events is calibrated and used as a single correction for lifetime determination. These combined fast-timing array mean ?-? zero-time responses can be determined for 40 keV < E? < 1.4 MeV with a precision better than 10 ps using a 152Eu ?-ray source. The new method is described with examples of (n,? and (n,f,? experiments performed at the intense cold-neutron beam facility PF1B of the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, France, using 16 LaBr3(Ce detectors within the EXILL&FATIMA campaign in 2013. The results are discussed with respect to possible systematic errors induced by background contributions.

  3. Detectors for timing measurements 2. Streak cameras and fast photodiodes

    Measuring methods of the pulse structure and its stability of the synchrotron radiation, and the method of time resolving measurement by synchronizing the external signal with the synchrotron radiation pulse are explained. The synchrotron radiation pulse width ranges from some ten to some hundred pico-seconds, and the time resolution of the detectors should be better than some pico-seconds. The streak camera is such a fast detector. Instead of the streak camera which is large-scaled and expensive, fast photo-detectors can be employed to know entire time structures. Some examples of time-synchronized measurements using the streak camera and the fast photo-detector are presented. (K.Y.)

  4. On the fast response of spectrometric circuits

    Information capacity of spectrometric circuits obtianed by means of Monte Carlo method modeling is analysed. It is shown that working at high input pulse counting rate is not advisable, dead time of analog-to-digital converter should be compared with the pulse rise time of the amplifier

  5. Analysis of the seismic response of a fast reactor core

    This report deals with the methods to apply for a correct evaluation of the reactor core seismic response. Reference is made to up-to-date design data concerning the PEC core, taking into account the presence of the core-restraint plate located close to the PEC core elements top and applying the optimized iterative procedure between the vessel linear calculation and the non-linear ones limited to the core, which had been described in a previous report. It is demonstrated that the convergence of this procedure is very fast, similar to what obtained in the calculations of the cited report, carried out with preliminary data, and it is shown that the cited methods allow a reliable evaluation of the excitation time histories for the experimental tests in support of the seismic verification of the shutdown system and the core of a fast reactor, as well as relevant data for the experimental, structural and functional, verification of the core elements in the case of seismic loads

  6. Security-constrained expansion planning of fast-response units for wind integration

    This paper proposes a stochastic expansion planning of fast-response thermal units for the large-scale integration of wind generation (WG). The paper assumes that the WG integration level is given and considers the short-term thermal constraints and the volatility of wind units in the planning of fast-response thermal units. The new fast-response units are proposed by market participants. The security-constrained expansion planning approach will be used by an ISO or a regulatory body to secure the optimal planning of the participants' proposed fast-response units with the WG integration. Random outages of generating units and transmission lines as well as hourly load and wind speed forecast errors are modeled in Monte Carlo scenarios. The Monte Carlo simplification methods are introduced to handle large-scale stochastic expansion planning as a tradeoff between the solution accuracy and the calculation time. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through numerical simulations. (author)

  7. Analytical model for a fast-response calorimeter: with applications

    This paper describes the development of an electrical analogue thermal-control model for the ANL-type fast-response calorimeter and its application to a new small sample, analytical-type fast-response calorimeter. This was done to obtain a better understanding of the sources of variations in experimentally measured sample power. Thermal quantities of temperature, heat flow and heat storage were reduced to electrical analogues so that the whole calorimeter could be modeled and analyzed as an electrical circuit with the thermal parts of the calorimeter treated as a series of lumped-circuit constants. Latest results of this work are discussed

  8. Fast and Slow Transient Response of WECS with Simultaneous Actions

    M.Amarendra; Srikanth, S; G. Siva Suteja; B. Prasanna Lakshmi; K.Madhavi Latha

    2012-01-01

    This paper details the transient operation of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) used simultaneously as an ac- tive filter and power generator. This study is intended to address the system response to two types of transient phenomena: voltage dips (fast transients) and wind speed variations (slow transients). The system response to voltage dips is governed by the electrical system dynamics and control method and results in the evaluation of the WECS low-voltage ride through capability. Th...

  9. Portion sizes and obesity: responses of fast-food companies.

    Young, Lisa R; Nestle, Marion

    2007-07-01

    Because the sizes of food portions, especially of fast food, have increased in parallel with rising rates of overweight, health authorities have called on fast-food chains to decrease the sizes of menu items. From 2002 to 2006, we examined responses of fast-food chains to such calls by determining the current sizes of sodas, French fries, and hamburgers at three leading chains and comparing them to sizes observed in 1998 and 2002. Although McDonald's recently phased out its largest offerings, current items are similar to 1998 sizes and greatly exceed those offered when the company opened in 1955. Burger King and Wendy's have increased portion sizes, even while health authorities are calling for portion size reductions. Fast-food portions in the United States are larger than in Europe. These observations suggest that voluntary efforts by fast-food companies to reduce portion sizes are unlikely to be effective, and that policy approaches are needed to reduce energy intake from fast food. PMID:17585324

  10. Fast timing study of a CeBr3 crystal: Time resolution below 120 ps at 60Co energies

    We report on the time response of a novel inorganic scintillator, CeBr3. The measurements were performed using a cylindrical crystal of 1-in. in height and 1-in. in diameter at 22Na and 60Co photon energies. The time response was measured against a fast reference BaF2 detector. Hamamatsu R9779 and Photonis XP20D0 fast photomultipliers (PMTs) were used. The PMT bias voltages and Constant Fraction Discriminator settings were optimized with respect to the timing resolution. The Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) time resolution for an individual CeBr3 crystal coupled to Hamamatsu PMT is found here to be as low as 119 ps at 60Co energies, which is comparable to the resolution of 107 ps reported for LaBr3(Ce). For 511 keV photons the measured FWHM time resolution for CeBr3 coupled to the Hamamatsu PMT is 164 ps.

  11. OFDM receiver for fast time-varying channels using block-sparse Bayesian learning

    Barbu, Oana-Elena; Manchn, Carles Navarro; Rom, Christian; Balercia, Tommaso; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2016-01-01

    We propose an iterative algorithm for OFDM receivers operating over fast time-varying channels. The design relies on the assumptions that the channel response can be characterized by a few non-negligible separable multipath components, and the temporal variation of each component gain can be well...

  12. REAL TIME FACE RECOGNITION USING ADABOOST IMPROVED FAST PCA ALGORITHM

    K. Susheel Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automated system for human face recognition in a real time background world fora large homemade dataset of persons face. The task is very difficult as the real time backgroundsubtraction in an image is still a challenge. Addition to this there is a huge variation in human face imagein terms of size, pose and expression. The system proposed collapses most of this variance. To detect realtime human face AdaBoost with Haar cascade is used and a simple fast PCA and LDA is used torecognize the faces detected. The matched face is then used to mark attendance in the laboratory, in ourcase. This biometric system is a real time attendance system based on the human face recognition with asimple and fast algorithms and gaining a high accuracy rate..

  13. The Costs of Taking It Slowly Fast and Slow Movement Timing in Older Age

    Krampe, R. T.; Doumas, Michail; Lavrysen, A.; Rapp, M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated adult age differences in timing control of fast vs slow repetitive movements using a dual task approach Twenty two young (M = 24 23 yr) and 22 older adults (M = 66 64 yr) performed three cognitive tasks differing in working memory load and response production demands and they tapped series of 550 ms or 2100 ms target Intervals Single task timing was comparable in both groups Dual task timing was characterized by shortening of produced intervals and increases in drift and varia...

  14. Fluctuation-Response Relation and modeling in systems with fast and slow dynamics

    G. Lacorata

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We show how a general formulation of the Fluctuation-Response Relation is able to describe in detail the connection between response properties to external perturbations and spontaneous fluctuations in systems with fast and slow variables. The method is tested by using the 360-variable Lorenz-96 model, where slow and fast variables are coupled to one another with reciprocal feedback, and a simplified low dimensional system. In the Fluctuation-Response context, the influence of the fast dynamics on the slow dynamics relies in a non trivial behavior of a suitable quadratic response function. This has important consequences for the modeling of the slow dynamics in terms of a Langevin equation: beyond a certain intrinsic time interval even the optimal model can give just statistical prediction.

  15. Time Detection For Fast Neutron Pulse Sequence at ns Level

    To detect the time of fast neutron pulse sequence at high-speed and high-precision, an online detecting system based on 1 GS/s ultra-high-speed A/D converter and high-speed FPAG processor is pro-posed and realized. By specially designed PeakTDC algorithm, It can demarcate the pulse time by peak position at 1 ns precision. The system can obtain the ns-level TDC convert for random pulse sequence of neutron event along time-bin. (authors)

  16. Real‑time, fast neutron detection for stimulated safeguards assay

    The advent of low‑hazard organic liquid scintillation detectors and real‑time pulse‑shape discrimination (PSD) processing has suggested a variety of modalities by which fast neutrons, as opposed to neutrons moderated prior to detection, can be used directly to benefit safeguards needs. In this paper we describe a development of a fast‑neutron based safeguards assay system designed for the assessment of 235U content in fresh fuel. The system benefits from real‑time pulse‑shape discrimination processing and auto‑calibration of the detector system parameters to ensure a rapid and effective set‑up protocol. These requirements are essential in optimising the speed and limit of detection of the fast neutron technique, whilst minimising the intervention needed to perform the assay.

  17. Directional Detection of Fast Neutrons Using a Time Projection Chamber

    Bowden, N; Heffner, M; Carosi, G; Carter, D; Foxe, M; Jovanovic, I

    2009-06-03

    Spontaneous fission in Special Nuclear Material (SNM) such as plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) results in the emission of neutrons with energies in the MeV range (hereafter 'fast neutrons'). These fast neutrons are largely unaffected by the few centimeters of intervening high-Z material that would suffice for attenuating most emitted gamma rays, while tens of centimeters of hydrogenous materials are required to achieve substantial attenuation of neutron fluxes from SNM. Neutron detectors are therefore an important complement to gamma-ray detectors in SNM search and monitoring applications. The rate at which SNM emits fast neutrons varies from about 2 per kilogram per second for typical HEU to some 60,000 per kilogram per second for metallic weapons grade plutonium. These rates can be compared with typical sea-level (cosmogenic) neutron backgrounds of roughly 5 per second per square meter per steradian in the relevant energy range [1]. The fact that the backgrounds are largely isotropic makes directional neutron detection especially attractive for SNM detection. The ability to detect, localize, and ultimately identify fast neutron sources at standoff will ultimately be limited by this background rate. Fast neutrons are particularly well suited to standoff detection and localization of SNM or other fast neutrons sources. Fast neutrons have attenuation lengths of about 60 meters in air, and retain considerable information about their source direction even after one or two scatters. Knowledge of the incoming direction of a fast neutron, from SNM or otherwise, has the potential to significantly improve signal to background in a variety of applications, since the background arriving from any one direction is a small fraction of the total background. Imaging or directional information therefore allows for source detection at a larger standoff distance or with shorter dwell times compared to nondirectional detectors, provided high detection efficiency can be maintained. Directional detection of neutrons has been previously considered for applications such as controlled fusion neutron imaging [2], nuclear fuel safety research [3], imaging of solar neutrons and SNM [4], and in nuclear science [5]. The use of scintillating crystals and fibers has been proposed for directional neutron detection [6]. Recently, a neutron scatter camera has been designed, constructed, and tested for imaging of fast neutrons, characteristic for SNM material fission [7]. The neutron scatter camera relies on the measurement of the proton recoil angle and proton energy by time of flight between two segmented solid-state detectors. A single-measurement result from the neutron scatter camera is a ring containing the possible incident neutron direction. Here we describe the development and commissioning of a directional neutron detection system based on a time projection chamber (TPC) detector. The TPC, which has been widely used in particle and nuclear physics research for several decades, provides a convenient means of measuring the full 3D trajectory, specific ionization (i.e particle type) and energy of charged particles. For this application, we observe recoil protons produced by fast neutron scatters on protons in hydrogen or methane gas. Gas pressures of a few ATM provide reasonable neutron interaction/scattering rates.

  18. Fast, Linear Time Hierarchical Clustering using the Baire Metric

    Contreras, Pedro; Murtagh, Fionn

    2012-01-01

    The Baire metric induces an ultrametric on a dataset and is of linear computational complexity, contrasted with the standard quadratic time agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm. In this work we evaluate empirically this new approach to hierarchical clustering. We compare hierarchical clustering based on the Baire metric with (i) agglomerative hierarchical clustering, in terms of algorithm properties; (ii) generalized ultrametrics, in terms of definition; and (iii) fast clustering t...

  19. The Impact of Maternal Smoking on Fast Auditory Brainstem Responses

    Kable, Julie A.; Coles, Claire D.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Carroll, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in auditory processing have been posited as one of the underlying neurodevelopmental consequences of maternal smoking during pregnancy that leads to later language and reading deficits. Fast auditory brainstem responses were used to assess differences in the sensory processing of auditory stimuli among infants with varying degrees of prenatal cigarette exposure. Maternal report of consumption of cigarettes and blood samples were collected in the hospital to assess exposure levels and...

  20. Equipment for fast neutron time-of-flight experiments

    A 3-MeV-pulsed Van de Graaff has been built for this laboratory by the High Voltage Engineering Corporation of Boston, United States of America. It is designed to give pulses of 1 ns duration at a repetition frequency of 1 MHz and a current in the pulse of 10 mA. This machine is to be used for fast neutron spectroscopy and a system of electronics for this purpose has been devised. The system is intended to record time intervals up to 1?s with a resolution of ?3 ns. The timing cycle is started by a start pulse from the neutron detector. The stop pulse is derived from the beam, and delayed by 1?s. The start and stop pulses are fed to a time expander which expands the time interval between the pulses by a factor of ?250. The expanded time interval is then recorded in digital form on 16-track magnetic tape. (author)

  1. Wave-induced Hydroelastic response of fast monohull ships

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1996-01-01

    High-speed ships are weight sensitive structures and high strength steel, aluminium or composites are preferred building materials. it is characteristic for these materials that they result in larger hull flexibility than more conventional materials. Therefore, for large fast ships the lowest...... of a quadratic strip theory formulated in the frequency domain. The springing response is thereby excited partly be resonance and partly by non-linear excitation. Special emphasis is given to the influence of springing on fatigue damage as the extreme responses even for very flexible ships are quite...

  2. Accuracy in gamma spectrometry: Pileup, dead time, and fast electornics

    An important source of inaccuracy in neutron activation analysis is the nonlinear throughput of the counting system, especially at high counting rates. Losses, due to the finite time needed for events to happen, occur in all parts of the spectrometer system: the germanium detector crystal, preamplifier, amplifier, analog-digital converter (ADC), and MCA or computer. The slowest unbuffered units are the ADC and the amplifier, followed by the crystal. Even with modern fast electronics, losses can be important, although compensating circuits can greatly improve accuracy if they are used correctly. The ADC dead time is less of a problem than it was a decade ago. For example, a modern successive-approximation ADC in the author's laboratory takes 6 μs to digitize a gamma ray in the middle of an 8192-channel spectrum, compared with 60 μs for the Wilkinson device that it replaced. Dead-time circuits in MCAs for many years have compensated very well for this dead time. Pulse pileup is as important as ADC dead time. Random coincidence, the accidental arrival of the signal from two nonrelated gamma rays at the amplifier in a time short compared to the shaping time, results in a composite pulse that distorts the spectrum. For accurate spectrometry, each such random-sum pulse should be excluded from the spectrum (pileup rejection), and the system dead time must be adjusted to compensate for the time the system is busy analyzing this rejected event (pileup live-time correction)

  3. Verification of the CNGS timing system using fast diamond detectors

    A new fast diagnostic tool was installed in the CNGS facility in 2011 following the neutrino time-of-flight results published by OPERA in September 2011. Among others, four polycrystalline CVD (pCVD) diamond detectors were placed in the secondary beam line about 1200 m downstream of the CNGS target in order to measure the beam structure of the muons which are produced together with the muon neutrinos. Upstream of the CNGS target, a fast beam current transformer measures the proton beam structure. The sub-nanosecond single-pulse time resolution of pCVD diamond for a minimum ionising particle in combination with a GPS system allows the measurement of the GPS timing of individual secondary particle bunches crossing these detectors with a precision of < 1 ns. The complicated structure of the CNGS muon beam in 2011 necessitates the combination of adjacent bunches in order to compare the proton beam structure with the muon beam structure. An analysis of the detector signals was carried out, which provides an independent timing measurement at CERN with a precision of 1.2 ns. Uncertainties from other sources as cable lengths add up to 3.4 ns, resulting in an overall precision of 3.6 ns. The distance between the beam current transformer and the diamond detectors has been measured to (1859.95±0.02) cm. The nominal time-of-flight of (6205.3±1.7) ns for a 17 GeV/c muon, as present in the CNGS muons beam, falls within the uncertainties of the measured time-of-flight of (6205.2 3.6) ns. Hence, the GPS timing measurements performed at CERN are consistent.

  4. Resetting in time of recordings in ultra-fast cinematography

    In ultra-fast cinematography and photography the treatment and interpretation of the data contained in the recordings demand extremely precise readjustments in time. In the case of whole-image recordings by electro-optical cameras or flash sources the problem is resolved by the use of a chronometric unit taking into account the different events. For naving slit or spectrographic recordings the problem must be detail with differently and marking devices will be used to print resetting pulses on the recording themselves. Different marking devices are described

  5. On Fast-Decodable Space-Time Block Codes

    Biglieri, Ezio; Viterbo, Emanuele

    2007-01-01

    We focus on full-rate, fast-decodable space-time block codes (STBCs) for 2x2 and 4x2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission. We first derive conditions for reduced-complexity maximum-likelihood decoding, and apply them to a unified analysis of two families of 2x2 STBCs that were recently proposed. In particular, we describe a reduced-complexity sphere decoding algorithm suitable for QAM signal constellations. Next, we derive a novel reduced-complexity 4x2 STBC, and show that it outperforms all previously known codes with certain constellations.

  6. Modeling and Analysis of the Role of Fast-Response Energy Storage in the Smart Grid

    Su, Han-I

    2011-01-01

    The large short time-scale variability of renewable energy resources presents significant challenges to the reliable operation of power systems. This variability can be mitigated by deploying fast-ramping generators. However, these generators are costly to operate and produce environmentally harmful emissions. Fast-response energy storage devices, such as batteries and flywheels, provide an environmentally friendly alternative, but are expensive and have limited capacity. To study the environmental benefits of storage, we introduce a slotted-time dynamic residual dc power flow model with the prediction error of the difference between the generation (including renewables) and the load as input and the fast-ramping generation and the storage (charging/discharging) operation as the control variables used to ensure that the demand is satisfied (as much as possible) in each time slot. We assume the input prediction error sequence to be i.i.d. zero-mean random variables. The optimal power flow problem is then formu...

  7. Time resolved measurement of FEL micropulses using fast THz detectors

    Radiation at 70 μm wavelength generated with the THz-FEL at the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR), Osaka University was measured using two fast THz detectors ; one with pyroelectric sensor and the other Schottky diode detector. Time resolution of both detectors is high enough to separately measure FEL micropulse at interval of 9.2 ns, which consists of four families of independent FEL micropulses. The dynamic range of both detectors is measured at 70 μm wavelength; one of pyroelectric sensor is 3 mV or less, and V-I characteristic is appeared in output signal from Schottky diode detector. Schottky diode detector is calibrated using pyroelectric sensor, and was used for measurement of the time evolution of detuning curve. It was observed that periodic time structure arises in FEL macropulse with change of resonator length. (author)

  8. Fast response neutron scintillation detector for FIRE-X

    We have been developing fast responding neutron detectors with a view to revealing the effect of additional laser heating in FIREX-I (Fast Ignition Realization Experiment) by measuring the burn time with a time resolution under 100 ps at the relatively low neutron yield (about 106). The detector is constructed with a thin plastic-scintillaotor (BC-422), a micro-channel-plate photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT) and a bundle optical fiber as a light-guide. The rise time of a neutron signal from the detector is measured to be 220 ps. The time-determination error for measuring burn time is estimated to be less than 46 ps from the data of characterization experiments measuring the transit time distribution of signals, and calculated values of Doppler broadening and the uncertainty of the scintillation time due to the thickness of the scintillator. In the future with more neutron yield, we will construct a scintillation-fiber-streak camera to detect burn history

  9. Fast time variations of supernova neutrino fluxes and their detectability

    In the delayed explosion scenario of core-collapse supernovae, the accretion phase shows pronounced convective overturns and a low-multipole hydrodynamic instability, the standing accretion shock instability. These effects imprint detectable fast time variations on the emerging neutrino flux. Among existing detectors, IceCube is best suited to this task, providing an event rate of ?1000 ms-1 during the accretion phase for a fiducial SN distance of 10 kpc, comparable to what could be achieved with a megaton water Cherenkov detector. If the standing accretion shock instability activity lasts for several hundred ms, a Fourier component with an amplitude of 1% of the average signal clearly sticks out from the shot noise. We analyze in detail the output of axially symmetric hydrodynamical simulations that predict much larger amplitudes up to frequencies of a few hundred Hz. If these models are roughly representative for realistic SNe, fast time variations of the neutrino signal are easily detectable in IceCube or future megaton-class instruments. We also discuss the information that could be deduced from such a measurement about the physics in the SN core and the explosion mechanism of the SN.

  10. TimTrack: A matrix formalism for a fast time and track reconstruction with timing detectors

    Garzon, Juan A., E-mail: juanantonio.garzon@usc.es [LabCAF. Lab. Carmen Fernandez, Dpto. Fisica de Particulas, Univ. Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Cabanelas, Pablo [LabCAF. Lab. Carmen Fernandez, Dpto. Fisica de Particulas, Univ. Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain)

    2012-01-01

    An easy and fast matrix formalism for the tracking of charged particles through timing detectors is presented. The method is based on the least squares method and works directly with the first level data, that is, positions and readout times provided by timing detectors. In one step it provides the coordinates, the slopes, the velocity and an offset time at a given reference plane. The formalism is applied to some examples.

  11. A novel fast timing micropattern gaseous detector: FTM

    De Oliveira, Rui; Sharma, Archana

    2015-01-01

    In recent years important progress in micropattern gaseous detectors has been achieved in the use of resistive material to build compact spark-protected devices. The novel idea presented here consists of the polarisation of WELL structures using only resistive coating. This allows a new device to be built with an architecture based on a stack of several coupled layers where drift and WELL multiplication stages alternate in the structure. The signals from each multiplication stage can be read out from any external readout boards through the capacitive couplings. Each layer provides a signal with a gain of 10^4-10^5. The main advantage of this new device is the dramatic improvement of the timing provided by the competition of the ionisation processes in the different drift regions, which can be exploited for fast timing at the high luminosity accelerators (e.g. HL-LHC upgrade) as well as far applications like medical imaging.

  12. A novel fast timing micropattern gaseous detector: FTM

    De Oliveira, Rui; Maggi, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    In recent years important progress in micropattern gaseous detectors has been achieved in the use of resistive material to build compact spark-protected devices. The novel idea presented here consists of the polarisation of WELL structures using only resistive electrodes. This allows a new device to be built with an architecture based on a stack of several coupled layers where drift and WELL multiplication stages alternate in the structure. The signals from each multiplication stage can be read out from any external readout boards through the capacitive couplings. Each layer provides a signal with a gain of 10^4 - 10^5. The main advantage of this new device is the dramatic improvement of the timing provided by the competition of the ionisation processes in the different drift regions, which can be exploited for fast timing at the high luminosity accelerators (e.g. HL-LHC upgrade) as well as applications outside particle physics.

  13. Digitally Controlled Point of Load Converter with Very Fast Transient Response

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2007-01-01

    voltage mode control and very fast transient response. The DiSOM modulator is combined with a digital PID compensator algorithm is implemented in a hybrid CPLD/FPGA and is used to control a synchronous Buck converter, which is used in typical Point of Load applications. The computational time is only...... comparator the DiSOM modulator allows the sampling frequency of the output voltage control loop to be higher than the switching frequency of the power converter, typically a DC/DC converter. The features of the DiSOM modulator makes it possible to design a digitally controlled DC/DC converter with linear...... three clock cycles from the time the A/D converter result is read by the control algorithm to the time the duty cycle command is updated. A typical POL converter has been built and the experimental results show that the transient response of the converter is very fast. The output voltage overshoot is...

  14. Fast responsive, optical trace level ammonia sensor for environmental monitoring

    Abel Tobias

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ammonia is a ubiquitous chemical substance which is created in technical and biological processes and harmful to many different organisms. One specific problem is the toxicity of ammonia in fish at levels of 25 ?g/l - a very common issue in todays aqua culture. In this study we report a development of a fast responsive, optical ammonia sensor for trace concentrations. Results Different hydrogels have been investigated as host polymers for a pH based sensing mechanism based on fluorescent dyes. A porous hydrophobic fluoropolymer membrane was used as an ion barrier cover layer to achieve a good ammonia permeability. The sensors sensitivity towards ammonia as well as crosssensitivity towards pH-value and salinity, and the temperature dependency have been determined. Two different methods to reference fluorescence signals have been employed to eliminate intensity-based measurement drawbacks. Conclusion The presented sensor features high sensitivity and a fast response even at concentrations near 1 ppb. No cross sensitivity towards pH and salinity could be observed and temperature dependency was determined as compensateable. Both referencing approaches prove themselves to be able to provide a simple use of the sensor for in-field applications.

  15. Polylactide-based polyurethane shape memory nanocomposites (Fe3O4/PLAUs) with fast magnetic responsiveness

    Gu, Shu-Ying; Jin, Sheng-Peng; Gao, Xie-Feng; Mu, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Polylactide-based polyurethane shape memory nanocomposites (Fe3O4/PLAUs) with fast magnetic responsiveness are presented. For the purpose of fast response and homogeneous dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles, oleic acid was used to improve the dispersibility of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. A homogeneous distribution of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the polymer matrix was obtained for nanocomposites with low Fe3O4 loading content. A small agglomeration was observed for nanocomposites with 6 wt% and 9 wt% loading content, leading to a small decline in the mechanical properties. PLAU and its nanocomposites have glass transition around 52 °C, which can be used as the triggering temperature. PLAU and its nanocomposites have shape fixity ratios above 99%, shape recovery ratios above 82% for the first cycle and shape recovery ratios above 91% for the second cycle. PLAU and its nanocomposites also exhibit a fast water bath or magnetic responsiveness. The magnetic recovery time decreases with an increase in the loading content of Fe3O4 nanoparticles due to an improvement in heating performance for increased weight percentage of fillers. The nanocomposites have fast responses in an alternating magnetic field and have potential application in biomedical areas such as intravascular stent.

  16. A fast preamplifier concept for SiPM-based time-of-flight PET detectors

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) offer high gain and fast response to light, making them interesting for fast timing applications such as time-of-flight (TOF) PET. To fully exploit the potential of these photosensors, dedicated preamplifiers that do not deteriorate the rise time and signal-to-noise ratio are crucial. Challenges include the high sensor capacitance, typically >300 pF for a 3 mm×3 mm SiPM sensor, as well as oscillation issues. Here we present a preamplifier concept based on low noise, high speed transistors, designed for optimum timing performance. The input stage consists of a transimpedance common-base amplifier with a very low input impedance even at high frequencies, which assures a good linearity and avoids that the high detector capacitance affects the amplifier bandwidth. The amplifier has a fast timing output as well as a ‘slow’ energy output optimized for determining the total charge content of the pulse. The rise time of the amplifier is about 300 ps. The measured coincidence resolving time (CRT) for 511 keV photon pairs using the amplifiers in combination with 3 mm×3 mm SiPMs (Hamamatsu MPPC-S10362-33-050C) coupled to 3 mm×3 mm×5 mm LaBr3:Ce and LYSO:Ce crystals equals 95 ps FWHM and 138 ps FWHM, respectively.

  17. Fast, Linear Time Hierarchical Clustering using the Baire Metric

    Contreras, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The Baire metric induces an ultrametric on a dataset and is of linear computational complexity, contrasted with the standard quadratic time agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm. In this work we evaluate empirically this new approach to hierarchical clustering. We compare hierarchical clustering based on the Baire metric with (i) agglomerative hierarchical clustering, in terms of algorithm properties; (ii) generalized ultrametrics, in terms of definition; and (iii) fast clustering through k-means partititioning, in terms of quality of results. For the latter, we carry out an in depth astronomical study. We apply the Baire distance to spectrometric and photometric redshifts from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using, in this work, about half a million astronomical objects. We want to know how well the (more costly to determine) spectrometric redshifts can predict the (more easily obtained) photometric redshifts, i.e. we seek to regress the spectrometric on the photometric redshifts, and we use clusterwi...

  18. Bubble masks for time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons.

    Brubaker, Erik; Brennan, James S.; Marleau, Peter; Nowack, Aaron B.; Steele, John; Sweany, Melinda; Throckmorton, Daniel J.

    2013-09-01

    Time-encoded imaging is an approach to directional radiation detection that is being developed at SNL with a focus on fast neutron directional detection. In this technique, a time modulation of a detected neutron signal is induced-typically, a moving mask that attenuates neutrons with a time structure that depends on the source position. An important challenge in time-encoded imaging is to develop high-resolution two-dimensional imaging capabilities; building a mechanically moving high-resolution mask presents challenges both theoretical and technical. We have investigated an alternative to mechanical masks that replaces the solid mask with a liquid such as mineral oil. Instead of fixed blocks of solid material that move in pre-defined patterns, the oil is contained in tubing structures, and carefully introduced air gaps-bubbles-propagate through the tubing, generating moving patterns of oil mask elements and air apertures. Compared to current moving-mask techniques, the bubble mask is simple, since mechanical motion is replaced by gravity-driven bubble propagation; it is flexible, since arbitrary bubble patterns can be generated by a software-controlled valve actuator; and it is potentially high performance, since the tubing and bubble size can be tuned for high-resolution imaging requirements. We have built and tested various single-tube mask elements, and will present results on bubble introduction and propagation as a function of tubing size and cross-sectional shape; real-time bubble position tracking; neutron source imaging tests; and reconstruction techniques demonstrated on simple test data as well as a simulated full detector system.

  19. FTSPlot: fast time series visualization for large datasets.

    Riss, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of electrophysiological recordings often involves visual inspection of time series data to locate specific experiment epochs, mask artifacts, and verify the results of signal processing steps, such as filtering or spike detection. Long-term experiments with continuous data acquisition generate large amounts of data. Rapid browsing through these massive datasets poses a challenge to conventional data plotting software because the plotting time increases proportionately to the increase in the volume of data. This paper presents FTSPlot, which is a visualization concept for large-scale time series datasets using techniques from the field of high performance computer graphics, such as hierarchic level of detail and out-of-core data handling. In a preprocessing step, time series data, event, and interval annotations are converted into an optimized data format, which then permits fast, interactive visualization. The preprocessing step has a computational complexity of O(n x log(N)); the visualization itself can be done with a complexity of O(1) and is therefore independent of the amount of data. A demonstration prototype has been implemented and benchmarks show that the technology is capable of displaying large amounts of time series data, event, and interval annotations lag-free with < 20 ms ms. The current 64-bit implementation theoretically supports datasets with up to 2(64) bytes, on the x86_64 architecture currently up to 2(48) bytes are supported, and benchmarks have been conducted with 2(40) bytes/1 TiB or 1.3 x 10(11) double precision samples. The presented software is freely available and can be included as a Qt GUI component in future software projects, providing a standard visualization method for long-term electrophysiological experiments. PMID:24732865

  20. Fasting induces a biphasic adaptive metabolic response in murine small intestine

    Evelo Chris TA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gut is a major energy consumer, but a comprehensive overview of the adaptive response to fasting is lacking. Gene-expression profiling, pathway analysis, and immunohistochemistry were therefore carried out on mouse small intestine after 0, 12, 24, and 72 hours of fasting. Results Intestinal weight declined to 50% of control, but this loss of tissue mass was distributed proportionally among the gut's structural components, so that the microarrays' tissue base remained unaffected. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the microarrays revealed that the successive time points separated into distinct branches. Pathway analysis depicted a pronounced, but transient early response that peaked at 12 hours, and a late response that became progressively more pronounced with continued fasting. Early changes in gene expression were compatible with a cellular deficiency in glutamine, and metabolic adaptations directed at glutamine conservation, inhibition of pyruvate oxidation, stimulation of glutamate catabolism via aspartate and phosphoenolpyruvate to lactate, and enhanced fatty-acid oxidation and ketone-body synthesis. In addition, the expression of key genes involved in cell cycling and apoptosis was suppressed. At 24 hours of fasting, many of the early adaptive changes abated. Major changes upon continued fasting implied the production of glucose rather than lactate from carbohydrate backbones, a downregulation of fatty-acid oxidation and a very strong downregulation of the electron-transport chain. Cell cycling and apoptosis remained suppressed. Conclusion The changes in gene expression indicate that the small intestine rapidly looses mass during fasting to generate lactate or glucose and ketone bodies. Meanwhile, intestinal architecture is maintained by downregulation of cell turnover.

  1. Supersensitive, Fast-Response Nanowire Sensors by Using Schottky Contacts

    Hu, Youfan

    2010-05-31

    A Schottky barrier can be formed at the interface between a metal electrode and a semiconductor. The current passing through the metal-semiconductor contact is mainly controlled by the barrier height and barrier width. In conventional nanodevices, Schottky contacts are usually avoided in order to enhance the contribution made by the nanowires or nanotubes to the detected signal. We present a key idea of using the Schottky contact to achieve supersensitive and fast response nanowire-based nanosensors. We have illustrated this idea on several platforms: UV sensors, biosensors, and gas sensors. The gigantic enhancement in sensitivity of up to 5 orders of magnitude shows that an effective usage of the Schottky contact can be very beneficial to the sensitivity of nanosensors. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Response of CR-39 track detector to fast neutrons

    A characteristic response of CR-39 track detector to fast neutrons has been investigated for practical application to personnel dosimetry. The CR-39 samples were exposed to quasi-monoenergetic neutrons near 146 keV, which were produced by filtering photo-neutrons from KURRI-LINAC with Si blocks. The intrinsic detection efficiency was estimated to be (2.4 ± 0.3) x 10-4 pits/n. The energy dependence of the efficiency was also calculated using both the angular differential cross sections for recoil particle production and the basic data of etching characteristics for respective charged particles from a Van de Graaff accelerator at Kobe University of Mercantile Marine. The discrepancy between the measured and calculated efficiencies was discussed. (author)

  3. Seismic response analysis of the PEC fast reactor building

    In order to compute the motion induced by the design earthquakes at the vessel supporting structure, a seismic response analysis was performed for the PEC fast reactor, taking into account the effects of soil-structure interaction by use of experimentally determined soil parameters. The main aim of he analysis was to evaluate the safety margins present in the design calculations. A detailed 3D finite element model was set up for fixed base analysis; from the results of the 3D model a simplified equivalent model of the structure was then derived for soil-structure interaction analysis. The mathematical model was validated and calibrated by using the results of the experimental dynamic tests performed on the reactor building. The results have shown the adequacy of the computation methodologies, and in particular of those on the use of the equivalent model. (author)

  4. Measurements of timing resolution of ultra-fast silicon detectors with the SAMPIC WTDC

    Breton, Dominique; Delagnes, Éric; Grabas, Hervé; Maalmi, Jihane; Minafra, Nicola; Royon, Christophe; Saimpert, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The SAMpler for PICosecond time (SAMPIC) chip has been designed by a collaboration including CEA/IRFU/SEDI, Saclay and CNRS/LAL/SERDI, Orsay. It benefits from both the quick response of a time to digital converter (TDC) and the versatility of a waveform digitizer to perform accurate timing measurements. Thanks to the sampled signals, smart algorithms making best use of the pulse shape can be used to maximize time resolution. A software framework has been developed to analyse the SAMPIC output data and extract timing information by using either a constant fraction discriminator or a fast cross-correlation algorithm. SAMPIC timing capabilities together with the software framework have been tested using Gaussian signals generated by a signal generator or by silicon detectors pulsed with an infra-red laser. Under these ideal experimental conditions, the SAMPIC chip has proven to be capable of timing resolutions down to 4 (40) ps with synthesized (silicon detector) signals.

  5. Modelling of tokamak discharges with the fast central response to the boundary plasma perturbations

    One of the fundamental phenomena in tokamak plasmas is the fast propagation of electron temperature perturbation from the boundary to the plasma core (faster than the characteristic transport time). This phenomenon has been observed in different tokamak (and stellarator) experiments: fast plasma core response to the L-H mode transition, fast cold pulse propagation after laser impurity ablation or deuterium pellet injection and some others. Standard diffusive model of local turbulent transport fails to describe these phenomena. It was the reason for the conclusion on a non-local nature of transport in tokamaks. Results of detailed simulations of some discharges with the fast central responses to the boundary perturbations of different nature are presented in this work. Role of different transport mechanisms is investigated. modelling was performed by the ASTRA transport code. The model takes into consideration the behavior of the plasma neutral component and neutrals recycling at the wall. It is shown that the effect of fast central response in discharges under consideration can be explained without the assumption on the non-local character of transport processes in tokamaks. This effect may be attributed to the behavior of the neutral plasma component, which propagation time across the plasma column is sufficiently short (less than 100 μ s). A rapid change in the neutral flux into the plasma column may somewhat affect the plasma energy balance in the whole plasma cross section almost simultaneously. For example, the rapid electron temperature increase in the plasma core after the fast L-H mode transition can be explained by the reduction of the cold electron source caused by the decrease of neutral flux in plasma. An opposite effect of fast drop of the core electron temperature after deuterium pellet injection may be explained by the rise of deuterium atom density in the plasma core with corresponding increase of ionization source of cold electrons. So, the neutral plasma component is responsible for the visible coupling plasma edge and the core in considered experiments in time interval just after events. (author)

  6. Taxi Time Prediction at Charlotte Airport Using Fast-Time Simulation and Machine Learning Techniques

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    Accurate taxi time prediction is required for enabling efficient runway scheduling that can increase runway throughput and reduce taxi times and fuel consumptions on the airport surface. Currently NASA and American Airlines are jointly developing a decision-support tool called Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) that assists airport ramp controllers to make gate pushback decisions and improve the overall efficiency of airport surface traffic. In this presentation, we propose to use Linear Optimized Sequencing (LINOS), a discrete-event fast-time simulation tool, to predict taxi times and provide the estimates to the runway scheduler in real-time airport operations. To assess its prediction accuracy, we also introduce a data-driven analytical method using machine learning techniques. These two taxi time prediction methods are evaluated with actual taxi time data obtained from the SARDA human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation for Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) using various performance measurement metrics. Based on the taxi time prediction results, we also discuss how the prediction accuracy can be affected by the operational complexity at this airport and how we can improve the fast time simulation model before implementing it with an airport scheduling algorithm in a real-time environment.

  7. The photocurrent response of human cones is fast and monophasic

    Lamb TD

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The precise form of the light response of human cone photoreceptors in vivo has not been established with certainty. To investigate the response shape we compare the predictions of a recent model of transduction in primate cone photoreceptors with measurements extracted from human cones using the paired-flash electroretinogram method. As a check, we also compare the predictions with previous single-cell measurements of ground squirrel cone responses. Results The predictions of the model provide a good description of the measurements, using values of parameters within the range previously determined for primate retina. The dim-flash response peaks in about 20 ms, and flash responses at all intensities are essentially monophasic. Three time constants in the model are extremely short: the two time constants for inactivation (of visual pigment and of transducin/phosphodiesterase are around 3 and 10 ms, and the time constant for calcium equilibration lies in the same range. Conclusion The close correspondence between experiment and theory, using parameters previously derived for recordings from macaque retina, supports the notion that the electroretinogram approach and the modelling approach both provide an accurate estimate of the cone photoresponse in the living human eye. For reasons that remain unclear, the responses of isolated photoreceptors from the macaque retina, recorded previously using the suction pipette method, are considerably slower than found here, and display biphasic kinetics.

  8. 28 CFR 542.18 - Response time.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Response time. 542.18 Section 542.18... REMEDY Administrative Remedy Program § 542.18 Response time. If accepted, a Request or Appeal is... later than the third calendar day after filing. If the time period for response to a Request or...

  9. Response of a fast reactor to a neutron source

    In the multigroup approximation, a fast homogeneous bare reactor has properties which for each spatial harmonic can be summed up by a matrix A. A classification of reactors is made as a function of this structure which varies with the considered medium. The eigenvalues of A are the decay constants obtained with a pulsed neutron source. In the spectrum of these eigenvalues, is often a marked line related to a fundamental. The line is not always single. The neutron spectrum may be calculated from the eigenvectors. A neutron source, according to its spectrum, excites more or less the various energy harmonics. The detector, for its part, does not have the same response to all harmonics. Phenomena are symmetrical. Equations of this problem are written in matrix form and applied to sources which can be pulsed, modulated or controlled by the reactor flux. FORTRAN IV codes computing the behaviour of the detector response are described in the Appendix. For the computation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, some of these codes use sub-routines more accurate than the usual ones. (author)

  10. A measurement of the response to fast neutrons of several materials dosemeters

    The response to fast neutrons was measured for three types of materials testing dosemeters: fast neutron dosimetry silicon diodes; beryllia, alumina and calcium fluoride TLDs; graphite walled ionisation chambers. The calibrations were made using a 3MW positive ion accelerator. The arrangement of the target, beam monitor and devices is described, and the measured fast neutron sensitivities are presented. (UK)

  11. Fast-flap Actuation for Attenuating Gust Response

    Ol, Michael; Granlund`, Kenneth; Medina, Albert

    2015-11-01

    Airfoil flow control actuators can respond at perhaps O(10E-3) convective-times, but the flowfield response requires typically 2-4 convective times, and initial force-transients can be negative. A conventional trailing-edge mechanical flap is ``slow'' to deflect in flight applications, of questionable efficacy in separated flows, and is plagued by a response nonlinear with deflection angle. We consider a half-chord airfoil flap actuated O(10) times faster than one convective time, taking advantage of scaling-effects in a water tunnel. The motivation is recent work on accelerating flat plates at high incidence, where despite zero bound-circulation, the lift transient follows Wagner's solution. Force-measurements for high-rate large-incidence flap deflection show similar trends, and offer promise in cancelling lift-transients from gusts (modeled by plunging or surging the airfoil). Parameter-studies of rate, amplitude and initial incidence suggest first-order-system relaxation to steady-state, with a time constant commensurate with 1-3 convective times, no negative transients and no discernible lag. Rapid flap actuation induces entrainment that augments the flow's propensity to attach/reattach, perhaps paradoxically comporting with theory better, the faster the actuation.

  12. Versatile fast response temperature sensor for use in liquid sodium

    The requirement for, and subsequent design, construction and performance of an instrument to resolve rapid but small amplitude fluctuations in the temperature of a stream of liquid sodium are described. The sensor system consists of three mutually coupled inductive circuits: the primary and secondary are on the sensor whilst the liquid metal forms the third. The developed form of the instrument has a response time of 12 mS and is capable of detecting +- 0.50C variations in temperature up to 7000C. Prototype instruments are also described which have a response time less than 4 mS, and increased maximum operating temperature of 9000C, and which enable simultaneous flow and temperature measurements. (author)

  13. A LaBr{sub 3}: Ce fast-timing array for DESPEC at FAIR

    Roberts, Oliver J., E-mail: O.J.Roberts@brighton.ac.uk [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brighton, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Bruce, Alison M. [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brighton, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Regan, Patrick H. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); National Physics Laboratory, Teddington, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Podolyák, Zsolt; Townsley, Christopher M. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Smith, John F.; Mulholland, Kieran F. [School of Engineering, The University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Smith, Andrew [The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01

    The design of a fast-timing γ-ray detection array aimed at measuring sub-nanosecond half-lives using LaBr{sub 3}:Ce scintillation crystals is presented. This array will complement novel and existing charged particle and neutron detector arrays at the low-energy branch of a fragment separator (Super-FRS) to be built within the NuSTAR collaboration as part of the future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR). The array will be used in conjunction with the Advanced Implantation Detector Array (AIDA), to measure implant-decay correlations. Monte-Carlo simulations have been performed to determine the design of the proposed fast-timing array around a localised implantation point. In particular, simulations were used to determine the full-energy peak efficiencies for single cylindrical, conical and ‘hybrid’ detector geometries, as well as complete array configurations of ‘hybrid’ and ∅1.5 in.×2 in. cylindrical crystals. Timing precision calculations were then used to determine the timing response for each configuration based on its simulated efficiency. An informed decision based on the simulated efficiencies and timing precision calculations allowed the optimum configuration for the array to be determined.

  14. A LaBr3: Ce fast-timing array for DESPEC at FAIR

    The design of a fast-timing γ-ray detection array aimed at measuring sub-nanosecond half-lives using LaBr3:Ce scintillation crystals is presented. This array will complement novel and existing charged particle and neutron detector arrays at the low-energy branch of a fragment separator (Super-FRS) to be built within the NuSTAR collaboration as part of the future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR). The array will be used in conjunction with the Advanced Implantation Detector Array (AIDA), to measure implant-decay correlations. Monte-Carlo simulations have been performed to determine the design of the proposed fast-timing array around a localised implantation point. In particular, simulations were used to determine the full-energy peak efficiencies for single cylindrical, conical and ‘hybrid’ detector geometries, as well as complete array configurations of ‘hybrid’ and ∅1.5 in.×2 in. cylindrical crystals. Timing precision calculations were then used to determine the timing response for each configuration based on its simulated efficiency. An informed decision based on the simulated efficiencies and timing precision calculations allowed the optimum configuration for the array to be determined

  15. A Fast-Response Atmospheric Turbulence (FRAT) Probe with Gas-Sampling Ducts Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aeroprobe proposes to design, construct and test an air-data probe with substantially higher frequency response than currently available. This fast-response...

  16. A Fast-Response Atmospheric Turbulence (FRAT) Probe with Gas-Sampling Ducts Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to design, construct and test a high-frequency-response air-data probe, the Fast Response Atmospheric Turbulence probe (FRAT...

  17. Preoperative fasting times in elective surgical patients at a referral Hospital in Botswana

    Abebe, Worknehe Agegnehu; Rukewe, Ambrose; Bekele, Negussie Alula; Stoffel, Moeng; Dichabeng, Mompelegi Nicoh; Shifa, Jemal Zeberga

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adults and children are required to fast before anaesthesia to reduce the risk of regurgitation and aspiration of gastric contents. However, prolonged periods of fasting are unnecessary and may cause complications. This study was conducted to evaluate preoperative fasting period in our centre and compare it with the ASA recommendations and factors that influence fasting periods. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of preoperative fasting times among elective surgical patients. A total numbers of 260 patients were interviewed as they arrived at the reception area of operating theatre using questionnaire. Results Majority of patients (98.1%) were instructed to fast from midnight. Fifteen patients (5.8%) reported that they were told the importance of preoperative fasting. The mean fasting period were 15.9±2.5 h (range 12.0-25.3 h) for solids and 15.3±2.3 h (range 12.0-22.0 h) for liquids. The mean duration of fasting was significantly longer for patients operated after midday compared to those operated before midday, p<0.001. Conclusion The mean fasting periods were 7.65 times longer for clear liquid and 2.5 times for solids than the ASA guidelines. It is imperative that the Hospital should establish Preoperative fasting policies and teach the staff who should ensure compliance with guidelines.

  18. Fast binarized time-reversed adapted-perturbation (b-TRAP) optical focusing inside scattering media

    Ma, Cheng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Lihong V

    2015-01-01

    Light scattering inhibits high-resolution optical imaging, manipulation and therapy deep inside biological tissue by preventing focusing. To form deep foci, wavefront-shaping and time-reversal techniques that break the optical diffusion limit have been developed. For in vivo applications, such focusing must provide high gain, high speed, and a large number of spatial modes. However, none of the previous techniques meet these requirements simultaneously. Here, we overcome this challenge by rapidly measuring the perturbed optical field within a single camera exposure followed by adaptively time-reversing the phase-binarized perturbation. Consequently, a phase-conjugated wavefront is synthesized within a millisecond, two orders of magnitude shorter than the digitally achieved record. We demonstrated real-time focusing in dynamic scattering media, and extended laser speckle contrast imaging to new depths. The unprecedented combination of fast response, high gain, and large mode count makes this work a major strid...

  19. Mathematical modeling of the LCD response time

    Adam, Pierre; Bertolino, Pascal; Lebowsky, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    Techniques to reduce LCD motion blur are extensively used in industry and they depend on an inherent LCD parameter: response time. However, normative response time is not a sufficient reference to improve LCD performance and all the gray-to-gray response-time quantities are required to obtain good improvement. However, measuring and gathering all the gray-to-gray transitions takes an excessive amount of time. Consequently, we propose a novel LCD model to simulate as well as compute gray-to-gr...

  20. FAST

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.; Neubauer, Angela; Asturias, Juan; Blom, Lars; Boye, Joyce; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Clausen, Michael Stellian; Ferrara, Rosa; Garosi, Paula; Huber, Hans; Jensen, Bettina M; Koppelman, Stef; Kowalski, Marek L; Lewandowska-Polak, Anna; Linhart, Birgit; Maillere, Bernard; Mari, Adriano; Martinez, Alberto; Mills, Clare En; Nicoletti, Claudio; Opstelten, Dirk-Jan; Papadopoulos, Nikos G; Portoles, Antonio; Rigby, Neil; Scala, Enrico; Schnoor, Heidi J; Sigursdottir, Sigurveig; Stavroulakis, Georg; Stolz, Frank; Swoboda, Ines; Valenta, Rudolf; van den Hout, Rob; Versteeg, Serge A; Witten, Marianne; van Ree, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    aqueous food extracts may be effective but has proven to be accompanied by too many anaphylactic side-effects. FAST aims to develop a safe alternative by replacing food extracts with hypoallergenic recombinant major allergens as the active ingredients of SIT. Both severe fish and peach allergy are caused...... immune mechanisms in depth serological and cellular immune analyses will be performed, allowing identification of novel biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. FAST aims at improving the quality of life of food allergic patients by providing a safe and effective treatment that will significantly......ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with...

  1. Fast Frequency and Time Domain Integral Equation Modelling for Marine CSEM Applications

    Moradi Tehrani, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we developed algorithms for fast frequency and time domain integral equation modelling for marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) applications. Solutions of integral equations for CSEM applications in a three-layered earth with an assumed reservoirs is examined using the conjugate gradient fast Fourier transformation (CG-FFT) method, which is used as a reference. For 3D configurations fast computational methods are relevant for both forward and inverse modelling studies...

  2. Properties of a fast timing detector using an electron multiplier

    A new timing detector for the time-of-flight method has been invented and successfully tested with heavy-ion beams. The detector consists of a thin foil and an electron multiplier. The best time resolution of 260 ps is obtained for 81Br. The time resolution is also studied in relation to the number of secondary electrons emitted from the foil. (orig.)

  3. Picosecond time measurement using ultra fast analog memories

    Breton, D.; Delagnes, E.; Maalmi, J.

    2009-01-01

    The currently existing electronics dedicated to precise time measurement is mainly based on the use of constant fraction discriminators (CFD) associated with Time to Digital Converters (TDC). The constant fraction technique minimizes the time walk effect (dependency of timing on the pulse amplitude). Several attempts have been made to integrate CFD in multi-channel ASICs. But the time resolution measured on the most advanced one is of the order of 30 ps rms. Two main techniques are used for t...

  4. Fast to forgive, slow to retaliate: intuitive responses in the ultimatum game depend on the degree of unfairness.

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Maltby, John; Bibby, Peter A; Lawrence, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary accounts have difficulty explaining why people cooperate with anonymous strangers they will never meet. Recently models, focusing on emotional processing, have been proposed as a potential explanation, with attention focusing on a dual systems approach based on system 1 (fast, intuitive, automatic, effortless, and emotional) and system 2 (slow, reflective, effortful, proactive and unemotional). Evidence shows that when cooperation is salient, people are fast (system 1) to cooperate, but with longer delays (system 2) they show greed. This is interpreted within the framework of the social heuristic hypothesis (SHH), whereby people overgeneralize potentially advantageous intuitively learnt and internalization social norms to 'atypical' situations. We extend this to explore intuitive reactions to unfairness by integrating the SHH with the 'fast to forgive, slow to anger' (FFSA) heuristic. This suggests that it is advantageous to be prosocial when facing uncertainty. We propose that whether or not someone intuitively shows prosociality (cooperation) or retaliation is moderated by the degree (certainty) of unfairness. People should intuitively cooperate when facing mild levels of unfairness (fast to forgive) but when given longer to decide about another's mild level of unfairness should retaliate (slow to anger). However, when facing severe levels of unfairness, the intuitive response is always retaliation. We test this using a series of one-shot ultimatum games and manipulate level of offer unfairness (50:50 60:40, 70:30, 80:20, 90:10) and enforced time delays prior to responding (1s, 2s, 8s, 15s). We also measure decision times to make responses after the time delays. The results show that when facing mildly unfair offers (60:40) people are fast (intuitive) to cooperate but with longer delays reject these mildly unfair offers: 'fast to forgive, and slow to retaliate'. However, for severely unfair offers (90:10) the intuitive and fast response is to always reject. PMID:24820479

  5. Excessive fasting times: still an underaddressed challenge for African pediatrics and anesthesia?

    Pollach G

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gregor Pollach,1,2 Rose Kapenda,2 Beauty Anusa,2 Ethel Waluza,2 Felix Namboya1,21Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, 2Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi, Central AfricaBackground: Children are starved before surgery following international preoperative guidelines. Extreme fasting is still reported, but data for Africa are scarce. Starving in hot climates leads to challenges arising from dehydration, hypotension, metabolic disturbances, and complications during induction of anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the scope of the problem, identify possible reasons for this, and propose realistic solutions.Methods: We performed eleven prospective audits between 2008 and 2013 in Malawi to improve our preoperative fasting times. In total, 631 children (aged 3 days to 13 years were monitored. Training was provided, and the results were measured using a visual analog scale.Results: In 2008, the baseline audit showed a mean fasting time (MFT of 13.48 hours (31 patients. Training reduced the MFT to 8.77 hours (73 patients and 3.2 hours (35 patients in 2009. Without training, the MFT increased to 4.6 hours (35 patients in 2010 and to 10.2 hours (50 patients in 2011. A low level of training decreased the MFT to 8.13 hours (139 patients, in spring 2012. Educational activity brought the MFT down further to 7.86 hours (36 patients, in summer 2012. Lack of training in autumn 2012 increased MFT to 9.32 hours (151 patients, which then improved to 8.04 hours (27 patients as a result of renewed educational activity. In 2013, MFT increased to 9.8 hours (37 patients despite training. In June 2013, more education achieved a reduction in MFT to 6.52 hours (17 patients. The MFT across all audits (2008–2013 was 8.48 hours. Education reduces MFT, but only in the short term. Factors responsible for changes in MFT were identified.Conclusion: Excessive preoperative fasting is an underaddressed problem in Africa. Reduction is difficult, so it has to be accepted as an ongoing task.Keywords: child, infant, fluid, education, developing countries, Africa, fasting

  6. Diminished AMPK signaling response to fasting in Thioredoxin-interacting Protein Knockout Mice

    Andres, Allen M.; Ratliff, Eric P.; Sachithanantham, Sowbarnika; Hui, Simon T

    2011-01-01

    Thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) knockout (TKO) mice exhibit impaired response to fasting. Herein, we showed that activation of AMPK and cellular AMP levels were diminished in the heart and soleus muscle but not in gastrocnemius muscle of fasting TKO mice. Similarly, glycogen content in fasted TKO mice was increased in oxidative muscles but was not different in glycolytic muscles. These data suggest Txnip deficiency has a higher impact on oxidative muscle than glycolytic muscles and pr...

  7. Geosynchronous magnetic field responses to fast solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements: MHD field model

    T. R. Sun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We performed global MHD simulations of the geosynchronous magnetic field in response to fast solar wind dynamic pressure (Pd enhancements. Taking three Pd enhancement events in 2000 as examples, we found that the main features of the total field B and the dominant component Bz can be efficiently predicted by the MHD model. The predicted B and Bz varies with local time, with the highest level near noon and a slightly lower level around mid-night. However, it is more challenging to accurately predict the responses of the smaller component at the geosynchronous orbit (i.e., Bx and By. In contrast, the limitations of T01 model in predicting responses to fast Pd enhancements are presented.

  8. A Capacitor-Free, Fast Transient Response Linear Voltage Regulator In a 180nm CMOS

    Deleuran, Alexander N.; Lindbjerg, Nicklas; Pedersen, Martin K.; Llimos Muntal, Pere; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2015-01-01

    A 1.8 V capacitor-free linear regulator with fast transient response based on a new topology with a fast and slow regulation loop is presented. The design has been laid out and simulated in a 0.18 µm CMOS process. The design has a low component count and is tailored for system-on-chip integration...

  9. A Fasting-Responsive Signaling Pathway that Extends Life Span in C.elegans

    Masaharu Uno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent fasting is one of the most effective dietary restriction regimens that extend life span inC.elegans and mammals. Fasting-stimulus responses are key to the longevity response; however, the mechanisms that sense and transduce the fasting stimulus remain largely unknown. Through a comprehensive transcriptome analysis in C.elegans, we find that along with the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16, AP-1 (JUN-1/FOS-1 plays a central role in fasting-induced transcriptional changes. KGB-1, one of the C.elegans JNKs, acts as an activator of AP-1 and is activated in response to fasting. KGB-1 and AP-1 are involved in intermittent fasting-induced longevity. Fasting-induced upregulation of the components of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex via AP-1 and DAF-16 enhances protein ubiquitination and reduces protein carbonylation. Our results thus identify a fasting-responsive KGB-1/AP-1 signaling pathway, which, together with DAF-16, causes transcriptional changes that mediate longevity, partly through regulating proteostasis.

  10. Dynamics of the flood response to slow-fast landscape-climate feedbacks

    Perdigão, R. A. P.; Blöschl, G.

    2015-06-01

    The dynamical evolution of the flood response to landscape-climate feedbacks is evaluated in a joint nonlinear statistical-dynamical approach. For that purpose, a spatiotemporal sensitivity analysis is conducted on hydrological data from 1976-2008 over 804 catchments throughout Austria, and a general, data-independent nonlinear dynamical model is built linking floods with climate (via precipitation), landscape (via elevation) and their feedbacks. These involve nonlinear scale interactions, with landform evolution processes taking place at the millennial scale (slow dynamics), and climate adjusting in years to decades (fast dynamics). The results show that floods are more responsive to spatial (regional) than to temporal (decadal) variability. Catchments from dry lowlands and high wetlands exhibit similarity between the spatial and temporal sensitivities (spatiotemporal symmetry) and low landscape-climate codependence, suggesting they are not coevolving significantly. However, intermediate regions show differences between those sensitivities (symmetry breaks) and higher landscape-climate codependence, suggesting undergoing coevolution. The break of symmetry is an emergent behaviour from nonlinear feedbacks within the system. A new coevolution index is introduced relating spatiotemporal symmetry with relative characteristic celerities, which need to be taken into account in hydrological space-time trading. Coevolution is expressed here by the interplay between slow and fast dynamics, represented respectively by spatial and temporal characteristics. The dynamical model captures emerging features of the flood dynamics and nonlinear landscape-climate feedbacks, supporting the nonlinear statistical assessment of spatiotemporally asymmetric flood change. Moreover, it enables the dynamical estimation of flood changes in space and time from the given knowledge at different spatiotemporal conditions. This study ultimately brings to light emerging signatures of change in floods arising from nonlinear slow-fast feedbacks in the landscape-climate dynamics, and contributes towards a better understanding of spatiotemporal flood changes and underlying nonlinearly interacting drivers.

  11. Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena.

    Goda, K; Tsia, K K; Jalali, B

    2009-04-30

    Ultrafast real-time optical imaging is an indispensable tool for studying dynamical events such as shock waves, chemical dynamics in living cells, neural activity, laser surgery and microfluidics. However, conventional CCDs (charge-coupled devices) and their complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) counterparts are incapable of capturing fast dynamical processes with high sensitivity and resolution. This is due in part to a technological limitation-it takes time to read out the data from sensor arrays. Also, there is the fundamental compromise between sensitivity and frame rate; at high frame rates, fewer photons are collected during each frame-a problem that affects nearly all optical imaging systems. Here we report an imaging method that overcomes these limitations and offers frame rates that are at least 1,000 times faster than those of conventional CCDs. Our technique maps a two-dimensional (2D) image into a serial time-domain data stream and simultaneously amplifies the image in the optical domain. We capture an entire 2D image using a single-pixel photodetector and achieve a net image amplification of 25 dB (a factor of 316). This overcomes the compromise between sensitivity and frame rate without resorting to cooling and high-intensity illumination. As a proof of concept, we perform continuous real-time imaging at a frame speed of 163 ns (a frame rate of 6.1 MHz) and a shutter speed of 440 ps. We also demonstrate real-time imaging of microfluidic flow and phase-explosion effects that occur during laser ablation. PMID:19407796

  12. The Fast Tracker Real Time Processor: high quality real-time tracking at ATLAS

    Stabile, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    As the LHC luminosity is ramped up to the design level of 1x1034 cm−2 s−1 and beyond, the high rates, multiplicities, and energies of particles seen by the detectors will pose a unique challenge. Only a tiny fraction of the produced collisions can be stored on tape and immense real-time data reduction is needed. An effective trigger system must maintain high trigger efficiencies for the most important physics and at the same time suppress the enormous QCD backgrounds. This requires massive computing power to minimize the online execution time of complex algorithms. A multi-level trigger is an effective solution for an otherwise impossible problem. The Fast Tracker (FTK)[1], [2] is a proposed upgrade to the current ATLAS trigger system that will operate at full Level-1 output rates and provide high quality tracks reconstructed over the entire detector by the start of processing in Level-2. FTK is a dedicated Super Computer based on a mixture of advanced technologies. The architecture broadly employs powerf...

  13. UCP2 Regulates the Glucagon Response to Fasting and Starvation

    Allister, Emma M.; Robson-Doucette, Christine A.; Prentice, Kacey J.; Hardy, Alexandre B.; Sultan, Sobia; Gaisano, Herbert Y.; Kong, Dong; Gilon, Patrick; Herrera, Pedro Luis; Lowell, Bradford B.; Wheeler, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon is important for maintaining euglycemia during fasting/starvation, and abnormal glucagon secretion is associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanisms of hypoglycemia-induced glucagon secretion are poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that global deletion of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2(-/-)) in mice impaired glucagon secretion from isolated islets. Therefore, UCP2 may contribute to the regulation of hypoglycemia-induced glucagon secretion, whi...

  14. Human response times in a graphic environment

    Yule, A

    1972-01-01

    A summary of the results obtained from measuring the response times of the users of an interactive graphics system available on the CERN central computers is presented. These results are then used to find an optimum time to wait before rolling the user's program to disc.

  15. Hierarchical Bayes Models for Response Time Data

    Craigmile, Peter F.; Peruggia, Mario; Van Zandt, Trisha

    2010-01-01

    Human response time (RT) data are widely used in experimental psychology to evaluate theories of mental processing. Typically, the data constitute the times taken by a subject to react to a succession of stimuli under varying experimental conditions. Because of the sequential nature of the experiments there are trends (due to learning, fatigue,…

  16. Fast response of electron-scale turbulence to auxiliary heating cessation in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Ren, Y.; Wang, W. X.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; Ethier, S.; Mazzucato, E.; Bell, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Lee, K. C. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Domier, C. W. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Smith, D. R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Yuh, H. [Nova Photonics, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    In this letter, we report the first observation of the fast response of electron-scale turbulence to auxiliary heating cessation in National Spherical Torus eXperiment [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. The observation was made in a set of RF-heated L-mode plasmas with toroidal magnetic field of 0.55 T and plasma current of 300 kA. It is observed that electron-scale turbulence spectral power (measured with a high-k collective microwave scattering system) decreases significantly following fast cessation of RF heating that occurs in less than 200 μs. The large drop in the turbulence spectral power has a short time delay of about 1–2 ms relative to the RF cessation and happens on a time scale of 0.5–1 ms, much smaller than the energy confinement time of about 10 ms. Power balance analysis shows a factor of about 2 decrease in electron thermal diffusivity after the sudden drop of turbulence spectral power. Measured small changes in equilibrium profiles across the RF cessation are unlikely able to explain this sudden reduction in the measured turbulence and decrease in electron thermal transport, supported by local linear stability analysis and both local and global nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The observations imply that nonlocal flux-driven mechanism may be important for the observed turbulence and electron thermal transport.

  17. Achieving fast timing performance with multiplexed SiPMs

    Bieniosek, M. F.; Cates, J. W.; Levin, C. S.

    2016-04-01

    Using time of flight (ToF) measurements for positron emission tomography (PET) is an attractive avenue for increasing the signal to noise (SNR) ratio of PET images. However, achieving excellent time resolution required for high SNR gain using silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) requires many resource heavy high bandwidth readout channels. A method of multiplexing many SiPM signals into a single electronic channel would greatly simplify ToF PET systems. However, multiplexing SiPMs degrades time resolution because of added dark counts and signal shaping. In this work the relative contribution of dark counts and signal shaping to timing degradation is simulated and a baseline correction technique to mitigate the effect of multiplexing on the time resolution of analog SiPMs is simulated and experimentally verified. A charge sharing network for multiplexing is proposed and tested. Results show a full width at half maximum (FWHM) coincidence time resolution of 232+/- 2 ps for a single 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LYSO scintillation crystals coupled to an array of sixteen 3 mm  ×  3 mm SiPMs that are multiplexed to a single timing channel (in addition to 4 position channels). A 4× 4 array of 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LFS crystals showed an average FWHM coincidence time resolution of 278+/- 7 ps using the same timing scheme. All experiments were performed at room temperature with no thermal regulation. These results show that excellent time resolution for ToF can be achieved with a highly multiplexed analog SiPM readout.

  18. Achieving fast timing performance with multiplexed SiPMs.

    Bieniosek, M F; Cates, J W; Levin, C S

    2016-04-01

    Using time of flight (ToF) measurements for positron emission tomography (PET) is an attractive avenue for increasing the signal to noise (SNR) ratio of PET images. However, achieving excellent time resolution required for high SNR gain using silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) requires many resource heavy high bandwidth readout channels. A method of multiplexing many SiPM signals into a single electronic channel would greatly simplify ToF PET systems. However, multiplexing SiPMs degrades time resolution because of added dark counts and signal shaping. In this work the relative contribution of dark counts and signal shaping to timing degradation is simulated and a baseline correction technique to mitigate the effect of multiplexing on the time resolution of analog SiPMs is simulated and experimentally verified. A charge sharing network for multiplexing is proposed and tested. Results show a full width at half maximum (FWHM) coincidence time resolution of [Formula: see text] ps for a single 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LYSO scintillation crystals coupled to an array of sixteen 3 mm  ×  3 mm SiPMs that are multiplexed to a single timing channel (in addition to 4 position channels). A [Formula: see text] array of 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LFS crystals showed an average FWHM coincidence time resolution of [Formula: see text] ps using the same timing scheme. All experiments were performed at room temperature with no thermal regulation. These results show that excellent time resolution for ToF can be achieved with a highly multiplexed analog SiPM readout. PMID:26987898

  19. Fast and Furious: Rapid Response to Young Supernovae

    Cao, Yi; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Nugent, Peter E.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.

    2016-01-01

    Observations of supernovae within a few days of their explosion provide entirely diagnostics to probe the nature of supernova progenitors. Since 2013, I have used the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) to systematically study extraordinarily young supernovae. In this talk, I will give an overview of iPTF survey design, summarize the design and implementation of the near real-time discovery pipeline and then describe the rapid-response follow-up. The highlights from my thesis are: 1) We observed a strong declining UV emission from a low-velocity Type Ia supernova which is consistent with the expected emission from a supernova slamming into a companion star. Evidently some Type Ia supernovae arise from the so-called "single degenerate" channel. 2) We identified the first progenitor candidate of a Type Ib supernova in the pre-explosion HST images. Our multi-wavelength observations of this young Type Ib supernova constrain its progenitor to be smaller than several solar radii and with strong mass loss, consistent with our current ideas that the progenitor should be a Wolf-Rayet star. I will end my talk with prospects for this field with the upcoming Zwicky Transient Facility.

  20. Fast versus slow response in climate change: implications for the global hydrological cycle

    Bala, Govindasamy; Caldeira, K.; Nemani, R.

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that changes in global mean precipitation are larger for solar forcing than for CO2 forcing of similar magnitude. In this paper, we use an atmospheric general circulation model to show that the differences originate from differing fast responses of the climate system. We estimate the adjusted radiative forcing and fast response using Hansen’s “fixed-SST forcing” method. Total climate system response is calculated using mixed layer simulations using the same model. Our analysis shows that the fast response is almost 40% of the total response for few key variables like precipitation and evaporation. We further demonstrate that the hydrologic sensitivity, defined as the change in global mean precipitation per unit warming, is the same for the two forcings when the fast responses are excluded from the definition of hydrologic sensitivity, suggesting that the slow response (feedback) of the hydrological cycle is independent of the forcing mechanism. Based on our results, we recommend that the fast and slow response be compared separately in multi-model intercomparisons to discover and understand robust responses in hydrologic cycle. The significance of this study to geoengineering is discussed.

  1. Fast versus slow response in climate change: implications for the global hydrological cycle

    Bala, Govindasamy [Indian Institute of Science, Divecha Center for Climate Change and Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Bangalore (India); Caldeira, K. [Carnegie Institution, Department of Global Ecology, Stanford, CA (United States); Nemani, R. [NASA Ames Research Center, Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Recent studies have shown that changes in global mean precipitation are larger for solar forcing than for CO{sub 2} forcing of similar magnitude. In this paper, we use an atmospheric general circulation model to show that the differences originate from differing fast responses of the climate system. We estimate the adjusted radiative forcing and fast response using Hansen's ''fixed-SST forcing'' method. Total climate system response is calculated using mixed layer simulations using the same model. Our analysis shows that the fast response is almost 40% of the total response for few key variables like precipitation and evaporation. We further demonstrate that the hydrologic sensitivity, defined as the change in global mean precipitation per unit warming, is the same for the two forcings when the fast responses are excluded from the definition of hydrologic sensitivity, suggesting that the slow response (feedback) of the hydrological cycle is independent of the forcing mechanism. Based on our results, we recommend that the fast and slow response be compared separately in multi-model intercomparisons to discover and understand robust responses in hydrologic cycle. The significance of this study to geoengineering is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Modeling and dynamic characteristics analysis on a three-stage fast-response and large-flow directional valve

    Highlights: Presenting a valve with the fast response and high flow capacity simultaneously. Dividing the response time into the starting delay ?t1 and opening time ?t2. Proposing the change time ?tc and critical open value pc3cr of the control pressure. The fast response relies on short change time ?tc and appropriate value of pc3cr. Optimizing parameters associated with ?tc and pc3cr to improve valve response. - Abstract: The large transient power hydraulic systems, characterized by high pressure, large transient flow and high output power, have widespread industrial applications in converting powerful hydraulic energy to kinetic energy in a transient period. A conventional large flow rate directional valve is unable to be used in these applications due to the slow response. A directional control valve with fast response and high flow capacity simultaneously is presented for the large transient power hydraulic system in this paper. The valve utilizes a three-stage structure with two high-speed on/off solenoid valves as the pilot stage and two cartridge poppet valves as the secondary stage to overcome the fundamental trade off between valve response and flow capacity. A precise mathematical model of this valve considering both turbulent flow and laminar flow is developed. A test apparatus which has the ability to provide and measure transient large flow is built. The flow rate is estimated based on the pressure dynamics. The property parameters in the simulation model are optimized against measured data. According to the dynamic characteristics analysis, the valve response is split into the starting delay and opening time. The step response is rapid enough to provide a large transient flow, while the high flow capacity is not reduced due to the fast response. The main control pressure is characterized by its change time and critical open pressure and these two parameters determine the main-stage response. Some key structural factors concerning with these two parameters are discussed in detail and optimize to further reduce the response time

  3. Measurement of the dynamic response of differential pressure transmitters using a response time tester

    AECL's response time tester (RTT) for pressure and differential-pressure (DP) transmitters provide a simple, fast and accurate means of measuring pressure transmitter step response time and response time characteristics as defined in ISA Standard ISA-S67.06. The step response method of measuring response time is used by all prominent sensor suppliers and provides a result that is readily understood. The measurement of response time characteristics, which includes the transfer function, provides a complete and sensitive characterization of the dynamic response of the sensor that can be used to predict the response to ramps or any other transient. The AECL Model 200 RTT uses standard instrument air as the source of test pressure, and is suitable for testing transmitters that operate at pressures less than 650 kPa. It can accurately measure step response times in the range of 20 to 2000 ms. It is thus capable of measuring the response times of most of the pressure instruments in the CANDU safety systems. The Model 200 RTT is completely contained in a cabinet that can be easily moved on built-in shock-absorbent wheels, to facilitate testing transmitter while on the bench or mounted on the instrument rack. The RTT comprises pressurized components in the front end, and computerized data acquisition components and analysis software in the back end. Tests are conducted by switching the pressure applied to the transmitter between two values using a long-life, fast acting 3-way solenoid valve. The actual pressure applied to the transmitter is measured with a high-frequency reference transducer. Once the operator has connected the air supply and transmitter, and set the test pressures, the actual testing and analysis proceeds automatically. Four sets of tests are conducted. A number of comparisons, as required by ISA-S67.06, are made to verify that: the transmitter is linear with respect to direction and rate of change; and the results are consistent between two diverse test methods. The broadband noise tests are used to find the transfer function (all the significant time constants) of the transmitter. Given the transfer function, the expected response to a step input can be computed and compared to the measured step response, thus verifying both measurements. The results are summarized and printed on the built-in printer. Files are saved to disk for later review. (author)

  4. Response of a single-crystal diamond detector to fast neutrons

    Bi-parametric (neutron time of flight and deposited energy) measurements using a Single-crystal Diamond Detector (4.5 × 4.5 × 0.5 mm3 active volume) were performed at the nTOF neutron facility at CERN. The time structure of the neutron beam combined with the long flight path allowed for measurements of the diamond detector response to quasi monoenergetic neutrons in the energy range up to 40 MeV. Deposited energy spectra were compared to MCNPX simulations using different cross section libraries. The results can be used for the interpretation of Single-crystal Diamond Detector measurements of fast neutrons at spallation neutron sources

  5. Fast and Flexible Multivariate Time Series Subsequence Search

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multivariate Time-Series (MTS) are ubiquitous, and are generated in areas as disparate as sensor recordings in aerospace systems, music and video streams, medical...

  6. FTSPlot: Fast Time Series Visualization for Large Datasets

    Riss, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of electrophysiological recordings often involves visual inspection of time series data to locate specific experiment epochs, mask artifacts, and verify the results of signal processing steps, such as filtering or spike detection. Long-term experiments with continuous data acquisition generate large amounts of data. Rapid browsing through these massive datasets poses a challenge to conventional data plotting software because the plotting time increases proportionately to the incr...

  7. Time to let go of CARP? Not so fast

    Toby C. Monsod; Sharon A. Piza

    2014-01-01

    The following note seeks to clarify the appreciation of data pertaining to agrarian reform as used in the discussion paper "CARP: time to let go" (henceforth Fabella (2014)). Fabella (2014) has three parts: the first part argues that "the cumulative weight of evidence suggests that the hypothesis that in economic terms CARP is a government failure has not been rejected." The second part offers possible reasons for that failure. The third part concludes, saying it is time to let go.

  8. Development of a new time-amplitude converter with tunnel diodes for improving fast neutron spectrometry by time of flight

    New time-amplitude converter with Esaki diodes, the events being preselected before analysis, allows for realizing a fast neutron spectrometer by time-of-flight with an 1.5 * 10-9 s overall time resolution for 12C (n,n') at 14 MeV. (author)

  9. Continuous data recording on fast real-time systems

    The PCU-Project enhancement of the vertical stabilisation at JET required a new real-time control system with specifications of 2 Gops and 50 ?s cycle time. A new framework for the real-time has been developed showing to meet the requirements running on RTAI based architecture on an *86 multi-core processor technology. The new real-time multi-platform framework developed at JET has demonstrated with the new Vertical Stabilisation system to be able to reach high performance, maintaining a high level of flexibility and offering a powerful environment for debugging and testing. Linux-RTAI, on a multi-core processor, has been the optimal platform for obtaining the requested performance. Managing the high data flow has been solved via a data streaming architecture that, without compromising the real-time tasks, has shown to have reached a high transfer rate (up to 70 Mb/s). This technology can be exported to a long pulse duration environment like ITER and with minimum effort it can also be used for implementing off-line post-processing during the operation without having to wait for the end of the experiment. This document is a poster. (A.C.)

  10. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Dynamical 'breaking' of time reversal symmetry

    Gutkin, Boris

    2007-08-01

    It is a common assumption that quantum systems with time reversal invariance and classically chaotic dynamics have energy spectra distributed according to GOE type of statistics. Here we present a class of systems which fail to follow this rule. We show that for convex billiards of constant width with time reversal symmetry and 'almost' chaotic dynamics the energy-level distribution is of GUE type. The effect is due to the lack of ergodicity in the 'momentum' part of the phase space and, as we argue, is generic in two dimensions.

  11. Improved strain-wire flowmeter has fast response time

    Dillon, R. C.; Dunbar, W. R.

    1965-01-01

    Strain-sensitive resistance wires in a Wheatstone bridge arrangement form the sensing element of a flowmeter. The change in resistance of the wires is measured as a function of stream velocity. Thus the electrical output is a measure of both rapidly varying and steady fluid-flow rates.

  12. Extremely fast recovery time receiver for pulsed NMR

    A radio-frequency receiver--amplifier for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance applications is described. This amplifier has a voltage gain of 2000 and a bandwidth of 5--115 MHz and consists of three identical stages having nonsaturating overload characteristics. Each individual stage recovers within a time of 1 nsec following a 20 dBm overload. The blocking effect of capacitive interstage coupling following rf pulses has been essentially eliminated using series-tuned broad bandwidth resonant circuits between stages. Measured receiver recovery times range from 250 nsec for short (400 nsec) transmitter pulses to 2.0 ?sec for long (75 ?sec) pulses. The effective receiver input noise voltage measured following phase-sensitive detection and at the output of a video amplifier having a bandwidth of 320 kHz was 1.2 ?V

  13. Fast changes for tough times: employee suggestion programs.

    Lyons, D M

    1997-06-01

    In the midst of the current marketplace's turmoil, healthcare organizations (HCOs) lack two critical commodities: time and money. Today, time and money are all that stand between many HCOs current operations and their demise at the hands of healthcare reform; therefore, healthcare administrators cannot afford to spend either frivolously. Consultants have put forth an array of employee incentive programs designed to address cost containment and market positioning goals of various institutions. Many of these programs are well packaged and can be considered "politically correct" in terms of current philosophies on employee-management relations. However, many programs focus on long-term goals and strategies and, therefore, are most appropriate for organizations not in immediate danger of demise. One long-term program espoused and implemented widely by organizations is the employee suggestion system. This article looks at employee suggestion programs. PMID:10168655

  14. Waveform Timing Performance of a 5 GS/s Fast Pulse Sampling Module with DRS4

    Wang, Jinhong; An, Qi

    2015-01-01

    We first clarify timing issues of non-uniform sampling intervals regarding a 5 GS/s fast pulse sampling module with DRS4. Calibration strategy is proposed, and as a result, the waveform timing performance is improved to be below 10 ps RMS. We then further evaluate waveform timing performance of the module by comparing with a 10 GS/s oscilloscope in a setup with plastic scintillators and fast PMTs. Different waveform timing algorithms are employed for analysis, and the module shows comparable timing performance with that of the oscilloscope.

  15. Continuous data recording on fast real-time systems

    The PCU-Project launched for the enhancement of the vertical stabilisation system at JET required the design of a new real-time control system with the challenging specifications of 2Gops and a cycle time of 50 μs. The RTAI based architecture running on an x86 multi-core processor technology demonstrated to be the best platform for meeting the high requirements. Moreover, on this architecture thanks to the smart allocation of the interrupts it was possible to demonstrate simultaneous data streaming at 50 MBs on Ethernet while handling a real-time 100 kHz interrupt source with a maximum jitter of just 3 μs. Because of the memory limitation imposed by 32 bit version Linux running in kernel mode, the RTAI-based new controller allows a maximum practical data storage of 800 MB per pulse. While this amount of data can be accepted for JET normal operation it posed some limitations in the debugging and commissioning of the system. In order to increase the capability of the data acquisition of the system we have designed a mechanism that allows continuous full bandwidth (56 MB/s) data streaming from the real-time task (running in kernel mode) to either a data collector (running in user mode) or an external data acquisition server. The exploited architecture involves a peer to peer mechanisms where the sender running in RTAI kernel mode broadcasts large chunks of data using UDP packets, implemented using the 'fcomm' RTAI extension , to a receiver that will store the data. The paper will present the results of the initial RTAI operating system tests, the design of the streaming architecture and the first experimental results.

  16. Time-of-flight measurement of fast neutrons with Timepix detectors

    Timepix pixel detectors have been used to study the response of silicon hybrid pixel detectors to fast neutrons from a pulsed neutron beam at WNR FP30R, a 14 m long flight path, in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. Neutrons with kinetic energies up to 600 MeV were available. In order to enhance the conversion of neutrons to energetic charged particles, several converter foils and filters were attached to the 300 μm thick silicon sensor, i.e. polyethylene, polyethylene with aluminum, 6LiF, 6LiF with aluminum, aluminum. The Time-of-Arrival mode of the Timepix detectors has permitted the application of the Time-of-Flight (TOF) technique for the assignment of the detected interactions in the form of clusters (groups of adjacent pixels) in the pixel matrix, to the kinetic energies of the incident neutrons. It was found that, for lower neutron energies ( ∼ MeV range) the cluster rates below the polyethylene and the polyethylene and aluminum region, produced by recoil protons, are a good measure for the mean kinetic energies of neutrons. For energies above 50 MeV nuclear reactions in the silicon dominate the detector response. In this energy range the shape of the clusters indicates the neutron kinetic energy

  17. Time-of-flight measurement of fast neutrons with Timepix detectors

    Bergmann, B.; Nelson, R. O.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Pospisil, S.; Solc, J.; Takai, H.; Vykydal, Z.

    2014-05-01

    Timepix pixel detectors have been used to study the response of silicon hybrid pixel detectors to fast neutrons from a pulsed neutron beam at WNR FP30R, a 14 m long flight path, in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. Neutrons with kinetic energies up to 600 MeV were available. In order to enhance the conversion of neutrons to energetic charged particles, several converter foils and filters were attached to the 300 μm thick silicon sensor, i.e. polyethylene, polyethylene with aluminum, 6LiF, 6LiF with aluminum, aluminum. The Time-of-Arrival mode of the Timepix detectors has permitted the application of the Time-of-Flight (TOF) technique for the assignment of the detected interactions in the form of clusters (groups of adjacent pixels) in the pixel matrix, to the kinetic energies of the incident neutrons. It was found that, for lower neutron energies ( ~ MeV range) the cluster rates below the polyethylene and the polyethylene and aluminum region, produced by recoil protons, are a good measure for the mean kinetic energies of neutrons. For energies above 50 MeV nuclear reactions in the silicon dominate the detector response. In this energy range the shape of the clusters indicates the neutron kinetic energy.

  18. Time to positivity of neonatal blood cultures: fast and furious?

    Guerti, Khadija; Devos, Helena; Ieven, Margareta M; Mahieu, Ludo M

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the time to positivity (TTP) of neonatal blood cultures, to investigate differences between early onset versus late-onset sepsis, and non-proven versus proven sepsis, and to examine differences in TTP by organism type using a retrospective observational study at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Antwerp University Hospital, Belgium. The subjects were 1828 neonates with suspected sepsis who were treated with antimicrobials for at least 3 days. The TTP was recorded for all episodes of suspected sepsis in an approximately 6.5 year period. A total of 2916 blood cultures were collected, of which 437 (15%) became positive. The overall TTP was 21.33 h (Q1-Q3 13.17-32.46). The difference between the median TTP in early onset versus late-onset sepsis was 0.83 h (22.00 versus 21.17 h, P=0.75). The median TTP for Gram-negative organisms was 11.17 h (Q1-Q3 8.84-15.67), whereas the median TTP for Gram-positive organisms was 23.59 h (Q1-Q3 15.29-34.58, P<0.001). In Gram-positive isolates, the median TTP for coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) was 26.67 h (Q1-Q3 19.00-38.17), whereas the median TTP for non-CNS was 12.83 h (Q1-Q3 10.50-18.17, P<0.001). The median TTP in proven sepsis was 20.17 h (Q1-Q3 13.00-30.37), whereas it was 29.67 h (Q1-Q3 21.17-50.63, P<0.001) in non-proven sepsis. TTP of neonatal blood cultures was significantly shorter for Gram-negative organisms. We suggest shortening the total incubation time of neonatal blood cultures to a maximum of 3 days. However, blood cultures collected in infants<72 h of age might require a longer incubation time. According to our results, it may be safe to narrow the antimicrobial spectrum to solely target Gram-positive bacteria when the culture is still negative after 48 h, and to cease antimicrobial therapy when the culture is still negative after 72 h in clinically well infants. PMID:21163823

  19. Parallel Configuration For Fast Superconducting Strip Line Detectors With Very Large Area In Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    We realized a very fast and large Superconducting Strip Line Detector based on a parallel configuration of nanowires. The detector with size 200x200 μm2 recorded a sub-nanosecond pulse width of 700 ps in FWHM (400 ps rise time and 530 ps relaxation time) for lysozyme monomers/multimers molecules accelerated at 175 keV in a Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer. This record is the best in the class of superconducting detectors and comparable with the fastest NbN superconducting single photon detector of 10x10 μm2. We succeeded in acquiring mass spectra as the first step for a scale-up to ∼mm pixel size for high throughput MS analysis, while keeping a fast response.

  20. Time Domain Response of the ARIANNA Detector

    Barwick, S W; Besson, D Z; Hanson, J C; Klein, S R; Kleinfelder, S A; Piasecki, M; Ratzlaff, K; Reed, C; Roumi, M; Stezelberger, T; Tatar, J; Walker, J; Young, R; Zou, L

    2014-01-01

    The Antarctic Ross Ice Shelf Antenna Neutrino Array (ARIANNA) is a high-energy neutrino detector designed to record the Askaryan electric field signature of cosmogenic neutrino interactions in ice. To understand the inherent radio-frequency (RF) neutrino signature, the time-domain response of the ARIANNA RF receiver must be measured. ARIANNA uses Create CLP5130-2N log-periodic dipole arrays (LPDAs). The associated effective height operator converts incident electric fields to voltage waveforms at the LDPA terminals. The effective height versus time and incident angle was measured, along with the associated response of the ARIANNA RF amplifier. The results are verified by correlating to field measurements in air and ice, using oscilloscopes. Finally, theoretical models for the Askaryan electric field are combined with the detector response to predict the neutrino signature.

  1. Ultra Fast Timing Measurements at $^{78}$Ni and $^{132}$Sn

    2002-01-01

    We propose to measure level lifetimes in the exotic nuclei of $^{81}$Ga and $^{80}$Ga in the vicinity of $^{78}$Ni and of $^{135}$Sb and $^{134}$Sb above $^{132}$Sn by the time-delayed technique. These are relatively simple nuclear systems with a few particles and/or holes outside of the doubly-magic core thus can be treated rather precisely within the shell model. The anticipated new structure information on these nuclei, and in particular the lifetime results will put constraints on the model parameters and will serve to verify their predictions. The selected nuclei are some of the most exotic ones just above $^{78}$Ni or $^{132}$Sn, where the transition rates can be studied at present. Of the strongest interest is the nucleus of $^{81}$Ga, which has only 3 valence protons outside of $^{78}$Ni with the lowest proton orbits being $p_{3/2}$ and $f_{5/2}$. The Ml transition between these states, although allowed by the selection rules, should be $\\textit{l}$-forbidden thus very slow. This should give rise to a...

  2. Fast-response underwater TSP investigation of subcritical instabilities of a cylinder in crossflow

    Capone, Alessandro; Klein, Christian; Di Felice, Fabio; Beifuss, Uwe; Miozzi, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the classic cylinder in crossflow case to test the effectiveness of a fast-response underwater temperature-sensitive paint coating (TSP) in providing highly resolved spatial and time observations of the action of a flow over a bluff body surface. The flow is investigated at Reynolds number sequences convey an accurate description of the evolution of the main features in the fluid-cylinder interaction, like the separation line position, the pattern of the large coherent structures acting on the cylinder's surface and the small-scale intermittent streamwise arrays of vortices. Ad hoc data management and features extraction techniques are proposed which allow extraction of quantitative data, such as separation line position and vortex-shedding frequency, and results are compared to the literature. Use of TSP for water applications introduces an interesting point of view about the fluid-body interactions by focusing directly on the effect of the flow on the model surface.

  3. Simulation of response functions of fast neutron sensors and development of thin neutron silicon sensor.

    Takada, Masashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsuda, Mikihiko; Nunomiya, Tomoya

    2014-10-01

    On radiation detection using silicon sensor, signals are produced from collected charges in a depletion layer; however, for high-energy particles, this depletion layer is extended due to funnelling phenomenon. The lengths of charge collection were experimentally obtained from proton peak energies in measured pulse-heights. The length is extended with increasing proton energy of up to 6 MeV, and then, is constant over 6 MeV. The response functions of fast neutron sensors were simulated for 5- and 15-MeV monoenergetic and (252)Cf neutron sources using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code. The simulation results agree well with the experimental ones, including the effect of funnelling phenomenon. In addition, a thin silicon sensor was developed for a new real-time personal neutron dosemeter. Photon sensitivity is vanishingly smaller than neutron one by a factor of 5×10(-4). PMID:24516186

  4. A fixed-frequency fast transient response DC–DC controller for VRMs

    A 2V-10A fast transient response DC–DC buck controller based on fixed frequency hysteresis control is presented. A carefully designed output voltage filter detects the output capacitor current change which helps the controller to respond immediately after load changes. Adaptive hysteresis control guarantees the switching frequency to be the same as the reference frequency by using a CCII-composed circuit and current mirrors. The controller is designed and fabricated in a TSMC 0.35 μm process. Simulation and test results show that this controller achieves a 20 μs settling time in one single switching cycle when load current changes from 1 A to the full load condition at 10 A. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. Fast-response switchable lens for 3D and wearable displays.

    Lee, Yun-Han; Peng, Fenglin; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2016-01-25

    We report a switchable lens in which a twisted nematic (TN) liquid crystal cell is utilized to control the input polarization. Different polarization state leads to different path length in the proposed optical system, which in turn results in different focal length. This type of switchable lens has advantages in fast response time, low operation voltage, and inherently lower chromatic aberration. Using a pixelated TN panel, we can create depth information to the selected pixels and thus add depth information to a 2D image. By cascading three such device structures together, we can generate 8 different focuses for 3D displays, wearable virtual/augmented reality, and other head mounted display devices. PMID:26832545

  6. Effects of Ramadan on physical capacities of North African boys fasting for the first time

    Ben Saad, Helmi; Mohamed A. Fenneni; Latiri, Imed; Aloui, Asma; Rouatbi, Sonia; Mohamed A. Saafi; Bougmiza, Iheb; Chamari, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Most of the literature related to the effects of Ramadan fasting on physical performance has focused on adults, and only three studies have examined its impact on children’s physical performance.Aims: To examine the effects of Ramadan fasting on first-time fasting boys’ performance in short-term explosive exercises [vertical and horizontal jump tests (VJT and HJT), 20-m and 30-m sprints and medicine-ball throw (MBT)], as well as in sub-maximal endurance [6-min walking distance (...

  7. Simulation of response functions of fast neutron sensors and development of thin neutron silicon sensor

    On radiation detection using silicon sensor, signals are produced from collected charges in a depletion layer; however, for high-energy particles, this depletion layer is extended due to funnelling phenomenon. The lengths of charge collection were experimentally obtained from proton peak energies in measured pulse-heights. The length is extended with increasing proton energy of up to 6 MeV, and then, is constant over 6 MeV. The response functions of fast neutron sensors were simulated for 5- and 15-MeV monoenergetic and 252Cf neutron sources using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code. The simulation results agree well with the experimental ones, including the effect of funnelling phenomenon. In addition, a thin silicon sensor was developed for a new real-time personal neutron dosemeter. Photon sensitivity is vanishingly smaller than neutron one by a factor of 5x10-4. The length of the depletion layer is extended due to the effect of funnelling phenomenon. With increasing proton energy, the length of charge collection is increased; and over 6 MeV of proton energy, the length stays constant. The response functions of fast neutron sensors were simulated for 5- and 15-MeV monoenergetic and 252Cf neutron sources. The simulated results agree well with the experimental ones, considering the effect of funnelling phenomenon. Using this simulation, the response functions of >20 MeV can be obtained. The simulation for high-energy neutrons helps one to develop new personal neutron dosemeters for radiation protection of aircrew. The thin silicon sensor operates as a totally depleted silicon detector, confirmed on a basis of the constant proton peak energy with bias voltage. The thin silicon sensor can be used for new personal neutron dosemeters with negligible photon sensitivity. It was vanishingly smaller than the neutron sensitivity by a factor of 5x10-4. (authors)

  8. Ultra-high throughput real-time instruments for capturing fast signals and rare events

    Buckley, Brandon Walter

    Wide-band signals play important roles in the most exciting areas of science, engineering, and medicine. To keep up with the demands of exploding internet traffic, modern data centers and communication networks are employing increasingly faster data rates. Wide-band techniques such as pulsed radar jamming and spread spectrum frequency hopping are used on the battlefield to wrestle control of the electromagnetic spectrum. Neurons communicate with each other using transient action potentials that last for only milliseconds at a time. And in the search for rare cells, biologists flow large populations of cells single file down microfluidic channels, interrogating them one-by-one, tens of thousands of times per second. Studying and enabling such high-speed phenomena pose enormous technical challenges. For one, parasitic capacitance inherent in analog electrical components limits their response time. Additionally, converting these fast analog signals to the digital domain requires enormous sampling speeds, which can lead to significant jitter and distortion. State-of-the-art imaging technologies, essential for studying biological dynamics and cells in flow, are limited in speed and sensitivity by finite charge transfer and read rates, and by the small numbers of photo-electrons accumulated in short integration times. And finally, ultra-high throughput real-time digital processing is required at the backend to analyze the streaming data. In this thesis, I discuss my work in developing real-time instruments, employing ultrafast optical techniques, which overcome some of these obstacles. In particular, I use broadband dispersive optics to slow down fast signals to speeds accessible to high-bit depth digitizers and signal processors. I also apply telecommunication multiplexing techniques to boost the speeds of confocal fluorescence microscopy. The photonic time stretcher (TiSER) uses dispersive Fourier transformation to slow down analog signals before digitization and processing. The act of time-stretching effectively boosts the performance of the back-end electronics and digital signal processors. The slowed down signals reach the back-end electronics with reduced bandwidth, and are therefore less affected by high-frequency roll-off and distortion. Time-stretching also increases the effective sampling rate of analog-to-digital converters and reduces aperture jitter, thereby improving resolution. Finally, the instantaneous throughputs of digital signal processors are enhanced by the stretch factor to otherwise unattainable speeds. Leveraging these unique capabilities, TiSER becomes the ideal tool for capturing high-speed signals and characterizing rare phenomena. For this thesis, I have developed techniques to improve the spectral efficiency, bandwidth, and resolution of TiSER using polarization multiplexing, all-optical modulation, and coherent dispersive Fourier transformation. To reduce the latency and improve the data handling capacity, I have also designed and implemented a real-time digital signal processing electronic backend, achieving 1.5 tera-bit per second instantaneous processing throughput. Finally, I will present results from experiments highlighting TiSER's impact in real-world applications. Confocal fluorescence microscopy is the most widely used method for unveiling the molecular composition of biological specimens. However, the weak optical emission of fluorescent probes and the tradeoff between imaging speed and sensitivity is problematic for acquiring blur-free images of fast phenomena and cells flowing at high speed. Here I introduce a new fluorescence imaging modality, which leverages techniques from wireless communication to reach record pixel and frame rates. Termed Fluorescence Imaging using Radio-frequency tagged Emission (FIRE), this new imaging modality is capable of resolving never before seen dynamics in living cells - such as action potentials in neurons and metabolic waves in astrocytes - as well as performing high-content image assays of cells and particles in high-speed flow.

  9. Triple GEM gas detectors as real time fast neutron beam monitors for spallation neutron sources

    A fast neutron beam monitor based on a triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector was developed and tested for the ISIS spallation neutron source in U.K. The test on beam was performed at the VESUVIO beam line operating at ISIS. The 2D fast neutron beam footprint was recorded in real time with a spatial resolution of a few millimeters thanks to the patterned detector readout.

  10. Y2K issues for real time computer systems for fast breeder test reactor

    Presentation shows the classification of real time systems related to operation, control and monitoring of the fast breeder test reactor. Software life cycle includes software requirement specification, software design description, coding, commissioning, operation and management. A software scheme in supervisory computer of fast breeder test rector is described with the twenty years of experience in design, development, installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance of computer based supervision control system for nuclear installation with a particular emphasis on solving the Y2K problem

  11. Fasting induces a biphasic adaptive metabolic response in murine small intestine

    Evelo Chris TA; Nikolsky Yuri; van Haaften Rachel IM; Gilhuijs-Pederson Lisa A; Vermeulen Jacqueline; Sokolovi? Aleksandar; Wehkamp Diederik; Sokolovi? Milka; van Kampen Antoine HC; Hakvoort Theodorus BM; Lamers Wouter H

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The gut is a major energy consumer, but a comprehensive overview of the adaptive response to fasting is lacking. Gene-expression profiling, pathway analysis, and immunohistochemistry were therefore carried out on mouse small intestine after 0, 12, 24, and 72 hours of fasting. Results Intestinal weight declined to 50% of control, but this loss of tissue mass was distributed proportionally among the gut's structural components, so that the microarrays' tissue base remained u...

  12. Consumer attitude towards Corporate Social Responsibility within the fast fashion industry

    Axelsson, Erica; Jahan, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Todays’ consumer society has forced companies to work towards a sustainable society. Consumers consider a company’s work with Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as necessary and expect companies to work ethically. However, fast fashion consumers’ also demand a low price and rapid changes in trends. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to understand fast fashion consumers’ attitude towards, and the importance of, companies working with CSR. By conducting a questionnaire on Cubus’ custom...

  13. Combining Time Reversal and Fast Marching Method in Wireless Indoor Positioning

    Guoping Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of current wireless indoor positioning methods could not accurately obtain channel model, the mapping between spatial position and received signal features. The main factor for a precise channel model in an indoor environment is multipath effect. Time reversed (TR wireless indoor positioning method has been validated to effectively reduce signals fading or time delay affected by multipath effect. However, these advantages are depended on a prior known channel model, without this condition, the accuracy of TR method will be seriously deteriorated. To solve the shortcoming of a general TR method in an unknown channel model application, we present a combining Time Reversal and Fast Marching Method (TR-FMM positioning method. This method locates a target with two stages. In the stage one, the precise channel model of an indoor environment is estimated by FMM and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART. In this stage, Time of Flight (TOF information generated by some fixed spatial position anchors are used to fulfill the indoor channel model estimation, then the needed channel impulse response (CIR for TR method will be obtained based on the estimated channel model. In the stage two, with the obtained CIR, any new joint mobile target will be accurately located by a general TR wireless indoor positioning method. Some numerical simulations have been presented to validate the proposed method. Simulative results depict the positioning deviation is less than 3cm for a newly joined mobile target with 1cm scale in a moderate complex indoor configure, and the accuracy of the positioning is improved 30 times comparing to a general TR method. The positioning time in the stage 2 is less than 3 minutes in a PC with 1.6 GHz dual CPUs and 2G Bytes memory. Obviously, the proposed method has great advantage in high accuracy and low complexity for wireless indoor positioning system.

  14. Evolutionary responses of fast adapting populations to opposing selection pressures

    Iranzo Sanz, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the mathematical modeling of evolutionary processes that take place in heterogeneous populations. Its leitmotif is the response of complex ensembles of replicating entities to multiple (and often opposite) selection pressures. Even though the specific problems addressed in different chapters belong to different organizational levelsgenome, population, and communityall of them can be conceptualized as the evolution of a heterogeneous populationlet it be...

  15. Fast GaAs photoconductor responses to subnanosecond proton pulses

    Pochet, T. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Electronique et d`Instrumentation Nucleaire; Brullot, B.; Galli, R.; Lecat, X.; Rubbelynck, C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    1993-12-01

    GaAs photoconductors have been tailored to detect ultrafast proton pulses having energies ranging between 4 and 9 MeV. The sensitivity, the linearity and the speed of response of the devices are analyzed as a function of their neutron pre-irradiation treatment. The dependence of the sensitivity on the proton energy and the applied polarization is also studied. Finally, the experimental results are compared with a simple theoretical model.

  16. Fast GaAs photoconductor responses to subnanosecond proton pulses

    GaAs photoconductors have been tailored to detect ultrafast proton pulses having energies ranging between 4 and 9 MeV. The sensitivity, the linearity and the speed of response of the devices are analyzed as a function of their neutron pre-irradiation treatment. The dependence of the sensitivity on the proton energy and the applied polarization is also studied. Finally, the experimental results are compared with a simple theoretical model

  17. Ultra-fast timing detectors to probe exotic properties of nuclei using RIB facility

    Datta, Ushasi; Rahaman, A

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the facilities of radioactive ion beam (RIB) combined with advanced detector systems provide us unique opportunity to probe the exotic properties of the nuclei with unusual neutron-to-proton ratio. In this article, a study of characterization of different types of ultra-fast timing detectors: a special type of gas detector (multi-strip multi-gap resistive plate chamber, MMRPC) ($\\sigma$ $<$100 ps), scintillators array ( viz., $LaBr_3:Ce$) (timing resolution ($\\sigma<$250 ps) are being presented. A brief discussion on usage of these different types of ultra-fast timing detector systems at radioactive ion beam facilities is also included.

  18. Neural correlates of fast stimulus discrimination and response selection in top-level fencers.

    Di Russo, Francesco; Taddei, Francesco; Apnile, Teresa; Spinelli, Donatella

    2006-11-13

    Flexible adaptation of behaviour is highly required in some sports, such as fencing. In particular, stimulus discrimination and motor response selection and inhibition processes are crucial. We investigated the neural mechanisms responsible for fencers' fast and flexible behaviour recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in discriminative reaction task (DRT, Go/No-go task) and simple reaction task (SRT) to visual stimuli. In the DRT, in addition to faster RTs measured in fencers with respect to control subjects, three main electrophysiological differences were found. First, attentional modulation of the visual processing taking place in the occipital lobes and reaching a peak at 170 ms was enhanced in the athletes group. Second, the activity in the posterior cingulate gyrus, associated with the stimulus discrimination stage, started earlier in fencers than controls (150 ms versus 200 ms) and the peak had larger amplitude. Third, the activity at the level of the prefrontal cortex (time range: 250-350 ms), associated with response selection stage and particularly with motor inhibition process, was stronger in fencers. No differences between athletes and controls were found in the SRT for both ERPs and RTs. Concluding, the fencers' ability to cope to the opponent feint switching quickly from an intended action to a new more appropriate action is likely due to a faster stimulus discrimination facilitated by higher attention and by stronger inhibition activity in prefrontal cortex. PMID:17018246

  19. Fast Time and Space Parallel Algorithms for Solution of Parabolic Partial Differential Equations

    Fijany, Amir

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, fast time- and Space -Parallel agorithms for solution of linear parabolic PDEs are developed. It is shown that the seemingly strictly serial iterations of the time-stepping procedure for solution of the problem can be completed decoupled.

  20. Count-to-count time interval distribution analysis in a fast reactor

    The most important kinetic parameters have been measured at the zero power fast reactor CORAL-I by means of the reactor noise analysis in the time domain, using measurements of the count-to-count time intervals. (Author) 69 refs

  1. Time Domain Response of the ARIANNA Detector

    Barwick, S. W.; Berg, E. C.; Besson, D. Z.; Hanson, J. C.; Klein, S. R.; Kleinfelder, S. A.; Piasecki, M.; Ratzlaff, K.; Reed, C.; Roumi, M.; Stezelberger, T.; Tatar, J.; Walker, J; Young, R.; Zou, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Antarctic Ross Ice Shelf Antenna Neutrino Array (ARIANNA) is a high-energy neutrino detector designed to record the Askaryan electric field signature of cosmogenic neutrino interactions in ice. To understand the inherent radio-frequency (RF) neutrino signature, the time-domain response of the ARIANNA RF receiver must be measured. ARIANNA uses Create CLP5130-2N log-periodic dipole arrays (LPDAs). The associated effective height operator converts incident electric fields to voltage waveform...

  2. Fast and slow climate responses to CO2 and solar forcing: A linear multivariate regression model characterizing transient climate change

    Cao, Long; Bala, Govindasamy; Zheng, Meidi; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-12-01

    Climate change in response to a change in external forcing can be understood in terms of fast response to the imposed forcing and slow feedback associated with surface temperature change. Previous studies have investigated the characteristics of fast response and slow feedback for different forcing agents. Here we examine to what extent that fast response and slow feedback derived from time-mean results of climate model simulations can be used to infer total climate change. To achieve this goal, we develop a multivariate regression model of climate change, in which the change in a climate variable is represented by a linear combination of its sensitivity to CO2 forcing, solar forcing, and change in global mean surface temperature. We derive the parameters of the regression model using time-mean results from a set of HadCM3L climate model step-forcing simulations, and then use the regression model to emulate HadCM3L-simulated transient climate change. Our results show that the regression model emulates well HadCM3L-simulated temporal evolution and spatial distribution of climate change, including surface temperature, precipitation, runoff, soil moisture, cloudiness, and radiative fluxes under transient CO2 and/or solar forcing scenarios. Our findings suggest that temporal and spatial patterns of total change for the climate variables considered here can be represented well by the sum of fast response and slow feedback. Furthermore, by using a simple 1-D heat-diffusion climate model, we show that the temporal and spatial characteristics of climate change under transient forcing scenarios can be emulated well using information from step-forcing simulations alone.

  3. Fast neutron dose response of a commercial polycarbonate

    Souto, E. B.; Campos, L. L.

    2007-09-01

    A commercial polycarbonate produced in Brazil is being studied to be used as neutron detector material using Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) method replacing the well-known detector materials Makrofol and CR-39. This technique is based on the damage (tracks) registration of charged particles produced by the interaction of neutrons with carbon and oxygen atoms of some dielectric materials. The IPEN dosimeter prototype is composed by 30101.5 mm 3 polycarbonate piece inserted between two Polymethyl Methacralate (PMMA) plates 2 mm thick. The prototypes were irradiated placed on an ISO slab phantom using an isotropic 241AmBe source at LN/LNMRI (Neutrons Laboratory of the National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology). To study the dose response groups of five prototypes were irradiated with Hp(10) from 0.5 to 20 mSv with normal incidence and to investigate the angular incidence effect with Hp(10) = 5 mSv with incidence angles of 15, 45, 60, 75, 85 and 90. The detectors were revealed by chemical etching with the solution PEW-40 during 3 h. The track density of the detector surface was determined by the average of track counting of five fields ( 200.1 mm 2). The track response to equivalent dose Hp(10) showed a good agreement with linear fit in the studied interval. The track density strongly decreases for incidence angles higher than 45.

  4. Modulation of the time course of fast EPSCs and glutamate channel kinetics by aniracetam.

    Tang, C M; Shi, Q Y; Katchman, A; Lynch, G

    1991-10-11

    It is generally accepted that glutamate serves as the neurotransmitter at most excitatory synapses in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Synaptic release of glutamate may trigger a fast and a slow excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC). The slow EPSC is mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channels, whereas the fast EPSC is mediated by non-NMDA receptor channels. The nootropic agent aniracetam selectively and reversibly slows the desensitization kinetics of non-NMDA channels and lengthens their single-channel open times. Antiracetam also modulates the kinetics of the fast EPSC in a manner that mirrors its action on the kinetics of the non-NMDA channels. These results support the hypothesis that the properties of the non-NMDA glutamate channels rather than the rate of neurotransmitter clearance are the primary determinants of the kinetics of the fast EPSC in the mammalian CNS. PMID:1681589

  5. Fast response ZnO:Al/CuO nanowire/ZnO:Al heterostructure light sensors fabricated by dielectrophoresis

    García Marín, A.; García Núñez, C.; Ruiz, E.; Piqueras, J.; Pau, J. L.

    2013-06-01

    Metal oxide nanowire (NW) photoconductors tend to exhibit high photoconductive gains and long recovery times mainly due to surface effects. In this work, p-type CuO NWs are synthesized by direct oxidation of copper and deposited on n-type ZnO:Al electrodes by dielectrophoresis. The heterostructure is electro-optically characterized showing recovery times in the 10 μs range, mainly limited by the resistance-capacitance product of the equivalent circuit, without signs of persistent effects. The fast response is attributed to short transit times across space charge regions built between CuO and ZnO:Al materials and fast carrier recombination at neutral regions.

  6. Development and validation of a two-dimensional fast-response flood estimation model

    Judi, David R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcpherson, Timothy N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burian, Steven J [UNIV OF UTAK

    2009-01-01

    A finite difference formulation of the shallow water equations using an upwind differencing method was developed maintaining computational efficiency and accuracy such that it can be used as a fast-response flood estimation tool. The model was validated using both laboratory controlled experiments and an actual dam breach. Through the laboratory experiments, the model was shown to give good estimations of depth and velocity when compared to the measured data, as well as when compared to a more complex two-dimensional model. Additionally, the model was compared to high water mark data obtained from the failure of the Taum Sauk dam. The simulated inundation extent agreed well with the observed extent, with the most notable differences resulting from the inability to model sediment transport. The results of these validation studies complex two-dimensional model. Additionally, the model was compared to high water mark data obtained from the failure of the Taum Sauk dam. The simulated inundation extent agreed well with the observed extent, with the most notable differences resulting from the inability to model sediment transport. The results of these validation studies show that a relatively numerical scheme used to solve the complete shallow water equations can be used to accurately estimate flood inundation. Future work will focus on further reducing the computation time needed to provide flood inundation estimates for fast-response analyses. This will be accomplished through the efficient use of multi-core, multi-processor computers coupled with an efficient domain-tracking algorithm, as well as an understanding of the impacts of grid resolution on model results.

  7. Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Vortex Models using Wake Encounter Flight Test Data

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Bowles, Roland L.; Limon Duparcmeur, Fanny M.; Gloudesman, Thijs; van Lochem, Sander; Ras, Eelco

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for the integration and evaluation of fast-time wake models with flight data. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted detailed flight tests in 1995 and 1997 under the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Program to characterize wake vortex decay and wake encounter dynamics. In this study, data collected during Flight 705 were used to evaluate NASA's fast-time wake transport and decay models. Deterministic and Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted to define wake hazard bounds behind the wake generator. The methodology described in this paper can be used for further validation of fast-time wake models using en-route flight data, and for determining wake turbulence constraints in the design of air traffic management concepts.

  8. FAST Mast Structural Response to Axial Loading: Modeling and Verification

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Templeton, Justin D.; Song, Kyongchan; Rayburn, Jeffery T.

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station s solar array wing mast shadowing problem is the focus of this paper. A building-block approach to modeling and analysis is pursued for the primary structural components of the solar array wing mast structure. Starting with an ANSYS (Registered Trademark) finite element model, a verified MSC.Nastran (Trademark) model is established for a single longeron. This finite element model translation requires the conversion of several modeling and analysis features for the two structural analysis tools to produce comparable results for the single-longeron configuration. The model is then reconciled using test data. The resulting MSC.Nastran (Trademark) model is then extended to a single-bay configuration and verified using single-bay test data. Conversion of the MSC. Nastran (Trademark) single-bay model to Abaqus (Trademark) is also performed to simulate the elastic-plastic longeron buckling response of the single bay prior to folding.

  9. Response of gut microbiota to fasting and hibernation in Syrian hamsters.

    Sonoyama, Kei; Fujiwara, Reiko; Takemura, Naoki; Ogasawara, Toru; Watanabe, Jun; Ito, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tatsuya

    2009-10-01

    Although hibernating mammals wake occasionally to eat during torpor, this period represents a state of fasting. Fasting is known to alter the gut microbiota in nonhibernating mammals; therefore, hibernation may also affect the gut microbiota. However, there are few reports of gut microbiota in hibernating mammals. The present study aimed to compare the gut microbiota in hibernating torpid Syrian hamsters with that in active counterparts by using culture-independent analyses. Hamsters were allocated to either torpid, fed active, or fasted active groups. Hibernation was successfully induced by maintaining darkness at 4 degrees C. Flow cytometry analysis of cecal bacteria showed that 96-h fasting reduced the total gut bacteria. This period of fasting also reduced the concentrations of short chain fatty acids in the cecal contents. In contrast, total bacterial numbers and concentrations of short chain fatty acids were unaffected by hibernation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments indicated that fasting and hibernation modulated the cecal microbiota. Analysis of 16S rRNA clone library and species-specific real-time quantitative PCR showed that the class Clostridia predominated in both active and torpid hamsters and that populations of Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucin degrader, were increased by fasting but not by hibernation. From these results, we conclude that the gut microbiota responds differently to fasting and hibernation in Syrian hamsters. PMID:19700553

  10. An assessment of prompt neutron reproduction time in a reflector dominated fast critical system: ELECTRA

    Highlights: Prompt neutron reproduction time of ELECTRA is evaluated. Static and dynamic reproduction times are distinguished for ELECTRA. Avery-Cohns two-region prompt neutron theory is applied. - Abstract: In this paper, an accurate method to evaluate the prompt neutron reproduction time for a reflector dominated fast critical reactor, ELECTRA, is discussed. To adequately handle the problem, explicit time dependent Monte Carlo calculations with MCNP, applying repeated time cut-off technique, are used and compared against the ??1/v time dependent absorber method, applying artificial cross-section data in the Monte Carlo code SERPENT. The results show that when a reflector plays a major role in criticality for fast neutron reactor, the two methods predict different physical parameters (?=692 ns and ?=831 ns for time cut-off and the 1/v method respectively). The reason is explained by applying Avery-Cohns two-region prompt neutron model

  11. Effect of short-term fasting on lipolytic responsiveness in normal and obese human subjects

    In this study the rate of lipolysis (fatty acid and glycerol release into blood) has been quantified in both normal weight and obese volunteers after both 15 and 87 h of fasting. In each study, the basal rate and subsequent response to epinephrine infusion were determined. The rate of appearance (R/sub a/) of free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol were quantified by infusion of [1-13C]palmitate and D-5-glycerol, respectively. Substrate flux rates per unit of body fat mass and lean body mass were calculated from total body water measurements using H218O dilution. In normal volunteers, the basal R/sub a/ FFA and R/sub a/ glycerol rose markedly with 87 h of fasting, whereas the increases were more modest in the obese subjects. However, the rate of mobilization of fat, in relation to the lean body mass, was higher in the obese subjects than in the normal subjects after 15 h of fasting, and the values were similar in both groups after 87 h of fasting. There was an increased lipolytic response to epinephrine after fasting in both groups. This increased sensitivity may have resulted from the enhancement of fatty acid-triglyceride substrate cycling that occurred after fasting

  12. Fast and Slow Precipitation Responses to Individual Climate Forcers: A PDRMIP Multimodel Study

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Forster, P.M.; Hodnebrog, O.; Andrews, T.; Faluvegi, G.; Flaschner, D.; Kasoar, M.; Kharin, V.; Kirkevag, A.; Shindell, D.; Voulgarakis, A.

    2016-01-01

    Precipitation is expected to respond differently to various drivers of anthropogenic climate change. We present the first results from the Precipitation Driver and Response Model Intercomparison Project (PDRMIP), where nine global climate models have perturbed CO2, CH4, black carbon, sulfate, and solar insolation. We divide the resulting changes to global mean and regional precipitation into fast responses that scale with changes in atmospheric absorption and slow responses scaling with surface temperature change. While the overall features are broadly similar between models, we find significant regional intermodel variability, especially over land. Black carbon stands out as a component that may cause significant model diversity in predicted precipitation change. Processes linked to atmospheric absorption are less consistently modeled than those linked to top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing. We identify a number of land regions where the model ensemble consistently predicts that fast precipitation responses to climate perturbations dominate over the slow, temperature-driven responses.

  13. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Fast-response photodiode based on a surface-barrier Au-n-n+-GaAs structure

    Vasil'ev, Yu A.; Dmitriev, Yu V.; Eliseev, P. G.; Skopin, I. A.; Stafeev, Vitalii I.

    1980-10-01

    A fast-response photodiode was constructed from a surface-barrier Au-n-n+-GaAs structure. The active n-type region was a film grown by vapor epitaxy and characterized by a free-electron density n = 1014-1015cm-3. The photodiode was highly sensitive in a wide spectral range of 0.25-0.9 μ. The monochromatic current responsivity was 0.5 A/W at λ = 0.8 μ. The rise time of the photoresponse signal was 100 psec when the bias voltage was up to 50 V.

  14. Metabolic responses to fasting and refeeding in lean and genetically obese rats.

    Rothwell, N J; Saville, M E; Stock, M J

    1983-05-01

    Injection of norepinephrine (NE) (25 micrograms/100 g body wt) caused a similar rise in metabolic rate in lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, but 3-day fasting suppressed the response in lean rats and enhanced the rise in obese mutants. Triiodothyronine (T3) injection (10 micrograms/100 g body wt) caused a significantly greater rise in oxygen consumption (Vo2) in obese than lean rats, but the response was attenuated by fasting in all animals. The thermic response to a single meal of either mixed composition, carbohydrate, or protein (40 kJ) was much smaller in obese rats than lean, but the response to the mixed nutrient meal was similar for all rats after a 3-day fast. Refeeding 3-day fasted lean rats with a single carbohydrate meal (40 kJ) caused a rise in plasma T3 levels after 3 h and a delayed increase in metabolic rate 24 h later. Injection of NE instead of refeeding caused a similar delayed rise in metabolic rate. Carbohydrate refeeding had no effect on plasma T3 levels or oxygen consumption in 3-day fasted obese Zuckers, but injection of NE did produce a significant increase in metabolic rate after 24 h. Refeeding 3-day fasted rats with protein (40 kJ) caused a rise in oxygen consumption 24 h later in lean animals but had no effect in obese animals. The data from lean Zucker rats confirm previous findings in Sprague-Dawley rats and suggest that the thermic response to refeeding involves a complex interaction between the sympathetic nervous system and thyroid hormones. Obese Zuckers responded normally to NE and T3, indicating that their reduced thermogenesis after food may be due to insensitivity to nutrient availability or an inability to activate the sympathetic nervous system. PMID:6846570

  15. ALBA timing system - a known architecture with fast interlock system upgrade

    Like most of the newest synchrotron facilities the ALBA Timing System works on event based architecture. Its main particularity is that integrated with the Timing system a Fast Interlock System has been implemented which allows for an automated and synchronous reaction time from any-to-any point of the machine faster than 5 μs. The list of benefits of combining both systems is large: very high flexibility, reuse of the timing actuators, direct synchronous output in different points of the machine reacting to an interlock, implementation of the Fast Interlock with very low cost increase as the timing optic fiber network is reused or the possibility of combined diagnostic tools implementation for triggers and interlocks. To enhance this last point a global time-stamp of 8 ns accuracy that could be used both for triggers and interlocks has been implemented. The system has been designed, installed and extensively used during the Storage Ring commissioning with very good results. (authors)

  16. Fast timing study of a CeBr{sub 3} crystal: Time resolution below 120 ps at {sup 60}Co energies

    Fraile, L.M., E-mail: fraile@nuc2.fis.ucm.es [Grupo de Fsica Nuclear, Facultad de CC. Fsicas, Universidad Complutense, CEI Moncloa, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mach, H. [Grupo de Fsica Nuclear, Facultad de CC. Fsicas, Universidad Complutense, CEI Moncloa, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vedia, V.; Olaizola, B.; Paziy, V.; Picado, E.; Udas, J.M. [Grupo de Fsica Nuclear, Facultad de CC. Fsicas, Universidad Complutense, CEI Moncloa, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-02-11

    We report on the time response of a novel inorganic scintillator, CeBr{sub 3}. The measurements were performed using a cylindrical crystal of 1-in. in height and 1-in. in diameter at {sup 22}Na and {sup 60}Co photon energies. The time response was measured against a fast reference BaF{sub 2} detector. Hamamatsu R9779 and Photonis XP20D0 fast photomultipliers (PMTs) were used. The PMT bias voltages and Constant Fraction Discriminator settings were optimized with respect to the timing resolution. The Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) time resolution for an individual CeBr{sub 3} crystal coupled to Hamamatsu PMT is found here to be as low as 119 ps at {sup 60}Co energies, which is comparable to the resolution of 107 ps reported for LaBr{sub 3}(Ce). For 511 keV photons the measured FWHM time resolution for CeBr{sub 3} coupled to the Hamamatsu PMT is 164 ps.

  17. Development of a fast response dispersion model for virtual urban environments

    Singh, Balwinder

    According to a UN report, more than 50% of the total world's population resides in urban areas and this fraction is increasing. Urbanization has a wide range of potential environmental impacts, including those related to the dispersion of potentially dangerous substances emitted from activities such as combustion, industrial processing or from deliberate harmful releases. This research is primarily focused on the investigation of various factors which contribute to the dispersion of certain classes of materials in a complex urban environment and improving both of the fundamental components of a fast response dispersion modeling system---wind modeling and dispersion modeling. Specifically, new empirical parameterizations have been suggested for an existing fast response wind model for street canyon flow fields. These new parameterizations are shown to produce more favorable results when compared with the experimental data. It is also demonstrated that the use of Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) technology can enhance the efficiency of an urban Lagrangian dispersion model and can achieve near real-time particle advection. The GPU also enables real-time visualizations which can be used for creating virtual urban environments to aid emergency responders. The dispersion model based on the GPU architecture relies on the so-called "simplified Langevin equations (SLEs)" for particle advection. The full or generalized form of the Langevin equations (GLEs) is known for its stiffness which tends to generate unstable modes in particle trajectory, where a particle may travel significant distances in a small time step. A fractional step methodology has been used to implement the GLEs into an existing Lagrangian random walk model to partially circumvent the stiffness associated with the GLEs. Dispersion estimates from the GLEs-based model have been compared with the SLEs-based model and available wind tunnel data. The GLEs-based model is more dispersive than the SLEs-based model in both the lateral and vertical directions. It is observed that for the present test case, the GLEs-based model performed relatively better than the SLEs-based model.

  18. Waveform timing performance of a 5 GS/s fast pulse sampling module with DRS4

    Wang, Jin-Hong; Liu, Shu-Bin; An, Qi

    2015-10-01

    We first clarify timing issues of non-uniform sampling intervals regarding a 5 GS/s fast pulse sampling module with DRS4. A calibration strategy is proposed, and as a result, the waveform timing performance is improved to below 10 ps RMS. We then further evaluate waveform-timing performance of the module by comparing with a 10 GS/s oscilloscope in a setup with plastic scintillators and fast PMTs. Different waveform timing algorithms are employed for analysis, and the module shows comparable timing performance with that of the oscilloscope. Supported by Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KJCX2-YW-N27), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175176)

  19. Hydrogel-based microactuators with remote-controlled locomotion and fast Pb2+-response for micromanipulation.

    Liu, Ying-Mei; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Wei-Chao; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Xie, Rui; Zerrouki, Djamal; Deng, Nan-Nan; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2013-08-14

    Hydrogel-based microactuators that enable remote-controlled locomotion and fast Pb(2+)-response for micromanipulation in Pb(2+)-polluted microenvironment have been fabricated from quadruple-component double emulsions. The microactuators are Pb(2+)-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) microgels, each with an eccentric magnetic core for magnetic manipulation and a hollow cavity for fast Pb(2+)-response. Micromanipulation of the microactuators is demonstrated by using them for preventing Pb(2+)-leakage from microchannel. The microactuators can be remotely and precisely transported to the Pb(2+)-leaking site under magnetic guide, and then clog the microchannel with Pb(2+)-responsive volume swelling to prevent flowing out of Pb(2+)-contaminated solution. The proposed microactuator structure provides a potential and novel model for developing multifunctional actuators and sensors, biomimetic soft microrobots, microelectro-mechanical systems and drug delivery systems. PMID:23865475

  20. The passive response of the Integral Fast Reactor concept to the chilled inlet accident

    Simple methods are described for bounding the passive response of a metal fueled liquid-metal cooled reactor to the chilled inlet accident. Calculation of these bounds for a prototype of the Integral Fast Reactor concept shows that failure limits --- eutectic melting, sodium boiling and fuel pin failure --- are not exceeded. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  1. A UV LED-based fast-pulsed photoelectron source for time-of-flight studies

    Valerius, K.; Beck, M.; Arlinghaus, H.; Bonn, J.; Hannen, V.M.; Hein, H.; Ostrick, B.; Streubel, S.; Weinheimer, C.; Zbořil, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2009), 063018/1-063018/16. ISSN 1367-2630 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA318 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : fast-pulsed * high-resolution * time-of-flight Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.312, year: 2009

  2. Measurement of fast assembly spectra using time-of-flight method

    Measurement of neutron spectra made in fast subcritical assemblies HUG 3 and PHUG 3 (uranium-graphite and plutonium-graphite) utilizing time-of-flight techniques are described. The matrix were excited by the pulsed neutron source from the BCMN Linac beam impinging on a target of natural uranium. Details of the experimental procedure, safety studies, detector calibration and data reduction are given

  3. Timing comparison of two-dimensional discrete-ordinates codes for criticality calculations. [Fast reactors

    Miller, W.F. Jr.; Alcouffe, R.E.; Bosler, G.E.; Brinkley, F.W. Jr.; O' dell, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The authors compare two-dimensional discrete-ordinates neutron transport computer codes to solve reactor criticality problems. The fundamental interest is in determining which code requires the minimum Central Processing Unit (CPU) time for a given numerical model of a reasonably realistic fast reactor core and peripherals. The computer codes considered are the most advanced available and, in three cases, are not officially released. The conclusion, based on the study of four fast reactor core models, is that for this class of problems the diffusion synthetic accelerated version of TWOTRAN, labeled TWOTRAN-DA, is superior to the other codes in terms of CPU requirements.

  4. Fast MCMC sampling for Markov jump processes and continuous time Bayesian networks

    Rao, Vinayak

    2012-01-01

    Markov jump processes and continuous time Bayesian networks are important classes of continuous time dynamical systems. In this paper, we tackle the problem of inferring unobserved paths in these models by introducing a fast auxiliary variable Gibbs sampler. Our approach is based on the idea of uniformization, and sets up a Markov chain over paths by sampling a finite set of virtual jump times and then running a standard hidden Markov model forward filtering-backward sampling algorithm over states at the set of extant and virtual jump times. We demonstrate significant computational benefits over a state-of-the-art Gibbs sampler on a number of continuous time Bayesian networks.

  5. Fast real-time NMR methods for characterizing short-lived molecular states

    The characterization of both the structure and the conformational dynamics of biological macromolecules, namely proteins and nucleic acids, is required for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying physiological function and disease. Molecular dynamics involves the transient departure from the ground-state structures to populate short-lived excited state conformations that can play important functional roles. Real time multi-dimensional NMR spectroscopy represents a unique tool for investigating dynamic molecular processes occurring on time scales of seconds or longer, providing atomic-resolution information about short-lived states. In this mini review, we discuss recent progress made in the field of fast real-time multidimensional NMR. The potential of these new methods is illustrated for several bio-molecular systems that have recently been studied by fast real-time multidimensional NMR. (authors)

  6. Dynamic Response of a fast near infra-red Mueller matrix ellipsometer

    Aas, Lars Martin Sandvik; Ellingsen, Pål Gunnar; Kildemo, Morten; Lindgren, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic response of a near infrared Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal based Mueller matrix ellipsometer (NIR FLC-MME) is presented. A time dependent simulation model, using the measured time response of the individual FLCs, is used to describe the measured temporal response. Furthermore, the impulse response of the detector and the pre-amplifier is characterized and included in the simulation model. The measured time-dependent intensity response of the MME is reproduced in simulations, and it ...

  7. Development of multichannel time-of-flight neutron spectrometer for the fast ignition experiment

    Neutron diagnostic in the fast-ignition experiment was successfully demonstrated by the multichannel time-of-flight neutron spectrometer MANDALA at Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE) in Osaka University. A large neutron collimator dramatically suppressed the serious background noise caused by photo-neutrons, and a peak yield of 2 × 106 deuterium-deuterium (DD) fusion neutrons was clearly observed. The new MANDALA system will provide measurements of the ion temperature and the areal density of the core plasma in the next fast-ignition experimental campaign in 2013. In this paper, we will present the design of the neutron collimator and the experimental results in the Fast-ignition Campaign 2012. (author)

  8. Development of a 'chronotron' for time of flight fast neutron spectrometer

    A chronotron using storage circuits of a 100 channels amplitude analyser has been developed in order to measure the time of flight of fast neutrons. A time dilatation is obtained by a distribution of 20 6BN6 tubes. The width at half maximum of prompt coincidences curve is 1,6.10-9 s for β-γ coincidences from An198 and 2.10-9 s for n-α coincidences from (d, t) reaction. (author)

  9. A fast rise time high voltage pulse generator for bounded-wave EMP simulator

    A high voltage pulse generator with fast rise time is developed. The output wave of this generator is presented. The electromagnetic environment with 1.2 ns or 2.8 ns rise time and 50 ns pulse width can be produced when this generator is connected to bounded-wave EMP simulator which is used to investigate the EMP coupling effects of electrical equipment. (authors)

  10. Studies on fast timing and high precision tracking performance of Resistive Plate Chamber

    Han, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Resistive plate chambers (RPC), produced in large scales, are widely used as trigger detectors with O(ns) time resolution in high energy and high intensity experiments. To confront the future high experimental frontiers, such as the super-LHC, RPCs equipped with fine-pitch readout strips were tested with 180GeV/c muon at CERN SPS H8 beam line, to assess the viability of using RPCs for both fast timing and high precision tracking trigger.

  11. Fast Wave Polarization, Charge Horizons and the Time Evolution of Force-Free Magnetospheres

    Punsly, B

    2004-01-01

    Numerical simulations of force-free, degenerate (ffde)pulsar and black hole magnetospheres are often based on 1-D characteristics. In particular, the plasma wave polarizations that can be propagated along the 1-D characteristics determine the time evolution of the entire system. There are two sets of characteristics,corresponding to the fast and Alfven modes. The fast wave is generally considered to be a transverse light wave, however recently it has been claimed that light-like fast waves can transport a longitudinal electric polarization, $E_{\\parallel}$, at the speed of light. The implication is quite profound if true, namely that the wrong information has been propagated along the fast characteristics in all previous simulations of force-free magnetospheres. It is shown in this Letter that the light-like fast waves must be transverse and previous simulations are valid. This result is demonstrated by means of a fundamental physical principle (associated with the fact that particles cannot flow faster than ...

  12. Fast-response room temperature hydrogen gas sensors using platinum-coated spin-capable carbon nanotubes.

    Jung, Daewoong; Han, Maeum; Lee, Gil S

    2015-02-11

    We report the properties of a hydrogen (H2) gas sensor based on platinum (Pt)-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in this paper. To fabricate the Pt-CNT composite sensor, a highly aligned CNT sheet was prepared on a glass substrate from a spin-capable CNT forest, followed by electrobeam (e-beam) deposition of Pt layers onto the CNT sheet. To investigate the effect of Pt on the response of the sensor, Pt layers of different thicknesses were deposited on the CNT sheets. A Pt thickness of 6 nm yielded the highest response for H2 detection, whereas Pt layers thinner or thicker than 6 nm led to a reduction of the surface area for gas adsorption and, consequently, decreased response. The Pt-CNT composite sensor detects H2 concentrations of 3-33% at room temperature and shows reproducible behavior with fast response and recovery times. PMID:25619413

  13. Measure the time characteristic of new high light out and fast decay LaCl3: Ce scintillator

    LaCl3: Ce scintillator is developed newly that have the properties of high light yield and fast scintillation decay curves. The time response parameters of homemade LaCl3: Ce are measured with the picoseconds pulse laser and the nanosecond pulse γ source. At the same time, we have calculated and used the formula of pulse method gain to the decay time constant of crystal shining. The results show: The decay time constant of LaCl3: Ce is 25 ns with the picoseconds pulse laser, same to the results of references. That is 69.13 ns with the nanosecond pulse γ source. The difference between the two data is considered as scintillation mechanism and environment scattering. (authors)

  14. The time-of-flight method for characterizing the neutron response of liquid organic scintillators

    Iwanowska, J., E-mail: joanna.iwanowska@ncbj.gov.pl [National Centre for Nuclear Research, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Swiderski, L.; Krakowski, T.; Moszynski, M.; Szczesniak, T. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Pausch, G. [OncoRay—National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Fetscherstr. 74, PF 41, 01307 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to present a measurement method for determining the neutron responses of various liquid organic scintillators using a time-of-flight technique in conjunction with a D–T neutron generator. The method is based on fast-neutron scattering on protons in a liquid-scintillator medium and on the acquisition of the neutron response of the medium as a function of the proton-recoil energy. This method can be applied to all scintillators that utilize fast-neutron elastic scattering.

  15. The time-of-flight method for characterizing the neutron response of liquid organic scintillators

    The purpose of this work is to present a measurement method for determining the neutron responses of various liquid organic scintillators using a time-of-flight technique in conjunction with a D–T neutron generator. The method is based on fast-neutron scattering on protons in a liquid-scintillator medium and on the acquisition of the neutron response of the medium as a function of the proton-recoil energy. This method can be applied to all scintillators that utilize fast-neutron elastic scattering

  16. Effect of defence response time during lunge in foil fencing.

    Gutiérrez-Cruz, Carmen; Rojas, F Javier; Gutiérrez-Davila, Marcos

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of stimulus change timing on reaction response time parameters, horizontal velocity of the centre of mass (CM) and precision during offensive actions in fencing. Twelve fencers from the Spanish National Foil Team were included in the study. Two 500 Hz force plates were used to register the horizontal component of the reaction force while a 3D video camera set at 250 Hz recorded the spatial position of 11 body markers and a projector connected to a programmed stopwatch projected a moving target (stimulus) on a screen. When the circle (target) appeared in the centre of the plastron, fencers had to execute a step-forward-lunge as fast as possible, trying to touch the circle with the tip of the foil. During the lunge, the position of the target could randomly shift or not to three different positions. The stimulus change was performed randomly at four different times with a progressive delay. The results show that target changes did not have any effect when they occurred at the beginning of the movement sequence. However, when the target change was delayed, reaction and movement times increased and the technical execution of the lunge changed, leading to more errors. PMID:26185981

  17. Fast and Slow Responses of the South Asian Monsoon System to Anthropogenic Aerosols

    Ganguly, Dilip; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2012-09-25

    Using a global climate model with fully predictive aerosol life cycle, we investigate the fast and slow responses of the South Asian monsoon system to anthropogenic aerosol forcing. Our results show that the feedbacks associated with sea surface temperature (SST) change caused by aerosols play a more important role than the aerosol's direct impact on radiation, clouds and land surface (rapid adjustments) in shaping the total equilibrium climate response of the monsoon system to aerosol forcing. Inhomogeneous SST cooling caused by anthropogenic aerosols eventually reduces the meridional tropospheric temperature gradient and the easterly shear of zonal winds over the region, slowing down the local Hadley cell circulation, decreasing the northward moisture transport, and causing a reduction in precipitation over South Asia. Although total responses in precipitation are closer to the slow responses in general, the fast component dominates over land areas north of 25°N. Our results also show an east-west asymmetry in the fast responses to anthropogenic aerosols causing increases in precipitation west of 80°E but decreases east of it.

  18. Time-dependent Networks as Models to Achieve Fast Exact Time-table Queries

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jacob, Rico

    We consider efficient algorithms for exact time-table queries, i.e. algorithms that find optimal itineraries. We propose to use time-dependent networks as a model and show advantages of this approach over space-time networks as models.......We consider efficient algorithms for exact time-table queries, i.e. algorithms that find optimal itineraries. We propose to use time-dependent networks as a model and show advantages of this approach over space-time networks as models....

  19. Time-Dependent Networks as Models to Achieve Fast Exact Time-Table Queries

    Brodal, Gert Stølting; Jacob, Rico

    2003-01-01

    We consider efficient algorithms for exact time-table queries, i.e. algorithms that find optimal itineraries for travelers using a train system. We propose to use time-dependent networks as a model and show advantages of this approach over space-time networks as models.......We consider efficient algorithms for exact time-table queries, i.e. algorithms that find optimal itineraries for travelers using a train system. We propose to use time-dependent networks as a model and show advantages of this approach over space-time networks as models....

  20. Fast time-reversible algorithms for molecular dynamics of rigid-body systems.

    Kajima, Yasuhiro; Hiyama, Miyabi; Ogata, Shuji; Kobayashi, Ryo; Tamura, Tomoyuki

    2012-06-21

    In this paper, we present time-reversible simulation algorithms for rigid bodies in the quaternion representation. By advancing a time-reversible algorithm [Y. Kajima, M. Hiyama, S. Ogata, and T. Tamura, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 80, 114002 (2011)] that requires iterations in calculating the angular velocity at each time step, we propose two kinds of iteration-free fast time-reversible algorithms. They are easily implemented in codes. The codes are compared with that of existing algorithms through demonstrative simulation of a nanometer-sized water droplet to find their stability of the total energy and computation speeds. PMID:22779579

  1. A real-time dynamic holographic material using a fast photochromic molecule

    Ishii, Norihito; Kato, Tetsuya; Abe, Jiro

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a real-time, dynamic holographic material that exhibits rapid colouration upon irradiation with UV light and successive fast thermal bleaching within tens of milliseconds at room temperature. Photochromic polymer films were prepared by a simple solution-casting method from the benzene solution of the mixture of the photochromic molecule, poly(ethyl acrylate), and poly(phenoxyethyl acrylate). The real-time control of holographic images using the photochromic polymer film yields a speed equivalent to the time resolution of the human eye. This new type of dynamic holographic material based on fast photochromism opens up an exciting new area of research in the future development of a large dynamic 3D display. PMID:23139865

  2. Study of neutronic perturbation using complementary variational principle in a fast reactor with matrix response technique

    In the study of the fast reactor safety, we have looked for a perturbation in the reactor core, by the response matrix technique. As theoretical support, we have used the second order variational principle for the determination of the response matrix elements. We have added a contraint which consists to the respect of the neutronic balance. For the needs of this principle, we have built a trial function basis composed of space and angle harmonic polynomials. We have also computed the bounds of the response matrix elements, using the ACKROYD's complementary variational principle. The mean of the bounds lead to acceptable results. Numerical tests have been conducted to evaluate the mathematical model accuracy

  3. Tunable graphene micro-emitters with fast temporal response and controllable electron emission

    Wu, Gongtao; Wei, Xianlong; Gao, Song; Chen, Qing; Peng, Lianmao

    2016-01-01

    Microfabricated electron emitters have been studied for half a century for their promising applications in vacuum electronics. However, tunable microfabricated electron emitters with fast temporal response and controllable electron emission still proves challenging. Here, we report the scaling down of thermionic emitters to the microscale using microfabrication technologies and a Joule-heated microscale graphene film as the filament. The emission current of the graphene micro-emitters exhibits a tunability of up to six orders by a modest gate voltage. A turn-on/off time of less than 1 μs is demonstrated for the graphene micro-emitters, indicating a switching speed about five orders of magnitude faster than their bulky counterparts. Importantly, emission performances of graphene micro-emitters are controllable and reproducible through engineering graphene dimensions by microfabrication technologies, which enables us to fabricate graphene micro-emitter arrays with uniform emission performances. Graphene micro-emitters offer an opportunity of realizing large-scale addressable micro-emitter arrays for vacuum electronics applications. PMID:27160693

  4. Effect of fasting on the transit time of 144Ce in the mouse gut

    Our work with G.I. absorption of actinide elements indicates greater absorption by fasted animals than by animals on regular diets (Weiss and Walburg, undated). Residence time of a metallic compound in the gut may be an important factor influencing G.I. absorption. Cerium-144 (III) chloride was administered by gavage to fasted mice and to mice on regular feed. The G.I. tract was excised, cut into sections, and the activity of each section determined as a function of time after dosing. Our results indicate rapid transit of 144CeCl3 along the empty mouse gut. One hour after dosing, about half the Ce is in the cecal contents; about 40% remains in stomach contents. Twelve hours after dosing, only about 2% remains in the cecum; by 16 hours, almost the entire dose has been cleared from the intestine. Transit times in mice with stomach and intestines containing food were 12 hours longer than in fasted mice. These results lead to the conclusion that factors other than G.I. residence time determine G.I. absorption of actinides in mice

  5. Accurate measurement of the rise and decay times of fast scintillators with solid state photon counters

    In this work we present a measurement setup for the determination of scintillation pulse shapes of fast scintillators. It is based on a time-correlated single photon counting approach that utilizes the correlation between 511 keV annihilation photons to produce start and stop signals in two separate crystals. The measurement is potentially cost-effective and simple to set up while maintaining an excellent system timing resolution of 125 ps. As a proof-of-concept the scintillation photon arrival time histograms were recorded for two well-known, fast scintillators: LYSO:Ce and LaBr3:5%Ce. The scintillation pulse shapes were modeled as a linear combination of exponentially distributed charge transfer and photon emission processes. Correcting for the system timing resolution, the exponential time constants were extracted from the recorded histograms. A decay time of 43 ns and a rise time of 72 ps were determined for LYSO:Ce thus demonstrating the capability of the system to accurately measure very fast rise times. In the case of LaBr3:5%Ce two processes were observed to contribute to the rising edge of the scintillation pulse. The faster component (270 ps) contributes with 72% to the rising edge of the scintillation pulse while the second, slower component (2.0 ns) contributes with 27%. The decay of the LaBr3:5%Ce scintillation pulse was measured to be 15.4 ns with a small contribution (2%) of a component with a larger time constant (130 ns).

  6. Application of two-photon absorption in PWO scintillator for fast timing of interaction with ionizing radiation

    Auffray, E.; Buganov, O.; Korjik, M.; Fedorov, A.; Nargelas, S.; Tamulaitis, G.; Tikhomirov, S.; Vaitkevi?ius, A.

    2015-12-01

    This work was aimed at searching for fast phenomena in scintillators in sub-10-ps range, a benchmark timing for the time response of radiation detectors in particle colliders. The pump-and-probe optical absorption technique with a tunable-wavelength parametric oscillator as the pump and a continuous-spectrum source as the probe beam was used to study lead tungstate PbWO4 (PWO) single crystals. It is shown that the rise time of the probe pulse absorption induced by the pump pulse is shorter than the pump pulse width of 200 fs. The approximately linear dependence of the probe absorption on the pump pulse energy density evidences that the induced absorption is caused by two-photon absorption involving one probe and one pump photon. We demonstrate that the intensity of the induced absorption at certain wavelengths is influenced by gamma irradiation, provided that an appropriate light polarization is selected. The application of the irradiation-sensitive nonlinearity for fast timing in radiation detectors is discussed.

  7. Using a fast-gated camera for measurements of transverse beam distributions and damping times

    With a fast-gated camera, synchrotron light was used for studying the transverse beam distributions and damping times in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) damping rings. By digitizing the image in the camera signal, the turn-by-turn time evolution of the transverse beam distribution was monitored and analyzed. The projections of the digitized image were fit with Gaussian functions to determine the moments of the distribution. Practical applications include the determination of injection matching parameters and the transverse damping times. In this report we describe a synchrotron light monitor and present experimental data obtained in the SLC damping rings

  8. Very fast doped LaBr.sub.3 scintillators and time-of-flight PET

    Shah, Kanai S.

    2006-10-31

    The present invention concerns very fast scintillator materials capable of resolving the position of an annihilation event within a portion of a human body cross-section. In one embodiment, the scintillator material comprises LaBr.sub.3 doped with cerium. Particular attention is drawn to LaBr.sub.3 doped with a quantity of Ce that is chosen for improving the timing properties, in particular the rise time and resultant timing resolution of the scintillator, and locational capabilities of the scintillator.

  9. Interlaboratory Validation for a Real-Time PCR Salmonella Detection Method Using the ABI 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System.

    Cheng, Chorng-Ming; Doran, Tara; Lin, Wen; Chen, Kai-Shun; Williams-Hill, Donna; Pamboukian, Ruiqing

    2015-06-01

    Sixteen FERN (Food Emergency Response Network) member laboratories collaborated in this study to verify extension of the real-time PCR Salmonella detection method originally designed for the single-tube Cepheid SmartCycler II and validated against the Salmonella method of the U. S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual to the Applied Biosystems (ABI) 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR system multiwell plate platform. Four foods were selected for this study: chili powder, soft cheese, fish, and tomatoes; these foods represent products that are commonly analyzed for the presence of Salmonella for regulatory purposes. Each food consisted of six uninoculated control samples, six samples inoculated with low Salmonella levels (target 1 to 5 CFU/25 g), and six samples inoculated with high levels (target 10 to 50 CFU/25 g). All samples were tested for Salmonella using the 24-h quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for detecting Salmonella, which utilizes modified buffered peptone water as the sole enrichment medium and an internal control for the qPCR. Each of these 18 samples was individually analyzed for Salmonella by the collaborating laboratories using both the ABI 7500 FAST system (alternative method) and the SmartCycler II system (reference method). Statistical analysis of the data revealed no significant difference (P ≥ 0.05) between these two qPCR platforms except for the chili powder samples. The differences noted with chili powder (P = 0.0455) were attributed to the enhanced sensitivity of the ABI 7500 FAST system compared with the SmartCycler II system. The detection limit of both qPCR methods was 0.02 to 0.15 CFU/g. These results provide a solid basis for extending the 24-h qPCR Salmonella method to the ABI 7500 FAST system for high-throughput detection of Salmonella in foods. PMID:26038901

  10. Fast Maximum-Likelihood Decoder for Quasi-Orthogonal Space-Time Block Code

    Adel Ahmadi; Siamak Talebi

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the decompositions of sphere and QR-based methods, in this paper we present an extremely fast maximum-likelihood (ML) detection approach for quasi-orthogonal space-time block code (QOSTBC). The proposed algorithm with a relatively simple design exploits structure of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellations to achieve its goal and can be extended to any arbitrary constellation. Our decoder utilizes a new decomposition technique for ML metric which divides the metric in...

  11. A fast readout algorithm for Cluster Counting/Timing drift chambers on a FPGA board

    Cappelli, L. [Università di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale (Italy); Creti, P.; Grancagnolo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Pepino, A., E-mail: Aurora.Pepino@le.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Tassielli, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States); Università Marconi, Roma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    A fast readout algorithm for Cluster Counting and Timing purposes has been implemented and tested on a Virtex 6 core FPGA board. The algorithm analyses and stores data coming from a Helium based drift tube instrumented by 1 GSPS fADC and represents the outcome of balancing between cluster identification efficiency and high speed performance. The algorithm can be implemented in electronics boards serving multiple fADC channels as an online preprocessing stage for drift chamber signals.

  12. A fast readout algorithm for Cluster Counting/Timing drift chambers on a FPGA board

    A fast readout algorithm for Cluster Counting and Timing purposes has been implemented and tested on a Virtex 6 core FPGA board. The algorithm analyses and stores data coming from a Helium based drift tube instrumented by 1 GSPS fADC and represents the outcome of balancing between cluster identification efficiency and high speed performance. The algorithm can be implemented in electronics boards serving multiple fADC channels as an online preprocessing stage for drift chamber signals

  13. Development of a fast time-to-digital converter (TDC) using a programmable gate array

    A fast time-to-digital converter with a 5 ns step was designed and tested by utilizing a user-programmable gate array. The stabilities against temperature and supply voltage variation were measured. A module was built with this TDC, and was successfully used in the first-level trigger system of the ZEUS detector to reject proton-beam induced background events. (author)

  14. Development of a fast time-to-digital converter using a programmable gate array

    A fast time-to-digital converter with a 5 ns step was designed and tested by utilizing a user-programmable gate array. The stabilities against temperature and supply voltage variation were measured. A module was built with this TDC, and was successfully used in the first-level trigger system of the ZEUS detector to reject proton-beam induced background events. ((orig.))

  15. Time dependent solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation for fast fusion ions

    Approximate time dependent solutions for the Fokker-Planck equation for fast fusion ions from an isotropic, monoenergetic source are presented, for the problem of D - T - He3 reactions. The equations include the effect of diffusion, which is particularly noticeable in the distribution of particles of lower energy and in the formation of a tail of particles with energy higher than that of the source. (Author)

  16. A fast real time time-dependent density functional theory simulation method

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Wang, Zhi; Li, Shu-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    We have developed an efficient real-time time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method that can increase the effective time step from MoSe2. Our simulations show a significant energy transfer from the kinetic energy of the Cl particle to the electronic energy of MoSe2, and the result of TDDFT is very different from that of BO MD simulations. This new algorithm will enable the use of real-time TD-DFT for many new simulations involving carrier dynamics and electron-phonon couplings. This work is supported by the Director, Office of Science, BES/MSED, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, through the Material Theory program in LBNL. Zhi Wang is supported by the China Scholarship Council.

  17. Observation of very fast response signals from Pb absorber coupled transition edge sensor gamma-ray microcalorimeter

    Damayanthi, R.M.T., E-mail: thushara@sophie.q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ohno, M.; Hatakeyama, S.; Takahashi, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Maehata, K.; Yasumune, T.; Iyomoto, N. [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    We are developing a gamma-ray microcalorimeter for Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy. Our detector composed of a transition edge sensor (TES) thermometer and an epoxy coupled bulk Pb absorber has been reported an energy resolution of 4.7 keV FWHM at 662 keV with a tens of milliseconds long response time. To enhance the detector properties, we designed a new attachment method in the focus of improving the thermal coupling between the absorber and the TES. In the new design, we created epoxy-posts both on the TES film and on the absorber, and then they were connected together using an epoxy-dot put on the epoxy-post on the absorber. Measured current signal of this epoxy-post TES gamma-ray detector showed an ultra fast response with 80 {mu}s fall time.

  18. 3-D seismic response of a base-isolated fast reactor

    This paper describes a 3-D response analysis methodology development and its application to a base-isolated fast breeder reactor (FBR) plant. At first, studies on application of a base-isolation system to an FBR plant were performed to identify a range of appropriate characteristics of the system. A response analysis method was developed based on mathematical models for the restoring force characteristics of several types of the systems. A series of shaking table tests using a small scale model was carried out to verify the analysis method. A good agreement was seen between the test and analysis results in terms of the horizontal and vertical responses. Parametric studies were then made to assess the effects of various factors which might be influential to the seismic response of the system. Moreover, the method was applied to evaluate three-dimensional response of the base-isolated FBR. (author)

  19. Study on influence of ratio between wideness and height of EMP simulator transmission line with fast rise-time to rise-time of EMP

    The relation of rise-time inner EMP simulator with fast rise-time and ratio between wideness and height of simulator transmission line is studied through calculation of inner field of EMP simulator with fast rise-time and monadic linear regression analysis using FEKO based on MoM. The results indicate that there is close positive correlation between rise-time of EMP simulator with fast rise-time and the ratio between wideness and height. In other words, the larger the ratio of transmission line between wideness and height becomes, the longer the rise-time becomes. (authors)

  20. Corporate social responsibility approaches and implementation in selected fast food restaurants

    Emma E. Montalbo

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine Corporate Social Responsibility approaches and implementation in Fast Food Restaurants in Batangas City, Philippines. The researchers employed a descriptive design and quantitative method in the analysis of data with the questionnaire as the main instrument. Five (5) restaurant- participants were purposively chosen from the total population of 15. Results showed that CSR related mission/vision is clearly not embedded in the institutional websites ...

  1. CEFRA - a computer programme for primary containment hydrodynamic response to fast reactor explosive accident

    A computational model for determining the two-dimensional (r-z) hydrodynamical response of the primary containment to fast reactor disassembly is presented. Hydrodynamical equations are solved in Lagrange coordinates and shock waves are treated using the Von Neumann and Richtmyer pseudoviscosity method. The reactor vessels, platform and reactor plug are also comprised in the analysis. This method makes it possible to analyse primary containments with complex inner structures. (author)

  2. Preparation and properties of fast temperature-responsive soy protein/PNIPAAm IPN hydrogels

    Liu Yong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpenetrating polymer network of fast temperature-responsive hydrogels based on soy protein and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide were successfully prepared using the sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 solutions as the reaction medium. The structure and properties of the hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis. The swelling and deswelling kinetics were also investigated in detail. The results have shown that the proposed hydrogels had high porous structure, good miscibility and thermal stability, and fast temperature responsivity. The presence of NaHCO3 had little effect on the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT of the hydrogels, and the VPTTs were at about 32°C. Compared with the traditional hydrogels, the proposed hydrogels had much faster swelling and deswelling rate. The swelling mechanism of the hydrogels was the non-Fickian diffusion. This fast temperature-responsive hydrogels may have potential applications in the field of biomedical materials.

  3. Corporate social responsibility approaches and implementation in selected fast food restaurants

    Emma E. Montalbo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine Corporate Social Responsibility approaches and implementation in Fast Food Restaurants in Batangas City, Philippines. The researchers employed a descriptive design and quantitative method in the analysis of data with the questionnaire as the main instrument. Five (5 restaurant- participants were purposively chosen from the total population of 15. Results showed that CSR related mission/vision is clearly not embedded in the institutional websites of fast food restaurants while personal relation/social proximity approach is highly evident. Also, factors in the implementation of corporate social responsibility in relation to philanthropic behavior, shows a significant behavioral change from the statistical result such as moderately evident. CSR approaches and implementation are highly evident that clearly proves the responsible behavior of local fast food restaurants. Institutional integration of CSR in the company’s mission/vision statements, structure, decisions, activities, communication, practices stated appears to be beneficial in light of new corporate-state-market-society relationship.

  4. Effects seen in fast-timing with a surface barrier time-of-flight telescope

    It has been found that the timing resolution between two surface barrier detectors is degraded when they are separated to make a time-of-flight telescope. The degradation consists of a broadening of the peak with an asymmetric tail developing on the 'early' time side of the peak. Measurement has shown that these effects vary progressively with the radial distance from the centre of the back detector. Ions which arrive closer to the edge of the detector produce a time peak which is shifted to earlier time than those which arrive in the centre. A further measurement has shown that only small changes in the pulse shape occur for these different events. The suggestion is made that the observed effect is predominantly due to different delays in the pulses which have to propagate different distances across the detector. The propagation velocity in this case was measured to be 20% that of light. An approximate treatment for the detector in terms of a simple delay line is capable of giving a reasonable description of the observed effects. (Auth.)

  5. Contrasting Responses to Harvesting and Environmental Drivers of Fast and Slow Life History Species.

    Quetglas, Antoni; Rueda, Luca; Alvarez-Berastegui, Diego; Guijarro, Beatriz; Massut, Enric

    2016-01-01

    According to their main life history traits, organisms can be arranged in a continuum from fast (species with small body size, short lifespan and high fecundity) to slow (species with opposite characteristics). Life history determines the responses of organisms to natural and anthropogenic factors, as slow species are expected to be more sensitive than fast species to perturbations. Owing to their contrasting traits, cephalopods and elasmobranchs are typical examples of fast and slow strategies, respectively. We investigated the responses of these two contrasting strategies to fishing exploitation and environmental conditions (temperature, productivity and depth) using generalized additive models. Our results confirmed the foreseen contrasting responses of cephalopods and elasmobranchs to natural (environment) and anthropogenic (harvesting) influences. Even though a priori foreseen, we did expect neither the clear-cut differential responses between groups nor the homogeneous sensitivity to the same factors within the two taxonomic groups. Apart from depth, which affected both groups equally, cephalopods and elasmobranchs were exclusively affected by environmental conditions and fishing exploitation, respectively. Owing to its short, annual cycle, cephalopods do not have overlapping generations and consequently lack the buffering effects conferred by different age classes observed in multi-aged species such as elasmobranchs. We suggest that cephalopods are sensitive to short-term perturbations, such as seasonal environmental changes, because they lack this buffering effect but they are in turn not influenced by continuous, long-term moderate disturbances such as fishing because of its high population growth and turnover. The contrary would apply to elasmobranchs, whose multi-aged population structure would buffer the seasonal environmental effects, but they would display strong responses to uninterrupted harvesting due to its low population resilience. Besides providing empirical evidence to the theoretically predicted contrasting responses of cephalopods and elasmobranchs to disturbances, our results are useful for the sustainable exploitation of these resources. PMID:26859577

  6. Exupery volcano fast response system - The event detection and waveform classification system

    Hammer, Conny; Ohrnberger, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions are often preceded by seismic activity which can be used to quantify the volcanic activity since the number and the size of certain types of seismic events usually increase before periods of volcanic crisis. The implementation of an automatic detection and classification system for seismic signals of volcanic origin allows not only for the processing of large amounts of data in short time, but also provides consistent and time-invariant results. Here, we have developed a system based upon a combination of different methods. To enable a first robust event detection in the continuous data stream different modules are implemented in the real time system Earthworm which is widely distributed in active volcano monitoring observatories worldwide. Among those software modules are classical trigger algorithm like STA/LTA and cross-correlation master event matching which is also used to detect different classes of signals. Furthermore an additional module is implemented in the real time system to compute continuous activity parameters which are also used to quantify the volcanic activity. Most automatic classification systems need a sufficiently large pre-classified data set for training the system. However in case of a volcanic crisis we are often confronted with a lack of training data due to insufficient prior observations because prior data acquisition might be carried out with different equipment at a low number of sites and due to the imminent crisis there might be no time for the time-consuming and tedious process of preparing a training data set. For this reason we have developed a novel seismic event spotting technique in order to be less dependent on the existence of previously acquired data bases of event classes. One main goal is therefore to provide observatory staff with a robust event classification based on a minimum number of reference waveforms. By using a "learning-while-recording" approach we are allowing for the fast build-up of a volcanic signal classification scheme as early as new events have been identified. For implementation issues we make use of the Hidden Markov Toolkit (HTK), a software package which is mainly intended for speech recognition. For the training procedure we first extract a valuable set of wave field parameters (here, polarization and spectral attributes) in a sliding window fashion from an unlabeled continuous data stream. In the following these parameters are used to extract a fixed number of clusters in the feature space. Based on this general multivariate description of the overall data set we start building particular event classifiers from a single waveform example based on the cluster description learned before. We will present first results of the automatic classification process to show that the system is able to provide a robust event classification without previously existing training events and hence is a step forward for volcano fast response systems.

  7. SeptiFast Real-Time PCR for Detection of Bloodborne Pathogens in Patients with Severe Sepsis or Septic Shock

    Markota, Andrej; Seme, Katja; Golle, Andrej; Poljak, Mario; Sinkovič, Andreja

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have been performed investigating the role of a real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay LightCycler® SeptiFast® with inconsistent results. In prospective evaluation of adult patients with severe sepsis or septic shock SeptiFast assay and blood culture results were compared regarding concordance, the impact of SeptiFast assay on antimicrobial therapy adjustment, time to results and the role of SeptiFast assay as a marker of disease severity. 63 blood sample sets wer...

  8. TRANC – a novel fast-response converter to measure total reactive atmospheric nitrogen

    O. Marx

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The input and loss of plant available nitrogen (N from/to the atmosphere can be an important factor for the productivity of ecosystems and thus for its carbon and greenhouse gas exchange. We present a novel converter for the measurement of total reactive nitrogen (TRANC: Total Reactive Atmospheric Nitrogen Converter, which offers the opportunity to quantify the sum of all airborne reactive nitrogen (Nr compounds in high time resolution. The basic concept of the TRANC is the full conversion of total Nr to nitrogen monoxide (NO within two reaction steps. Initially, reduced N compounds are being oxidised, and oxidised N compounds are thermally converted to lower oxidation states. Particulate N is being sublimated and oxidised or reduced afterwards. In a second step, remaining higher N oxides or those originated in the first step are catalytically converted to NO with carbon monoxide used as reduction gas. The converter is combined with a fast response chemiluminescence detector (CLD for NO analysis and its performance was tested for the most relevant gaseous and particulate Nr species under both laboratory and field conditions. Recovery rates during laboratory tests for NH3 and NO2 were found to be 95 and 99%, respectively, and 97% when the two gases were combined. In-field longterm stability over an 11-month period was approved by a value of 91% for NO2. Effective conversion was also found for ammonium and nitrate containing particles. The recovery rate of total ambient Nr was tested against the sum of individual measurements of NH3, HNO3, HONO, NH4+, NO3, and NOx using a combination of different well-established devices. The results show that the TRANC-CLD system precisely captures fluctuations in Nr concentrations and also matches the sum of all Nr compounds measured by the different single techniques. The TRANC features a specific design with very short distance between the sample air inlet and the place where the thermal and catalytic conversions to NO occur. This assures a short residence time of the sample air inside the instrument, and minimises wall sorption problems of water soluble compounds. The fast response time (half-value periods of 0.30 s were found during concentration step changes and high accuracy in capturing the dominant Nr species enables the converter to be used in an eddy covariance setup. Although a source attribution of specific Nr compounds is not possible, the TRANC is a new reliable tool for permanent measurements of the net Nr flux between ecosystem and atmosphere at a relatively low maintenance and reasonable cost level allowing for diurnal, seasonal and annual investigations.

  9. Time Series Technical Analysis via new Fast Estimation Methods: A Preliminary Study in Mathematical Finance

    Fliess, Michel

    2008-01-01

    New fast estimation methods stemming from control theory lead to a fresh look at time series, which bears some resemblance to "technical analysis". The results are applied to a typical object of financial engineering, namely the forecast of foreign exchange rates, via a "model-free" setting, i.e., via repeated identifications of low order linear difference equations on sliding short time windows. Several convincing computer simulations, including the prediction of the position and of the volatility with respect to the forecasted trendline, are provided. $\\mathcal{Z}$-transform and differential algebra are the main mathematical tools.

  10. Ultra-fast transistor-based detectors for precise timing of near infrared and THz signals

    Preu, Sascha; Mittendorff, M.; Winnerl, S.; Lu, H.; Gossard, A. C.; Weber, Heiko B.

    2013-01-01

    A whole class of two-color experiments involves intense, short Terahertz radiation pulses. A fast detector that is sensitive and able to resolve both near-infrared and Terahertz pulses at the same time is highly desirable. Here we present the first detector of this kind. The detector element is a GaAs-based field effect transistor operated at room temperature. THz detection is successfully demonstrated at frequencies up to 4.9 THz. The THz detection time constant is shorter than 30 ps, the op...

  11. A fast Time-of-Flight detector also used as a tracker

    We present a possible scheme for a fast Time-of-Flight detector which could also serve as part of the charged particle tracking system. The detector consists of scintillating fibers read out by newly developed microchannel plate photomultipliers. The performance of the detector in the experimental environment of the τ/charm factory was investigated by a detailed Monte Carlo simulation. The time and space resolutions of the detector are expected to be about 92 ps and 140 μm, respectively. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. A Fast Pulsed Neutron Source for Time-of-Flight Detection of Nuclear Materials and Explosives

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Bures, Brian; James, Colt; Madden, Robert [Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation, 3077 Teagarden Street, San Leandro, CA 94577 (United States); Hennig, Wolfgang; Breus, Dimitry; Asztalos, Stephen; Sabourov, Konstantin [XIA LLC, 31057 Genstar Road, Hayward, CA 94544 (United States); Lane, Stephen [NSF Center for Biophotonics and School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Sacramento CA, 95817 (United States)

    2011-12-13

    AASC has built a fast pulsed neutron source based on the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF). The more current version stores only 100 J but fires at {approx}10-50 Hz and emits {approx}10{sup 6}n/pulse at a peak current of 100 kA. Both sources emit 2.45{+-}0.1 MeV(DD) neutron pulses of {approx}25-40 ns width. Such fast, quasi-monoenergetic pulses allow time-of-flight detection of characteristic emissions from nuclear materials or high explosives. A test is described in which iron targets were placed at different distances from the point neutron source. Detectors such as Stilbene and LaBr3 were used to capture inelastically induced, 847 keV gammas from the iron target. Shielding of the source and detectors eliminated most (but not all) of the source neutrons from the detectors. Gated detection, pulse shape analysis and time-of-flight discrimination enable separation of gamma and neutron signatures and localization of the target. A Monte Carlo simulation allows evaluation of the potential of such a fast pulsed source for a field-portable detection system. The high rep-rate source occupies two 200 liter drums and uses a cooled DPF Head that is <500 cm{sup 3} in volume.

  13. Fast neutron measurements at the nELBE time-of-flight facility

    Junghansa, A. R.; Beyer, R.; Grosse, E.; Hannaske, R.; Kögler, T.; Massarczyk, R.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.

    2015-05-01

    The compact neutron-time-of-flight facility nELBE at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf has been rebuilt. A new enlarged experimental hall with a flight path of up to 10 m is available for neutron time-of-flight experiments in the fast energy range from about 50 keV to 10 MeV. nELBE is intended to deliver nuclear data of fast neutron nuclear interactions e.g. for the transmutation of nuclear waste and improvement of neutron physical simulations of innovative nuclear systems. The experimental programme consists of transmission measurements of neutron total cross sections, elastic and inelastic scattering cross section measurements, and neutron induced fission cross sections. The inelastic scattering to the first few excited states in 56Fe was investigated by measuring the gamma production cross section with an HPGe detector. The neutron induced fission of 242Pu was studied using fast ionisation chambers with large homogeneous actinide deposits.

  14. Fast neutron measurements at the nELBE time-of-flight facility

    Junghansa A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The compact neutron-time-of-flight facility nELBE at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf has been rebuilt. A new enlarged experimental hall with a flight path of up to 10 m is available for neutron time-of-flight experiments in the fast energy range from about 50 keV to 10 MeV. nELBE is intended to deliver nuclear data of fast neutron nuclear interactions e.g. for the transmutation of nuclear waste and improvement of neutron physical simulations of innovative nuclear systems. The experimental programme consists of transmission measurements of neutron total cross sections, elastic and inelastic scattering cross section measurements, and neutron induced fission cross sections. The inelastic scattering to the first few excited states in 56Fe was investigated by measuring the gamma production cross section with an HPGe detector. The neutron induced fission of 242Pu was studied using fast ionisation chambers with large homogeneous actinide deposits.

  15. A Fast Pulsed Neutron Source for Time-of-Flight Detection of Nuclear Materials and Explosives

    AASC has built a fast pulsed neutron source based on the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF). The more current version stores only 100 J but fires at ∼10-50 Hz and emits ∼106n/pulse at a peak current of 100 kA. Both sources emit 2.45±0.1 MeV(DD) neutron pulses of ∼25-40 ns width. Such fast, quasi-monoenergetic pulses allow time-of-flight detection of characteristic emissions from nuclear materials or high explosives. A test is described in which iron targets were placed at different distances from the point neutron source. Detectors such as Stilbene and LaBr3 were used to capture inelastically induced, 847 keV gammas from the iron target. Shielding of the source and detectors eliminated most (but not all) of the source neutrons from the detectors. Gated detection, pulse shape analysis and time-of-flight discrimination enable separation of gamma and neutron signatures and localization of the target. A Monte Carlo simulation allows evaluation of the potential of such a fast pulsed source for a field-portable detection system. The high rep-rate source occupies two 200 liter drums and uses a cooled DPF Head that is 3 in volume.

  16. Differing response of the glutathione system to fasting in neonatal and adult guinea pigs.

    Langley, S C; Kelly, F J

    1992-10-20

    Adult, term neonatal and 3 day preterm neonatal guinea pigs were fasted for 48 hr, and the glutathione concentrations of the liver and lung assessed. In adult animals, glutathione concentration decreased by 43% in the liver and 29% in the lung with respect to fed controls. The decrease in liver glutathione was associated with a 75% reduction in the hepatic activity of tau-glutamyltranspeptidase (tau GGT). Conversely, both liver and lung glutathione levels in preterm pups remained unchanged following 48 hr food restriction. Likewise, hepatic tau GGT, glutathione reductase (GRed) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were unchanged by fasting in preterm pups. Fasting increased pulmonary GPx activity by 27% in these pups. In fasted, term animals, substantial increases in both lung (65%) and liver (80%) glutathione concentrations were observed, with concomitant increases in GPx and GRed activities. Hepatic tau GGT activity was significantly reduced (57%) in term pups. These results may suggest that the neonatal guinea pig can maintain tissue glutathione status during periods of nutrient stress, through an increased capacity for recycling oxidized glutathione and a decrease in turnover of the tripeptide. Guinea pig neonates are therefore able to resist starvation-induced decreases in tissue glutathione levels seen in adult rodents. If this is a general neonatal response it may have important clinical implications in the treatment of preterm babies. PMID:1417972

  17. Small-time asymptotics for fast mean-reverting stochastic volatility models

    Feng, Jin; Kumar, Rohini

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study stochastic volatility models in regimes where the maturity is small but large compared to the mean-reversion time of the stochastic volatility factor. The problem falls in the class of averaging/homogenization problems for nonlinear HJB type equations where the "fast variable" lives in a non-compact space. We develop a general argument based on viscosity solutions which we apply to the two regimes studied in the paper. We derive a large deviation principle and we deduce asymptotic prices for Out-of-The-Money call and put options, and their corresponding implied volatilities. The results of this paper generalize the ones obtained in \\cite{FFF} (J. Feng, M. Forde and J.-P. Fouque, {\\it Short maturity asymptotic for a fast mean reverting Heston stochastic volatility model}, SIAM Journal on Financial Mathematics, Vol. 1, 2010) by a moment generating function computation in the particular case of the Heston model.

  18. Electron absorption of fast magnetosonic waves by transit time magnetic pumping in JET

    Direct electron damping of low frequency fast magnetosonic waves has been observed in the centre of high beta hydrogenic JET plasmas where transit time magnetic pumping is a significant component in the electron-wave interaction mechanism. The electron heating power profile was peaked on axis, extended across almost half the minor radius and accounted for 225% of the total radiofrequency power coupled to the plasma. After passing through the plasma core, the fast wave was absorbed by hydrogen ions at the second harmonic cyclotron resonance which was placed inboard of the magnetic axis and intersected the equatorial plane at one third of the minor radius. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 25 refs, 8 figs

  19. Time-structure of thermal neutron leakage from fast and slow moderators for spallation neutron sources

    The dwell-times of neutrons slowed down either in small polyethylene moderators or a large D2O volume have been measured. The fast neutrons have been produced by bombarding lead, lead-bismuth, depleted uranium and tungsten targets of slab or cylindrical shape with short pulses of 490 MeV protons. Lead and beryllium reflectors have been employed for the rectangular shaped grooved polyethylene moderators. The geometry-adapted (jagged) polyethylene moderators used with the cylindrical target have been measured only in D2O-reflected configuration. The essential result of the numerical analysis of about 40 target-moderator-reflector configurations tested is that for the fast (light hydrogen) moderators the most intense flux component decays in 100 μs or less

  20. Test of relativistic time dilation with fast optical atomic clocks at different velocities

    Reinhardt, Sascha; Saathoff, Guido; Buhr, Henrik; Carlson, Lars A.; Wolf, Andreas; Schwalm, Dirk; Karpuk, Sergei; Novotny, Christian; Huber, Gerhard; Zimmermann, Marcus; Holzwarth, Ronald; Udem, Thomas; Hnsch, Theodor W.; Gwinner, Gerald

    2007-12-01

    Time dilation is one of the most fascinating aspects of special relativity as it abolishes the notion of absolute time. It was first observed experimentally by Ives and Stilwell in 1938 using the Doppler effect. Here we report on a method, based on fast optical atomic clocks with large, but different Lorentz boosts, that tests relativistic time dilation with unprecedented precision. The approach combines ion storage and cooling with optical frequency counting using a frequency comb. 7Li+ ions are prepared at 6.4% and 3.0% of the speed of light in a storage ring, and their time is read with an accuracy of 210-10 using laser saturation spectroscopy. The comparison of the Doppler shifts yields a time dilation measurement represented by a Mansouri-Sexl parameter , consistent with special relativity. This constrains the existence of a preferred cosmological reference frame and CPT- and Lorentz-violating `new' physics beyond the standard model.

  1. Verification of the CNGS Timing System using Ultra-Fast Diamond Detectors

    Jansen, H; Bart Pedersen, S; Dehning, B; Dobos, D; Effinger, E; Ferrari, A; Griesmayer, E; Gschwendtner, E; Kozsar, I; Missiaen, D; Pernegger, H; Sala, P R; Serrano, J; Ward, C

    2012-01-01

    A new ultra-fast diagnostic tool was installed in the CNGS facility in 2011 following the neutrino time-of-flight results published by OPERA in September 2011. Several polycrystalline CVD diamond detectors were placed in the secondary beam line about 1200m downstream of the CNGS target in order to measure the time structure of the muons which are produced together with the muon neutrinos. This allows an accurate measurement of the GPS timing of individual secondary particle bunches crossing these detectors, and provides an independent timing measurement at CERN, which has previously been based solely on the fast beam current transformers installed in the primary proton beam line upstream of the CNGS target. Both the position of the detectors, and the time between the detection of the particles at the beam current transformer and the diamond detectors have been measured very carefully and a sound analysis of the detector signals was done. This allows comparison of the measurements between the beam current tran...

  2. Fast silicon photomultiplier improves signal harvesting and reduces complexity in time-domain diffuse optics.

    Mora, Alberto Dalla; Martinenghi, Edoardo; Contini, Davide; Tosi, Alberto; Boso, Gianluca; Durduran, Turgut; Arridge, Simon; Martelli, Fabrizio; Farina, Andrea; Torricelli, Alessandro; Pifferi, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    We present a proof of concept prototype of a time-domain diffuse optics probe exploiting a fast Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM), featuring a timing resolution better than 80 ps, a fast tail with just 90 ps decay time-constant and a wide active area of 1 mm2. The detector is hosted into the probe and used in direct contact with the sample under investigation, thus providing high harvesting efficiency by exploiting the whole SiPM numerical aperture and also reducing complexity by avoiding the use of cumbersome fiber bundles. Our tests also demonstrate high accuracy and linearity in retrieving the optical properties and suitable contrast and depth sensitivity for detecting localized inhomogeneities. In addition to a strong improvement in both instrumentation cost and size with respect to legacy solutions, the setup performances are comparable to those of state-of-the-art time-domain instrumentation, thus opening a new way to compact, low-cost and high-performance time-resolved devices for diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy. PMID:26072763

  3. Fast Estimate of Rupture Process of Large Earthquakes via Real Time Hi-net Data

    Wang, D.; Kawakatsu, H.; Mori, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    We developed a real time system based on Hi-net seismic array that can offer fast and reliable source information, for example, source extent and rupture velocity, for earthquakes that occur at distance of roughly 30- 85with respect to the array center. We perform continuous grid search on a Hi-net real time data stream to identify possible source locations (following Nishida, K., Kawakatsu, H., and S. Obara, 2008). Earthquakes that occurred off the bright area of the array (30- 85with respect to the array center) will be ignored. Once a large seismic event is identified successfully, back-projection will be implemented to trace the source propagation and energy radiation. Results from extended global GRiD-MT and real time W phase inversion will be combined for the better identification of large seismic events. The time required is mainly due to the travel time from the epicenter to the array stations, so we can get the results between 6 to 13 min depending on the epicenter distances. This system can offer fast and robust estimates of earthquake source information, which will be useful for disaster mitigation, such as tsunami evacuation, emergency rescue, and aftershock hazard evaluation.

  4. Response Time Patterns in a Stated Choice Experiment

    Börjesson, Maria; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies how response times vary between unlabeled binary choice occasions in a stated choice (SC) experiment, with alternatives differing with respect to in-vehicle travel time and travel cost. The pattern of response times is interpreted as an indicator of the cognitive processes employed by the respondents when making their choices. We find clear signs of reference-dependence in response times in the form of a strong gain-loss asymmetry. Moreover, different patterns of response t...

  5. Fast self paced listening times in syntactic comprehension is aphasia -- implications for deficits

    Jennifer Michaud

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sixty one people with aphasia (pwa and forty one matched controls were tested for the ability to understand sentences that required the ability to assign particular syntactic structures. Participants paced themselves word-by-word through twenty examples of eleven spoken sentence types and indicated which of two pictures corresponded to the meaning of each sentence. Sentences were developed in pairs such that comprehension of the experimental version of a pair required an aspect of syntactic processing not required in the corresponding baseline sentence. The need for the syntactic operations required only in the experimental version was triggered at a “critical word” in the experimental sentence. Listening times for critical words in experimental sentences were compared to those for corresponding words in the corresponding baseline sentences. We adjusted self paced listening times for word duration by subtracting word durations from tag-to-tag self paced listening times to correct for word duration, yielding what we have previously called “corrected listening times.” Corrected listening times above ceiling (10,000 msec for sentence-final words and 5,000 msec for all other words were discarded. For controls, this led to 0.2% of data being discarded and for PWAs 2.2% were discarded. Corrected listening times that were more than 3 standard deviations above or below the mean for that sentence type for each subject were adjusted either down to the upper limit or up to the lower limit of the 3SD range (not discarded. For accurate sentences, 1.7% of the control data were adjusted and 1.8% of the aphasic data were adjusted. For inaccurate sentences, 10% of the corrected listening times were adjusted for controls and 3.3% for aphasics. Our interest is in incremental parsing and interpretation. The measure we used of this process was the residual of a regression of corrected self paced listening times for critical words in experimental sentences (the DV against corrected self paced listening times in the corresponding words in the baseline sentences (the IV in correct responses. We call the residuals of these regressions “relative corrected listening times.” Relative corrected listening times are based on listening times at points at which task-related operations are similar, and therefore factor out these effects. They also factor out differences in general speed of processing and motor functioning, which determine the intercepts of the regressions. The relative corrected listening times for each participant therefore reflect the time taken by each pwa or control participant to perform the parsing and interpretation operations needed in the experimental sentences, compared to the time taken by the other controls or pwa. We performed these regressions separately in each of the four groups of sentences. We analyzed pwa and controls separately. We analyzed groups and not individuals, because performing these regressions on an individual basis would lead to a mean residual for an experimental sentence type compared to a baseline sentence type that approximates zero in each individual (this is a property of linear regression. We analyzed controls and pwa separately to produce separate estimates of basic speed of processing, decision-making and other processes in controls and pwa. We calculated the normal range of relative corrected listening times for each sentence type group by applying the formula in Crawford and Howell (1998 to the results of the regressions in the controls. We then determined whether the relative corrected listening time for each group of sentences in each pwa was within the normal range of residuals. We focus on a finding that has not previously been reported, which is that, in some pwa, some relative corrected listening times (i.e., residuals of the regression of critical words in experimental sentences against corresponding words in baseline sentences were lower than those seen in normal individuals. In normal individuals whose comprehension is within the normal range, fast self-paced reading times and short eye fixations are taken as evidence for efficient parsing and interpretation. It is not plausible that lower-than-normal relative corrected listening times in pwa reflect parsing and interpretation that is more efficient than normal. Some other account of these low relative corrected listening times is required. A possible reason for abnormally low relative corrected listening times is that some pwa make an unusual choice between spending time in processing the current word and maintaining information in memory. The longer incremental processing continues, the longer what has been processed must remain in memory. Pwa whose relative corrected self paced listening times were lower than normal might have balanced time spent in incremental processing and memory load in ways that neurologically normal individuals do not normally do, preferring to spend less time in incremental processing with the consequence of reducing memory load. In some pwa whose relative corrected self paced listening times were lower than normal, accuracy was normal. In these pwa, the effect of spending less time at this stage was not detrimental. Four of these pwa had abnormally low relative corrected listening times in only one sentence type; all four had normal accuracy on all sentence types. Given their normal accuracy, it is hard to say that their lower-than-normal residual corrected listening times reflect a structure specific deficit. These pwa appear to have set the duration of incremental parsing low for only one structure. In most pwa whose relative corrected self paced listening times were lower than normal, accuracy was below normal or at or below chance. In these pwa, the lower-than-normal residual corrected times at critical words in experimental sentences could be due to either an intrinsic pathology of the parser/interpreter that limits the time it operates or to a choice between balancing time spent in incremental processing and memory load that leads to more errors than normal. The first of these possibilities is the counterpart of slowed syntactic processing. The second possible mechanism is related to how the control system regulates parsing and interpretation, a mechanism that has some similarity to what has been suggested in the case of lexical processing disturbances in vascular aphasia (Jefferies et al, 2008. If the locus of the disruption is in the control system, these pwa may also have abnormalities in metacognitive functions that detect errors and adjust processing to reduce them. The six pwa whose relative corrected listening times were lower than normal in one sentence type and whose accuracy was also below normal on that sentence type appear to have had structure-specific deficits, The structures in which these abnormally low relative corrected listening times and accuracy were found showed double dissociations (two cases showed this pattern for passives; three for reflexives; one for pronouns and none were found only in the most demanding sentence type (object relatives. This argues that the pathological mechanism that produced these behaviors is not resource reduction. These data therefore are consistent with structure specific deficits. It appears that a pathological truncation of parsing and interpretation, or a poor choice between processing and storage, applied when a particular structure was encountered. The fact that these six pwa had chance performance on at least one other sentence type where relative corrected listening times for critical words were normal indicates that they have other deficits that affected other structures. To our knowledge, this is the first time the possibility that different pathological mechanisms can lead to abnormally low accuracy on different sentence types within individual pwa has been suggested. We are able to draw this conclusion because on-line behaviors differed in different sentence types on which accuracy is below normal in individual pwa, being lower than normal in one sentence type with below normal accuracy and normal or higher than normal in others. It is possible to find similar effects in other on-line behaviors such as pathologically long listening or reading times or abnormal patterns of eye fixations. For instance, it is possible that self-paced listening times or eye fixations would show early interference effects in one sentence type and late interference effects in another in one pwa (this would require testing pwa on two tasks. The present results point to the need to examine on-line data to know whether a pwa has more than one deficit at the level of mechanisms. Examination of accuracy and RT to end-of-sentence responses alone cannot tell us whether this is the case.

  6. Fasting and postprandial lipid response to the consumption of modified milk fats by guinea pigs.

    Asselin, Geneviève; Lavigne, Charles; Bergeron, Nathalie; Angers, Paul; Belkacemi, Khaled; Arul, Joseph; Jacques, Hélène

    2004-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of three modified milk fats with different melting profiles on fasting and postprandial lipid responses and on fecal fat content in guinea pigs. We hypothesized that the consumption of modified milk fat with a high m.p. results in reduced fasting and postprandial lipid responses compared with that of modified milk fat fractions with lower m.p. To test this hypothesis, male Hartley guinea pigs were fed isoenergetic diets containing 110 g of fat/kg, either from one of the three modified milk fats with high (HMF), medium (MMF), or low melting profiles (LMF), or from one of the two reference fats as whole milk fat (MF) or a fat blend similar to that of nonhydrogenated soft margarine (MA) for 28 d. Food intake (P fasting state, plasma LDL cholesterol was highest in animals fed the LMF diet, intermediary in those fed the MMF and MF diets, and lowest in those fed the HMF and MA diets (Pguinea pigs (Pfasting cholesterolemia, and postprandial triglyceridemia, and these changes may be attributed to an altered fat absorption. PMID:15691020

  7. Improving Adaptive Learning Technology through the Use of Response Times

    Mettler, Everett; Massey, Christine M.; Kellman, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive learning techniques have typically scheduled practice using learners' accuracy and item presentation history. We describe an adaptive learning system (Adaptive Response Time Based Sequencing--ARTS) that uses both accuracy and response time (RT) as direct inputs into sequencing. Response times are used to assess learning strength and…

  8. Impact of delays in plutonium use of the stationary doubling time for fast breeder reactors

    An investigation of the breeding process is presented. Nuclear physical quantities which can describe the breeding capability of breeder reactors in general terms are discussed. Figure of merit type quantities are reviewed and their ability to describe the breeding capability of fast breeder reactors analyzed. Delays encountered in the use of bred fuel for a system of fast breeder reactors are introduced in the derivation of four general doubling time expressions. The formulas are all based on the accumulating fuel in a growing system of fast breeder reactors. The fuel growth rate, from which the doubling time is obtained, describes the accumulating fuel. Delays incorporated into the expressions include finite burnup in the core and blanket, residence time in the external fuel cycle and holdup in the use of excess bred fuel which fuels new reactors. The first expression is obtained by relating the fuel growth rate to the asymptotic exponential accumulation of fuel for a system of breeder reactors. The second expression is based on single system quantities, e.g., base reactor and its out-of-pile inventory. It is possible because all reactors in the system are defined to be identical. Precalculated coefficients determined from an integrated fuel cycle model are used in the third expression. The fuel cycle is formulated as an eigenvalue problem with the growth rate as eigenvalue and equilibrium plutonium composition as eigenvector. An expression for the doubling time is deduced. The fourth expression is based on ''isotropic breeding worth'' factors. These factors are determined from the adjoint problem to the eigenvalue problem in the third case. The worth factors are identical to the eigenvector of this adjoint problem and the growth rate is again obtained as eigenvalue. The fourth expression is compared with presently applied definitions for a LMFBR in the 1000 MWe range. Dependency investigations are also discussed and analyzed

  9. System measures response time of photomultiplier tubes

    Lauver, M. R.

    1968-01-01

    Calibration system enables precise determination of rise time of photosensitive detectors. To perform a calibration, the time-voltage curve of the excitation voltage for a light source is compared with the time-voltage curve of the voltage output from a photosensitive detector which is responding to the light.

  10. Fast minimum-redundancy prefix coding for real-time space data compression

    Huang, Bormin

    2007-09-01

    The minimum-redundancy prefix-free code problem is to determine an array l = {l I ,..., f n} of n integer codeword lengths, given an array f = {f I ,..., f n} of n symbol occurrence frequencies, such that the Kraft-McMillan inequality [equation] holds and the number of the total coded bits [equation] is minimized. Previous minimum-redundancy prefix-free code based on Huffman's greedy algorithm solves this problem in O (n) time if the input array f is sorted; but in O (n log n) time if f is unsorted. In this paper a fast algorithm is proposed to solve this problem in linear time if f is unsorted. It is suitable for real-time applications in satellite communication and consumer electronics. We also develop its VLSI architecture that consists of four modules, namely, the frequency table builder, the codeword length table builder, the codeword table builder, and the input-to-codeword mapper.

  11. TimepixCam: a fast optical imager with time-stamping

    Fisher-Levine, M.; Nomerotski, A.

    2016-03-01

    We describe a novel fast optical imager, TimepixCam, based on an optimized silicon pixel sensor with a thin entrance window, read out by a Timepix ASIC. TimepixCam is able to record and time-stamp light flashes in excess of 1,000 photons with high quantum efficiency in the 400–1000nm wavelength range with 20ns timing resolution, corresponding to an effective rate of 50 Megaframes per second. The camera was used for imaging ions impinging on a microchannel plate followed by a phosphor screen. Possible applications include spatial and velocity map imaging of ions in time-of-flight mass spectroscopy; coincidence imaging of ions and electrons, and other time-resolved types of imaging spectroscopy.

  12. Measurement of heating laser injection time in a fast-ignition experiment

    The ability to measure the injection time of a heating laser synchronized to the imploded core plasma is very important in fast-ignition experiments. In this research, we demonstrate the successful measurement of the injection time using a new x-ray framing camera design. Thermal x-rays for imploded core measurement and hard x-rays for measurement of the heating laser injection time were discriminated using x-ray reflectors made of platinum. The measured hard x-ray signal was evaluated with numerical calculations and found to agree well with the calculated values. We have established a technique for estimating the heating laser injection time from the position of the peak intensity of the hard x-ray signal. (paper)

  13. Fast adaptive responses in the oral jaw of Lake Victoria cichlids.

    van Rijssel, Jacco C; Hoogwater, Ellen S; Kishe-Machumu, Mary A; van Reenen, Elize; Spits, Kevin V; van der Stelt, Ronald C; Wanink, Jan H; Witte, Frans

    2015-01-01

    Rapid morphological changes in response to fluctuating natural environments are a common phenomenon in species that undergo adaptive radiation. The dramatic ecological changes in Lake Victoria provide a unique opportunity to study environmental effects on cichlid morphology. This study shows how four haplochromine cichlids adapted their premaxilla to a changed diet over the past 30 years. Directly after the diet change toward larger and faster prey in the late 1980s, the premaxilla (upper jaw) changed in a way that is in agreement with a more food manipulating feeding style. During the 2000s, two zooplanktivorous species showed a reversal of morphological changes after returning to their original diet, whereas two other species showed no reversal of diet and morphology. These rapid changes indicate a potential for extremely fast adaptive responses to environmental fluctuations, which are likely inflicted by competition release and increase, and might have a bearing on the ability of haplochromines to cope with environmental changes. These responses could be due to rapid genetic change or phenotypic plasticity, for which there is ample evidence in cichlid fish structures associated with food capture and processing. These versatile adaptive responses are likely to have contributed to the fast adaptive radiation of haplochromines. PMID:25403383

  14. Development of a LaBr3(Ce) Fast-timing Array for FAIR

    A γ-ray spectrometer with fast-timing capabilities, constructed of LaBr3(Ce:5%) detectors, is under development for use at the future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR). The physics aims of this device are to measure the half-lives of excited states in the region of ∼50 ps to several ns, in exotic nuclei. Monte-Carlo simulations using the GEANT4 software package have determined the final design of this fast-timing array by calculating the full-energy peak efficiencies of several different detector geometries. The results of the simulated efficiencies for each configuration were used to calculate the timing precision. Consequently, an array of thirty six, section 3.8 x 5.1 cm cylindrical crystals was found to be the optimum configuration. The detectors were purchased and subsequently characterised, with each detector found to have intrinsic energy and timing resolutions of ∼ 2.8 % (FWHM) and ∼ 210 ps (FWHM) for the 1173 and 1332 keV decays from 60Co. (authors)

  15. Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake

    De Bock, K; Derave, W; Eijnde, B O; Hesselink, M K; Koninckx, E; Rose, Adam John; Schrauwen, P; Bonen, A; Richter, Erik A.; Hespel, P

    2008-01-01

    similarly increased between F and CHO. Fatty acid binding protein (FABPm) content increased significantly in F (P = 0.007). Intramyocellular triglyceride content (IMCL) remained unchanged in both groups. After training, pre-exercise glycogen content was higher in CHO (545 +/- 19 mmol/kg dry wt; P = 0...... elicits similar adaptations in peak Vo(2) whether carried out in the fasted or carbohydrate-fed state. Although there was a decrease in exercise-induced glycogen breakdown and an increase in proteins involved in fat handling after fasting training, fat oxidation during exercise with carbohydrate intake......Skeletal muscle gene response to exercise depends on nutritional status during and after exercise, but it is unknown whether muscle adaptations to endurance training are affected by nutritional status during training sessions. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of an endurance training...

  16. Lifetime, turnover time, and fast magnetic field regeneration in random flows

    The fast dynamo is thought to be relevant in the regeneration of magnetic fields in astrophysics where the value of the magnetic Reynolds number (Rm) is immense. The fast dynamo picture is one in which chaotic flows provide a mechanism for the stretching of magnetic field lines. Furthermore, a cascade of energy down to small scales results in intermittent regions of a small-scale, intense magnetic field. Given this scenario it is natural to invoke the use of kinematic random flows in order to understand field regeneration mechanisms better. Here a family of random flows is used to study the effects that L, the lifetime of the cell, and ?, the turnover time of the cell, may have on magnetic field regeneration. Defining the parameter ?=L/?, it has been varied according to ?>1, ?<1, ??O(1). In the kinematic regime, dynamo growth rates and Lyapunov exponents are examined at varying values of Rm. The possibility of fast dynamo action is considered. In the nonlinear regime, magnetic and kinetic energies are examined. Results indicate that there does appear to be a relationship between ? and dynamo efficiency. In particular, the most efficient dynamos seem to operate at lower values of ?

  17. Down-regulation of urinary AQP2 and unaffected response to hypertonic saline after 24 hours of fasting in humans

    Starklint, Jrn; Bech, Jesper Nrgaard; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard

    2005-01-01

    In rats, 24 hours of fasting impairs urinary concentrating ability by down-regulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2). We tested the hypothesis that 24 hours of fasting in humans reduces the capability to form AQP2 and impairs the antidiuretic response to hypertonic saline infusion....

  18. Proposed fast-response oxygen monitoring and control system for the Langley 8-foot high-temperature tunnel

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    A fast-response oxygen monitoring and control system, based on a Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 sensor, was developed and tested in the laboratory. The system is capable of maintaining oxygen concentration in the CH4-O2-air combustion product gases at 20.9 + or - 1.0 percent. If the oxygen concentration in the exhaust stream differs from that in normal air by 25 percent or more, an alarm signal is provided for automatic tunnel shutdown. The overall prototype system response time was reduced from about 1 sec in the original configuration to about 0.2 sec. The basis of operation and the results of laboratory tests of the system are described.

  19. Fast time resolution measurements of high concentrations of iodine above a Laminaria Digitata seaweed bed

    Ball, Stephen; Adams, Thomas; Leblanc, Catherine; Potin, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    We report observations of extremely large concentrations of molecular iodine (I2) measured in situ above a seaweed bed composed of laminaria digitata (90%) and laminaria hyperborea (10%) growing in its natural habitat. Measurements were made off the coast of Roscoff in Brittany, France, during day-time low tides on several days in September and November 2012 with the greatest tidal amplitudes. Iodine was quantified using a portable, battery-powered broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer (BBCEAS) deployed from the in-shore research vessel "Aurelia" operated by the Station Biologique de Roscoff. For the 5 second integration times used here, the BBCEAS instrument has a detection limit for iodine of 12 pptv (parts per trillion by volume). The boat was anchored above the seaweed bed before it was exposed to air by the ebbing tide; the boat was grounded on the seaweed bed around the tidal minimum, and then refloated as the incoming tide covered the seaweed. I2 concentrations were strongly anti-correlated with water depth. Initially little I2 was seen above background levels whilst the blades of the seaweed plants were floating on the water surface. However several hundred pptv of I2 was observed within a few minutes of the plants' stipes breaking the surface and first blades coming to rest on rocks out of the water. Iodine concentrations increased further as the tide ebbed, typically peaking around 1500 pptv around the tidal minimum (by which time the seaweed had been exposed for 45 minutes). I2 concentrations decreased rapidly back to background levels as the returning tide submerged the seaweeds. The concentration profiles showed a lot of high frequency structure, with I2 concentrations commonly varying by a factor 2 (or more) within 60 seconds. Additionally the profiles of I2 emitted from the seaweeds immediately below the instrument's inlet typically sat on a smoothly-varying background of approximately 100 pptv, which we attribute to I2 from other more-distant seaweeds whose emissions are better-mixed into the atmosphere. The peak I2 concentrations observed here are three to five times greater than the maximum amounts recorded above/closeby laminaria beds in previous studies: 350 pptv max in O Grove, Galicia, Spain (Mahajan et al., ACP, 11, 2545, 2011), and 302 and 547 pptv max at Mweenish Bay, near Mace Head, County Galway, Ireland (Huang et al., GRL, 37, L03803, 2010; ACPD, 12, 25915, 2012). In part, the larger peak concentrations seen here are a consequence of deploying a fast response instrument very close to the source, enabling the emission's high temporal variability to be captured with fewer averaging effects. Nevertheless, the I2 concentrations averaged over the 30 minute period around the tidal minimum were still typically 750 pptv, suggesting laminaria beds are even stronger emitters of I2 into coastal atmospheres than previously thought. Some implications for such high concentrations of iodine for the local atmospheric chemistry are considered. We acknowledge support from the European Community FP7 project "ASSEMBLE", grant 227799.

  20. Fast ground-state cooling of mechanical resonators with time-dependent optical cavities

    We propose a feasible scheme to cool down a mechanical resonator (MR) in a three-mirror cavity optomechanical system with controllable external optical driving fields. Under the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, the whole dynamics of the mechanical resonator and cavities is reduced to that of a time-dependent harmonic oscillator, whose effective frequency can be controlled through the optical driving fields. The fast cooling of the MR can be realized by controlling the amplitude of the optical driving fields. Significantly, we further show that the ground-state cooling may be achieved via the three-mirror cavity optomechanical system without the resolved sideband condition.

  1. Coagulation-time determination with automatic multivariable analysis, by use of a miniature centrifugal fast analyzer

    Bostick, W.D.; Bauer, M.L.; Morton, J.M.; Burtis, C.A.

    1975-08-01

    Use of a miniature Centrifugal Fast Analyzer for the parallel photometric monitoring of the coagulation process is shown to have a number of advantages. These include a choice of optical modes, virtually simultaneous initiation and observation of the coagulation process for a number of patient-plasma samples and an on-board control sample, small sample and reagent volume requirements, and automatic determination of a number of diagnostically useful variables (including relative fibrinogen content) from the data recorded in a single run. Also, the system is shown to give results that correlate well with those obtained by conventional techniques for determination of prothrombin time. (auth)

  2. Fast Tracker: a hardware real time track finder for the ATLAS trigger system

    The Fast Tracker (FTK) is an integral part of the trigger upgrade program of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the LHC luminosity approaches its design level of 1034 cm−2s−1, the combinatorial problem posed by charged particle tracking becomes increasingly difficult due to the swelling of multiple interactions per bunch crossing. The FTK is a highly-parallel hardware system intended to provide high-quality tracks with transverse momentum above 1 GeV in real time for online trigger system. The FTK system's design, based on a mixture of advanced technologies, and the expected physics performance will be presented

  3. FAST: a three-dimensional time-dependent FEL simulation code

    In this report we briefly describe the three-dimensional, time-dependent FEL simulation code FAST. The equations of motion of the particles and Maxwell's equations are solved simultaneously taking into account the slippage effect. Radiation fields are calculated using an integral solution of Maxwell's equations. A special technique has been developed for fast calculations of the radiation field, drastically reducing the required CPU time. As a result, the developed code allows one to use a personal computer for time-dependent simulations. The code allows one to simulate the radiation from the electron bunch of any transverse and longitudinal bunch shape; to simulate simultaneously an external seed with superimposed noise in the electron beam; to take into account energy spread in the electron beam and the space charge fields; and to simulate a high-gain, high-efficiency FEL amplifier with a tapered undulator. It is important to note that there are no significant memory limitations in the developed code and an electron bunch of any length can be simulated

  4. Fast elaboration of diagnostic data for real time control in FTU tokamak

    Nowak S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The automatic controller developed for MHD instability control on FTU via the real time (RT EC launcher [1, 2] is based on the a-priori estimate of the instabilities location and on the fast elaboration of the stream of diagnostic data. A fast data acquisition system, based on existing standard FTU diagnostics, collects thermal and magnetic signals by a 12-channels ECE polychromator [3] and by a set of 22 Mirnov coils respectively. Moreover, the EC time waveform from directional couplers along the transmission line is acquired as well. This set of signals is processed in a timescale significantly shorter than the typical time step of the controller (1ms. RT elaboration algorithms aim at supplying the controller [4] with reliable information about the existence and the spatial location of the instability and about the actual ECRH deposition layer in plasma. The main algorithms blocks are ECE-ECE, ECE-Mirnov and ECE-ECRH cross-correlation, and SVD (Singular Value Decomposition of Mirnov signals. The capabilities of effective detection, false positive resilience, and mode discrimination will be discussed through the application to actual plasma data.

  5. Organic scintillators response function modeling for Monte Carlo simulation of Time-of-Flight measurements

    In neutron Time-of-Flight (TOF) measurements performed with fast organic scintillation detectors, both pulse arrival time and amplitude are relevant. Monte Carlo simulation can be used to calculate the time–energy dependant neutron flux at the detector position. To convert the flux into a pulse height spectrum, one must calculate the detector response function for mono-energetic neutrons. MCNP can be used to design TOF systems, but standard MCNP versions cannot reliably calculate the energy deposited by fast neutrons in the detector since multiple scattering effects must be taken into account in an analog way, the individual recoil particles energy deposit being summed with the appropriate scintillation efficiency. In this paper, the energy response function of 2″×2″ and 5″×5″ liquid scintillation BC-501 A (Bicron) detectors to fast neutrons ranging from 20 keV to 5.0 MeV is computed with GEANT4 to be coupled with MCNPX through the “MCNP Output Data Analysis” software developed under ROOT (). - Highlights: ► GEANT4 has been used to model organic scintillators response to neutrons up to 5 MeV. ► The response of 2″×2″ and 5″×5″ BC501A detectors has been parameterized with simple functions. ► Parameterization will allow the modeling of neutron Time of Flight measurements with MCNP using tools based on CERN's ROOT.

  6. Ultra-fast transistor-based detectors for precise timing of near infrared and THz signals

    Preu, S; Winnerl, S; Lu, H; Gossard, A C; Weber, H B

    2013-01-01

    A whole class of two-color experiments involves intense, short Terahertz radiation pulses. A fast detector that is sensitive and able to resolve both near-infrared and Terahertz pulses at the same time is highly desirable. Here we present the first detector of this kind. The detector element is a GaAs-based field effect transistor operated at room temperature. THz detection is successfully demonstrated at frequencies up to 4.9 THz. The THz detection time constant is shorter than 30 ps, the optical time constant is 150 ps. This detector is ideally suited for precise, simultaneous resolution of optical and THz pulses and for pulse characterization of high-power THz pulses up to tens of kW peak power levels. The dynamic range of the detector was as large as 65 $\\pm$ 3 dB/$\\sqrt{Hz}$, enabling applications in a large variety of experiments and setups, also including table-top systems.

  7. An Ultralow Power Fast-Response Nano-TCD CH4 sensor for UAV Airborne Measurements Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this project, KWJ proposes to develop a low power, fast response, lightweight miniature CH4 measurement system based on KWJ nano-TCD sensor for airborne...

  8. Using Graphs for Fast Error Term Approximation of Time-varying Datasets

    Nuber, C; LaMar, E C; Pascucci, V; Hamann, B; Joy, K I

    2003-02-27

    We present a method for the efficient computation and storage of approximations of error tables used for error estimation of a region between different time steps in time-varying datasets. The error between two time steps is defined as the distance between the data of these time steps. Error tables are used to look up the error between different time steps of a time-varying dataset, especially when run time error computation is expensive. However, even the generation of error tables itself can be expensive. For n time steps, the exact error look-up table (which stores the error values for all pairs of time steps in a matrix) has a memory complexity and pre-processing time complexity of O(n2), and O(1) for error retrieval. Our approximate error look-up table approach uses trees, where the leaf nodes represent original time steps, and interior nodes contain an average (or best-representative) of the children nodes. The error computed on an edge of a tree describes the distance between the two nodes on that edge. Evaluating the error between two different time steps requires traversing a path between the two leaf nodes, and accumulating the errors on the traversed edges. For n time steps, this scheme has a memory complexity and pre-processing time complexity of O(nlog(n)), a significant improvement over the exact scheme; the error retrieval complexity is O(log(n)). As we do not need to calculate all possible n2 error terms, our approach is a fast way to generate the approximation.

  9. High-ampacity conductive polymer microfibers as fast response wearable heaters and electromechanical actuators

    Zhou, Jian

    2016-01-04

    Conductive fibers with enhanced physical properties and functionalities are needed for a diversity of electronic devices. Here, we report very high performance in the thermal and mechanical response of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) microfibers when subjected to an electrical current. These fibers were made by combining the hot-drawing assisted wetspinning process with ethylene glycol doping/de-doping that can work at a current density as high as 1.8 × 104 A cm−2, which is comparable to that of carbon nanotube fibers. Their electrothermal response was investigated using optical sensors and verified to be as fast as 63 °C s−1 and is comparable with that of metallic heating elements (20–50 °C s−1). We investigated the electromechanical actuation resulted from the reversible sorption/desorption of moisture controlled by electro-induced heating. The results revealed an improvement of several orders of magnitudes compared to other linear conductive polymer-based actuators in air. Specifically, the fibers we designed here have a rapid stress generation rate (>40 MPa s−1) and a wide operating frequency range (up to 40 Hz). These fibers have several characteristics including fast response, low-driven voltage, good repeatability, long cycle life and high energy efficiency, favoring their use as heating elements on wearable textiles and as artificial muscles for robotics.

  10. The ITER Fast Plant System Controller ATCA prototype Real-Time Software Architecture

    Highlights: ► High performance ATCA systems for fast control and data acquisition. ► IEEE1588 timing system and synchronization. ► Plasma control algorithms. ► Real-time control software frameworks. ► Targeted for nuclear fusion experiments with long duration discharges. -- Abstract: IPFN is developing a prototype Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) based in ATCA embedded technologies dedicated to ITER CODAC data acquisition and control tasks in the sub-millisecond range. The main goal is to demonstrate the usability of the ATCA standard and its enhanced specifications for the high speed, very high density parallel data acquisition needs of the most demanding ITER tokamak plasma Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems. This effort included the in-house development of a new family of high performance ATCA I/O and timing boards. The standard ITER software system CODAC Core System (CCS) v3.1, with the control based in the EPICS system does not cover yet the real-time requirements fulfilled by this hardware, so a new set of software components was developed for this specific platform, attempting to integrate and leverage the new features in CSS, for example the Multithreaded Application Real Time executor (MARTe) software framework, the new Data Archiving Network (DAN) solution, an ATCA IEEE-1588-2008 timing interface, and the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) for system monitoring and remote management. This paper presents the overall software architecture for the ATCA FPSC, as well a discussion on the ITER constrains and design choices and finally a detailed description of the software components already developed

  11. The ITER Fast Plant System Controller ATCA prototype Real-Time Software Architecture

    Carvalho, B.B., E-mail: bernardo@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associacao EURATOM/IST Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, B.; Carvalho, P.F.; Neto, A. [Associacao EURATOM/IST Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Boncagni, L. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati Research Centre, Division of Fusion Physics, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Batista, A.J.N.; Correia, M.; Sousa, J.; Gonçalves, B. [Associacao EURATOM/IST Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► High performance ATCA systems for fast control and data acquisition. ► IEEE1588 timing system and synchronization. ► Plasma control algorithms. ► Real-time control software frameworks. ► Targeted for nuclear fusion experiments with long duration discharges. -- Abstract: IPFN is developing a prototype Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) based in ATCA embedded technologies dedicated to ITER CODAC data acquisition and control tasks in the sub-millisecond range. The main goal is to demonstrate the usability of the ATCA standard and its enhanced specifications for the high speed, very high density parallel data acquisition needs of the most demanding ITER tokamak plasma Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems. This effort included the in-house development of a new family of high performance ATCA I/O and timing boards. The standard ITER software system CODAC Core System (CCS) v3.1, with the control based in the EPICS system does not cover yet the real-time requirements fulfilled by this hardware, so a new set of software components was developed for this specific platform, attempting to integrate and leverage the new features in CSS, for example the Multithreaded Application Real Time executor (MARTe) software framework, the new Data Archiving Network (DAN) solution, an ATCA IEEE-1588-2008 timing interface, and the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) for system monitoring and remote management. This paper presents the overall software architecture for the ATCA FPSC, as well a discussion on the ITER constrains and design choices and finally a detailed description of the software components already developed.

  12. Response modalities and time-sharing performance

    Vidulich, Michael A.

    1986-01-01

    An experiment performed to investigate the role of resource competition and asymmetric transfer in dual-task performance is described. It is shown that there is an advantage to mixed manual/speech response modality configurations that cannot be accounted for by asymmetric transfer. The present results support the multiple resources approach to the application of speech technology. Once speech recognition achieves an acceptable level of operational reliability, speech controls can be used to reduce resource competition and improve performance in multitask environments.

  13. Response of multiferroic composites inferred from a fast-Fourier-transform-based numerical scheme

    The effective response and the local fields within periodic magneto-electric multiferroic composites are investigated by means of a numerical scheme based on fast Fourier transforms. This computational framework relies on the iterative resolution of coupled series expansions for the magnetic, electric and strain fields. By using an augmented Lagrangian formulation, a simple and robust procedure which makes use of the uncoupled Green operators for the elastic, electrostatics and magnetostatics problems is proposed. Its accuracy is assessed in the cases of laminated and fibrous two-phase composites for which analytical solutions exist

  14. Fast-response receiver-driven layered multicast with multiple servers

    Chiu, HS; Yeung, KL

    2005-01-01

    Almost all the proposed layered multicast algorithms support a single server, i.e. a receiver can only subscribe to at most one server. A common restriction to single server approach Is that the maximum number of subscribed layers, as well as the maximum achievable throughput Is limited by the specific bottleneck link between a receiver and the server. In this paper, a new layered multicast protocol, called Fast-response Receiver-driven Layered Multicast with Multiple Servers (FRLM-MS) Is pro...

  15. Cardiovascular response to short-term fasting in menstrual phases in young women: an observational study

    Ohara, Kumiko; Okita, Yoshimitsu; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Mase, Tomoki; Miyawaki, Chiemi; Nakamura, Harunobu

    2015-01-01

    Background Menstrual cycle-related symptoms are an important health issue for many women, and some may affect cardiac autonomic regulation. In the present study, we evaluated the cardiovascular and physiological stress response to 12-h short-term fasting in the menstrual phases of healthy young women. Methods We performed a randomized crossover study. Subjects were seven female university students (age: 22.3 ± 1.0 years). The experiments comprised four sessions: meal intake in the follicular ...

  16. Design and evaluation of a device for fast multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging

    The application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) to in vivo tissue diagnosis requires a method for fast acquisition of fluorescence decay profiles in multiple spectral bands. This study focusses on development of a clinically compatible fiber-optic based multispectral TRFS (ms-TRFS) system together with validation of its accuracy and precision for fluorescence lifetime measurements. It also presents the expansion of this technique into an imaging spectroscopy method. A tandem array of dichroic beamsplitters and filters was used to record TRFS decay profiles at four distinct spectral bands where biological tissue typically presents fluorescence emission maxima, namely, 390, 452, 542, and 629 nm. Each emission channel was temporally separated by using transmission delays through 200 ?m diameter multimode optical fibers of 1, 10, 19, and 28 m lengths. A Laguerre-expansion deconvolution algorithm was used to compensate for modal dispersion inherent to large diameter optical fibers and the finite bandwidth of detectors and digitizers. The system was found to be highly efficient and fast requiring a few nano-Joule of laser pulse energy and <1 ms per point measurement, respectively, for the detection of tissue autofluorescent components. Organic and biological chromophores with lifetimes that spanned a 0.87 ns range were used for system validation, and the measured lifetimes from the organic fluorophores deviated by less than 10% from values reported in the literature. Multi-spectral lifetime images of organic dye solutions contained in glass capillary tubes were recorded by raster scanning the single fiber probe in a 2D plane to validate the system as an imaging tool. The lifetime measurement variability was measured indicating that the system provides reproducible results with a standard deviation smaller than 50 ps. The ms-TRFS is a compact apparatus that makes possible the fast, accurate, and precise multispectral time-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements of low quantum efficiency sub-nanosecond fluorophores

  17. Design and evaluation of a device for fast multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging

    Yankelevich, Diego R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, 3101 Kemper Hall, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Ma, Dinglong; Liu, Jing; Sun, Yang; Sun, Yinghua; Bec, Julien; Marcu, Laura, E-mail: lmarcu@ucdavis.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Elson, Daniel S. [Hamlyn Centre for Robotic Surgery, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    The application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) to in vivo tissue diagnosis requires a method for fast acquisition of fluorescence decay profiles in multiple spectral bands. This study focusses on development of a clinically compatible fiber-optic based multispectral TRFS (ms-TRFS) system together with validation of its accuracy and precision for fluorescence lifetime measurements. It also presents the expansion of this technique into an imaging spectroscopy method. A tandem array of dichroic beamsplitters and filters was used to record TRFS decay profiles at four distinct spectral bands where biological tissue typically presents fluorescence emission maxima, namely, 390, 452, 542, and 629 nm. Each emission channel was temporally separated by using transmission delays through 200 μm diameter multimode optical fibers of 1, 10, 19, and 28 m lengths. A Laguerre-expansion deconvolution algorithm was used to compensate for modal dispersion inherent to large diameter optical fibers and the finite bandwidth of detectors and digitizers. The system was found to be highly efficient and fast requiring a few nano-Joule of laser pulse energy and <1 ms per point measurement, respectively, for the detection of tissue autofluorescent components. Organic and biological chromophores with lifetimes that spanned a 0.8–7 ns range were used for system validation, and the measured lifetimes from the organic fluorophores deviated by less than 10% from values reported in the literature. Multi-spectral lifetime images of organic dye solutions contained in glass capillary tubes were recorded by raster scanning the single fiber probe in a 2D plane to validate the system as an imaging tool. The lifetime measurement variability was measured indicating that the system provides reproducible results with a standard deviation smaller than 50 ps. The ms-TRFS is a compact apparatus that makes possible the fast, accurate, and precise multispectral time-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements of low quantum efficiency sub-nanosecond fluorophores.

  18. Design and evaluation of a device for fast multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging

    Yankelevich, Diego R.; Ma, Dinglong; Liu, Jing; Sun, Yang; Sun, Yinghua; Bec, Julien; Elson, Daniel S.; Marcu, Laura

    2014-03-01

    The application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) to in vivo tissue diagnosis requires a method for fast acquisition of fluorescence decay profiles in multiple spectral bands. This study focusses on development of a clinically compatible fiber-optic based multispectral TRFS (ms-TRFS) system together with validation of its accuracy and precision for fluorescence lifetime measurements. It also presents the expansion of this technique into an imaging spectroscopy method. A tandem array of dichroic beamsplitters and filters was used to record TRFS decay profiles at four distinct spectral bands where biological tissue typically presents fluorescence emission maxima, namely, 390, 452, 542, and 629 nm. Each emission channel was temporally separated by using transmission delays through 200 ?m diameter multimode optical fibers of 1, 10, 19, and 28 m lengths. A Laguerre-expansion deconvolution algorithm was used to compensate for modal dispersion inherent to large diameter optical fibers and the finite bandwidth of detectors and digitizers. The system was found to be highly efficient and fast requiring a few nano-Joule of laser pulse energy and tissue autofluorescent components. Organic and biological chromophores with lifetimes that spanned a 0.8-7 ns range were used for system validation, and the measured lifetimes from the organic fluorophores deviated by less than 10% from values reported in the literature. Multi-spectral lifetime images of organic dye solutions contained in glass capillary tubes were recorded by raster scanning the single fiber probe in a 2D plane to validate the system as an imaging tool. The lifetime measurement variability was measured indicating that the system provides reproducible results with a standard deviation smaller than 50 ps. The ms-TRFS is a compact apparatus that makes possible the fast, accurate, and precise multispectral time-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements of low quantum efficiency sub-nanosecond fluorophores.

  19. Modeling and testing of fast response, fiber-optic temperature sensors

    Tonks, Michael James

    The objective of this work was to design, analyze and test a fast response fiber-optic temperature probe and sensor. The sensor is intended for measuring rapid temperature changes such as produced by a blast wave formed by a detonation. This work was performed in coordination with Luna Innovations Incorporated, and the design is based on extensions of an existing fiber-optic temperature sensor developed by Luna. The sensor consists of a glass fiber with an optical wafer attached to the tip. A basic description of the principles behind the fiber-optic temperature sensor and an accompanying demodulation system is provided. For experimental validation tests, shock tubes were used to simulate the blast wave experienced at a distance of 3.0 m from the detonation of 22.7 kg of TNT. The flow conditions were predicted using idealized shock tube theory. The temperature sensors were tested in three configurations, flush at the end of the shock tube, extended on a probe 2.54 cm into the flow and extended on a probe 12.7 cm into the flow. The total temperature was expected to change from 300 K to 1130 K for the flush wall experiments and from 300 K to 960 K for the probe experiments. During the initial 0.1 milliseconds of the data the temperature only changed 8 K when the sensors were flush in the end of the shock tube. The sensor temperature changed 36 K during the same time when mounted on a probe in the flow. Schlieren pictures were taken of the flow in the shock tube to further understand the shock tube environment. Contrary to ideal shock tube theory, it was discovered that the flow did not remain stagnant in the end of the shock tube after the shock reflects from the end of the shock tube. Instead, the effects of turbulence were recorded with the fiber-optic sensors, and this turbulence was also captured in the schlieren photographs. A fast-response thermocouple was used to collect data for comparison with the fiber-optic sensor, and the fiber-optic sensor was proven to have a faster response time compared to the thermocouple. When the sensors were extended 12.7 cm into the flow, the fiber-optic sensors recorded a temperature change of 143 K compared to 38 K recorded by the thermocouple during the 0.5 millisecond test. This corresponds to 22% of the change of total temperature in the air recorded by the fiber-optic sensor and only 6% recorded by the thermocouple. Put another way, the fiber-optic sensor experience a rate of temperature change equal to 2.9x105 K/s and the thermocouple changed at a rate of 0.79x105 K/s. The data recorded from the fiber-optic sensor also contained much less noise than the thermocouple data. An unsteady finite element thermal model was created using ANSYS to predict the temperature response of the sensor. Test cases with known analytical solutions were used to verify the ANSYS modeling procedures. The shock tube flow environment was also modeled with Fluent, a commercially available CFD code. Fluent was used to determine the heat transfer between the shock tube flow and the sensor. The convection film coefficient for the flow was predicted by Fluent to be 27,150 W/m2K for the front of the wafer and 13,385 W/m2K for the side. The Fluent results were used with the ANSYS model to predict the response of the fiber-optic sensor when exposed to the shock tube flow. The results from the Fluent/ANSYS model were compared to the fiber-optic measurements taken in the shock tube. It was seen that the heat flux to the sensor was slightly over-predicted by the model, and the heat losses from the wafer were also over-predicted. Since the prediction fell within the uncertainty of the measurement, it was found to be in good agreement with the measured values. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  20. Vlasov-Fokker-Planck simulations of fast-electron transport with hydrodynamic plasma response

    We report on kinetic simulations of the transport of laser-produced relativistic electron beams (REB) through solid-density plasma, including the hydrodynamic response of the plasma. We consider REBs with parameters relevant to fast-ignition of compressed inertial confinement fusion capsules. We show that over the 10-20ps timescales required for fast-ignition, thermal pressure (from Ohmic heating) can significantly modify the density which in turn strongly affects the propagation of injected fast-electrons; it allows them to re-collimate into a narrow, intense beam under conditions where they initially undergo beam-hollowing. Similar static-density calculations do not show re-collimation. The re-collimation effect is attributed to PdV cooling in the pressure-induced density-channel, which in turn suppresses defocusing magnetic fields generated by resistivity gradients. These simulations have been carried out using the new 2D-3V Vlasov-Fokker-Planck (VFP) code FIDO running in hybrid mode.

  1. Vlasov-Fokker-Planck simulations of fast-electron transport with hydrodynamic plasma response

    Kingham, R J; Sherlock, M; Ridgers, C P; Evans, R G, E-mail: rj.kingham@imperial.ac.u [Plasma Physics Group, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-01

    We report on kinetic simulations of the transport of laser-produced relativistic electron beams (REB) through solid-density plasma, including the hydrodynamic response of the plasma. We consider REBs with parameters relevant to fast-ignition of compressed inertial confinement fusion capsules. We show that over the 10-20ps timescales required for fast-ignition, thermal pressure (from Ohmic heating) can significantly modify the density which in turn strongly affects the propagation of injected fast-electrons; it allows them to re-collimate into a narrow, intense beam under conditions where they initially undergo beam-hollowing. Similar static-density calculations do not show re-collimation. The re-collimation effect is attributed to PdV cooling in the pressure-induced density-channel, which in turn suppresses defocusing magnetic fields generated by resistivity gradients. These simulations have been carried out using the new 2D-3V Vlasov-Fokker-Planck (VFP) code FIDO running in hybrid mode.

  2. A CFD-based wind solver for a fast response transport and dispersion model

    Gowardhan, Akshay A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pardyjak, Eric R [UNIV OF UTAH; Senocak, Inanc [BOISE STATE UNIV

    2010-01-01

    In many cities, ambient air quality is deteriorating leading to concerns about the health of city inhabitants. In urban areas with narrow streets surrounded by clusters of tall buildings, called street canyons, air pollution from traffic emissions and other sources is difficult to disperse and may accumulate resulting in high pollutant concentrations. For various situations, including the evacuation of populated areas in the event of an accidental or deliberate release of chemical, biological and radiological agents, it is important that models should be developed that produce urban flow fields quickly. For these reasons it has become important to predict the flow field in urban street canyons. Various computational techniques have been used to calculate these flow fields, but these techniques are often computationally intensive. Most fast response models currently in use are at a disadvantage in these cases as they are unable to correlate highly heterogeneous urban structures with the diagnostic parameterizations on which they are based. In this paper, a fast and reasonably accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique that solves the Navier-Stokes equations for complex urban areas has been developed called QUIC-CFD (Q-CFD). This technique represents an intermediate balance between fast (on the order of minutes for a several block problem) and reasonably accurate solutions. The paper details the solution procedure and validates this model for various simple and complex urban geometries.

  3. Effects of fractionated doses of fast neutrons or photons on the canine brain: evaluation by computerized tomography and evoked response recording

    The use of fast neutrons in the treatment of cancer necessitates a knowledge of the normal tissue responses. This study was designed to compare the late effects of fractionated doses of fast neutrons with fractionated doses of photons on canine brains by evoked response recording and viewing computerized tomograms (CT). A relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 4 was obtained for normal brain tissue assessed by mortality and onset of neurologic symptoms. Every three months post-irradiation, visual and sensory evoked responses were recorded. Changes over time appeared to be minimal; however, computerized tomographs showed marked brain shrinkage. A method of quantitating cerebrospinal fluid and parenchymal volumes from scans is described and future use of these CT ratios to generate dose response curves and RBE values is postulated

  4. Sources of uncertainty in eddy covariance ozone flux measurements made by dry chemiluminescence fast response analysers

    J. B. A. Muller

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Eddy covariance ozone flux measurements are the most direct way to estimate ozone removal near the surface. Over vegetated surfaces, high quality ozone fluxes are required to probe the underlying processes for which it is necessary to separate the flux into the components of stomatal and non-stomatal deposition. Detailed knowledge of the processes that control non-stomatal deposition is limited and more accurate ozone flux measurements are needed to quantify this component of the deposited flux. We present a systematic intercomparison study of eddy covariance ozone flux measurements made using two fast response dry chemiluminescence analysers. Ozone deposition was measured over a well characterised managed grassland near Edinburgh, Scotland, during August 2007. A data quality control procedure specific to these analysers is introduced. Absolute ozone fluxes were calculated based on the relative signals of the dry chemiluminescence analysers using three different calibration methods and the results are compared for both analysers. It is shown that the error in the fitted parameters required for the flux calculations provides a substantial source of uncertainty in the fluxes. The choice of the calculation method itself can also constitute an uncertainty in the flux as the calculated fluxes by the three methods do not agree within error at all times. This finding highlights the need for a consistent and rigorous approach for comparable data-sets, such as e.g. in flux networks. Ozone fluxes calculated by one of the methods were then used to compare the two analysers in more detail. This systematic analyser comparison reveals half-hourly flux values differing by up to a factor of two at times with the difference in mean hourly flux ranging from 0 to 23% with an error in the mean daily flux of 12%. The comparison of analysers shows that the agreement in fluxes is excellent for some days but that there is an underlying uncertainty as a result of variable analyser performance and/or non-linear behaviour of disc sensitivity.

  5. Nonparametric Bayesian time-series modeling and clustering of time-domain ground penetrating radar landmine responses

    Morton, Kenneth D., Jr.; Torrione, Peter A.; Collins, Leslie

    2010-04-01

    Time domain ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been shown to be a powerful sensing phenomenology for detecting buried objects such as landmines. Landmine detection with GPR data typically utilizes a feature-based pattern classification algorithm to discriminate buried landmines from other sub-surface objects. In high-fidelity GPR, the time-frequency characteristics of a landmine response should be indicative of the physical construction and material composition of the landmine and could therefore be useful for discrimination from other non-threatening sub-surface objects. In this research we propose modeling landmine time-domain responses with a nonparametric Bayesian time-series model and we perform clustering of these time-series models with a hierarchical nonparametric Bayesian model. Each time-series is modeled as a hidden Markov model (HMM) with autoregressive (AR) state densities. The proposed nonparametric Bayesian prior allows for automated learning of the number of states in the HMM as well as the AR order within each state density. This creates a flexible time-series model with complexity determined by the data. Furthermore, a hierarchical non-parametric Bayesian prior is used to group landmine responses with similar HMM model parameters, thus learning the number of distinct landmine response models within a data set. Model inference is accomplished using a fast variational mean field approximation that can be implemented for on-line learning.

  6. Transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of chicken adipose tissue in response to insulin neutralization and fasting

    Ji Bo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic broiler chickens rapidly accumulate adipose tissue due to intensive genetic selection for rapid growth and are naturally hyperglycemic and insulin resistant, making them an attractive addition to the suite of rodent models used for studies of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Furthermore, chicken adipose tissue is considered as poorly sensitive to insulin and lipolysis is under glucagon control. Excessive fat accumulation is also an economic and environmental concern for the broiler industry due to the loss of feed efficiency and excessive nitrogen wasting, as well as a negative trait for consumers who are increasingly conscious of dietary fat intake. Understanding the control of avian adipose tissue metabolism would both enhance the utility of chicken as a model organism for human obesity and insulin resistance and highlight new approaches to reduce fat deposition in commercial chickens. Results We combined transcriptomics and metabolomics to characterize the response of chicken adipose tissue to two energy manipulations, fasting and insulin deprivation in the fed state. Sixteen to 17 day-old commercial broiler chickens (ISA915 were fed ad libitum, fasted for five hours, or fed but deprived of insulin by injections of anti-insulin serum. Pair-wise contrasts of expression data identified a total of 2016 genes that were differentially expressed after correction for multiple testing, with the vast majority of differences due to fasting (1780 genes. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses indicated that a short term fast impacted expression of genes in a broad selection of pathways related to metabolism, signaling and adipogenesis. The effects of insulin neutralization largely overlapped with the response to fasting, but with more modest effects on adipose tissue metabolism. Tissue metabolomics indicated unique effects of insulin on amino acid metabolism. Conclusions Collectively, these data provide a foundation for further study into the molecular basis for adipose expansion in commercial poultry and identify potential pathways through which fat accretion may be attenuated in the future through genetic selection or management practices. They also highlight chicken as a useful model organism in which to study the dynamic relationship between food intake, metabolism, and adipose tissue biology.

  7. Limits on Fast Radio Bursts at 145 MHz with ARTEMIS, a real-time software backend

    Karastergiou, A; Armour, W; Williams, C; Mort, B; Dulwich, F; Salvini, S; Magro, A; Roberts, S; Serylak, M; Doo, A; Bilous, A V; Breton, R P; Falcke, H; Griessmeier, J -M; Hessels, J W T; Keane, E F; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; van Leeuwen, J; Noutsos, A; Oslowski, S; Sobey, C; Stappers, B W; Weltevrede, P

    2015-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs), are millisecond radio signals that exhibit dispersion larger than what the Galactic electron density can account for. We have conducted a 1446 hour survey for Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) at 145~MHz, covering a total of 4193 sq. deg on the sky. We used the UK station of the LOFAR radio telescope -- the Rawlings Array -- , accompanied for a majority of the time by the LOFAR station at Nan\\c{c}ay, observing the same fields at the same frequency. Our real-time search backend, ARTEMIS, utilizes graphics processing units to search for pulses with dispersion measures up to 320 cm$^{-3}$ pc. Previous derived FRB rates from surveys around 1.4~GHz, and favoured FRB interpretations, motivated this survey, despite all previous detections occurring at higher dispersion measures. We detected no new FRBs above a signal-to-noise threshold of 10, leading to the most stringent upper limit yet on the FRB event rate at these frequencies: 29 sky$^{-1}$ day$^{-1}$ for 5~ms-duration pulses above 62~Jy. The no...

  8. Time and space resolved interferometry for laser-generated fast electron measurements

    Antici, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via E. Fermi, Frascati 40-00044 (Italy); ILE-Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS-ENSTA-Iogs-UP Sud, Batterie de l' Yvette, Palaiseau 91761 (France) and Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria, Sapienza-Universita di Roma, Via A. Scarpa 14, Roma 00161 (Italy); LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, route de Saclay, Palaiseau 91128 (France); Chen, S. N. [Livermore National Laboratory, L-209, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Gremillet, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon, F-91297 (France); Grismayer, T.; Mora, P. [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau 91128 (France); Audebert, P.; Fuchs, J. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, route de Saclay, Palaiseau 91128 (France)

    2010-11-15

    A technique developed to measure in time and space the dynamics of the electron populations resulting from the irradiation of thin solids by ultraintense lasers is presented. It is a phase reflectometry technique that uses an optical probe beam reflecting off the target rear surface. The phase of the probe beam is sensitive to both laser-produced fast electrons of low-density streaming into vacuum and warm solid density electrons that are heated by the fast electrons. A time and space resolved interferometer allows to recover the phase of the probe beam sampling the target. The entire diagnostic is computationally modeled by calculating the probe beam phase when propagating through plasma density profiles originating from numerical calculations of plasma expansion. Matching the modeling to the experimental measurements allows retrieving the initial electron density and temperature of both populations locally at the target surface with very high temporal and spatial resolution ({approx}4 ps,6 {mu}m). Limitations and approximations of the diagnostic are discussed and analyzed.

  9. Efficient allocation of heterogeneous response times in information spreading process

    Cui, Ai-Xiang; Tang, Ming; Fu, Yan; Liang, Xiaoming; Do, Younghae

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the impacts of spatiotemporal heterogeneities of human activities on spreading dynamics have attracted extensive attention. In this paper, to study heterogeneous response times on information spreading, we focus on the susceptible-infected spreading dynamics with adjustable power-law response time distribution based on uncorrelated scale-free networks. We find that the stronger the heterogeneity of response times is, the faster the information spreading is in the early and middle stages. Following a given heterogeneity, the procedure of reducing the correlation between the response times and degrees of individuals can also accelerate the spreading dynamics in the early and middle stages. However, the dynamics in the late stage is slightly more complicated, and there is an optimal value of the full prevalence time changing with the heterogeneity of response times and the response time-degree correlation, respectively. The optimal phenomena results from the efficient allocation of heterogeneous respon...

  10. The synthetic scattering function and application to the design of cold moderators for pulsed neutron sources: a fast response methane based array

    The Synthetic Scattering Function (SSF) allows a simple description of the incoherent interaction of slow neutrons with hydrogenous materials. The main advantages of this model reside in the analytical expressions that it produces for double-differential cross sections, energy-transfer kernels, and total cross sections, which in turn permit the fast evaluation of neutron scattering and transport properties. In this work we briefly discuss basic features of the SSF, review some previous applications to a number of moderating materials, and present new Monte Carlo results for a fast time-response moderator concept based on methane at low temperatures. (auth)

  11. FAST INVERSION METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF PLANETARY PARAMETERS FROM TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS

    The transit timing variation (TTV) method relies on monitoring changes in timing of transits of known exoplanets. Non-transiting planets in the system can be inferred from TTVs by their gravitational interaction with the transiting planet. The TTV method is sensitive to low-mass planets that cannot be detected by other means. Here we describe a fast algorithm that can be used to determine the mass and orbit of the non-transiting planets from the TTV data. We apply our code, ttvim.f, to a wide variety of planetary systems to test the uniqueness of the TTV inversion problem and its dependence on the precision of TTV observations. We find that planetary parameters, including the mass and mutual orbital inclination of planets, can be determined from the TTV data sets that should become available in near future. Unlike the radial velocity technique, the TTV method can therefore be used to characterize the inclination distribution of multi-planet systems.

  12. Fast Inversion Method for Determination of Planetary Parameters from Transit Timing Variations

    Nesvorny, David

    2009-01-01

    The Transit Timing Variation (TTV) method relies on monitoring changes in timing of transits of known exoplanets. Non-transiting planets in the system can be inferred from TTVs by their gravitational interaction with the transiting planet. The TTV method is sensitive to low-mass planets that cannot be detected by other means. Here we describe a fast algorithm that can be used to determine the mass and orbit of the non-transiting planets from the TTV data. We apply our code, ttvim.f, to a wide variety of planetary systems to test the uniqueness of the TTV inversion problem and its dependence on the precision of TTV observations. We find that planetary parameters, including the mass and mutual orbital inclination of planets, can be determined from the TTV datasets that should become available in near future. Unlike the radial velocity technique, the TTV method can therefore be used to characterize the inclination distribution of multi-planet systems.

  13. Observations of plasma response to RMP using fast movable magnetic probe on TEXTOR

    Plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbation fields (RMPs) is important for understanding the physical mechanism of instability control using RMP fields in the next generation of fusion devices, i.e. ITER. Such an investigation has been carried out in TEXTOR under different dynamic ergodic divertor (DED) configurations. The perturbed magnetic field is measured by the Fast Movable Magnetic Probe (FMMP) installed at the outer equatorial plane (low-field side). Preliminary results show that the perturbed plasma edge magnetic topology is different from the case simulated with a vacuum assumption. Plasma response to RMP depends strongly on both the location of the resonant rational flux surface and the frequency difference between the drift of the rational surface in the plasma and the external perturbation.

  14. Observations of plasma response to RMP using fast movable magnetic probe on TEXTOR

    Yang, Yao; Liang, Yunfeng; Sun, Youwen; Zhang, Tao; Assmann, Jochen; Bertschinger, Guenter; Jaegers, Hubert; Koslowski, Hans Rudolf; Pearson, Jonathan; Schweer, Bernd; Wiegmann, Christopher; Xu, Yuhong [Institute of Energy and Climate Research/Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Juelich (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbation fields (RMPs) is important for understanding the physical mechanism of instability control using RMP fields in the next generation of fusion devices, i.e. ITER. Such an investigation has been carried out in TEXTOR under different dynamic ergodic divertor (DED) configurations. The perturbed magnetic field is measured by the Fast Movable Magnetic Probe (FMMP) installed at the outer equatorial plane (low-field side). Preliminary results show that the perturbed plasma edge magnetic topology is different from the case simulated with a vacuum assumption. Plasma response to RMP depends strongly on both the location of the resonant rational flux surface and the frequency difference between the drift of the rational surface in the plasma and the external perturbation.

  15. The Importance of Responsibility in Times of Crisis

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to show the importance of the concept of responsibility as the foundation of ethics in times of crisis in particular in the fields of politics and economics in the modern civilisation marked by globalization and technological progres. I consider the concept of responsibility as the key notion in order to understand the ethical duty in a modern technological civilisation. We can indeed observe a moralization of the concept of responsibility going beyond a strict legal definition in terms of imputability. The paper begins by discussing the humanistic foundations of such a concept of responsibility. It treats the historical origins of responsibility and it relates this concept to the concept of accountability. On the basis of this historical determination of the concept I would like to present the definition of the concept of responsibility as fundamental ethical principle that has increasing importance as the foundation of the principles of governance in modern welfare states. In this context the paper discusses the extension of the concept of responsibility towards institutional or corporate responsibility where responsibility does not only concerns the responsibility of individuals but also deals with the responsibility of institutional collectivities. In this way the paper is based on the following structure : 1 The ethical foundation of the concept of responsibility 2 Responsibility in technological civilisation 3 Political responsibility for good governance in the welfare state 4 Social responsibility of business corporations in times of globalization 5 Conclusion and discussion : changed conditions of responsibility in modern times.

  16. A new parameterization for predicting the fast response of stratiform cloud to unresolved diabatic radiative heating

    Garrett, T. J.; Schmidt, C. T.

    2010-12-01

    Conventional GCMs are easily capable of representing the convective response of the atmosphere to the slow cooling of clear skies over timescales of days to weeks. On the other hand, representing the interactions of radiation with cloudy skies lie beyond current GCM capabilities because the the associated heating gradients are so sharp, and these drive circulations a traditional GCM framework cannot resolve. Moreover, because clouds are partly the consequence of the very circulations they drive, the problem quickly becomes non-linear and difficult to parameterize. Using a combination of LES simulations and simple theoretical arguments, we have found that a single dimensionless “Spreading Number” S captures the small-scale, fast response of horizontally finite stratiform cloud layers to radiative flux convergence/divergence. The Spreading Number factors in local heating gradients, the atmospheric static stability, and the cloud aspect ratio. For very low values of S, where the cloud is either narrow or optically tenuous, the thermodynamic response of the cloud layer to heating is to slowly loft and spread in laminar motions, maintaining continuity while isentropic surfaces stay approximately flat: thin tropopause cirrus is an example. Very large values of S are associated with clouds that are so wide and/or optically dense that heating gradients destabilize the cloud to the point that it convects: one example is the development of mammatus clouds at cirrus anvil cloud base. We suggest that for the purpose of GCM simulations, values of S can be calculated for parameterized cloud cover that cannot be explicitly resolved, and that this offers a shortcut for calculating cloud dynamic fast response over unresolved timescales. Numerical simulation of mammatus cloud using interactive IR radiative heating within the University of Utah LES. Cloud fields are subsequently passed through a 3D radiative transfer solver SHDOM (one quarter domain looking up at cloud base). The mammatus field developed from an initially homogeneous and still cloud layer with a very high value of the spreading number S.

  17. Dynamic Response of a fast near infra-red Mueller matrix ellipsometer

    Aas, Lars Martin Sandvik; Kildemo, Morten; Lindgren, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic response of a near infrared Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal based Mueller matrix ellipsometer (NIR FLC-MME) is presented. A time dependent simulation model, using the measured time response of the individual FLCs, is used to describe the measured temporal response. Furthermore, the impulse response of the detector and the pre-amplifier is characterized and included in the simulation model. The measured time-dependent intensity response of the MME is reproduced in simulations, and it is concluded that the switching time of the FLCs is the limiting factor for the Mueller matrix measurement time of the FLC-based MME. Based on measurements and simulations our FLC based NIR-MME system is estimated to operate at the maximum speed of approximately 16 ms per Mueller matrix measurement. The FLC-MME may be operated several times faster, since the switching time of the crystals depends on the individual crystal being switched, and to what state it is switched. As a demonstration, the measured temporal response ...

  18. Response times of operators in a control room

    A statistical analysis was made of operator response times recorded in the control room of a research reactor during the years 1972-1974. A homogeneity test revealed that the data consist of a mixture of populations. A small but statistically significant difference is found between day and night response times. Lognormal distributions are found to provide the best fit of the day and the night response times. (author)

  19. Response Times of Operators in a Control Room

    Platz, O.; Rasmussen, J.; Skanborg, Preben Zacho

    A statistical analysis was made of operator response times recorded in the control room of a research reactor during the years 1972-1974. A homogeneity test revealed that the data consist of a mixture of populations. A small but statistically significant difference is found between day and night...... response times. Lognormal distributions are found to provide the best fit of the day and the night response times....

  20. Reduced fasting time improves comfort and satisfaction of elderly patients undergoing anesthesia for hip fracture

    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patient's satisfaction is a standard indicator of care quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a preoperative oral ingestion of 200 mL of a carbohydrate drink can improve comfort and satisfaction with anesthesia in elderly patients with hip fracture. METHOD: Prospective randomized clinical trial conducted in a Brazilian public hospital, with patients ASA I-III undergoing surgery for hip fracture. The control group (NPO received nothing by mouth after 9:00 p.m. the night before, while patients in the experimental group (CHO received 200 mL of a carbohydrate drink 2-4 h before the operation. Patients' characteristics, subjective perceptions, thirst and hunger and satisfaction were determined in four steps. Mann-Whitney U-test and Fisher exact test were used for comparison of control and experimental groups. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients were included in one of the two regimens of preoperative fasting. Fasting time decreased significantly in the study group. Patients drank 200 mL 2:59 h before surgery and showed no hunger (p < 0.00 and thirst on arrival to OR (p < 0.00, resulting in increased satisfaction with the perioperative anesthesia care (p < 0.00. CONCLUSIONS: The satisfaction questionnaire for surgical patient could become a useful tool in assessing the quality of care. In conclusion, CHO significantly reduces preoperative discomfort and increases satisfaction with anesthesia care.

  1. The first synchrotron infrared beamlines at the Advanced Light Source: Spectromicroscopy and fast timing

    Two recently commissioned infrared beamlines on the 1.4 bending magnet port at the Advanced Light Source, LBNL, are described. Using a synchrotron as an IR source provides three primary advantages: increased brightness, very fast light pulses, and enhanced far-IR flux. The considerable brightness advantage manifests itself most beneficially when performing spectroscopy on a microscopic length scale. Beamline (BL) 1.4.3 is a dedicated FTIR spectromicroscopy beamline, where a diffraction-limited spot size using the synchrotron source is utilized. BL 1.4.2 consists of a vacuum FTIR bench with a wide spectral range and step-scan capability. This BL makes use of the pulsed nature of the synchrotron light as well as the far-IR flux. Fast timing is demonstrated by observing the pulses from the electron bunch storage pattern at the ALS. Results from several experiments from both IR beamlines will be presented as an overview of the IR research currently being done at the ALS

  2. Signal and Noise Analysis in TRION -Time-Resolved Integrative Optical Fast Neutron Detector

    Vartsky, D; Mor, I; Goldberg, M B; Bar, D; Dangendorf, V

    2009-01-01

    TRION is a sub-mm spatial resolution fast neutron imaging detector, which employs an integrative optical time-of-flight technique. The detector was developed for fast neutron resonance radiography, a method capable of detecting a broad range of conventional and improvised explosives. In this study we have analyzed in detail, using Monte-Carlo calculations and experimentally determined parameters, all the processes that influence the signal and noise in the TRION detector. In contrast to event-counting detectors where the signal-to-noise ratio is dependent only on the number of detected events (quantum noise), in an energy-integrating detector additional factors, such as the fluctuations in imparted energy, number of photoelectrons, system gain and other factors will contribute to the noise. The excess noise factor (over the quantum noise) due to these processes was 4.3, 2.7, 2.1, 1.9 and 1.9 for incident neutron energies of 2, 4, 7.5, 10 and 14 MeV, respectively. It is shown that, even under ideal light colle...

  3. Time-resolved fast-neutron pinhole camera for studying thermonuclear plasmas

    A fast-neutron pinhole camera with high detection efficiency and nanosecond time-resolution has been developed and applied to the investigation of the spatial and temporal distributions of DD- and DT-neutrons produced by thermonuclear plasmas. The pinhole consists of a specially designed 1.15 m long copper collimator with an effective aperture of 1 mm diameter. Several different types of spatial resolution detectors have been used at the image plane: (1) a multi-element, scintillation-photomultiplier system used for time-resolved measurements consisting of sixty-one individual detectors, (2) a scintillation-fiber-chamber coupled to a gated image-intensifier tube used for direct photographing of the neutron image, and (3) a propane bubble chamber used for time-integrated recording with a capability to distinguish DD- from DT-neutrons. Pulsed neutron sources with typical dimensions of 1 cm emitting of the order of 1012 neutrons over a time period of 10-100 nsec have been investigated. A spatial resolution of 1 mm and a time resolution of approximately 10 nsec was achieved in the investigations of dense plasma compression phenomena

  4. A fast density-based clustering algorithm for real-time Internet of Things stream.

    Amini, Amineh; Saboohi, Hadi; Wah, Teh Ying; Herawan, Tutut

    2014-01-01

    Data streams are continuously generated over time from Internet of Things (IoT) devices. The faster all of this data is analyzed, its hidden trends and patterns discovered, and new strategies created, the faster action can be taken, creating greater value for organizations. Density-based method is a prominent class in clustering data streams. It has the ability to detect arbitrary shape clusters, to handle outlier, and it does not need the number of clusters in advance. Therefore, density-based clustering algorithm is a proper choice for clustering IoT streams. Recently, several density-based algorithms have been proposed for clustering data streams. However, density-based clustering in limited time is still a challenging issue. In this paper, we propose a density-based clustering algorithm for IoT streams. The method has fast processing time to be applicable in real-time application of IoT devices. Experimental results show that the proposed approach obtains high quality results with low computation time on real and synthetic datasets. PMID:25110753

  5. Fault Diagnosis of Ball Bearing using Time Domain Analysis and Fast Fourier Transformation

    Pravesh Durkhure*1

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study Fault diagnosis of Ball bearings is done by statistical analysis under various time domain parameters. The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between time domain and frequency domain analysis of vibration signature to judge and find the fault in bearing. This is achieved by vibration analysis and investigating different time domain parameter like Kurtosis, Skewness, Crest factor, RMS Value. For this purpose the bearing is coupled to the motor and observation were taken at 810 rpm. Vibration of the bearing are converted in voltage signal (milivolt using an accelerometer/piezoelectric transducer. The bearing is taken under two different conditions viz Healthy (normal bearing and Faulty (defected outer race bearing with the aim of fault detection. Vibration data of healthy bearing are used as a standard for the analysis of vibration spectra of faulty bearing. Vibration signals are analyzed through different operations performed in MATLAB software. The result shows that the statistical analysis through different time domain parameters and its fast Fourier transformation provides efficient representation of fault detection in rolling element bearings. So as an initial stage if we find kurtosis and skewness values it can predict a fault. And if we get higher values of time domain parameters then only it needs to go for its frequency domain analysis. In this paper we also get exact fault position for defective bearing by its frequency domain analysis.

  6. Performance of Downlink DSTBC-WCDMA in Fast-Varying Time-Dispersive Channels

    Umali, Edwin M.; Marciano, Joel Joseph S., Jr.; Yamao, Yasushi

    This paper presents the performance of DSTBC when applied on the downlink transmission of WCDMA cellular systems in fast-varying time-dispersive channels. First, three DSTBC-WCDMA receiver architectures are proposed and they are: (1) the DSTBC Rake receiver for combined-code (D-Rake-C), (2) the DSTBC deterministic receiver for combined-code (D-Det-C), and (3) the DSTBC deterministic de-prefix receiver for combined-code (D-Det-DP-C). Detection can be divided into a correlator that combines descrambling and despreading, and a DSTBC decoder. The correlator is designed to perform signal separation of the multipath-multiuser signal via least-square (LS) estimation. To enable the correlator to perform signal separation at every block period, the long combined spreading and scrambling codes are divided into shorter codes. Then, the proposed receivers are theoretically analyzed in time-dispersive channels and multiple-user environment using the moment generating function (MGF) of fading distributions. For analyzing interference tolerance, the standard Gaussian approximation is employed. Finally, simulations are performed. Theoretical performance well matches simulated results. Among the three receivers, the D-Det-DP-C receiver has the best performance in time-dispersive channels with a maximum excess delay of 4 chips and a maximum Doppler frequency of 250Hz. Results also show minimal performance degradation for fast fading channels with a maximum Doppler frequency of 1200Hz. The best performance is obtained when the receiver has the information on the maximum excess delay and all users' spreading codes.

  7. A novel 4D fast track finding system using precise space and time information of the hit

    Neri, Nicola; Petruzzo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel fast track finding system capable of reconstructing four dimensional particle trajectories in real time using precise space and time information of the hits. Recent developments in silicon pixel detectors achieved 150 ps time resolution and intense R&D is in progress to improve the timing performance, aiming at 10 ps. The use of the precise space and time information allows the suppression of background hits not compatible with the time of passage of the particle and the de...

  8. Cell fasting: Cellular response and application of serum starvation (ahead of publication

    Masoomeh Aghababazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans suffer transient or persistent starvation due to a lack of food intake, either because of fasting, voluntary dieting, or due to the scarcity of available food. At the cellular level it is possible to possess pathological starvation during ischemia and solid tumors. Blood provides many nutrients to our cells, and researchers provide these nutrients to cells in culture in the form of enriched culture medium plus serum from animal sources. In response to starvation, animals use hormonal cues to mobilize stored resources to provide nutrients to individual cells. Besides whole-body responses to nutrient deprivation, individual cells sense and react to lack of nutrients. At the cellular level, starvation triggers different responses such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Stop cycling for proliferating cells is the primary response to nutrient deprivation. Under certain conditions, the cell reacts to nutrient deprivation by engaging the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Thus, serum starvation is regarded as a procedure to prepare cells for an experiment in serum-free conditions such as induction cell cycle synchronization. Several researchers have used serum starvation as a tool to study molecular mechanisms involved in different cellular process, metabolic researches and evaluation of a drug effect.

  9. Fast Tracker: A Hardware Real Time Track Finder for the ATLAS Trigger System

    Kimura, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Fast Tracker (FTK) is an integral part of the trigger upgrade program for the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the LHC luminosity approaches its design level of 10^34cm^?2s^?1, the combinatorial problem posed by charged particle tracking becomes increasingly difficult due to the swelling of multiple interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up). The FTK is a highly-parallel hardware system intended to provide high-quality tracks with transverse momentum above 1 GeV/c in real time for online trigger system. The FTK systems design, based on a mixture of advanced technologies, and expected physics performance will be presented.

  10. Program for the analysis of time series. [by means of fast Fourier transform algorithm

    Brown, T. J.; Brown, C. G.; Hardin, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A digital computer program for the Fourier analysis of discrete time data is described. The program was designed to handle multiple channels of digitized data on general purpose computer systems. It is written, primarily, in a version of FORTRAN 2 currently in use on CDC 6000 series computers. Some small portions are written in CDC COMPASS, an assembler level code. However, functional descriptions of these portions are provided so that the program may be adapted for use on any facility possessing a FORTRAN compiler and random-access capability. Properly formatted digital data are windowed and analyzed by means of a fast Fourier transform algorithm to generate the following functions: (1) auto and/or cross power spectra, (2) autocorrelations and/or cross correlations, (3) Fourier coefficients, (4) coherence functions, (5) transfer functions, and (6) histograms.

  11. Implementation of a fast time-domain processor for FMCW Synthetic Aperture Radar data

    Frioud, Max; Wellig, Peter; Stanko, Stephan; Meier, Erich

    2015-10-01

    For the purpose of getting sensitive information relevant to civil or military security, high-resolution airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) provides the possibility to organize missions at short notice regardless of the daylight and of the weather conditions. The use of compact millimeter-wave FMCW SAR systems allows reaching these goals more safely and at lower cost using unmanned lightweight platforms. As a counterpart these platforms are relatively unstable, making the data-processing more difficult. In order to reach optimum focusing quality also in unfavorable flight conditions or for highly non-linear tracks we developed a fast Time-Domain Processor that relies on parallelization using the GPU resources. A production areal processing rate as high as 6 km2/h using 20 cm ground pixel spacing on a single PC station was achieved. The processing quality and efficiency is demonstrated using real data from the MIRANDA35 Ka-band SAR system.

  12. Physiotherapy Exercise After Fast-Track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: Time for Reconsideration?

    Bandholm, Thomas; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Bandholm T, Kehlet H. Physiotherapy exercise after fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty: time for reconsideration? Major surgery, including total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA), is followed by a convalescence period, during which the loss of muscle strength and......-track methodology or enhanced recovery programs. It is the nature of this methodology to systematically and scientifically optimize all perioperative care components, with the overall goal of enhancing recovery. This is also the case for the care component "physiotherapy exercise" after THA and TKA. The 2 latest...... meta-analyses on the effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise after THA and TKA generally conclude that physiotherapy exercise after THA and TKA either does not work or is not very effective. The reason for this may be that the "pill" of physiotherapy exercise typically offered after THA and TKA does...

  13. The first synchrotron infrared beamlines at the Advanced Light Source: Microspectroscopy and fast timing

    A set of new infrared (IR) beamlines on the 1.4 bending magnet port at the Advanced Light Source, LBNL, are described. Using a synchrotron as an IR source provides considerable brightness advantages, which manifests itself most beneficially when performing spectroscopy on a microscopic length scale. Beamline (BL) 1.4.3 is a dedicated microspectroscopy beamline, where the much smaller focused spot size using the synchrotron source is utilized. This enables an entirely new set of experiments to be performed where spectroscopy on a truly microscopic scale is now possible. BL 1.4.2 consists of a vacuum FTIR bench with a wide spectral range and step-scan capabilities. The fast timing is demonstrated by observing the synchrotron electron storage pattern at the ALS

  14. System-level Specifications of the Timing and Fast Control system for the LHCb Upgrade

    Alessio, Federico

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times the initial design luminosity. The various sub-systems in the readout architecture will need to be upgraded in order to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate and higher network load. In this paper, we describe the specifications of the new Timing and Fast Control (S- TFC) system. We define the requirements for the new S-TFC, and specify its architecture and the individual components. The system is based on a single new Readout Supervisor (S-ODIN) instantiating several S-TFC masters to allow partitioning. The communication with the readout electronics is ensured by a shared high-speed optical link network for both the distribution of timing and synchronous control information, as well as trigger/throttle communication. An interface board (SOL40) with fan-out capabilities for timing and synchronous information and fan-in capabilities for throttle and rate regulation of the...

  15. Improvement in the gamma-ray timing measurements using a fast digital oscilloscope

    The time resolutions of a new positron lifetime spectrometer based on a fast digital oscilloscope are measured using BaF2 and plastic (BC-422) scintillators. It is found that the plastic scintillator has only a small advantage in the time resolution compared to BaF2. For the cascade decay of 60Co (1.17 and 1.33 MeV), the time resolution for a pair of BC-422 plastic scintillators having a size of 40 mm in diameter and 20 mm thick is about 120 ps FWHM. This value is very close to that of BaF2. Although a time resolution of 90 ps FWHM is obtained using a pair of small BC-422 plastic scintillators (30 mm in diameter, 10 mm thick), the counting rate is nearly two orders of magnitude lower than that with BaF2. It is thus concluded that the BaF2 is the best scintillator at present for the practical positron lifetime spectroscopy

  16. Diamonds as fast timing detectors for MIPS: The HADES proton-beam monitor/start detector

    Position sensitive mono-crystalline diamond detectors were used successfully as start/beam-monitoring detectors for proton beams (1.2 GeV-3.5 GeV) at rates of up to 3.106/s/10 mm2. Two different detector sizes of 3.5 x 3.5 mm2 (4 segments) and 4.7 x 4.7 mm2 (8 segments) were used with thicknesses of 300 ?m and 500 ?m, respectively. Utilizing dedicated fast amplifiers directly attached to the diamond segments, a time resolution of about 100 ps could be achieved with a signal base width of about 8-10 ns and ?95% detection efficiency. The signal/RMS-noise ratio amounted to 22 (300 ?m) and 26 (500 ?m) at rise times of 1.2 ns and 1.3 ns, respectively. The measured time resolution is about a factor of two worse than expected from the signal/noise ratio. A significant variation of rise times was observed which most likely results from rather inhomogeneous intrinsic fields (upcharging effects due to charge trapping). Furthermore, at high rates unreasonably large leakage currents appeared for some detectors which eventually resulted in sudden discharges, tripping the detector bias. These effects seem to depend strongly on the metallization procedure. An optimization of this procedure is currently investigated.

  17. Glutamate is involved in mediating the fast activation of hippocampal interneurons in response to median raphe stimulation

    Viktor Varga

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal information processing is heavily influenced by the serotonergic input from the median raphe nucleus (MR. Recent discovery of a novel type of vesicular glutamate transporter in serotonergic neurons have raised the possibility that glutamate may be involved in signaling by the serotonergic system. Here, we tested the possibility that fast activation of hippocampal neurons in response to the stimulation of the MR is partly mediated by glutamate. In urethane anesthetized rats we electrically stimulated the MR at 1 Hz and recorded the response of hippocampal neurons combined with the microiontophoresis of an AMPA-type glutamate receptor antagonist (NBQX. In some experiments the 5-HT3-receptor (5-HT3r blocker ondansetron was intraperitoneally delivered as well. Neuronal responses were analyzed by constructing peri-stimulus time histograms. Sixteen non-principal cells with diverse firing pattern types (theta OFF, regular spiking, theta-activated, theta rhythmic showed fast activation with a latency of 9.11 ? 3.02 ms (median ? interquartile range, duration of 6.97 ? 4.25 ms and success rate (stimulus spike coupling: SR of 65.22 ? 38.1%. Systemic 5-HT3r-blocker increased SR in 2 neurons and reduced in 4 cells. NBQX significantly attenuated activation in all neurons tested (n = 6, median of maximal reduction: 50.9%. NBQX-effect was repeatable and depended on ejection current intensity (-40 nA vs. -80 nA and duration (3 min vs. 6 min. We have described a novel excitatory component of the raphe-hippocampal pathway partly operating with glutamate. This connection may be capable of rapidly and efficiently recruiting a subset of hippocampal interneurons.

  18. Time dependent start-up thermal analysis of a Super Fast Reactor

    Highlights: • Time dependent startup thermal analysis of a Super Fast Reactor is performed. • A recirculation system is used for pressurization and for generating supercritical steam. • MCST satisfies the criterion both during subcritical pressure and during power-raising. • MCST is not sensitive to the change of inlet temperature, gap volume and flow rate because of high flow to power ratio. • CHF is not limiting the MCST during subcritical pressure due to large margin of heat flux. -- Abstract: The startup system of a supercritical pressure light water cooled fast reactor (Super FR) is studied by time dependent thermal-hydraulic analysis. The plant analysis code is developed based on an innovative upward flow pattern in all the assemblies of the Super FR. A recirculation system consisting of a steam drum, a circulation pump, and a heat exchanger is used for the startup. Detailed procedures are performed and the maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) at rated power, 640 °C, is used as the criterion. Firstly a small constant nuclear power is used for rising the core feed water temperature to be 280 °C through the recirculation system. Secondly, pressurization is done in the recirculation system from atmospheric to operating pressure, 25 MPa, by raising the power. Thirdly, line-switching from recirculation mode to once-through direct-cycle is performed while turbines are started by supercritical steam at supercritical pressure. Finally the power is raised to be 100% of power followed by raising the flow rate. During pressurization the heat flux margin is large due to low power used for pressurization and the MCST is much lower than the criterion. The MCST is not sensitive to the inlet temperature, the flow rate, and the gap volume of the core because of high flow to power ratio. Smaller dimension of steam drum can be used for pressurization stably. The MCST satisfies the criterion both during subcritical pressure and during power-raising

  19. Artificial diamonds as radiation-hard detectors for ultra-fast fission-fragment timing

    Oberstedt, S., E-mail: stephan.oberstedt@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre (IRMM), B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Borcea, R.; Bry?, T.; Gamboni, Th.; Geerts, W.; Hambsch, F.-J. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre (IRMM), B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Oberstedt, A. [Fundamental Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Hgskola, S-41296 Gteborg (Sweden); Akademin fr Naturvetenskap och Technik, rebro Universitet, S-70182 rebro (Sweden); Vidali, M. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre (IRMM), B-2440 Geel (Belgium)

    2013-06-21

    In the framework of the construction of the double time-of-flight spectrometer VERDI, where we aim at measuring pre- and post-neutron masses directly and simultaneously, ultra-fast time pick-up detectors based on artificial diamond material were investigated for the first time with fission fragments from {sup 252}Cf (0.5MeV/utiming resolution of a 100?m thick polycrystalline CVD diamond detector with a size of 11 cm{sup 2} was determined to ?{sub int}=(28341)ps by comparison with Monte-Carlo simulations. Using broadband pre-amplifiers, 4-fold segmented detectors of same total size and with a thickness of 180?m show an intrinsic timing resolution of ?{sub int}=(10621)ps. This is highly competitive with the best micro-channel plate detectors. Due to the limited and batch-dependent charge collection efficiency of poly-crystalline diamond material, the detection efficiency for fission fragments may be smaller than 100%. -- Highlights: ? First use of chemical vapor deposited diamond for heavy ions with kinetic energies below 2 MeV per nucleon. ? Fission-fragment time-of-flight measurements with a timing resolution better than 150 ps. ? Radiation-hard fission event trigger to be used in an intense neutron field.

  20. Artificial diamonds as radiation-hard detectors for ultra-fast fission-fragment timing

    In the framework of the construction of the double time-of-flight spectrometer VERDI, where we aim at measuring pre- and post-neutron masses directly and simultaneously, ultra-fast time pick-up detectors based on artificial diamond material were investigated for the first time with fission fragments from 252Cf (0.5MeV/u9 fission-fragments/cm2 together with more than 3.5109 neutrons/cm2 and 31010?-particles/cm2. This fluence is characteristic for fission experiments. The pre-requisite for the observed signal stability is the application of priming of the diamond material with a strong ?-source for about 48 h. The intrinsic timing resolution of a 100?m thick polycrystalline CVD diamond detector with a size of 11 cm2 was determined to ?int=(28341)ps by comparison with Monte-Carlo simulations. Using broadband pre-amplifiers, 4-fold segmented detectors of same total size and with a thickness of 180?m show an intrinsic timing resolution of ?int=(10621)ps. This is highly competitive with the best micro-channel plate detectors. Due to the limited and batch-dependent charge collection efficiency of poly-crystalline diamond material, the detection efficiency for fission fragments may be smaller than 100%. -- Highlights: ? First use of chemical vapor deposited diamond for heavy ions with kinetic energies below 2 MeV per nucleon. ? Fission-fragment time-of-flight measurements with a timing resolution better than 150 ps. ? Radiation-hard fission event trigger to be used in an intense neutron field

  1. The usefulness of time-dependent reactor accident consequence modelling for emergency response planning

    After major releases of radionuclides into the atmosphere fast reaction of authorities will be necessary to inform the public of potential consequences and to consider and optimize mitigating actions. These activities require availability of well designed computer models, adequate and fast measurements and prior training of responsible persons. The quantitative assessment models should be capable of taking into account of actual atmospheric dispersion conditions, actual deposition situation (dry, rain, snow, fog), seasonal status of the agriculture, food processing and distribution pathways, etc. In this paper the usefulness of such models will be discussed, their limitations, the relative importance of exposure pathways and a selection of important methods to decrease the activity in food products after an accident. Real-time reactor accident consequence models should be considered as a condition sine qua non for responsible use of nuclear power for electricity production

  2. Changes in energy metabolism in response to 48 h of overfeeding and fasting in Caucasians and Pima Indians

    Weyer, C; Vozarova, B; Ravussin, E; Tataranni, P A; de Courten, Barbora

    2001-01-01

    Differences in the metabolic response to overfeeding and starvation may confer susceptibility or resistance to obesity in humans. To further examine this hypothesis, we assessed the changes in 24 h energy metabolism in response to short-term overfeeding and fasting in Caucasians (C) and Pima...... Indians (I), a population with a very high propensity for obesity....

  3. A fast projector-backprojector pair modeling the asymmetric, spatially varying scatter response function for scatter compensation in SPECT imaging

    The authors previously developed a method, slab derived scatter estimation (SDSE), for quickly and accurately modeling the asymmetric, spatially varying scatter response function in uniformly attenuating objects with convex surfaces. This model has been implemented in a projector-backprojector that, when combined with iterative reconstruction techniques, provides accurate scatter compensation in single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). These iterative reconstruction based scatter compensation techniques have the advantage that they use all detected photons, avoiding the noise amplification occurring with subtraction based schemes. In addition, scatter compensation with iterative reconstruction does not involve the use of arbitrary adjustable parameters. In this paper, they present a new fast algorithm for implementing SDSE that reduces computation time by a factor of 16 compared to a direct implementation. Projection data computed with the new algorithm compare well with that from Monte Carlo simulations. When combined with faster computers and iterative reconstruction algorithms that converge rapidly, this fast projector-backprojector pair makes iterative reconstruction based scatter compensation feasible

  4. Fast nonlinear optical response from proton-bombarded multiple quantum well structures

    Proton bombardment is shown to shorten the recovery time of the excitonic absorption in GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum well saturable absorbers. The response time can be reduced from 30 ns to 150 ps without affecting the absorption characteristics or the saturation energy

  5. Hierarchical Diffusion Models for Two-Choice Response Times

    Vandekerckhove, Joachim; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Lee, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Two-choice response times are a common type of data, and much research has been devoted to the development of process models for such data. However, the practical application of these models is notoriously complicated, and flexible methods are largely nonexistent. We combine a popular model for choice response times--the Wiener diffusion…

  6. Development of a generalized model to analyze time and frequency responses for SAW sensors

    Most of the research on applications of wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors has focused on the fabrication process. No detailed theoretical models have been developed to illustrate the time and frequency domain characteristics of SAW devices. In this paper, the generalized model of the wireless SAW sensor is established by using the coupling-of-modes (COM) model together with the wave equations. The generalized model is developed to analyze four main applications, which include tag-ID design, the bio-reaction process, tension measurement and temperature sensing. Both the time response and frequency response are investigated to determine the appropriate signal processing for different applications. It is found that for the time response using the inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) is more suitable for tag-ID and the phase shift is better for bio-sensing, tension and temperature sensing. Furthermore, the developed model can be utilized to expedite the design process for wireless sensing devices

  7. Development of a generalized model to analyze time and frequency responses for SAW sensors

    Tsai, Meng-Shiun; Jeng, Jie-Ting

    2011-02-01

    Most of the research on applications of wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors has focused on the fabrication process. No detailed theoretical models have been developed to illustrate the time and frequency domain characteristics of SAW devices. In this paper, the generalized model of the wireless SAW sensor is established by using the coupling-of-modes (COM) model together with the wave equations. The generalized model is developed to analyze four main applications, which include tag-ID design, the bio-reaction process, tension measurement and temperature sensing. Both the time response and frequency response are investigated to determine the appropriate signal processing for different applications. It is found that for the time response using the inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) is more suitable for tag-ID and the phase shift is better for bio-sensing, tension and temperature sensing. Furthermore, the developed model can be utilized to expedite the design process for wireless sensing devices.

  8. A real-time fast radio burst: polarization detection and multiwavelength follow-up

    Petroff, E; Barr, E D; Barsdell, B R; Bhat, N D R; Bian, F; Burke-Spolaor, S; Caleb, M; Champion, D; Chandra, P; Da Costa, G; Delvaux, C; Flynn, C; Gehrels, N; Greiner, J; Jameson, A; Johnston, S; Kasliwal, M M; Keane, E F; Keller, S; Kocz, J; Kramer, M; Leloudas, G; Malesani, D; Mulchaey, J S; Ng, C; Ofek, E O; Perley, D A; Possenti, A; Schmidt, B P; Shen, Yue; Stappers, B; Tisserand, P; van Straten, W; Wolf, C

    2014-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are one of the most tantalizing mysteries of the radio sky; their progenitors and origins remain unknown and until now no rapid multiwavelength follow-up of an FRB has been possible. New instrumentation has decreased the time between observation and discovery from years to seconds, and enables polarimetry to be performed on FRBs for the first time. We have discovered an FRB (FRB 140514) in real-time on 14 May, 2014 at 17:14:11.06 UTC at the Parkes radio telescope and triggered follow-up at other wavelengths within hours of the event. FRB 140514 was found with a dispersion measure (DM) of 562.7(6) cm$^{-3}$ pc, giving an upper limit on source redshift of $z \\lesssim 0.5$. FRB 140514 was found to be 21$\\pm$7% (3-$\\sigma$) circularly polarized on the leading edge with a 1-$\\sigma$ upper limit on linear polarization $<10%$. We conclude that this polarization is intrinsic to the FRB. If there was any intrinsic linear polarization, as might be expected from coherent emission, then it may...

  9. A fast response hydrogen sensor with Pd metallic grating onto a fiber's end-face

    Yan, Haitao; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Qiu-Ze; Cao, Jingxiao; Han, Dao-Fu; Hao, Hui; Wang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated an integrated hydrogen sensor with Pd metallic grating fabricated on a fiber end-face. The grating consists of three thin metal layers in stacks, Au, WO3 and Pd. The WO3 is used as a waveguide layer between the Pd and Au layer. The Pd layer is etched by using a focused ion beam (FIB) method, forming a Pd metallic grating with period of 450 nm. The sensor is experimentally exposed to hydrogen gas environment. Changing the concentration from 0% to 4% which is the low explosive limit (LEL), the resonant wavelength measured from the reflection experienced 28.10 nm spectral changes in the visible range. The results demonstrated that the sensor is sensitive for hydrogen detection and it has fast response and low temperature effect.

  10. Current commutation from a fast-response circuit breaker to shunting conductor

    Reasons of failures of fast response circuit breakers (FRCB) at multistage commutation of current in the circuit with an inductive storage ring are considered, when the current commutation in the shunting conductor (SC) is not completed. The commutation mode has been determined by five dimensional parameters: commutation current, stray inductance of the circuit, rate of voltage growth across the FRCB, initial resistance of SC and characteristic power contribution. The existence of two critical current densities is stated: the first one is related to the rate of voltage growth on the FRCB and the second one is associated with the ultimate maximum voltage developed by FRCB. The obtained calculation estimations permit to determine the current density upper boundary in SC above which the commutation is impossible

  11. Timing is Everything: The Role of Time and the Business Cycle in Fast-Food Purchasing Behavior in the United States

    Hamrick, Karen; Okrent, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Meals, snacks, and beverages purchased at fast-food restaurants have become a large and growing portion of a typical American’s budget, and have been blamed for American’s expanding waistlines and poor diet quality. Previous studies have attributed this increase to many factors including budget and time constraints, demographic and health characteristics and market-level forces but no study has been able to rigorously address the effects of all of these variables on the demand for fast foods....

  12. Fast charge digitizer and digital data acquisition system for measuring time varying radiation fields

    A radiation measuring instrument including a fast charge digitizer and a digital data acquisition system has been developed. The fast charge digitizer includes a charge integrator connected to a conventional ionization chamber which generates an output current in proportion to ionizing radiation exposure rate. The charge integrator has an output connected to a comparator which is switched from a high state to a low state when the output of the integrator goes above the comparator threshold. The comparator output is connected to a bistable multivibrator consisting of two non-retriggerable one shot multivibrators connected in a feedback configuration. As long as the comparator output is in the low state, the bistable multivibrator generates a train of pluses which are fed back through an analog switch and a high megohm resistance to the input of the integrator. This feedback is negative and has the effect of removing the charge from the integrating capacitor, thus causing the integrator output eventually to drop below the comparator threshold. When this occurs the comparator output returns to the high state and the bistable multivibrator ceases to generate output pulses. An output terminal is connected between the bistable multivibrator and the analog switch and feeds a train of pulses proportional to the amount of charge generated by the multivibrator output voltage and the high megohm resistance to a counter connected to a random access memory device. The output pulses are counted for a predetermined time and then stored in one of the data locations of the random access memory device. The counter is then reset and a further predetermined sample period is counted. This continues until all of the locations in the random access memory device are filled and then the data is read from the random access memory device

  13. Fast Frequency Response Capability of Photovoltaic Power Plants: The Necessity of New Grid Requirements and Definitions

    Claudia Rahmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, only a small number of publications have been presented addressing power system stability with the increased use of large-scale photovoltaic (PV generation around the world. The focus of these publications was on classical stability problems, such as transient and small signal stability, without considering frequency stability. Nevertheless, with increased PV generation, its effects on system frequency response during contingencies can no longer be ignored, especially in the case of weakly interconnected networks or isolated power systems. This paper addresses the impacts of large scale PV generation on the frequency stability of power systems. The positive effects of deloaded PV power plants (PV-PPs able to support system frequency recovery during the initial seconds after major contingencies are also examined. Because this type of frequency support is not covered by current definitions, a new terminology is proposed that includes the frequency response of inertia-less generation units immediately after major power imbalances. We refer to this type of frequency support as fast frequency response (FFR. Finally, a discussion is also presented regarding the applicability and pertinence of frequency-related grid requirements for PV-PPs in the case of real power systems. The investigation is based on the isolated power system of northern Chile. The obtained results indicate that in the case of major power imbalances, no significant effects arise on the system frequency response until PV penetration levels exceed approximately 20%. From a system security perspective, the problems arise for PV penetration levels of approximately 50%, in which case, the frequency response capability in PV-PPs would be justified during certain hours of the year.

  14. First measurements of the kinetic response of the muse-4 fast Ads mock-up to fast neutron pulse

    The MUSE-4 experiment has started its first commissioning measurements at the beginning of the year 2001 at CEA/Cadarache (France). This international experiment co-ordinated by CEA, included in the 5FWP of the European Union and GEDEON, is intended to study the physics of fast sub-critical assemblies coupled with a pulsed external source. To achieve this objective, the GENEPI accelerator, a (d,d) or (d,t) neutron source developed at CRNS/IN2P3/ISN (Grenoble), has been coupled with the MASURCA reactor, a uranium-plutonium MOX-based fast reactor, with solid sodium simulating a liquid metal coolant and a lead buffer to simulate a spallation target. The very short neutron pulse (1 μs) provided by GENEPI, together with the possibility to change the pulse repetition rate up to 5 kHz and the different levels of sub-criticality available will facilitate a study of the reactor kinetic parameters in situations close to most of the proposed accelerator-driven Systems (ADS). The paper presents the first experimental results for dynamic measurements performed in MUSE-4 configurations. Several pulsed neutron source experiments have been carried out using the (d,d) GENEPI neutron source in configurations going from USD 1,33 to USD 12,6. In addition, noise techniques (Rossi and Feynman-alpha) have been applied to stationary states in the same range of sub-criticalities. Reactivity levels obtained by these techniques have been compared with more classic rod drop/source multiplication measurements. The kinetic parameters, β(which ranges between 330 and 360 pcm) and β/Λ (with a value of approximately 6270 s-1), have been determined by Monte Carlo and/or deterministic codes. (author)

  15. Organic scintillators response function modeling for Monte Carlo simulation of Time-of-Flight measurements

    Carasco, C., E-mail: cedric.carasco@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2012-07-15

    In neutron Time-of-Flight (TOF) measurements performed with fast organic scintillation detectors, both pulse arrival time and amplitude are relevant. Monte Carlo simulation can be used to calculate the time-energy dependant neutron flux at the detector position. To convert the flux into a pulse height spectrum, one must calculate the detector response function for mono-energetic neutrons. MCNP can be used to design TOF systems, but standard MCNP versions cannot reliably calculate the energy deposited by fast neutrons in the detector since multiple scattering effects must be taken into account in an analog way, the individual recoil particles energy deposit being summed with the appropriate scintillation efficiency. In this paper, the energy response function of 2 Double-Prime Multiplication-Sign 2 Double-Prime and 5 Double-Prime Multiplication-Sign 5 Double-Prime liquid scintillation BC-501 A (Bicron) detectors to fast neutrons ranging from 20 keV to 5.0 MeV is computed with GEANT4 to be coupled with MCNPX through the 'MCNP Output Data Analysis' software developed under ROOT (). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GEANT4 has been used to model organic scintillators response to neutrons up to 5 MeV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The response of 2 Double-Prime Multiplication-Sign 2 Double-Prime and 5 Double-Prime Multiplication-Sign 5 Double-Prime BC501A detectors has been parameterized with simple functions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parameterization will allow the modeling of neutron Time of Flight measurements with MCNP using tools based on CERN's ROOT.

  16. Dynamic response and time-frequency analysis for gear tooth crack detection

    Mohammed, Omar D.; Rantatalo, Matti

    2016-01-01

    Vibration health monitoring is a non-destructive technique which can be applied to detect cracks propagating in gear teeth. This paper studies gear tooth crack detection by investigating the natural frequencies and by performing time-frequency analysis of a 6 DOF dynamic gear model. The gear mesh stiffness used in the model was calculated analytically for different cases of crack sizes. The frequency response functions (FRFs) of the model were derived for healthy and faulty cases and dynamic simulation was performed to obtain the time signal responses. A new approach involving a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) was applied where a fast Fourier transform (FFT) was calculated for successive blocks with different sizes corresponding to the time segments of the varying gear mesh stiffness. The relationship between the different crack sizes and the mesh-stiffness-dependent eigenfrequencies was studied in order to detect the tooth crack and to estimate its size.

  17. Fast Time-Domain Edge-Diffraction Calculations for Interactive Acoustic Simulations

    Svensson U Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of edge diffraction has long been recognized as an improvement to geometrical-acoustics (GA modeling techniques, particularly for acoustic simulations of complex environments that are represented as collections of finite-sized planar surfaces. One particular benefit of combining edge diffraction with GA components is that the resulting total sound field is continuous when an acoustic source or receiver crosses a specular-zone or shadow-zone boundary, despite the discontinuity experienced by the associated GA component. In interactive acoustic simulations which include only GA components, such discontinuities may be heard as clicks or other undesirable audible artifacts, and thus diffraction calculations are important for high perceptual quality as well as physical realism. While exact diffraction calculations are difficult to compute at interactive rates, approximate calculations are possible and sufficient for situations in which the ultimate goal is a perceptually plausible simulation rather than a numerically exact one. In this paper, we describe an edge-subdivision strategy that allows for fast time-domain edge-diffraction calculations with relatively low error when compared with results from a more numerically accurate solution. The tradeoff between computation time and accuracy can be controlled with a number of parameters, allowing the user to choose the speed that is necessary and the error that is tolerable for a specific modeling scenario.

  18. Timing and Fast Control and Readout Electronics Aspects of the LHCb Upgrade

    Alessio, F; Jacobsson, R

    2008-01-01

    LHCb is considering an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout [1], possibly in several stages implying that a rudimentary rate control will still be needed. The rate control could be achieved by either maintaining the current L0 trigger infrastructure since it is already operating at 40MHz, or implementing simple local trigger decisions units in the new Readout Boards and control the rate via an 'intelligent' throttle mechanism. In this paper we make a first investigation of the possibilities for a new Timing and Fast Control (TFC) system based on completely new technologies, and the consequences for the readout electronics. We examine the current TFC, define the requirements for a new TFC, and propose a TFC architecture based on a single new Readout Supervisor 'Super-ODIN' instantiating several TFC masters to allow partitioning, and based on a shared high-speed optical link network for both the distribution of timing and synchronous control information, as well as trigger/throttle communication. The TFC inter...

  19. Time-efficient fast spin echo imaging at 4.7 T with low refocusing angles.

    Lebel, R Marc; Wilman, Alan H

    2009-07-01

    An implementation of fast spin echo at 4.7 T designed for versatile and time-efficient T(2)-weighted imaging of the human brain is presented. Reduced refocusing angles (alpha incidental magnetization transfer effects were investigated at reduced refocusing angles. We found that intraslice signal variations are minimized with refocusing angles near 180 degrees, but apparent gray/white matter contrast is independent of refocusing angle. Incidental magnetization transfer effects from multislice acquisitions were shown to attenuate white matter intensity by 25% and gray matter intensity by 15% at 180 degrees; less than 5% attenuation was seen in all tissues at flip angles below 60 degrees. We present multislice images acquired without excess delay time for SAR mitigation using a variety of protocols. Subsecond half Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) images were obtained with a novel variable refocusing angle echo train (20 degrees < alpha < 58 degrees) and high-resolution scans with a voxel volume of 0.18 mm(3) were acquired in 6.5 min with refocusing angles of 100 degrees. PMID:19319901

  20. Performance of a fast response miniature Adiabatic Demagnetisation Refrigerator using a single crystal tungsten magnetoresistive heat switch

    Bartlett, J.; Hardy, G.; Hepburn, I. D.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of a fast thermal response miniature Adiabatic Demagnetisation Refrigerator (ADR) is presented. The miniature ADR is comprised of a fast thermal response Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) salt pill, two superconducting magnets and unconventionally, a single crystal tungsten magnetoresistive (MR) heat switch. The development of this ADR is a result of the ongoing development of a continuously operating millikelvin cryocooler (mKCC), which will use only magnetoresistive heat switches. The design and performance of the MR heat switch developed for the mKCC and used in the miniature ADR is presented in this paper; the heat switch has a measured Residual Resistivity Ratio of 32,000 ± 3000 and an estimated switching ratio (on thermal conductivity divided by the off thermal conductivity) of 15,200 at 3.6 K and 38,800 at 0.2 K when using a 3 T magnetic field. The performance of the miniature ADR operating from a 3.6 K bath is presented, demonstrating that a complete cycle (magnetisation, cooling to the bath and demagnetisation) can be accomplished in 82 s. A magnet current step test, conducted when the ADR is cold and fully demagnetised, has shown the thermal response of the ADR to be sub-second. The measured hold times of the ADR with just parasitic heat load are given, ranging from 3 min at 0.2 K with 13.14 μW of parasitics, to 924 min at 3 K with 4.55 μW of parasitics. The cooling power has been measured for operating temperatures in the range 0.25-3 K by applying an additional heat load to the ADR via a heater, in order to reduce the hold time to 3 min (i.e. approximately double the recycle time); the maximum cooling power of the miniature ADR (in addition to parasitic load) when operating at 250 mK is 20 μW, which increases to 45 μW at 300 mK and continues to increase linearly to nearly 1.1 mW at 3 K. To conclude, the predicted performance of a tandem continuous ADR utilising two of the miniature ADRs is presented.

  1. Delay-Range-Dependent Stability Criteria for Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Systems with Fast Time-Varying Delays

    Pin-Lin Liu

    2012-01-01

    The problem of delay-range-dependent stability for T-S fuzzy system with interval time-varying delay is investigated. The constraint on the derivative of the time-varying delay is not required, which allows the time delay to be a fast time-varying function. By developing delay decomposition approach, integral inequalities approach (IIA), and Leibniz-Newton formula, the information of the delayed plant states can be taken into full consideration, and new delay-dependent suffi...

  2. A FAST AND EFFICIENT VISION BASED APPROACH FOR DETECTION OF FIRE IN REAL TIME SCENARIO

    Battise Priyanka Y.; Prof. B. S. Agarkar

    2015-01-01

    F ire is a huge serious disruption which leads to economic and environmental losses . So it is necessary to detect occurrence of fire at early stage . Alarm is not issued unless particles reach the senso rs to activate them and requires large response time. Also, infrared and ultraviolet sensors which are commonly used produce many false alarms. With the help of computer vision techniques, it is possib...

  3. Neutron-proton asymmetry and fast fission: two extreme time evolution in dissipative heavy ion reactions

    We review two different phenomena occuring in dissipative heavy ion collisions: neutron-proton asymmetry and fast fission. The first one is very fast and exhibits quantum fluctuations. The second one is very slow and dominated by statistical fluctuations. A dynamical model treating both these processes is also described

  4. Combined, Time-Resolved γ-Ray and Fast Neutron Radiography for Contraband Detection

    Soreq NRC and PTB are developing dual-probe (gamma-ray and fast neutron) high-spatial-resolution radiography for detection of explosives and special nuclear materials (SNM). The explosives are detected by Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), that exploits the specific energy-dependent cross-section characteristics of several low-Z elements in the neutron energy-range En=1-10 MeV. The neutrons are produced in 1-2 ns bursts using a pulsed beam of 12 MeV deuterons impinging on a thick Be target. Neutron spectroscopy is performed by means of a novel, integral-mode variant of the time of flight (TOF) technique. This method holds promise for detecting a broad range of conventional and improvised explosives, by determining the identity and density distribution of light elements such as C, N and O within an inspected object. It is expected that the high spatial resolution and the capability of operating at very high counting rates particular to this method will ultimately permit a significant improvement in baggage screening capabilities at airports, in terms of enhanced throughput and operator-independent detection of sheet explosives. In addition to neutrons, the d-Be reaction also yields prompt gamma-rays in the 0.5-6 MeV range. These gamma-rays are readily distinguished from neutrons by TOF. By taking the attenuation ratio of neutrons to gamma-rays through the inspected object it is possible to distinguish materials according to their atomic number. For example, the ratio for tungsten is higher by a factor of 4.2 and 2.3 than that of water and iron, respectively. The method produces high resolution images and also has the potential to detect small quantities of SNM. In this paper we shall describe the time-resolved neutron-gamma ray imaging detector and present studies of various detector parameters, such as spatial and energy resolution, imaging and material discrimination capabilities. (author)

  5. Improved design provides faster response time in photomultiplier

    1966-01-01

    Dynamic Crossed-Field Electron Multiplying /DCFEM/ light demodulator avoids the normal response time limitations inherent in static field devices by using time varying crossed electric and static magnetic fields. This eliminates the transit time spread that affects electrons as they proceed along the secondary emission stages of the tube.

  6. Temporal response and real time measurements with 5GHz photocell-oscilloscope system at low light levels

    Experiments were carried out to investigate by means of picosecond mode-locked laser pulses the performance of fast vacuum photoelectric cells associated with a high sensitivity and high speed cathode-ray tube provided with a channel plate electron multiplier. With an amplitude sensitivity of 140mV/cm an overall time of response of less than 100 ps was measured

  7. Thermal emittance and response time of a cesium antimonide photocathode

    Cultrera, Luca; Bazarov, Ivan; Bartnik, Adam; Dunham, Bruce; Karkare, Siddharth; Merluzzi, Richard; Nichols, Matthew

    2011-10-01

    Measurements of the intrinsic emittance and response time of a Cs3Sb photocathode are presented. The emittance is obtained with a solenoid scan technique using a high voltage dc photoemission gun. Photoemission response time is evaluated using a RF deflecting cavity synchronized to a picosecond laser pulse train. We find that Cs3Sb has both small mean transverse energy, 160 ± 10 meV at 532 nm laser wavelength, and a prompt response time (below the resolution of our measurement) making it a suitable material for high brightness electron photoinjectors.

  8. Response time testing of pressure transmitters in nuclear power plants

    This paper presents a review of the response time testing practice in the nuclear power industry for the safety-related pressure, level, and flow transmitters. Two methods which have been developed and recently validated for response time testing of these transmitters are described. The advantage of the new methods is that they permit remote testing of installed transmitters from the control room while the plant is operating. Also presented in this paper are experimental data on the contribution of sensing lines to the overall response time of pressure sensing systems, and the delays that can result from blockages or air entrapped in the sensing lines

  9. Study on seismic response analysis, including fluid-structure-interaction in a fast breeder reactor

    The reactor vessel of a fast breeder reactor (FBR) is a thin cylindrical shell with a large diameter, and has several thin shell structures in it forming a flow path or the boundary for the sodium coolant. Also, the sodium coolant has a free surface. Therefore, the evaluation of the integrity of various structures such as a reactor vessel (RV) during the seismic event needs exact characterization of the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) and the sloshing characteristics. Furthermore, precise estimation of the FSI is also necessary for the cantilever-type inner structures where the fluid-restraint which utilizes restraint effect of fluid is adopted as a non-contact support because of large differential thermal expansion. In this study, seismic response characteristics of the RV of a loop type and a pool type FBR, including FSI are evaluated analytically and experimentally as well as the sloshing characteristics in the RV. In the analysis, a 3-D FSI code developed by the authors and the Finite Element Method (FEM) code NASTRAN are used. Also, sloshing characteristics in the annular region formed by coaxial circular cylinders are evaluated analytically and experimentally as well as the fluid-restraint effect in these annular region. As a result, the seismic response characteristics of the RV and the inner structures in an FBR are clarified. (author)

  10. Heart rate response during sleep in elderly patients after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    Krenk, Lene; Srensen, Gertrud Laura; Kehlet, Henrik; Jennum, Poul

    2015-01-01

    Variability in heart rate response (HRR) can be used as a measure for autonomic nervous system function, which may influence sleep disturbances and the recovery phase after major surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomic function by assessment of HRR during sleep arousals in the po...... major arthroplasty surgery in elderly patients may reflect a functional change in sympathetic nervous system potentially relevant for postoperative sleep changes, fatigue and cognitive function.......Variability in heart rate response (HRR) can be used as a measure for autonomic nervous system function, which may influence sleep disturbances and the recovery phase after major surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomic function by assessment of HRR during sleep arousals in the...... postoperative period after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty. Determination of autonomic function was gained from polysomnographic evaluation of 10 patients >60 years undergoing either hip or knee arthroplasty (mean age 69.9 years) evaluating HRR during the different sleep phases. Sleep monitoring took place...

  11. Fast response electromagnetic follow-ups from low latency GW triggers

    Howell, E J; Rowlinson, A; Gao, H; Zhang, B; Tingay, S J; Boer, M; Wen, L

    2016-01-01

    We investigate joint low-latency gravitational wave (GW) detection and prompt electromagnetic (EM) follow-up observations of coalescing binary neutron stars (BNSs). Assuming that BNS mergers are associated with short duration gamma ray bursts (SGRBs), we evaluate if rapid EM follow-ups can capture the prompt emission, early engine activity or reveal any potential by-products such as magnetars or fast radio bursts. To examine the expected performance of extreme low-latency search pipelines, we simulate a population of coalescing BNSs and use these to estimate the detectability and localisation efficiency at different times before merger. Using observational SGRB flux data corrected to the range of the advanced GW interferometric detectors, we determine what EM observations could be achieved from low-frequency radio up to high energy $\\gamma$-ray. We show that while challenging, breakthrough multi-messenger science is possible through low latency pipelines.

  12. Assessing recognition memory using confidence ratings and response times.

    Weidemann, Christoph T; Kahana, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Classification of stimuli into categories (such as 'old' and 'new' in tests of recognition memory or 'present' versus 'absent' in signal detection tasks) requires the mapping of internal signals to discrete responses. Introspective judgements about a given choice response are regularly employed in research, legal and clinical settings in an effort to measure the signal that is thought to be the basis of the classification decision. Correlations between introspective judgements and task performance suggest that such ratings often do convey information about internal states that are relevant for a given task, but well-known limitations of introspection call the fidelity of this information into question. We investigated to what extent response times can reveal information usually assessed with explicit confidence ratings. We quantitatively compared response times to confidence ratings in their ability to qualify recognition memory decisions and found convergent results suggesting that much of the information from confidence ratings can be obtained from response times. PMID:27152209

  13. Proposal for a fast, zero suppressing circuit for the digitization of analog pulses over long memory times

    This report describes the design principles of a fast (100 MHz) time and pulse height digitizer that can record up to 15 analog pulses over 10-80 μs memory times. Unlike other triggered circuits prepulse samples are recorded without the help of an analog delay line. The low power requirements of the circuit as well as its fast read-out characteristics make it very attractive for detectors with many digitizing channels. Conventional circuits are described as a reference for the evaluation of this new design. An ECL 10 K implementation of the circuit is presented in the third section. (orig.)

  14. Time evolution of fast ion distributions in MHD-active tokamak plasmas based on HAGIS/Fokker-Planck code coupling

    A coupling of two numerical codes has been developed and implemented, which enables the simulation of long-time behaviour of fast ion distributions in MHD-active tokamak plasmas. In the coupled system the codes FIDIT (Fast Ion Distributions In Tokamaks) and HAGIS (Hamiltonian Guiding Centre System) are used iteratively. FIDIT is a Fokker-Planck code capable of calculating the evolution of a population of energetic ions accounting for Coulomb collisions and ripple induced transport effects. The code HAGIS simulates the time evolution of an ensemble of waves driven by fast ions and the redistribution of the fast ion population caused by these waves. Since the characteristic times of collisional and wave-induced changes of the fast ion distribution are well separated, the iterative approach is justified. The switch between the codes is based on a criterion determining the (in-)stability of toroidicity induced Alfnic eigenmodes (TAEs). FIDIT/HAGIS has been successfully applied for modelling experiments conducted at the Joint European Torus (JET) and for predictive simulations of fusion alpha particles in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In the ITER simulations a synergetic transport effect has been identified, which emerges from the co-action of collisional convective/diffusive transport and wave-induced transport. (author)

  15. The Importance of Responsibility in Times of Crisis

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I would like to show the importance of the concept of responsibility as the foundation of ethics in times of crisis in particular in the fields of politics and economics in the modern civilisation marked by globalization and technological progres. I consider the concept of responsibility as the key notion in order to understand the ethical duty in a modern technological civilisation. We can indeed observe a moralization of the concept of responsibility going beyond a strict lega...

  16. Real Time Computer for Plugging Indicator Control of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor

    Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is in the advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam, India. Liquid sodium is used as coolant to transfer the heat produced in the reactor core to steam water circuit. Impurities present in the sodium are removed using purification circuit. Plugging indicator is a device used to measure the purity of the sodium. Versa Module Europa bus based Real Time Computer (RTC) system is used for plugging indicator control. Hot standby architecture consisting of dual redundant RTC system with switch over logic system is the configuration adopted to achieve fault tolerance. Plugging indicator can be controlled in two modes namely continuous and discontinuous mode. Software based Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) algorithms are developed for plugging indicator control wherein the set point changes dynamically for every scan interval of the RTC system. Set points and PID constants are kept as configurable in runtime in order to control the process in very efficient manner, which calls for reliable communication between RTC system and control station, hence TCP/IP protocol is adopted. Performance of the RTC system for plugging indicator control was thoroughly studied in the laboratory by simulating the inputs and monitored the control outputs. The control outputs were also monitored for different PID constants. Continuous and discontinuous mode plots were generated. (authors)

  17. Fast-neutron Induced Reactions at the nELBE Time-of-flight Facility

    Junghans, A. R.; Beyer, R.; Elekes, Z.; Grosse, E.; Hannaske, R.; Kögler, T.; Massarczyk, R.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.

    2014-05-01

    The compact neutron-time-of-flight facility nELBE at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf is being rebuilt and extended with a low-background experimental hall. The neutron radiator consists of a liquid lead circuit without additional neutron moderators. The useful neutron spectrum extends from some tens of keV to about 10 MeV. nELBE is intended to deliver cross section data of fast-neutron nuclear interactions e.g. for the transmutation of nuclear waste and improvement of neutron physical simulations of innovative nuclear systems. Before the extension of the facility, the photon production cross section of 56Fe was measured with an HPGe detector and the inelastic neutron scattering cross section to the first few excited states in 56Fe was determined. The neutron total cross sections of Au and Ta were determined in the energy from 200 keV to 7 MeV in a transmission experiment.

  18. Overview of the SPS/LEP fast broadcast message timing system

    A fast broadcast message system, also referred to as the general machine timing system, has recently been installed at CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). It is used to control the SPS in its roles as a multi-cycling, multi-user service accelerator. The messages are centrally generated by an IBM compatible PC/AT card and broadcast to all users of the system. At the receiving end the frames are decoded and presented to the user in the form of either an interrupt to his intelligent equipment, a hardware pulse or a short message. They are used to synchronise the SPS when used as a 450 GeV fixed target machine, a 315 GeV p-pbar collider, a 100/450 GeV pulsing-coasting machine and also as an injector for the Large Electron Positron (LEP) machine. In the future it will also be used for LEP control. Implementation details and constraints are described, as are experience to date and foreseen expansions

  19. Time domain modeling of tunable response of graphene

    Prokopeva, Ludmila; Emani, Naresh K.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Kildishev, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We present a causal numerical model for time domain simulations of the optical response of graphene. The dielectric function is approximated with a conductivity term, a Drude term and a number of the critical points terms.

  20. Elements for Response Time Statistics in ERP Transaction Systems

    Mielke, A

    2004-01-01

    We present some measurements and ideas for response time statistics in ERP systems. It is shown that the response time distribution of a given transaction in a given system is generically a log-normal distribution or, in some situations, a sum of two or more log-normal distributions. We present some arguments for this form of the distribution based on heuristic rules for response times, and we show data from performance measurements in actual systems to support the log-normal form. Deviations of the log-normal form can often be traced back to performance problems in the system. Consequences for the interpretation of response time data and for service level agreements are discussed.

  1. Time domain modeling of tunable response of graphene

    Prokopeva, Ludmila; Emani, Naresh K.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Kildishev, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We present a causal numerical model for time domain simulations of the optical response of graphene. The dielectric function is approximated with a conductivity term, a Drude term and a number of the critical points terms....

  2. Fast time-correlated multi-element photon detector and method

    Hayden, Carl C.; Chandler, David W.; Luong, A. Khai

    2007-12-18

    Photons emitted from a sample responsive to being excited by laser pulses are directed through a prism onto a photomultiplier tube having several spaced-apart anodes. The prism alters the path of each photon as a function of its wavelength so that the wavelength determines the anode to which the photon is directed. Taps of first and second delay lines that are coupled to respective alternating anodes. When an anode receives the photon, it generates a pulse that propagates through the delay line in opposite directions from its associated tap. A timer determines first and second times from the laser pulse to the pulse reaching the first and second ends of the delay line. The difference between the first and second times corresponds to the wavelength of the emitted photon and the sum of the first and second times corresponds to the emission delay of the emitted photon.

  3. A novel time-to-pulse height converter for fast-neutron time-of-flight techniques

    An electronic time-to-pulse height converter is described which uses a multiplicative method instead of the usual one of adding overlapping pulses. This is achieved by a coincidence of a linear sawtooth and a sharply clipped needle-pulse. The sawtooth is fed to the grid of a beam-deflecting tube (E80T) and the needle-pulse is applied to the deflecting plates and opens the tube only during a time-interval of about 5.10-9 s. The plate gets a charge proportional to the time-difference between the start of the sawtooth and the needle pulse. The plate-pulse is stretched and amplified and its height represents a measurement of the time-difference. With this method we got a time resolution of 2τ = 7 x 10-12s with artificial pulses, 2τ = 3 x 10-10s with Co60 γ-coincidences by using NE 102 plastic crystals and 2τ = 1.4 x 10-9 s with 511-keV γ-coincidences using NaI(Te) crystals. The method was also used with pulsed beam techniques. In this case we got from the pulsing RF an 8-Mc, sharply-peaked pulse-sequence, which was fed to the E80T plates. We had a time-resolution of 2τ = 1.1 x 10-9 s with 4-MeV neutrons using plastic crystals 0.7 in long. Normally the region of linear response was 30 ns but it was possible to go up to 120 ns. (author)

  4. Improved time response for large area microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes in fusion diagnostics

    Fusion diagnostics that utilise high speed scintillators often need to capture a large area of light with a high degree of time accuracy. Microchannel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are recognised as the leading device for capturing fast optical signals. However, when manufactured in their traditional proximity focused construction, the time response performance is reduced as the active area increases. This is due to two main factors: the capacitance of a large anode and the difficulty of obtaining small pore MCPs with a large area. Collaboration between Photek and AWE has produced prototype devices that combine the excellent time response of small area MCP-PMTs with a large active area by replacing the traditional proximity-gap front section with an electro-optically focused photocathode to MCP. We present results from both single and double MCP devices with a 40 mm diameter active area and show simulations for the 100 mm device being built this year

  5. Real-Time and Real-Fast Performance of General-Purpose and Real-Time Operating Systems in Multithreaded Physical Simulation of Complex Mechanical Systems

    Carlos Garre; Domenico Mundo; Marco Gubitosa; Alessandro Toso

    2014-01-01

    Physical simulation is a valuable tool in many fields of engineering for the tasks of design, prototyping, and testing. General-purpose operating systems (GPOS) are designed for real-fast tasks, such as offline simulation of complex physical models that should finish as soon as possible. Interfacing hardware at a given rate (as in a hardware-in-the-loop test) requires instead maximizing time determinism, for which real-time operating systems (RTOS) are designed. In this paper, real-fast and r...

  6. A fast least-squares arrival time estimator for scintillation pulses

    The true weighted least-squares (WLS) arrival time estimator for scintillation pulse detection was previously found to out-perform conventional arrival time estimators such as leading-edge and constant-fraction timers, but has limited applications because of its complexity. A new diagonalized version of the weighted least-squares (DWLS) estimator has been developed which, like the true WLS, incorporates the statistical properties of the scintillation detector. The new DWLS reduces estimator complexity at the expense of fundamental timing resolution. The advantage of the DWLS implementation is that only scalar multiplications and additions are needed instead of the matrix operations used in the true WLS. It also preserves the true WLS's ability to effectively separate piled-up pulses. The DWLS estimator has been applied to pulses which approximate the response of BGO and NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. The timing resolution obtained with the DWLS estimator is then compared to conventional analog timers along with the Cramer-Rao lower bound on achievable timing error. The DWLS out-performs the conventional arrival time estimators but does not provide optimal performance compared to the lower bound; however, it is more robust than the true WLS estimator

  7. Development of fast response bi-luminophore pressure-sensitive paint by means of an inkjet printing technique

    Egami, Y.; Ueyama, J.; Furukawa, S.; Kameya, T.; Matsuda, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Niimi, T.

    2015-06-01

    A novel fast response bi-luminophore pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) by inkjet printing of sensor-dot arrays on an anodized aluminum (AA) substrate has been developed for unsteady flow measurements. A bi-luminophore AA-PSP, which is a combination of PSP and temperature-sensitive paint (TSP), is essential for precise pressure measurements, because the PSP result needs the temperature correction. However, a conventional bi-luminophore AA-PSP prepared by a dipping method does not work well due to the interference between the PSP and TSP luminophores. To overcome this problem, we have developed isolated dot arrays of PSP and TSP formed on an anodized aluminum substrate by an inkjet printing method. In this study, platinum tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin (PtTFPP) and ZnS-AgInS2 (ZAIS) were employed as pressure- and temperature-sensitive dyes, respectively. A suitable solvent was chosen for each dye to form the dots with uniform, high luminescence intensity, and high sensitivity. The developed bi-luminophore AA-PSP could simultaneously measure pressure and temperature and could reduce the temperature effect of the PSP from -0.97%/K (without temperature correction) to -0.01%/K (with temperature correction). It showed a pressure response time of 17.8  ±  0.8 μs at 90% pressure rise to a step change of pressure, which is in the same range as a conventional AA-PSP.

  8. Fiber-optic fast response pH sensor in fiber Bragg gating using intelligent hydrogel coatings

    Lin, Yu; Chen, Shun'er; Wang, Mulan; Liu, Weiping

    2015-05-01

    In order to widen the measurement range of pH values, a pH sensor based on the deposition of intelligent hydrogel on the cladding of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is developed. The key material, i.e., intelligent hydrogel, which is mainly made from N-isopropylacrylamide and sodium alginate, can respond to pH changes within the range from 0 to 14. By means of a spiral coating under the condition of ultraviolet light, an uninterruptible spiral-coating-layer structure is constructed. This new craft creates a more sensitive hydrogel layer with an optimal overlay thickness. In addition, with the addition of poly ethylene glycols (PEGs) in the hydrogel, half the response time can be saved compared with the pH sensor without PEG. Experimental results have confirmed that the FBG-based pH sensor can realize the successful measurement of the entire range of pH values, showing fast response and high sensitivity.

  9. Fault tolerant distributed real time computer systems for I and C of prototype fast breeder reactor

    Highlights: • Architecture of distributed real time computer system (DRTCS) used in I and C of PFBR is explained. • Fault tolerant (hot standby) architecture, fault detection and switch over are detailed. • Scaled down model was used to study functional and performance requirements of DRTCS. • Quality of service parameters for scaled down model was critically studied. - Abstract: Prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) is in the advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam, India. Three-tier architecture is adopted for instrumentation and control (I and C) of PFBR wherein bottom tier consists of real time computer (RTC) systems, middle tier consists of process computers and top tier constitutes of display stations. These RTC systems are geographically distributed and networked together with process computers and display stations. Hot standby architecture comprising of dual redundant RTC systems with switch over logic system is deployed in order to achieve fault tolerance. Fault tolerant dual redundant network connectivity is provided in each RTC system and TCP/IP protocol is selected for network communication. In order to assess the performance of distributed RTC systems, scaled down model was developed with 9 representative systems and nearly 15% of I and C signals of PFBR were connected and monitored. Functional and performance testing were carried out for each RTC system and the fault tolerant characteristics were studied by creating various faults into the system and observed the performance. Various quality of service parameters like connection establishment delay, priority parameter, transit delay, throughput, residual error ratio, etc., are critically studied for the network

  10. Acetobacter aceti fast identification by Real Time PCR in spoiled wine samples

    Attila Kántor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Wine is a beverage that made from grape berries. However, without beneficial bacteria, we would not produce good wine. But very often wines contain acetic acid bacteria, which are undesirable in winemaking process. Acetic acid bacteria as known as a vinegar bacteria are Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and ubiquitous bacteria. This study was focused on species of acetic acid bacteria, specifically Acetobacter aceti that make spoilage in wine.The aim of our study was the identification of Acetobacter aceti in spoiled red wine samples, with plate dilution method on agar plates and using sensitive Real-time PCR (qPCR method. We cultivated Acetobacter aceti on GYC agar at 30°C, 48h. The one of main objective in the present work was the test fast, sensitive and reliable technique such as quantitative Real-time PCR and detecting the presence of Acetobacter aceti in wine samples with positive Acetobacteraceti control on amplification plot and melting curve. The next objective before  qPCR analysis was DNA extraction from wine samples incubated for one week at 28°C aerobically. We used five different red wine samples for this experiment: Alibernet 2013, Blaufränkisch 2013, Cabernet Sauvignon 2013, Dunaj 2012 and Saint-Laurent 2012. Next we extracted DNA from wine samples and from pure Acetobacter aceti CCM 3620T strain purchased from Czech collection of microorganisms in Brno. Susceptibility ofAcetobacter aceti was varied in different isolates from 102 to 107 CFU.mL-1. The number of Acetobacter cells on GYC medium ranged from 4.05 to 4.83log CFU.mL-1 in differentwine samples.The higher number of Acetobacter cells (4.83 log CFU.mL-1 was found in Cabernet Sauvignon 2013 wine.

  11. Femtosecond response time measurements of a Cs2Te photocathode

    Aryshev, A; Honda, Y; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J

    2015-01-01

    We present the response time measurements of a Cs2Te photocathode illuminated with two 100 fs duration, variable time separation laser pulses at 266 nm wavelength. The response time was confirmed in dispersive region downstream of a 12-cell standing wave S-band acceleration structure using a well-known RF zero-crossing technique. At the same time it was also measured by changing mechanical path-length difference between two micro-bunches. Both methods agree that Cs2Te photocathode time response is of the order of 250 fs and thereby it is possible to generate and control a THz sequence of relativistic electron bunches by a conventional S-band RF gun. This result further opens a possibility to construct wide-range tunable THz FEL.

  12. Time response of temperature sensors using neural networks

    Primary coolant RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detector) typically feed the plant's control and safety systems and must, therefore, be very accurate and have good dynamic performance. The response time of RTDs has been characterized by a single parameter called the time constant defined as the time it takes for the sensor output to achieve 63.2 percent of its final value after a step change in temperature. This step change is typically achieved by suddenly immersing the sensor in a rotating tank of water, called Plunge Test. In nuclear reactors, however, plunge testing is inconvenient because nuclear reactor service conditions are difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. An in-situ test method called LCSR - Loop Current Step Response test was developed to measure remotely the response time of RTDs. In the LCSR method, the response time of the sensor is identified by means of the LCSR transformation that involves the dynamic response modal time constants determination using a nodal heat-transfer model. For this reason, this calculation is not simple and requires specialized personnel. This work combines the two methodologies, Plunge test and LCSR test, using neural networks. With the use of neural networks it will not be necessary to use the LCSR transformation to determine sensor's time constant and this leads to more robust results. (author)

  13. Effects of platform fashion shoes on brake response time.

    Warner, H D; Mace, K C

    1974-09-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of 'platform' fashion shoes on response time in vehicle braking. Seventeen subjects participated in two test sessions: in one they wore platform shoes and in the other normal footwear. Although all subjects were accustomed to wearing either type of footwear, platform shoes significantly slowed their braking responses, compared with normal shoes (0.91 vs 0.81 s, respectively). This differential response time represents an increased stopping distance of 1.42 ft (433 mm) for each 10 mile/h (16 km/h) of vehicle speed. PMID:15677150

  14. Research on a Fast Delivery Production System: Just-in-time production system

    Cai-feng LI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyzed calling the age to product or service for consumer demand living in the word. We come to a conclusion that speed or time is the key factors for enterpriser for competing intensely. So, the paper proposes JIT system achieve the tasks. Later, we address thoroughly the meaning of Just-in-time production system from speed and time angles and present two goals ultimate goal and the supporting goals implementation successfully. According to goal, this paper analyzed that implementing JIT should be achieved requires and carry out approaches. At last, this paper provided that JIT contribute benefits and causes to problem. Nonetheless, JIT is a robust production system for manufacturer and consumer. Moreover, I believe that it advent and it will be a main stream of a fluid production system for the future.
    Key words: just-in-time production system; fast delivery; continue quality improvement; manufacturing cells
    Rsum: Dans cette mmoire, nous analysons la vocation de lge produire ou servir pour la vie de la demande consommatrice dans le monde. Nous venons une conclusion que la vitesse ou le temps est les facteurs cls en faveur de lentrepreneur dans le but de rivaliser profondment. Donc, la mmoire propose le systme JIT accomplit les tches. Ensuite, nous adressons fond le sens du systme producteur JIT de la vitesse et les angles de temps et prsentons deux buts, but ultime et limplmentation des buts soutenant successivement. Daprs le but, cette mmoire analyse que limplmentation JIT doit tre accomplie les demandes et excuter les propositions. Enfin, cette mmoire fournit que le JIT contribue les avantages et les causes au problme. Malgr tout, JIT est un systme robuste producteur pour les fabricants et les consommateurs. En plus, je crois quil se ralisera et sera un torrent dun systme producteur fluide pour lavenir.
    Mots-Cls: Systme producteur JIT ; livraison rapide ; amlioration qualitative continuelle; cellule fabricante

  15. Time response of temperature sensors using neural networks

    In a PWR nuclear power plant, the primary coolant temperature and feedwater temperature are measured using RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detectors). These RTDs typically feed the plant's control and safety systems and must, therefore, be very accurate and have good dynamic performance. The response time of RTDs is characterized by a single parameter called the Plunge Time Constant defined as the time it takes the sensor output to achieve 63.2 percent of its final value after a step change in temperature. Nuclear reactor service conditions are difficult to reproduce in the laboratory, and an in-situ test method called LCSR (Loop Current Step Response) test was developed to measure remotely the response time of RTDs. >From this test, the time constant of the sensor is identified by means of the LCSR transformation that involves the dynamic response modal time constants determination using a nodal heat-transfer model. This calculation is not simple and requires specialized personnel. For this reason an Artificial Neural Network has been developed to predict the time constant of RTD from LCSR test transient. It eliminates the transformations involved in the LCSR application. A series of LCSR tests on RTDs generates the response transients of the sensors, the input data of the networks. Plunge tests are used to determine the time constants of the RTDs, the desired output of the ANN, trained using these sets of input/output data. This methodology was firstly applied to theoretical data simulating 10 RTDs with different time constant values, resulting in an average error of about 0.74 %. Experimental data from three different RTDs was used to predict time constant resulting in a maximum error of 3,34 %. The time constants values predicted from ANN were compared with those obtained from traditional way resulting in an average error of about 18 % and that shows the network is able to predict accurately the sensor time constant. (author)

  16. Fast Direct Injection Mass-Spectrometric Characterization of Stimuli for Insect Electrophysiology by Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS

    Franco Biasioli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological techniques are used in insect neuroscience to measure the response of olfactory neurons to volatile odour stimuli. Widely used systems to deliver an olfactory stimulus to a test insect include airstream guided flow through glass cartridges loaded with a given volatile compound on a sorbent support. Precise measurement of the quantity of compound reaching the sensory organ of the test organism is an urgent task in insect electrophysiology. In this study we evaluated the performances of the recent realised proton transfer reaction-time of flight mass-spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS as a fast and selective gas sensor. In particular, we characterised the gas emission from cartridges loaded with a set of volatile compounds belonging to different chemical classes and commonly used in electrophysiological experiments. PTR-ToF-MS allowed a fast monitoring of all investigated compounds with sufficient sensitivity and time resolution. The detection and the quantification of air contaminants and solvent or synthetic standards impurities allowed a precise quantification of the stimulus exiting the cartridge. The outcome of this study was twofold: on one hand we showed that PTR-ToF-MS allows monitoring fast processes with high sensitivity by real time detection of a broad number of compounds; on the other hand we provided a tool to solve an important issue in insect electrophysiology.

  17. Staging of malignant lymphoma with three-station black-blood fast short-inversion time inversion recovery (STIR)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of three-station black-blood fast short-inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) imaging in detecting and staging malignant lymphoma. Seventeen patients with malignant lymphoma were examined with a 1.5T imager. The findings and stagings determined with three-station black-blood fast STIR imaging were compared with reference standards (e.g., computed tomography [CT] findings and clinical stagings). Three-station black-blood fast STIR imaging provided a fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging contrast with fewer flow artifacts and revealed nodal involvement as well as bone marrow and spleen involvement to an extent comparable with CT. Especially notable was the excellent specificity (94%) of this imaging technique. Regarding disease staging, significant agreement was observed between clinical staging (k=0.60) and staging as evaluated by three-station black-blood fast STIR, although the detection of lymphadenopathy in the thorax was relatively poor. The average time required for this imaging was approximately 30 min. Three-station black-blood fast STIR MR imaging may be useful as a staging tool for malignant lymphoma because this imaging technique reveals lymphoma lesions, which determine the staging, without radiation exposure or the use of contrast agents. (author)

  18. Calibration of the time response functions of a quenched plastic scintillator for neutron time of flight

    The time response functions of an ultrafast quenched plastic scintillation detector used to measure neutron time of flight spectra were calibrated by utilizing cosmic rays and implosion neutrons from DT-filled capsules at the Shenguang II laser facility. These sources could be regarded as δ function pulses due to their much narrower time widths than those of the time response functions of the detection system. The results showed that the detector responses to DT neutrons and to cosmic rays were 1.18 and 0.96 ns FWHM, respectively

  19. Calibration of the time response functions of a quenched plastic scintillator for neutron time of flight

    Chen, J.B. E-mail: jbchen@263.net; Zheng, Z.J.; Peng, H.S.; Tang, C.H.; Zhang, B.H.; Ding, Y.K.; Chen, M.; Chen, H.S.; Li, C.G.; Wen, T.S.; Yu, R.Z

    2002-10-01

    The time response functions of an ultrafast quenched plastic scintillation detector used to measure neutron time of flight spectra were calibrated by utilizing cosmic rays and implosion neutrons from DT-filled capsules at the Shenguang II laser facility. These sources could be regarded as {delta} function pulses due to their much narrower time widths than those of the time response functions of the detection system. The results showed that the detector responses to DT neutrons and to cosmic rays were 1.18 and 0.96 ns FWHM, respectively.

  20. Intervening to Influence Fast-Food Choices: Assessing Response Generalization in Nutrition-Related Behavior

    Keene, Wesley Ryan

    2004-01-01

    A large-scale intervention, designed to increase healthier fast-food consumption, was evaluated at a national fast-food chain. Participants included fast-food consumers at three separate restaurant locations in southwestern Virginia. Each restaurant received three phases, consisting of fourteen days each. Two of the restaurants were exposed to two conditions, A (Baseline) and B (Intervention), while the other restaurant served as a control. Restaurant 1 received the following phases, wit...

  1. Conceptual Question Response Times in Peer Instruction Classrooms

    Miller, Kelly; Lasry, Nathaniel; Lukoff, Brian; Schell, Julie; Mazur, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to…

  2. Fast response air-to-fuel ratio measurements using a novel device based on a wide band lambda sensor

    A crucial parameter influencing the formation of pollutant gases in internal combustion engines is the air-to-fuel ratio (AFR). During transients on gasoline and diesel engines, significant AFR excursions from target values can occur, but cycle-by-cycle AFR resolution, which is helpful in understanding the origin of deviations, is difficult to achieve with existing hardware. This is because current electrochemical devices such as universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensors have a time constant of 50–100 ms, depending on the engine running conditions. This paper describes the development of a fast reacting device based on a wide band lambda sensor which has a maximum time constant of ∼20 ms and enables cyclic AFR measurements for engine speeds of up to ∼4000 rpm. The design incorporates a controlled sensor environment which results in insensitivity to sample temperature and pressure. In order to guide the development process, a computational model was developed to predict the effect of pressure and temperature on the diffusion mechanism. Investigations regarding the sensor output and response were carried out, and sensitivities to temperature and pressure are examined. Finally, engine measurements are presented

  3. Determinants of Children's Use of and Time Spent in Fast-Food and Full-Service Restaurants

    McIntosh, Alex; Kubena, Karen S.; Tolle, Glen; Dean, Wesley; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Jan, Jie-Sheng; Anding, Jenna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Identify parental and children's determinants of children's use of and time spent in fast-food (FF) and full-service (FS) restaurants. Design: Analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting: Parents were interviewed by phone; children were interviewed in their homes. Participants: Parents and children ages 9-11 or 13-15 from 312 families

  4. A Fast Topological Trigger for Real Time Analysis of Nanosecond Phenomena; Opening the Gamma Ray Window to Our Universe

    Krennrich, Frank [Iowa State University

    2013-09-24

    This work was to enable the development of a proof-of-principle nanosecond trigger system that is designed to perform a real time analysis of fast Cherenkov light flashes from air showers. The basic building blocks of the trigger system have been designed and constructed, and a real world system is now operating in the VERITAS experiment.

  5. Determinants of Children's Use of and Time Spent in Fast-Food and Full-Service Restaurants

    McIntosh, Alex; Kubena, Karen S.; Tolle, Glen; Dean, Wesley; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Jan, Jie-Sheng; Anding, Jenna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Identify parental and children's determinants of children's use of and time spent in fast-food (FF) and full-service (FS) restaurants. Design: Analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting: Parents were interviewed by phone; children were interviewed in their homes. Participants: Parents and children ages 9-11 or 13-15 from 312 families…

  6. A fast dynamic response dc-dc converter for high voltage applications

    This paper present a fast dynamic response de-de converter for high voltage application such as medical use X-ray generator. In the proposed de-de converter a zero-current switching series resonant inverter is used to drive input terminals of voltage multiplier circuit. The zero-current switching series resonant inverter operates at fixed frequency and duly ratio. A control circuit is used at the lower arm of the inverter, to control the effective input voltage across the inverter. At the turn on the inverter is supplied with maximum effective input voltage, which results in quick rise-up of the output voltage. As the output voltage approaches to 80% of it target voltage, the effective input voltage is reduced to a value which corresponds to the target output voltage, as a result the rise rate of the output voltage becomes slow and overshoot is avoided. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme has been confirmed experimentally with a laboratory scale- down prototype. (author)

  7. Containment response to postulated core meltdown accidents in the fast flux test facility

    An assessment is made of the containment margin available in the Fast Flux Test Facility to mitigate the consequences of a postulated failure of in-vessel post-accident heat removal following a hypothetical core disruptive accident. The consequences of a number of assumed meltdown configurations (both in-vessel and ex-vessel) are assessed using the CACECO (CAvty, CEll, COntainment) containment analysis computer code together with currently available melt front penetration models. The sensitivity of the accident scenarios to a number of crucial assumptions is established by scoping studies. It is concluded from both the in-vessel and exvessel analyses that sodium vapor combustion is a major source of reactor containment building (RCB) pressurization. The conditions (a combination of sodium-concrete reaction, pool size, and decay heat level) that most rapidly bring the sodium to boiling, together with those that enhance mass transfer of sodium vapor to the RCB, are the ones that most significantly affect the pressure response

  8. Fast-response fiber-optic anemometer with temperature self-compensation.

    Liu, Guigen; Hou, Weilin; Qiao, Wei; Han, Ming

    2015-05-18

    We report a novel fiber-optic anemometer with self-temperature compensation capability based on a Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI) formed by a thin silicon film attached to the end face of a single-mode fiber. Guided in the fiber are a visible laser beam from a 635 nm diode laser used to heat the FPI and a white-light in the infrared wavelength range as the signal light to interrogate the optical length of the FPI. Cooling effects on the heated sensor head by wind is converted to a wavelength blueshift of the reflection spectral fringes of the FPI. Self-temperature-compensated measurement of wind speed is achieved by recording the difference in fringe wavelengths when the heating laser is turned on and then off. Large thermal-optic coefficient and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon render a high sensitivity that can also be easily tuned by altering the heating laser power. Furthermore, the large thermal diffusivity and the small mass of the thin silicon film endow a fast sensor response. PMID:26074604

  9. Identification of the resonant modes in supersonic impinging jets using fast response pressure sensitive paint

    Davis, Timothy; Edstrand, Adam; Alvi, Farrukh; Cattafesta, Louis; Yorita, Daisuke; Asai, Keisuke

    2013-11-01

    High speed impinging jets have been the focus of several studies owing to their practical application and resonance dominated flow-field. The current study utilizes fast-response pressure sensitive paint (PSP) to examine the jet instability modes of a Mach 1.5 normally impinging jet. These modes are associated with high amplitude, discrete peaks in the power spectra and can be identified as having either axisymmetric or azimuthal modes. Phase-averaged images are acquired at various nozzle to plate spacings and at frequencies of several kHz. Using an unsteady pressure transducer on the impingement surface as a reference signal, a high speed LED with a wavelength of 460 nm is used to illuminate the PSP. The paint fluorescence is then recorded with a CCD camera. The average pressure distribution is removed from the acquired images, resulting in the phase-averaged unsteady pressure distribution. The processed images reveal axisymmetric modes for all nozzle to plate spacings tested except at 4 jet diameters. At this spacing, three distinct resonant modes are identified.

  10. Analysis of Shiraz Solar Thermal Power Plant Response Time

    K. Azizian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiraz pilot solar thermal power plant is the first Iranian solar power plant constructed near the city of Shiraz, Iran. The main purpose of constructing this pilot plant was to acquire the technology of developing parabolic trough solar thermal power plants for future energy production from solar energy. This plant consists of 48 parabolic trough collectors; each one has 25m long and 3.4 m wide. The plant consists of two cycles, oil heat absorbing cycle and steam production cycle. The plant performance and transition period to reach steady state condition or damping some disturbances as well as oil cycle heating and steam generation rate depends on several factors such as oil cycle response time. Response time is a parameter that can be used for efficient control of solar power plant. To study response time, field experimental measurements have been made during the years 2009 to 2010 based on the standard procedure and plant simulation. The experiments include: plant start up, evaluation of oil temperature increase in the field of collectors, solar radiation measurements, temperature and pressure changes in the heat exchangers, weather temperature changes and wind speed and the effect of above changes on the system response time are determined. Two modeling methods (based on the recommended standards of finding response time are employed. Results show that response time of the oil cycle varies from 150 seconds to 400 seconds by measurements, while by modeling simulation it is about 400-500 seconds. Response time is strongly depends on the environmental conditions such as oil temperture, wind and ambient temperature and specially the oil mass flow rate.

  11. Modeling the viscoplastic micromechanical response of two-phase materials using fast Fourier transforms

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Sukbin [CMU; Rollett, Anthony D [CMU

    2009-01-01

    A viscoplastic approach using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method for obtaining local mechanical response is utilized to study microstructure-property relationships in composite materials. Specifically, three-dimensional, two-phase digital materials containing isotropically coarsened particles surrounded by a matrix phase, generated through a Kinetic Monte Carlo Potts model for Ostwald ripening, are used as instantiations in order to calculate the stress and strain rate fields under uniaxial tension. The effects of the morphology of the matrix phase, the volume fraction and the contiguity of particles, and the polycrystallinity of matrix phase, on the stress and strain rate fields under uniaxial tension are examined. It is found that the first moments of the stress and strain rate fields have a different dependence on the particle volume fraction and the particle contiguity from their second moments. The average stresses and average strain rates of both phases and of the overall composite have rather simple relationships with the particle volume fraction whereas their standard deviations vary strongly, especially when the particle volume fraction is high, and the contiguity of particles has a noticeable effect on the mechanical response. It is also found that the shape of stress distribution in the BCC hard particle phase evolves as the volume fraction of particles in the composite varies, such that it agrees with the stress field in the BCC polycrystal as the volume of particles approaches unity. Finally, it is observed that the stress and strain rate fields in the microstructures with a polycrystalline matrix are less sensitive to changes in volume fraction and contiguity of particles.

  12. Fast-response optical and near-infrared GRB science with RATIR and RIMAS

    Capone, John; RIMAS Collaboration, RATIR project Team

    2016-01-01

    As the Universe's most luminous transient events, long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are observed at cosmological distances. The afterglow emission generated by the burst's interaction with the surrounding medium presents the opportunity to study the local environment, as well as intervening systems. The transient nature of these events requires observations starting within minutes of the GRB to maximize the scientific opportunities.This dissertation work comprises efforts to advance the field with a new instrument, the Rapid Infrared Imager and Spectrograph (RIMAS). The optical design is complicated by the broad band coverage (0.97 to 2.39 microns) and the necessity of transmissive optics due to space and weight limitations on the telescope. Additionally, the entire optical system must be cooled to cryogenic temperatures to decrease the background from thermal emission. The completed instrument will be permanently installed on Lowell Observatory's new 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) located in Happy Jack, Arizona. The fast slew time of the telescope, combined with the instrument's ability to image in two bands simultaneously and switch to spectroscopic configurations in under a minute will allow observers to obtain photometric data within minutes and spectra within ~ ten minutes.In addition to instrumentation work on RIMAS's optics, early time photometric light curves have been studied primarily using data from the Reionization and Transients Infrared/Optical Project (RATIR). Early time photometric data in six optical and near-infrared (NIR) bands has allowed a study of color evolution in the early to late time SEDs. This study probes possible impacts of the GRB on the local medium as well as intrinsic changes in the afterglow emission.This work is made possible by the RATIR and RIMAS collaborations as well as financial support by the NSF.

  13. Speed-Accuracy Response Models: Scoring Rules Based on Response Time and Accuracy

    Maris, Gunter; van der Maas, Han

    2012-01-01

    Starting from an explicit scoring rule for time limit tasks incorporating both response time and accuracy, and a definite trade-off between speed and accuracy, a response model is derived. Since the scoring rule is interpreted as a sufficient statistic, the model belongs to the exponential family. The various marginal and conditional distributions…

  14. Response Time Optimization for Replica Selection Service in Data Grids

    Husni H.E. AL-Mistarihi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Data Grid architecture provides a scalable infrastructure for grid services in order to manage data files and their corresponding replicas that were distributed across the globe. The grid services are designed to support a variety of data grid applications (jobs and projects. Replica selection is a high-level service that chooses a replica location from among many distributed replicas with the minimum response time for the users' jobs. Estimating the response time accurately in the grid environment is not an easy task. The current systems expose high response time in selecting the required replicas because the response time is estimated by considering the data transfer time only. Approach: We proposed a replica selection system that selects the best replica location for the users' running jobs in a minimum response time that can be estimated by considering new factors besides the data transfer time, namely, the storage access latency and the replica requests that waiting in the storage queue. Results: The performance of the proposed system was compared with a similar system that exists in the literature namely, SimpleOptimiser. The simulation results demonstrated that our system performed better than the SimpleOptimiser on an average of 6%. Conclusions: The proposed system can select the best replica location in a lesser response time than the SimpleOptimise. The efficiency of the proposed system is 6% higher than the SimpleOptimise. The efficiency level has a high impact on the quality of service that is perceived by grid users in a data grid environment where the data files are relatively big. For example, the data files produced from the scientific applications are of the size hundreds of Terabytes.

  15. Synthesis of fast response crosslinked PVA-g-NIPAAm nanohydrogels by very low radiation dose in dilute aqueous solution

    Nanohydrogels of poly(vinyl alcohol)-g-N-isopropylacrylamide (PVA-g-NIPAAm) are synthesized by PVA and NIPAAm dilute aqueous solution using much less radiation dose of 120 Gy via intramolecular crosslinking at ambient temperature. The radiation synthesis of nanohydrogels is performed in the presence of tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC) due to its rapid oxygen scavenging abilities and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a source of hydroxyl radicals. The effect of radiation dose, feed composition ratio of PVA and H2O2 is investigated on swelling properties such as temperature and pH dependence of equilibrium swelling ratio as well as deswelling kinetics. Experimental data exhibit high equilibrium swelling ratio and fast response time for the synthesized nanohydrogels. The average molecular weight between crosslinks (Mc) and crosslinking density (?x) of the obtained nanohydrogels are calculated from swelling data as a function of radiation dose, H2O2 and PVA amount. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), elemental analysis of nitrogen content and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) are used to confirm the grafting reaction. Lower critical solution temperature (LCST) is measured around 33 C by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for PVA-g-NIPAAm nanohydrogels. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) data demonstrate that the increase of radiation dose leads to the decreasing in dimension of nanohydrogels. Also, rheological studies are confirmed an improvement in the mechanical properties of the nanohydrogels with increasing the radiation dose. A cytotoxicity study exhibits a good biocompatibility for the obtained nanohydrogels. The prepared nanohydrogels show fast swelling/deswelling behavior, high swelling ratio, dual sensitivity and good cytocompatibility, which may find potential applications as biomaterial. - Highlights: ? A new radiation polymerization method is offered in dilute aqueous solution.? This method provides PVA-g-NIPAAm nanohydrogels by radiation dose of 120 Gy. ? Using THPC and H2O2 leads to the polymerization with much less radiation dose. ? The obtained nanohydrogels exhibit fast swelling/deswelling rate. ? Nanohydrogels indicate good rheological properties and biocompatibility

  16. Fast Response Shape Memory Effect Titanium Nickel (TiNi) Foam Torque Tubes

    Jardine, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Shape Change Technologies has developed a process to manufacture net-shaped TiNi foam torque tubes that demonstrate the shape memory effect. The torque tubes dramatically reduce response time by a factor of 10. This Phase II project matured the actuator technology by rigorously characterizing the process to optimize the quality of the TiNi and developing a set of metrics to provide ISO 9002 quality assurance. A laboratory virtual instrument engineering workbench (LabVIEW'TM')-based, real-time control of the torsional actuators was developed. These actuators were developed with The Boeing Company for aerospace applications.

  17. Low grade glioma - extent and timing of response to radiotherapy

    Purpose/Objective: While postoperative radiotherapy has been suggested to improve survival in patients with subtotally resected low grade gliomas, their rate of radiographic response and correlation of response with outcome has not been well documented. Material and Methods: Twenty adults with non-pilocytic, supratentorial low grade gliomas treated between 1988-1995 who had measurable residual tumor after surgery and complete followup imaging were analysed for radiographic response to radiotherapy. The degree and timing of response to radiation were determined by comparing tumor volumes on post-operative/pre-radiation; post-radiation and subsequent follow-up CT scans. Radiographic response to radiotherapy was correlated with clinical symptomatology and progression free survival. Results: Median postoperative/pre-radiotherapy tumor volume was 32.5 cm3. At the time of maximal response post radiotherapy, volumes were reduced to a median of 13.5 cm3 for a median volume decrease of 7.5 cm3. Tumor response was judged as complete in(3(20)) , partial in (7(20)), minor in (6(20)) and stable in (4(20)) for an overall response rate of (16(20)) (80%). Of the 16 patients responding to radiotherapy, maximal response was seen on the first follow-up scan in 15 (median time to follow-up scan was 2.8 months following initiation of radiation treatments). Only one tumor had a protracted response, continuing to decrease in size between the end of radiation treatment and approximately 18 months later. A greater proportion of those patients exhibiting a response to radiation had an improvement in clinical symptomatology ((7(16))) versus non-responders ((0(4))). There were (5(20)) patients who developed recurrent tumor at a median of 32 months post-radiation for an actuarial 5 year progression free survival of 75%. All 5 who recurred had demonstrated an initial response to radiotherapy and all recurrences were within the previously radiated field. On univariate analysis of progression free survival KPS ≥ 70 was associated with improved survival (HR 0.928, p=0.037). Response to radiotherapy was inversely correlated with progression free survival (HR 3.599, p=0.040). Age, histology, extent of surgery and pre-radiation tumor volume were not significant predictors of progression free survival. Conclusions: This retrospective review of radiographic response of low grade gliomas to radiotherapy confirms that these tumors are radioresponsive. The majority demonstrated a 25% or greater reduction in volume as measured on serial CT scanning; usually by the first post radiation scan. Response of the tumors to radiotherapy predicted improved clinical symptomatology but not improved progression free survival

  18. Conceptual question response times in Peer Instruction classrooms

    Miller, Kelly; Lasry, Nathaniel; Lukoff, Brian; Schell, Julie; Mazur, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to in-class, conceptual questions [ConcepTests (CTs)] in two introductory physics courses taught using Peer Instruction and use item response theory to determine the difficulty of the CTs. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers both before and after the peer discussion for CTs of varying difficulty. We also determine the relationship between response time and student performance on a standardized test of incoming physics knowledge, precourse self-efficacy, and gender. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response time for correct answers is significantly faster than for incorrect answers, both before and after peer discussion, especially for easy CTs. Second, students with greater incoming physics knowledge and higher self-efficacy respond faster in both rounds. Third, there is no gender difference in response rate after controlling for incoming physics knowledge scores, although males register significantly more attempts before committing to a final answer than do female students. These results provide insight into effective CT pacing during Peer Instruction. In particular, in order to maintain a pace that keeps everyone engaged, students should not be given too much time to respond. When around 80% of the answers are in, the ratio of correct to incorrect responses rapidly approaches levels indicating random guessing and instructors should close the poll.

  19. Reduced computational cost in the calculation of worst case response time for real time systems

    Urriza, José M.; Schorb, Lucas; Orozco, Javier D.; Cayssials, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Modern Real Time Operating Systems require reducing computational costs even though the microprocessors become more powerful each day. It is usual that Real Time Operating Systems for embedded systems have advance features to administrate the resources of the applications that they support. In order to guarantee either the schedulability of the system or the schedulability of a new task in a dynamic Real Time System, it is necessary to know the Worst Case Response Time of the Real Time tasks ...

  20. Time-dependent calculations of transfer ionization by fast proton-helium collision in one-dimensional kinematics

    Serov, Vladislav V.; Kheifets, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a transfer ionization (TI) reaction in the fast proton-helium collision $\\rm H^+ + He \\to H^0 + He^{2+} + e^-$ by solving a time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation (TDSE) under the classical projectile motion approximation in one-dimensional kinematics. In addition, we construct various time independent analogues of our model using lowest order perturbation theory in the form of the Born series. By comparing various aspects of the TDSE and the Born series calculations, we conclude th...

  1. Stabilizing the Long-time Behavior of the Navier-Stokes Equations and Damped Euler Systems by Fast Oscillating Forces

    Cyranka, Jacek; Mucha, Piotr B.; Titi, Edriss S.; Zgliczyński, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The paper studies the issue of stability of solutions to the Navier-Stokes and damped Euler systems in periodic boxes. We show that under action of fast oscillating-in- time external forces all two dimensional regular solutions converge to a time periodic flow. Unexpectedly, effects of stabilization can be also obtained for systems with stationary forces with large total momentum (average of the velocity). Thanks to the Galilean transformation and space boundary conditions, the stationary for...

  2. Real-Time Quantitative PCR and Fast QPCR Have Similar Sensitivity and Accuracy with HIV cDNA Late Reverse Transcripts and 2-LTR Circles

    Yoder, Kristine E; Fishel, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Real time fluorescent quantitative PCR (universal QPCR) methods are used routinely in both academic and clinical research to measure HIV cDNA. Fast QPCR allows for faster ramping times between cycles and smaller reaction volumes, but may lose sensitivity and accuracy. We demonstrate that primer sets for HIV late reverse transcripts and 2-LTR circles have similar sensitivity and accuracy with either universal or fast QPCR methods. However, both cost and time are reduced with fast QPCR.

  3. Characterization of a time-resolved non-contact scanning diffuse optical imaging system exploiting fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode detection

    Di Sieno, Laura; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Pifferi, Antonio; Mazurenka, Mikhail; Hoshi, Yoko; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Contini, Davide; Boso, Gianluca; Becker, Wolfgang; Martelli, Fabrizio; Tosi, Alberto; Macdonald, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    We present a system for non-contact time-resolved diffuse reflectance imaging, based on small source-detector distance and high dynamic range measurements utilizing a fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode. The system is suitable for imaging of diffusive media without any contact with the sample and with a spatial resolution of about 1 cm at 1 cm depth. In order to objectively assess its performances, we adopted two standardized protocols developed for time-domain brain imagers. The related tests included the recording of the instrument response function of the setup and the responsivity of its detection system. Moreover, by using liquid turbid phantoms with absorbing inclusions, depth-dependent contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio as well as lateral spatial resolution were measured. To illustrate the potentialities of the novel approach, the characteristics of the non-contact system are discussed and compared to those of a fiber-based brain imager.

  4. Time dependent effects on contractile properties, fibre population, myosin light chains and enzymes of energy metabolism in intermittently and continuously stimulated fast twitch muscles of the rabbit.

    Pette, D; Müller, W; Leisner, E; Vrbová, G

    1976-07-30

    Fast-twitch tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus rabbit muscles were subjected to long-term intermittent (8 h daily) or continuous (24 h daily) indirect stimulation with a frequency pattern resembling that of a slow motoneuron. Increases in time to peak of isometric twitch contraction were observed without parallel changes in the pattern of myosin light chains or alterations in the distribution of slow and fast fibres as discernible by the histochemical ATPase reaction. However, changes in the fibre population and in the myosin light chain pattern were observed after intermittent stimulation periods exceeding 40 days or continuous stimulation periods longer than 20 days. Under these conditions even higher increases were found in contraction time. In one animal a complete change in fbire population was observed. In this case myosin light chains of the slow (LCS1, LCS2) and of the fast type (LCf1) were obviously synthetized simultaneously within the same fibre. Early changes in the enzyme activity pattern of energy metabolism indicated a conversion of the fibres including their mitochondrial population. These changes and the earlier reported changes in the sarcoplasmic reticulum are probably responsible for the early changes in contractile properties which occur before the transformation of the myosin. PMID:134352

  5. A fast time-amplitude converter for low-energy physics measurements

    This converter permits the measurement of neutron times of flight up to 150 ns. The saw-tooth generator employs a 6BN6 tube fed at low voltage. There are two main points to be noted. The first relates to the tube itself: the influence of the inter-electrode capacitances increases with the speed of the signals, so that it was necessary to provide efficient neutrodyning of the No. 3 grid anode capacitance, which disturbed the conversion. The other point is that the exactness of the time definition is limited owing to the amplitude spectrum of the signals from the photomultiplier which makes it difficult to determine the instant that corresponds to a pulse. To reduce this difficulty, the authors took a selection of measurements. The performance of the equipment was checked under simulated normal working conditions: the two instants are defined by two distinct detection channels, each having a photomultiplier and a scintillator. The half-height width of a peak corresponding to a fixed delay gives the time definition; values were obtained from 0.8 to 1.3 ns for the half-height width of the peak, depending on the setting, and the drift for 15 hours of operation remained less than 0.3 % of the range. The linearity of the response curve as measured by accident coincidence is better than 0.3 % between 5 and 95 % of the measured area. (author)

  6. Fast response double series resonant high-voltage DC-DC converter

    In this paper, a novel double series resonant high-voltage dc-dc converter with dual-mode pulse frequency modulation (PFM) control scheme is proposed. The proposed topology consists of two series resonant tanks and hence two resonant currents flow in each switching period. Moreover, it consists of two high-voltage transformer with the leakage inductances are absorbed as resonant inductor in the series resonant tanks. The secondary output of both transformers are rectified and mixed before supplying to load. In the resonant mode operation, the series resonant tanks are energized alternately by controlling two Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) switches with pulse frequency modulation (PFM). This topology operates in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) with all IGBT switches operating in zero current switching (ZCS) condition and hence no switching loss occurs. To achieve fast rise in output voltage, a dual-mode PFM control during start-up of the converter is proposed. In this operation, the inverter is started at a high switching frequency and as the output voltage reaches 90% of the target value, the switching frequency is reduced to a value which corresponds to the target output voltage. This can effectively reduce the rise time of the output voltage and prevent overshoot. Experimental results collected from a 100-W laboratory prototype are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  7. Fast response double series resonant high-voltage DC-DC converter

    Lee, S. S.; Iqbal, S.; Kamarol, M.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a novel double series resonant high-voltage dc-dc converter with dual-mode pulse frequency modulation (PFM) control scheme is proposed. The proposed topology consists of two series resonant tanks and hence two resonant currents flow in each switching period. Moreover, it consists of two high-voltage transformer with the leakage inductances are absorbed as resonant inductor in the series resonant tanks. The secondary output of both transformers are rectified and mixed before supplying to load. In the resonant mode operation, the series resonant tanks are energized alternately by controlling two Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) switches with pulse frequency modulation (PFM). This topology operates in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) with all IGBT switches operating in zero current switching (ZCS) condition and hence no switching loss occurs. To achieve fast rise in output voltage, a dual-mode PFM control during start-up of the converter is proposed. In this operation, the inverter is started at a high switching frequency and as the output voltage reaches 90% of the target value, the switching frequency is reduced to a value which corresponds to the target output voltage. This can effectively reduce the rise time of the output voltage and prevent overshoot. Experimental results collected from a 100-W laboratory prototype are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  8. FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR TURNOVER IN A FAST FOOD COMPANY OF SANTA MARIA – RS

    Marian dos Santos Rosa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current scene of the organizations, each time more, the collaborator comes conquering excellent space, where the good course of the functional activities depends on the motivation of each one of these members. Inside of this context, the present objective study to analyze the organizational climate, focusing in the motivation and the rotation of the collaborators of a great company of Fast Food of the city of Saint Maria- RS, known world-wide in this sort. Study of cases was carried through, using the Survey method, being the characterized research as exploratory, quantitative and descriptive, where 57 collaborators had answered to a questionnaire of 65 questions having aimed at to answer the problematic one of the study. The gotten results disclose that the collaborators correctly are trained and as consequence the quality is seen as a positive factor, however one has left of these collaborators if it showed not motivated, influenced for the half organizational not to be very healthful, had to the environment of extreme pressure that is part of the routine of this organization, beyond a sufficiently young team of collaborators, main factors of an index of turnover considerable, identified in this company.

  9. Reaction-time response of a large commercial aircraft

    The reaction-time response of a large commercial aircraft is defined. The aircraft is examined as a thin-walled tubular missile. The impact is assumed soft, and the target's effect on the reaction-time response is neglected. The reaction-time response is defined assuming a normal impact on a rigid wall. The reaction-time response is defined with the analytical Riera method and with the numerical explicit finite element method. The Riera force history is solved with the finite difference method. For the finite element method, two codes are used: Abaqus/Explicit and LS-DYNA. Focus is on the sensitivity study of the used methods. The outer shell of the aircraft is modeled, and an approximation for the mass-distribution is made. Sensitivity to modeling assumptions is studied in order to get information on the adequacy of modeling. The results indicate relatively small sensitivity to modeling assumptions. The wings should be modeled more accurately in order to obtain the dominant frequency response in global structural analysis. (author)

  10. Sensors Response Time validation using Dimensionality Reduction Techniques

    S. Gayathri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The temperature and Pressure sensors play a vital role in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP. The Rosemount temperature sensor helps to produce the exact temperature and pressure measurement of the nuclear power plant. The sensors that supply real data must respond quickly to the safety systems of NPP. In this paper, first the Dimensionality of the Original dataset is reduced by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Independent Component Analysis (ICA and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD. Finally the sensors Response Time is computed and compared with original response time.

  11. Extending food deprivation reverses the short-term lipolytic response to fasting: role of the triacylglycerol/fatty acid cycle.

    Weber, Jean-Michel; Reidy, Shannon P

    2012-05-01

    The effects of short-term food deprivation on lipid metabolism are well documented, but little is known about prolonged fasting. This study monitored the kinetics of glycerol (rate of appearance, R(a) glycerol) and non-esterified fatty acids (R(a) NEFA) in fasting rabbits. Our goals were to determine whether lipolysis is stimulated beyond values seen for short-term fasting, and to characterize the roles of primary (intracellular) and secondary (with transit through the circulation) triacylglycerol/fatty acid cycling (TAG/FA cycling) in regulating fatty acid allocation to oxidation or re-esterification. R(a) glycerol (9.620.72 to 15.290.96 ?mol kg(-1) min(-1)) and R(a) NEFA (18.052.55 to 31.251.93 ?mol kg(-1) min(-1)) were stimulated during the first 2 days of fasting, but returned to baseline after 4 days. An initial increase in TAG/FA cycling was followed by a reduction below baseline after 6 days without food, with primary and secondary cycling contributing to these responses. We conclude that the classic activation of lipolysis caused by short-term fasting is abolished when food deprivation is prolonged. High rates of re-esterification may become impossible to sustain, and TAG/FA cycling could decrease to reduce its cost to 3% of total energy expenditure. Throughout prolonged fasting, fatty acid metabolism gradually shifts towards increased oxidation and reduced re-esterification. Survival is achieved by pressing fuel selection towards the fatty acid dominance of energy metabolism and by slowing substrate cycles to assist metabolic suppression. However, TAG/FA cycling remains active even after prolonged fasting, suggesting that re-esterification is a crucial mechanism that cannot be stopped without harmful consequences. PMID:22496284

  12. SOA Does Not Reveal the Absolute Time Course of Cognitive Processing in Fast Priming Experiments

    Tzur, Boaz; Frost, Ram

    2007-01-01

    Applying Bloch's law to visual word recognition research, both exposure duration of the prime and its luminance determine the prime's overall energy, and consequently determine the size of the priming effect. Nevertheless, experimenters using fast-priming paradigms traditionally focus only on the SOA between prime and target to reflect the…

  13. SOA Does Not Reveal the Absolute Time Course of Cognitive Processing in Fast Priming Experiments

    Tzur, Boaz; Frost, Ram

    2007-01-01

    Applying Bloch's law to visual word recognition research, both exposure duration of the prime and its luminance determine the prime's overall energy, and consequently determine the size of the priming effect. Nevertheless, experimenters using fast-priming paradigms traditionally focus only on the SOA between prime and target to reflect the

  14. Giving is a question of time: Response times and contributions to a real world public good

    Lohse, Johannes; Goeschl, Timo; Diederich, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental research has examined whether contributions to public goods can be traced back to intuitive or deliberative decision-making, using response times in public good games in order to identify the specific decision process at work. In light of conflicting results, this paper reports on an analysis of response time data from an online experiment in which over 3400 subjects from the general population decided whether to contribute to a real world public good. The between-subjects...

  15. Study of toroidal current penetration during current ramp in JIPP T-IIU with fast response Zeeman polarimeter

    Kuramoto, H.; Hiraki, N. [Kyushu Inst. of Tech., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan); Toi, K. [and others

    1997-01-01

    The toroidal current penetration is studied in current ramp experiments of the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. The poloidal magnetic field profile in the peripheral region of a plasma (0.5 {<=} {rho} {<=} 1.0) has been measured directly with a newly developed fast response Zeeman polarimeter. The experimental results indicate that an obvious skin effect of toroidal current density is clearly observed during both the current ramp-up and ramp-down experiments. The experimentally obtained toroidal current density profiles are well described by the profiles calculated on the assumption of the neoclassical electrical conductivity. Quasi-linear {Delta}`-analysis of tearing modes for the measured current density profile is consistent with time behaviour of coherent MHD modes such as m=4/n=1 or m=3/n=1 (m: poloidal mode number, n: toroidal mode number) often observed during the current ramp-up phase. The effect of these MHD modes on current penetration during the current ramp-up discharges is studied. (author)

  16. Study of toroidal current penetration during current ramp in JIPP T-IIU with fast response Zeeman polarimeter

    The toroidal current penetration is studied in current ramp experiments of the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. The poloidal magnetic field profile in the peripheral region of a plasma (0.5 ≤ ρ ≤ 1.0) has been measured directly with a newly developed fast response Zeeman polarimeter. The experimental results indicate that an obvious skin effect of toroidal current density is clearly observed during both the current ramp-up and ramp-down experiments. The experimentally obtained toroidal current density profiles are well described by the profiles calculated on the assumption of the neoclassical electrical conductivity. Quasi-linear Δ'-analysis of tearing modes for the measured current density profile is consistent with time behaviour of coherent MHD modes such as m=4/n=1 or m=3/n=1 (m: poloidal mode number, n: toroidal mode number) often observed during the current ramp-up phase. The effect of these MHD modes on current penetration during the current ramp-up discharges is studied. (author)

  17. Timing criteria for supplemental BWR emergency response equipment

    The Great Tohuku Earthquake and subsequent Tsunami represented a double failure event which destroyed offsite power connections to Fukushima-Daiichi site and then destroyed on-site electrical systems needed to run decay heat removal systems. The accident could have been mitigated had there been supplemental portable battery chargers, supplemental pumps, and in-place piping connections to provide alternate decay heat removal. In response to this event in the USA, two national response centers, one in Memphis, Tennessee, and another in Phoenix, Arizona, will begin operation. They will be able to dispatch supplemental emergency response equipment to any nuclear plant in the U.S. within 24 hours. In order to define requirements for supplemental nuclear power plant emergency response equipment maintained onsite vs. in a regional support center it is necessary to confirm: (a) the earliest time such equipment might be needed depending on the specific scenario, (b) the nominal time to move the equipment from a storage location either on-site or within the region of a nuclear power plant, and (c) the time required to connect in the supplemental equipment to use it. This paper describes an evaluation process for a BWR-4 with a Mark I Containment starting with: (a) severe accident simulation to define best estimate times available for recovery based on the specific scenario, (b) identify the key supplemental response equipment needed at specific times to accomplish recovery of key safety functions, and (c) evaluate what types of equipment should be warehoused on-site vs. in regional response centers. (authors)

  18. Fast but not intuitive, slow but not reflective: Decision conflict drives reaction times in social dilemmas.

    Evans, Anthony M; Dillon, Kyle D; Rand, David G

    2015-10-01

    When people have the chance to help others at a cost to themselves, are cooperative decisions driven by intuition or reflection? To answer this question, recent studies have tested the relationship between reaction times (RTs) and cooperation, reporting both positive and negative correlations. To reconcile this apparent contradiction, we argue that decision conflict (rather than the use of intuition vs. reflection) drives response times, leading to an inverted-U shaped relationship between RT and cooperation. Studies 1 through 3 show that intermediate decisions take longer than both extremely selfish and extremely cooperative decisions. Studies 4 and 5 find that the conflict between self-interested and cooperative motives explains individual differences in RTs. Manipulating conflictedness causes longer RTs and more intermediate decisions, and RTs mediate the relationship between conflict and intermediate decisions. Finally, Studies 6 and 7 demonstrate that conflict is distinct from reflection by manipulating the use of intuition (vs. reflection). Experimentally promoting reliance on intuition increases cooperation, but has no effects on decision extremity or feelings of conflictedness. In sum, we provide evidence that RTs should not be interpreted as a direct proxy for the use of intuitive or reflective processes, and dissociate the effects of conflict and reflection in social decision making. PMID:26413891

  19. Planck 2013 results. VII. HFI time response and beams

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bowyer, J W; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Haissinski, J; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hou, Z; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; MacTavish, C J; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matsumura, T; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polegre, A M; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Sauvé, A; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper characterizes the effective beams,the effective beam window functions and the associated errors for the Planck HFI detectors. The effective beam is the angular response including the effect of the optics,detectors,data processing and the scan strategy. The window function is the representation of this beam in the harmonic domain which is required to recover an unbiased measurement of the CMB angular power spectrum. The HFI is a scanning instrument and its effective beams are the convolution of: (a) the optical response of the telescope and feeds;(b)the processing of the time-ordered data and deconvolution of the bolometric and electronic time response; and (c) the merging of several surveys to produce maps. The time response functions are measured using observations of Jupiter and Saturn and by minimizing survey difference residuals. The scanning beam is the post-deconvolution angular response of the instrument, and is characterized with observations of Mars. The main beam solid angles are determin...

  20. Processes in current sheets responsible for fast energy conversion in the magnetospheric collisionless plasma

    Kropotkin, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of the magnetospheric plasma configuration intrinsically features intermittent slow and fast phases. The fast transition is a nonlinear process, loss of equilibrium which ends up the slow quasi-static evolution. The process is analysed as a dynamical bifurcation. It appears when marginal stability state is reached in the course of that evolution, either for tearing mode or for ballooning mode disturbances. The resulting force imbalance leads to spontaneous formation of nonlinear kine...

  1. In situ response time measurements of RTD temperature sensors

    The loop-current-step-response test provides a mean for determining the time constant of resistence thermometers. The test consist in heating the sensor a few degrees above ambient temperature by causing a step pertubation in the electric current that flows through the sensor leads. The developed mathematical transformation permits to use data collected during the internal heating transient to predict the sensor response to perturbations in fluid temperature. Experimental data obtained show that the time constant determined by method is within 15 percent of true value. The loop-current-step-response test is a remote in situ test, which can be performed with the sensor installed in the process. Consequently it takes account the local heat transfer conditions, and appropriated for nuclear power plants, where sensors are installed in points of difficult access. (author)

  2. Improvement in MFTF data base system response times

    The Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) has been designed as an event driven system. To this end we have designed a data base notification facility in which a task can request that it be loaded and started whenever an element in the data base is changed beyond some user defined range. Our initial implementation of the notify facility exhibited marginal response times whenever a data base table with a large number of outstanding notifies was written into. In this paper we discuss the sources of the slow response and describe in detail a new structure for the list of notifies which minimizes search time resulting in significantly faster response

  3. Linear-response thermal time-dependent density functional theory

    Pribram-Jones, Aurora; Burke, Kieron

    2015-01-01

    The van Leeuwen proof of linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is generalized to thermal ensembles. This allows generalization to finite temperatures of the Gross-Kohn relation, the exchange-correlation kernel of TDDFT, and fluctuation dissipation theorem for DFT. This produces a natural method for generating new thermal exchange-correlation (XC) approximations.

  4. EVALUATION OF A FAST-RESPONSE URBAN WIND MODEL - COMPARISON TO SINGLE-BUILDING WIND TUNNEL DATA

    E.R. PARDYJAK; M.J. BROWN

    2001-08-01

    Prediction of the 3-dimensional flow field around buildings and other obstacles is important for a number of applications, including urban air quality studies, the tracking of plumes from accidental releases of toxic air contaminants, indoor/outdoor air pollution problems, and thermal comfort assessments. Various types of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been used for determining the flow fields around buildings (e.g., Reisner et al., 1998; Eichhorn et al., 1988). Comparisons to measurements show that these models work reasonably well for the most part (e.g., Ehrhard et al., 2 ; Johnson and Hunter, 1998; Murakami, 1997). However, CFD models are computationally intensive and for some applications turn-around time is of the essence. For example, planning and assessment studies in which hundreds of cases must be analyzed or emergency response scenarios in which plume transport must be computed quickly. Several fast-response dispersion models of varying levels of fidelity have been developed to explicitly account for the effects of a single building or groups of buildings (e.g., UDM - Hall et al. (2000), NRC-Ramsdell and Fosmire (1995), CBP-3 - Yamartino and Wiegand (1986), APRAC - Daerdt et al. (1973)). Although a few of these models include the Hotchkiss and Harlow (1973) analytical solution for potential flow in a notch to describe the velocity field within an urban canyon, in general, these models do not explicitly compute the velocity field around groups of buildings. The EPA PRIME model (Schulman et al., 2000) has been empirically derived to provide streamlines around a single isolated building.

  5. Fast-response airborne in situ measurements of HNO3 during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study

    Neuman, J. A.; Huey, L. G.; Dissly, R. W.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Flocke, F.; Holecek, J. C.; Holloway, J. S.; Hbler, G.; Jakoubek, R.; Nicks, D. K.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sueper, D. T.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2002-10-01

    Nitric acid (HNO3) was measured from an aircraft in the planetary boundary layer and free troposphere up to 7 km on 14 flights during the Texas Air Quality Study in August and September 2000. HNO3 mixing ratios were measured at 1 Hz using a fast-response chemical ionization mass spectrometer with SiF5- reagent ions. HNO3 measurement using this highly selective ion chemistry is insensitive to water vapor and is not degraded by interferences from other species. Rapid time response (1 s) was achieved using a heated Teflon inlet. In-flight standard addition calibrations from a HNO3 permeation source were used to determine the instrument sensitivity of 1.1 0.1 ion counts pptv-1 s-1 over the duration of the study. Contributions to the HNO3 signal from instrument artifacts were accounted for by regularly performing in-flight instrument background checks, where HNO3 was removed from the ambient air sample by diverting the sampled air though a nylon wool scrubber. Measurement inaccuracy, which is determined from uncertainties in the standard addition calibrations, was 10%. Measurement precision at low HNO3 levels was 25 pptv (1?) for the 1 Hz data and 9 pptv for 10 s averages of the 1 s measurements. Coincident in situ measurements of other reactive nitrogen species are used to examine NOy partitioning and HNO3 formation during this month long measurement campaign. The sum of the individually measured reactive nitrogen species is shown to be in agreement with the measured NOy. HNO3 formation in plumes from electric utility power plants, urban areas, and petrochemical facilities was studied. The observed differences in the fractional contribution of HNO3 to NOy in plumes from different anthropogenic source types are discussed.

  6. EVALUATION OF A FAST-RESPONSE URBAN WIND MODEL - COMPARISON TO SINGLE-BUILDING WIND TUNNEL DATA

    Prediction of the 3-dimensional flow field around buildings and other obstacles is important for a number of applications, including urban air quality studies, the tracking of plumes from accidental releases of toxic air contaminants, indoor/outdoor air pollution problems, and thermal comfort assessments. Various types of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been used for determining the flow fields around buildings (e.g., Reisner et al., 1998; Eichhorn et al., 1988). Comparisons to measurements show that these models work reasonably well for the most part (e.g., Ehrhard et al., 2 ; Johnson and Hunter, 1998; Murakami, 1997). However, CFD models are computationally intensive and for some applications turn-around time is of the essence. For example, planning and assessment studies in which hundreds of cases must be analyzed or emergency response scenarios in which plume transport must be computed quickly. Several fast-response dispersion models of varying levels of fidelity have been developed to explicitly account for the effects of a single building or groups of buildings (e.g., UDM - Hall et al. (2000), NRC-Ramsdell and Fosmire (1995), CBP-3 - Yamartino and Wiegand (1986), APRAC - Daerdt et al. (1973)). Although a few of these models include the Hotchkiss and Harlow (1973) analytical solution for potential flow in a notch to describe the velocity field within an urban canyon, in general, these models do not explicitly compute the velocity field around groups of buildings. The EPA PRIME model (Schulman et al., 2000) has been empirically derived to provide streamlines around a single isolated building

  7. Unsaturated-zone fast-path flow calculations for Yucca Mountain groundwater travel time analyses (GWTT-94)

    Evaluation of groundwater travel time (GWTT) is required as part of the investigation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential high-level nuclear-waste repository site. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's GWTT regulation is considered to be a measure of the intrinsic ability of the site to contain radionuclide releases from the repository. The work reported here is the first step in a program to provide an estimate of GWTT at the Yucca Mountain site in support of the DOE's Technical Site Suitability and as a component of a license application. Preliminary estimation of the GWTT distribution in the unsaturated zone was accomplished using a numerical model of the physical processes of groundwater flow in the fractured, porous medium of the bedrock. Based on prior investigations of groundwater flow at the site, fractures are thought to provide the fastest paths for groundwater flow; conditions that lead to flow in fractures were investigated and simulated. Uncertainty in the geologic interpretation of Yucca Mountain was incorporated through the use of geostatistical simulations, while variability of hydrogeologic parameters within each unit was accounted for by the random sampling of parameter probability density functions. The composite-porosity formulation of groundwater flow was employed to simulate flow in both the matrix and fracture domains. In this conceptualization, the occurrence of locally saturated conditions within the unsaturated zone is responsible for the initiation of fast-path flow through fractures. The results of the GWTT-94 study show that heterogeneity in the hydraulic properties of the model domain is an important factor in simulating local regions of high groundwater saturation. Capillary-pressure conditions at the surface boundary influence the extent of the local saturation simulated

  8. Unsaturated-zone fast-path flow calculations for Yucca Mountain groundwater travel time analyses (GWTT-94)

    Arnold, B.W.; Altman, S.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robey, T.H. [Spectra Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Evaluation of groundwater travel time (GWTT) is required as part of the investigation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential high-level nuclear-waste repository site. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s GWTT regulation is considered to be a measure of the intrinsic ability of the site to contain radionuclide releases from the repository. The work reported here is the first step in a program to provide an estimate of GWTT at the Yucca Mountain site in support of the DOE`s Technical Site Suitability and as a component of a license application. Preliminary estimation of the GWTT distribution in the unsaturated zone was accomplished using a numerical model of the physical processes of groundwater flow in the fractured, porous medium of the bedrock. Based on prior investigations of groundwater flow at the site, fractures are thought to provide the fastest paths for groundwater flow; conditions that lead to flow in fractures were investigated and simulated. Uncertainty in the geologic interpretation of Yucca Mountain was incorporated through the use of geostatistical simulations, while variability of hydrogeologic parameters within each unit was accounted for by the random sampling of parameter probability density functions. The composite-porosity formulation of groundwater flow was employed to simulate flow in both the matrix and fracture domains. In this conceptualization, the occurrence of locally saturated conditions within the unsaturated zone is responsible for the initiation of fast-path flow through fractures. The results of the GWTT-94 study show that heterogeneity in the hydraulic properties of the model domain is an important factor in simulating local regions of high groundwater saturation. Capillary-pressure conditions at the surface boundary influence the extent of the local saturation simulated.

  9. Timing and causality in the generation of learned eyelid responses

    Raudel Sánchez-Campusano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum-red nucleus-facial motoneuron (Mn pathway has been reported as being involved in the proper timing of classically conditioned eyelid responses. This special type of associative learning serves as a model of event timing for studying the role of the cerebellum in dynamic motor control. Here, we have re-analyzed the firing activities of cerebellar posterior interpositus (IP neurons and orbicularis oculi (OO Mns in alert behaving cats during classical eyeblink conditioning, using a delay paradigm. The aim was to revisit the hypothesis that the IP neurons can be considered a neuronal phase-modulating device supporting OO Mns firing with an emergent timing mechanism and an explicit correlation code during learned eyelid movements. Optimized experimental and computational tools allowed us to determine the different causal relationships (temporal order and correlation code during and between trials. These intra- and inter-trial timing strategies expanding from sub-second range (millisecond timing to longer-lasting ranges (interval timing expanded the functional domain of cerebellar timing beyond motor control. Interestingly, the results supported the above-mentioned hypothesis. The causal inferences were influenced by the precise motor and premotor spike-timing in the cause-effect interval, and, in addition, the timing of the learned responses depended on cerebellar-Mn network causality. Furthermore, the timing of CRs depended upon the probability of simulated causal conditions in the cause-effect interval and not the mere duration of the inter-stimulus interval. In this work, the close relation between timing and causality was verified. It could thus be concluded that the firing activities of IP neurons may be related more to the proper performance of ongoing CRs (i.e., the proper timing as a consequence of the pertinent causality than to their generation and/or initiation.

  10. Comparison of LMFBR piping response obtained using response spectrum and time history methods

    The dynamic response to a seismic event is calculated for a piping system using a response spectrum analysis method and two time history analysis methods. The results from the analytical methods are compared to identify causes for the differences between the sets of analytical results. Comparative methods are also presented which help to gain confidence in the accuracy of the analytical methods in predicting piping system structure response during seismic events

  11. A "package solution" fast track program can reduce the diagnostic waiting time in head and neck cancer

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Johansen, Jørgen; Gano, Lars; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Andersen, Peter Bøgeskov; Thomassen, Anders; Godballe, Christian

    2014-01-01

    procedures. The purpose of this study is to present a model for fast track handling of patients suspicious of cancer in the head and neck region and to evaluate the effect of implementation on the diagnostic work up time. Patients with suspicion of HNC referred to the same university department of ENT Head...... and Neck Surgery during three comparable time intervals 2006-2007, 2007-2008, and 2011-2012 (groups 1-3) were investigated. We recorded the time from patient referral, to first consultation and final diagnosis. The first interval was before initiation of the "package solution", the second just after...

  12. A GPU-based real time high performance computing service in a fast plant system controller prototype for ITER

    Highlights: ? Implementation of fast plant system controller (FPSC) for ITER CODAC. ? GPU-based real time high performance computing service. ? Performance evaluation with respect to other solutions based in multi-core processors. - Abstract: EURATOM/CIEMAT and the Technical University of Madrid UPM are involved in the development of a FPSC (fast plant system control) prototype for ITER based on PXIe form factor. The FPSC architecture includes a GPU-based real time high performance computing service which has been integrated under EPICS (experimental physics and industrial control system). In this work we present the design of this service and its performance evaluation with respect to other solutions based in multi-core processors. Plasma pre-processing algorithms, illustrative of the type of tasks that could be required for both control and diagnostics, are used during the performance evaluation.

  13. A GPU-based real time high performance computing service in a fast plant system controller prototype for ITER

    Nieto, J., E-mail: jnieto@sec.upm.es [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 Spain (Spain); Arcas, G. de; Ruiz, M. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 Spain (Spain); Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Lopez, J.M.; Barrera, E. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 Spain (Spain); Castro, R. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Sanz, D. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 Spain (Spain); Utzel, N.; Makijarvi, P.; Zabeo, L. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implementation of fast plant system controller (FPSC) for ITER CODAC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GPU-based real time high performance computing service. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance evaluation with respect to other solutions based in multi-core processors. - Abstract: EURATOM/CIEMAT and the Technical University of Madrid UPM are involved in the development of a FPSC (fast plant system control) prototype for ITER based on PXIe form factor. The FPSC architecture includes a GPU-based real time high performance computing service which has been integrated under EPICS (experimental physics and industrial control system). In this work we present the design of this service and its performance evaluation with respect to other solutions based in multi-core processors. Plasma pre-processing algorithms, illustrative of the type of tasks that could be required for both control and diagnostics, are used during the performance evaluation.

  14. A novel 4D fast track finding system using precise space and time information of the hit

    Neri, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel fast track finding system capable of reconstructing four dimensional particle trajectories in real time using precise space and time information of the hits. Recent developments in silicon pixel detectors achieved 150 ps time resolution and intense R&D is in progress to improve the timing performance, aiming at 10 ps. The use of the precise space and time information allows the suppression of background hits not compatible with the time of passage of the particle and the determination of its time evolution. The fast track finding device that we are proposing is based on a massively parallel algorithm implemented in commercial field-programmable gate array using a pipelined architecture. We describe the algorithm and its implementation for a tracking system prototype based on 8 planes of silicon sensors used as a case study. According to simulations the suppression of noise hits is effective in reducing fake track combinations and improving real-time track reconstruction in presence of b...

  15. The Time Course Effect of Moderate Intensity Exercise on Response Execution and Response Inhibition

    Joyce, Jennifer; Graydon, Jan; McMorris, Terry; Davranche, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the time course effect of a moderate steady-state exercise session on response execution and response inhibition using a stop-task paradigm. Ten participants performed a stop-signal task whilst cycling at a carefully controlled workload intensity (40% of maximal aerobic power), immediately following exercise and…

  16. A fast, flexible and low cost real time data acquisition system for nuclear physics experiments

    A system has been developed to permit fast, efficient data collection from a relatively complex nuclear experiment. Incorporated into this system is the communication framework for on-line analysis of the incoming data. The system makes extensive use of readily available low cost Intel based microprocessors. Results from recent measurements of the 16O(γ,n) cross section made using tagged photons, performed at previously unachievable collection rates are presented. 6 refs., 6 figs

  17. A neutron detector with a flat energy response for use in time-of-flight experiments

    Monte-Carlo calculations have been carried out to assess the feasibility of making a neutron detector suitable for time-of-flight work whose efficiency can be accurately predicted (∼±2%) ideally over the energy region 100eV → several MeV. Accurate flux measurements are needed in this region to determine partial neutron cross-sections for use in fast-reactor design. The detector was taken to be a spherical homogeneous mixture of 10B and vaseline with a radial re-entrant hole to allow a parallel neutron beam to fall near the sphere centre. Neutrons are moderated and captured in the 10B to produce 478-keV γ-rays in the reaction 10B(n, α)7Li*, γ7Li which are detected at the surface of the sphere in Nal scintillation counters. On the basis of the calculations a 12 cm radius counter has been built containing ∼1 kg 10B with a re-entrant hole 8 cm deep and 2.5 cm diameter. The counter is predicted to have an efficiency which is flat within 4% between 100 eV and 700 keV. The time response is such that an incident fast neutron has a probability of 0.99 of being captured within 0.67 μs. Measurements are being carried out on a 300 m flight path of the Harwell 45 MeV electron linac to test the theoretical predictions. If these are successful the flat response detector will be used as a standard for calibrating the counters actually used for flux determination in fast neutron partial cross-section measurements. The measured characteristics of the detector will be presented and compared with the theoretical predictions. (author)

  18. Soft real-time EPICS extensions for fast control: A case study applied to a TCV equilibrium algorithm

    Highlights: • Implementation of a soft real-time control system based on EPICS technology. • High data throughput system control implementation. • GPU technology applied to fast control. • EPICS fast control based solution. • Fast control and data acquisition in Linux. - Abstract: For new control systems development, ITER distributes CODAC Core System that is a software package based on Linux RedHat, and includes EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) as software control system solution. EPICS technology is being widely used for implementing control systems in research experiments and it is a very well tested technology, but presents important lacks to meet fast control requirements. To manage and process massive amounts of acquired data, EPICS requires additional functions such as: data block oriented transmissions, links with speed-optimized data buffers and synchronization mechanisms not based on system interruptions. This EPICS limitation turned out clearly during the development of the Fast Plant System Controller Prototype for ITER based on PXIe platform. In this work, we present a solution that, on the one hand, is completely compatible and based on EPCIS technology, and on the other hand, extends EPICS technology for implementing high performance fast control systems with soft-real time characteristics. This development includes components such as: data acquisition, processing, monitoring, data archiving, and data streaming (via network and shared memory). Additionally, it is important to remark that this system is compatible with multiple Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and is able to integrate MatLab code through MatLab engine connections. It preserves EPICS modularity, enabling system modification or extension with a simple change of configuration, and finally it enables parallelization based on data distribution to different processing components. With the objective of illustrating the presented solution in an actual tokamak application, we have implemented fundamental tokamak equilibrium quantities such as plasma position, Shafranov shift or internal inductance. The algorithms have been parallelized and implemented for its execution on CPU, GPUs and Matlab, and have been tested using actual magnetic data from the TCV tokamak fast control system

  19. FF-MAC : Fast Forward IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Protocol for Real-Time Data Transmission

    El Gholami, Khalid; Najib ELKAMOUN; Kun Mean HOU

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a Fast Forward MAC layer designed for hard real-time applications in wireless sensor networks. This protocol is an enhancement to the IEEE 802.15.4 standard MAC layer proposed for Low-Rate Personal Area Network. The energy conservation mechanism proposed by the current standard is quite efficient and very flexible. This flexibility comes from the ability to configure different duty cycles to meet specific applications requirements. However, this mechanism has a con...

  20. Fast non-blind deconvolution based on 2D point spread function database for real-time ultrasound imaging

    Kang, Jooyoung; Park, Sung-Chan; Kim, Kyuhong; Kim, Jung-Ho

    2013-02-01

    In the ultrasound medical imaging system, blurring which occurs after passing through ultrasound scanner system, represents Point Spread Function (PSF) that describes the response of the ultrasound imaging system to a point source distribution. So, de-blurring can be achieved by de-convolving the images with an estimated of PSF. However, it is hard to attain an accurate estimation of PSF due to the unknown properties of the tissues of the human body through the ultrasound signal propagates. In addition to, the complexity is very high in order to estimate point spread function and de-convolve the ultrasound image with estimated PSF for real-time implementation of ultrasound imaging. Therefore, conventional methods of ultrasound image restoration are based on a simple 1D PSF estimation [8] that axial direction only by restoring the performance improvement is not in the direction of Lateral. And, in case of 2D PSF estimation, PSF estimation and restoration of the high complexity is not being widely used. In this paper, we proposed new method for selection of the 2D PSF (estimated PSF of the average speed sound and depth) simultaneously with performing fast non-blind 2D de-convolution in the ultrasound imaging system. Our algorithm works on the beam-formed uncompressed radio-frequency data, with pre-measured and estimated 2D PSFs database from actual probe used. In the 2d PSF database, there are pre-measured and estimated 2D PSFs that classified the each different depth (about 5 different depths) and speed of sound (about 1450 or 1540m/s). Using a minimum variance and simple Weiner filter method, we present a novel way to select the optimal 2D PSF in pre-measured and estimated 2D PSFs database that acquired from the actual transducer being used. For de-convolution part with the chosen PSF, we focused on the low complexity issue. So, we are using the Weiner Filter and fast de-convolution technique using hyper-Laplacian priors [11], [12] which is several orders of magnitude faster than existing techniques that use hyper-Laplacian priors. Then, in order to prevent discontinuities between the differently restored each depth image regions, we use the piecewise linear interpolation on overlapping regions. We have tested our algorithm with vera-sonic system and commercial ultrasound scanner (Philips C4-2), in known speed of sound phantoms and unknown speeds in vivo scans. We have applied a non-blind de-convolution with 2D PSFs database for ultrasound imaging system. Using the real PSF from actual transducer being used, our algorithm produces a better restoration of ultrasound image than de-convolution by simulated PSF, and has low complexity for real-time ultrasound imaging. This method is robust and easy to implement. This method may be a realistic candidate for real-time implementation.

  1. Development of a very fast spectral response measurement system for analysis of hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells and modules

    Highlights: ? Spectral response equipment for measuring a-Si:H solar cells in a few seconds. ? Equipment based on 16 LEDs with simultaneous illumination of the solar cell. ? The current generated by each LED is analyzed by a Fast Fourier Transform. ? Cheap equipment without lock-in technology for the current measurement. ? Measurement error vs. conventional measurement less than 1% in Jsc. - Abstract: An important requirement for a very fast spectral response measurement system is the simultaneous illumination of the solar cell at multiple well defined wavelengths. Nowadays this can be done by means of light emitting diodes (LEDs) available for a multitude of wavelengths. For the purpose to measure the spectral response (SR) of amorphous silicon solar cells a detailed characterization of LEDs emitting in the wavelength range from 300 nm to 800 nm was performed. In the here developed equipment the LED illumination is modulated in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 200 Hz and the current generated by each LED is analyzed by a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to determine the current component corresponding to each wavelength. The equipment provides a signal to noise ratio of 24 orders of magnitude for individual wavelengths resulting in a precise measurement of the SR over the whole wavelength range. The difference of the short circuit current determined from the SR is less than 1% in comparison to a conventional system with monochromator.

  2. Quantifying Fast and Slow Responses of Terrestrial Carbon Exchange across a Water Availability Gradient in North American Flux Sites

    Biederman, J. A.; Scott, R. L.; Goulden, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and severity of water limitation, altering terrestrial ecosystems and their carbon exchange with the atmosphere. Here we compare site-level temporal sensitivity of annual carbon fluxes to interannual variations in water availability against cross-site spatial patterns over a network of 19 eddy covariance flux sites. This network represents one order of magnitude in mean annual productivity and includes western North American desert shrublands and grasslands, savannahs, woodlands, and forests with continuous records of 4 to 12 years. Our analysis reveals site-specific patterns not identifiable in prior syntheses that pooled sites. We interpret temporal variability as an indicator of ecosystem response to annual water availability due to fast-changing factors such as leaf stomatal response and microbial activity, while cross-site spatial patterns are used to infer ecosystem adjustment to climatic water availability through slow-changing factors such as plant community and organic carbon pools. Using variance decomposition, we directly quantify how terrestrial carbon balance depends on slow- and fast-changing components of gross ecosystem production (GEP) and total ecosystem respiration (TER). Slow factors explain the majority of variance in annual net ecosystem production (NEP) across the dataset, and their relative importance is greater at wetter, forest sites than desert ecosystems. Site-specific offsets from spatial patterns of GEP and TER explain one third of NEP variance, likely due to slow-changing factors not directly linked to water, such as disturbance. TER and GEP are correlated across sites as previously shown, but our site-level analysis reveals surprisingly consistent linear relationships between these fluxes in deserts and savannahs, indicating fast coupling of TER and GEP in more arid ecosystems. Based on the uncertainty associated with slow and fast factors, we suggest a framework for improved prediction of terrestrial carbon balance. We will also present results of ongoing work to quantify fast and slow contributions to the relationship between evapotranspiration and precipitation across a precipitation gradient.

  3. The noise-time of response compromise in d.c. period meters. A new type of circuit (1961)

    The report compares the characteristics of three period meter circuits: - a linear circuit - a circuit which is non-linear according to the nuclear reactor period - a circuit which is non-linear according to the period and the power of the reactor. This last type of reactor has a fast time of response if the power is high or if the period is short, and it has a slow time of response when the power is low and the period long; this system makes it possible to maintain the noise at an acceptable level under all normal working conditions of the reactor. (author)

  4. Development of time-of-flight neutron detector with fast-decay and low-afterglow scintillator for fast ignition experiment

    Nagai T; Arikawa Y.; Hosoda H.; Ioka Y.; Hasegawa A; Wada K.; Takaoku S.; Takata M; Noritake K.; Minami Y.; Watanabe K.; Yamanoi K.; Nakamura H; Watari T.; Cadatal-Raduban M.

    2013-01-01

    A fast-decay and low-afterglow liquid scintillator was developed for the fast ignition experiment at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE). The liquid scintillator was coupled to a gated photomultiplier (PMT), and the gating performance under high-intensity γ-rays was experimentally checked. In 2010, a detector with a high detection efficiency of 10−4 was developed and installed in this experiment. The neutron yield in the fast heating experiment was successfully measured using this detect...

  5. A GEANT4 study on the time resolution of a fast plastic scintillator read out by a G-APD

    The time resolution of a fast scintillation counter, consisting of a plastic scintillator read out by a Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode, is studied over a wide range of the number of detected photons (primary photoelectrons) using the GEANT4 simulation toolkit. Different timing definitions such as first photon detection, leading edge and constant fraction discrimination are considered. In the latter case the predictions are compared with the existing experimental data. We also show that due to the finite scintillation rise time, finite scintillator dimensions and also due to the finite single photon time resolution in G-APD cells, the time resolution for the first detected photon in real detectors substantially deviates from the σ∼1/Nphe dependence, theoretically predicted for a scintillator with zero rise time.

  6. Time-delayed upper atmospheric responses to solar EUV irradiation

    Zhang, Shunrong; Erickson, Philip; Goncharenko, Larisa

    2015-04-01

    It is well recognized that solar EUV irradiations at various wavelengths are the dominant driver of the quiet-time upper atmospheric variations, including thermospheric temperature and densities, as well as ionospheric density and temperatures. However, responses of the upper atmosphere have been found not as straightforward as expected, but rather complicated with time-delays for approximately 2 days relative to solar flux proxy F10.7. Using measurements of TIMED/SEE solar UV flux at various wavelengths and incoherent scatter radar-based ionospheric and thermospheric parameters, this paper addresses characteristic upper atmospheric variability on the time scales from hours to days, and the associated solar UV variations. It is found that exospheric temperature Tex is most sensitive to solar EUV flux with an approximately 2-day delay at wavelengths of 27--34 nm (including 30.4 nm). In fact, a 20--60-hour time delay occurs in Tex response to EUV flux at the 27-34 nm band, with shorter delays in the morning and longer delays in the afternoon and at night. Ionospheric electron delays are altitude dependent: in the E-region, there is no time delay, and in the F2 region, there exist delays for 2-3 days in both electron density and ion temperature. These delays are perhaps representatives of the upper atmospheric memory and will be discussed in the paper.

  7. Ultimate response time of high electron mobility transistors

    Rudin, Sergey; Rupper, Greg [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); Shur, Michael [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    We present theoretical studies of the response time of the two-dimensional gated electron gas to femtosecond pulses. Our hydrodynamic simulations show that the device response to a short pulse or a step-function signal is either smooth or oscillating time-decay at low and high mobility, μ, values, respectively. At small gate voltage swings, U{sub 0} = U{sub g} − U{sub th}, where U{sub g} is the gate voltage and U{sub th} is the threshold voltage, such that μU{sub 0}/L < v{sub s}, where L is the channel length and v{sub s} is the effective electron saturation velocity, the decay time in the low mobility samples is on the order of L{sup 2}/(μU{sub 0}), in agreement with the analytical drift model. However, the decay is preceded by a delay time on the order of L/s, where s is the plasma wave velocity. This delay is the ballistic transport signature in collision-dominated devices, which becomes important during very short time periods. In the high mobility devices, the period of the decaying oscillations is on the order of the plasma wave velocity transit time. Our analysis shows that short channel field effect transistors operating in the plasmonic regime can meet the requirements for applications as terahertz detectors, mixers, delay lines, and phase shifters in ultra high-speed wireless communication circuits.

  8. Processes in current sheets responsible for fast energy conversion in the magnetospheric collisionless plasma

    Kropotkin, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of the magnetospheric plasma configuration intrinsically features intermittent slow and fast phases. The fast transition is a nonlinear process, loss of equilibrium which ends up the slow quasi-static evolution. The process is analysed as a dynamical bifurcation. It appears when marginal stability state is reached in the course of that evolution, either for tearing mode or for ballooning mode disturbances. The resulting force imbalance leads to spontaneous formation of nonlinear kinetic thin current structures. Those are either a pair of slow collisionless shocks or a specific anisotropic thin current sheet embedded in a thicker plasma sheet structure. Both are the sites of intense energy conversion, and they implement fast magnetic reconnection in the magnetospheric collisionless plasma.

  9. Using random response input in Ibrahim Time Domain

    Olsen, Peter; Brincker, R.

    In this paper the time domain technique Ibrahim Time Domain (ITD) is used to analyze random time data. ITD is known to be a technique for identification of output only systems. The traditional formulation of ITD is claimed to be limited, when identifying closely spaced modes, because of the techn....... In this article it is showed that when using the modified ITD random time data can be analyzed. The application of the technique is displayed by a case study, with simulations and experimental data.......In this paper the time domain technique Ibrahim Time Domain (ITD) is used to analyze random time data. ITD is known to be a technique for identification of output only systems. The traditional formulation of ITD is claimed to be limited, when identifying closely spaced modes, because of the...... technique being Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO). It has earlier been showed that when modifying ITD with Toeplitz matrix averaging. Identification of time data with closely spaced modes is improved. In the traditional formulation of ITD the time data has to be free decays or impulse response functions...

  10. Faraday cup with nanosecond response and adjustable impedance for fast electron beam characterization.

    Hu, Jing; Rovey, Joshua L

    2011-07-01

    A movable Faraday cup design with simple structure and adjustable impedance is described in this work. This Faraday cup has external adjustable shunt resistance for self-biased measurement setup and 50 Ω characteristic impedance to match with 50 Ω standard BNC coaxial cable and vacuum feedthroughs for nanosecond-level pulse signal measurements. Adjustable shunt resistance allows self-biased measurements to be quickly acquired to determine the electron energy distribution function. The performance of the Faraday cup is validated by tests of response time and amplitude of output signal. When compared with a reference source, the percent difference of the Faraday cup signal fall time is less than 10% for fall times greater than 10 ns. The percent difference of the Faraday cup signal pulse width is below 6.7% for pulse widths greater than 10 ns. A pseudospark-generated electron beam is used to compare the amplitude of the Faraday cup signal with a calibrated F-70 commercial current transformer. The error of the Faraday cup output amplitude is below 10% for the 4-14 kV tested pseudospark voltages. The main benefit of this Faraday cup is demonstrated by adjusting the external shunt resistance and performing the self-biased method for obtaining the electron energy distribution function. Results from a 4 kV pseudospark discharge indicate a "double-humped" energy distribution. PMID:21806182

  11. Optimal scan timing of hepatic arterial-phase imaging of hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma determined by multiphasic fast CT imaging technique

    Background: A new multiphasic fast imaging technique, known as volume helical shuttle technique, is a breakthrough for liver imaging that offers new clinical opportunities in dynamic blood flow studies. This technique enables virtually real-time hemodynamics assessment by shuttling the patient cradle back and forth during serial scanning. Purpose: To determine optimal scan timing of hepatic arterial-phase imaging for detecting hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with maximum tumor-to-liver contrast by volume helical shuttle technique. Material and Methods: One hundred and one hypervascular HCCs in 50 patients were prospectively studied by 64-channel multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) with multiphasic fast imaging technique. Contrast medium containing 600 mg iodine per kg body weight was intravenously injected for 30 s. Six seconds after the contrast arrival in the abdominal aorta detected with bolus tracking, serial 12-phase imaging of the whole liver was performed during 24-s breath-holding with multiphasic fast imaging technique during arterial phase. By placing regions of interest in the abdominal aorta, portal vein, liver parenchyma, and hypervascular HCCs on the multiphase images, time-density curves of anatomical regions and HCCs were composed. Timing of maximum tumor-to-liver contrast after the contrast arrival in the abdominal aorta was determined. Results: For the detection of hypervascular HCC at arterial phase, mean time and value of maximum tumor-to-liver contrast after the contrast arrival were 21 s and 38.0 HU, respectively. Conclusion: Optimal delay time for the hepatic arterial-phase imaging maximizing the contrast enhancement of hypervascular HCCs was 21 s after arrival of contrast medium in the abdominal aorta

  12. Consumer responses to time varying prices for electricity

    We report new experimental evidence of the household response to weekday differentials in peak and off-peak electricity prices. The data come from Auckland, New Zealand, where peak residential electricity consumption occurs in winter for heating. Peak/off-peak price differentials ranged over four randomly selected groups from 1.0 to 3.5. On average, there was no response except in winter. In winter, participant households reduced electricity consumption by at least 10%, took advantage of lower off-peak prices but did not respond to the peak price differentials. Response varied with house and household size, time spent away from home, and whether water was heated with electricity. - Highlights: ? Seasonal effects in winter. ? High conservation effect from information. ? Higher peak prices no effect on peak use. ? Low off-peak prices encourage less conservation off-peak.

  13. Spectrum response and analysis of 77GHz band collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for bulk and fast ions in LHD plasmas

    A collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic was developed and used to measure the bulk and fast ions originating from 180keV neutral beams in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Electromagnetic waves from a gyrotron at 77GHz with 1MW power output function as both the probe and electron cyclotron heating beam. To clarify the diagnostic applicability of the gyrotron in the 77GHz frequency band, we investigated the dependence of the probe and receiver beam trajectories in plasmas with high electron densities of (45)נ1019m?3 and low electron densities of (12)נ1019m?3. At high density, a stray radiation component was observed in the CTS spectrum whereas it was negligibly small at low density. The CTS spectrum was measured and analysed after the in situ beam alignment using a beam scan. Qualitatively, the CTS spectrogram shows consistent response to ion temperatures of 12keV for electron densities of (12)נ1019m?3 and electron temperatures of 24keV. The measured CTS spectrum shows an asymmetric shape at the foot of the bulk-ion region during the injection of 180keV fast ions. This shape is explained by the fast-ion distribution in the velocity space (v?, v?) based on Monte Carlo simulation results. The analysis method of the CTS spectra is used to evaluate the ion temperature and fast-ion velocity distribution from the measured CTS data. (paper)

  14. An expert system for real-time diagnostics of a fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant

    To provide on-line operator support for surveillance and diagnostics of a remotely operated fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant, where process parameters are evaluated from indirect instrumental measurements, a modular prototype expert system OASIS (Operator Assistant) is being developed at our laboratory. Design of this expert system is based on several new concepts. Unlike other available expert systems, it is not based on commercial shells. Instead it has a custom designed knowledge engineering architecture which is user-friendly to a high degree. (author). 7 refs., 2 figs

  15. Time-delayed model of immune response in plants.

    Neofytou, G; Kyrychko, Y N; Blyuss, K B

    2016-01-21

    In the studies of plant infections, the plant immune response is known to play an essential role. In this paper we derive and analyse a new mathematical model of plant immune response with particular account for post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Besides biologically accurate representation of the PTGS dynamics, the model explicitly includes two time delays to represent the maturation time of the growing plant tissue and the non-instantaneous nature of the PTGS. Through analytical and numerical analysis of stability of the steady states of the model we identify parameter regions associated with recovery and resistant phenotypes, as well as possible chronic infections. Dynamics of the system in these regimes is illustrated by numerical simulations of the model. PMID:26551159

  16. Fast analysis of complex metallic alloys by double-pulse time-integrated Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Results are reported on the application of double-pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for fast analysis of complex metallic alloys. The approach followed for the determination of the composition of the alloys is based on the time-integrated acquisition of LIBS spectra emitted by plasmas induced by collinear double-pulse laser excitation. The spectra are analysed using the Partial Least Squares method, which allows the determination of sample composition even in the presence of strong spectral interferences. The results shown indicate the possibility of measuring the composition of complex metallic alloys in very short times and using relatively cheap LIBS instrumentation.

  17. Early-Time Photometry and Spectroscopy of the Fast Evolving SN 2006AJ Associated with GRB 060218

    Modjaz, M.; Stanek, K. Z.; Garnavich, P. M.; Berlind, P.; Blondin, S.; Brown, W.; Calkins, M.; Challis, P.; Diamond-Stanic, A. M.; Hao, H.; Hicken, M.; Kirshner, R. P.; Prieto, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We present early photometric and spectroscopic data on the afterglow of GRB 060218 and report the evolution of the underlying supernova 2006aj. Our data span a time-range of 4 days to 22 days after the GRB and clearly establish that SN 2006aj is a fast-evolving broad-lined Type Ic SN with an extremely short rise-time (~ 10 days) and a large optical luminosity (M_V = -18.7 mag). The SN properties are deduced well since the GRB afterglow does not contribute a significant amount to the total lig...

  18. Speckle-based sensor system for real-time distance and thickness monitoring of fast moving objects

    Real-time distance monitoring and thickness measurements of production lines are typical tasks of the manufacturing process. We demonstrate a novel optical sensor prototype capable of providing accurate distance measurements of fast moving objects. The principle of sensor operation is based on spatial filtering of dynamic speckles generated with a scanning laser beam. The sensor is able to measure the distance to opaque (metals, etc) and to multi-scattering materials (papers, plastics, etc). The presented sensor prototype provides measurements and data processing in real time. We verify sensor prototype performance of multi-scattering material (paper web) moving with a speed of 35 m s−1

  19. Thickness dependence of curvature, strain, and response time in ionic electroactive polymer actuators fabricated via layer-by-layer assembly

    Montazami, Reza; Liu, Sheng; Liu, Yang; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Qiming; Heflin, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Ionic electroactive polymer (IEAP) actuators containing porous conductive network composites (CNCs) and ionic liquids can result in high strain and fast response times. Incorporation of spherical gold nanoparticles in the CNC enhances conductivity and porosity, while maintaining relatively small thickness. This leads to improved mechanical strain and bending curvature of the actuators. We have employed the layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to fabricate a CNC with enhanced curvature (0.43...

  20. Specificity of inferior olive response to stimulus timing.

    Liu, T; Xu, D; Ashe, J; Bushara, K

    2008-09-01

    The inferior olive is the sole source of the climbing fiber system, one of the two major afferent systems of the cerebellum; however, its exact role remains unknown. A longstanding hypothesis is that the inferior olive with its unique intrinsic rhythmic firing properties mediates motor timing. However, direct evidence linking the inferior olive to timing behavior has been difficult to demonstrate in animal or human studies likely due to the inhibition of inferior olive responses by self-produced movement. Here we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a perceptual task that dissociates the temporal from nontemporal attributes of sensory input. Subjects were asked to attend to rhythmically occurring identical visual stimuli and to detect a change in their timing, spatial orientation, or color. Inferior olive activation was seen only when perceiving a change in stimulus timing. These results are consistent with animal studies demonstrating that the inferior olive is especially sensitive to "unexpected" sensory events and further provide evidence supporting the specificity of the inferior olive response to stimulus timing. The results are consistent with the view that the inferior olive and the climbing fiber system mediate the encoding of temporal information required for both motor and nonmotor cognitive processes. PMID:18632890

  1. Collecting Psycholinguistic Response Time Data Using Amazon Mechanical Turk

    Enochson, Kelly; Culbertson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in linguistics and related fields have recently begun exploiting online crowd-sourcing tools, like Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT), to gather behavioral data. While this method has been successfully validated for various offline measures—grammaticality judgment or other forced-choice tasks—its use for mainstream psycholinguistic research remains limited. This is because psycholinguistic effects are often dependent on relatively small differences in response times, and there remains s...

  2. Real-time information support for managing plant emergency responses

    The Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident highlighted the need to develop a systematic approach to managing plant emergency responses, to identify a better decision-making process, and to implement real-time information support for decision-making. The overall process management function is described and general information requirements for management of plant emergencies are identified. Basic information systems are being incorporated and future extensions and problem areas are discussed. (U.K.)

  3. Preparation of fast response superabsorbent hydrogels by radiation polymerization and crosslinking of N-isopropylacrylamide in solution

    Abd El-Mohdy, H.L. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Safrany, Agnes [Institute of Isotopes HAS, P.O. Box 77, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: safrany@sunserv.kfki.hu

    2008-03-15

    Macroporous temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) hydrogels with high equilibrium swelling and fast response rates were obtained by a {sup 60}Co {gamma}- and electron beam (EB) irradiation of aqueous N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) monomer solutions. The effect of irradiation temperatures, the dose, the addition of a pore-forming agent on the swelling ratio, and the kinetics of swelling and shrinking of the PNIPAAm gels was studied. The gels synthesized above the LCST exhibited the highest equilibrium swelling (300-400) and fastest response rate measured by minutes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures revealed that the gels synthesized above the LCST have larger pores than those prepared at temperatures below the LCST. The gels showed a reversible response to cyclical changes in temperature and might be used in a pulsed drug delivery device. The gels synthesized above the LCST exhibited the highest testosterone propionate release.

  4. On the fast response of the Southern Ocean to changes in the zonal wind

    D. J. Webb

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Model studies of the Southern Ocean, reported here, show that the Antarctic Circumpolar Current responds within two days to changes in the zonal wind stress at the latitudes of Drake Passage. Further investigation shows that the response is primarily barotropic and that, as one might expect, it is controlled by topography. Analysis of the results show that the changes in the barotropic flow are sufficient to transfer the changed surface wind stress to the underlying topography and that during this initial phase baroclinic processes are not involved.

    The model results also show that the Deacon Cell responds to changes in the wind stress on the same rapid time scale. It is shown that the changes in the Deacon Cell can also be explained by the change in the barotropic velocity field, an increase in the zonal wind stress producing an increased northward flow in shallow regions and southward flow where the ocean is deep. This new explanation is unexpected as previously the Deacon Cell has been thought of as a baroclinic feature of the ocean.

    The results imply that where baroclinic processes do appear to be involved in either the zonal momentum balance of the Southern Ocean or the formation of the Deacon Cell, they are part of the long term baroclinic response of the ocean's density field to the changes in the barotropic flow.

  5. On the fast response of the Southern Ocean to changes in the zonal wind

    D. J. Webb

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Model studies of the Southern Ocean, reported here, show that the Antarctic Circumpolar Current responds within two days to changes in the zonal wind stress at the latitudes of Drake Passage. Further investigation shows that the response is primarily barotropic and that, as one might expect, it is controlled by topography. Analysis of the results show that the changes in the barotropic flow are sufficient to transfer the changed surface wind stress to the underlying topography and that during this initial phase baroclinic processes are not involved.

    The model results also show that the Deacon Cell responds to changes in the wind stress on the same rapid time scale. It is shown that the changes in the Deacon Cell can also be explained by the change in the barotropic velocity field, an increase in the zonal wind stress producing an increased northward flow in shallow regions and southward flow where the ocean is deep. This new explanation is unexpected as previously the Deacon Cell has been thought of as a baroclinic feature of the ocean.

    The results imply that where baroclinic processes do appear to be involved in either the zonal momentum balance of the Southern Ocean or the formation of the Deacon Cell, they are part of the long term baroclinic response of the ocean's density field to the changes in the barotropic flow.

  6. High frequency dielectrophoretic response of microalgae over time

    Hadady, Hanieh; Wong, Johnson J.; Hiibel, Sage R.; Redelman, Doug; Geiger, Emil J.

    2015-01-01

    The high frequency dielectrophoresis (>20 MHz) response of microalgae cells with different lipid content was monitored over time. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was cultured in regular medium and under nitrogen-depleted conditions in order to produce populations of cells with low and high lipid content, respectively. The electrical conductivity (EC) of the culture media was also monitored over the same time. The upper crossover frequency (UCOF) decreased for high-lipid cells over time. The single-shell model predicts that the upper crossover frequency is dictated primarily by the dielectric properties of the cytoplasm. The high frequency DEP response of the high-lipid cells’ cytoplasm was changed by lipid accumulation. DEP response of the low-lipid cells also varied with the conductivity of the culture media due to nutrient consumption. Relative lipid content was estimated with BODIPY 505/515 dye by calculating the area-weighted intensity average of fluorescent images. Finally, microalgae cells were successfully separated based on lipid content at 41 MHz and DEP media conductivity 106 ± 1 µS/cm. PMID:25229637

  7. A Scheme to Reduce Response Time in Cloud Computing Environment

    Ashraf Zia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The area of cloud computing has become popular from the last decade due to its enormous benefits such as lower cost, faster development and access to highly available resources. Apart from these core benefits some challenges are also associated with it such as QoS, security, trust and better resource management. These challenges are caused by the infrastructure services provided by various cloud vendors on need basis. Empirical studies on cloud computing report that existing quality of services solutions are not enough as well as there are still many gaps which need to be filled. Also, there is a dire need to develop appropriate frameworks to improve response time of the clouds. In this paper, we have made an attempt to fill this gap by proposing a framework that focuses on improving the response time factor of the QoS in the cloud environment such as reliability and scalability. We believe that if the response time are communicating effectively and have awareness of the nearest and best possible resource available then the remaining issues pertaining to QoS can be reduced to a greater extent.

  8. Analog electro-optical readout of SiPMs achieves fast timing required for time-of-flight PET/MR

    Bieniosek, M. F.; Levin, C. S.

    2015-05-01

    The design of combined positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems presents a number of challenges to engineers, as it forces the PET system to acquire data in a space constrained environment that is sensitive to electro-magnetic interference and contains high static, radio frequency and gradient fields. In this work we validate fast timing performance of a PET scintillation detector using a potentially very compact, very low power, and MR compatible readout method in which analog silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) signals are transmitted optically away from the MR bore with little or even no additional readout electronics. This analog electro-optial method could reduce the entire PET readout in the MR bore to two compact, low power components (SiPMs and lasers). Our experiments show fast timing performance from analog electro-optical readout with and without pre-amplification. With 3 mm 3 mm 20 mm lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals and Excelitas SiPMs the best two-sided fwhm coincident timing resolution achieved was 220 +/- 3 ps in electrical mode, 230 +/- 2 ps in electro-optical with preamp mode, and 253 +/- 2 ps in electro-optical without preamp mode. Timing measurements were also performed with Hamamatsu SiPMs and 3 mm 3 mm 5 mm crystals. In the future the timing degradation seen can be further reduced with lower laser noise or improvements SiPM rise time or gain.

  9. Linear response characteristics of time-dependent time fractional Fokker–Planck equation systems

    The time fractional Fokker–Planck equation approach is an important tool for modeling subdiffusion. When the external field is time modulated, two types of time-dependent time fractional Fokker–Planck equations have been proposed, both reduced to the same time-dependent time fractional Fokker–Planck equation when the external field is time uncorrelated. The first type is strictly deduced as the continuous limit of the continuous time random walk with time modulated Boltzmann jumping weight, while the second type is derived by ideally assuming that the jump probabilities can be evaluated at the start of the waiting time prior to jumping. For the first time we obtain the linear response characteristic for the first type of the time fractional Fokker–Planck equation systems, and for a comparison we revisit the corresponding result for the second type of the time fractional Fokker–Planck equation systems, and the similarity and difference between them is discussed with an application example. The investigation not only helps in understanding the competition between subdiffusion and time-dependent modulation, but also has significance in accessing the spectral properties of spontaneous fluctuation and the linear dynamic susceptibility of external perturbation in subdiffusive processes. (paper)

  10. ZnO(N)-Spiro-MeOTAD hybrid photodiode: an efficient self-powered fast-response UV (visible) photosensor

    Game, Onkar; Singh, Upendra; Kumari, Tanya; Banpurkar, Arun; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2013-12-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid photo-detectors with a self-sufficient mode of operation represent a research area of great current interest. In most efficient photodetectors and optoelectronic devices compound semiconductors containing toxic elements such as Cd, As, Te, S, Se etc. are used and these are also expensive. Hence there is also a rapidly growing interest in replacing these with environmentally friendly and earth-abundant materials. Herein, we report a facile solution-processed fabrication of a self-powered organic-inorganic hybrid photodetector using n-type oriented ZnO nanorods and p-type Spiro-MeOTAD semiconductor. ZnO is eco-friendly and earth-abundant, and Spiro-MeOTAD is non-hazardous. We show that the latter has far less toxicity than the toxic elements stated above. This visible blind UV photodetector shows high sensitivity (102) and a UV/visible rejection ratio of 300. It also exhibits fast response times of τrise ~ 200 μs and τfall ~ 950 μs. Importantly, with a small modification of nitrogen incorporation in ZnO one can also realize a highly-sensitive self-powered visible light photodetector with at least 1000% (or higher) improvements in quality factors (photocurrent/sensitivity/response time) as compared to previously reported organic-inorganic hybrid photo-detectors based on metal-chalcogenides (CdS-PANI or CuInSe2-P3HT). Interestingly, the broadband sensitivity of such N:ZnO-Spiro-MeOTAD photodiode enables sensing of low intensity (~28 μW cm-2) ambient white light with a high photocurrent density of 120 nA cm-2 making it an efficient ambient white light detector.Organic-inorganic hybrid photo-detectors with a self-sufficient mode of operation represent a research area of great current interest. In most efficient photodetectors and optoelectronic devices compound semiconductors containing toxic elements such as Cd, As, Te, S, Se etc. are used and these are also expensive. Hence there is also a rapidly growing interest in replacing these with environmentally friendly and earth-abundant materials. Herein, we report a facile solution-processed fabrication of a self-powered organic-inorganic hybrid photodetector using n-type oriented ZnO nanorods and p-type Spiro-MeOTAD semiconductor. ZnO is eco-friendly and earth-abundant, and Spiro-MeOTAD is non-hazardous. We show that the latter has far less toxicity than the toxic elements stated above. This visible blind UV photodetector shows high sensitivity (102) and a UV/visible rejection ratio of 300. It also exhibits fast response times of τrise ~ 200 μs and τfall ~ 950 μs. Importantly, with a small modification of nitrogen incorporation in ZnO one can also realize a highly-sensitive self-powered visible light photodetector with at least 1000% (or higher) improvements in quality factors (photocurrent/sensitivity/response time) as compared to previously reported organic-inorganic hybrid photo-detectors based on metal-chalcogenides (CdS-PANI or CuInSe2-P3HT). Interestingly, the broadband sensitivity of such N:ZnO-Spiro-MeOTAD photodiode enables sensing of low intensity (~28 μW cm-2) ambient white light with a high photocurrent density of 120 nA cm-2 making it an efficient ambient white light detector. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SI-1: response time measurements of self powered hybrid ZnO-SPD under nanosecond pulsed UV laser, SI-2: Raman analysis of N:ZnO and ZnO SI-3: cytotoxicity study on Spiro-MeOTAD SI-4: electrochemical Mott-Schottky plots of ZnO and N:ZnO. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04727j

  11. A dynamic-biased dual-loop-feedback CMOS LDO regulator with fast transient response

    This paper presents a low-dropout regulator (LDO) for portable applications with dual-loop feedback and a dynamic bias circuit. The dual-loop feedback structure is adopted to reduce the output voltage spike and the response time of the LDO. The dynamic bias circuit enhances the slew rate at the gate of the power transistor. In addition, an adaptive miller compensation technique is employed, from which a single pole system is realized and over a 59° phase margin is achieved under the full range of the load current. The proposed LDO has been implemented in a 0.6-μm CMOS process. From the experimental results, the regulator can operate with a minimum dropout voltage of 200 mV at a maximum 300 mA load and IQ of 113 μA. The line regulation and load regulation are improved to 0.1 mV/V and 3.4 μV/mA due to the sufficient loop gain provided by the dual feedback loops. Under a full range load current step, the voltage spikes and the recovery time of the proposed LDO is reduced to 97 mV and 0.142 μs respectively. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. Online Real-Time Estimation of Response Time for Periodic Messages in Controller Area Networks

    Dahui Gao; Qingfeng Wang; Yong Lei; Zheng Chen; Linying Shangguan

    2015-01-01

    The Controller Area Networks (CAN) are widely used in industrial Networked Control Systems (NCSs), such as construction machineries, hybrid vehicles, robotics, and other applications. The message response time (MRT) or communication delay is the main issue to degrade the performance of CAN-based NCSs since its exact value is time-varying and unpredictable. The online acquisition of exact MRT can be quite helpful for the delay compensation of NCSs. However, since the clocks on different nodes ...

  13. Metabolic response to 36 hours of fasting in young men born small vs appropriate for gestational age

    Jørgensen, Sine W; Brøns, Charlotte; Bluck, Les; Hjort, Line; Færch, Kristine; Thankamony, Ajay; Gillberg, Linn; Friedrichsen, Martin; Dunger, David B; Vaag, Allan

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in an affluent society, but could confer an improved chance of survival during sparse living conditions. We studied whether insulin action and other metabolic responses to prolonged...... fasting differed between 21 young adults born SGA and 18 matched controls born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). METHODS: A frequently sampled IVGTT and indirect calorimetry measurements were performed after a 36 h fast. Endogenous glucose production, insulin sensitivity (SI), first-phase insulin...... differ between groups. SGA individuals had increased muscle PPARGC1A DNA methylation. We found no differences in adipose tissue PPARGC1A DNA methylation, muscle and adipose tissue PPARGC1A mRNA expression, or muscle glycogen levels between the groups. CONCLUSION: Compared with AGA individuals, SGA...

  14. Ultra-fast Microwave Synthesis of ZnO Nanowires and their Dynamic Response Toward Hydrogen Gas

    Tabet N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ultra-fast and large-quantity (grams synthesis of one-dimensional ZnO nanowires has been carried out by a novel microwave-assisted method. High purity Zinc (Zn metal was used as source material and placed on microwave absorber. The evaporation/oxidation process occurs under exposure to microwave in less than 100 s. Field effect scanning electron microscopy analysis reveals the formation of high aspect-ratio and high density ZnO nanowires with diameter ranging from 70 to 80 nm. Comprehensive structural analysis showed that these ZnO nanowires are single crystal in nature with excellent crystal quality. The gas sensor made of these ZnO nanowires exhibited excellent sensitivity, fast response, and good reproducibility. Furthermore, the method can be extended for the synthesis of other oxide nanowires that will be the building block of future nanoscale devices.

  15. Early stage time evolution of a dense nanosecond microdischarge used in fast optical switching applications

    Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2015-12-01

    The mechanism of high-voltage nanosecond microdischarges is studied by the self-consistent two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell/Monte Carlo Collisions model. These microdischarges were recently proposed for use as fast switches of visible light in Bataller et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 223501 (2014)]. The microdischarge is found to develop in two stages. The first stage is associated with the electrons initially seeded in the cathode-anode gap. These electrons lead to the formation of a cathode-directed streamer. The second stage starts when the secondary electron emission from the cathode begins. In this stage, a rather dense plasma (˜1016 cm-3) is generated which results in the narrow cathode sheath. The electric field in this sheath exceeds the critical electric field which is necessary for the runaway electrons generation. We have found that the presence of these energetic electrons is crucial for the discharge maintenance.

  16. Sensitivity and response time improvements in millimeter-wave spectrometers

    A new version of a microwave spectrometer for the detection of gaseous pollutants and other atmospheric constituents is described. The spectrometer, which operates in the vicinity of 70 GHz, employs a Fabry-Perot resonator as a sample cell and uses superhetrodyne detection for high sensitivity. The spectrometer has been modified to incorporate a frequency doubler modulated at 30 MHz to permit operation with a single Gunn oscillator source. As a result, faster response time and somewhat greater sensitivity are obtained. The spectrometer is capable of detecting a minimum concentration of 1 ppM of SO2 diluted in air with a 1 second time constant. For OCS diluted in air, the minimum detectable concentration is 800 ppB and with a 10 second time constant 300 ppB

  17. Time response measurements of pressure sensors using pink noise technique

    This work presents an experimental setup for Pink Noise method application on pressure transmitters' response times. The Pink Noise method consists on injecting artificial pressure noise into the pressure transmitter. The artificial pressure noise is generated using a current-to-pressure (I-to-P) converter, which is driven by a random noise signal generator. The output pressure transmitter noise is then analyzed using conventional Noise Analysis Technique. Noise signals may be interpreted using spectral techniques or empirical time series models. The frequency domain method consists of evaluating the Power Spectral Density (PSD) function. The information needed for time constant estimation can be obtained by fitting an all-pole transfer function to this power spectral density. (author)

  18. Time Trends in Fast Food Consumption and Its Association with Obesity among Children in China

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Youfa

    2016-01-01

    Objective Study the trends in Western fast food consumption (FFC) among Chinese school-age children and the association between FFC and obesity using nationwide survey data. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted to study the trends in FFC and the associations between FFC and weight status (overweight, obesity and body mass index (BMI) z-score). Setting Longitudinal data from families were collected in the 2004 and 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (covering nine provinces throughout China). Subjects The analysis included 2656 Chinese children aged 6 to 18 years (1542 and 1114 children in the 2004 and 2009 survey, respectively). Results FFC (reported having consumed Western fast food in the past three months) has increased between 2004 and 2009, from 18.5% to 23.9% in those aged 6–18, and increased more rapidly among those aged 13–17, from 17.9% to 26.3%. The increase was significant in almost all groups by age, sex, family income, and residence. Our cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses did not detect a significant association between FFC and obesity/overweight or BMI z-score (e.g., for BMI z-score, boys: β = 0.02, 95% CI: -0.71, 0.75; girls: β = -0.14, 95% CI: -1.03, 0.75). Conclusions FFC has increased in Chinese school-age children, especially in older children, boys, and those from low- and medium-income families, rural areas, and East China, but decreased among those from high-income families during 2004–2009. The data did not show a significant association between FFC and obesity. PMID:26974536

  19. Effect of treatment time on low temperature plasma nitriding of stainless steel by saddle field neutral fast atom beam source

    Rahman, Mahfujur [NCPST and MPRC, Dublin City University, Dublin-9 (Ireland)]. E-mail: md.rahman5@mail.dcu.ie; Hashmi, M.S.J. [NCPST and MPRC, Dublin City University, Dublin-9 (Ireland); School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin-9 (Ireland)

    2006-09-25

    Recent research carried out in laboratories showed that Saddle field neutral fast atom beam source is a promising method for nitriding of stainless steel. In the present work, the effect of treatment time on the microstructural and mechanical properties of plasma-nitrided stainless steel sample was investigated by this new method. Plasma nitriding was carried out at 420 deg. C and at a pressure of 0.1 Pa for a time range of 1 to 12 h. SEM-EDX, microhardness tests, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to evaluate the mechanical and structural properties of the nitrided layer. It was found that nitriding time has a pronounced effect on the structural and mechanical properties of low-temperature plasma-nitrided samples and produced a precipitation-free thin hard nitrided layer within a short processing time.

  20. The comparative assessment of different echo time in 3D heavily T2-weighted fast spin-echo MR sialography

    Objective: To chose the best echo time of 3D MR sialography on a Philips 1.5-T unit by comparative study of different echo time. Methods: Ten volunteers without salivary gland diseases were included in this study. SENSE-FLEX-M coil was used in every volunteer. Repitated time and other scan parameters were fixed and serial heavily T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences of different echo time and signal intensity of salivary ducts and background tissue were measured in 6 different regions of interest. Contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was measured and compared. Results: The salivary gland duets and its peripheral branches can be displayed on images of MR sialography in all volunteers. The CNR of parotid gland duct using TE 500 ms was statistically lower than those using other TEs (P0.05). The CNR of submandibular gland duet using TE 800 ms was statistically higher than those using other TEs(P0.05). Conclusion: It is the best choice for 3D heavily T2-weighted fast spin echo MR Sialography using TE 800 ms. (authors)