WorldWideScience

Sample records for fast time response

  1. Fast-Response-Time Shape-Memory-Effect Foam Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Bulk shape memory alloys, such as Nitinol or CuAlZn, display strong recovery forces undergoing a phase transformation after being strained in their martensitic state. These recovery forces are used for actuation. As the phase transformation is thermally driven, the response time of the actuation can be slow, as the heat must be passively inserted or removed from the alloy. Shape memory alloy TiNi torque tubes have been investigated for at least 20 years and have demonstrated high actuation forces [3,000 in.-lb (approximately equal to 340 N-m) torques] and are very lightweight. However, they are not easy to attach to existing structures. Adhesives will fail in shear at low-torque loads and the TiNi is not weldable, so that mechanical crimp fits have been generally used. These are not reliable, especially in vibratory environments. The TiNi is also slow to heat up, as it can only be heated indirectly using heater and cooling must be done passively. This has restricted their use to on-off actuators where cycle times of approximately one minute is acceptable. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) has been used in the past to make porous TiNi metal foams. Shape Change Technologies has been able to train SHS derived TiNi to exhibit the shape memory effect. As it is an open-celled material, fast response times were observed when the material was heated using hot and cold fluids. A methodology was developed to make the open-celled porous TiNi foams as a tube with integrated hexagonal ends, which then becomes a torsional actuator with fast response times. Under processing developed independently, researchers were able to verify torques of 84 in.-lb (approximately equal to 9.5 Nm) using an actuator weighing 1.3 oz (approximately equal to 37 g) with very fast (less than 1/16th of a second) initial response times when hot and cold fluids were used to facilitate heat transfer. Integrated structural connections were added as part of the net shape process, eliminating the need for welding, adhesives, or mechanical crimping. Inexpensive net-shape processing was used, which reduces the cost of the actuator by over a factor of 10 over nonporous TiNi made by hot drawing of tube or electrical discharge machining. By forming the alloy as an open-celled foam, the surface area for heat transfer is dramatically increased, allowing for much faster response times. The technology also allows for netshape fabrication of the actuator, which allows for structural connections to be integrated into the actuator material, making these actuators significantly less expensive. Commercial applications include actuators for concepts such as the variable area chevron and nozzle in jet aircraft. Lightweight tube or rod components can be supplied to interested parties.

  2. Fast or Fair? : A Study of Response Times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a modified dictator game to investigate the relationship between response times and social preferences. We find that egoistic subjects make faster decisions than subjects with social preferences. Moreover, our within-analysis reveals that, for a given individual, egoistic payoff maximizing decisions are reached quicker than choices expressing social preferences

  3. Four-domain twisted nematic structure with enhanced liquid crystal alignment stability and fast response time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yeon-Kyu; Lee, You-Jin; Yu, Chang-Jae; Uk Heo, Jeong; Park, Jae-Hong; jin Lee, Hyeok; Tae Shin, Sung; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a stable four-domain twisted nematic structure with wide viewing angle characteristics and a fast response time. A stable structure was realized by introducing a high pre-tilt angle approach incorporating stacked planar and vertical alignment layers. The response time and thermal stability of the proposed device were dramatically improved by the addition of UV-curable reactive mesogen (RM) mixed with a vertical alignment material. Polymerized RMs along the liquid crystal (LC) director increased the polar anchoring energy and reduced back-flow phenomena. A wide viewing angle and fast response time characteristics were achieved over all gray levels.

  4. Time response of fast-gated microchannel plates used as x-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R.E.; Bell, P.; Hanks, R.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Landen, N.; Power, G.; Wiedwald, J.; Meier, M.

    1990-11-05

    We report measurements of the time response of fast-gated, micro- channel plate (MCP) detectors, using a <10 ps pulsewidth ultra-violet laser and an electronic sampling system to measure time resolutions to better than 25 ps. The results show that framing times of less than 100 ps are attainable with high gain. The data is compared to a Monte Carlo calculation, which shows good agreement. We also measured the relative sensitivity as a function of DC bias, and saturation effects for large signal inputs. In part B, we briefly describe an electrical time-of-flight'' technique, which we have used to measure the response time of a fast-gated microchannel plate (MCP). Thinner MCP's than previously used have been tested, and, as expected, show fast gating times and smaller electron multiplication. A preliminary design for an x-ray pinhole camera, using a thin MCP, is presented. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor having fast time response for the Large Helical Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, M; Ogawa, K; Miyake, H; Hayashi, H; Kobuchi, T; Nakano, Y; Watanabe, K; Uritani, A; Misawa, T; Nishitani, T; Tomitaka, M; Kumagai, T; Mashiyama, Y; Ito, D; Kono, S; Yamauchi, M; Takeiri, Y

    2014-11-01

    A fast time response, wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor has been developed toward the LHD deuterium operation by using leading-edge signal processing technologies providing maximum counting rate up to ?5 × 10(9) counts/s. Because a maximum total neutron emission rate over 1 × 10(16) n/s is predicted in neutral beam-heated LHD plasmas, fast response and wide dynamic range capabilities of the system are essential. Preliminary tests have demonstrated successful performance as a wide dynamic range monitor along the design. PMID:25430293

  6. Wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor having fast time response for the Large Helical Devicea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Miyake, H.; Hayashi, H.; Kobuchi, T.; Nakano, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Uritani, A.; Misawa, T.; Nishitani, T.; Tomitaka, M.; Kumagai, T.; Mashiyama, Y.; Ito, D.; Kono, S.; Yamauchi, M.; Takeiri, Y.

    2014-11-01

    A fast time response, wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor has been developed toward the LHD deuterium operation by using leading-edge signal processing technologies providing maximum counting rate up to ˜5 × 109 counts/s. Because a maximum total neutron emission rate over 1 × 1016 n/s is predicted in neutral beam-heated LHD plasmas, fast response and wide dynamic range capabilities of the system are essential. Preliminary tests have demonstrated successful performance as a wide dynamic range monitor along the design.

  7. Wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor having fast time response for the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isobe, M., E-mail: isobe@nifs.ac.jp; Takeiri, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Department of Fusion Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Ogawa, K.; Miyake, H.; Hayashi, H.; Kobuchi, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nakano, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Uritani, A. [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Misawa, T. [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Kumatori 590-0494 (Japan); Nishitani, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho 039-3212 (Japan); Tomitaka, M.; Kumagai, T.; Mashiyama, Y.; Ito, D.; Kono, S. [Toshiba Corporation, Fuchu 183-8511 (Japan); Yamauchi, M. [Toshiba Nuclear Engineering Services Corporation, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    A fast time response, wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor has been developed toward the LHD deuterium operation by using leading-edge signal processing technologies providing maximum counting rate up to ?5 × 10{sup 9} counts/s. Because a maximum total neutron emission rate over 1 × 10{sup 16} n/s is predicted in neutral beam-heated LHD plasmas, fast response and wide dynamic range capabilities of the system are essential. Preliminary tests have demonstrated successful performance as a wide dynamic range monitor along the design.

  8. Wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor having fast time response for the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast time response, wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor has been developed toward the LHD deuterium operation by using leading-edge signal processing technologies providing maximum counting rate up to ?5 × 109 counts/s. Because a maximum total neutron emission rate over 1 × 1016 n/s is predicted in neutral beam-heated LHD plasmas, fast response and wide dynamic range capabilities of the system are essential. Preliminary tests have demonstrated successful performance as a wide dynamic range monitor along the design

  9. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory: Fast Response Space Missions for Early Time Phase of Gamma Ray Bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I.H.; Ahmad, S.

    2013-01-01

    One of the unexplored domains in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the early time phase of the optical light curve. We have proposed Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) to address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of small space missions. The UFFO is equipped with a fast-response Slewing Mirror Telescope that uses a rapidly moving mirror or mirror array to redirect the optical beam rather than slewing the entire spacecraft or telescope to aim the optical instrument at the GRB position. The UFFO will probe the early optical rise of GRBs with sub-second response, for the first time, opening a completely new frontier in GRB and transient studies. Its fast response measurements of the optical emission of dozens of GRB each year will provide unique probes of the burst mechanism and test the prospect of GRB as a new standard candle, potentially opening up the z > 10 universe. We describe the current limit in early photon measurements, the aspects of early photon physics, our soon-to-be-launched UFFO-pathfinder mission, and our next planned mission, the UFFO-100.

  10. Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal microlens array with large dynamic range and fast response time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongwen; Xu, Su; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2013-08-15

    We report a polymer-stabilized liquid crystal (LC) microlens array with a large dynamic range and fast response time. The top substrate has a planar indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode, while the bottom substrate has two patterned ITO electrodes for generating a fringing field and uniform longitudinal field. The fringing field is utilized to create the desired gradient refractive index profile in the LC/monomer layer, which is later stabilized by UV curing to form polymer networks. To tune the focal length, we apply a longitudinal field to change the lens shape. This microlens array offers several attractive features, such as large dynamic range, fast response time, and good mechanical stability. PMID:24104671

  11. A novel WV film for fast-response-time OCB-LCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Ryota; Ito, Yoji; Nakamura, Shun; Mori, Hiroyuki; Mihayashi, Keiji

    2006-02-01

    We have successfully developed and commercialized an optical compensation film for OCB-LCD mode (OCB-WV film). OCB-LCD mode is known to have a very fast optical response time and makes next-generation fast-response LCD-TVs possible and free from image blurring. The OCB-WV film, which has a structure composed with TAC (triacetyl cellulose) film and PDM (polymerized discotic material) layer, can realize the wide viewing angle of OCB-cell. In order to provide the best performance of OCB-cell, we optimized an optical parameter of not only WV film but also OCB cell by a numerical simulation. In this paper, we will discuss a concept of its optimization, which provide excellent results of a numerical simulation.

  12. Timing and position response of a block detector for fast neutron time-of-flight imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, M. A.; Hayward, J. P.; Zhang, X.; Cates, J. W.

    2014-11-01

    Our research effort seeks to improve the spatial and timing performance of a block detector made of a pixilated plastic scintillator (EJ-200), first demonstrated as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Advanced Portable Neutron Imaging System. Improvement of the position and time response is necessary to achieve better resolution and contrast in the images of shielded special nuclear material. Time-of-flight is used to differentiate between gamma and different sources of neutrons (e.g., transmission and fission neutrons). Factors limiting the timing and position performance of the neutron detector have been revealed through simulations and measurements. Simulations have suggested that the degradation in the ability to resolve pixels in the neutron detector is due to those interactions occurring near the light guide. The energy deposition within the neutron detector is shown to affect position performance and imaging efficiency. This examination details how energy cuts improve the position performance and degrade the imaging efficiency. Measurements have shown the neutron detector to have a timing resolution of ?=238 ps. The majority of this timing uncertainty is from the depth-of-interaction (DOI) of the neutron which is confirmed by simulations and analytical calculations.

  13. Characterizing a fast-response, low-afterglow liquid scintillator for neutron time-of-flight diagnostics in fast ignition experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Y., E-mail: abe-y@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Hosoda, H.; Arikawa, Y.; Nagai, T.; Kojima, S.; Sakata, S.; Inoue, H.; Iwasa, Y.; Iwano, K.; Yamanoi, K.; Fujioka, S.; Nakai, M.; Sarukura, N.; Shiraga, H.; Norimatsu, T.; Azechi, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    The characteristics of oxygen-enriched liquid scintillators with very low afterglow are investigated and optimized for application to a single-hit neutron spectrometer for fast ignition experiments. It is found that 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene has better characteristics as a liquid scintillator solvent than the conventional solvent, p-xylene. In addition, a benzophenon-doped BBQ liquid scintillator is shown to demonstrate very rapid time response, and therefore has potential for further use in neutron diagnostics with fast time resolution.

  14. Development of ferroelectric liquid crystal materials showing fast response time. Kosoku oto wo shimesu kyo yudensei ekisho zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiomi, M.; Kuratate, T.; Koden, M. (Sharp Corp., Osaka (Japan))

    1991-12-10

    As a part of the development of the surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal display (SSFLCD) which is expected as large information display with a fast response time and wide viewing angle, some kinds of ferroelectric liquid crystal materials were fabricated by mixing the achiral liquid crystal host composed of mainly phenylpyrimidine system compounds with a small amount of optically active (gamma)-lactone system chiral dopants in order to study their response time, operation temperature range and orientation. As a result, the spontaneous polarization of the materials increased linearly with the chiral dopant, while the response time was constant in a doping range over 5wt%. The materials thus offered the excellent response time under the existence of small spontaneous polarization. Every material offered an INAC phase sequence and stable smectic C phase in a wide temperature range over and below a room temperature as well as a favorable uniform orientation. 14 ref., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Time-resolved entropy measurements using a fast response entropy probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a recently developed miniature fast response entropy probe and its application in the turbomachinery facilities at ETH Zurich. The development of the probe is motivated by the need to more clearly document the loss generation mechanisms in the harsh environment of turbomachines. The probe is comprised of a piezoresistive sensor and a pair of thin-film gauges that measure the unsteady pressure and temperature, respectively. The unsteady relative entropy can thus be determined. The design, manufacture and calibration of the probe are first presented in detail. Its application to detail the unsteady entropy field, and associated losses, in a centrifugal compressor, axial turbine and film cooling flows are then described

  16. CMOS dynamic low pass filter for a low noise level and a fast response time of PLL system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre TSAFACK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available —We present in this paper a new model of a low pass filter (LPF for a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL systems. The main characteristic of this CMOS LPF structure is its dynamic band-width (about 12.66kHz when the PLL is locked and 211. 30kHz during the tracking. It ensures a fast response time, a suppression of the jitters and a better noise level at the output. This LPF polarization is ensured by the current from the PFC-IC (Phase-Frequency Comparator with Charge Impulse and the VCO control voltage. The simulation in a PLL system gives us a response time of 35.4 µs and a phase noise level of -121.37dBc. Significant improvements could be expected with a dedicated CMOS process and design.

  17. Conversion efficiency and time response of phosphors for fast X-ray imaging with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray imagers meeting the requirements of synchrotron radiation experiments are being developed at the ESRF. The phosphors used in these imagers will determine their final properties, and particularly the time response and dynamic range. The conversion efficiencies for low energy X-rays, and mainly the time behaviour of different compounds are presented in this article. Detectors based on X-ray image intensifiers (XRII) using CsI:Na as the input converter and P46 as the output screen, optically coupled to CCD cameras will make it possible to acquire images with a frame rate up to 1000 images/s, and a dynamic range of more than 1000. (orig.)

  18. A direct indication of plasma potential diagnostic with fast time response and high accuracy based on a differential emissive probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The floating potential of the emissive probe has been used to directly measure the plasma potential. The authors have recently presented another method for directly indicating the plasma potential with a differential emissive probe. In this paper they describe the effects of probe size, plasma density and plasma potential fluctuation on plasma potential measurements and give methods for reducing errors. A control system with fast time response (? 20 ?s) and high accuracy (the order of the probe temperature T/sub w//e) for maintaining a differential emissive probe at plasma potential has been developed. It can be operated in pulsed discharge plasma to measure plasma potential dynamic characteristics. A solid state optical coupler is employed to improve circuit performance. This system was tested experimentally by measuring the plasma potential in an argon plasma device and on the Phaedrus tandem mirror

  19. The time-course of single-word reading: Evidence from fast behavioral and brain responses

    OpenAIRE

    Hauk, O.; Coutout, C.; Holden, A.; Chen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We usually feel that we understand a familiar word “immediately”. However, even basic aspects of the time-line of word recognition are still controversial. Different domains of research have still not converged on a coherent account. An integration of multiple sources of information would lead to more strongly constrained theoretical models, and help finding optimal measures when monitoring specific aspects of word recognition impairments in patient groups. In our multimodal approach – ...

  20. Fast-time-response Zeeman polarimeter for the study of internal magnetic field structures in the JIPP T-IIU tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Zeeman polarimeter with a fast time response much faster than the magnetic diffusion time of the plasma is developed to measure the poloidal magnetic field structure of a toroidal plasma. A specially developed Fabry-Perot interferometer has allowed us to measure the poloidal magnetic field with time resolution up to 1.5 ms. High signal-to-noise ratio is achieved by using a correlation technique based on the Fast Fourier Transform, and the minimum detectable poloidal field strength is found to be 0.003T. This polarimeter is successfully applied to fast current ramping experiments in the JIPP T-IIU, and both the clear production of skin current and the penetration of the current are observed. Also, the fact that the penetration of the skin current can be predicted by a model based on neoclassical resistivity is confirmed

  1. Fast water oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the many manuals currently available for oil spill response, few have any information on fast-water conditions even though just more than half of all oil spilled by volume in the United States between 1992 and 1997 happened in waterways with currents exceeding one knot. The Coast Guard recognized the absence of standard terminology that could be used for fast-water responses. For that reason, an initiative was undertaken to create a document that addresses only fast-water issues. Two major parts of the project were to provide information on deployment strategies and techniques to identify equipment that could improve recovery capabilities where existing systems do not work well. This paper described field demonstrations where boom deflectors and boom vanes were used. Efforts to increase the capability of booms and skimmers were also described. A field guide was developed for training and response purposes for spills in fast-water which makes it possible for on-scene commanders and area supervisors to define techniques and terminology for responders in the field. It is particularly useful for Coast Guard Marine Safety Units when working with Coast Guard operational units during an emergency response. 20 refs., 4 figs

  2. Fast response densitometer for measuring liquid density

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Densitometer was developed which produces linear voltage proportional to changes in density of flowing liquid hydrogen. Unit has fast response time and good system stability, statistical variation, and thermal equilibrium. System accuracy is 2 percent of total density span. Basic design may be altered to include measurement of other flowing materials.

  3. Side-welded fast response sheathed thermocouple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Kenneth R. (Knoxville, TN)

    1981-01-01

    A method of fabricating the measuring junction of a grounded-junction sheathed thermocouple to obtain fast time response and good thermal cycling performance is provided. Slots are tooled or machined into the sheath wall at the measuring junction, the thermocouple wires are laser-welded into the slots. A thin metal closure cap is then laser-welded over the end of the sheath. Compared to a conventional grounded-junction thermocouple, the response time is 4-5 times faster and the thermal shock and cycling capabilities are substantially improved.

  4. The time-walk of analog constant fraction discriminators using very fast scintillator detectors with linear and non-linear energy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic ?–? fast timing technique allows for direct nuclear lifetime determination down to the few picoseconds region by measuring the time difference between two coincident ?-ray transitions. Using high resolution ultra-fast LaBr3(Ce) scintillator detectors in combination with the recently developed mirror symmetric centroid difference method, nuclear lifetimes are measured with a time resolving power of around 5 ps. The essence of the method is to calibrate the energy dependent position (centroid) of the prompt response function of the setup which is obtained for simultaneously occurring events. This time-walk of the prompt response function induced by the analog constant fraction discriminator has been determined by systematic measurements using different photomultiplier tubes and timing adjustments of the constant fraction discriminator. We propose a universal calibration function which describes the time-walk or the combined ?–? time-walk characteristics, respectively, for either a linear or a non-linear amplitude versus energy dependency of the scintillator detector output pulses.

  5. Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsik; Lee, You-Jin; Kim, Dong-Ha; Baek, Ji-Ho; Lee, Joun-Ho; Kim, Byeong-Koo; Yu, Chang-Jae; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-12-01

    We report the response time of fringe-field switching (FFS) liquid crystal (LC) mode devices using an ultraviolet-curable reactive mesogen (RM) mixed in a planar alignment layer. The RM polymers within the alignment layer increase the surface azimuthal anchoring energy and the order parameter of the LC molecules. As a result, the falling time and the rising time in the FFS mode are improved by the enhanced azimuthal anchoring energy and the increased dielectric torque induced by higher order parameter of LCs.

  6. Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the response time of fringe-field switching (FFS) liquid crystal (LC) mode devices using an ultraviolet-curable reactive mesogen (RM) mixed in a planar alignment layer. The RM polymers within the alignment layer increase the surface azimuthal anchoring energy and the order parameter of the LC molecules. As a result, the falling time and the rising time in the FFS mode are improved by the enhanced azimuthal anchoring energy and the increased dielectric torque induced by higher order parameter of LCs. (paper)

  7. Standing variation and new mutations both contribute to a fast response to selection for flowering time in maize inbreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ressayre Adrienne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to investigate the rate and limits of the response to selection from highly inbred genetic material and evaluate the respective contribution of standing variation and new mutations, we conducted a divergent selection experiment from maize inbred lines in open-field conditions during 7 years. Two maize commercial seed lots considered as inbred lines, F252 and MBS847, constituted two biological replicates of the experiment. In each replicate, we derived an Early and a Late population by selecting and selfing the earliest and the latest individuals, respectively, to produce the next generation. Results All populations, except the Early MBS847, responded to selection despite a short number of generations and a small effective population size. Part of the response can be attributed to standing genetic variation in the initial seed lot. Indeed, we identified one polymorphism initially segregating in the F252 seed lot at a candidate locus for flowering time, which explained 35% of the trait variation within the Late F252 population. However, the model that best explained our data takes into account both residual polymorphism in the initial seed lots and a constant input of heritable genetic variation by new (epimutations. Under this model, values of mutational heritability range from 0.013 to 0.025, and stand as an upper bound compare to what is reported in other species. Conclusions Our study reports a long-term divergent selection experiment for a complex trait, flowering time, conducted on maize in open-field conditions. Starting from a highly inbred material, we created within a few generations populations that strikingly differ from the initial seed lot for flowering time while preserving most of the phenotypic characteristics of the initial inbred. Such material is unique for studying the dynamics of the response to selection and its determinants. In addition to the fixation of a standing beneficial mutation associated with a large phenotypic effect, a constant input of genetic variance by new mutations has likely contributed to the response. We discuss our results in the context of the evolution and mutational dynamics of populations characterized by a small effective population size.

  8. Preoperative fasting time in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Adeel, S

    2012-02-01

    The aim of preoperative fasting is to prevent regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration while limiting potential problems of thirst, dehydration and hypoglycaemia. The American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) has suggested guidelines for preoperative fasting for children undergoing elective surgery. We did a postal survey to determine the current practice regarding these guidelines amongst all specialist registrars in anaesthesia in Ireland. A questionnaire was sent to all specialist registrars in anaesthesia (90 in total), 60 (67%) were returned and analysed. The question asked was how long children should be kept fasting before elective surgery. The results of our survey suggest that most of the respondents are following the ASA guidelines for clear fluids and solids however there were differing opinion regarding the duration of fasting for formula milk and breast milk. In conclusion, we would recommend greater awareness and collaboration between anaesthetists, nurses and surgeons to ensure that fasting instructions are consistent with the ASA guidelines and that patient and their parents understand these directives as well.

  9. A time-resolved measurement technique for particulate number density in diesel exhaust using a fast-response flame ionization detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J. H.; Chan, S. H.

    1997-03-01

    The fast-response flame ionization detector (FRFID) has been used widely to measure, in real time, the concentration of unburnt hydrocarbons in internal combustion engines. In this study, a FRFID is modified to measure, simultaneously, the concentration of the gaseous hydrocarbons and the number density of soot particulates present in the exhaust of a turbocharged Dl diesel engine. The system is also capable of differentiating the hydrocarbon fraction of the particulates from that of gaseous hydrocarbons, hence providing information for deducing the amount of gaseous hydrocarbon that is adsorbed by or condensed onto the surface of the particulates. Another unmodified FRFID, with a particulate collector placed immediately upstream of it, is used to determine the total particulate matter in terms of mass concentration. Experimental results show that the particulate number density measured by the modified FRFID is correlated well with the mass concentration determined by the filtration method under various engine operating conditions. The hydrocarbon fraction of the particulates shows a similar trend to the gaseous hydrocarbon present in the raw exhaust gas stream under various steady-speed engine test runs. A transient engine load acceptance test concludes the usability of this modified FRFID to measure, on a time-resolved basis, the particulate number densities with trends similar to those of generally known smoke opacities.

  10. LCD response time estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Pierre; Bertolino, Pascal; Chassery, Jean-marc; Lebowsky, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Techniques to reduce LCD motion blur are extensively used in industry and they depend on an inherent LCD parameter: response time. However, normative response time is not a sufficient reference to improve LCD performance. Rather, all the gray-to-gray response times quantities are required to obtain a good improvement quality. Consequently, we propose a novel LCD model to simulate as well as compute gray-to-gray transitions (response time and behavior) from a reduced measurement set.

  11. Pembina spill response fast and effective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A break in a pipeline carrying light crude between Taylor and Prince George, British Columbia, occurred on Aug 1, 2000. The drop in pressure was first noted at the Federated Pipelines' control room in Calgary at 1.38 AM. The break was located within an hour. Within minutes of confirmation, the valves were closed upstream and downstream of the leak and spill response teams, equipment and Pembina officials were en route to the site, approximately 100 kms from the nearest town. By mid-afternoon of the same day three containment booms were in place and oil was already being pumped out of the river into a fleet of vacuum trucks. By Aug 4, the spill was fully contained and cleanup operations underway. At the peak of the containment operation about 40 pipeline employees and about 100 contractors and other responders were on the scene. An estimated one million litres of crude oil were released into the river; recovery operations were still in progress at press time. A post-incident review of the spill and containment efforts found that response was as fast and as well coordinated as could have been expected considering the night-time conditions. The B.C. Oil and Gas Commission considered the pipeline company's response excellent, and was also impressed by the cooperation among various pipeline companies and contractors. The break was eventually identified as a split in the lamination where two pipe edges join, a condition that cannot be detected in advance by present day techbe detected in advance by present day technology. 1 map., 1 photo

  12. Fast response bolometer for high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast response bolometer is developed to measure the radiation loss from a high temperature plasma. Radiation from the plasma (mainly x-ray) is absorbed by a thin foil and heats it up. Change in far infrared (FIR) radiation, due to the change in temperature, emitted from the back surface of the foil is detected by an FIR detector which is contained in a shield box placed distant from a plasma generating machine to eliminate electrical noise. The FIR radiation is transmitted from the thin foil to the detector by a light pipe (metal pipe inner surface of which is polished). The foil (radiation absorber) consists of 5?m thick copper foil, both surfaces of which are coated with 1 ?m thick carbon to increase the sensitivity and to simplify the calibration procedure. Calibration is done by two methods: One is to obtain the relation between temperature of the foil and the output of the detector. The other is to measure the detector output when the foil is illuminated by a flashlight with known light energy. Latter calibration procedure is excellent in that it is reliable and can be carried out with the same arrangement as the radiation from the plasma is measured. The result of this calibration is 0.46mV/mJ. This figure can be increased by adoption of FIR light collecting system. Time response of the bolometer (conduction of heat from radiation absorbing surface to the back surface of the foil) is calculated to be 400 ns. The thickness of the foil is chosen in such a way ess of the foil is chosen in such a way that the radiation from the plasma with electron temperature of about 100 eV is almost completely absorbed. This bolometer is applicable to plasmas with higher temperature when the foil thickness is increased with the sacrifice of time response and sensitivity. (author)

  13. Fast response stainless steel sodium thermocouple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and construction of SS-Na thermocouple to be used in pool type reactors are described. The distinguishing feature of SS-Na thermocouple is that they are very fast responding type, (instantaneous measurement), since the temperature sensitive points or functions are just on the outer surface of the tip of the SS well, and the sodium itself is already carrying the heat. This instantaneous response makes its application very useful in detecting the transient temperature fluctuations in sodium. Various tests on these types of thermocouples have been conducted to evaluate their response characteristics, and their suitability for application to sodium flow measurement. (K.B.)

  14. Ultra-fast timing with plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast timing detectors for time-of-flight measurements are essential identification tools for isotopes studied at fragment separators at major heavy-ion research facilities. While today's standard technique of utilizing a plastic scintillator read out by few photomultiplier tubes proofs to be efficient, it does not provide the required time resolution for future key experiments at, for example, the Super-FRS at FAIR. A common present-day approach is to use diamond detectors instead. While they do provide a better time resolution compared to scintillators, they are more difficult to use and far more expensive. Results from tests using a new design approach with standard materials will be presented. This leads to a much improved performance, but remains both cost-efficient, compact, and reliable. The design goals and how to accomplish them will be exemplified by the LYCCA (Lund-York-Cologne CAlorimeter) detector aiming for fast-beam experiments at HISPEC within NUSTAR.

  15. The response of mouse skin to fractionated doses of fast neutrons (66 Me Vp-Be) with variable interfraction and overall treatment times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam availability for neutron therapy at the National Accelerator Centre at Faure, South Africa is such that treatment fractions are given at irregularly spaced intervals. Such treatment scheduling may not be optimal. Investigations were made using the acute skin reaction of the mouse foot to determine the effect of different numbers of regularly and irregularly spaced fractions of p(66)/Be neutrons. Assessment of results was both by average skin reaction and by ED50 values for the incidence of moist desquamation as established by probit analysis. Different numbers of fractions (between 6 and 11) and different times between fractions did not appear to affect the mouse foot response significantly when fractionation was completed within 11 days, i.e. before repopulation began to have an effect. When overall treatment times were longer than 11 days, the mouse foot responses to 6 and 9 fractions with variable interfraction times were similar, provided the overall treatment times were the same and the fractions were at least 24 h apart. The ?/? ratio was 87±27 (SE) Gy for the early response of the BALB/c mouse foot skin to p(66)/Be neutrons. The response of mouse skin to fractionated p(66)/Be neutrons was independent of fraction number or interfraction time, provided that the overall treatment time was the same. (orig.)

  16. A proposal for fast neutron personal real time dosimetry in mixed n, ? fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for fast neutron monitoring has been studied, resulting from computer simulation analysis of fast neutron and gamma interaction responses in silicon counters. A real time personal dosemeter with a response accuracy better than 30% in a mixed n, ? field for neutron energies between 0.75 and 15 MeV is proposed. (author)

  17. Quartz Cherenkov Counters for Fast Timing: QUARTIC

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M G; Los, S; Ramberg, E; Ronzhin, A; Samoylenko, V; Wenzel, H; Zatserklyaniy, A

    2012-01-01

    We have developed particle detectors based on fused silica (quartz) Cherenkov radiators read out with micro-channel plate photomultipliers (MCP-PMTs) or silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) for high precision timing (Sigma(t) about 10-15 ps). One application is to measure the times of small angle protons from exclusive reactions, e.g. p + p - p + H + p, at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC. They may also be used to measure directional particle fluxes close to external or stored beams. The detectors have small areas (square cm), but need to be active very close (a few mm) to the intense LHC beam, and so must be radiation hard and nearly edgeless. We present results of tests of detectors with quartz bars inclined at the Cherenkov angle, and with bars in the form of an "L" (with a 90 degree corner). We also describe a possible design for a fast timing hodoscope with elements of a few square mm.

  18. Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Vortex Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Current fast-time wake models are reviewed and three basic types are defined. Predictions from several of the fast-time models are compared. Previous statistical evaluations of the APA-Sarpkaya and D2P fast-time models are discussed. Root Mean Square errors between fast-time model predictions and Lidar wake measurements are examined for a 24 hr period at Denver International Airport. Shortcomings in current methodology for evaluating wake errors are also discussed.

  19. A fast response temperature sensor based on fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dengpan; Wang, Jin; Wang, Yongjie; Dai, Xing

    2014-07-01

    Aimed at the requirement for a fast-response expendable ocean temperature sensor, this paper presents a new design scheme for an optic fiber sensor. Ocean temperature sensors require high sensitivity and high response speed, which must be up to milliseconds. The fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensor with high sensitivity has been declared in the last decade, but its response speed has been rarely reported. In this paper, a method is proposed which is to package an FBG with a metal tube. The response time of this sensor is 48.6?ms, which is an order of magnitude greater than that of an ordinary optical fiber temperature sensor. Temperature sensitivity is 27.6?pm/°C and the linearity is up to 0.9999. In addition, the sensor can be less than 15?mm. It offers a new way to detect ocean temperature.

  20. Time-resolved and time-integrated radiography of fast reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fast-reactor safety program has some unusual requirements in radiography. Applications may be divided into two areas: time-resolved or time-integrated radiography. The fast-neutron hodoscope has supplied all recent time-resolved cineradiographic in-pile fuel-motion data, and various x-ray and photographic techniques have been used for out-of-pile experiments. Thick containers and the large number of radioactive fuel pins involved in safety research have been responsible for some nonconventional applications of time-integrated radiography of stationary objects. Hodoscopes record fuel-motion during transient experiments at the TREAT reactor in the United States and CABRI in France. Other special techniques have been under development for out-of-pile nondestructive radiography of fuel element subassemblies, including fast-neutron and gamma-ray tomographic methods

  1. Wave-induced hydroelastic response of fast monohull displacement ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, JØrgen Juncher; Wang, Zhaohui

    1998-01-01

    High-speed ships are weight sensitive structures and high strength steel, aluminium or composites are preferred building materials. It is characteristic for these materials that they result in larger hull flexibility than more conventional materials. Therefore, for large fast ships the lowest natural frequencies of the global hull modes can be relatively low compared to the frequency of wave encounter.In the present paper the effect of hull flexibility on the wave-induced springing and whipping vibrations is investigated in stationary stochastic seaways. The calculations are performed using a quadratic strip theory formulated in the frequency domain and a fully non-linear time-domain strip theory. The hydroelastic response is thereby excited partly by resonance and partly by non-linear excitation. The calculations are carried out for a recent proposal for a fast monohull containership.

  2. Fast-Response Liquid Crystal Microlens

    OpenAIRE

    Su Xu; Yan Li; Yifan Liu; Jie Sun; Hongwen Ren; Shin-Tson Wu

    2014-01-01

    Electrically tunable liquid crystal microlenses have attracted strong research attention due to their advantages of tunable focusing, voltage actuation, low power consumption, simple fabrication, compact structure, and good stability. They are expected to be essential optical devices with widespread applications. However, the slow response time of nematic liquid crystal (LC) microlenses has been a significant technical barrier to practical applications and commercialization. LC/polymer compos...

  3. The Fast Tracker Real Time Processor

    CERN Document Server

    Annovi, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    As the LHC luminosity is ramped up to the SLHC Phase I level and beyond, the high rates, multiplicities, and energies of particles seen by the detectors will pose a unique challenge. Only a tiny fraction of the produced collisions can be stored on tape and immense real-time data reduction is needed. An effective trigger system must maintain high trigger efficiencies for the physics we are most interested in, and at the same time suppress the enormous QCD backgrounds. This requires massive computing power to minimize the online execution time of complex algorithms. A multi-level trigger is an effective solution for an otherwise impossible problem. The Fast Tracker (FTK)[1], is a proposed upgrade to the current ATLAS trigger system that will operate at full Level-1 output rates and provide high quality tracks reconstructed over the entire detector by the start of processing in Level-2. FTK solves the combinatorial challenge inherent to tracking by exploiting massive parallelism of associative memories [2] that ...

  4. Development of a small, nanosecond timing fast neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron spectrometer has been developed for use inside a fast neutron assembly. The spectrometer is small and insensitive to gamma radiation. An optical system was developed which could collect about 80 per cent of the light from an NE213 liquid scintillator and transmit it along a 450 mm quartz light guide to a high performance photomultiplier. To enable the detector to be used as a nanosecond timing spectrometer, several calibration measurements were made of the detector efficiency and response to monoenergetic neutrons

  5. Security-constrained expansion planning of fast-response units for wind integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a stochastic expansion planning of fast-response thermal units for the large-scale integration of wind generation (WG). The paper assumes that the WG integration level is given and considers the short-term thermal constraints and the volatility of wind units in the planning of fast-response thermal units. The new fast-response units are proposed by market participants. The security-constrained expansion planning approach will be used by an ISO or a regulatory body to secure the optimal planning of the participants' proposed fast-response units with the WG integration. Random outages of generating units and transmission lines as well as hourly load and wind speed forecast errors are modeled in Monte Carlo scenarios. The Monte Carlo simplification methods are introduced to handle large-scale stochastic expansion planning as a tradeoff between the solution accuracy and the calculation time. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through numerical simulations. (author)

  6. Analysis of the seismic response of a fast reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the methods to apply for a correct evaluation of the reactor core seismic response. Reference is made to up-to-date design data concerning the PEC core, taking into account the presence of the core-restraint plate located close to the PEC core elements top and applying the optimized iterative procedure between the vessel linear calculation and the non-linear ones limited to the core, which had been described in a previous report. It is demonstrated that the convergence of this procedure is very fast, similar to what obtained in the calculations of the cited report, carried out with preliminary data, and it is shown that the cited methods allow a reliable evaluation of the excitation time histories for the experimental tests in support of the seismic verification of the shutdown system and the core of a fast reactor, as well as relevant data for the experimental, structural and functional, verification of the core elements in the case of seismic loads

  7. New method of fast simulation for a hadron calorimeter response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present the new method of a fast Monte-Carlo simulation of a hadron calorimeter response. It is based on the three-dimensional parameterization of the hadronic shower obtained from the ATLAS TILECAL test beam data and GEANT simulations. A new approach of including the longitudinal fluctuations of hadronic shower is described. The obtained results of the fast simulation are in good agreement with the TILECAL experimental data

  8. The Role of FAST in Pulsar Timing Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, G; Manchester, R N; Shannon, R M; Kerr, M; Lee, K J; Xu, R

    2014-01-01

    The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST) will become one of the world-leading telescopes for pulsar timing array (PTA) research. The primary goals for PTAs are to detect (and subsequently study) ultra-low-frequency gravitational waves, to develop a pulsar-based time standard and to improve solar system planetary ephemerides. FAST will have the sensitivity to observe known pulsars with significantly improved signal-to-noise ratios and will discover a large number of currently unknown pulsars. We describe how FAST will contribute to PTA research and show that jitter- and timing-noise will be the limiting noise processes for FAST data sets. Jitter noise will limit the timing precision achievable over data spans of a few years while timing noise will limit the precision achievable over many years.

  9. On the fast response of spectrometric circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information capacity of spectrometric circuits obtianed by means of Monte Carlo method modeling is analysed. It is shown that working at high input pulse counting rate is not advisable, dead time of analog-to-digital converter should be compared with the pulse rise time of the amplifier

  10. Fast Hemodynamic Responses in the Visual Cortex of the Awake Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Pisauro, M. Andrea; Dhruv, Neel T.; Carandini, Matteo; Benucci, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Hemodynamic responses in mice and other species are typically measured under anesthesia. However, anesthesia could influence their relationship to neural activity. To investigate this relationship, we used optical imaging in mouse primary visual cortex (V1). Hemodynamic responses yielded clear maps of retinotopy in both anesthetized and awake mice. However, during wakefulness, responses were four times larger and twice as fast. These differences held whether we induced anesthesia with urethan...

  11. Long time response of soft magnetorheological gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hai-Ning; Sun, Bin; Picken, Stephen J; Mendes, Eduardo

    2012-04-19

    Swollen physical magnetorheological (MR) gels were obtained by self-assembling of triblock copolymers containing dispersed soft magnetic particles. The transient rheological responses of these systems were investigated experimentally. Upon sudden application of a homogeneous magnetic field step change, the storage modulus of MR gels continued to increase with time. Such increase trend of the storage modulus could be expressed by a double-exponential function with two distinct modes, a fast and a slow one. The result was compared with the transient rheological response of equivalent MR fluids (paraffin oil without copolymer) and a MR elastomer (PDMS) and interpreted as the consequence of strong rearrangement of the original particle network under magnetic field. Similar to the structure evolution of MR fluids, the ensemble of results suggests that "chaining" and "clustering" processes are also happening inside the gel and are responsible for the rheological behavior, provided they are happening on a smaller length scale (long chains and clusters are hindered). We show that response times of several minutes are typical for the slow response of MR gels. The characteristic time t(2) for the slow process is significantly dependent on the magnetic flux density, the matrix viscoelastic property, particle volume fraction, and sample's initial particle distribution. In order to validate our results, the role of dynamic strain history was clarified. We show that, in the linear viscoelastic region, the particle rearrangement of MR gels was not hindered or accelerated by the dynamic strain history. PMID:22439870

  12. Fluctuation-Response Relation and modeling in systems with fast and slow dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lacorata

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We show how a general formulation of the Fluctuation-Response Relation is able to describe in detail the connection between response properties to external perturbations and spontaneous fluctuations in systems with fast and slow variables. The method is tested by using the 360-variable Lorenz-96 model, where slow and fast variables are coupled to one another with reciprocal feedback, and a simplified low dimensional system. In the Fluctuation-Response context, the influence of the fast dynamics on the slow dynamics relies in a non trivial behavior of a suitable quadratic response function. This has important consequences for the modeling of the slow dynamics in terms of a Langevin equation: beyond a certain intrinsic time interval even the optimal model can give just statistical prediction.

  13. Fast-timing methods for semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic parameters are discussed which determine the accuracy of timing measurements and their effect in a practical application, specifically timing with thin-surface barrier detectors. The discussion focusses on properties of the detector, low-noise amplifiers, trigger circuits and time converters. New material presented in this paper includes bipolar transistor input stages with noise performance superior to currently available FETs, noiseless input terminations in sub-nanosecond preamplifiers and methods using transmission lines to couple the detector to remotely mounted preamplifiers. Trigger circuits are characterized in terms of effective rise time, equivalent input noise and residual jitter

  14. Fast timing methods for semiconductor detectors. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This tutorial paper discusses the basic parameters which determine the accuracy of timing measurements and their effect in a practical application, specifically timing with thin-surface barrier detectors. The discussion focusses on properties of the detector, low-noise amplifiers, trigger circuits and time converters. New material presented in this paper includes bipolar transistor input stages with noise performance superior to currently available FETs, noiseless input terminations in sub-nanosecond preamplifiers and methods using transmission lines to couple the detector to remotely mounted preamplifiers. Trigger circuits are characterized in terms of effective rise time, equivalent input noise and residual jitter

  15. Fast timing methods for semiconductor detectors. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spieler, H.

    1984-10-01

    This tutorial paper discusses the basic parameters which determine the accuracy of timing measurements and their effect in a practical application, specifically timing with thin-surface barrier detectors. The discussion focusses on properties of the detector, low-noise amplifiers, trigger circuits and time converters. New material presented in this paper includes bipolar transistor input stages with noise performance superior to currently available FETs, noiseless input terminations in sub-nanosecond preamplifiers and methods using transmission lines to couple the detector to remotely mounted preamplifiers. Trigger circuits are characterized in terms of effective rise time, equivalent input noise and residual jitter.

  16. Fast Passive Summators for Timing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kolojvari, A A; CERN. Geneva; Tsimbal, F A; Tulina, T A; Valiev, F F; Vinogradov, L I; Potapov, S V; Novikov, I A

    1995-01-01

    Our basic present choice for the candidates to the multiplicity counters of ALICE is the Micro Channel Plate based detector (FMD-MCP) [1,2]. The signals from MCP detector are very sharp in time. The signal from a single particle has a leading edge rise time of about 200ps and a width of 1ns.

  17. Plastic fiber scintillator response to fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Neutron Imaging System at NIF uses an array of plastic scintillator fibers in conjunction with a time-gated imaging system to form an image of the neutron emission from the imploded capsule. By gating on neutrons that have scattered from the 14.1 MeV DT energy to lower energy ranges, an image of the dense, cold fuel around the hotspot is also obtained. An unmoderated spallation neutron beamline at the Weapons Neutron Research facility at Los Alamos was used in conjunction with a time-gated imaging system to measure the yield of a scintillating fiber array over several energy bands ranging from 1 to 15 MeV. The results and comparison to simulation are presented

  18. Plastic fiber scintillator response to fast neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danly, C. R.; Sjue, S.; Wilde, C. H.; Merrill, F. E.; Haight, R. C.

    2014-11-01

    The Neutron Imaging System at NIF uses an array of plastic scintillator fibers in conjunction with a time-gated imaging system to form an image of the neutron emission from the imploded capsule. By gating on neutrons that have scattered from the 14.1 MeV DT energy to lower energy ranges, an image of the dense, cold fuel around the hotspot is also obtained. An unmoderated spallation neutron beamline at the Weapons Neutron Research facility at Los Alamos was used in conjunction with a time-gated imaging system to measure the yield of a scintillating fiber array over several energy bands ranging from 1 to 15 MeV. The results and comparison to simulation are presented.

  19. Plastic fiber scintillator response to fast neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danly, C R; Sjue, S; Wilde, C H; Merrill, F E; Haight, R C

    2014-11-01

    The Neutron Imaging System at NIF uses an array of plastic scintillator fibers in conjunction with a time-gated imaging system to form an image of the neutron emission from the imploded capsule. By gating on neutrons that have scattered from the 14.1 MeV DT energy to lower energy ranges, an image of the dense, cold fuel around the hotspot is also obtained. An unmoderated spallation neutron beamline at the Weapons Neutron Research facility at Los Alamos was used in conjunction with a time-gated imaging system to measure the yield of a scintillating fiber array over several energy bands ranging from 1 to 15 MeV. The results and comparison to simulation are presented. PMID:25430353

  20. Plastic fiber scintillator response to fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danly, C. R.; Sjue, S.; Wilde, C. H.; Merrill, F. E.; Haight, R. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The Neutron Imaging System at NIF uses an array of plastic scintillator fibers in conjunction with a time-gated imaging system to form an image of the neutron emission from the imploded capsule. By gating on neutrons that have scattered from the 14.1 MeV DT energy to lower energy ranges, an image of the dense, cold fuel around the hotspot is also obtained. An unmoderated spallation neutron beamline at the Weapons Neutron Research facility at Los Alamos was used in conjunction with a time-gated imaging system to measure the yield of a scintillating fiber array over several energy bands ranging from 1 to 15 MeV. The results and comparison to simulation are presented.

  1. Portion sizes and obesity: responses of fast-food companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lisa R; Nestle, Marion

    2007-07-01

    Because the sizes of food portions, especially of fast food, have increased in parallel with rising rates of overweight, health authorities have called on fast-food chains to decrease the sizes of menu items. From 2002 to 2006, we examined responses of fast-food chains to such calls by determining the current sizes of sodas, French fries, and hamburgers at three leading chains and comparing them to sizes observed in 1998 and 2002. Although McDonald's recently phased out its largest offerings, current items are similar to 1998 sizes and greatly exceed those offered when the company opened in 1955. Burger King and Wendy's have increased portion sizes, even while health authorities are calling for portion size reductions. Fast-food portions in the United States are larger than in Europe. These observations suggest that voluntary efforts by fast-food companies to reduce portion sizes are unlikely to be effective, and that policy approaches are needed to reduce energy intake from fast food. PMID:17585324

  2. Reaction Time 1: How Fast Are You ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Netlinks

    2001-10-20

    In this lesson from Science NetLinks, students will engage in two online reaction time tests. They will track their progress, taking note of any strategies that help them improve their performance. This lesson takes a small step toward the broader learning goal described above; it encourages students to think about their learning and illustrates that skills, when practiced, can become automatic.

  3. Fast-response processor for data selection and processing in a multichannel analog-to-digital converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multichannel analog-to-digital converter representing the base of the fast channel of the system for multiplex measurement of amplitudes and timing parameters is described. The fast-response processor switched into the measuring channel is intended for data selection by predetermined criteria and on-line processing and compression of the recorded data

  4. A fast near-field method for calculations of time-harmonic and transient pressures produced by triangular pistons

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Duo; Kelly, James F.; Mcgough, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Analytical expressions are demonstrated for fast calculations of time-harmonic and transient near-field pressures generated by triangular pistons. These fast expressions remove singularities from the impulse response, thereby reducing the computation time and the peak numerical error with a general formula that describes the near-field pressure produced by any triangular piston geometry. The time-domain expressions are further accelerated by a time-space decomposition approach that analytical...

  5. Modeling and Analysis of the Role of Fast-Response Energy Storage in the Smart Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Han-I

    2011-01-01

    The large short time-scale variability of renewable energy resources presents significant challenges to the reliable operation of power systems. This variability can be mitigated by deploying fast-ramping generators. However, these generators are costly to operate and produce environmentally harmful emissions. Fast-response energy storage devices, such as batteries and flywheels, provide an environmentally friendly alternative, but are expensive and have limited capacity. To study the environmental benefits of storage, we introduce a slotted-time dynamic residual dc power flow model with the prediction error of the difference between the generation (including renewables) and the load as input and the fast-ramping generation and the storage (charging/discharging) operation as the control variables used to ensure that the demand is satisfied (as much as possible) in each time slot. We assume the input prediction error sequence to be i.i.d. zero-mean random variables. The optimal power flow problem is then formu...

  6. Slow and fast magneto-optical response of magnetite nanoparticles suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitruk, N.; Moroz, I.; Malynych, S.

    2011-01-01

    DC magnetic field applied to Fe?O?; nanoparticle suspension affects its light scattering. Time dependent variations in the light intensity transmitted through a suspension are observed after the magnetic field is switched-on. Two types of variations can be distinguished. Fast response takes less than millisecond while slow variations occur at the time interval from seconds to hundreds of minutes. Possible mechanisms of these variations are discussed.

  7. Slow and fast magneto-optical response of magnetite nanoparticles suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dmitruk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available DC magnetic field applied to Fe?O?; nanoparticle suspension affects its light scattering. Time dependent variations in the light intensity transmitted through a suspension are observed after the magnetic field is switched-on. Two types of variations can be distinguished. Fast response takes less than millisecond while slow variations occur at the time interval from seconds to hundreds of minutes. Possible mechanisms of these variations are discussed.

  8. Fast Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis for dynamic sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Yair; Motil, Avi; Tur, Moshe

    2012-04-01

    A new technique for the fast implementation of Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis (BOTDA) is proposed and demonstrated, carrying the classical BOTDA method to the dynamic sensing domain. By using a digital signal generator which enables fast switching among 100 scanning frequencies, we demonstrate a truly distributed and dynamic measurement of a 100 m long fiber with a sampling rate of ~10 kHz, limited only by the fiber length and the frequency granularity. With 10 averages the standard deviation of the measured strain was ~5 µ?. PMID:22513567

  9. Real time face recognition using adaboost improved fast PCA algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, K Susheel; Tripathi, R C

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an automated system for human face recognition in a real time background world for a large homemade dataset of persons face. The task is very difficult as the real time background subtraction in an image is still a challenge. Addition to this there is a huge variation in human face image in terms of size, pose and expression. The system proposed collapses most of this variance. To detect real time human face AdaBoost with Haar cascade is used and a simple fast PCA and LDA is used to recognize the faces detected. The matched face is then used to mark attendance in the laboratory, in our case. This biometric system is a real time attendance system based on the human face recognition with a simple and fast algorithms and gaining a high accuracy rate..

  10. Fast time-resolved aerosol collector: proof of concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-Y. Yu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particles can be collected in the field on substrates for subsequent laboratory analysis via chemically sensitive single particle methods such as scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray analysis. With moving substrates time resolution of seconds to minutes can be achieved. In this paper, we demonstrate how to increase the time resolution when collecting particles on a substrate to a few milliseconds to provide real-time information. Our fast time-resolved aerosol collector ("Fast-TRAC" microscopically observes the particle collection on a substrate and records an on-line video. Particle arrivals are resolved to within a single frame (4–17 ms in this setup, and the spatial locations are matched to the subsequent single particle analysis. This approach also provides in-situ information on particle size and number concentration. Applications are expected in airborne studies of cloud microstructure, pollution plumes, and surface long-term monitoring.

  11. Fast time-resolved aerosol collector: proof of concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X.-Y.; Cowin, J. P.; Iedema, M. J.; Ali, H.

    2010-10-01

    Atmospheric particles can be collected in the field on substrates for subsequent laboratory analysis via chemically sensitive single particle methods such as scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray analysis. With moving substrates time resolution of seconds to minutes can be achieved. In this paper, we demonstrate how to increase the time resolution when collecting particles on a substrate to a few milliseconds to provide real-time information. Our fast time-resolved aerosol collector ("Fast-TRAC") microscopically observes the particle collection on a substrate and records an on-line video. Particle arrivals are resolved to within a single frame (4-17 ms in this setup), and the spatial locations are matched to the subsequent single particle analysis. This approach also provides in-situ information on particle size and number concentration. Applications are expected in airborne studies of cloud microstructure, pollution plumes, and surface long-term monitoring.

  12. Fast time-resolved aerosol collector: proof of concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-Y. Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particles can be collected in the field on substrates for subsequent laboratory analysis via chemically sensitive single particle methods such as scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray analysis. With moving substrates time resolution of seconds to minutes can be achieved. In this paper, we demonstrate how to increase the time resolution when collecting particles on a substrate to a few milliseconds to provide real-time information. Our fast time-resolved aerosol collector ("Fast-TRAC" microscopically observes the particle collection on a substrate and records an on-line video. Particle arrivals are resolved to within a single frame (4–17 ms in this setup, and the spatial locations are matched to the subsequent single particle analysis. This approach also provides in-situ information on particle size and number concentration. Applications are expected in airborne studies of cloud microstructure, pollution plumes, and surface long-term monitoring.

  13. Fast and Slow Transient Response of WECS with Simultaneous Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Amarendra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the transient operation of a wind energy conversion system (WECS used simultaneously as an ac- tive filter and power generator. This study is intended to address the system response to two types of transient phenomena: voltage dips (fast transients and wind speed variations (slow transients. The system response to voltage dips is governed by the electrical system dynamics and control method and results in the evaluation of the WECS low-voltage ride through capability. The study of the system response to wind speed variations requires a complete me- chanical model to be included. Simulation results are presented for a typical WECS, and a discussion is carried out dealing with the generalization of the present work to other configurations.

  14. Wave-induced Hydroelastic response of fast monohull ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, JØrgen Juncher

    1996-01-01

    High-speed ships are weight sensitive structures and high strength steel, aluminium or composites are preferred building materials. it is characteristic for these materials that they result in larger hull flexibility than more conventional materials. Therefore, for large fast ships the lowest natural frequencies of the global hull modes can be relatively low compared to the frequency of wave encounter. In the present paper the effect of hull flexibility on the wave-induced springing vibrations is investigated in stationary stochastic seaways. The calculations are performed within the framework of a quadratic strip theory formulated in the frequency domain. The springing response is thereby excited partly be resonance and partly by non-linear excitation. Special emphasis is given to the influence of springing on fatigue damage as the extreme responses even for very flexible ships are quite insensitive to the hull flexibility due to the high zero crossing periods associated with the extreme responses.

  15. Fast-response liquid-crystal lens for 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifan; Ren, Hongwen; Xu, Su; Li, Yan; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2014-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) display has become an increasingly important technology trend for information display applications. Dozens of different 3D display solutions have been proposed. The autostereoscopic 3D display based on lenticular microlens array is a promising approach, and fast-switching microlens array enables this system to display both 3D and conventional 2D images. Here we report two different fast-response microlens array designs. The first one is a blue phase liquid crystal lens driven by the Pedot: PSS resistive film electrodes. This BPLC lens exhibits several attractive features, such as polarization insensitivity, fast response time, simple driving scheme, and relatively low driving voltage, as compared to other BPLC lens designs. The second lens design has a double-layered structure. The first layer is a polarization dependent polymer microlens array, and the second layer is a thin twisted-nematic (TN) liquid crystal cell. When the TN cell is switched on/off, the traversing light through the polymeric lens array is either focused or defocused, so that 2D/3D images are displayed correspondingly. This lens design has low driving voltage, fast response time, and simple driving scheme. Simulation and experiment demonstrate that the performance of both switchable lenses meet the requirement of 3D display system design.

  16. Fast response neutron scintillation detector for FIRE-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arikawa, Y; Nakai, M; Watari, T; Hosoda, H; Takeda, K; Fujiwara, T; Furukawa, Y; Norimatsu, T; Shiraga, H; Sarukura, N; Azechi, H [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: arikawa-y@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2008-05-15

    We have been developing fast responding neutron detectors with a view to revealing the effect of additional laser heating in FIREX-I (Fast Ignition Realization Experiment) by measuring the burn time with a time resolution under 100 ps at the relatively low neutron yield (about 10{sup 6}). The detector is constructed with a thin plastic-scintillaotor (BC-422), a micro-channel-plate photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT) and a bundle optical fiber as a light-guide. The rise time of a neutron signal from the detector is measured to be 220 ps. The time-determination error for measuring burn time is estimated to be less than {+-} 46 ps from the data of characterization experiments measuring the transit time distribution of signals, and calculated values of Doppler broadening and the uncertainty of the scintillation time due to the thickness of the scintillator. In the future with more neutron yield, we will construct a scintillation-fiber-streak camera to detect burn history.

  17. Fast response neutron scintillation detector for FIRE-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Y.; Nakai, M.; Watari, T.; Hosoda, H.; Takeda, K.; Fujiwara, T.; Furukawa, Y.; Norimatsu, T.; Shiraga, H.; Sarukura, N.; Azechi, H.

    2008-05-01

    We have been developing fast responding neutron detectors with a view to revealing the effect of additional laser heating in FIREX-I (Fast Ignition Realization Experiment) by measuring the burn time with a time resolution under 100 ps at the relatively low neutron yield (about 106). The detector is constructed with a thin plastic-scintillaotor (BC-422), a micro-channel-plate photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT) and a bundle optical fiber as a light-guide. The rise time of a neutron signal from the detector is measured to be 220 ps. The time-determination error for measuring burn time is estimated to be less than ± 46 ps from the data of characterization experiments measuring the transit time distribution of signals, and calculated values of Doppler broadening and the uncertainty of the scintillation time due to the thickness of the scintillator. In the future with more neutron yield, we will construct a scintillation-fiber-streak camera to detect burn history.

  18. Analog-assisted digital low dropout regulator with fast transient response and low output ripple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuaki; Okuma, Yasuyuki; Zhang, Xin; Fuketa, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Takayasu; Takamiya, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    An analog-assisted digital low dropout regulator (AAD-LDO) is proposed to solve the problems of a slow transient response and a large output ripple in a conventional digital LDO. In the AAD-LDO, a fast-response auxiliary analog LDO is added to the digital LDO in parallel. Compared with the digital LDO, the measured AAD-LDO in 180 nm CMOS reduces the transient response time and the output ripple by 59 and 28%, respectively, at the same current efficiency of 97.1%. The line regulation is 15 mV/V and the load regulation is 0.63 mV/mA.

  19. Photoconductive Detectors with Fast Temporal Response for Laser Produced Plasma Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processes during laser plasma experiments typically have time scales that are less than 100 ps. The measurement of these processes requires X-ray detectors with fast temporal resolution. We have measured the temporal responses and linearity of several different X-ray sensitive Photoconductive Detectors (PCDs). The active elements of the detectors investigated include both diamond (natural and synthetic) and GaAs crystals. The typical time responses of the GaAs PCDs are approximately 60 ps, respectively. Some characterizations using X-ray light from a synchrotron light source are presented

  20. Fabrication and Characteristics of Fast Photo Response ZnO/Porous Silicon UV Photoconductive Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Thjeel, Hanan A.; Suhail, Abdulla M.; Naji, Asama N.; Al-zaidi, Qahtan G.; Muhammed, Ghaida S.; Naum, Faten A.

    2011-01-01

    Fast response time UV photoconductive detector was fabricated based on ZnO film prepared by thermal chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The ZnO nanofilms are grown on the porous silicon (PS) nanosurface which has drastically reduced the response time of the ZnO UV detector from few seconds to few hundreds of microseconds. The surface functionalization of the ZnO film deposited on porous silicon (PS) layer by polyamide nylon has highly improved the photoresponsivity of the detector to 0.8 A/W....

  1. A Space/Fast-Time Adaptive Monopulse Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Douglas B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mainbeam jamming poses a particularly difficult challenge for conventional monopulse radars. In such cases spatially adaptive processing provides some interference suppression when the target and jammer are not exactly coaligned. However, as the target angle approaches that of the jammer, mitigation performance is increasingly hampered and distortions are introduced into the resulting beam pattern. Both of these factors limit the reliability of a spatially adaptive monopulse processor. The presence of coherent multipath in the form of terrain-scattered interference (TSI, although normally considered a nuisance, can be exploited to suppress mainbeam jamming with space/fast-time processing. A method is presented offering space/fast-time monopulse processing with distortionless spatial array patterns that can achieve improved angle estimation over spatially adaptive monopulse. Performance results for the monopulse processor are obtained for mountaintop data containing a jammer and TSI, which demonstrate a dramatic improvement in performance over conventional monopulse and spatially adaptive monopulse.

  2. Fast response characteristics of hydrogen sensors based on Pd nanoparticle films with controlled coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response time of the quantum conductance-based hydrogen sensor fabricated from films consisting of closely spaced palladium nanoparticles formed with cluster beam deposition was investigated. The dependence of the response time on the coverage-regulated nanoparticle size, as well as the hydrogen pressure, was determined. At low hydrogen pressure, the response time is dominated by the hydriding time of the larger Pd nanoparticles. Fast response as short as 3 s to 1,000 Pa H2 could be realized with the lower coverage nanoparticle film, with a sensitive change of the relative conductance as high as 70 %. At 10 kPa hydrogen pressure, subsecond hydrogen response could be realized. With the increase of the hydrogen pressure, the response time of the devices becomes longer and longer as determined by the hydriding time of the Pd nanoparticles involved in the smaller size population of the size distribution, and approaches the same value for the hydrogen sensors with different nanoparticle coverages. The abnormal increase of the response time accompanied by the formation of the ? + ? coexistence phase of PdHx was also investigated.

  3. Fast computation of recurrences in long time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawald, Tobias; Sips, Mike; Marwan, Norbert; Dransch, Doris

    2014-05-01

    The quadratic time complexity of calculating basic RQA measures, doubling the size of the input time series leads to a quadrupling in operations, impairs the fast computation of RQA in many application scenarios. As an example, we analyze the Potsdamer Reihe, an ongoing non-interrupted hourly temperature profile since 1893, consisting of 1,043,112 data points. Using an optimized single-threaded CPU implementation this analysis requires about six hours. Our approach conducts RQA for the Potsdamer Reihe in five minutes. We automatically split a long time series into smaller chunks (Divide) and distribute the computation of RQA measures across multiple GPU devices. To guarantee valid RQA results, we employ carryover buffers that allow sharing information between pairs of chunks (Recombine). We demonstrate the capabilities of our Divide and Recombine approach to process long time series by comparing the runtime of our implementation to existing RQA tools. We support a variety of platforms by employing the computing framework OpenCL. Our current implementation supports the computation of standard RQA measures (recurrence rate, determinism, laminarity, ratio, average diagonal line length, trapping time, longest diagonal line, longest vertical line, divergence, entropy, trend) and also calculates recurrence times. To utilize the potential of our approach for a number of applications, we plan to release our implementation under an Open Source software license. It will be available at http://www.gfz-potsdam.de/fast-rqa/. Since our approach allows to compute RQA measures for a long time series fast, we plan to extend our implementation to support multi-scale RQA.

  4. Fast responsive, optical trace level ammonia sensor for environmental monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Tobias

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ammonia is a ubiquitous chemical substance which is created in technical and biological processes and harmful to many different organisms. One specific problem is the toxicity of ammonia in fish at levels of 25 ?g/l - a very common issue in today’s aqua culture. In this study we report a development of a fast responsive, optical ammonia sensor for trace concentrations. Results Different hydrogels have been investigated as host polymers for a pH based sensing mechanism based on fluorescent dyes. A porous hydrophobic fluoropolymer membrane was used as an ion barrier cover layer to achieve a good ammonia permeability. The sensor’s sensitivity towards ammonia as well as crosssensitivity towards pH-value and salinity, and the temperature dependency have been determined. Two different methods to reference fluorescence signals have been employed to eliminate intensity-based measurement drawbacks. Conclusion The presented sensor features high sensitivity and a fast response even at concentrations near 1 ppb. No cross sensitivity towards pH and salinity could be observed and temperature dependency was determined as compensateable. Both referencing approaches prove themselves to be able to provide a simple use of the sensor for in-field applications.

  5. Fast fall-time ion beam in neutron generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Q.; Kwan, J.; Regis, M.; Wu, Y.; Wilde, S.B.; Wallig, J.

    2008-08-10

    Ion beam with a fast fall time is useful in building neutron generators for the application of detecting hidden, gamma-shielded SNM using differential die-away (DDA) technique. Typically a fall time of less than 1 {micro}s can't be achieved by just turning off the power to the ion source due to the slow decay of plasma density (partly determined by the fall time of the RF power in the circuit). In this paper, we discuss the method of using an array of mini-apertures (instead of one large aperture beam) such that gating the beamlets can be done with low voltage and a small gap. This geometry minimizes the problem of voltage breakdown as well as reducing the time of flight to produce fast gating. We have designed and fabricated an array of 16 apertures (4 x 4) for a beam extraction experiment. Using a gating voltage of 1400 V and a gap distance of 1 mm, the fall time of extracted ion beam pulses is less than 1 {micro}s at various beam energies ranging between 400 eV to 800 eV. Usually merging an array of beamlets suffers the loss of beam brightness, i.e., emittance growth, but that is not an important issue for neutron source applications.

  6. The thermoluminescence response of doped SiO{sub 2} optical fibres subjected to fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, S. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Darul, Takzim (Malaysia)], E-mail: suhairul@utm.my; Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Saripan, M.I. [Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ramli, A.T.; Wagiran, H. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Darul, Takzim (Malaysia)

    2010-04-15

    This paper describes a preliminary study of the thermoluminescence (TL) response of doped SiO{sub 2} optical fibres subjected to {sup 241}AmBe neutron irradiation. The TL materials, which comprise Al- and Ge-doped silica fibres, were exposed in close contact with the {sup 241}AmBe source to obtain fast neutron interactions through use of measurements obtained with and without a Cd filter (the filter being made to entirely enclose the fibres). The neutron irradiations were performed for exposure times of 1-, 2-, 3-, 5- and 7-days in a neutron tank filled with water. In this study, use was also made of the Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP{sup TM}) code version 5 (V5) to simulate the neutron irradiations experiment. It was found that the commercially available Ge-doped and Al-doped optical fibres show a linear dose response subjected to fast neutrons from {sup 241}AmBe source up to seven days of irradiations. The simulation performed using MCNP5 also exhibits a similar pattern, albeit differing in sensitivity. The TL response of Ge-doped fibre is markedly greater than that of the Al-doped fibre, the total absorption cross section for Ge in both the fast and thermal neutrons region being some ten times greater than that of Al.

  7. An application of fast response Polarized Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantha, Deependra; van Winkle, David

    2007-03-01

    A fast response polarized light microscope was designed based on the algorithm by Shribak et. al (Applied Optics, vol. 42, 3009-3017). A pulsed laser beam was passed through two Pockels cells aligned at different angles with respect to optical axis. The retardance of the Pockels cell was controlled by external switches and power supplies. The electronics circuit in the system allows change of the retardance of the Pockels cell each millisecond for four milliseconds. In four milliseconds, four images of a birefringent sample, formed by different states of polarized light are recorded. The images are added appropriately to calculate retardence amplitude and phase by using codes written in imageJ software. The microscope was used to show the retardance and phase of a rabbit muscle fiber. Recordings were also taken of the contraction of Vorticella convallaria but the changes were too fast to yield retardance images. This type of microscope can be used to study different kinds of biological functions that change on a timescale slower than four milliseconds but faster than two seconds.

  8. A fast preamplifier concept for SiPM-based time-of-flight PET detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizenga, J., E-mail: j.huizenga@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Seifert, S. [Delft University of Technology, Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Schreuder, F. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Dam, H.T. van [Delft University of Technology, Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Dendooven, P.; Loehner, H.; Vinke, R. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Schaart, D.R. [Delft University of Technology, Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-12-11

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) offer high gain and fast response to light, making them interesting for fast timing applications such as time-of-flight (TOF) PET. To fully exploit the potential of these photosensors, dedicated preamplifiers that do not deteriorate the rise time and signal-to-noise ratio are crucial. Challenges include the high sensor capacitance, typically >300 pF for a 3 mm Multiplication-Sign 3 mm SiPM sensor, as well as oscillation issues. Here we present a preamplifier concept based on low noise, high speed transistors, designed for optimum timing performance. The input stage consists of a transimpedance common-base amplifier with a very low input impedance even at high frequencies, which assures a good linearity and avoids that the high detector capacitance affects the amplifier bandwidth. The amplifier has a fast timing output as well as a 'slow' energy output optimized for determining the total charge content of the pulse. The rise time of the amplifier is about 300 ps. The measured coincidence resolving time (CRT) for 511 keV photon pairs using the amplifiers in combination with 3 mm Multiplication-Sign 3 mm SiPMs (Hamamatsu MPPC-S10362-33-050C) coupled to 3 mm Multiplication-Sign 3 mm Multiplication-Sign 5 mm LaBr{sub 3}:Ce and LYSO:Ce crystals equals 95 ps FWHM and 138 ps FWHM, respectively.

  9. A fast preamplifier concept for SiPM-based time-of-flight PET detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) offer high gain and fast response to light, making them interesting for fast timing applications such as time-of-flight (TOF) PET. To fully exploit the potential of these photosensors, dedicated preamplifiers that do not deteriorate the rise time and signal-to-noise ratio are crucial. Challenges include the high sensor capacitance, typically >300 pF for a 3 mm×3 mm SiPM sensor, as well as oscillation issues. Here we present a preamplifier concept based on low noise, high speed transistors, designed for optimum timing performance. The input stage consists of a transimpedance common-base amplifier with a very low input impedance even at high frequencies, which assures a good linearity and avoids that the high detector capacitance affects the amplifier bandwidth. The amplifier has a fast timing output as well as a ‘slow’ energy output optimized for determining the total charge content of the pulse. The rise time of the amplifier is about 300 ps. The measured coincidence resolving time (CRT) for 511 keV photon pairs using the amplifiers in combination with 3 mm×3 mm SiPMs (Hamamatsu MPPC-S10362-33-050C) coupled to 3 mm×3 mm×5 mm LaBr3:Ce and LYSO:Ce crystals equals 95 ps FWHM and 138 ps FWHM, respectively.

  10. A fast response wide range solid state densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine assessment of radiation doses for about 18,000 persons per month is still being carried out by the Radiation Protection Services Division through its Film Badge Service, in addition to 21,000 per month through TLD. This necessitated, earlier, the development of a semiautomatic Film Densitometer Reader which uses a densitometer having an expensive photomultiplier with associated high voltage supply and elaborate electronic circuitry covering a linear range of 0-4 optical density. This paper describes a linear densitometer developed using an ultrasensitive fast response silicon photodiode (which forms part of a solid state photo detector - amplifier combination) and a temperature compensated log ratio amplifier. The instrument is simple cost-effective and reliable. It measures diffuse optical density of the monitor film in the range of 0 to 5 with a least measurable density of 0.01. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs

  11. On Fast-Decodable Space-Time Block Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Biglieri, Ezio; Viterbo, Emanuele

    2007-01-01

    We focus on full-rate, fast-decodable space-time block codes (STBCs) for 2x2 and 4x2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission. We first derive conditions for reduced-complexity maximum-likelihood decoding, and apply them to a unified analysis of two families of 2x2 STBCs that were recently proposed. In particular, we describe a reduced-complexity sphere decoding algorithm suitable for QAM signal constellations. Next, we derive a novel reduced-complexity 4x2 STBC, and show that it outperforms all previously known codes with certain constellations.

  12. Response of very-fast-decay phosphors in image intensifier tubes for CCD readout devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoess, Paul; Fleder, Karlheinz

    2001-04-01

    High repetition rate intensified cameras having interframe times in the microsecond(s) range are needed for flow analysis measurements such as Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) or Molecular Tagging Velocimetry (MTV). For these applications, the lower efficiency, fast decay P46 and P47 phosphors must then be used instead of the higher efficiency P20 and P43 phosphors. Previous literature provides only the time-resolved phosphor response. For very short interframe time imaging applications, a significant fraction of the previous frame's intensity can appear as a 'ghost image' in the trailing frame. Fast phosphors minimize this energy transfer into a second frame. Previous data show a dependence of decay time on exposure time for the P46. The P47 has been reported to decay a factor of 3 to 30 faster than the P46. The transferred total intensity as a function of the shutter repetition rate is measured for these two fast phosphors. They are compared with data published in previous papers. Neither phosphor under investigation behaves fully in accordance with these prior characterizations.

  13. Modeling of Responses and Response Times with the Package cirt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Fox

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In computerized testing, the test takers’ responses as well as their response times on the items are recorded. The relationship between response times and response accuracies is complex and varies over levels of observation. For example, it takes the form of a tradeoff between speed and accuracy at the level of a fixed person but may become a positive correlation for a population of test takers. In order to explore such relationships and test hypotheses about them, a conjoint model is proposed. Item responses are modeled by a two-parameter normal-ogive IRT model and response times by a lognormal model. The two models are combined using a hierarchical framework based on the fact that response times and responses are nested within individuals. All parameters can be estimated simultaneously using an MCMC estimation approach. A R-package for the MCMC algorithm is presented and explained.

  14. A measurement of the response to fast neutrons of several materials dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response to fast neutrons was measured for three types of materials testing dosemeters: fast neutron dosimetry silicon diodes; beryllia, alumina and calcium fluoride TLDs; graphite walled ionisation chambers. The calibrations were made using a 3MW positive ion accelerator. The arrangement of the target, beam monitor and devices is described, and the measured fast neutron sensitivities are presented. (UK)

  15. Response of a fast reactor to a neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the multigroup approximation, a fast homogeneous bare reactor has properties which for each spatial harmonic can be summed up by a matrix A. A classification of reactors is made as a function of this structure which varies with the considered medium. The eigenvalues of A are the decay constants obtained with a pulsed neutron source. In the spectrum of these eigenvalues, is often a marked line related to a fundamental. The line is not always single. The neutron spectrum may be calculated from the eigenvectors. A neutron source, according to its spectrum, excites more or less the various energy harmonics. The detector, for its part, does not have the same response to all harmonics. Phenomena are symmetrical. Equations of this problem are written in matrix form and applied to sources which can be pulsed, modulated or controlled by the reactor flux. FORTRAN IV codes computing the behaviour of the detector response are described in the Appendix. For the computation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, some of these codes use sub-routines more accurate than the usual ones. (author)

  16. A novel fast timing micropattern gaseous detector: FTM

    CERN Document Server

    De Oliveira, Rui; Sharma, Archana

    2015-01-01

    In recent years important progress in micropattern gaseous detectors has been achieved in the use of resistive material to build compact spark-protected devices. The novel idea presented here consists of the polarisation of WELL structures using only resistive coating. This allows a new device to be built with an architecture based on a stack of several coupled layers where drift and WELL multiplication stages alternate in the structure. The signals from each multiplication stage can be read out from any external readout boards through the capacitive couplings. Each layer provides a signal with a gain of 10^4-10^5. The main advantage of this new device is the dramatic improvement of the timing provided by the competition of the ionisation processes in the different drift regions, which can be exploited for fast timing at the high luminosity accelerators (e.g. HL-LHC upgrade) as well as far applications like medical imaging.

  17. A novel fast timing micropattern gaseous detector: FTM

    CERN Document Server

    De Oliveira, Rui; Maggi, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    In recent years important progress in micropattern gaseous detectors has been achieved in the use of resistive material to build compact spark-protected devices. The novel idea presented here consists of the polarisation of WELL structures using only resistive electrodes. This allows a new device to be built with an architecture based on a stack of several coupled layers where drift and WELL multiplication stages alternate in the structure. The signals from each multiplication stage can be read out from any external readout boards through the capacitive couplings. Each layer provides a signal with a gain of 10^4 - 10^5. The main advantage of this new device is the dramatic improvement of the timing provided by the competition of the ionisation processes in the different drift regions, which can be exploited for fast timing at the high luminosity accelerators (e.g. HL-LHC upgrade) as well as applications outside particle physics.

  18. Fast-track for fast times: catching and keeping generation Y in the nursing workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kim

    2007-04-01

    There is little doubt we find ourselves in challenging times as never before has there been such generational diversity in the nursing workforce. Currently, nurses from four distinct (and now well recognised and discussed) generational groups jostle for primacy of recognition and reward. Equally significant is the acute realisation that our ageing profession must find ways to sustain itself in the wake of huge attrition as the 'baby boomer' nurses start retiring over the next ten to fifteen years. These realities impel us to become ever more strategic in our thinking about how best to manage the workforce of the future. This paper presents two exciting and original innovations currently in train at one of Australia's leading Catholic health care providers: firstly, a new fast-track bachelor of nursing program for fee-paying domestic students. This is a collaborative venture between St Vincent's and Mater Health, Sydney (SV&MHS) and the University of Tasmania (UTas); as far as we know, it is unprecedented in Australia. As well, the two private facilities of SV&MHS, St Vincent's Private (SVPH) and the Mater Hospitals, have developed and implemented a unique 'accelerated progression pathway' (APP) to enable registered nurses with talent and ambition to fast track their career through a competency and merit based system of performance management and reward. Both these initiatives are aimed squarely at the gen Y demographic and provide potential to significantly augment our capacity to recruit and retain quality people well into the future. PMID:17563323

  19. Measurement of the dynamic response of differential pressure transmitters using a response time tester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL's response time tester (RTT) for pressure and differential-pressure (DP) transmitters provide a simple, fast and accurate means of measuring pressure transmitter step response time and response time characteristics as defined in ISA Standard ISA-S67.06. The step response method of measuring response time is used by all prominent sensor suppliers and provides a result that is readily understood. The measurement of response time characteristics, which includes the transfer function, provides a complete and sensitive characterization of the dynamic response of the sensor that can be used to predict the response to ramps or any other transient. The AECL Model 200 RTT uses standard instrument air as the source of test pressure, and is suitable for testing transmitters that operate at pressures less than 650 kPa. It can accurately measure step response times in the range of 20 to 2000 ms. It is thus capable of measuring the response times of most of the pressure instruments in the CANDU safety systems. The Model 200 RTT is completely contained in a cabinet that can be easily moved on built-in shock-absorbent wheels, to facilitate testing transmitter while on the bench or mounted on the instrument rack. The RTT comprises pressurized components in the front end, and computerized data acquisition components and analysis software in the back end. Tests are conducted by switching the pressure applied to the transmitter between two values using a long-life, fast acting 3-wayalues using a long-life, fast acting 3-way solenoid valve. The actual pressure applied to the transmitter is measured with a high-frequency reference transducer. Once the operator has connected the air supply and transmitter, and set the test pressures, the actual testing and analysis proceeds automatically. Four sets of tests are conducted. A number of comparisons, as required by ISA-S67.06, are made to verify that: the transmitter is linear with respect to direction and rate of change; and the results are consistent between two diverse test methods. The broadband noise tests are used to find the transfer function (all the significant time constants) of the transmitter. Given the transfer function, the expected response to a step input can be computed and compared to the measured step response, thus verifying both measurements. The results are summarized and printed on the built-in printer. Files are saved to disk for later review. (author)

  20. Fast Turbo Codes Concatenated With Space-Time Block Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Afghah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate a new method for turbo codes which is dividing turbo encoder and decoder into several parallel coding and decoding blocks. These blocks work simultaneously and yield to much faster coding scheme in comparison with classical turbo codes. We compare simulation results of these new turbo codes with classical turbo codes to demonstrate that their performance is comparable with classical turbo codes, albeit they are much faster. Also, we introduce a new system by concatenating this fast turbo coding as outer code with Alamouti`s G2 space-time block coding scheme as inner code to achieve the benefits of both techniques including acceptable diversity and coding gain as well as short coding delay. We consider the performance of this new system in the block Rayleigh fading channel.

  1. Fast, Linear Time Hierarchical Clustering using the Baire Metric

    CERN Document Server

    Contreras, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The Baire metric induces an ultrametric on a dataset and is of linear computational complexity, contrasted with the standard quadratic time agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm. In this work we evaluate empirically this new approach to hierarchical clustering. We compare hierarchical clustering based on the Baire metric with (i) agglomerative hierarchical clustering, in terms of algorithm properties; (ii) generalized ultrametrics, in terms of definition; and (iii) fast clustering through k-means partititioning, in terms of quality of results. For the latter, we carry out an in depth astronomical study. We apply the Baire distance to spectrometric and photometric redshifts from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using, in this work, about half a million astronomical objects. We want to know how well the (more costly to determine) spectrometric redshifts can predict the (more easily obtained) photometric redshifts, i.e. we seek to regress the spectrometric on the photometric redshifts, and we use clusterwi...

  2. High resolution fast neutron spectrometry without time-of-flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance tests of a spectrometer tube of the type developed by Cuttler and Shalev show that the measurement of fast neutron spectra with this device can be made with an energy resolution previously obtainable only in large time-of-flight facilities. In preliminary tests, resolutions of 16.4 keV for thermal neutrons and 30.9 keV for 1-MeV neutrons were obtained. A broad-window pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) system is used to remove from pulse-height distributions most of the continua due to 3He-recoil events, noise, and wall effect. Use of PSD improved the energy resolution to 12.9 keV for thermal neutrons and 29.2 keV for 1-MeV neutrons. The detector is a viable tool for neutron research at nominally equipped accelerator laboratories

  3. A Race Model for Responses and Response Times in Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias; Gaviria, José-Luis

    2014-11-01

    Latent trait models for responses and response times in tests are often pure statistical models without a close connection to features of the assumed response process. In the present paper, a new model is presented that is more closely related to assumptions about the response process. The model is based on two increasing stochastic processes. Each stochastic process represents the accumulation of knowledge with respect to one of two response options, the correct and incorrect response. Both accumulators compete and the accumulator that first exceeds a critical level determines the response. General assumptions about the accumulators result in a race between two response times that follow a bivariate Birnbaum Saunders distribution. The model can be calibrated with marginal maximum likelihood estimation. Feasibility of the estimation approach is demonstrated in a simulation study. Additionally, a test of model fit is proposed. Finally, the model will be used for the analysis of an empirical data set. PMID:25381198

  4. Response specificity in animal timing.

    OpenAIRE

    Durlach, P. J.; Dawson, G. R.

    1991-01-01

    The stimuli that control responding in the peak procedure were investigated by training rats, in separate sessions, to make two different responses for food reinforcement. During one type of session, lever pressing was normally reinforced 32 s after the onset of a light. During the other type of session, chain pulling was normally reinforced either 8 s after the onset of one auditory cue or 128 s after the onset of a different auditory cue. For both types of sessions, only the appropriate man...

  5. Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effects in LiTaO3 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoelectric effects of LiTaO3 (LTO) single crystals are experimentally studied with two kinds of LTO wafers, 100 tilted and untilted, at room temperature. A transient open-circuit photoelectrical response of 143 ps rise time is observed in the 100 tilted LTO when a 266 nm pulsed laser with a duration of 25 ps is irradiated directly onto the LTO surface. The untilted LTO with interdigitated electrodes of 10 ?m finger width and 10 ?m interspacing exhibits a linear dependence on the applied bias and power density of incident light, a response peak at about 235 nm and a sharp cutoff at about 270 nm. The noise current is only 61 pA at 20 V bias under the illumination of sunlight outdoors at midday. The experimental results suggest the promising application of the LTO single crystal in UV detection, in particular, as a solar-blind fast-response photodetector.

  6. Ultraviolet fast-response photoelectric effects in LiTaO3 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Er-Jia; Xing, Jie; Lu, Hui-Bin; Jin, Kui-Juan; Wen, Juan; Yang, Guo-Zhen

    2010-01-01

    The photoelectric effects of LiTaO3 (LTO) single crystals are experimentally studied with two kinds of LTO wafers, 10° tilted and untilted, at room temperature. A transient open-circuit photoelectrical response of 143 ps rise time is observed in the 10° tilted LTO when a 266 nm pulsed laser with a duration of 25 ps is irradiated directly onto the LTO surface. The untilted LTO with interdigitated electrodes of 10 µm finger width and 10 µm interspacing exhibits a linear dependence on the applied bias and power density of incident light, a response peak at about 235 nm and a sharp cutoff at about 270 nm. The noise current is only 61 pA at 20 V bias under the illumination of sunlight outdoors at midday. The experimental results suggest the promising application of the LTO single crystal in UV detection, in particular, as a solar-blind fast-response photodetector.

  7. Bubble masks for time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, Erik; Brennan, James S.; Marleau, Peter; Nowack, Aaron B.; Steele, John; Sweany, Melinda; Throckmorton, Daniel J.

    2013-09-01

    Time-encoded imaging is an approach to directional radiation detection that is being developed at SNL with a focus on fast neutron directional detection. In this technique, a time modulation of a detected neutron signal is induced-typically, a moving mask that attenuates neutrons with a time structure that depends on the source position. An important challenge in time-encoded imaging is to develop high-resolution two-dimensional imaging capabilities; building a mechanically moving high-resolution mask presents challenges both theoretical and technical. We have investigated an alternative to mechanical masks that replaces the solid mask with a liquid such as mineral oil. Instead of fixed blocks of solid material that move in pre-defined patterns, the oil is contained in tubing structures, and carefully introduced air gaps-bubbles-propagate through the tubing, generating moving patterns of oil mask elements and air apertures. Compared to current moving-mask techniques, the bubble mask is simple, since mechanical motion is replaced by gravity-driven bubble propagation; it is flexible, since arbitrary bubble patterns can be generated by a software-controlled valve actuator; and it is potentially high performance, since the tubing and bubble size can be tuned for high-resolution imaging requirements. We have built and tested various single-tube mask elements, and will present results on bubble introduction and propagation as a function of tubing size and cross-sectional shape; real-time bubble position tracking; neutron source imaging tests; and reconstruction techniques demonstrated on simple test data as well as a simulated full detector system.

  8. Time response of the ICI detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equivalent circuit of the ICI detector has been established in this paper. The rise time of the ICI detector is 0.59 ns, which is calculated with the distributed parameters. The experiment for measuring the time response of the ICI detector is carded out on the multi-purpose radiant source. The time response obtained by the experiment is (0.677±0.144) ns, which agrees well with the calculation result. It is shown that the ICI detector has sub-nanosecond time response property and can be used to measure the rapidly changing pulsed gamma-ray flux. (authors)

  9. Mathematical modeling of the LCD response time

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Pierre; Bertolino, Pascal; Lebowsky, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    Techniques to reduce LCD motion blur are extensively used in industry and they depend on an inherent LCD parameter: response time. However, normative response time is not a sufficient reference to improve LCD performance and all the gray-to-gray response-time quantities are required to obtain good improvement. However, measuring and gathering all the gray-to-gray transitions takes an excessive amount of time. Consequently, we propose a novel LCD model to simulate as well as compute gray-to-gr...

  10. Real-time lucky imaging in FastCam project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Ramos, L. F.; Piqueras Meseguer, J. J.; Martin Hernando, Y.; Oscoz, A.; Rebolo, R.

    2008-07-01

    Lucky imaging techniques implemented by the FastCam group (see http://www.iac.es/proyecto/fastcam/) at the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias have demonstrated its ability to obtain spectacular diffraction limited images in telescopes ranging from 1 to 4.2 m in visible wavelengths (mainly in the I band), at the expense of using only a small percentage of the available images. This work presents the development of a real-time processor, FPGA-based, capable of performing all the required processing involved in the lucky imaging technique: Bias and flat-field correction, quality evaluation of images, quality threshold for image selection, image recentering and accumulation, and finally sending through Gigabit Ethernet both raw and processed images to a PC computer. Furthermore, a real time display is generated directly from FPGA showing both types of images, plus a histogram of the computed quality values and the threshold used. All processes can co-exist physically located in separated places inside the FPGA, using its natural parallel approach, and can easily handle the 512x512 pixels at 30 fps found at the sensor camera output (an Andor Ixon+ DU-897ECSO EMCCD). Flexibility and parallel processing features of the reconfigurable logic have been used to implement a novel imaging strategy for segmented-mirror telescopes, allowing separate evaluation of every segment and posterior accumulation to achieve the resolution limit of a single segment with the integration capability of the full primary mirror.

  11. Fast and accurate calculations for cumulative first-passage time distributions in Wiener diffusion models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blurton, S.P.; Kesselmeier, M.

    2012-01-01

    We propose an improved method for calculating the cumulative first-passage time distribution in Wiener diffusion models with two absorbing barriers. This distribution function is frequently used to describe responses and error probabilities in choice reaction time tasks. The present work extends related work on the density of first-passage times [Navarro, D.J., Fuss, I.G. (2009). Fast and accurate calculations for first-passage times in Wiener diffusion models. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 53, 222-230]. Two representations exist for the distribution, both including infinite series. We derive upper bounds for the approximation error resulting from finite truncation of the series, and we determine the number of iterations required to limit the error below a pre-specified tolerance. For a given set of parameters, the representation can then be chosen which requires the least computational effort.

  12. Geosynchronous magnetic field responses to fast solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements: MHD field model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Sun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We performed global MHD simulations of the geosynchronous magnetic field in response to fast solar wind dynamic pressure (Pd enhancements. Taking three Pd enhancement events in 2000 as examples, we found that the main features of the total field B and the dominant component Bz can be efficiently predicted by the MHD model. The predicted B and Bz varies with local time, with the highest level near noon and a slightly lower level around mid-night. However, it is more challenging to accurately predict the responses of the smaller component at the geosynchronous orbit (i.e., Bx and By. In contrast, the limitations of T01 model in predicting responses to fast Pd enhancements are presented.

  13. Description of a 'time-amplitude' converter device ; fast neutron spectroscopy by time of flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description of equipment consisting of a time-amplitude converter designed for fast neutron spectroscopy. The principle of this converter is the same as that already used at Strasbourg by M. GORODETZKY for the measurement of radioactive half-lives. The intrinsic resolution, or width at half-height, with the generator pulses is 1,2 x 10-10 seconds. The first results are given concerning the scattering of 14 MeV neutrons by carbon. (author)

  14. Fast Intrinsic Mode Decomposition of Time Series Data

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Louis Yu

    2008-01-01

    A fast convergent iterative method is introduced in this paper to find the intrinsic mode function (IMF) components of time series data, which is faster and more predictable than the Empirical Mode Decomposition method devised by the author of Hilbert Huang Transform. The method iteratively adjust the control points on the data function corresponding to the extrema of the refining IMF, the control points of the residue function are calculated as the median of the straight line segments passing through the data control points, the residue function is then constructed as the cubic spline function of the median points. The initial residue function is simply constructed as the straight line segments passing through the extrema of the differential of the data function. The refining IMF is the difference between the data function and the improved residue function. The IMF found can also reveal the riding waves on the steep edge of the data. The program to demonstrate the method is distributed under BSD license.

  15. A LaBr{sub 3}: Ce fast-timing array for DESPEC at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Oliver J., E-mail: O.J.Roberts@brighton.ac.uk [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brighton, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Bruce, Alison M. [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brighton, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Regan, Patrick H. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); National Physics Laboratory, Teddington, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Podolyák, Zsolt; Townsley, Christopher M. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Smith, John F.; Mulholland, Kieran F. [School of Engineering, The University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Smith, Andrew [The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01

    The design of a fast-timing ?-ray detection array aimed at measuring sub-nanosecond half-lives using LaBr{sub 3}:Ce scintillation crystals is presented. This array will complement novel and existing charged particle and neutron detector arrays at the low-energy branch of a fragment separator (Super-FRS) to be built within the NuSTAR collaboration as part of the future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR). The array will be used in conjunction with the Advanced Implantation Detector Array (AIDA), to measure implant-decay correlations. Monte-Carlo simulations have been performed to determine the design of the proposed fast-timing array around a localised implantation point. In particular, simulations were used to determine the full-energy peak efficiencies for single cylindrical, conical and ‘hybrid’ detector geometries, as well as complete array configurations of ‘hybrid’ and ?1.5 in.×2 in. cylindrical crystals. Timing precision calculations were then used to determine the timing response for each configuration based on its simulated efficiency. An informed decision based on the simulated efficiencies and timing precision calculations allowed the optimum configuration for the array to be determined.

  16. A LaBr3: Ce fast-timing array for DESPEC at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a fast-timing ?-ray detection array aimed at measuring sub-nanosecond half-lives using LaBr3:Ce scintillation crystals is presented. This array will complement novel and existing charged particle and neutron detector arrays at the low-energy branch of a fragment separator (Super-FRS) to be built within the NuSTAR collaboration as part of the future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR). The array will be used in conjunction with the Advanced Implantation Detector Array (AIDA), to measure implant-decay correlations. Monte-Carlo simulations have been performed to determine the design of the proposed fast-timing array around a localised implantation point. In particular, simulations were used to determine the full-energy peak efficiencies for single cylindrical, conical and ‘hybrid’ detector geometries, as well as complete array configurations of ‘hybrid’ and ?1.5 in.×2 in. cylindrical crystals. Timing precision calculations were then used to determine the timing response for each configuration based on its simulated efficiency. An informed decision based on the simulated efficiencies and timing precision calculations allowed the optimum configuration for the array to be determined

  17. Modeling and dynamic characteristics analysis on a three-stage fast-response and large-flow directional valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Presenting a valve with the fast response and high flow capacity simultaneously. • Dividing the response time into the starting delay ?t1 and opening time ?t2. • Proposing the change time ?tc and critical open value pc3cr of the control pressure. • The fast response relies on short change time ?tc and appropriate value of pc3cr. • Optimizing parameters associated with ?tc and pc3cr to improve valve response. - Abstract: The large transient power hydraulic systems, characterized by high pressure, large transient flow and high output power, have widespread industrial applications in converting powerful hydraulic energy to kinetic energy in a transient period. A conventional large flow rate directional valve is unable to be used in these applications due to the slow response. A directional control valve with fast response and high flow capacity simultaneously is presented for the large transient power hydraulic system in this paper. The valve utilizes a three-stage structure with two high-speed on/off solenoid valves as the pilot stage and two cartridge poppet valves as the secondary stage to overcome the fundamental trade off between valve response and flow capacity. A precise mathematical model of this valve considering both turbulent flow and laminar flow is developed. A test apparatus which has the ability to provide and measure transient large flow is built. The flow rate is estimated based on the pressure dynamics. The property parameters in the simulation model are optimized against measured data. According to the dynamic characteristics analysis, the valve response is split into the starting delay and opening time. The step response is rapid enough to provide a large transient flow, while the high flow capacity is not reduced due to the fast response. The main control pressure is characterized by its change time and critical open pressure and these two parameters determine the main-stage response. Some key structural factors concerning with these two parameters are discussed in detail and optimize to further reduce the response time

  18. Validation of the AECL response time tester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response time of a nuclear safety (trip) channel is an important safety parameter, and an ISA standard requires nuclear operators to measure the response times of their trip instrumentation. As a major aid to facilitate this measurement, AECL (Chalk River) has designed and built a Response Time Tester (RTT) for pressure and differential-pressure transmitters. The RTT is mostly automated for ease of use, is self-checking, and complies with the requirements of ISA Standard, S67.06. The RTT was first checked for repeatability and self-consistency. Secondly, it was successfully validated against an independent measurement, namely the transfer function as measured using the natural in-service noise. This validation was done using two Bailey transmitters, which had the unfortunate property of having their response times as functions of the testing conditions. In all instances, after correcting for this Bailey nonlinearity, the RTT performance met its accuracy specification of ±(5% + 5 ms). (author)

  19. A fasting-responsive signaling pathway that extends life span in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Masaharu; Honjoh, Sakiko; Matsuda, Mitsuhiro; Hoshikawa, Haruka; Kishimoto, Saya; Yamamoto, Tomohito; Ebisuya, Miki; Yamamoto, Takuya; Matsumoto, Kunihiro; Nishida, Eisuke

    2013-01-31

    Intermittent fasting is one of the most effective dietary restriction regimens that extend life span in C. elegans and mammals. Fasting-stimulus responses are key to the longevity response; however, the mechanisms that sense and transduce the fasting stimulus remain largely unknown. Through a comprehensive transcriptome analysis in C. elegans, we find that along with the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16, AP-1 (JUN-1/FOS-1) plays a central role in fasting-induced transcriptional changes. KGB-1, one of the C. elegans JNKs, acts as an activator of AP-1 and is activated in response to fasting. KGB-1 and AP-1 are involved in intermittent fasting-induced longevity. Fasting-induced upregulation of the components of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex via AP-1 and DAF-16 enhances protein ubiquitination and reduces protein carbonylation. Our results thus identify a fasting-responsive KGB-1/AP-1 signaling pathway, which, together with DAF-16, causes transcriptional changes that mediate longevity, partly through regulating proteostasis. PMID:23352664

  20. A Fasting-Responsive Signaling Pathway that Extends Life Span in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Uno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent fasting is one of the most effective dietary restriction regimens that extend life span in C. elegans and mammals. Fasting-stimulus responses are key to the longevity response; however, the mechanisms that sense and transduce the fasting stimulus remain largely unknown. Through a comprehensive transcriptome analysis in C. elegans, we find that along with the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16, AP-1 (JUN-1/FOS-1 plays a central role in fasting-induced transcriptional changes. KGB-1, one of the C. elegans JNKs, acts as an activator of AP-1 and is activated in response to fasting. KGB-1 and AP-1 are involved in intermittent fasting-induced longevity. Fasting-induced upregulation of the components of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex via AP-1 and DAF-16 enhances protein ubiquitination and reduces protein carbonylation. Our results thus identify a fasting-responsive KGB-1/AP-1 signaling pathway, which, together with DAF-16, causes transcriptional changes that mediate longevity, partly through regulating proteostasis.

  1. Intrinsic Response Time of Graphene Photodetectors

    OpenAIRE

    Urich, Alexander; Unterrainer, Karl; Mueller, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Graphene-based photodetectors are promising new devices for high-speed optoelectronic applications. However, despite recent efforts, it is not clear what determines the ultimate speed limit of these devices. Here, we present measurements of the intrinsic response time of metal-graphene-metal photodetectors with monolayer graphene using an optical correlation technique with ultrashort laser pulses. We obtain a response time of 2.1 ps that is mainly given by the short lifetime...

  2. A modified fast analog technique for determining luminescence decay times of scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have modified their previous fast analog technique to determine the luminescence decay times of scintillators following an excitation with a Sr90 ?-source. In the original technique, the sample was excited with a nitrogen-pumped dye laser, and the fluorescence pulses (consisting of typically 50 to 1,000 photons) were detected by a multichannel plate photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT). The output from the MCP-PMT was directed to a fast waveform digitizer triggered externally by the exciting laser. In the modified technique, the digitizer acquires the fluorescence decay in the internal trigger mode, as no corresponding external trigger pulse is available from the Sr90 source. For efficient light collection from scintillators, an ellipsoidal mirror assembly has been tested. The fluorescence decays are acquired as multi-photon pulses and are subsequently corrected for the temporal instrument response by using a deconvolution technique. The overall time resolution of the technique is about 100 ps. The fluorescence decay time obtained using this technique for a commercial scintillator (SCSN-81) agrees well with literature. The authors also discuss the results on new epoxy-polymer based scintillators prepared in their laboratory. The primary motivation for this work was development of new scintillators with shorter fluorescence decay times for high collision rate experiments

  3. Fast versus slow response in climate change: implications for the global hydrological cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, Govindasamy [Indian Institute of Science, Divecha Center for Climate Change and Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Bangalore (India); Caldeira, K. [Carnegie Institution, Department of Global Ecology, Stanford, CA (United States); Nemani, R. [NASA Ames Research Center, Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Recent studies have shown that changes in global mean precipitation are larger for solar forcing than for CO{sub 2} forcing of similar magnitude. In this paper, we use an atmospheric general circulation model to show that the differences originate from differing fast responses of the climate system. We estimate the adjusted radiative forcing and fast response using Hansen's ''fixed-SST forcing'' method. Total climate system response is calculated using mixed layer simulations using the same model. Our analysis shows that the fast response is almost 40% of the total response for few key variables like precipitation and evaporation. We further demonstrate that the hydrologic sensitivity, defined as the change in global mean precipitation per unit warming, is the same for the two forcings when the fast responses are excluded from the definition of hydrologic sensitivity, suggesting that the slow response (feedback) of the hydrological cycle is independent of the forcing mechanism. Based on our results, we recommend that the fast and slow response be compared separately in multi-model intercomparisons to discover and understand robust responses in hydrologic cycle. The significance of this study to geoengineering is discussed. (orig.)

  4. Nanorod-Based Fast-Response Pressure-Sensitive Paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencic, Timothy; VanderWal, Randall

    2007-01-01

    A proposed program of research and development would be devoted to exploitation of nanomaterials in pressuresensitive paints (PSPs), which are used on wind-tunnel models for mapping surface pressures associated with flow fields. Heretofore, some success has been achieved in measuring steady-state pressures by use of PSPs, but success in measuring temporally varying pressures has been elusive because of the inherent slowness of the optical responses of these materials. A PSP contains a dye that luminesces in a suitable wavelength range in response to photoexcitation in a shorter wavelength range. The luminescence is quenched by oxygen at a rate proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen and thus proportional to the pressure of air. As a result, the intensity of luminescence varies inversely with the pressure of air. The major problem in developing a PSP that could be easily applied to a wind-tunnel model and could be useful for measuring rapidly varying pressure is to provide very high gas diffusivity for rapid, easy transport of oxygen to and from active dye molecules. Most PSPs include polymer-base binders, which limit the penetration of oxygen to dye molecules, thereby reducing responses to pressure fluctuations. The proposed incorporation of nanomaterials (somewhat more specifically, nanorods) would result in paints having nanostructured surfaces that, relative to conventional PSP surfaces, would afford easier and more nearly complete access of oxygen molecules to dye molecules. One measure of greater access is effective surface area: For a typical PSP as proposed applied to a given solid surface, the nanometer-scale structural features would result in an exposed surface area more than 100 times that of a conventional PSP, and the mass of proposed PSP needed to cover the surface would be less than tenth of the mass of the conventional PSP. One aspect of the proposed development would be to synthesize nanorods of Si/SiO2, in both tangle-mat and regular- array forms, by use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and wet chemical processes, respectively. The rods would be coated with a PSP dye, and the resulting PSP signals would be compared with those obtained from PSP dye coats on conventional support materials. Another aspect of the proposed development would be to seek to exploit the quantum properties of nanorods of a suitable semiconductor (possibly GaN), which would be synthesized by CVD. These quantum properties of semiconductor nanorods include narrow-wavelength-band optical absorption and emission characteristics that vary with temperature. The temperature sensitivity might enable simultaneous measurement of fluctuating temperature and pressure and to provide a temperature correction for the PSP response.

  5. Response times and response accuracy for odor localization and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kéïta, L; Frasnelli, J; La Buissonnière-Ariza, V; Lepore, F

    2013-05-15

    Although significant progress has been made over the last decades, the chemical senses remain less well explored than vision or audition. One method to assess participants' ability to identify or localize odors consists in the application of dichotomous stimuli (e.g., left- and right-sided stimulation). In this study we aimed to explore localization and identification mechanisms by investigating whether response times and response accuracy were correlated, with the aim of establishing the pertinence of response times as an additional measure for assessment of the olfactory function (1). We further examined an advantage of the right nostril which has been reported in several publications (2). We delivered two mixed olfactory/trigeminal odors (benzaldehyde and eucalyptol) to one nostril at a time in a pseudorandomized order to 23 normosmic participants; the other nostril received an odor-free air puff. In half of the trials we asked the participants to detect the stimulated nostril; in the other half, they indicated which odor they had received. We recorded response accuracy and response times. Participants reached higher accuracy in odor identification than in localization, driven by benzaldehyde. For the stimulus eucalyptol exclusively, we observed that participants were faster to respond after stimulation of the right nostril than to the left nostril, in the localization task. Finally, response times were correlated with response accuracy in the identification task, but not in localization. Our findings suggest that odor identification is easier than odor localization. In addition, we find further support for an advantage of the right nostril over the left nostril. Moreover, the measurement of reaction times may supplement other techniques of the assessment of odor identification. PMID:23454368

  6. ARMA sensor response time analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Auto Regressive Moving Average time series analyis method was investigated for Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) and pressure sensor response time measurement. The theoretical background, data acquisition, and analysis results are described and compared to expected values indicated by other methods

  7. A population study of fasting time and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl K Lau

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. Traditional screening and diagnostic methods include digital rectal examinations (DREs, biopsies and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA tests, with the latter being the more popular. PSA is a biomarker for prostate cancer; however, it is highly sensitive to external factors as well as other prostate diseases. As such, the reliability of of the serum PSA level as a sole screening and diagnostic tool for prostate cancer is controversial. Recently, it has been shown that fasting extremes can affect concentrations of serum chemistry analytes, thus raising the question of whether or not fasting has an effect on the highly sensitive PSA biomarker. Patients testing for serum PSA levels are often concomitantly submitting to other tests that require fasting, subjecting certain patients to a fasting PSA level while others not. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this discrepancy in fasting state translates into an effect on serum PSA levels. Serum PSA levels and fasting time records for 157 276 men who underwent testing at Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS; Calgary, Alberta, Canada between 01 January 2010 and 31 March 2013 were accessed. Linear regression models of mean PSA levels and fasting times revealed a statistically important relationship at certain fasting times. Applying a dynamic mathematical model to explore the clinical effect of fasting suggests minimal impact on serum PSA result interpretation. Thus, patients can be tested for serum PSA levels regardless of their fasting state.

  8. Impaired fasting glucose individuals: their response to oral glucose challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) individuals in symptom free adults and their 2-h PG (two-hour plasma glucose) concentrations in standard Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) with 75-g glucose. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 859 symptom free adults was checked. Of them, 344(40%) were found to have IFG, who were subjected to standard OGTT with 75-g glucose and their 2-h PG results were recorded. Frequency distribution of FPG of 859 symptom free adults showed, 455(53%) were Normal Fasting Glucose (NFG 7.0 mmol/l). The difference in frequency of three groups of FPG was statistically significant (p<0.0001). Of 344 IFG individuals, who were subjected to standard OGTT, 182(53%) had Normal Glucose Tolerance (NGT), 127(37%) were Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) and 35(10%) were diabetics. The difference in frequency of the three groups was statistically significant (p<0.0001). A significantly large number of asymptomatic adults are suffering from IFG in our set up. When IFG individuals are subjected to 75-g OGTT, their 2-h PG results showed about one third have IGT and also a significant number of IFG individuals are found to be patients of diabetes. (author)

  9. Waveform Timing Performance of a 5 GS/s Fast Pulse Sampling Module with DRS4

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jinhong; Liu, Shubin; An, Qi

    2015-01-01

    We first clarify timing issues of non-uniform sampling intervals regarding a 5 GS/s fast pulse sampling module with DRS4. Calibration strategy is proposed, and as a result, the waveform timing performance is improved to be below 10 ps RMS. We then further evaluate waveform timing performance of the module by comparing with a 10 GS/s oscilloscope in a setup with plastic scintillators and fast PMTs. Different waveform timing algorithms are employed for analysis, and the module...

  10. Test item response time and the response likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Verbic, Srdjan

    2009-01-01

    Test takers do not give equally reliable responses. They take different responding strategies and they do not make the same effort to solve the problem and answer the question correctly. The consequences of differential test takers' behavior are numerous: the test item parameters could be biased, there might emerge differential item functioning for certain subgroups, estimation of test taker's ability might have greater error, etc. All the consequences are becoming more prominent at low-stakes tests where test takers' motivation is additionally decreased. We had analyzed a computer based test in Physics and tried to find and describe relationship between the item response time and the item response likelihood. We have found that magnitude of such relationship depends on the item difficulty parameter. We have also noticed that boys, who respond faster, in average, give responses with greater likelihood than the boys who respond slower. The same trend was not detected for girls.

  11. Excessive fasting times: still an underaddressed challenge for African pediatrics and anesthesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollach G

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gregor Pollach,1,2 Rose Kapenda,2 Beauty Anusa,2 Ethel Waluza,2 Felix Namboya1,21Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, 2Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi, Central AfricaBackground: Children are starved before surgery following international preoperative guidelines. Extreme fasting is still reported, but data for Africa are scarce. Starving in hot climates leads to challenges arising from dehydration, hypotension, metabolic disturbances, and complications during induction of anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the scope of the problem, identify possible reasons for this, and propose realistic solutions.Methods: We performed eleven prospective audits between 2008 and 2013 in Malawi to improve our preoperative fasting times. In total, 631 children (aged 3 days to 13 years were monitored. Training was provided, and the results were measured using a visual analog scale.Results: In 2008, the baseline audit showed a mean fasting time (MFT of 13.48 hours (31 patients. Training reduced the MFT to 8.77 hours (73 patients and 3.2 hours (35 patients in 2009. Without training, the MFT increased to 4.6 hours (35 patients in 2010 and to 10.2 hours (50 patients in 2011. A low level of training decreased the MFT to 8.13 hours (139 patients, in spring 2012. Educational activity brought the MFT down further to 7.86 hours (36 patients, in summer 2012. Lack of training in autumn 2012 increased MFT to 9.32 hours (151 patients, which then improved to 8.04 hours (27 patients as a result of renewed educational activity. In 2013, MFT increased to 9.8 hours (37 patients despite training. In June 2013, more education achieved a reduction in MFT to 6.52 hours (17 patients. The MFT across all audits (2008–2013 was 8.48 hours. Education reduces MFT, but only in the short term. Factors responsible for changes in MFT were identified.Conclusion: Excessive preoperative fasting is an underaddressed problem in Africa. Reduction is difficult, so it has to be accepted as an ongoing task.Keywords: child, infant, fluid, education, developing countries, Africa, fasting

  12. Fast Mapping Across Time: Memory Processes Support Children’s Retention of Learned Words

    OpenAIRE

    HaleyVlach

    2012-01-01

    Children’s remarkable ability to map linguistic labels to referents in the world is commonly called fast mapping. The current study examined children’s (N?=?216) and adults’ (N?=?54) retention of fast-mapped words over time (immediately, after a 1-week delay, and after a 1-month delay). The fast mapping literature often characterizes children’s retention of words as consistently high across timescales. However, the current study demonstrates that learners forget word mappings ...

  13. Biochemical measures in a population-based study: effect of fasting duration and time of day.

    OpenAIRE

    Emberson, Jr; Whincup, Ph; Walker, M.; Thomas, M.; Alberti, Kg

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies generally aim to make simple but unbiased measurements of individuals. For this reason measurements of metabolic variables (including blood lipids, glucose and insulin) are usually carried out after a period of fasting. Few studies have examined the extent to which the use of a defined protocol for fasting in epidemiological studies abolishes the influence of fasting duration and time of day on biochemical measurements. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of Br...

  14. Fast-response analog-to-digital processor for event selection by the difference in numbers of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of construction and the basic circuit of the analog-to-digital processor which is intended for event selection by the difference in numbers of particles passed through two hodoscope planes is described. The planes have 64 and 128 outputs, respectively. The delay time for processor signals does not exceed 55 ns. For economy and fast response increase the method of the data compression is used and combination of analog and digital micro circuits is applied

  15. Simulation of response functions of fast neutron sensors and development of thin neutron silicon sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsuda, Mikihiko; Nunomiya, Tomoya

    2014-10-01

    On radiation detection using silicon sensor, signals are produced from collected charges in a depletion layer; however, for high-energy particles, this depletion layer is extended due to funnelling phenomenon. The lengths of charge collection were experimentally obtained from proton peak energies in measured pulse-heights. The length is extended with increasing proton energy of up to 6 MeV, and then, is constant over 6 MeV. The response functions of fast neutron sensors were simulated for 5- and 15-MeV monoenergetic and (252)Cf neutron sources using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code. The simulation results agree well with the experimental ones, including the effect of funnelling phenomenon. In addition, a thin silicon sensor was developed for a new real-time personal neutron dosemeter. Photon sensitivity is vanishingly smaller than neutron one by a factor of 5×10(-4). PMID:24516186

  16. Achieving fast oxygen response in individual ?-Ga2O3 nanowires by ultraviolet illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a route to realize very quick oxygen response and demonstrate it by using individual ?-Ga2O3 nanowires. The current across the nanowire is at a low level and varies slightly with changing the oxygen pressure. In contrast, under 254 nm ultraviolet illumination, the current increases rapidly to a value that reflects the level of the oxygen pressure around the nanowire. The illumination gives rise to the oxygen sensing. This optically driven oxygen sensing is the origin of the fast response. The results demonstrate a promising approach to realize fast-response gas sensors

  17. Time Domain Response of the ARIANNA Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Barwick, S W; Besson, D Z; Hanson, J C; Klein, S R; Kleinfelder, S A; Piasecki, M; Ratzlaff, K; Reed, C; Roumi, M; Stezelberger, T; Tatar, J; Walker, J; Young, R; Zou, L

    2014-01-01

    The Antarctic Ross Ice Shelf Antenna Neutrino Array (ARIANNA) is a high-energy neutrino detector designed to record the Askaryan electric field signature of cosmogenic neutrino interactions in ice. To understand the inherent radio-frequency (RF) neutrino signature, the time-domain response of the ARIANNA RF receiver must be measured. ARIANNA uses Create CLP5130-2N log-periodic dipole arrays (LPDAs). The associated effective height operator converts incident electric fields to voltage waveforms at the LDPA terminals. The effective height versus time and incident angle was measured, along with the associated response of the ARIANNA RF amplifier. The results are verified by correlating to field measurements in air and ice, using oscilloscopes. Finally, theoretical models for the Askaryan electric field are combined with the detector response to predict the neutrino signature.

  18. Fast rise-time magnetic field coil study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preliminary design and testing of a fast magnetic field coil is presented. The present goal is a 3 cm diameter coil that will produce a magnetic field that changes by roughly 3 kG within 100 ns. The purpose of this coil is to impart a varying canonical angular momentum to a 700 keV, 100 kA, 100 ns electron beam produced by a field-emission cathode. This would tend to stabilize the resistive hose (m = 1) instability

  19. Fast Clustering for Time-series Data with Average-time-sequence-vector Generation Based on Dynamic Time Warping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Kazuki; Yamada, Yuu; Suzuki, Einoshin

    This paper proposes a fast clustering method for time-series data based on average time sequence vector. A clustering procedure based on an exhaustive search method is time-consuming although its result typically exhibits high quality. BIRCH, which reduces the number of examples by data squashing based on a data structure CF (Clustering Feature) tree, represents an effective solution for such a method when the data set consists of numerical attributes only. For time-series data, however, a straightforward application of BIRCH based on a Euclidean distance for a pair of sequences, miserably fails since such a distance typically differs from human's perception. A dissimilarity measure based on DTW (Dynamic Time Warping) is desirable, but to the best of our knowledge no methods have been proposed for time-series data in the context of data squashing. In order to circumvent this problem, we propose DTWS (Dynamic Time Warping Squashed) tree, which employs a dissimilarity measure based on DTW, and compresses time sequences to the average time sequence vector. An average time sequence vector is obtained by a novel procedure which estimates correct shrinkage of a result of DTW. Experiments using the Australian sign language data demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method in terms of correctness of clustering, while its degradation of time efficiency is negligible.

  20. Pupillary Response & Test Your Reaction Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center, College of Engineering,

    Students observe and test their reflexes, including the (involuntary) pupillary response and (voluntary) reaction times using their dominant and non-dominant hands, as a way to further explore how reflexes occur in humans. They gain insights into how our bodies react to stimuli, and how some reactions and body movements are controlled automatically, without conscious thought. Using information from the associated lesson about how robots react to situations, including the stimulus-to-response framework, students see how engineers use human reflexes as examples for controls for robots.

  1. Fabrication and Characteristics of Fast Photo Response ZnO/Porous Silicon UV Photoconductive Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan A. Thjeel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fast response time UV photoconductive detector was fabricated based on ZnO film prepared by thermal chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The ZnO nanofilms are grown on the porous silicon (PS nanosurface which has drastically reduced the response time of the ZnO UV detector from few seconds to few hundreds of microseconds. The surface functionalization of the ZnO film deposited on porous silicon (PS layer by polyamide nylon has highly improved the photoresponsivity of the detector to 0.8 A/W. The normalized de-tectivity (D* of the fabricated ZnO UV detector at wavelength of 385 nm is found to be about 2.12 × 1011 cm Hz1/2 W–1. The ZnO film grown on the porous silicon layer was oriented in the c-axis and it is found to be a p-type semiconductor, which is referred to the compensation of the excess charge carriers in the ZnO film by the nanospikes silicon layer.

  2. High temperature fast response pressure probe for use in liquid metal droplet dispensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinger, B.; Mansour, M.; Abhari, R. S.

    2012-06-01

    A miniature fast response high temperature pressure probe, with demonstrated use in liquid metals up to 255 °C (528 K), has been developed. Innovative packaging technologies have been applied to integrate a conventional piezoresistive silicon pressure sensor into the probe, without the need of an auxiliary water-cooling system. In situ static calibrations are used to verify the linearity of the pressure signal and the stability of the pressure sensitivity (0.5% standard deviation over 70 min at 255 °C). Dynamic calibration, completed in an air shock tube facility, yields the probe's natural frequency. This frequency, when corrected for probe operation in liquid tin, is found to be 100 kHz. The reliability and accuracy of the probe is assessed by mounting it in a tin droplet dispenser for use in an extreme ultraviolet light source. Droplet dispensers typically include an excitation mechanism, which can be based on the generation of acoustic pressure waves to impose a desired droplet frequency. The probe accuracy is verified by the comparison of pressure measurements with laser Doppler vibrometry measurements of the pressure generating structure. A reference pressure measurement, conducted at representative conditions, shows a complex frequency response, with peaks distributed over three orders of magnitude and maximum amplitude of 440 mbar. Time variance of the excitation mechanism due to thermal transients is studied by monitoring the pressure response during operation. Finally, the linearity of the excitation system, with respect to the excitation amplitude, is verified by response measurements. In conclusion, the developed probe is capable of characterizing the excitation mechanism of a liquid metal droplet dispenser. Additionally, real-time monitoring of the performance of the excitation system during long-term operation is possible.

  3. Development and validation of a two-dimensional fast-response flood estimation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judi, David R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcpherson, Timothy N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burian, Steven J [UNIV OF UTAK

    2009-01-01

    A finite difference formulation of the shallow water equations using an upwind differencing method was developed maintaining computational efficiency and accuracy such that it can be used as a fast-response flood estimation tool. The model was validated using both laboratory controlled experiments and an actual dam breach. Through the laboratory experiments, the model was shown to give good estimations of depth and velocity when compared to the measured data, as well as when compared to a more complex two-dimensional model. Additionally, the model was compared to high water mark data obtained from the failure of the Taum Sauk dam. The simulated inundation extent agreed well with the observed extent, with the most notable differences resulting from the inability to model sediment transport. The results of these validation studies complex two-dimensional model. Additionally, the model was compared to high water mark data obtained from the failure of the Taum Sauk dam. The simulated inundation extent agreed well with the observed extent, with the most notable differences resulting from the inability to model sediment transport. The results of these validation studies show that a relatively numerical scheme used to solve the complete shallow water equations can be used to accurately estimate flood inundation. Future work will focus on further reducing the computation time needed to provide flood inundation estimates for fast-response analyses. This will be accomplished through the efficient use of multi-core, multi-processor computers coupled with an efficient domain-tracking algorithm, as well as an understanding of the impacts of grid resolution on model results.

  4. The generalized centroid difference method for picosecond sensitive determination of lifetimes of nuclear excited states using large fast-timing arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Régis, J.-M., E-mail: regis@ikp.uni-koeln.de [Institut für Kernphysik der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, 50937 Köln (Germany); Mach, H. [Departamento de Física Atómica y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Simpson, G.S. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie Grenoble, 53, rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Jolie, J.; Pascovici, G.; Saed-Samii, N.; Warr, N. [Institut für Kernphysik der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, 50937 Köln (Germany); Bruce, A. [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Degenkolb, J. [Institut für Kernphysik der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, 50937 Köln (Germany); Fraile, L.M. [Departamento de Física Atómica y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fransen, C. [Institut für Kernphysik der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, 50937 Köln (Germany); Ghita, D.G. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); and others

    2013-10-21

    A novel method for direct electronic “fast-timing” lifetime measurements of nuclear excited states via ?–? coincidences using an array equipped with N?N equally shaped very fast high-resolution LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillator detectors is presented. Analogous to the mirror symmetric centroid difference method, the generalized centroid difference method provides two independent “start” and “stop” time spectra obtained by a superposition of the N(N?1)?–? time difference spectra of the N detector fast-timing system. The two fast-timing array time spectra correspond to a forward and reverse gating of a specific ?–? cascade. Provided that the energy response and the electronic time pick-off of the detectors are almost equal, a mean prompt response difference between start and stop events is calibrated and used as a single correction for lifetime determination. These combined fast-timing arrays mean ?–? time-walk characteristics can be determined for 40keVfast-timing array delivered an absolute time resolving power of 3 ps for 10 000 ?–? events per total fast timing array start and stop time spectrum. The new method is tested over the total dynamic range by the measurements of known picosecond lifetimes in standard ?-ray sources.

  5. Development of a new time-amplitude converter with tunnel diodes for improving fast neutron spectrometry by time of flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New time-amplitude converter with Esaki diodes, the events being preselected before analysis, allows for realizing a fast neutron spectrometer by time-of-flight with an 1.5 * 10-9 s overall time resolution for 12C (n,n') at 14 MeV. (author)

  6. Fast human brain magnetic resonance responses associated with epileptiform spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Padmavathi; Wells, William M; Mulkern, Robert V; Bubrick, Ellen J; Bromfield, Edward B; Münch, Mirjam; Orbach, Darren B

    2010-12-01

    Neuronal currents produce local electromagnetic fields that can potentially modulate the phase of the magnetic resonance signal and thus provide a contrast mechanism tightly linked to neuronal activity. Previous work has demonstrated the feasibility of direct MRI of neuronal activity in phantoms and cell culture, but in vivo efforts have yielded inconclusive, conflicting results. The likelihood of detecting and validating such signals can be increased with (i) fast gradient-echo echo-planar imaging, with acquisition rates sufficient to resolve neuronal activity, (ii) subjects with epilepsy, who frequently experience stereotypical electromagnetic discharges between seizures, expressed as brief, localized, high-amplitude spikes (interictal discharges), and (iii) concurrent electroencephalography. This work demonstrates that both MR magnitude and phase show large-amplitude changes concurrent with electroencephalography spikes. We found a temporal derivative relationship between MR phase and scalp electroencephalography, suggesting that the MR phase changes may be tightly linked to local cerebral activity. We refer to this manner of MR acquisition, designed explicitly to track the electroencephalography, as encephalographic MRI (eMRI). Potential extension of this technique into a general purpose functional neuroimaging tool requires further study of the MR signal changes accompanying lower amplitude neuronal activity than those discussed here. PMID:20806355

  7. Time-of-flight measurement of fast neutrons with Timepix detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, B.; Nelson, R. O.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Pospisil, S.; Solc, J.; Takai, H.; Vykydal, Z.

    2014-05-01

    Timepix pixel detectors have been used to study the response of silicon hybrid pixel detectors to fast neutrons from a pulsed neutron beam at WNR FP30R, a 14 m long flight path, in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. Neutrons with kinetic energies up to 600 MeV were available. In order to enhance the conversion of neutrons to energetic charged particles, several converter foils and filters were attached to the 300 ?m thick silicon sensor, i.e. polyethylene, polyethylene with aluminum, 6LiF, 6LiF with aluminum, aluminum. The Time-of-Arrival mode of the Timepix detectors has permitted the application of the Time-of-Flight (TOF) technique for the assignment of the detected interactions in the form of clusters (groups of adjacent pixels) in the pixel matrix, to the kinetic energies of the incident neutrons. It was found that, for lower neutron energies ( ~ MeV range) the cluster rates below the polyethylene and the polyethylene and aluminum region, produced by recoil protons, are a good measure for the mean kinetic energies of neutrons. For energies above 50 MeV nuclear reactions in the silicon dominate the detector response. In this energy range the shape of the clusters indicates the neutron kinetic energy.

  8. Graphene based Supercapacitors with Improved Specific Capacitance and Fast Charging Time at High Current Density

    OpenAIRE

    Kannappan, Santhakumar; Kaliyappan, Karthikeyan; Manian, Rajesh Kumar; Pandian, Amaresh Samuthira; Yang, Hao; Lee, Yun Sung; Jang, Jae-hyung; Lu, Wu

    2013-01-01

    Graphene is a promising material for energy storage, especially for high performance supercapacitors. For real time high power applications, it is critical to have high specific capacitance with fast charging time at high current density. Using a modified Hummer's method and tip sonication for graphene synthesis, here we show graphene-based supercapacitors with high stability and significantly-improved electrical double layer capacitance and energy density with fast charging...

  9. Fast GaAs photoconductor responses to subnanosecond proton pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GaAs photoconductors have been tailored to detect ultrafast proton pulses having energies ranging between 4 and 9 MeV. The sensitivity, the linearity and the speed of response of the devices are analyzed as a function of their neutron pre-irradiation treatment. The dependence of the sensitivity on the proton energy and the applied polarization is also studied. Finally, the experimental results are compared with a simple theoretical model

  10. TRANC – a novel fast-response converter to measure total reactive atmospheric nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wolff

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The input and loss of plant available nitrogen (reactive nitrogen: Nr from/to the atmosphere can be an important factor for the productivity of ecosystems and thus for its carbon and greenhouse gas exchange. We present a novel converter for reactive nitrogen (TRANC: Total Reactive Atmospheric Nitrogen Converter, which offers the opportunity to quantify the sum of all airborne reactive nitrogen compounds (?Nr in high time resolution. The basic concept of the TRANC is the full conversion of all Nr to nitrogen monoxide (NO within two reaction steps. Initially, reduced Nr compounds are being oxidised, and oxidised Nr compounds are thermally converted to lower oxidation states. Particulate Nr is being sublimated and oxidised or reduced afterwards. In a second step, remaining higher nitrogen oxides or those generated in the first step are catalytically converted to NO with carbon monoxide used as reduction gas. The converter is combined with a fast response chemiluminescence detector (CLD for NO analysis and its performance was tested for the most relevant gaseous and particulate Nr species under both laboratory and field conditions. Recovery rates during laboratory tests for NH3 and NO2 were found to be 95 and 99%, respectively, and 97% when the two gases were combined. In-field longterm stability over an 11-month period was approved by a value of 91% for NO2. Effective conversion was also found for ammonium and nitrate containing particles. The recovery rate of total ambient Nr was tested against the sum of individual measurements of NH3, HNO3, HONO, NH4+, NO3?, and NOx using a combination of different well-established devices. The results show that the TRANC-CLD system precisely captures fluctuations in ?Nr concentrations and also matches the sum of all individual Nr compounds measured by the different single techniques. The TRANC features a specific design with very short distance between the sample air inlet and the place where the thermal and catalytic conversions to NO occur. This assures a short residence time of the sample air inside the instrument, and minimises wall sorption problems of water soluble compounds. The fast response time (e-folding times of 0.30 to 0.35 s were found during concentration step changes and high accuracy in capturing the dominant Nr species enables the converter to be used in an eddy covariance setup. Although a source attribution of specific Nr compounds is not possible, the TRANC is a new reliable tool for permanent measurements of the net ?Nr flux between ecosystem and atmosphere at a relatively low maintenance and reasonable cost level allowing for diurnal, seasonal and annual investigations.

  11. Effect of short-term fasting on lipolytic responsiveness in normal and obese human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the rate of lipolysis (fatty acid and glycerol release into blood) has been quantified in both normal weight and obese volunteers after both 15 and 87 h of fasting. In each study, the basal rate and subsequent response to epinephrine infusion were determined. The rate of appearance (R/sub a/) of free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol were quantified by infusion of [1-13C]palmitate and D-5-glycerol, respectively. Substrate flux rates per unit of body fat mass and lean body mass were calculated from total body water measurements using H218O dilution. In normal volunteers, the basal R/sub a/ FFA and R/sub a/ glycerol rose markedly with 87 h of fasting, whereas the increases were more modest in the obese subjects. However, the rate of mobilization of fat, in relation to the lean body mass, was higher in the obese subjects than in the normal subjects after 15 h of fasting, and the values were similar in both groups after 87 h of fasting. There was an increased lipolytic response to epinephrine after fasting in both groups. This increased sensitivity may have resulted from the enhancement of fatty acid-triglyceride substrate cycling that occurred after fasting

  12. Formulation and optimization of fast dissolving intraoral drug delivery system for clobazam using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Rajni; Khanna, Sushil; Pawar, Pravin K

    2013-07-01

    Clobazam is a newer 1,5-benzodiazepine used for the treatment of epilepsy. It is better tolerated and less sedating than other benzodiazepines. Absorption of the drug can be impacted by oral fast dissolving dosage form; this may have implications for epilepsy in pediatrics and those having difficulty in swallowing tablets/capsules resulting in improved patient compliance. The purpose of the present investigation was to formulate and optimize clobazam oro-dissolving tablets by direct compression method using response surface methodology (RSM). Oro-dispersible tablets of clobazam were prepared by direct compression method using crospovidone (2-6%) as a superdisintegrant, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) (20-40%) was used as diluents along with directly compressible mannitol to enhance mouth feel. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: amount of crospovidone and MCC over the independent variables disintegration time, wetting time and percent drug release. Disintegration time showed by all formulations was found to be in the range of 24.3-193 s based on evaluation parameters the formulation containing 6% of crospovidone and 30% of MCC showed promising performance against all other formulations. The results demonstrated that the RSM could efficiently be applied for the formulation of clobazam oro-dispersible tablets; therefore, constitute an advance in the management of epileptic attacks. PMID:24083203

  13. Waveform Timing Performance of a 5 GS/s Fast Pulse Sampling Module with DRS4

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jinhong; An, Qi

    2015-01-01

    We first clarify timing issues of non-uniform sampling intervals regarding a 5 GS/s fast pulse sampling module with DRS4. Calibration strategy is proposed, and as a result, the waveform timing performance is improved to be below 10 ps RMS. We then further evaluate waveform timing performance of the module by comparing with a 10 GS/s oscilloscope in a setup with plastic scintillators and fast PMTs. Different waveform timing algorithms are employed for analysis, and the module shows comparable timing performance with that of the oscilloscope.

  14. Finite post synaptic potentials cause a fast neuronal response

    OpenAIRE

    MoritzHelias; MoritzDeger; StefanRotter; MarkusDiesmann; PaulPetersen

    2011-01-01

    A generic property of the communication between neurons is the exchange of pulses at discrete time points, the action potentials. However, the prevalent theory of spiking neuronal networks of integrate-and-fire model neurons relies on two assumptions: the superposition of many afferent synaptic impulses is approximated by Gaussian white noise, equivalent to a vanishing magnitude of the synaptic impulses, and the transfer of time varying signals by neurons is assessable by linearization. Going...

  15. Response of CaF2:TM (TLD-300) to monoenergetic fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thulium doped Calcium Fluoride (TLD-300) had been proposed in the literature for the application as combined neutron/photon detector at neutron therapy beams. In this paper this thermoluminescent material is investigated with respect to its response to fast neutrons and its ability to separate neutron and photon contribution by analyzing the glow curves. TLD-300 probes are irradiated to monoenergetic neutrons in the energy range 0.6 MeV and 15 MeV. The thermoluminescence reader is used in a way that glow curves and temperature curves versus readout time are stored simultaneously in a computer. The resulting light functions versus temperature are analyzed in two different ways, i.e. applying a nonlinear multiparameter fit and a simple interpolation method. The reproducibility for both methods is given, allowing for the fading after exposure as well as during the irradiation period. The characteristics of the two main glow peaks after irradiation in the monoenergetic neutron fields and also in neutron fields with varying gamma contribution are reported. The response results are discussed on the basis of Kerma in the TLD probes and the effect of charged particles created in the surrounding phantom material

  16. A Fast-Time Simulation Tool for Analysis of Airport Arrival Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Meyn, Larry A.; Neuman, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The basic objective of arrival sequencing in air traffic control automation is to match traffic demand and airport capacity while minimizing delays. The performance of an automated arrival scheduling system, such as the Traffic Management Advisor developed by NASA for the FAA, can be studied by a fast-time simulation that does not involve running expensive and time-consuming real-time simulations. The fast-time simulation models runway configurations, the characteristics of arrival traffic, deviations from predicted arrival times, as well as the arrival sequencing and scheduling algorithm. This report reviews the development of the fast-time simulation method used originally by NASA in the design of the sequencing and scheduling algorithm for the Traffic Management Advisor. The utility of this method of simulation is demonstrated by examining the effect on delays of altering arrival schedules at a hub airport.

  17. Collecting Psycholinguistic Response Time Data Using Amazon Mechanical Turk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enochson, Kelly; Culbertson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in linguistics and related fields have recently begun exploiting online crowd-sourcing tools, like Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT), to gather behavioral data. While this method has been successfully validated for various offline measures—grammaticality judgment or other forced-choice tasks—its use for mainstream psycholinguistic research remains limited. This is because psycholinguistic effects are often dependent on relatively small differences in response times, and there remains some doubt as to whether precise timing measurements can be gathered over the web. Here we show that three classic psycholinguistic effects can in fact be replicated using AMT in combination with open-source software for gathering response times client-side. Specifically, we find reliable effects of subject definiteness, filler-gap dependency processing, and agreement attraction in self-paced reading tasks using approximately the same numbers of participants and/or trials as similar laboratory studies. Our results suggest that psycholinguists can and should be taking advantage of AMT and similar online crowd-sourcing marketplaces as a fast, low-resource alternative to traditional laboratory research. PMID:25822348

  18. Fast timing with Hamamatsu R2083Q photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timing results are presented obtained with Hamamatsu R2083Q photomultipliers and BaF2 scintillators. For 60Co radiation the best time resolution was 101(1) ps FWHM per detector pair. For measuring positron lifetimes the best resolution was 140(1) ps FWHM. (orig.)

  19. Patterns of response times and response choices to science questions: the influence of relative processing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckler, Andrew F; Scaife, Thomas M

    2015-04-01

    We report on five experiments investigating response choices and response times to simple science questions that evoke student "misconceptions," and we construct a simple model to explain the patterns of response choices. Physics students were asked to compare a physical quantity represented by the slope, such as speed, on simple physics graphs. We found that response times of incorrect answers, resulting from comparing heights, were faster than response times of correct answers comparing slopes. This result alone might be explained by the fact that height was typically processed faster than slope for this kind of task, which we confirmed in a separate experiment. However, we hypothesize that the difference in response time is an indicator of the cause (rather than the result) of the response choice. To support this, we found that imposing a 3-s delay in responding increased the number of students comparing slopes (answering correctly) on the task. Additionally a significant proportion of students recognized the correct written rule (compare slope), but on the graph task they incorrectly compared heights. Finally, training either with repetitive examples or providing a general rule both improved scores, but only repetitive examples had a large effect on response times, thus providing evidence of dual paths or processes to a solution. Considering models of heuristics, information accumulation models, and models relevant to the Stroop effect, we construct a simple relative processing time model that could be viewed as a kind of fluency heuristic. The results suggest that misconception-like patterns of answers to some science questions commonly found on tests may be explained in part by automatic processes that involve the relative processing time of considered dimensions and a priority to answer quickly. PMID:25230833

  20. Dynamic Response of a fast near infra-red Mueller matrix ellipsometer

    OpenAIRE

    Aas, Lars Martin Sandvik; Ellingsen, Pa?l Gunnar; Kildemo, Morten; Lindgren, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic response of a near infrared Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal based Mueller matrix ellipsometer (NIR FLC-MME) is presented. A time dependent simulation model, using the measured time response of the individual FLCs, is used to describe the measured temporal response. Furthermore, the impulse response of the detector and the pre-amplifier is characterized and included in the simulation model. The measured time-dependent intensity response of the MME is reproduced in si...

  1. FAST Mast Structural Response to Axial Loading: Modeling and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Templeton, Justin D.; Song, Kyongchan; Rayburn, Jeffery T.

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station s solar array wing mast shadowing problem is the focus of this paper. A building-block approach to modeling and analysis is pursued for the primary structural components of the solar array wing mast structure. Starting with an ANSYS (Registered Trademark) finite element model, a verified MSC.Nastran (Trademark) model is established for a single longeron. This finite element model translation requires the conversion of several modeling and analysis features for the two structural analysis tools to produce comparable results for the single-longeron configuration. The model is then reconciled using test data. The resulting MSC.Nastran (Trademark) model is then extended to a single-bay configuration and verified using single-bay test data. Conversion of the MSC. Nastran (Trademark) single-bay model to Abaqus (Trademark) is also performed to simulate the elastic-plastic longeron buckling response of the single bay prior to folding.

  2. Library of response functions with respect to energy for nuclear reactions in fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For some nuclear reactions caused by fast neutrons, values of the response function are given in points corresponding to discrete energies which are chosen in such a way that a linear interpolation is possible between these points in a E, Log (?(E)) graph. Coefficients are defined which allow, provided neutron spectra are known, the equivalent fission flow to be calculated. Finally, the recommended response functions averaged on the fission spectrum allow the reaction rates to be calculated from equivalent fission flows

  3. Fast Accelerated Failure Time Modeling for Case-Cohort Data

    OpenAIRE

    Chiou, Steven; Kang, Sangwook; Yan, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Semiparametric accelerated failure time (AFT) models directly relate the predicted failure times to covariates and are a useful alternative to models that work on the hazard function or the survival function. For case-cohort data, much less development has been done with AFT models. In addition to the missing covariates outside of the sub-cohort in controls, challenges from AFT model inferences with full cohort are retained. The regression parameter estimator is hard to comp...

  4. Continuous data recording on fast real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PCU-Project enhancement of the vertical stabilisation at JET required a new real-time control system with specifications of 2 Gops and 50 ?s cycle time. A new framework for the real-time has been developed showing to meet the requirements running on RTAI based architecture on an *86 multi-core processor technology. The new real-time multi-platform framework developed at JET has demonstrated with the new Vertical Stabilisation system to be able to reach high performance, maintaining a high level of flexibility and offering a powerful environment for debugging and testing. Linux-RTAI, on a multi-core processor, has been the optimal platform for obtaining the requested performance. Managing the high data flow has been solved via a data streaming architecture that, without compromising the real-time tasks, has shown to have reached a high transfer rate (up to 70 Mb/s). This technology can be exported to a long pulse duration environment like ITER and with minimum effort it can also be used for implementing off-line post-processing during the operation without having to wait for the end of the experiment. This document is a poster. (A.C.)

  5. Continuous data recording on fast real-time systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, F.; Mc Cullen, P.; Piccolo, F.; Zabeo, L. [EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OXON (United Kingdom); Batista, A.J.N.; Neto, A. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Lisboa (Portugal); Vitelli, R. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Universita di Roma (Italy); Barbalace, A. [Euratom-ENEA Association, Padova (Italy); De Tommasi, G. [Associazione EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    The PCU-Project enhancement of the vertical stabilisation at JET required a new real-time control system with specifications of 2 Gops and 50 {mu}s cycle time. A new framework for the real-time has been developed showing to meet the requirements running on RTAI based architecture on an *86 multi-core processor technology. The new real-time multi-platform framework developed at JET has demonstrated with the new Vertical Stabilisation system to be able to reach high performance, maintaining a high level of flexibility and offering a powerful environment for debugging and testing. Linux-RTAI, on a multi-core processor, has been the optimal platform for obtaining the requested performance. Managing the high data flow has been solved via a data streaming architecture that, without compromising the real-time tasks, has shown to have reached a high transfer rate (up to 70 Mb/s). This technology can be exported to a long pulse duration environment like ITER and with minimum effort it can also be used for implementing off-line post-processing during the operation without having to wait for the end of the experiment. This document is a poster. (A.C.)

  6. Mainlobe Jammer Nulling via TSI Finders: A Space Fast-Time Adaptive Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madurasinghe Dan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm based on a space fast-time adaptive processor is presented for nulling the mainlobe jammer when the jammer and the target of interest share the same bearing. The computational load involved in the conventional processor, which blindly looks for the terrain-scattered interference (TSI, is required to stack a large number of consecutive range cell returns to form the space fast-time data snapshot making it almost impossible to implement in real time. This issue is resolved via the introduction of a preprocessor (a TSI finder which detects the presence of the minute levels of multipath components of the mainlobe jammer and associated time delays which directs the STAP processor to select only two desired range returns in order to form the space fast-time data snapshot. The end result is a computationally extremely fast processor. Also a new space fast-time adaptive processor based on the super-resolution approach (eigenvector-based is presented.

  7. Triple GEM gas detectors as real time fast neutron beam monitors for spallation neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtas, F.; Croci, G.; Pietropaolo, A.; Claps, G.; Frost, C. D.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Raspino, D.; Rebai, M.; Rhodes, N. J.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.

    2012-07-01

    A fast neutron beam monitor based on a triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector was developed and tested for the ISIS spallation neutron source in U.K. The test on beam was performed at the VESUVIO beam line operating at ISIS. The 2D fast neutron beam footprint was recorded in real time with a spatial resolution of a few millimeters thanks to the patterned detector readout.

  8. Y2K issues for real time computer systems for fast breeder test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presentation shows the classification of real time systems related to operation, control and monitoring of the fast breeder test reactor. Software life cycle includes software requirement specification, software design description, coding, commissioning, operation and management. A software scheme in supervisory computer of fast breeder test rector is described with the twenty years of experience in design, development, installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance of computer based supervision control system for nuclear installation with a particular emphasis on solving the Y2K problem

  9. Triple GEM gas detectors as real time fast neutron beam monitors for spallation neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast neutron beam monitor based on a triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector was developed and tested for the ISIS spallation neutron source in U.K. The test on beam was performed at the VESUVIO beam line operating at ISIS. The 2D fast neutron beam footprint was recorded in real time with a spatial resolution of a few millimeters thanks to the patterned detector readout.

  10. Mainlobe Jammer Nulling via TSI Finders: A Space Fast-Time Adaptive Processor

    OpenAIRE

    Madurasinghe Dan; Shaw Andrew P

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm based on a space fast-time adaptive processor is presented for nulling the mainlobe jammer when the jammer and the target of interest share the same bearing. The computational load involved in the conventional processor, which blindly looks for the terrain-scattered interference (TSI), is required to stack a large number of consecutive range cell returns to form the space fast-time data snapshot making it almost impossible to implement in real time. This issue is resolved via th...

  11. Continuous data recording on fast real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PCU-Project launched for the enhancement of the vertical stabilisation system at JET required the design of a new real-time control system with the challenging specifications of 2Gops and a cycle time of 50 ?s. The RTAI based architecture running on an x86 multi-core processor technology demonstrated to be the best platform for meeting the high requirements. Moreover, on this architecture thanks to the smart allocation of the interrupts it was possible to demonstrate simultaneous data streaming at 50 MBs on Ethernet while handling a real-time 100 kHz interrupt source with a maximum jitter of just 3 ?s. Because of the memory limitation imposed by 32 bit version Linux running in kernel mode, the RTAI-based new controller allows a maximum practical data storage of 800 MB per pulse. While this amount of data can be accepted for JET normal operation it posed some limitations in the debugging and commissioning of the system. In order to increase the capability of the data acquisition of the system we have designed a mechanism that allows continuous full bandwidth (56 MB/s) data streaming from the real-time task (running in kernel mode) to either a data collector (running in user mode) or an external data acquisition server. The exploited architecture involves a peer to peer mechanisms where the sender running in RTAI kernel mode broadcasts large chunks of data using UDP packets, implemented using the 'fcomm' RTAI extension , to a receiver that will store the data. Thea receiver that will store the data. The paper will present the results of the initial RTAI operating system tests, the design of the streaming architecture and the first experimental results.

  12. Continuous data recording on fast real-time systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabeo, L., E-mail: lzabeo@jet.u [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sartori, F. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Neto, A. [Associacao Euratom-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Piccolo, F. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Alves, D. [Associacao Euratom-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Vitelli, R. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Universita di Roma, Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico, 1-00133 Roma (Italy); Barbalace, A. [Euratom-ENEA Association, Consorzio RFX, 35127 Padova (Italy); De Tommasi, G. [Associazione EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    The PCU-Project launched for the enhancement of the vertical stabilisation system at JET required the design of a new real-time control system with the challenging specifications of 2Gops and a cycle time of 50 {mu}s. The RTAI based architecture running on an x86 multi-core processor technology demonstrated to be the best platform for meeting the high requirements. Moreover, on this architecture thanks to the smart allocation of the interrupts it was possible to demonstrate simultaneous data streaming at 50 MBs on Ethernet while handling a real-time 100 kHz interrupt source with a maximum jitter of just 3 {mu}s. Because of the memory limitation imposed by 32 bit version Linux running in kernel mode, the RTAI-based new controller allows a maximum practical data storage of 800 MB per pulse. While this amount of data can be accepted for JET normal operation it posed some limitations in the debugging and commissioning of the system. In order to increase the capability of the data acquisition of the system we have designed a mechanism that allows continuous full bandwidth (56 MB/s) data streaming from the real-time task (running in kernel mode) to either a data collector (running in user mode) or an external data acquisition server. The exploited architecture involves a peer to peer mechanisms where the sender running in RTAI kernel mode broadcasts large chunks of data using UDP packets, implemented using the 'fcomm' RTAI extension , to a receiver that will store the data. The paper will present the results of the initial RTAI operating system tests, the design of the streaming architecture and the first experimental results.

  13. Fast and Flexible Multivariate Time Series Subsequence Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, Kanishka; Oza, Nikunj C.; Zhu, Qiang; Srivastava, Ashok N.

    2010-01-01

    Multivariate Time-Series (MTS) are ubiquitous, and are generated in areas as disparate as sensor recordings in aerospace systems, music and video streams, medical monitoring, and financial systems. Domain experts are often interested in searching for interesting multivariate patterns from these MTS databases which often contain several gigabytes of data. Surprisingly, research on MTS search is very limited. Most of the existing work only supports queries with the same length of data, or queries on a fixed set of variables. In this paper, we propose an efficient and flexible subsequence search framework for massive MTS databases, that, for the first time, enables querying on any subset of variables with arbitrary time delays between them. We propose two algorithms to solve this problem (1) a List Based Search (LBS) algorithm which uses sorted lists for indexing, and (2) a R*-tree Based Search (RBS) which uses Minimum Bounding Rectangles (MBR) to organize the subsequences. Both algorithms guarantee that all matching patterns within the specified thresholds will be returned (no false dismissals). The very few false alarms can be removed by a post-processing step. Since our framework is also capable of Univariate Time-Series (UTS) subsequence search, we first demonstrate the efficiency of our algorithms on several UTS datasets previously used in the literature. We follow this up with experiments using two large MTS databases from the aviation domain, each containing several millions of observations. Both these tests show that our algorithms have very high prune rates (>99%) thus needing actual disk access for only less than 1% of the observations. To the best of our knowledge, MTS subsequence search has never been attempted on datasets of the size we have used in this paper.

  14. Enhanced response of the regular networks to local signals in presence of a fast impurity

    CERN Document Server

    Valizadeh, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    We consider an array of inductively coupled Josephson junctions with a fast impurity (a junction with a smaller value of critical current), and study the consequences of imposing a small amplitude periodic signal at some point in the array. We find that when external signal is imposed at the impurity, the response of the array is boosted and a small amplitude signal can be detected throughout the array. When the signal is imposed elsewhere, minor effects is seen on the dynamics of the array. The same results have been also seen in presence of a single fast spiking neuron in a chain of diffusively coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons.

  15. Time to positivity of neonatal blood cultures: fast and furious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerti, Khadija; Devos, Helena; Ieven, Margareta M; Mahieu, Ludo M

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the time to positivity (TTP) of neonatal blood cultures, to investigate differences between early onset versus late-onset sepsis, and non-proven versus proven sepsis, and to examine differences in TTP by organism type using a retrospective observational study at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Antwerp University Hospital, Belgium. The subjects were 1828 neonates with suspected sepsis who were treated with antimicrobials for at least 3 days. The TTP was recorded for all episodes of suspected sepsis in an approximately 6.5 year period. A total of 2916 blood cultures were collected, of which 437 (15%) became positive. The overall TTP was 21.33 h (Q1-Q3 13.17-32.46). The difference between the median TTP in early onset versus late-onset sepsis was 0.83 h (22.00 versus 21.17 h, P=0.75). The median TTP for Gram-negative organisms was 11.17 h (Q1-Q3 8.84-15.67), whereas the median TTP for Gram-positive organisms was 23.59 h (Q1-Q3 15.29-34.58, P<0.001). In Gram-positive isolates, the median TTP for coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) was 26.67 h (Q1-Q3 19.00-38.17), whereas the median TTP for non-CNS was 12.83 h (Q1-Q3 10.50-18.17, P<0.001). The median TTP in proven sepsis was 20.17 h (Q1-Q3 13.00-30.37), whereas it was 29.67 h (Q1-Q3 21.17-50.63, P<0.001) in non-proven sepsis. TTP of neonatal blood cultures was significantly shorter for Gram-negative organisms. We suggest shortening the total incubation time of neonatal blood cultures to a maximum of 3 days. However, blood cultures collected in infants<72 h of age might require a longer incubation time. According to our results, it may be safe to narrow the antimicrobial spectrum to solely target Gram-positive bacteria when the culture is still negative after 48 h, and to cease antimicrobial therapy when the culture is still negative after 72 h in clinically well infants. PMID:21163823

  16. GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation response of parallel plate avalanche counter for fast neutrons detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, GEANT4 based Monte Carlo codes have been employed to evaluate parallel plate avalanche counter (PPAC) response for fast neutron detection. In order to detect fast neutrons, a thin polyethylene layer is coated on the surface of the electrode of the PPAC. Neutrons entering the converter produce protons which enter the counter and are detected. Fast neutrons in the energy range of 4.0 MeV–20.0 MeV have been transported onto the PPAC surface using GEANT4 MC code. The performance of the PPAC counter has been evaluated by means of simulation by employing QGSPBERTHP and QGSPBICHP physics lists. The detection efficiencies of polyethylene-coated PPAC are 1.69 × 10?2 and 1.86 × 10?2 using converter thickness of 1 mm and 2 mm, respectively. The obtained results are discussed in detail.

  17. An assessment of prompt neutron reproduction time in a reflector dominated fast critical system: ELECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Prompt neutron reproduction time of ELECTRA is evaluated. • Static and dynamic reproduction times are distinguished for ELECTRA. • Avery-Cohn’s two-region prompt neutron theory is applied. - Abstract: In this paper, an accurate method to evaluate the prompt neutron reproduction time for a reflector dominated fast critical reactor, ELECTRA, is discussed. To adequately handle the problem, explicit time dependent Monte Carlo calculations with MCNP, applying repeated time cut-off technique, are used and compared against the ??1/v time dependent absorber method, applying artificial cross-section data in the Monte Carlo code SERPENT. The results show that when a reflector plays a major role in criticality for fast neutron reactor, the two methods predict different physical parameters (?=69±2 ns and ?=83±1 ns for time cut-off and the 1/v method respectively). The reason is explained by applying Avery-Cohn’s two-region prompt neutron model

  18. Observation of very fast response signals from Pb absorber coupled transition edge sensor gamma-ray microcalorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing a gamma-ray microcalorimeter for Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy. Our detector composed of a transition edge sensor (TES) thermometer and an epoxy coupled bulk Pb absorber has been reported an energy resolution of 4.7 keV FWHM at 662 keV with a tens of milliseconds long response time. To enhance the detector properties, we designed a new attachment method in the focus of improving the thermal coupling between the absorber and the TES. In the new design, we created epoxy-posts both on the TES film and on the absorber, and then they were connected together using an epoxy-dot put on the epoxy-post on the absorber. Measured current signal of this epoxy-post TES gamma-ray detector showed an ultra fast response with 80 ?s fall time.

  19. Advanced vapor recognition materials for selective and fast responsive surface acoustic wave sensors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Adeel; Iqbal, Naseer; Mujahid, Adnan; Schirhagl, Romana

    2013-07-17

    The necessity of selectively detecting various organic vapors is primitive not only with respect to regular environmental and industrial hazard monitoring, but also in detecting explosives to combat terrorism and for defense applications. Today, the huge arsenal of micro-sensors has revolutionized the traditional methods of analysis by, e.g. replacing expensive laboratory equipment, and has made the remote screening of atmospheric threats possible. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors - based on piezoelectric crystal resonators - are extremely sensitive to even very small perturbations in the external atmosphere, because the energy associated with the acoustic waves is confined to the crystal surface. Combined with suitably designed molecular recognition materials SAW devices could develop into highly selective and fast responsive miniaturized sensors, which are capable of continuously monitoring a specific organic gas, preferably in the sub-ppm regime. For this purpose, different types of recognition layers ranging from nanostructured metal oxides and carbons to pristine or molecularly imprinted polymers and self-assembled monolayers have been applied in the past decade. We present a critical review of the recent developments in nano- and micro-engineered synthetic recognition materials predominantly used for SAW-based organic vapor sensors. Besides highlighting their potential to realize real-time vapor sensing, their limitations and future perspectives are also discussed. PMID:23830419

  20. Ultra Fast Timing Measurements at $^{78}$Ni and $^{132}$Sn

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to measure level lifetimes in the exotic nuclei of $^{81}$Ga and $^{80}$Ga in the vicinity of $^{78}$Ni and of $^{135}$Sb and $^{134}$Sb above $^{132}$Sn by the time-delayed technique. These are relatively simple nuclear systems with a few particles and/or holes outside of the doubly-magic core thus can be treated rather precisely within the shell model. The anticipated new structure information on these nuclei, and in particular the lifetime results will put constrains on the model parameters and will serve to verify their predictions. The selected nuclei are some of the most exotic ones just above $^{78}$Ni or $^{132}$Sn, where the transition rates can be studied at present. Of the strongest interest is the nucleus of $^{81}$Ga, which has only 3 valence protons outside of $^{78}$Ni with the lowest proton orbits being $p_{3/2}$ and $f_{5/2}$. The Ml transition between these states, although allowed by the selection rules, should be $\\textit{l}$-forbidden thus very slow. This should give raise to a...

  1. Fast X-ray micro-CT for real-time 4D observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, H; Yoshida, K; Tsuji, T; Koyama, T; Tsusaka, Y; Kagoshima, Y, E-mail: htakano@sci.u-hyogo.ac.j [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Kouto, Kamigori, Ako, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)

    2009-09-01

    Fast X-ray computed tomography (CT) system with sub-second order measurement for single CT acquisition has been developed. The system, consisting of a high-speed sample rotation stage and a high-speed X-ray camera, is constructed at synchrotron radiation beamline in order to utilize fully intense X-rays. A time-resolving CT movie (i.e. 4D CT) can be available by operating the fast CT system continuously. Real-time observation of water absorbing process of super-absorbent polymer (SAP) has been successfully performed with the 4D CT operation.

  2. Fast X-ray micro-CT for real-time 4D observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast X-ray computed tomography (CT) system with sub-second order measurement for single CT acquisition has been developed. The system, consisting of a high-speed sample rotation stage and a high-speed X-ray camera, is constructed at synchrotron radiation beamline in order to utilize fully intense X-rays. A time-resolving CT movie (i.e. 4D CT) can be available by operating the fast CT system continuously. Real-time observation of water absorbing process of super-absorbent polymer (SAP) has been successfully performed with the 4D CT operation.

  3. 3-D seismic response of a base-isolated fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a 3-D response analysis methodology development and its application to a base-isolated fast breeder reactor (FBR) plant. At first, studies on application of a base-isolation system to an FBR plant were performed to identify a range of appropriate characteristics of the system. A response analysis method was developed based on mathematical models for the restoring force characteristics of several types of the systems. A series of shaking table tests using a small scale model was carried out to verify the analysis method. A good agreement was seen between the test and analysis results in terms of the horizontal and vertical responses. Parametric studies were then made to assess the effects of various factors which might be influential to the seismic response of the system. Moreover, the method was applied to evaluate three-dimensional response of the base-isolated FBR. (author)

  4. Concatenated Space-Time Block Coding with Asymmetric MPSK TCM for Fast Fading Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Ao Ju; Ma Chunbo; Liao Guisheng

    2008-01-01

    The field of concatenated space-time block coding (inner) with trellis coded modulation (outer) has recently attracted interest as a means of jointly considering the error correction coding gain and diversity gain possible without bandwidth expansion and power expansion over fading channels. In this research, a concatenated Space-Time Block Coding (STBC)with asymmetric MPSK TCM scheme, based on the design criteria for constructing concatenated space-time block coding with TCM for fast R...

  5. Very fast doped LaBr3 scintillators and time-of-flight PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kanai S.

    2006-10-31

    The present invention concerns very fast scintillator materials capable of resolving the position of an annihilation event within a portion of a human body cross-section. In one embodiment, the scintillator material comprises LaBr3 doped with cerium. Particular attention is drawn to LaBr3 doped with a quantity of Ce that is chosen for improving the timing properties, in particular the rise time and resultant timing resolution of the scintillator, and locational capabilities of the scintillator.

  6. Fast-response, high-precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser absorption technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Glen W.; Hill, Gerald F.; Wade, Larry O.; Perry, Murray G.

    1987-01-01

    A tunable diode laser instrument, denoted as DACOM (Differential Absorption CO Measurement), has been developed to meet the fast-response, high-precision CO measurement needs of the GTE (Global Tropospheric Experiment) program. Under the GTE program, DACOM participated in the three field missions of CITE 1 (Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 1), a project involving the intercomparison of trace gas measurement techniques. DACOM performance, including analyses of measurement error sources, is discussed for the ground-based mission at Wallops Island, VA (summer 1983), and two missions on the NASA CV-990 (fall 1983 and spring 1984). Examples of fast-response (about 1 s), high-precision (+ or - 1 part per billion by volume, + or - 1.5 percent of reading) airborne data are included to illustrate the capability of this instrument.

  7. Electrical characteristics and fast neutron response of semi-insulating bulk silicon carbide

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Pa; Lohstroh, A.; Sellin, Pj

    2013-01-01

    The electrical characteristics and fast neutron response of a High Temperature Chemical Vapour Deposition (HTCVD) grown semi-insulating bulk SiC wafer has been measured. Current - Voltage measurements demonstrated a low leakage current in the region of 10 to 10 A with a bulk resistivity of at least 10 - 10 ?.cm. Alpha particle spectroscopy measurements demonstrated an electron charge collection efficiency of up to 90% with reasonable reproducibility of the acquired spectra. Evidence of (inci...

  8. Response Surface Methodology to Optimize Novel Fast Disintegrating Tablets Using ? Cyclodextrin as Diluent

    OpenAIRE

    Late, Sameer G.; Banga, Ajay K.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to apply response surface approach to investigate main and interaction effects of formulation parameters in optimizing novel fast disintegrating tablet formulation using ? cyclodextrin as a diluent. The variables studied were diluent (? cyclodextrin, X1), superdisintegrant (Croscarmellose sodium, X2), and direct compression aid (Spray dried lactose, X3). Tablets were prepared by direct compression method on B2 rotary tablet press using flat plain-face punches ...

  9. Preparation and properties of fast temperature-responsive soy protein/PNIPAAm IPN hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpenetrating polymer network of fast temperature-responsive hydrogels based on soy protein and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide were successfully prepared using the sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 solutions as the reaction medium. The structure and properties of the hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis. The swelling and deswelling kinetics were also investigated in detail. The results have shown that the proposed hydrogels had high porous structure, good miscibility and thermal stability, and fast temperature responsivity. The presence of NaHCO3 had little effect on the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT of the hydrogels, and the VPTTs were at about 32°C. Compared with the traditional hydrogels, the proposed hydrogels had much faster swelling and deswelling rate. The swelling mechanism of the hydrogels was the non-Fickian diffusion. This fast temperature-responsive hydrogels may have potential applications in the field of biomedical materials.

  10. Fast neutron response of LiF T.L. dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally, the intensity of the main dosimetric peak i.e. the sensitivity of the most thermoluminescence (T.L.) dosimeters (expressed as the T.L. response/absorbed dose) decreases with increasing Let. However, it is known that the 'high temperature peak' (H.T.P.) of LiF:Mg,Ti T.L. detectors increases with increasing Let, while the 'low temperature peak' (L.T.P.) of LiF:Mg,Ti decreases. H.T.P., also called peak 7, appears between 240- 270 Celsius degrees, while L.T.P. can be found in the literature as peak 5 or 'dosimetric' peak and appears in the temperature range 180 -240 Celsius degrees. The dose response results of L.T.P. and H.T.P. of LiF:Mg,Ti in the literature are ambiguous in high Let radiation field. The reason in most cases is that the gamma component in the mixed field is not taken properly into consideration. In the every day practice work place monitoring it is necessary to measure low Let (gamma) and both low and high Let (e.g. gamma-neutron) radiation in the mixed fields. T.L.D. -100 (Harshaw) and M.T.S.-N (Poland) LiF:Mg,Ti dosimeters produced from natural LiF are easily available and widely used in the practical dosimetry tasks. The aim of this study was to compare the Let sensitivity of L.T.P. and H.T.P. for T.L.D.-100 (Harshaw) and M.T.S.-N (Poland) LiF detectors for 14.5 MeV neutrons in the dose range 50 mGy-300 mGy (expressed in tissue kerma). At the same time the effect of the holder type to the dosimeter response was also studied. 14.5 MeV fast neutrons produced by Texas Nuclear Corporation 300 keV electrostatic accelerator using 3 H(d,n)4 He nuclear reaction was used for neutron irradiation. The gamma component in the mixed field was measured by Geiger-Mueller counter calibrated in standard dosimetry laboratory. Gamma irradiation was carried out by 137Cs source. It was found, that while the gamma sensitivity of M.T.S. -N compared to T.L.D.-100 is about 2.5, the fast neutron sensitivity is much lower,equal to about 0.7. The responses of the low and high temperature T.L. peaks are linear for both kinds of LiF detectors in the dose range investigated. Adequate analytical peak separation and curve fitting programme enabled estimation of the relative neutron sensitivity of both peaks and the assessment of changes on the structure of glow curves by changes of Let of radiation. With respect to different sensitivities of H.T.P. and L.T.P. both M.T.S. -N and T.L.D.-100 are suitable for simultaneous measurement of neutron and gamma component of the dose in a mixed neutron-gamma radiation field using single dosimeter. (authors)

  11. Analyzing Response Times in Tests with Rank Correlation Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jorg-Tobias

    2013-01-01

    It is common practice to log-transform response times before analyzing them with standard factor analytical methods. However, sometimes the log-transformation is not capable of linearizing the relation between the response times and the latent traits. Therefore, a more general approach to response time analysis is proposed in the current…

  12. TRANC – a novel fast-response converter to measure total reactive atmospheric nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Marx

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The input and loss of plant available nitrogen (N from/to the atmosphere can be an important factor for the productivity of ecosystems and thus for its carbon and greenhouse gas exchange. We present a novel converter for the measurement of total reactive nitrogen (TRANC: Total Reactive Atmospheric Nitrogen Converter, which offers the opportunity to quantify the sum of all airborne reactive nitrogen (Nr compounds in high time resolution. The basic concept of the TRANC is the full conversion of total Nr to nitrogen monoxide (NO within two reaction steps. Initially, reduced N compounds are being oxidised, and oxidised N compounds are thermally converted to lower oxidation states. Particulate N is being sublimated and oxidised or reduced afterwards. In a second step, remaining higher N oxides or those originated in the first step are catalytically converted to NO with carbon monoxide used as reduction gas. The converter is combined with a fast response chemiluminescence detector (CLD for NO analysis and its performance was tested for the most relevant gaseous and particulate Nr species under both laboratory and field conditions. Recovery rates during laboratory tests for NH3 and NO2 were found to be 95 and 99%, respectively, and 97% when the two gases were combined. In-field longterm stability over an 11-month period was approved by a value of 91% for NO2. Effective conversion was also found for ammonium and nitrate containing particles. The recovery rate of total ambient Nr was tested against the sum of individual measurements of NH3, HNO3, HONO, NH4+, NO3?, and NOx using a combination of different well-established devices. The results show that the TRANC-CLD system precisely captures fluctuations in Nr concentrations and also matches the sum of all Nr compounds measured by the different single techniques. The TRANC features a specific design with very short distance between the sample air inlet and the place where the thermal and catalytic conversions to NO occur. This assures a short residence time of the sample air inside the instrument, and minimises wall sorption problems of water soluble compounds. The fast response time (half-value periods of 0.30 s were found during concentration step changes and high accuracy in capturing the dominant Nr species enables the converter to be used in an eddy covariance setup. Although a source attribution of specific Nr compounds is not possible, the TRANC is a new reliable tool for permanent measurements of the net Nr flux between ecosystem and atmosphere at a relatively low maintenance and reasonable cost level allowing for diurnal, seasonal and annual investigations.

  13. Fast MCMC sampling for Markov jump processes and continuous time Bayesian networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Vinayak

    2012-01-01

    Markov jump processes and continuous time Bayesian networks are important classes of continuous time dynamical systems. In this paper, we tackle the problem of inferring unobserved paths in these models by introducing a fast auxiliary variable Gibbs sampler. Our approach is based on the idea of uniformization, and sets up a Markov chain over paths by sampling a finite set of virtual jump times and then running a standard hidden Markov model forward filtering-backward sampling algorithm over states at the set of extant and virtual jump times. We demonstrate significant computational benefits over a state-of-the-art Gibbs sampler on a number of continuous time Bayesian networks.

  14. A novel fast gas chromatography method for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in ambient air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C9-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a 14.5 min analysis time. Moreover, in-situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an 11.7 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to 19.7 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). These analysis times potentially allow for a twofold to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in-situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC (OBVOC) linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest ~30 km west of central Tokyo, Japan, the Fast-GC limit of detection with respect to monoterpenes was 4-5 ppt, and the agreement between Fast-GC and PTR-MS derived total monoterpene mixing ratios was consistent with previous GC/PTR-MS comparisons. The measurement uncertainties associated with the Fast-GC quantification of monoterpenes are ? 12%, while larger uncertainties (up to ~25%) are associated with the OBVOC and sesquiterpene measurements.

  15. Does short-term fasting lead to stressed-out parents? A study of incubation commitment and the hormonal stress responses and recoveries in snow petrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Frédéric; Wingfield, John C; Parenteau, Charline; Pellé, Marie; Chastel, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The hormonal stress response is flexible and can be modulated by individuals according to its costs and benefits. Therefore, it is predicted that parents in poor body condition should modify their hormonal stress response, and thus, redirect energy allocation processes from parental care to self-maintenance when stressors occur. To test this prediction, most studies on free-living vertebrates have only focused on the stress response while the stress recovery - how quickly hormonal levels return to baseline values - has been neglected. Moreover, most studies have only focused on corticosterone - the primary mediator of allostasis - without paying attention to prolactin despite its major role in mediating parental behaviors. Here, we examined the effect of a short-term fasting event on the corticosterone and prolactin stress responses and recoveries, and we subsequently explored their relationships with parental decision in the snow petrel (Pagodroma nivea). By comparing the hormonal profiles of fasting and non-fasting snow petrels, we showed that parents modulate their corticosterone (but not prolactin) stress response according to their energetic status. We also described for the first time the hormonal stress recoveries in wild birds and found that they did not differ between fasting and non-fasting birds. Importantly, egg neglect was negatively correlated with circulating prolactin but not corticosterone levels in this species, demonstrating therefore a complex link between body condition, parental behavior and circulating corticosterone and prolactin levels. We suggest that both corticosterone and prolactin play a major role in the way parents adjust to stressors. This multiple signaling may allow parents to fine-tune their response to stressors, and especially, to activate specific allostasis-related mechanisms in a timely manner. PMID:25456104

  16. A fast rise time high voltage pulse generator for bounded-wave EMP simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high voltage pulse generator with fast rise time is developed. The output wave of this generator is presented. The electromagnetic environment with 1.2 ns or 2.8 ns rise time and 50 ns pulse width can be produced when this generator is connected to bounded-wave EMP simulator which is used to investigate the EMP coupling effects of electrical equipment. (authors)

  17. Development of a 'chronotron' for time of flight fast neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chronotron using storage circuits of a 100 channels amplitude analyser has been developed in order to measure the time of flight of fast neutrons. A time dilatation is obtained by a distribution of 20 6BN6 tubes. The width at half maximum of prompt coincidences curve is 1,6.10-9 s for ?-? coincidences from An198 and 2.10-9 s for n-? coincidences from (d, t) reaction. (author)

  18. A real-time dynamic holographic material using a fast photochromic molecule

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Norihito; Kato, Tetsuya; Abe, Jiro

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a real-time, dynamic holographic material that exhibits rapid colouration upon irradiation with UV light and successive fast thermal bleaching within tens of milliseconds at room temperature. Photochromic polymer films were prepared by a simple solution-casting method from the benzene solution of the mixture of the photochromic molecule, poly(ethyl acrylate), and poly(phenoxyethyl acrylate). The real-time control of holographic images using the photochromic polymer film yiel...

  19. Fast Mapping Across Time: Memory Processes Support Children's Retention of Learned Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlach, Haley A; Sandhofer, Catherine M

    2012-01-01

    Children's remarkable ability to map linguistic labels to referents in the world is commonly called fast mapping. The current study examined children's (N?=?216) and adults' (N?=?54) retention of fast-mapped words over time (immediately, after a 1-week delay, and after a 1-month delay). The fast mapping literature often characterizes children's retention of words as consistently high across timescales. However, the current study demonstrates that learners forget word mappings at a rapid rate. Moreover, these patterns of forgetting parallel forgetting functions of domain-general memory processes. Memory processes are critical to children's word learning and the role of one such process, forgetting, is discussed in detail - forgetting supports extended mapping by promoting the memory and generalization of words and categories. PMID:22375132

  20. Fast Mapping Across Time: Memory Processes Support Children’s Retention of Learned Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Children’s remarkable ability to map linguistic labels to referents in the world is commonly called fast mapping. The current study examined children’s (N?=?216) and adults’ (N?=?54) retention of fast-mapped words over time (immediately, after a 1-week delay, and after a 1-month delay). The fast mapping literature often characterizes children’s retention of words as consistently high across timescales. However, the current study demonstrates that learners forget word mappings at a rapid rate. Moreover, these patterns of forgetting parallel forgetting functions of domain-general memory processes. Memory processes are critical to children’s word learning and the role of one such process, forgetting, is discussed in detail – forgetting supports extended mapping by promoting the memory and generalization of words and categories. PMID:22375132

  1. Fast response detection of H2S by CuO-doped SnO2 films prepared by electrodeposition and oxidization at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The low temperature and fast response films for H2S gas detection. ? Preparation by an electrodeposition and oxidization method. ? Improve the response and recovery properties of gas detection. - Abstract: Fast response detection of H2S by CuO-doped SnO2 films prepared was prepared by a simple two-step process: electrodeposition from aqueous solutions of SnCl2 and CuCl2, and oxidization at 600 deg. C. The phase constitution and morphology of the CuO-doped SnO2 films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. In all cases, a polycrystalline porous film of SnO2 was the product, with the CuO deposited on the individual SnO2 particles. Two types of CuO-doped SnO2 films with different microstructures were obtained via control of oxidation time: nanosized CuO dotted island doped SnO2 and ultra-uniform, porous, and thin CuO film coated SnO2. The sensor response of the CuO doped SnO2 films to H2S gas at 50-300 ppm was investigated within the temperature range of 25-125 deg. C. Both of the CuO-doped SnO2 films show fast response and recovery properties. The response time of the ultra-uniform, porous, and thin CuO coated SnO2 to H2S gas at 50 ppm was 34 s at 100 deg. C, and its corresponding recovery time was about 1/3 of the response time.of the response time.

  2. Response of some French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L) varieties to fast neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Response of some French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties to fast neutron irradiation. Seeds of French beans varieties, i.e. Local Bandung (white seed), Local Surakarta and Monel (black seed), and Hawaiian Wonder (brown seed) were irradiated with fast neutrons. Irradiation was carried out in the USIF of the TRIGA MARK II Reactor in the Research Centre for Nuclear Techniques Bandung, with doses of 7,5, 15,0, 22,5, 30,0, 37,5 and 45,0 Gy. Irradiated seeds were planted in plastic pots and grown in the green house. The responses of the seedlings to neutron irradiation were observed by measuring the length of hypocotyl, epicotyl and primary leaf size (length and width). The result of the study showed that epicotyl is the most sensitive to fast neutron irradiation followed by primary leaf size and hypocotyl. The D50 for the four varieties measured were significantly different. It was also shown that the black seed varieties were relatively more radioresistant than the other two. (author). 3 figs, 13 refs

  3. Fast adaptive responses in the oral jaw of Lake Victoria cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijssel, Jacco C; Hoogwater, Ellen S; Kishe-Machumu, Mary A; van Reenen, Elize; Spits, Kevin V; van der Stelt, Ronald C; Wanink, Jan H; Witte, Frans

    2015-01-01

    Rapid morphological changes in response to fluctuating natural environments are a common phenomenon in species that undergo adaptive radiation. The dramatic ecological changes in Lake Victoria provide a unique opportunity to study environmental effects on cichlid morphology. This study shows how four haplochromine cichlids adapted their premaxilla to a changed diet over the past 30 years. Directly after the diet change toward larger and faster prey in the late 1980s, the premaxilla (upper jaw) changed in a way that is in agreement with a more food manipulating feeding style. During the 2000s, two zooplanktivorous species showed a reversal of morphological changes after returning to their original diet, whereas two other species showed no reversal of diet and morphology. These rapid changes indicate a potential for extremely fast adaptive responses to environmental fluctuations, which are likely inflicted by competition release and increase, and might have a bearing on the ability of haplochromines to cope with environmental changes. These responses could be due to rapid genetic change or phenotypic plasticity, for which there is ample evidence in cichlid fish structures associated with food capture and processing. These versatile adaptive responses are likely to have contributed to the fast adaptive radiation of haplochromines. PMID:25403383

  4. Monodisperse and fast-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microgels with open-celled porous structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Chuan-Lin; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Zhang, Lei; Xie, Rui; Wang, Wei; Deng, Nan-Nan; Wei, Jie; Chen, Qianming; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2014-02-11

    A simple and efficient method is developed to fabricate monodisperse and fast-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) microgels with open-celled porous structure. First, numerous fine oil droplets are fabricated by homogeneous emulsification method and are then evenly dispersed inside monodisperse PNIPAM microgels as porogens via the combination of microfluidic emulsification and UV-initiated polymerization methods. Subsequently, the embedded fine oil droplets inside the PNIPAM microgels are squeezed out upon stimuli-induced rapid volume shrinkage of the microgels; as a result, a spongelike open-celled porous structure is formed inside the PNIPAM microgels. The open-celled porous structure provides numerous interconnected free channels for the water transferring convectively inward or outward during the volume phase transition process of PNIPAM microgels; therefore, the response rates of the PNIPAM microgels with open-celled porous structure are much faster than that of the normal ones in both thermo-responsive shrinking and swelling processes. Because of the fast-responsive characteristics, the microgels with open-celled porous structure will provide ever better performances in their myriad applications, such as microsensors, microactuators, microvalves, and so on. PMID:24437526

  5. Performance and microbial response during the fast reactivation of Anammox system by hydrodynamic stress control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Huang, Zhenxing; Ruan, Wenquan; Ren, Hongyan; Miao, Hengfeng

    2014-09-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) has become a promising method for biological nitrogen removal. However, this biotechnology application is always limited due to the low growth rate and biomass yield of Anammox bacteria. This study investigated the process of fast reactivation of an Anammox consortium idled for 2 years via hydrodynamic stress control. The results showed that the Anammox system was efficiently and quickly reactivated by shortening of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the reactor from 12 to 6 hr within 68 days of operation. Moreover, at a 4-hr HRT with an influent total nitrogen loading rate of 1.2kg N/(m(3)·day), the reactor maintained high biological performance with an ammonium removal loading rate of 0.52kg N/(m(3)·day) and a nitrite removal rate of 0.59kg N/(m(3)·day). In the reactivated Anammox reaction, the stoichiometric coefficients of NH4(+)-N to NO2(-)-N and NH4(+)-N to NO3(-)-N were 1:1.04±0.08 and 1:0.31±0.03, respectively. The specific Anammox activity and hydrazine oxidoreductase activity, both of which represent the degree of Anammox bacteria present, increased as the hydrodynamic stress increased and were maximally (125.38±3.01mg N/(g VSS·day) and 339.42±6.83?mol/(min·g VSS), respectively) at 4-hr HRT. Microbial response analysis showed that the dominant microbial community was obviously shifted and the dominance of Anammox bacteria was enhanced during the hydrodynamic selection. PMID:25193835

  6. Response Time Measurements of the NIF DANTE XRD-31 X-Ray Diodes (Pre-print)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The XRD-31 is a fast, windowless X-ray vacuum photodiode developed by EG and G. It is currently the primary fast X-ray detector used to diagnose the X-rays on NIF and OMEGA on the multichannel DANTE spectrometer. The XRD-31 has a dynamic range of less than 1e-12 amps to more than 10 amps. A technique is described to measure the impulse response of the diodes to a 150 fs pulse of 200 nm laser light and a method to calculate the 'risetime' for a square pulse and compare it with the computed electron transit time from the photocathode to the anode. Measured response time for 5 XRD-31s assembled in early 2004 was 149.7 ps +-2.75 ps

  7. Fast time-reversible algorithms for molecular dynamics of rigid-body systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajima, Yasuhiro; Hiyama, Miyabi; Ogata, Shuji; Kobayashi, Ryo; Tamura, Tomoyuki

    2012-06-21

    In this paper, we present time-reversible simulation algorithms for rigid bodies in the quaternion representation. By advancing a time-reversible algorithm [Y. Kajima, M. Hiyama, S. Ogata, and T. Tamura, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 80, 114002 (2011)] that requires iterations in calculating the angular velocity at each time step, we propose two kinds of iteration-free fast time-reversible algorithms. They are easily implemented in codes. The codes are compared with that of existing algorithms through demonstrative simulation of a nanometer-sized water droplet to find their stability of the total energy and computation speeds. PMID:22779579

  8. Enhanced response of regular networks to local signals in the presence of a fast impurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Alireza

    2012-07-01

    We consider an array of inductively coupled Josephson junctions with a fast impurity (a junction with a smaller value of the critical current) and study the consequences of imposing a small amplitude periodic signal at some point in the array. We find that when the external signal is imposed at the impurity, the response of the array is boosted and a small amplitude signal can be detected throughout the array. When the signal is imposed elsewhere, minor effects are seen on the dynamics of the array. The same results have also been seen in the presence of a single fast-spiking neuron in a chain of diffusively coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons.

  9. A real-time dynamic holographic material using a fast photochromic molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Norihito; Kato, Tetsuya; Abe, Jiro

    2012-11-01

    We have developed a real-time, dynamic holographic material that exhibits rapid colouration upon irradiation with UV light and successive fast thermal bleaching within tens of milliseconds at room temperature. Photochromic polymer films were prepared by a simple solution-casting method from the benzene solution of the mixture of the photochromic molecule, poly(ethyl acrylate), and poly(phenoxyethyl acrylate). The real-time control of holographic images using the photochromic polymer film yields a speed equivalent to the time resolution of the human eye. This new type of dynamic holographic material based on fast photochromism opens up an exciting new area of research in the future development of a large dynamic 3D display.

  10. Detection and imaging of moving targets in wide band SAS using fast time backprojection combined with space time processing

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Mats; Zetterberg, Viktoria; Claesson, Ingvar

    2005-01-01

    This paper present a method to combine SAS (Synthetic Aperture Sonar) imaging of stationary targets with moving target detection and imaging. The proposed method uses a likelihood ratio for moving target detection in a wide band (WB) SAS system. For this paper, WB is defined as any systems having a large fractional bandwidth, i.e. an ultra wide frequency band combined with a wide antenna beam. The developed method combines time domain fast backprojection SAS processing...

  11. Development of fast-response temperature sensitive poly (n-isopropyl acrylamide) hydrogel by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of electron beam (EB) irradiation to synthesize thermally sensitive fast-response poly(n-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAm) hydrogel has been demonstrated by simultaneously polymerising and crosslinking aqueous NIPAm monomer solutions. The volume-change kinetic studies show that EB crosslinked hydrogels swell/deswell to attain equilibrium at much faster rate compared to conventionally crosslinked hydrogels. The fast-response has been attributed to formation of inhomogeneously crosslinked network under EB irradiation conditions. (author)

  12. Study on influence of ratio between wideness and height of EMP simulator transmission line with fast rise-time to rise-time of EMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relation of rise-time inner EMP simulator with fast rise-time and ratio between wideness and height of simulator transmission line is studied through calculation of inner field of EMP simulator with fast rise-time and monadic linear regression analysis using FEKO based on MoM. The results indicate that there is close positive correlation between rise-time of EMP simulator with fast rise-time and the ratio between wideness and height. In other words, the larger the ratio of transmission line between wideness and height becomes, the longer the rise-time becomes. (authors)

  13. Efficient allocation of heterogeneous response times in information spreading process

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Ai-Xiang; Tang, Ming; Fu, Yan; Liang, Xiaoming; Do, Younghae

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the impacts of spatiotemporal heterogeneities of human activities on spreading dynamics have attracted extensive attention. In this paper, to study heterogeneous response times on information spreading, we focus on the susceptible-infected spreading dynamics with adjustable power-law response time distribution based on uncorrelated scale-free networks. We find that the stronger the heterogeneity of response times is, the faster the information spreading is in the early and middle stages. Following a given heterogeneity, the procedure of reducing the correlation between the response times and degrees of individuals can also accelerate the spreading dynamics in the early and middle stages. However, the dynamics in the late stage is slightly more complicated, and there is an optimal value of the full prevalence time changing with the heterogeneity of response times and the response time-degree correlation, respectively. The optimal phenomena results from the efficient allocation of heterogeneous respon...

  14. Improving Item Response Theory Model Calibration by Considering Response Times in Psychological Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jorg-Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Research findings indicate that response times in personality scales are related to the trait level according to the so-called speed-distance hypothesis. Against this background, Ferrando and Lorenzo-Seva proposed a latent trait model for the responses and response times in a test. The model consists of two components, a standard item response

  15. Rapid response and wide range neutronic power measuring systems for fast pulsed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes our investigation on design principles of the rapid, stable and wide range neutronic power measuring system for fast pulsed reactors. The picoammeter, the logarithmic amplifier, the reactivity meter and the neutron current chamber are the items of investigation. In order to get a rapid response, the method of compensation for the stray capacitance of the feedback circuits and the capacitance of signal cables is applied to the picoammeter, the logarithmic amplifier and the reactivity meter with consideration for the stability margin of a whole detecting system. The response of an ionization current chamber and the method for compensating the ion component of the chamber output to get optimum responses high pass filters are investigated. Statistical fluctuations of the current chamber output are also considered in those works. The optimum thickness of the surrounding moderator of the neutron detector is also discussed from the viewpoint of the pulse shape deformation and the neutron sensitivity increase. The experimental results are reported, which were observed in the pulse operations of the one shot fast pulsed reactor ''YAYOI'' and the one shot TRIGA ''NSRR'' with the measuring systems using those principles. (auth.)

  16. Using a fast-gated camera for measurements of transverse beam distributions and damping times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a fast-gated camera, synchrotron light was used for studying the transverse beam distributions and damping times in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) damping rings. By digitizing the image in the camera signal, the turn-by-turn time evolution of the transverse beam distribution was monitored and analyzed. The projections of the digitized image were fit with Gaussian functions to determine the moments of the distribution. Practical applications include the determination of injection matching parameters and the transverse damping times. In this report we describe a synchrotron light monitor and present experimental data obtained in the SLC damping rings

  17. The Importance of Responsibility in Times of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to show the importance of the concept of responsibility as the foundation of ethics in times of crisis in particular in the fields of politics and economics in the modern civilisation marked by globalization and technological progres. I consider the concept of responsibility as the key notion in order to understand the ethical duty in a modern technological civilisation. We can indeed observe a moralization of the concept of responsibility going beyond a strict legal definition in terms of imputability. The paper begins by discussing the humanistic foundations of such a concept of responsibility. It treats the historical origins of responsibility and it relates this concept to the concept of accountability. On the basis of this historical determination of the concept I would like to present the definition of the concept of responsibility as fundamental ethical principle that has increasing importance as the foundation of the principles of governance in modern welfare states. In this context the paper discusses the extension of the concept of responsibility towards institutional or corporate responsibility where responsibility does not only concerns the responsibility of individuals but also deals with the responsibility of institutional collectivities. In this way the paper is based on the following structure : 1 The ethical foundation of the concept of responsibility 2 Responsibility in technological civilisation 3 Political responsibility for good governance in the welfare state 4 Social responsibility of business corporations in times of globalization 5 Conclusion and discussion : changed conditions of responsibility in modern times.

  18. Response of multiferroic composites inferred from a fast-Fourier-transform-based numerical scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effective response and the local fields within periodic magneto-electric multiferroic composites are investigated by means of a numerical scheme based on fast Fourier transforms. This computational framework relies on the iterative resolution of coupled series expansions for the magnetic, electric and strain fields. By using an augmented Lagrangian formulation, a simple and robust procedure which makes use of the uncoupled Green operators for the elastic, electrostatics and magnetostatics problems is proposed. Its accuracy is assessed in the cases of laminated and fibrous two-phase composites for which analytical solutions exist

  19. Comparison of aerosol and momentum mixing in dust storms using fast-response instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast-response light scattering measurements at two heights during a Texas dust storm are combined with horizontal and vertical wind data to derive and compare aerosol flux estimates using three techniques. The major result of this study is that a relative equivalence exists between the fine-particle (0.1?m< radius<1?m) exchange coefficient and the eddy viscosity of the wind. The data also shed some light on the complex dependence of wind speed threshold for suspension and aerosol flux in high winds for different surface conditions and soil types. These results show the value of the experimental technique to studies of toxic particulat suspension and deposition by wind

  20. Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Body Composition, Aerobic Performance and Lactate, Heart Rate and Perceptual Responses in Young Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvenç, Alpay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Ramadan fasting on body composition, aerobic exercise performance and blood lactate, heart rate and perceived exertion in regularly trained young soccer players. Sixteen male soccer players participated in this study. Mean age, stature, body mass and training age of the players were 17.4±1.2 years, 175.4±3.6 cm, 69.6±4.3 kg and 5.1±1.3 years, respectively. During the Ramadan period, all subjects voluntarily chose to follow the fasting guidelines and abstained from eating and drinking from sunrise to sunset. Body composition, hydration status, dietary intake and sleep duration were assessed on four occasions: before Ramadan, at the beginning of Ramadan, at the end of Ramadan and 2 weeks after the end of Ramadan. On each occasion, aerobic exercise performance and blood lactate, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion responses of players were also determined during an incremental running test. Repeated measures of ANOVA revealed that body mass, percentage of body fat, fat-free mass, hydration status, daily sleeping time and daily energy and macronutrient intake of players did not vary significantly throughout the study period (p>0.05). However, players experienced a small but significant decrease in skinfold thicknesses over the course of the study (p<0.05). Although ratings of perceived exertion at submaximal workloads increased during Ramadan (p<0.05), blood lactate and heart rate responses had decreased by the end of Ramadan (p<0.05). In line with these changes, peak running performance and running velocity at anaerobic threshold also improved by the end of Ramadan (p<0.05). Improvements in aerobic exercise performance with time were probably due to the effects of pre-season training program that was performed after the break of the fast (Iftar) during the month of Ramadan. The results of the present study suggest that if regular training regimen, body fluid balance, daily energy intake and sleep duration are maintained as before Ramadan, Ramadan fasting does not have detrimental effects on aerobic exercise performance or body composition in young soccer players. PMID:23486092

  1. Light touch modulates balance recovery following perturbation: from fast response to stance restabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Alessandra Rezende; Coelho, Daniel Boari; Magalhães, Fernando Henrique; Kohn, André Fabio; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2015-05-01

    Light fingertip touch of a static bar generates extra somatosensory information used by the postural control system to reduce body sway. While the effect of light touch has been studied in quiet stance, less attention has been given to its potential benefit for reactive postural responses. In the present study, we tested the effect of light fingertip touch of a stable surface on recovery of postural stability from a mechanical perturbation. Participants stood upright on a force plate touching a static rigid bar while being pulled backward by a load. Unpredictable release of the load induced fast anterior body sway, requiring a reactive response to recover balance. Effect of light touch on postural responses was assessed as a function of vision and malleability of the support surface, analyzing different epochs ranging from the pre-perturbation period to recovery of a relatively stable quiet stance. Results showed that light touch induced lower magnitude of muscular activation in all epochs. Center of pressure (CoP) displacement/sway was affected by interaction of light touch with manipulation of the other sensory information. For the periods associated with quiet stance, light touch led to decreased CoP sway in the malleable surface in the pre-perturbation epoch, and in the condition combining no vision and malleable surface in the balance restabilization and follow-up quiet stance epochs. For the fast reactive response epoch, light touch induced smaller amplitude of CoP displacement across conditions, and lower CoP maximum velocity in the condition combining no vision and rigid surface. These results showed that light touch modulates postural responses in all epochs associated with an unanticipated mechanical perturbation, with a more noticeable effect in conditions manipulating sensory information relevant for balance control. PMID:25644655

  2. A CFD-based wind solver for a fast response transport and dispersion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowardhan, Akshay A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pardyjak, Eric R [UNIV OF UTAH; Senocak, Inanc [BOISE STATE UNIV

    2010-01-01

    In many cities, ambient air quality is deteriorating leading to concerns about the health of city inhabitants. In urban areas with narrow streets surrounded by clusters of tall buildings, called street canyons, air pollution from traffic emissions and other sources is difficult to disperse and may accumulate resulting in high pollutant concentrations. For various situations, including the evacuation of populated areas in the event of an accidental or deliberate release of chemical, biological and radiological agents, it is important that models should be developed that produce urban flow fields quickly. For these reasons it has become important to predict the flow field in urban street canyons. Various computational techniques have been used to calculate these flow fields, but these techniques are often computationally intensive. Most fast response models currently in use are at a disadvantage in these cases as they are unable to correlate highly heterogeneous urban structures with the diagnostic parameterizations on which they are based. In this paper, a fast and reasonably accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique that solves the Navier-Stokes equations for complex urban areas has been developed called QUIC-CFD (Q-CFD). This technique represents an intermediate balance between fast (on the order of minutes for a several block problem) and reasonably accurate solutions. The paper details the solution procedure and validates this model for various simple and complex urban geometries.

  3. Time dependent solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation for fast fusion ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximate time dependent solutions for the Fokker-Planck equation for fast fusion ions from an isotropic, monoenergetic source are presented, for the problem of D - T - He3 reactions. The equations include the effect of diffusion, which is particularly noticeable in the distribution of particles of lower energy and in the formation of a tail of particles with energy higher than that of the source. (Author)

  4. A fast readout algorithm for Cluster Counting/Timing drift chambers on a FPGA board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, L. [Università di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale (Italy); Creti, P.; Grancagnolo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Pepino, A., E-mail: Aurora.Pepino@le.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Tassielli, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States); Università Marconi, Roma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    A fast readout algorithm for Cluster Counting and Timing purposes has been implemented and tested on a Virtex 6 core FPGA board. The algorithm analyses and stores data coming from a Helium based drift tube instrumented by 1 GSPS fADC and represents the outcome of balancing between cluster identification efficiency and high speed performance. The algorithm can be implemented in electronics boards serving multiple fADC channels as an online preprocessing stage for drift chamber signals.

  5. A fast readout algorithm for Cluster Counting/Timing drift chambers on a FPGA board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast readout algorithm for Cluster Counting and Timing purposes has been implemented and tested on a Virtex 6 core FPGA board. The algorithm analyses and stores data coming from a Helium based drift tube instrumented by 1 GSPS fADC and represents the outcome of balancing between cluster identification efficiency and high speed performance. The algorithm can be implemented in electronics boards serving multiple fADC channels as an online preprocessing stage for drift chamber signals

  6. Development of a fast time-to-digital converter (TDC) using a programmable gate array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast time-to-digital converter with a 5 ns step was designed and tested by utilizing a user-programmable gate array. The stabilities against temperature and supply voltage variation were measured. A module was built with this TDC, and was successfully used in the first-level trigger system of the ZEUS detector to reject proton-beam induced background events. (author)

  7. Development of a fast time-to-digital converter using a programmable gate array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast time-to-digital converter with a 5 ns step was designed and tested by utilizing a user-programmable gate array. The stabilities against temperature and supply voltage variation were measured. A module was built with this TDC, and was successfully used in the first-level trigger system of the ZEUS detector to reject proton-beam induced background events. ((orig.))

  8. Transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of chicken adipose tissue in response to insulin neutralization and fasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Bo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic broiler chickens rapidly accumulate adipose tissue due to intensive genetic selection for rapid growth and are naturally hyperglycemic and insulin resistant, making them an attractive addition to the suite of rodent models used for studies of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Furthermore, chicken adipose tissue is considered as poorly sensitive to insulin and lipolysis is under glucagon control. Excessive fat accumulation is also an economic and environmental concern for the broiler industry due to the loss of feed efficiency and excessive nitrogen wasting, as well as a negative trait for consumers who are increasingly conscious of dietary fat intake. Understanding the control of avian adipose tissue metabolism would both enhance the utility of chicken as a model organism for human obesity and insulin resistance and highlight new approaches to reduce fat deposition in commercial chickens. Results We combined transcriptomics and metabolomics to characterize the response of chicken adipose tissue to two energy manipulations, fasting and insulin deprivation in the fed state. Sixteen to 17 day-old commercial broiler chickens (ISA915 were fed ad libitum, fasted for five hours, or fed but deprived of insulin by injections of anti-insulin serum. Pair-wise contrasts of expression data identified a total of 2016 genes that were differentially expressed after correction for multiple testing, with the vast majority of differences due to fasting (1780 genes. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses indicated that a short term fast impacted expression of genes in a broad selection of pathways related to metabolism, signaling and adipogenesis. The effects of insulin neutralization largely overlapped with the response to fasting, but with more modest effects on adipose tissue metabolism. Tissue metabolomics indicated unique effects of insulin on amino acid metabolism. Conclusions Collectively, these data provide a foundation for further study into the molecular basis for adipose expansion in commercial poultry and identify potential pathways through which fat accretion may be attenuated in the future through genetic selection or management practices. They also highlight chicken as a useful model organism in which to study the dynamic relationship between food intake, metabolism, and adipose tissue biology.

  9. Elements for Response Time Statistics in ERP Transaction Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mielke, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    We present some measurements and ideas for response time statistics in ERP systems. It is shown that the response time distribution of a given transaction in a given system is generically a log-normal distribution or, in some situations, a sum of two or more log-normal distributions. We present some arguments for this form of the distribution based on heuristic rules for response times, and we show data from performance measurements in actual systems to support the log-norma...

  10. Dynamic Response of a fast near infra-red Mueller matrix ellipsometer

    CERN Document Server

    Aas, Lars Martin Sandvik; Kildemo, Morten; Lindgren, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic response of a near infrared Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal based Mueller matrix ellipsometer (NIR FLC-MME) is presented. A time dependent simulation model, using the measured time response of the individual FLCs, is used to describe the measured temporal response. Furthermore, the impulse response of the detector and the pre-amplifier is characterized and included in the simulation model. The measured time-dependent intensity response of the MME is reproduced in simulations, and it is concluded that the switching time of the FLCs is the limiting factor for the Mueller matrix measurement time of the FLC-based MME. Based on measurements and simulations our FLC based NIR-MME system is estimated to operate at the maximum speed of approximately 16 ms per Mueller matrix measurement. The FLC-MME may be operated several times faster, since the switching time of the crystals depends on the individual crystal being switched, and to what state it is switched. As a demonstration, the measured temporal response ...

  11. Time-resolved spectroscopy using a chopper wheel as a fast shutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shicong; Wendt, Amy E.; Boffard, John B.; Lin, Chun C.

    2015-01-01

    Widely available, small form-factor, fiber-coupled spectrometers typically have a minimum exposure time measured in milliseconds, and thus cannot be used directly for time-resolved measurements at the microsecond level. Spectroscopy at these faster time scales is typically done with an intensified charge coupled device (CCD) system where the image intensifier acts as a "fast" electronic shutter for the slower CCD array. In this paper, we describe simple modifications to a commercially available chopper wheel system to allow it to be used as a "fast" mechanical shutter for gating a fiber-coupled spectrometer to achieve microsecond-scale time-resolved optical measurements of a periodically pulsed light source. With the chopper wheel synchronized to the pulsing of the light source, the time resolution can be set to a small fraction of the pulse period by using a chopper wheel with narrow slots separated by wide spokes. Different methods of synchronizing the chopper wheel and pulsing of the light sources are explored. The capability of the chopper wheel system is illustrated with time-resolved measurements of pulsed plasmas.

  12. New fast-neutron time-of-flight facilities at CYRIC

    CERN Document Server

    Terakawa, A; Kumagai, K; Kikuchi, Y; Uekusa, T; Uemori, T; Fujisawa, H; Sugimoto, N; Itoh, K; Baba, M; Orihara, H; Maeda, K

    2002-01-01

    An outline of the new fast-neutron time-of-flight facilities equipped with the K=110 MeV AVF cyclotron at Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center is described. Results of the performance test for analyzing neutrons from the sup 6 Li(p,n) sup 6 Be reaction at E sub p =70 MeV show that the total system of facilities works reasonably well and present good place for extended nuclear spectroscopic studies, together with the newly installed AVF cyclotron which provides high-time resolution beams in the order of several hundred pico-seconds.

  13. New fast-neutron time-of-flight facilities at CYRIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terakawa, A.; Suzuki, H.; Kumagai, K.; Kikuchi, Y.; Uekusa, T.; Uemori, T.; Fujisawa, H.; Sugimoto, N.; Itoh, K.; Baba, M.; Orihara, H.; Maeda, K.

    2002-10-01

    An outline of the new fast-neutron time-of-flight facilities equipped with the K=110 MeV AVF cyclotron at Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center is described. Results of the performance test for analyzing neutrons from the 6Li(p,n) 6Be reaction at Ep=70 MeV show that the total system of facilities works reasonably well and present good place for extended nuclear spectroscopic studies, together with the newly installed AVF cyclotron which provides high-time resolution beams in the order of several hundred pico-seconds.

  14. Application of Time Projection Chambers with GEMs and Pixels to WIMP Searches and Fast Neutron Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, J.; Feng, H.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Jaegle, I.; Kadyk, J.; Nguyen, Y.; Rosen, M.; Ross, S.; Thorpe, T.; Vahsen, S.

    We present work on the detection of neutral particles via nuclear recoils in gas-?lled Time Projection Chambers (TPCs). We employ Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) to amplify the signal and silicon pixel electronics to detect the avalanche charge. These technologies allow ionization in the target gas to be detected with low noise, improved position and time resolution, and high efficiency. We review experimental results obtained in previous years, and report on ongoing simulation studies and construction of the ?rst prototype at the University of Hawaii. We also present prospects of using such detectors to perform direction-sensitive searches for WIMP dark matter and fast neutron from ?ssionable material.

  15. A 3 A sink/source current fast transient response low-dropout Gm driven linear regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 3 A sink/source Gm-driven CMOS low-dropout regulator (LDO), specially designed for low input voltage and low cost, is presented by utilizing the structure of a current mirror Gm (transconductance) driving technique, which provides high stability as well as a fast load transient response. The proposed LDO was fabricated by a 0.5 ?m standard CMOS process, and the die size is as small as 1.0 mm2. The proposed LDO dissipates 220 ?A of quiescent current in no-load conditions and is able to deliver up to 3 A of load current. The measured results show that the output voltage can be resumed within 2 ?s with a less than 1 mV overshoot and undershoot in the output current step from -1.8 to 1.8 A with a 0.1 ?s rising and falling time at three 10 ?F ceramic capacitors. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. A Fast Pulsed Neutron Source for Time-of-Flight Detection of Nuclear Materials and Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Bures, Brian; James, Colt; Madden, Robert; Hennig, Wolfgang; Breus, Dimitry; Asztalos, Stephen; Sabourov, Konstantin; Lane, Stephen

    2011-12-01

    AASC has built a fast pulsed neutron source based on the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF). The more current version stores only 100 J but fires at ˜10-50 Hz and emits ˜106n/pulse at a peak current of 100 kA. Both sources emit 2.45±0.1 MeV (DD) neutron pulses of ˜25-40 ns width. Such fast, quasi-monoenergetic pulses allow time-of-flight detection of characteristic emissions from nuclear materials or high explosives. A test is described in which iron targets were placed at different distances from the point neutron source. Detectors such as Stilbene and LaBr3 were used to capture inelastically induced, 847 keV gammas from the iron target. Shielding of the source and detectors eliminated most (but not all) of the source neutrons from the detectors. Gated detection, pulse shape analysis and time-of-flight discrimination enable separation of gamma and neutron signatures and localization of the target. A Monte Carlo simulation allows evaluation of the potential of such a fast pulsed source for a field-portable detection system. The high rep-rate source occupies two 200 liter drums and uses a cooled DPF Head that is <500 cm3 in volume.

  17. Time dependence of fast electron beam divergence in ultraintense laser-plasma interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akli, K U; Storm, M J; McMahon, M; Jiang, S; Ovchinnikov, V; Schumacher, D W; Freeman, R R; Dyer, G; Ditmire, T

    2012-08-01

    We report on the measurement and computer simulation of the divergence of fast electrons generated in an ultraintense laser-plasma interaction (LPI) and the subsequent propagation in a nonrefluxing target. We show that, at I?(2) of 10(20) Wcm(-2)?m(2), the time-integrated electron beam full divergence angle is (60±5)°. However, our time-resolved 2D particle-in-cell simulations show the initial beam divergence to be much smaller (?30°). Our simulations show the divergence to monotonically increase with time, reaching a final value of (68±7)° after the passage of the laser pulse, consistent with the experimental time-integrated measurements. By revealing the time-dependent nature of the LPI, we find that a substantial fraction of the laser energy (~7%) is transported up to 100 ?m with a divergence of 32°. PMID:23005866

  18. Time dependence of fast electron beam divergence in ultraintense laser-plasma interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akli, K. U.; Storm, M. J.; McMahon, M.; Jiang, S.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Schumacher, D. W.; Freeman, R. R.; Dyer, G.; Ditmire, T.

    2012-08-01

    We report on the measurement and computer simulation of the divergence of fast electrons generated in an ultraintense laser-plasma interaction (LPI) and the subsequent propagation in a nonrefluxing target. We show that, at I?2 of 1020 Wcm-2?m2, the time-integrated electron beam full divergence angle is (60±5)?. However, our time-resolved 2D particle-in-cell simulations show the initial beam divergence to be much smaller (?30?). Our simulations show the divergence to monotonically increase with time, reaching a final value of (68±7)? after the passage of the laser pulse, consistent with the experimental time-integrated measurements. By revealing the time-dependent nature of the LPI, we find that a substantial fraction of the laser energy (˜7%) is transported up to 100?m with a divergence of 32?.

  19. Time-structure of thermal neutron leakage from fast and slow moderators for spallation neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dwell-times of neutrons slowed down either in small polyethylene moderators or a large D2O volume have been measured. The fast neutrons have been produced by bombarding lead, lead-bismuth, depleted uranium and tungsten targets of slab or cylindrical shape with short pulses of 490 MeV protons. Lead and beryllium reflectors have been employed for the rectangular shaped grooved polyethylene moderators. The geometry-adapted (jagged) polyethylene moderators used with the cylindrical target have been measured only in D2O-reflected configuration. The essential result of the numerical analysis of about 40 target-moderator-reflector configurations tested is that for the fast (light hydrogen) moderators the most intense flux component decays in 100 ?s or less

  20. Fast and Practical Head Tracking in Brain Imaging with Time-of-Flight Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilm, Jakob; Olesen, Oline Vinter

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential use of Time-of-Flight cameras (TOF) for motion correction in medical brain scans. TOF cameras have previously been used for tracking purposes, but recent progress in TOF technology has made it relevant for high speed optical tracking in high resolution medical scanners. Particularly in MRI and PET, the newest generation of TOF cameras could become a method of tracking small and large scale patient movement in a fast and user friendly way required in clinical environments. We present a novel methodology for fast tracking from TOF point clouds without the need of expensive triangulation and surface reconstruction. Tracking experiments with a motion controlled head phantom were performed with a translational tracking error below 2mm and a rotational tracking error below 0.5°.

  1. Sputter ion pump based real time steam generator leak detection system for Fast Breeder Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy produced in Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is transferred to feed water for generating superheated steam in once-through shell and tube type countercurrent steam generator (SG). Sodium and water/steam flow in shell and tube side respectively are separated by thin-walls of ferritic steel tubes. Material defects in these tubes can lead to leakage of water/steam into sodium, resulting in sodium water reactions leading to undesirable consequences. Detection of a leak at its inception, therefore, is important for the safe and reliable operation of the reactor. Monitoring hydrogen in sodium, produced during reaction of sodium with the leaked water or steam is a convenient way to accomplish this. This paper report the development of instrumentation using sputter ion pump and nickel diffuser for real time hydrogen detection in sodium for FBTR at Kalpakkam, which is the fore runner of Fast Reactor Technology in India. (author)

  2. SeptiFast real-time PCR for detection of bloodborne pathogens in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markota, Andrej; Seme, Katja; Golle, Andrej; Poljak, Mario; Sinkovi?, Andreja

    2014-09-01

    Several studies have been performed investigating the role of a real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay LightCycler SeptiFast with inconsistent results. In prospective evaluation of adult patients with severe sepsis or septic shock SeptiFast assay and blood culture results were compared regarding concordance, the impact of SeptiFast assay on antimicrobial therapy adjustment, time to results and the role of SeptiFast assay as a marker of disease severity. 63 blood sample sets were collected from 57 patients. 51 (80.9%) results were concordant negative and 7 (11.1%) concordant posi- tive. In one (1.6%) sample set blood culture was positive and SeptiFast assay negative, in three (4.8%) sample sets with negative blood cultures pathogens were detected by SeptiFast assay and in one (1.6%)patient an additional pathogen was detected by SeptiFast assay. If blood culture is considered as "gold standard", 1 (1.6%) SeptiFast false negative and 4 (6.3%) false positive results were identified (sensitivity 87.5%, specificity 92.6%, negative predictive value 97.8%). Antibiotic treatment was adjusted according to SeptiFast assay in 4 (6.3%) cases. Time to final results was significantly shorter with SeptiFast assay (32 +/- 23 h vs. 97 +/- 28 h, p < 0.0001). Positive SeptiFast assay was not associated with higher mortality, C-reactive protein orprocalcitonin (p = 0.74, p = 0.44 and p = 0.12, respectively). According to our results SeptiFast assay can be used as a valuable add-on to blood culture in diagnostic workup ofpatients with severe sepsis and septic shock but it cannot replace the blood culture. PMID:25420362

  3. INFLUENCE OF RAMADAN FASTING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND RECOVERY FOLLOWING SHORT TIME HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umid Karli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and the removal rate of lactate after short time high intensity exercise in power athletes. Ten male elite power athletes (2 wrestlers, 7 sprinters and 1 thrower, aged 20-24 yr, mean age 22.30 ± 1.25 yr participated in this study. The subjects were tested three times [3 days before the beginning of Ramadan (Pre-RF, the last 3 days of Ramadan (End-RF and the last 3 days of the 4th week after the end of Ramadan (After-RF]. Anaerobic power and capacity were measured by using the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT at Pre-RF, End-RF and After- RF. Capillary blood samples for lactate analyses and heart rate recordings were taken at rest, immediately after WAnT and throughout the recovery period. Repeated measures of ANOVA indicated that there were no significant changes in body weight, body mass index, fat free mass, percentage of body fat, daily sleeping time and daily caloric intake associated with Ramadan fasting. No significant changes were found in total body water either, but urinary density measured at End-RF was significantly higher than After-RF. Similarity among peak HR and peak LA values at Pre-RF, End- RF and After-RF demonstrated that cardiovascular and metabolic stress caused by WAnT was not affected by Ramadan fasting. In addition, no influence of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and removal rate of LA from blood following high intensity exercise was observed. The results of this study revealed that if strength-power training is performed regularly and daily food intake, body fluid balance and daily sleeping time are maintained as before Ramadan, Ramadan fasting will not have adverse effects on body composition, anaerobic power and capacity, and LA metabolism during and after high intensity exercise in power athletes

  4. Constraints of relic gravitational waves by Pulsar Timing Array: Forecasts for the FAST and SKA projects

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Wen; You, Xiao-Peng; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of the pulsar timing residuals provides a direct way to detect relic gravitational waves at the frequency $f\\sim 1/{\\rm yr}$. In this paper, we investigate the constraints on the inflationary parameters, the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ and the tensor spectral index $n_t$, by the current and future Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTAs). We find that Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) in China and the planned Square Kilometer Array (SKA) projects have the fairly strong abilities to test the phantom-like inflationary models. If $r=0.1$, FAST could give the constraint on the spectral index $n_t<0.38$, and SKA gives $n_t<0.30$. While an observation with the total time T=20yr, the pulsar noise level $\\sigma_w=30$ns and the monitored pulsar number $n=200$, could even constrain $n_t<0.05$. These are much tighter than those inferred from the current results of Parkers Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) and European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA). Especially, by studying the effects of various o...

  5. Modeling individual differences in response time and accuracy in numeracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thompson, Clarissa A; McKoon, Gail

    2015-04-01

    In the study of numeracy, some hypotheses have been based on response time (RT) as a dependent variable and some on accuracy, and considerable controversy has arisen about the presence or absence of correlations between RT and accuracy, between RT or accuracy and individual differences like IQ and math ability, and between various numeracy tasks. In this article, we show that an integration of the two dependent variables is required, which we accomplish with a theory-based model of decision making. We report data from four tasks: numerosity discrimination, number discrimination, memory for two-digit numbers, and memory for three-digit numbers. Accuracy correlated across tasks, as did RTs. However, the negative correlations that might be expected between RT and accuracy were not obtained; if a subject was accurate, it did not mean that they were fast (and vice versa). When the diffusion decision-making model was applied to the data (Ratcliff, 1978), we found significant correlations across the tasks between the quality of the numeracy information (drift rate) driving the decision process and between the speed/accuracy criterion settings, suggesting that similar numeracy skills and similar speed-accuracy settings are involved in the four tasks. In the model, accuracy is related to drift rate and RT is related to speed-accuracy criteria, but drift rate and criteria are not related to each other across subjects. This provides a theoretical basis for understanding why negative correlations were not obtained between accuracy and RT. We also manipulated criteria by instructing subjects to maximize either speed or accuracy, but still found correlations between the criteria settings between and within tasks, suggesting that the settings may represent an individual trait that can be modulated but not equated across subjects. Our results demonstrate that a decision-making model may provide a way to reconcile inconsistent and sometimes contradictory results in numeracy research. PMID:25637690

  6. Hierarchical Diffusion Models for Two-Choice Response Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekerckhove, Joachim; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Lee, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Two-choice response times are a common type of data, and much research has been devoted to the development of process models for such data. However, the practical application of these models is notoriously complicated, and flexible methods are largely nonexistent. We combine a popular model for choice response times--the Wiener diffusion…

  7. Cell fasting: Cellular response and application of serum starvation (ahead of publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Aghababazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans suffer transient or persistent starvation due to a lack of food intake, either because of fasting, voluntary dieting, or due to the scarcity of available food. At the cellular level it is possible to possess pathological starvation during ischemia and solid tumors. Blood provides many nutrients to our cells, and researchers provide these nutrients to cells in culture in the form of enriched culture medium plus serum from animal sources. In response to starvation, animals use hormonal cues to mobilize stored resources to provide nutrients to individual cells. Besides whole-body responses to nutrient deprivation, individual cells sense and react to lack of nutrients. At the cellular level, starvation triggers different responses such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Stop cycling for proliferating cells is the primary response to nutrient deprivation. Under certain conditions, the cell reacts to nutrient deprivation by engaging the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Thus, serum starvation is regarded as a procedure to prepare cells for an experiment in serum-free conditions such as induction cell cycle synchronization. Several researchers have used serum starvation as a tool to study molecular mechanisms involved in different cellular process, metabolic researches and evaluation of a drug effect.

  8. Metabolic response to a glucagon challenge varies with adiposity and life-history stage in fasting northern elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Daniel E; Fowler, Melinda A; Champagne, Cory D; Vanderlugt, Anna L; Houser, Dorian S

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic adaptations for extended fasting in wildlife prioritize beta-oxidation of lipids and reduced glucose utilization to support energy metabolism. The pancreatic hormone glucagon plays key roles in regulating glycemia and lipid metabolism during fasting in model species but its function in wildlife species adapted for extended fasting is not well understood. Northern elephant seals (NES) undergo natural fasts of 1-3months while under constraints of high nutrient demands including lactation and development. We performed a glucagon challenge on lactating, molting and developing NES, early and late in their natural fasts, to examine the impact of this important regulatory hormone on metabolism. Glucagon caused increases in plasma glucose, insulin, fatty acids, ketones and urea, but the magnitude of these effects varied widely with adiposity and life-history stage. The strong impact of adiposity on glucose and insulin responses suggest a potential role for adipose derived factors in regulating hepatic metabolism and pancreatic sensitivity. Elevations in plasma glucose in response to glucagon were strongly associated with increases in protein catabolism, suggesting negative impacts of elevated glucagon on protein sparing. Glucagon promoted rapid ketone accumulation suggesting that low ketoacid levels in NES reflect low rates of production. These results demonstrate strong metabolic impacts of glucagon and support the idea that glucagon levels are downregulated in the context of metabolic adaptation to extended fasting. These results suggest that the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in NES changes with adiposity, fasting duration and under various constraints of nutrient demands. PMID:24239794

  9. Effects seen in fast-timing with a surface barrier time-of-flight telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been found that the timing resolution between two surface barrier detectors is degraded when they are separated to make a time-of-flight telescope. The degradation consists of a broadening of the peak with an asymmetric tail developing on the 'early' time side of the peak. Measurement has shown that these effects vary progressively with the radial distance from the centre of the back detector. Ions which arrive closer to the edge of the detector produce a time peak which is shifted to earlier time than those which arrive in the centre. A further measurement has shown that only small changes in the pulse shape occur for these different events. The suggestion is made that the observed effect is predominantly due to different delays in the pulses which have to propagate different distances across the detector. The propagation velocity in this case was measured to be 20% that of light. An approximate treatment for the detector in terms of a simple delay line is capable of giving a reasonable description of the observed effects. (Auth.)

  10. Slow and fast dynamics in coupled systems A time series analysis view

    CERN Document Server

    Boffetta, G; Paparella, F; Provenzale, A; Vulpiani, A

    1997-01-01

    We study the dynamics of systems with different time scales, when access only to the slow variables is allowed. We use the concept of Finite Size Lyapunov Exponent (FSLE) and consider both the case when the equations of motion for the slow components are known, and the situation when a scalar time series of one of the slow variables has been measured. A discussion on the effects of parameterizing the fast dynamics is given. We show that, although the computation of the largest Lyapunov exponent can be practically infeasible in complex dynamical systems, the computation of the FSLE allows to extract information on the characteristic time and on the predictability of the large-scale, slow-time dynamics even with moderate statistics and unresolved small scales.

  11. Event synchronization a simple and fast method to measure synchronicity and time delay patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Quiroga, R Q; Grassberger, Peter

    2002-01-01

    We propose a simple method to measure synchronization and time delay patterns between signals. It is based on the relative timings of events in the time series, defined e.g. as local maxima. The degree of synchronization is obtained from the number of quasi-simultaneous appearances of events, and the delay is calculated from the precedence of events in one signal with respect to the other. Moreover, we can easily visualize the time evolution of the delay and synchronization level with an excellent resolution. We apply the algorithm to short rat EEG signals, some of them containing spikes. We also apply it to an intracranial human EEG recording containing an epileptic seizure, and we propose that the method might be useful for the detection of foci and for seizure prediction. It can be easily extended to other types of data and it is very simple and fast, thus being suitable for on-line implementations.

  12. Superposition frames for adaptive time-frequency analysis and fast reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Rudoy, Daniel; Wolfe, Patrick J

    2009-01-01

    In this article we introduce a broad family of adaptive, linear time-frequency representations termed superposition frames, and show that they admit desirable fast overlap-add reconstruction properties akin to standard short-time Fourier techniques. This approach stands in contrast to many adaptive time-frequency representations in the extant literature, which, while more flexible than standard fixed-resolution approaches, typically fail to provide efficient reconstruction and often lack the regular structure necessary for precise frame-theoretic analysis. Our main technical contributions come through the development of properties which ensure that this construction provides for a numerically stable, invertible signal representation. Our primary algorithmic contributions come via the introduction and discussion of specific signal adaptation criteria in deterministic and stochastic settings, based respectively on time-frequency concentration and nonstationarity detection. We conclude with a short speech enhanc...

  13. Effects of time stress on psychophysiological responses during data entry tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, H; Okabe, K; Katsuura, T; Kikuchi, Y

    1995-11-01

    Six male and six female students (19-23 yrs) volunteered as subjects in the present experiment. Subjects performed the data entry tasks. A hundred and twenty single digit numbers 12 by 10 lines matrix were displayed in a random sequence on the left side of monitor. Subjects input the same numeral as these numbers one by one with clicking of the mouse on the ten keys displayed on the right side of the monitor. Each task consists of the following conditions: 1) system response time is fast or slow; 2) delete the input numerals from 120 numbers or not; 3) button flashes after input or not; and 4) the remaining time is displayed or not during performing the tasks. These tasks are programmed to be finished automatically after 200 seconds independent of the rate of completing all inputs. We measured heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), skin blood flow (SBF), skin potential level (SPL), number of errors (Es), total number of input and subjective ratings concerning the degree of irritation (SR1), difficulty of input (SR2) and unpleasantness in operation (SR3). It was shown that when system response time was slow, even the average of heart rate and blood pressure were lower than fast system response time, however, the subjects felt greater emotional irritation, difficulty of input and unpleasantness in operation hence making more errors. PMID:8591098

  14. Development of a LaBr3(Ce Fast-timing Array for FAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts O.J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A ?-ray spectrometer with fast-timing capabilities, constructed of LaBr3(Ce:5% detectors, is under development for use at the future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR. The physics aims of this device are to measure the half-lives of excited states in the region of ~50 ps to several ns, in exotic nuclei. Monte-Carlo simulations using the GEANT4 software package have determined the final design of this fast-timing array by calculating the full-energy peak efficiencies of several different detector geometries. The results of the simulated efficiencies for each configuration were used to calculate the timing precision. Consequently, an array of thirty six, ø3.8×5.1 cm cylindrical crystals was found to be the optimum configuration. The detectors were purchased and subsequently characterised, with each detector found to have intrinsic energy and timing resolutions of ~ 2.8 % (FWHM and ~ 210 ps (FWHM for the 1173 and 1332 keV decays from 60Co.

  15. Proposal for fast-response radial Schottky junction photodetectors based on silicon nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawijaya, Akhmadi; Kawano, Yukio; Oda, Shunri

    2015-03-01

    We propose a silicon-nanowire-based photodetector with a radial metal junction that is predicted to exhibit a significantly reduced response time. The width of the radial depletion layer across the nanowire can be controlled by adjusting the doping concentration of the silicon nanowire. We calculated depletion region widths for silicon nanowires of various diameters and doping concentrations, and then calculated the photogenerated carrier transit time, the RC time constant, and the diffusion time in the nanowire structure. We found that by using the radial junction configuration we could significantly improve the response time to 81 ps. We also found that the diffusion time for the photogenerated carriers depends strongly on the nanowire length and doping concentration.

  16. Responses of different ion species to fast plasma flows and local dipolarization in the plasma sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, S.; Nosé, M.; Miyashita, Y.; Lui, A. T. Y.

    2015-01-01

    investigate the responses of different ion species (H+, He+, He++, and O+) to fast plasma flows and local dipolarization in the plasma sheet in terms of energy density. We use energetic (9-210 keV) ion composition measurements made by the Geotail satellite at r = 10~31 RE. The results are summarized as follows: (1) whereas the O+-to-H+ ratio decreases with earthward flow velocity, it increases with tailward flow velocity with steeper Vx dependence for perpendicular flows than for parallel flows; (2) for fast earthward flows, the energy density of each ion species increases without any clear preference for heavy ions; (3) for fast tailward flows, the ion energy density initially increases, then it decreases to below the preceding levels except for O+; (4) the O+-to-H+ ratio does not increase through local dipolarization irrespective of dipolarization amplitude, background Bz, X distance, and Vx; (5) in general, the H+ and He++ ions behave similarly. Result (1) can be attributed to radial transport in the presence of the earthward gradient of the background O+-to-H+ ratio. Results (2) and (4) suggest that ion energization at local dipolarization is not mass dependent in the energy range of our interest because the ions are not magnetized irrespective of species. Result (3) can be attributed to the thinning of the plasma sheet and the preferable field-aligned escape of the H+ ions on the tailward side of the reconnection site. Result (5) suggests that the solar wind is the primary source of the high-energy H+ ions.

  17. Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bock, K; Derave, W

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal muscle gene response to exercise depends on nutritional status during and after exercise, but it is unknown whether muscle adaptations to endurance training are affected by nutritional status during training sessions. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of an endurance training program (6 wk, 3 day/wk, 1-2 h, 75% of peak Vo(2)) in moderately active males. They trained in the fasted (F; n = 10) or carbohydrate-fed state (CHO; n = 10) while receiving a standardized diet [65 percent of total energy intake (En) from carbohydrates, 20%En fat, 15%En protein]. Before and after the training period, substrate use during a 2-h exercise bout was determined. During these experimental sessions, all subjects were in a fed condition and received extra carbohydrates (1 g.kg body wt(-1) .h(-1)). Peak Vo(2) (+7%), succinate dehydrogenase activity, GLUT4, and hexokinase II content were similarly increased between F and CHO. Fatty acid binding protein (FABPm) content increased significantly in F (P = 0.007). Intramyocellular triglyceride content (IMCL) remained unchanged in both groups. After training, pre-exercise glycogen content was higher in CHO (545 +/- 19 mmol/kg dry wt; P = 0.02), but not in F (434 +/- 32 mmol/kg dry wt; P = 0.23). For a given initial glycogen content, F blunted exercise-induced glycogen breakdown when compared with CHO (P = 0.04). Neither IMCL breakdown (P = 0.23) nor fat oxidation rates during exercise were altered by training. Thus short-term training elicits similar adaptations in peak Vo(2) whether carried out in the fasted or carbohydrate-fed state. Although there was a decrease in exercise-induced glycogen breakdown and an increase in proteins involved in fat handling after fasting training, fat oxidation during exercise with carbohydrate intake was not changed.

  18. Fast Time-Varying Volume Rendering Using Time-Space Partition (TSP) Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Han-Wei; Chiang, Ling-Jen; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    1999-01-01

    We present a new, algorithm for rapid rendering of time-varying volumes. A new hierarchical data structure that is capable of capturing both the temporal and the spatial coherence is proposed. Conventional hierarchical data structures such as octrees are effective in characterizing the homogeneity of the field values existing in the spatial domain. However, when treating time merely as another dimension for a time-varying field, difficulties frequently arise due to the discrepancy between the field's spatial and temporal resolutions. In addition, treating spatial and temporal dimensions equally often prevents the possibility of detecting the coherence that is unique in the temporal domain. Using the proposed data structure, our algorithm can meet the following goals. First, both spatial and temporal coherence are identified and exploited for accelerating the rendering process. Second, our algorithm allows the user to supply the desired error tolerances at run time for the purpose of image-quality/rendering-speed trade-off. Third, the amount of data that are required to be loaded into main memory is reduced, and thus the I/O overhead is minimized. This low I/O overhead makes our algorithm suitable for out-of-core applications.

  19. Model for Predicting End User Web Page Response Time

    CERN Document Server

    Nagarajan, Sathya Narayanan

    2012-01-01

    Perceived responsiveness of a web page is one of the most important and least understood metrics of web page design, and is critical for attracting and maintaining a large audience. Web pages can be designed to meet performance SLAs early in the product lifecycle if there is a way to predict the apparent responsiveness of a particular page layout. Response time of a web page is largely influenced by page layout and various network characteristics. Since the network characteristics vary widely from country to country, accurately modeling and predicting the perceived responsiveness of a web page from the end user's perspective has traditionally proven very difficult. We propose a model for predicting end user web page response time based on web page, network, browser download and browser rendering characteristics. We start by understanding the key parameters that affect perceived response time. We then model each of these parameters individually using experimental tests and statistical techniques. Finally, we d...

  20. Modeling of the Response Time of Thermal Flow Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Lang; Hannes Sturm; Safir Issa

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple theoretical model for the response time of thermal flow sensors. Response time is defined here as the time needed by the sensor output signal to reach 63.2% of amplitude due to a change of fluid flow. This model uses the finite-difference method to solve the heat transfer equations, taking into consideration the transient conduction and convection between the sensor membrane and the surrounding fluid. Program results agree with experimental measurements and expl...

  1. Potentiation of Hormonal Responses to Hemorrhage and Fasting, but not Hypoglycemia in Conscious Adrenalectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Daniel N.; Keil, Lanny C.; Dallman, Mary F.

    1989-01-01

    Bilateral adrenalectomy (ADRX) in rats removes the source of two major stress-responsive hormones, corticosterone and epinephrine. To test how ADRX rats with-stand stress, we performed the following experiments in adult male rats provided with indwelling femoral arterial and venous cannulae and either ADRX or sham-adrenalectomized (Sham) 3 days later and given 0.5% NaCl to drink. Five to 6 days after adrenal surgery the rats were studied after either a 15 ml/kg.5 min hemorrhage or after an overnight fast followed by insulin-induced hypoglycemia. In fed unstressed ADRX rats, basal mean arterial blood pressure was slightly decreased; heart rate was increased; blood volume, vasopressin, and oxytocin concentrations were not different from sham values; and renin and norepinephrine were significantly elevated. The recovery of arterial pressure after hemorrhage in the ADRX rats was similar to that in the sham group over a 5-h period; however, the responses of vasopressin and oxytocin were significantly greater, and those of renin and norepinephrine were markedly potentiated in the ADRX group. Heart rate recovered faster in the ADRX group and was elevated, compared to the sham value, for most of the 5-h period. Restitution of blood volume was attenuated in the ADRX group, although the restitution of plasma protein was not different between the groups. A significant difference in the change in plasma osmolality between groups after hemorrhage may account for the attenuated restitution of blood volume. After an overnight fast, which reduced blood volume in both groups of rats, the plasma renin concentration rose still further in ADRX rats; the differences in other measured variables observed between fed ADRX and sham groups remained the same. The insulin-induced 50% decrease in glucose caused minor effects on arterial blood pressure and heart rate and occasioned responses in renin and norepinephrine of similar magnitudes in the two groups. We conclude that in the absence of the adrenals, rats restore arterial pressure after hemorrhage remarkably well through potentiation of the responses of other vasoactive neural and hormonal systems. In these studies the marked potentiation of the renin response suggests that the renin-angiotensin system may be important in the maintenance of arterial blood pressure after reductions in blood volume.

  2. Measurement of timing properties of the fluorescence fast component from plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement is described of timing properties of the fluorescence fast component for five types of polystyrene scintillators. The description is presented of a spectrometer with three counters in a telescope which operates using the single photon method. The measurements have been performed using XP1020 photomultipliers. Samples of 1 x 50 x 50 mm3 scintillators were exposed to electrons of a 90Sr ?-source with a maximum energy of 2.26 MeV. Cherenkov light was used as a zero-time reference in time-distribution measurements. The rise time constant of the light pulse of a scintillator with PBD (about 60 ps) and the decay time of this scintillator (1.4 ns) have been obtained experimentally. In this case the rise time constant is commensurable with the time spread of light collection according to the experimental geometry. The rise time constant of the light pulse for a scintillator with p-terphenyl + POPOP is about 800 ps. The time of population of the intermediate level is determined by this value. According to our data, its lifetime is equal to 2.3 ns. (orig.)

  3. Measuring complex for time-of-flight spectroscopy of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper describes a measuring system to tackle the fast neutron spectrometry involving the time-of-the-flight method on the basis of the EGP-15 pulse operating electrostatic charge-exchange accelerator. The frequency of cluster production is equal to 2.5 MHz, their duration constitutes ??1 ns. One analyzed the accelerator components, some peculiar features of their operation and the basic parameters. With the help of the system one managed to study the differential cross sections of the neutron emission for some structural materials. One put forward and tested the procedure to monitor and to check the operation stability of its measuring channels

  4. Fast ground-state cooling of mechanical resonators with time-dependent optical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Wu, Lian-Ao; Wang, Z. D.

    2011-04-01

    We propose a feasible scheme to cool down a mechanical resonator (MR) in a three-mirror cavity optomechanical system with controllable external optical driving fields. Under the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, the whole dynamics of the mechanical resonator and cavities is reduced to that of a time-dependent harmonic oscillator, whose effective frequency can be controlled through the optical driving fields. The fast cooling of the MR can be realized by controlling the amplitude of the optical driving fields. Significantly, we further show that the ground-state cooling may be achieved via the three-mirror cavity optomechanical system without the resolved sideband condition.

  5. Fast ground-state cooling of mechanical resonators with time-dependent optical cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a feasible scheme to cool down a mechanical resonator (MR) in a three-mirror cavity optomechanical system with controllable external optical driving fields. Under the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, the whole dynamics of the mechanical resonator and cavities is reduced to that of a time-dependent harmonic oscillator, whose effective frequency can be controlled through the optical driving fields. The fast cooling of the MR can be realized by controlling the amplitude of the optical driving fields. Significantly, we further show that the ground-state cooling may be achieved via the three-mirror cavity optomechanical system without the resolved sideband condition.

  6. FAST: a three-dimensional time-dependent FEL simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we briefly describe the three-dimensional, time-dependent FEL simulation code FAST. The equations of motion of the particles and Maxwell's equations are solved simultaneously taking into account the slippage effect. Radiation fields are calculated using an integral solution of Maxwell's equations. A special technique has been developed for fast calculations of the radiation field, drastically reducing the required CPU time. As a result, the developed code allows one to use a personal computer for time-dependent simulations. The code allows one to simulate the radiation from the electron bunch of any transverse and longitudinal bunch shape; to simulate simultaneously an external seed with superimposed noise in the electron beam; to take into account energy spread in the electron beam and the space charge fields; and to simulate a high-gain, high-efficiency FEL amplifier with a tapered undulator. It is important to note that there are no significant memory limitations in the developed code and an electron bunch of any length can be simulated

  7. FAST: a three-dimensional time-dependent FEL simulation code

    CERN Document Server

    Saldin, E L; Yurkov, M V

    1999-01-01

    In this report we briefly describe the three-dimensional, time-dependent FEL simulation code FAST. The equations of motion of the particles and Maxwell's equations are solved simultaneously taking into account the slippage effect. Radiation fields are calculated using an integral solution of Maxwell's equations. A special technique has been developed for fast calculations of the radiation field, drastically reducing the required CPU time. As a result, the developed code allows one to use a personal computer for time-dependent simulations. The code allows one to simulate the radiation from the electron bunch of any transverse and longitudinal bunch shape; to simulate simultaneously an external seed with superimposed noise in the electron beam; to take into account energy spread in the electron beam and the space charge fields; and to simulate a high-gain, high-efficiency FEL amplifier with a tapered undulator. It is important to note that there are no significant memory limitations in the developed code and an...

  8. Fast elaboration of diagnostic data for real time control in FTU tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The automatic controller developed for MHD instability control on FTU via the real time (RT EC launcher [1, 2] is based on the a-priori estimate of the instabilities location and on the fast elaboration of the stream of diagnostic data. A fast data acquisition system, based on existing standard FTU diagnostics, collects thermal and magnetic signals by a 12-channels ECE polychromator [3] and by a set of 22 Mirnov coils respectively. Moreover, the EC time waveform from directional couplers along the transmission line is acquired as well. This set of signals is processed in a timescale significantly shorter than the typical time step of the controller (1ms. RT elaboration algorithms aim at supplying the controller [4] with reliable information about the existence and the spatial location of the instability and about the actual ECRH deposition layer in plasma. The main algorithms blocks are ECE-ECE, ECE-Mirnov and ECE-ECRH cross-correlation, and SVD (Singular Value Decomposition of Mirnov signals. The capabilities of effective detection, false positive resilience, and mode discrimination will be discussed through the application to actual plasma data.

  9. The electron density profile measurement with a fast time-resolution in the KSTAR tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seong-Heon

    2014-10-01

    A frequency-modulation reflectometer is installed in the KSTAR tokamak to measure the plasma density profile. The reflectometer operates in the frequency range of 32.3-107.3 GHz. A plasma density up to 7 × 1019 m-3 can be measured when the toroidal magnetic field is 2 T. The reflectometer measures the electron density profile with a time resolution of 25 ?s for 0.16 s. This fast time-resolution is essential for the study of the transport barrier formation during the L-H transition. In this paper, the measured time evolutions of the sawtooth oscillation, the density increase due to supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), and the pedestal relaxation due to an edge-localized mode (ELM) are presented. The spatial profile of slow fluctuations (< 10 kHz) may be extracted from these fast profile measurements. In addition, the dependences of the pedestal structure, such as its width and height, on the plasma parameters are characterized.

  10. Using Graphs for Fast Error Term Approximation of Time-varying Datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuber, C; LaMar, E C; Pascucci, V; Hamann, B; Joy, K I

    2003-02-27

    We present a method for the efficient computation and storage of approximations of error tables used for error estimation of a region between different time steps in time-varying datasets. The error between two time steps is defined as the distance between the data of these time steps. Error tables are used to look up the error between different time steps of a time-varying dataset, especially when run time error computation is expensive. However, even the generation of error tables itself can be expensive. For n time steps, the exact error look-up table (which stores the error values for all pairs of time steps in a matrix) has a memory complexity and pre-processing time complexity of O(n2), and O(1) for error retrieval. Our approximate error look-up table approach uses trees, where the leaf nodes represent original time steps, and interior nodes contain an average (or best-representative) of the children nodes. The error computed on an edge of a tree describes the distance between the two nodes on that edge. Evaluating the error between two different time steps requires traversing a path between the two leaf nodes, and accumulating the errors on the traversed edges. For n time steps, this scheme has a memory complexity and pre-processing time complexity of O(nlog(n)), a significant improvement over the exact scheme; the error retrieval complexity is O(log(n)). As we do not need to calculate all possible n2 error terms, our approach is a fast way to generate the approximation.

  11. The energy angle dependence of response of the NRPB CR39 fast neutron dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) has developed a fast neutron personal dosemeter which employs a CR39 detector. The detector consists of a flat piece of CR39 plastic, approximately 25 mm x 40 mm and of thickness 600 ?m. Before issue detectors are hermetically sealed inside polyethylene/aluminium laminate pouches. The pouch fits inside a simple polypropylene holder. Proton tracks in the CR39 detector are revealed by a combination of chemical etching and electrochemical etching. A set of etching parameters has been arrived at which gives adequate sensitivity and energy dependence of response, at acceptable levels of, and variation in, background pit density. The minimum detectable dose equivalent, taken as 2 ? on background, varies between CR39 batches but is generally about 2.10-4 Sv

  12. Containment response to postulated ex-vessel core meltdown accidents in the fast flux test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of the containment response to ex-vessel core meltdown accidents in the Fast Flux Test Facility is discussed. Particular attention is given to the possibility of the molten fuel/steel mixture remaining in a molten form after entering the reactor cavity. For the molten pool configurations considered, significant H2 concentrations were reached in the RCB before the reactor cavity floor was penetrated. The melt-front impacts the pressure transient, not through gas generation, but through penetration into the unlined subcavity resulting in an enhanced sodium-concrete reaction. Hence, if H2 recombination is neglected, then steps would have to be taken to decrease the H2 concentration before the RCB design ressure is reached

  13. Concatenated Space-Time Block Coding with Asymmetric MPSK TCM for Fast Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ao Ju

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of concatenated space-time block coding (inner with trellis coded modulation (outer has recently attracted interest as a means of jointly considering the error correction coding gain and diversity gain possible without bandwidth expansion and power expansion over fading channels. In this research, a concatenated Space-Time Block Coding (STBCwith asymmetric MPSK TCM scheme, based on the design criteria for constructing concatenated space-time block coding with TCM for fast Rayleigh fading channels, is presented by introducing the new optimal signal point assignment. Using parameter comparison and simulation results, the proposed concatenated STBC with asymmetric MPSK TCM is shown to have better coding gain than traditional concatenated STBC with TCM under the same spectral efficiency, decoding complexity.

  14. Fast real-time PCR for the detection of crustacean allergen in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Beatriz; Vieites, Juan M; Espiñeira, Montserrat

    2012-02-29

    Crustaceans are one of the most common allergens causing severe food reaction. These food allergens are a health problem, and they have become very important; there are various regulations that establish that labeling must be present regarding these allergens to warn consumers. In the present work a fast real-time PCR, by a LNA probe, was developed. This allows the detection of crustaceans in all kinds of products, including processed products in which very aggressive treatments of temperature and pressure during the manufacturing process are used. This methodology provides greater sensitivity and specificity and reduces the analysis time of real-time PCR to 40 min. This methodology was further validated by means of simulating products likely to contain this allergen. For this, products present on the market were spiked with crustacean cooking water. The assay is a potential tool in issues related to the labeling of products and food security to protect the allergic consumer. PMID:22339490

  15. The ITER Fast Plant System Controller ATCA prototype Real-Time Software Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, B.B., E-mail: bernardo@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associacao EURATOM/IST Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, B.; Carvalho, P.F.; Neto, A. [Associacao EURATOM/IST Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Boncagni, L. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati Research Centre, Division of Fusion Physics, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Batista, A.J.N.; Correia, M.; Sousa, J.; Gonçalves, B. [Associacao EURATOM/IST Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ? High performance ATCA systems for fast control and data acquisition. ? IEEE1588 timing system and synchronization. ? Plasma control algorithms. ? Real-time control software frameworks. ? Targeted for nuclear fusion experiments with long duration discharges. -- Abstract: IPFN is developing a prototype Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) based in ATCA embedded technologies dedicated to ITER CODAC data acquisition and control tasks in the sub-millisecond range. The main goal is to demonstrate the usability of the ATCA standard and its enhanced specifications for the high speed, very high density parallel data acquisition needs of the most demanding ITER tokamak plasma Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems. This effort included the in-house development of a new family of high performance ATCA I/O and timing boards. The standard ITER software system CODAC Core System (CCS) v3.1, with the control based in the EPICS system does not cover yet the real-time requirements fulfilled by this hardware, so a new set of software components was developed for this specific platform, attempting to integrate and leverage the new features in CSS, for example the Multithreaded Application Real Time executor (MARTe) software framework, the new Data Archiving Network (DAN) solution, an ATCA IEEE-1588-2008 timing interface, and the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) for system monitoring and remote management. This paper presents the overall software architecture for the ATCA FPSC, as well a discussion on the ITER constrains and design choices and finally a detailed description of the software components already developed.

  16. Modeling of the Response Time of Thermal Flow Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Lang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a simple theoretical model for the response time of thermal flow sensors. Response time is defined here as the time needed by the sensor output signal to reach 63.2% of amplitude due to a change of fluid flow. This model uses the finite-difference method to solve the heat transfer equations, taking into consideration the transient conduction and convection between the sensor membrane and the surrounding fluid. Program results agree with experimental measurements and explain the response time dependence on the velocity and the sensor geometry. Values of the response time vary from about 5 ms in the case of stagnant flow to 1.5 ms for a flow velocity of 44 m/s.

  17. Improved time response for large area microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes in fusion diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milnes, J. S., E-mail: james.milnes@photek.co.uk; Conneely, T. M.; Howorth, J. [Photek Ltd, 26 Castleham Road, St Leonards on Sea, East Sussex, TN38 9NS (United Kingdom); Horsfield, C. J. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Fusion diagnostics that utilise high speed scintillators often need to capture a large area of light with a high degree of time accuracy. Microchannel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are recognised as the leading device for capturing fast optical signals. However, when manufactured in their traditional proximity focused construction, the time response performance is reduced as the active area increases. This is due to two main factors: the capacitance of a large anode and the difficulty of obtaining small pore MCPs with a large area. Collaboration between Photek and AWE has produced prototype devices that combine the excellent time response of small area MCP-PMTs with a large active area by replacing the traditional proximity-gap front section with an electro-optically focused photocathode to MCP. We present results from both single and double MCP devices with a 40 mm diameter active area and show simulations for the 100 mm device being built this year.

  18. Improved time response for large area microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes in fusion diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnes, J. S.; Horsfield, C. J.; Conneely, T. M.; Howorth, J.

    2014-11-01

    Fusion diagnostics that utilise high speed scintillators often need to capture a large area of light with a high degree of time accuracy. Microchannel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are recognised as the leading device for capturing fast optical signals. However, when manufactured in their traditional proximity focused construction, the time response performance is reduced as the active area increases. This is due to two main factors: the capacitance of a large anode and the difficulty of obtaining small pore MCPs with a large area. Collaboration between Photek and AWE has produced prototype devices that combine the excellent time response of small area MCP-PMTs with a large active area by replacing the traditional proximity-gap front section with an electro-optically focused photocathode to MCP. We present results from both single and double MCP devices with a 40 mm diameter active area and show simulations for the 100 mm device being built this year.

  19. Thermal emittance and response time of a cesium antimonide photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultrera, Luca; Bazarov, Ivan; Bartnik, Adam; Dunham, Bruce; Karkare, Siddharth; Merluzzi, Richard; Nichols, Matthew

    2011-10-01

    Measurements of the intrinsic emittance and response time of a Cs3Sb photocathode are presented. The emittance is obtained with a solenoid scan technique using a high voltage dc photoemission gun. Photoemission response time is evaluated using a RF deflecting cavity synchronized to a picosecond laser pulse train. We find that Cs3Sb has both small mean transverse energy, 160 ± 10 meV at 532 nm laser wavelength, and a prompt response time (below the resolution of our measurement) making it a suitable material for high brightness electron photoinjectors.

  20. Diminished Response of Arctic Plants to Warming over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremers, Kelseyann S; Hollister, Robert D; Oberbauer, Steven F

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine if the response of arctic plants to warming is consistent across species, locations and time. This study examined the impact of experimental warming and natural temperature variation on plants at Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska beginning in 1994. We considered observations of plant performance collected from 1994-2000 "short-term" and those from 2007-2012 "long-term". The plant traits reported are the number of inflorescences, inflorescence height, leaf length, and day of flower emergence. These traits can inform us about larger scale processes such as plant reproductive effort, plant growth, and plant phenology, and therefore provide valuable insight into community dynamics, carbon uptake, and trophic interactions. We categorized traits of all species monitored at each site into temperature response types. We then compared response types across traits, plant growth forms, sites, and over time to analyze the consistency of plant response to warming. Graminoids were the most responsive to warming and showed a positive response to temperature, while shrubs were generally the least responsive. Almost half (49%) of response types (across all traits, species, and sites combined) changed from short-term to long-term. The percent of plants responsive to warming decreased from 57% (short-term) to 46% (long-term). These results indicate that the response of plants to warming varies over time and has diminished overall in recent years. PMID:25767881

  1. Design and evaluation of a device for fast multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelevich, Diego R.; Ma, Dinglong; Liu, Jing; Sun, Yang; Sun, Yinghua; Bec, Julien; Elson, Daniel S.; Marcu, Laura

    2014-03-01

    The application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) to in vivo tissue diagnosis requires a method for fast acquisition of fluorescence decay profiles in multiple spectral bands. This study focusses on development of a clinically compatible fiber-optic based multispectral TRFS (ms-TRFS) system together with validation of its accuracy and precision for fluorescence lifetime measurements. It also presents the expansion of this technique into an imaging spectroscopy method. A tandem array of dichroic beamsplitters and filters was used to record TRFS decay profiles at four distinct spectral bands where biological tissue typically presents fluorescence emission maxima, namely, 390, 452, 542, and 629 nm. Each emission channel was temporally separated by using transmission delays through 200 ?m diameter multimode optical fibers of 1, 10, 19, and 28 m lengths. A Laguerre-expansion deconvolution algorithm was used to compensate for modal dispersion inherent to large diameter optical fibers and the finite bandwidth of detectors and digitizers. The system was found to be highly efficient and fast requiring a few nano-Joule of laser pulse energy and <1 ms per point measurement, respectively, for the detection of tissue autofluorescent components. Organic and biological chromophores with lifetimes that spanned a 0.8-7 ns range were used for system validation, and the measured lifetimes from the organic fluorophores deviated by less than 10% from values reported in the literature. Multi-spectral lifetime images of organic dye solutions contained in glass capillary tubes were recorded by raster scanning the single fiber probe in a 2D plane to validate the system as an imaging tool. The lifetime measurement variability was measured indicating that the system provides reproducible results with a standard deviation smaller than 50 ps. The ms-TRFS is a compact apparatus that makes possible the fast, accurate, and precise multispectral time-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements of low quantum efficiency sub-nanosecond fluorophores.

  2. Design and evaluation of a device for fast multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) to in vivo tissue diagnosis requires a method for fast acquisition of fluorescence decay profiles in multiple spectral bands. This study focusses on development of a clinically compatible fiber-optic based multispectral TRFS (ms-TRFS) system together with validation of its accuracy and precision for fluorescence lifetime measurements. It also presents the expansion of this technique into an imaging spectroscopy method. A tandem array of dichroic beamsplitters and filters was used to record TRFS decay profiles at four distinct spectral bands where biological tissue typically presents fluorescence emission maxima, namely, 390, 452, 542, and 629 nm. Each emission channel was temporally separated by using transmission delays through 200 ?m diameter multimode optical fibers of 1, 10, 19, and 28 m lengths. A Laguerre-expansion deconvolution algorithm was used to compensate for modal dispersion inherent to large diameter optical fibers and the finite bandwidth of detectors and digitizers. The system was found to be highly efficient and fast requiring a few nano-Joule of laser pulse energy and <1 ms per point measurement, respectively, for the detection of tissue autofluorescent components. Organic and biological chromophores with lifetimes that spanned a 0.8–7 ns range were used for system validation, and the measured lifetimes from the organic fluorophores deviated by less than 10% from values reported in the literature. Multi-spectral lifetime images of organic dye solutions contained in glass capillary tubes were recorded by raster scanning the single fiber probe in a 2D plane to validate the system as an imaging tool. The lifetime measurement variability was measured indicating that the system provides reproducible results with a standard deviation smaller than 50 ps. The ms-TRFS is a compact apparatus that makes possible the fast, accurate, and precise multispectral time-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements of low quantum efficiency sub-nanosecond fluorophores

  3. Design and evaluation of a device for fast multispectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankelevich, Diego R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, 3101 Kemper Hall, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Ma, Dinglong; Liu, Jing; Sun, Yang; Sun, Yinghua; Bec, Julien; Marcu, Laura, E-mail: lmarcu@ucdavis.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Elson, Daniel S. [Hamlyn Centre for Robotic Surgery, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    The application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) to in vivo tissue diagnosis requires a method for fast acquisition of fluorescence decay profiles in multiple spectral bands. This study focusses on development of a clinically compatible fiber-optic based multispectral TRFS (ms-TRFS) system together with validation of its accuracy and precision for fluorescence lifetime measurements. It also presents the expansion of this technique into an imaging spectroscopy method. A tandem array of dichroic beamsplitters and filters was used to record TRFS decay profiles at four distinct spectral bands where biological tissue typically presents fluorescence emission maxima, namely, 390, 452, 542, and 629 nm. Each emission channel was temporally separated by using transmission delays through 200 ?m diameter multimode optical fibers of 1, 10, 19, and 28 m lengths. A Laguerre-expansion deconvolution algorithm was used to compensate for modal dispersion inherent to large diameter optical fibers and the finite bandwidth of detectors and digitizers. The system was found to be highly efficient and fast requiring a few nano-Joule of laser pulse energy and <1 ms per point measurement, respectively, for the detection of tissue autofluorescent components. Organic and biological chromophores with lifetimes that spanned a 0.8–7 ns range were used for system validation, and the measured lifetimes from the organic fluorophores deviated by less than 10% from values reported in the literature. Multi-spectral lifetime images of organic dye solutions contained in glass capillary tubes were recorded by raster scanning the single fiber probe in a 2D plane to validate the system as an imaging tool. The lifetime measurement variability was measured indicating that the system provides reproducible results with a standard deviation smaller than 50 ps. The ms-TRFS is a compact apparatus that makes possible the fast, accurate, and precise multispectral time-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements of low quantum efficiency sub-nanosecond fluorophores.

  4. Physiotherapy Exercise After Fast-Track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: Time for Reconsideration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Bandholm T, Kehlet H. Physiotherapy exercise after fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty: time for reconsideration? Major surgery, including total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA), is followed by a convalescence period, during which the loss of muscle strength and function is considerable, especially early after surgery. In recent years, a combination of unimodal evidence-based perioperative care components has been demonstrated to enhance recovery, with decreased need for hospitalization, convalescence, and risk of medical complications after major surgery-the fast-track methodology or enhanced recovery programs. It is the nature of this methodology to systematically and scientifically optimize all perioperative care components, with the overall goal of enhancing recovery. This is also the case for the care component "physiotherapy exercise" after THA and TKA. The 2 latest meta-analyses on the effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise after THA and TKA generally conclude that physiotherapy exercise after THA and TKA either does not work or is not very effective. The reason for this may be that the "pill" of physiotherapy exercise typically offered after THA and TKA does not contain the right active ingredients (too little intensity) or is offered at the wrong time (too late after surgery). We propose changing the focus to earlier initiated and more intensive physiotherapy exercise after THA and TKA (fast-track physiotherapy exercise), to reduce the early loss of muscle strength and function after surgery. Ideally, the physiotherapy exercise interventions after THA and TKA should be simple, using few and well-chosen exercises that are described in detail, adhering to basic exercise physiology principles, if possible.

  5. Time-Space Decoupled Explicit Method for Fast Numerical Simulation of Tsunami Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Anxin; Xiao, Shengchao; Li, Hui

    2015-02-01

    This study presents a novel explicit numerical scheme for simulating tsunami propagation using the exact solution of the wave equations. The objective of this study is to develop a fast and stable numerical scheme by decoupling the wave equation in both the time and space domains. First, the finite difference scheme of the shallow-water equations for tsunami simulation are briefly introduced. The time-space decoupled explicit method based on the exact solution of the wave equation is given for the simulation of tsunami propagation without including frequency dispersive effects. Then, to consider wave dispersion, the second-order accurate numerical scheme to solve the shallow-water equations, which mimics the physical frequency dispersion with numerical dispersion, is derived. Lastly, the computation efficiency and the accuracy of the two types of numerical schemes are investigated by the 2004 Indonesia tsunami and the solution of the Boussinesq equation for a tsunami with Gaussian hump over both uniform and varying water depths. The simulation results indicate that the proposed numerical scheme can achieve a fast and stable tsunami propagation simulation while maintaining computation accuracy.

  6. The Importance of Responsibility in Times of Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I would like to show the importance of the concept of responsibility as the foundation of ethics in times of crisis in particular in the fields of politics and economics in the modern civilisation marked by globalization and technological progres. I consider the concept of responsibility as the key notion in order to understand the ethical duty in a modern technological civilisation. We can indeed observe a moralization of the concept of responsibility going beyond a strict lega...

  7. Model for Predicting End User Web Page Response Time

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarajan, Sathya Narayanan; Ravikumar, Srijith

    2012-01-01

    Perceived responsiveness of a web page is one of the most important and least understood metrics of web page design, and is critical for attracting and maintaining a large audience. Web pages can be designed to meet performance SLAs early in the product lifecycle if there is a way to predict the apparent responsiveness of a particular page layout. Response time of a web page is largely influenced by page layout and various network characteristics. Since the network character...

  8. A Conditional Joint Modeling Approach for Locally Dependent Item Responses and Response Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Bin; Tao, Jian; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The assumption of conditional independence between the responses and the response times (RTs) for a given person is common in RT modeling. However, when the speed of a test taker is not constant, this assumption will be violated. In this article we propose a conditional joint model for item responses and RTs, which incorporates a covariance…

  9. Finite Time Extinction for Stochastic Sign Fast Diffusion and Self-Organized Criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gess, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    We prove finite time extinction for stochastic sign fast diffusion equations driven by linear multiplicative space-time noise, corresponding to the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model for self-organized criticality. This solves a problem posed and left open in several works: (Barbu, Methods Appl Sci 36:1726-1733, 2013; Röckner and Wang, J Lond Math Soc (2) 87:545-560, 2013; Barbu et al. J Math Anal Appl 389:147-164, 2012; Barbu and Röckner, Comm Math Phys 311:539-555, 2012; Barbu et al., Comm Math Phys 285:901-923, 2009, C R Math Acad Sci Paris 347(1-2):81-84, 2009). The highly singular-degenerate nature of the drift in interplay with the stochastic perturbation causes the need for new methods in the analysis of mass diffusion, and several new estimates and techniques are introduced.

  10. Channel Estimation and ICI Cancellation for OFDM Systems in Fast Time-Varying Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Likun; Chang, Qing; Xiu, Chundi; Zhang, Qishan

    In order to estimate fast time-varying channels exactly, the Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI) caused by time-varying fading channels in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems is analyzed based on the Basis Expansion Model (BEM). A channel estimation and ICI cancellation algorithm with low complexity is proposed. A special pilot sequence is designed to minimize the cost of computing the channel state information in the proposed algorithm. Based on the property of channel frequency impulse matrix, the ICI can be canceled iteratively in frequency domain. The complexity of the algorithm is analyzed theoretically. Through simulation, the algorithm is shown to be effective in estimating channel state information and in cancelling ICI.

  11. Comparisons of Crosswind Velocity Profile Estimates Used in Fast-Time Wake Vortex Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruis, Mathew J.; Delisi, Donald P.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Five methods for estimating crosswind profiles used in fast-time wake vortex prediction models are compared in this study. Previous investigations have shown that temporal and spatial variations in the crosswind vertical profile have a large impact on the transport and time evolution of the trailing vortex pair. The most important crosswind parameters are the magnitude of the crosswind and the gradient in the crosswind shear. It is known that pulsed and continuous wave lidar measurements can provide good estimates of the wind profile in the vicinity of airports. In this study comparisons are made between estimates of the crosswind profiles from a priori information on the trajectory of the vortex pair as well as crosswind profiles derived from different sensors and a regional numerical weather prediction model.

  12. High performance organic-inorganic perovskite-optocoupler based on low-voltage and fast response perovskite compound photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Dong, Guifang; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Liduo

    2015-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid photodetectors attract considerable attention because they can combine the advantages of both organic and inorganic systems. Here, a perovskite compound with a broad absorption spectrum and high power conversion efficiency is used as a photosensitive layer in an organic/inorganic hybrid heterojunction photodetector with a high and fast response. The high sensitivity exceeding 104 is obtained at bias of 0-4 V. Using a tandem organic light-emitting diode (OLED) as the light source, we fabricated an optocoupler device. The optocoupler achieved a maximum photoresponsivity of 1.0 A W-1 at 341.3 ?Wcm-2 at an input voltage of 6 V. The device also exhibits rapid response times of ?rise ~ 20 ?s and ?fall ~ 17 ?s as well as a high current transfer ratio (CTR) of 28.2%. After applying an amplification circuit, the CTR of the optocoupler increases to 263.3%, which is comparable with that of commercial inorganic optocouplers. The developed hybrid optocoupler thus shows great promise for use in photonics.

  13. An improved space-time kinetics method for fast and thermal reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved space-time kinetics method that can be applied to the analysis of either fast or thermal reactor transients is presented. The method (called quasi-static synthesis - QSS) blends the concepts of formal reduction (i.e., the quasi-static method) and time synthesis into a single unified approach to handle the space-time equations. In particular, the method links the lumped parameter formalism of the quasi-static approach (used to compute the relative amplitude or power in the reactor) with a time synthesis techniques employed in the determination of spatial/spectral shape-functions needed in defining the lumped parameters. A unique feature of the synthesis procedure is that the trial-shapes used in synthesizing shape-functions are computed as the transient progresses, thus obviating the need for precomputed trial-shapes. Preliminary results obtained with the method indicate reduced computer time, while maintaining computational accuracy, when compared to several other kinetics presently in use. In addition to the development of the QSS method, this dissertation also introduces a simple and efficient approach for solving the point kinetics equations. Starting with an integral form of these equations, the only assumption made is that the time-dependent amplitude-function varies linearly between kinetics time steps (being exact at the time steps). The resulting semi-implicit integration algorithms for the amplitude-function and precursor concentrations appear to on and precursor concentrations appear to allow for large kinetics time steps than do most conventional methods. Furthermore, because these algorithms are of such a simple nature, the computing cost per kinetics time step is also greatly reduced

  14. Speed-Accuracy Response Models: Scoring Rules Based on Response Time and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, Gunter; van der Maas, Han

    2012-01-01

    Starting from an explicit scoring rule for time limit tasks incorporating both response time and accuracy, and a definite trade-off between speed and accuracy, a response model is derived. Since the scoring rule is interpreted as a sufficient statistic, the model belongs to the exponential family. The various marginal and conditional distributions…

  15. Macroporous gels with fast response prepared by e-beam crosslinking of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macroporous temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) gels exhibiting fast response rates were obtained by electron beam irradiation of aqueous polymer solutions. The effect of polymer concentration, irradiation temperature and dose, as well as addition of crosslinker was studied. The gels synthesized above the critical temperature from 20 wt.% polymer solution without crosslinker exhibited the highest equilibrium swelling and fastest response rate measured by seconds. The gels show reversible response to cyclical changes in temperature and might be used as actuators or pulsed drug release

  16. Development of a fast response rotating polarimeter for a faraday rotation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a method for using a spindle sustained with active magnetic bearing to make a rotating half waveplate frequency more fast. The time interval of the zero-cross phase measurement is 189 ?sec in this experiment. The magnetic bearing is applicable to increase the rotating waveplate frequency by a factor of 2-3 compared with the conventional one. The waveplate speed as well as the deviation with respect to the stationary laser beam has no influence on the amplitude and phase shift of the rotating polarized beam signal. There is also no influence of the mirror reflections on the phase shift. The overall phase resolution is estimated to be about 0.1 degrees. (author)

  17. First measurements of the kinetic response of the muse-4 fast Ads mock-up to fast neutron pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MUSE-4 experiment has started its first commissioning measurements at the beginning of the year 2001 at CEA/Cadarache (France). This international experiment co-ordinated by CEA, included in the 5FWP of the European Union and GEDEON, is intended to study the physics of fast sub-critical assemblies coupled with a pulsed external source. To achieve this objective, the GENEPI accelerator, a (d,d) or (d,t) neutron source developed at CRNS/IN2P3/ISN (Grenoble), has been coupled with the MASURCA reactor, a uranium-plutonium MOX-based fast reactor, with solid sodium simulating a liquid metal coolant and a lead buffer to simulate a spallation target. The very short neutron pulse (1 ?s) provided by GENEPI, together with the possibility to change the pulse repetition rate up to 5 kHz and the different levels of sub-criticality available will facilitate a study of the reactor kinetic parameters in situations close to most of the proposed accelerator-driven Systems (ADS). The paper presents the first experimental results for dynamic measurements performed in MUSE-4 configurations. Several pulsed neutron source experiments have been carried out using the (d,d) GENEPI neutron source in configurations going from USD 1,33 to USD 12,6. In addition, noise techniques (Rossi and Feynman-alpha) have been applied to stationary states in the same range of sub-criticalities. Reactivity levels obtained by these techniques have been compared with more classic rod drop/source multiplicatioore classic rod drop/source multiplication measurements. The kinetic parameters, ?(which ranges between 330 and 360 pcm) and ?/? (with a value of approximately 6270 s-1), have been determined by Monte Carlo and/or deterministic codes. (author)

  18. A fast density-based clustering algorithm for real-time Internet of Things stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Amineh; Saboohi, Hadi; Wah, Teh Ying; Herawan, Tutut

    2014-01-01

    Data streams are continuously generated over time from Internet of Things (IoT) devices. The faster all of this data is analyzed, its hidden trends and patterns discovered, and new strategies created, the faster action can be taken, creating greater value for organizations. Density-based method is a prominent class in clustering data streams. It has the ability to detect arbitrary shape clusters, to handle outlier, and it does not need the number of clusters in advance. Therefore, density-based clustering algorithm is a proper choice for clustering IoT streams. Recently, several density-based algorithms have been proposed for clustering data streams. However, density-based clustering in limited time is still a challenging issue. In this paper, we propose a density-based clustering algorithm for IoT streams. The method has fast processing time to be applicable in real-time application of IoT devices. Experimental results show that the proposed approach obtains high quality results with low computation time on real and synthetic datasets. PMID:25110753

  19. Time-resolved fast-neutron pinhole camera for studying thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast-neutron pinhole camera with high detection efficiency and nanosecond time-resolution has been developed and applied to the investigation of the spatial and temporal distributions of DD- and DT-neutrons produced by thermonuclear plasmas. The pinhole consists of a specially designed 1.15 m long copper collimator with an effective aperture of 1 mm diameter. Several different types of spatial resolution detectors have been used at the image plane: (1) a multi-element, scintillation-photomultiplier system used for time-resolved measurements consisting of sixty-one individual detectors, (2) a scintillation-fiber-chamber coupled to a gated image-intensifier tube used for direct photographing of the neutron image, and (3) a propane bubble chamber used for time-integrated recording with a capability to distinguish DD- from DT-neutrons. Pulsed neutron sources with typical dimensions of 1 cm emitting of the order of 1012 neutrons over a time period of 10-100 nsec have been investigated. A spatial resolution of 1 mm and a time resolution of approximately 10 nsec was achieved in the investigations of dense plasma compression phenomena

  20. Calculation of pebble discharge time of pebble bed based HTGR with fast pebble discharge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 10MW high temperature reactor (HTR-10) of China is an advanced pebble bed modular reactor, which is a high temperature, helium-cooled reactor using a steam generator. The system is passively safe against the accident of loss-of-forced-cooling. But its mean core power density is only 2MW/m3 and the water wall surrounding the reactor pressure vessel had to be designed in such a way that it can remove decay heat from the core during the accident of loss-of-forced-cooling. Therefore, larger reactor pressure vessel and relevant surroundings had to be constructed. This results in higher construction and operation cost. One way to overcome the difficulty is to increase the core power density. But this may compromise its inherent safety performance. The basic idea of the concept of pebble bed based HTGR (high temperature gas cooled reactor) with fast pebble discharge system against loss-of-forced-cooling accident is to make the reactor have passive safety feature by extracting decay heat of discharged pebbles into pebble catchers, which are designed and constructed in such a way that no secondary criticality could occur and the decay heat produced by discharged pebbles is removed by passively safe means, such as water wall, heat pipes etc.. In this paper, the calculation approach of the pebble discharge time of pebble bed based HTGR with fast pebble discharge system is presented. The preliminary study shows that the pebble discharge time is small enough to guarble discharge time is small enough to guarantee the core temperature is below the fuel particle integrity damage temperature and the mass of the pebbles in the core can be reduced to the level that no criticality of the core could occur again. (authors)

  1. Signal and Noise Analysis in TRION -Time-Resolved Integrative Optical Fast Neutron Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Vartsky, D; Mor, I; Goldberg, M B; Bar, D; Dangendorf, V

    2009-01-01

    TRION is a sub-mm spatial resolution fast neutron imaging detector, which employs an integrative optical time-of-flight technique. The detector was developed for fast neutron resonance radiography, a method capable of detecting a broad range of conventional and improvised explosives. In this study we have analyzed in detail, using Monte-Carlo calculations and experimentally determined parameters, all the processes that influence the signal and noise in the TRION detector. In contrast to event-counting detectors where the signal-to-noise ratio is dependent only on the number of detected events (quantum noise), in an energy-integrating detector additional factors, such as the fluctuations in imparted energy, number of photoelectrons, system gain and other factors will contribute to the noise. The excess noise factor (over the quantum noise) due to these processes was 4.3, 2.7, 2.1, 1.9 and 1.9 for incident neutron energies of 2, 4, 7.5, 10 and 14 MeV, respectively. It is shown that, even under ideal light colle...

  2. The first synchrotron infrared beamlines at the Advanced Light Source: Spectromicroscopy and fast timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two recently commissioned infrared beamlines on the 1.4 bending magnet port at the Advanced Light Source, LBNL, are described. Using a synchrotron as an IR source provides three primary advantages: increased brightness, very fast light pulses, and enhanced far-IR flux. The considerable brightness advantage manifests itself most beneficially when performing spectroscopy on a microscopic length scale. Beamline (BL) 1.4.3 is a dedicated FTIR spectromicroscopy beamline, where a diffraction-limited spot size using the synchrotron source is utilized. BL 1.4.2 consists of a vacuum FTIR bench with a wide spectral range and step-scan capability. This BL makes use of the pulsed nature of the synchrotron light as well as the far-IR flux. Fast timing is demonstrated by observing the pulses from the electron bunch storage pattern at the ALS. Results from several experiments from both IR beamlines will be presented as an overview of the IR research currently being done at the ALS

  3. A fast readout and encoding system for real-time processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast system of data preparation for event selection hardware processors is described in this paper. The system enables input pulses to be registered, the serial numbers and the number of triggered channels to be converted to binary code. The system consists of several 16-channel input register and priority encoder modules and of one serial-to-parallel converter or buffer. The input register and encoder modules are connected by a fast dataway to cascade then in order to increase the number of inputs to 1024 and to transmit information to the serial-to-parallel converter which has a capacity of eight 12-bit words. The binary codes of the serial numbers of the triggered channels are transferred from the serial-to-parallel converter to an arithmetic part of the processor. The time required for the selection and encoding of the serial number of each triggered channel is 25 ns. It is possible to transfer data via the CAMAC dataway as well. (orig.)

  4. A response-based time-dependent neutron transport method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient response-based solution to the time-dependent neutron transport equation in a semi-infinite slab is derived. The solution is based on polynomial expansions of the source terms and neutron flux in the time domain. The expansion coefficients of the flux solution are computed in terms of response functions, which are special cases of Green's functions for arbitrary in-volume and surface sources. The resulting response equation, which is a convolution integral equation in time, is reduced to a linear algebraic system of equations in the expansion coefficients. Two example problems are solved using the response-based method, and the extension of the method to general (finite, heterogeneous) problems is discussed.

  5. Fast response air-to-fuel ratio measurements using a novel device based on a wide band lambda sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regitz, S.; Collings, N.

    2008-07-01

    A crucial parameter influencing the formation of pollutant gases in internal combustion engines is the air-to-fuel ratio (AFR). During transients on gasoline and diesel engines, significant AFR excursions from target values can occur, but cycle-by-cycle AFR resolution, which is helpful in understanding the origin of deviations, is difficult to achieve with existing hardware. This is because current electrochemical devices such as universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensors have a time constant of 50-100 ms, depending on the engine running conditions. This paper describes the development of a fast reacting device based on a wide band lambda sensor which has a maximum time constant of ~20 ms and enables cyclic AFR measurements for engine speeds of up to ~4000 rpm. The design incorporates a controlled sensor environment which results in insensitivity to sample temperature and pressure. In order to guide the development process, a computational model was developed to predict the effect of pressure and temperature on the diffusion mechanism. Investigations regarding the sensor output and response were carried out, and sensitivities to temperature and pressure are examined. Finally, engine measurements are presented.

  6. Fast responsive and highly efficient optical upconverter based on phosphorescent OLED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xinbo; Guan, Min; Niu, Litao; Zeng, Yiping; Li, Yiyang; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Zhanping; Wang, Baoqiang

    2014-11-12

    In this work, an organic-inorganic hybrid optical upconverter that can convert irradiated 980 nm IR light to 510 nm green phosphorescence sensitively was fabricated and studied. fac-Tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy)3) doped 4,4'-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1'-biphenyl (CBP) was used as emitting layer in the phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) unit. The upconverter using a phosphorescent OLED as display unit can achieve a higher upconversion efficiency and a low power consumption when compared with the one using fluorescent. An upconversion efficiency of 4.8% can be achieved for phosphorescent device at 15 V, much higher than that of fluorescent one (2.0%). The upconverter's transient optical and electric response to IR pulse were also investigated for the first time. The response time was found to be influenced by IR intensity and applied voltage. It has a response time as short as 60 ?s. The rapid response property of the upconverter makes it feasible to be applied to high-speed IR imaging systems. PMID:25310022

  7. 45 CFR 612.5 - Timing of responses to requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...according to their order of receipt. (b) Time for response...perfected when you have reasonably...1) (i) If you want to receive expedited processing you must submit...is not a full-time member of...public's right to know about...

  8. Synthesis of fast response crosslinked PVA-g-NIPAAm nanohydrogels by very low radiation dose in dilute aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Marziyeh; Reza Farajollahi, Ali; Akbar Entezami, Ali

    2013-05-01

    Nanohydrogels of poly(vinyl alcohol)-g-N-isopropylacrylamide (PVA-g-NIPAAm) are synthesized by PVA and NIPAAm dilute aqueous solution using much less radiation dose of 1-20 Gy via intramolecular crosslinking at ambient temperature. The radiation synthesis of nanohydrogels is performed in the presence of tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC) due to its rapid oxygen scavenging abilities and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a source of hydroxyl radicals. The effect of radiation dose, feed composition ratio of PVA and H2O2 is investigated on swelling properties such as temperature and pH dependence of equilibrium swelling ratio as well as deswelling kinetics. Experimental data exhibit high equilibrium swelling ratio and fast response time for the synthesized nanohydrogels. The average molecular weight between crosslinks (Mc) and crosslinking density (?x) of the obtained nanohydrogels are calculated from swelling data as a function of radiation dose, H2O2 and PVA amount. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), elemental analysis of nitrogen content and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) are used to confirm the grafting reaction. Lower critical solution temperature (LCST) is measured around 33 °C by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for PVA-g-NIPAAm nanohydrogels. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) data demonstrate that the increase of radiation dose leads to the decreasing in dimension of nanohydrogels. Also, rheological studies are confirmed an improvement in the mechanical properties of the nanohydrogels with increasing the radiation dose. A cytotoxicity study exhibits a good biocompatibility for the obtained nanohydrogels. The prepared nanohydrogels show fast swelling/deswelling behavior, high swelling ratio, dual sensitivity and good cytocompatibility, which may find potential applications as biomaterial.

  9. Analysis of Shiraz Solar Thermal Power Plant Response Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Azizian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiraz pilot solar thermal power plant is the first Iranian solar power plant constructed near the city of Shiraz, Iran. The main purpose of constructing this pilot plant was to acquire the technology of developing parabolic trough solar thermal power plants for future energy production from solar energy. This plant consists of 48 parabolic trough collectors; each one has 25m long and 3.4 m wide. The plant consists of two cycles, oil heat absorbing cycle and steam production cycle. The plant performance and transition period to reach steady state condition or damping some disturbances as well as oil cycle heating and steam generation rate depends on several factors such as oil cycle response time. Response time is a parameter that can be used for efficient control of solar power plant. To study response time, field experimental measurements have been made during the years 2009 to 2010 based on the standard procedure and plant simulation. The experiments include: plant start up, evaluation of oil temperature increase in the field of collectors, solar radiation measurements, temperature and pressure changes in the heat exchangers, weather temperature changes and wind speed and the effect of above changes on the system response time are determined. Two modeling methods (based on the recommended standards of finding response time are employed. Results show that response time of the oil cycle varies from 150 seconds to 400 seconds by measurements, while by modeling simulation it is about 400-500 seconds. Response time is strongly depends on the environmental conditions such as oil temperture, wind and ambient temperature and specially the oil mass flow rate.

  10. [Fast and accurate extraction of ring-down time in cavity ring-down spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Hu, Ren-Zhi; Xie, Pin-Hua; Qin, Min; Ling, Liu-Yi; Duan, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Research is conducted to accurate and efficient algorithms for extracting ring-down time (r) in cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) which is used to measure NO3 radical in the atmosphere. Fast and accurate extraction of ring-down time guarantees more precise and higher speed of measurement. In this research, five kinds of commonly used algorithms are selected to extract ring-down time which respectively are fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm, discrete Fourier transform (DFT) algorithm, linear regression of the sum (LRS) algorithm, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm and least squares (LS) algorithm. Simulated ring-down signals with various amplitude levels of white noises are fitted by using five kinds of the above-mentioned algorithms, and comparison and analysis is conducted to the fitting results of five kinds of algorithms from four respects: the vulnerability to noises, the accuracy and precision of the fitting, the speed of the fitting and preferable fitting ring-down signal waveform length The research results show that Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and linear regression of the sum algorithm are able to provide more precise results and prove to have higher noises immunity, and by comparison, the fitting speed of Leven- berg-Marquardt algorithm turns out to be slower. In addition, by analysis of simulated ring-down signals, five to ten times of ring-down time is selected to be the best fitting waveform length because in this case, standard deviation of fitting results of five kinds of algorithms proves to be the minimum. External modulation diode laser and cavity which consists of two high reflectivity mirrors are used to construct a cavity ring-down spectroscopy detection system. According to our experimental conditions, in which the noise level is 0.2%, linear regression of the sum algorithm and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm are selected to process experimental data. The experimental results show that the accuracy and precision of linear regression of the sum algorithm is considerably close to those of Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, and on the other hand, the fitting speed of linear regression of the sum algorithm is faster than that of Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm about five times. The experimental results are consistent with the simulation analysis, and it indicates that linear regression of the sum algorithm is the desirable fitting method, as far as our experimental conditions are concerned. PMID:25739236

  11. Fast Tracker: A Hardware Real Time Track Finder for the ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Fast Tracker (FTK) is an integral part of the trigger upgrade program for the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the LHC luminosity approaches its design level of 10^34cm^?2s^?1, the combinatorial problem posed by charged particle tracking becomes increasingly difficult due to the swelling of multiple interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up). The FTK is a highly-parallel hardware system intended to provide high-quality tracks with transverse momentum above 1 GeV/c in real time for online trigger system. The FTK system’s design, based on a mixture of advanced technologies, and expected physics performance will be presented.

  12. Program for the analysis of time series. [by means of fast Fourier transform algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. J.; Brown, C. G.; Hardin, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A digital computer program for the Fourier analysis of discrete time data is described. The program was designed to handle multiple channels of digitized data on general purpose computer systems. It is written, primarily, in a version of FORTRAN 2 currently in use on CDC 6000 series computers. Some small portions are written in CDC COMPASS, an assembler level code. However, functional descriptions of these portions are provided so that the program may be adapted for use on any facility possessing a FORTRAN compiler and random-access capability. Properly formatted digital data are windowed and analyzed by means of a fast Fourier transform algorithm to generate the following functions: (1) auto and/or cross power spectra, (2) autocorrelations and/or cross correlations, (3) Fourier coefficients, (4) coherence functions, (5) transfer functions, and (6) histograms.

  13. In-beam fast-timing measurements in 103,105,107Cd

    CERN Document Server

    Kisyov, S; Marginean, N; Bucurescu, D; Atanasova, L; Balabanski, D L; Cata-Danil, Gh; Cata-Danil, I; Daugas, J -M; Deleanu, D; Detistov, P; Filipescu, D; Georgiev, G; Ghita, D; Glodariu, T; Jolie, J; Judson, D S; Lozeva, R; Marginean, R; Mihai, C; Negret, A; Pascu, S; Radulov, D; Regis, J -M; Rudigier, M; Sava, T; Stroe, L; Suliman, G; Zamfir, N V; Zell, K O; Zhekova, M

    2011-01-01

    Fast-timing measurements were performed recently in the region of the medium-mass 103,105,107Cd isotopes, produced in fusion evaporation reactions. Emitted gamma-rays were detected by eight HPGe and five LaBr3:Ce detectors working in coincidence. Results on new and re-evaluated half-lives are discussed within a systematic of transition rates. The $7/2_1^+$ states in 103,105,107Cd are interpreted as arising from a single-particle excitation. The half-life analysis of the $11/2_1^-$ states in 103,105,107Cd shows no change in the single-particle transition strength as a function of the neutron number.

  14. Response Time Optimization for Replica Selection Service in Data Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husni H.E. AL-Mistarihi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Data Grid architecture provides a scalable infrastructure for grid services in order to manage data files and their corresponding replicas that were distributed across the globe. The grid services are designed to support a variety of data grid applications (jobs and projects. Replica selection is a high-level service that chooses a replica location from among many distributed replicas with the minimum response time for the users' jobs. Estimating the response time accurately in the grid environment is not an easy task. The current systems expose high response time in selecting the required replicas because the response time is estimated by considering the data transfer time only. Approach: We proposed a replica selection system that selects the best replica location for the users' running jobs in a minimum response time that can be estimated by considering new factors besides the data transfer time, namely, the storage access latency and the replica requests that waiting in the storage queue. Results: The performance of the proposed system was compared with a similar system that exists in the literature namely, SimpleOptimiser. The simulation results demonstrated that our system performed better than the SimpleOptimiser on an average of 6%. Conclusions: The proposed system can select the best replica location in a lesser response time than the SimpleOptimise. The efficiency of the proposed system is 6% higher than the SimpleOptimise. The efficiency level has a high impact on the quality of service that is perceived by grid users in a data grid environment where the data files are relatively big. For example, the data files produced from the scientific applications are of the size hundreds of Terabytes.

  15. Planck 2013 results. VII. HFI time response and beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,, no-firstname; Ade, P. A. R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper characterizes the effective beams, the effective beam window functions (EBWF) and the associated errors for the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) detectors. The effective beam is the angular response including the effect of the optics, detectors, data processing and the scan strategy. The EBWF is the representation of this beam in the harmonic domain that is required to recover an unbiased measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) angular power spectrum. The HFI is a scanning instrument and its effective beams are the convolution of the optical response of the telescope and feeds, the processing of the time-ordered data and deconvolution of the bolometric and electronic time response, and the merging of several surveys to produce maps. The time response transfer functions are measured with observations of Jupiter and Saturn and by minimizing survey difference residuals. The scanning beam is the post-deconvolution angular response of the instrument, and is characterized with observations of Mars. The main beam solid angles are determined to better than 0.5% at each HFI frequency band. Observations of Jupiter and Saturn limit near sidelobes to ~0.1% of the total solid angle. Time response residuals remain as long tails in the scanning beams, but contribute

  16. Artificial diamonds as radiation-hard detectors for ultra-fast fission-fragment timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberstedt, S., E-mail: stephan.oberstedt@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre (IRMM), B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Borcea, R.; Bry?, T.; Gamboni, Th.; Geerts, W.; Hambsch, F.-J. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre (IRMM), B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Oberstedt, A. [Fundamental Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, S-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Akademin för Naturvetenskap och Technik, Örebro Universitet, S-70182 Örebro (Sweden); Vidali, M. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre (IRMM), B-2440 Geel (Belgium)

    2013-06-21

    In the framework of the construction of the double time-of-flight spectrometer VERDI, where we aim at measuring pre- and post-neutron masses directly and simultaneously, ultra-fast time pick-up detectors based on artificial diamond material were investigated for the first time with fission fragments from {sup 252}Cf (0.5MeV/utiming resolution of a 100?m thick polycrystalline CVD diamond detector with a size of 1×1 cm{sup 2} was determined to ?{sub int}=(283±41)ps by comparison with Monte-Carlo simulations. Using broadband pre-amplifiers, 4-fold segmented detectors of same total size and with a thickness of 180?m show an intrinsic timing resolution of ?{sub int}=(106±21)ps. This is highly competitive with the best micro-channel plate detectors. Due to the limited and batch-dependent charge collection efficiency of poly-crystalline diamond material, the detection efficiency for fission fragments may be smaller than 100%. -- Highlights: ? First use of chemical vapor deposited diamond for heavy ions with kinetic energies below 2 MeV per nucleon. ? Fission-fragment time-of-flight measurements with a timing resolution better than 150 ps. ? Radiation-hard fission event trigger to be used in an intense neutron field.

  17. Effect of the fissile bead's and thermocouple wires’ sizes on the response time of a fission couple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fission couple is proposed as a fast response miniature neutron detector in the measurement of time dependent energy depositions within the fissile material based on theoretical analysis, but the response time of a fission couple is relatively slow in practice. The time lag originated from heat transfer process was demonstrated to be the dominating factor by theoretical simulations and experimental verification in this paper. The response of a fission couple as a function of the bead size and the thermocouple wires’ sizes are simulated using ANSYS workbench. The decrease of wires’ diameter results in the decrease of response time, and the increase of bead's diameter leads to a slight increase of response time. During a pulse heating transient in the fuel of Chinese Fast Burst Reactor II with a FWHM of 181?s, the time lag originated from heat transfer process is about tens of microseconds for the peaks of the change rate of temperature, and is of the order of milliseconds to achieve 85% of the temperature rise for a typical fission couple with a ? 1 mm fissile bead and two ? 0.05 mm thermocouple wires. The results obtained provide foundation for the optimization of fission couples

  18. Time variation in asset price response to macro announcements

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Linda S.; Grisse, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Although the effects of economic news announcements on asset prices are well established, theserelationships are unlikely to be stable. This paper documents the time variation in the responses of yield curves and exchange rates using high-frequency data from January 2000 through August 2011. Significant time variation in news effects is present for those announcements that have the largest effects on asset prices. The time variation in effects is explained by economic conditions, including th...

  19. Metabolic response to 36 hours of fasting in young men born small vs appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Sine W; BrØns, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in an affluent society, but could confer an improved chance of survival during sparse living conditions. We studied whether insulin action and other metabolic responses to prolonged fasting differed between 21 young adults born SGA and 18 matched controls born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). METHODS: A frequently sampled IVGTT and indirect calorimetry measurements were performed after a 36 h fast. Endogenous glucose production, insulin sensitivity (SI), first-phase insulin secretion and glucose effectiveness were estimated by stable isotope tracer techniques and minimal modelling. Muscle and fat biopsies were obtained after 35 h of fasting. RESULTS: During fasting, SGA individuals experienced a more pronounced decrease in serum insulin and lower plasma triacylglycerol levels compared with AGA individuals. In addition, energy expenditure decreased in SGA but increased in AGA individuals.After fasting, SGA individuals displayed lower fat oxidation than AGA individuals. SG was reduced in SGA compared with AGA individuals, whereas hepatic or whole body insulin action (SI) did not differ between groups. SGA individuals had increased muscle PPARGC1A DNA methylation. We found no differences in adipose tissue PPARGC1A DNA methylation, muscle and adipose tissue PPARGC1A mRNA expression, or muscle glycogen levels between the groups. CONCLUSION: Compared with AGA individuals, SGA individuals displayed a more energy-conserving and energy-conserving cardiometabolic response to 36 h fasting. The role of increased muscle PPARGC1A DNA methylation in mediating this response requires further study.

  20. Time dependent start-up thermal analysis of a Super Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Time dependent startup thermal analysis of a Super Fast Reactor is performed. • A recirculation system is used for pressurization and for generating supercritical steam. • MCST satisfies the criterion both during subcritical pressure and during power-raising. • MCST is not sensitive to the change of inlet temperature, gap volume and flow rate because of high flow to power ratio. • CHF is not limiting the MCST during subcritical pressure due to large margin of heat flux. -- Abstract: The startup system of a supercritical pressure light water cooled fast reactor (Super FR) is studied by time dependent thermal-hydraulic analysis. The plant analysis code is developed based on an innovative upward flow pattern in all the assemblies of the Super FR. A recirculation system consisting of a steam drum, a circulation pump, and a heat exchanger is used for the startup. Detailed procedures are performed and the maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) at rated power, 640 °C, is used as the criterion. Firstly a small constant nuclear power is used for rising the core feed water temperature to be 280 °C through the recirculation system. Secondly, pressurization is done in the recirculation system from atmospheric to operating pressure, 25 MPa, by raising the power. Thirdly, line-switching from recirculation mode to once-through direct-cycle is performed while turbines are started by supercritical steam at supercritical pressure. Finally the power is raised to be 100% of power followed by raising the flow rate. During pressurization the heat flux margin is large due to low power used for pressurization and the MCST is much lower than the criterion. The MCST is not sensitive to the inlet temperature, the flow rate, and the gap volume of the core because of high flow to power ratio. Smaller dimension of steam drum can be used for pressurization stably. The MCST satisfies the criterion both during subcritical pressure and during power-raising

  1. Time dependent start-up thermal analysis of a Super Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutanto,, E-mail: sutanto@fuji.waseda.jp; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Time dependent startup thermal analysis of a Super Fast Reactor is performed. • A recirculation system is used for pressurization and for generating supercritical steam. • MCST satisfies the criterion both during subcritical pressure and during power-raising. • MCST is not sensitive to the change of inlet temperature, gap volume and flow rate because of high flow to power ratio. • CHF is not limiting the MCST during subcritical pressure due to large margin of heat flux. -- Abstract: The startup system of a supercritical pressure light water cooled fast reactor (Super FR) is studied by time dependent thermal-hydraulic analysis. The plant analysis code is developed based on an innovative upward flow pattern in all the assemblies of the Super FR. A recirculation system consisting of a steam drum, a circulation pump, and a heat exchanger is used for the startup. Detailed procedures are performed and the maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) at rated power, 640 °C, is used as the criterion. Firstly a small constant nuclear power is used for rising the core feed water temperature to be 280 °C through the recirculation system. Secondly, pressurization is done in the recirculation system from atmospheric to operating pressure, 25 MPa, by raising the power. Thirdly, line-switching from recirculation mode to once-through direct-cycle is performed while turbines are started by supercritical steam at supercritical pressure. Finally the power is raised to be 100% of power followed by raising the flow rate. During pressurization the heat flux margin is large due to low power used for pressurization and the MCST is much lower than the criterion. The MCST is not sensitive to the inlet temperature, the flow rate, and the gap volume of the core because of high flow to power ratio. Smaller dimension of steam drum can be used for pressurization stably. The MCST satisfies the criterion both during subcritical pressure and during power-raising.

  2. Disaster Response Team FAST Skills Training with a Portable Ultrasound Simulator Compared to Traditional Training: Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddock, Michael T.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pre-hospital focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST has been effectively used to improve patient care in multiple mass casualty events throughout the world. Although requisite FAST knowledge may now be learned remotely by disaster response team members, traditional live instructor and model hands-on FAST skills training remains logistically challenging. The objective of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of a novel portable ultrasound (US simulator with traditional FAST skills training for a deployed mixed provider disaster response team. Methods: We randomized participants into one of three training groups stratified by provider role: Group A. Traditional Skills Training, Group B. US Simulator Skills Training, and Group C. Traditional Skills Training Plus US Simulator Skills Training. After skills training, we measured participants’ FAST image acquisition and interpretation skills using a standardized direct observation tool (SDOT with healthy models and review of FAST patient images. Pre- and post-course US and FAST knowledge were also assessed using a previously validated multiple-choice evaluation. We used the ANOVA procedure to determine the statistical significance of differences between the means of each group’s skills scores. Paired sample t-tests were used to determine the statistical significance of pre- and post-course mean knowledge scores within groups. Results: We enrolled 36 participants, 12 randomized to each training group. Randomization resulted in similar distribution of participants between training groups with respect to provider role, age, sex, and prior US training. For the FAST SDOT image acquisition and interpretation mean skills scores, there was no statistically significant difference between training groups. For US and FAST mean knowledge scores, there was a statistically significant improvement between pre- and post-course scores within each group, but again there was not a statistically significant difference between training groups. Conclusion: This pilot study of a deployed mixed-provider disaster response team suggests that a novel portable US simulator may provide equivalent skills training in comparison to traditional live instructor and model training. Further studies with a larger sample size and other measures of short- and long-term clinical performance are warranted. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:325–330.

  3. Disaster Response Team FAST Skills Training with a Portable Ultrasound Simulator Compared to Traditional Training: Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Michael T.; Bailitz, John; Horowitz, Russ; Khishfe, Basem; Cosby, Karen; Sergel, Michelle J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pre-hospital focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) has been effectively used to improve patient care in multiple mass casualty events throughout the world. Although requisite FAST knowledge may now be learned remotely by disaster response team members, traditional live instructor and model hands-on FAST skills training remains logistically challenging. The objective of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of a novel portable ultrasound (US) simulator with traditional FAST skills training for a deployed mixed provider disaster response team. Methods We randomized participants into one of three training groups stratified by provider role: Group A. Traditional Skills Training, Group B. US Simulator Skills Training, and Group C. Traditional Skills Training Plus US Simulator Skills Training. After skills training, we measured participants’ FAST image acquisition and interpretation skills using a standardized direct observation tool (SDOT) with healthy models and review of FAST patient images. Pre- and post-course US and FAST knowledge were also assessed using a previously validated multiple-choice evaluation. We used the ANOVA procedure to determine the statistical significance of differences between the means of each group’s skills scores. Paired sample t-tests were used to determine the statistical significance of pre- and post-course mean knowledge scores within groups. Results We enrolled 36 participants, 12 randomized to each training group. Randomization resulted in similar distribution of participants between training groups with respect to provider role, age, sex, and prior US training. For the FAST SDOT image acquisition and interpretation mean skills scores, there was no statistically significant difference between training groups. For US and FAST mean knowledge scores, there was a statistically significant improvement between pre- and post-course scores within each group, but again there was not a statistically significant difference between training groups. Conclusion This pilot study of a deployed mixed-provider disaster response team suggests that a novel portable US simulator may provide equivalent skills training in comparison to traditional live instructor and model training. Further studies with a larger sample size and other measures of short- and long-term clinical performance are warranted. PMID:25834682

  4. Synthesis of fast response crosslinked PVA-g-NIPAAm nanohydrogels by very low radiation dose in dilute aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanohydrogels of poly(vinyl alcohol)-g-N-isopropylacrylamide (PVA-g-NIPAAm) are synthesized by PVA and NIPAAm dilute aqueous solution using much less radiation dose of 1–20 Gy via intramolecular crosslinking at ambient temperature. The radiation synthesis of nanohydrogels is performed in the presence of tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC) due to its rapid oxygen scavenging abilities and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a source of hydroxyl radicals. The effect of radiation dose, feed composition ratio of PVA and H2O2 is investigated on swelling properties such as temperature and pH dependence of equilibrium swelling ratio as well as deswelling kinetics. Experimental data exhibit high equilibrium swelling ratio and fast response time for the synthesized nanohydrogels. The average molecular weight between crosslinks (Mc) and crosslinking density (?x) of the obtained nanohydrogels are calculated from swelling data as a function of radiation dose, H2O2 and PVA amount. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), elemental analysis of nitrogen content and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) are used to confirm the grafting reaction. Lower critical solution temperature (LCST) is measured around 33 °C by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for PVA-g-NIPAAm nanohydrogels. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) data demonstrate that the increase of radiation dose leads to the decreasing in dimension of nanohydrogels. Also, rheological studies are confirmed an improvement in the mechanical properties of the nanohydrogels with increasing the radiation dose. A cytotoxicity study exhibits a good biocompatibility for the obtained nanohydrogels. The prepared nanohydrogels show fast swelling/deswelling behavior, high swelling ratio, dual sensitivity and good cytocompatibility, which may find potential applications as biomaterial. - Highlights: ? A new radiation polymerization method is offered in dilute aqueous solution.? This method provides PVA-g-NIPAAm nanohydrogels by radiation dose of 1–20 Gy. ? Using THPC and H2O2 leads to the polymerization with much less radiation dose. ? The obtained nanohydrogels exhibit fast swelling/deswelling rate. ? Nanohydrogels indicate good rheological properties and biocompatibility

  5. ZnO(N)-Spiro-MeOTAD hybrid photodiode: an efficient self-powered fast-response UV (visible) photosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Game, Onkar; Singh, Upendra; Kumari, Tanya; Banpurkar, Arun; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2014-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid photo-detectors with a self-sufficient mode of operation represent a research area of great current interest. In most efficient photodetectors and optoelectronic devices compound semiconductors containing toxic elements such as Cd, As, Te, S, Se etc. are used and these are also expensive. Hence there is also a rapidly growing interest in replacing these with environmentally friendly and earth-abundant materials. Herein, we report a facile solution-processed fabrication of a self-powered organic-inorganic hybrid photodetector using n-type oriented ZnO nanorods and p-type Spiro-MeOTAD semiconductor. ZnO is eco-friendly and earth-abundant, and Spiro-MeOTAD is non-hazardous. We show that the latter has far less toxicity than the toxic elements stated above. This visible blind UV photodetector shows high sensitivity (10(2)) and a UV/visible rejection ratio of 300. It also exhibits fast response times of ?(rise) ~ 200 ?s and ?(fall) ~ 950 ?s. Importantly, with a small modification of nitrogen incorporation in ZnO one can also realize a highly-sensitive self-powered visible light photodetector with at least 1000% (or higher) improvements in quality factors (photocurrent/sensitivity/response time) as compared to previously reported organic-inorganic hybrid photo-detectors based on metal-chalcogenides (CdS-PANI or CuInSe2-P3HT). Interestingly, the broadband sensitivity of such N:ZnO-Spiro-MeOTAD photodiode enables sensing of low intensity (~28 ?W cm(-2)) ambient white light with a high photocurrent density of 120 nA cm(-2) making it an efficient ambient white light detector. PMID:24232600

  6. Fast Padé Transform for Exact Quantification of Time Signals in Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkic, Dzevad

    This work employs the fast Padé transform (FPT) for spectral analysis of theoretically generated time signals. The spectral characteristics of these synthesised signals are reminiscent of the corresponding data that are measured experimentally via encoding digitised free induction decay curves from a healthy human brain using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS). In medicine, in vivo MRS is one of the most promising non-invasive diagnostic tools, especially in oncology, due to the provided biochemical information about functionality of metabolites of the scanned tissue. For success of such diagnostics, it is crucial to carry out the most reliable quantifications of the studied time signals. This quantification problem is the harmonic inversion via the spectral decomposition of the given time signal into its damped harmonic constituents. Such a reconstruction finds the unknown total number of resonances, their complex frequencies and the corresponding complex amplitudes. These spectral parameters of the fundamental harmonics give the peak positions, widths, heights, and phases of all the physical resonances. As per the unified theory of quantum-mechanical spectral analysis and signal processing, the FPT represents the exact solver of the quantification problem, which is mathematically ill-conditioned. The exact and unique solution via the FPT is valid for any noiseless synthesised time signal built from an arbitrary number of damped complex exponentials. These attenuated harmonics can appear as a linear combination with both stationary and non-stationary amplitudes. Such sums produce time signals that yield Lorentzian (non-degenerate) and non-Lorentzian (degenerate) spectra for isolated and overlapped resonances from MRS. We give a convergent validation for these virtues of the FPT. This is achieved through the proof-of-principle investigation by developing an algorithmic feasibility for robust and efficient computations of the exact numerical solution of a typical quantification problem from MRS. The systematics in the methodology designed in the present study represent a veritable paradigm shift for solving the quantification problem in MRS with special ramifications in clinical oncology. This is implied by the explicit demonstration of the remarkable ability of the fast Padé transform to unambiguously quantify all the customary spectral structures, ranging from isolated resonances to those that are tightly overlapped and nearly confluent.

  7. CHARACTERISTICS OF A FAST RISE TIME POWER SUPPLY FOR A PULSED PLASMA REACTOR FOR CHEMICAL VAPOR DESTRUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotating spark gap devices for switching high-voltage direct current (dc) into a corona plasma reactor can achieve pulse rise times in the range of tens of nanoseconds. The fast rise times lead to vigorous plasma generation without sparking at instantaneous applied voltages highe...

  8. ULTRAFAST DEPHASING TIME MEASUREMENT IN CRESYL FAST VIOLET DOPED CELLULOSE BY PHOTON ECHOES WITH TEMPORALLY INCOHERENT LIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatsuka, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Kuroda, R.

    1985-01-01

    Photon echoes with broad spectrum nanosecond laser pulses have been used to measure a femtosecond dephasing time (homogeneous transverse relaxation time) T2 of the S0?1 transition of Cresyl Fast Violet molecules in a cellulose film. The measured T2 was much shorter at a shorter wavelength 5940A than that at a longer wavelength 6250A near the band edge.

  9. Response of peripheral rhythms to the timing of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatori, Megumi; Panda, Satchidananda

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism and physiology in animals show diurnal rhythm to adapt to the daily cycles of activity-rest and the associated rhythm in feeding and fasting. Accordingly, gene expression, protein activities, and numerous metabolites show daily rhythm in abundance. The significance of these rhythms in promoting healthy lifespan and preventing disease has recently come to light. Mice with genetic disruption of circadian rhythm, mice, and humans under shift-work paradigm, and mice fed high-fat diet ad libitum exhibit chronic disruption of feeding-fasting rhythm and dampened daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and gene expression. These dampened rhythms are associated with metabolic diseases. Conversely, time-restricted feeding, in which mice are fed for certain number of hours every day, restores rhythms and can prevent obesity and metabolic diseases even when mice are fed high-fat diet. These observations seek mechanistic explanations, which will require careful experiments in which feeding duration, genotype, nutrient, and feeding time relative to light:dark cycle will be manipulated and molecular changes in peripheral organs and a few brain regions will be assessed. This chapter will primarily focus on the use of mouse as an experimental animal and the experimental setup so that the molecular readouts can be better interpreted. PMID:25707276

  10. Spatial resolution in fast time-resolved transillumination imaging: an indeterministic Monte Carlo approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behin-Ain, S.; Doorn, T. van; Patterson, J.R. [Department of Physics and Mathematical Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Department of Medical Physics, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    2002-08-21

    The spatial resolution achievable in time-resolved optical transillumination imaging through a turbid (scattering and absorbing) medium has been reassessed theoretically. The temporal point spread function was constructed assuming a delta function input pulse, a {approx}50 mm thick medium and a small detector with zero risetime. Temporal profiles were derived from an indeterministic Monte Carlo simulation for different time scales. From the temporal point spread function (TPSF), an analytic edge response function from which the spatial resolution was determined was derived. Previous analytical methods for determining the spatial resolution are approximations for very short flight times (sub-100 ps time region). The results show that a spatial resolution of about two millimetres is possible under ideal signal-to-noise ratio conditions and with detector gate times of the order of ten picoseconds. If this predicted spatial resolution can be achieved in an imaging system, it may be possible to improve the diagnosis of breast tumours. (author)

  11. Spatial resolution in fast time-resolved transillumination imaging: an indeterministic Monte Carlo approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial resolution achievable in time-resolved optical transillumination imaging through a turbid (scattering and absorbing) medium has been reassessed theoretically. The temporal point spread function was constructed assuming a delta function input pulse, a ?50 mm thick medium and a small detector with zero risetime. Temporal profiles were derived from an indeterministic Monte Carlo simulation for different time scales. From the temporal point spread function (TPSF), an analytic edge response function from which the spatial resolution was determined was derived. Previous analytical methods for determining the spatial resolution are approximations for very short flight times (sub-100 ps time region). The results show that a spatial resolution of about two millimetres is possible under ideal signal-to-noise ratio conditions and with detector gate times of the order of ten picoseconds. If this predicted spatial resolution can be achieved in an imaging system, it may be possible to improve the diagnosis of breast tumours. (author)

  12. Testing fit of latent trait models for responses and response times in tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Ranger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The joint analysis of responses and response times in psychological tests with latent trait models has become popular recently. Although numerous such models have been proposed so far there are only few tests of model fit. In this manuscript a new approach to the evaluation of model fit is presented. The approach is based on the differences between the observed frequencies of positive or negative responses given during fixed time intervals and the corresponding expected frequencies implied by the model. Summing the squared differences yields a test statistic that is approximately chi-squared distributed. Different forms of the test can be implemented. Jointly considering all items allows for the evaluation of global fit whereas examining each item separately allows for the assessment of item fit. Depending on the definition of the frequencies one can test for specific forms of model misfit, e.g. wrong assumptions about the response time distribution, about the relation of responses and response times in the same item or about the relation of responses and response times from different items. The validity and power of the test is demonstrated in a simulation study. It can be shown that the test adheres to the nominal Type-I error rate and has high power.

  13. Study on proliferation time and response time for proliferation resistance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Proliferation time' is one of the proliferation resistance measures adopted by the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems International Forum (GIF) Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR and PP) evaluation methodology. A longer proliferation time would provide the international society with more time to intervene politically in order to dissuade the State from completing its nuclear weapons program. A longer proliferation time would therefore contribute to the enhancement of proliferation resistance of a given nuclear energy system. Two methods are considered for judging whether the proliferation time is long enough: 1) comparison of the proliferation times between a reference nuclear energy system and the subject system, and 2) comparison between the proliferation time and the response time, which can be defined as the time available to the international society to make a political intervention. This paper focuses on the latter method and examines how the response time can be estimated by reviewing prior incidents. (author)

  14. A real-time fast radio burst: polarization detection and multiwavelength follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroff, E.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Barsdell, B. R.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bian, F.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Caleb, M.; Champion, D.; Chandra, P.; Da Costa, G.; Delvaux, C.; Flynn, C.; Gehrels, N.; Greiner, J.; Jameson, A.; Johnston, S.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Keane, E. F.; Keller, S.; Kocz, J.; Kramer, M.; Leloudas, G.; Malesani, D.; Mulchaey, J. S.; Ng, C.; Ofek, E. O.; Perley, D. A.; Possenti, A.; Schmidt, B. P.; Shen, Yue; Stappers, B.; Tisserand, P.; van Straten, W.; Wolf, C.

    2015-02-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are one of the most tantalizing mysteries of the radio sky; their progenitors and origins remain unknown and until now no rapid multiwavelength follow-up of an FRB has been possible. New instrumentation has decreased the time between observation and discovery from years to seconds, and enables polarimetry to be performed on FRBs for the first time. We have discovered an FRB (FRB 140514) in real-time on 2014 May 14 at 17:14:11.06 UTC at the Parkes radio telescope and triggered follow-up at other wavelengths within hours of the event. FRB 140514 was found with a dispersion measure (DM) of 562.7(6) cm-3 pc, giving an upper limit on source redshift of z ? 0.5. FRB 140514 was found to be 21 ± 7 per cent (3?) circularly polarized on the leading edge with a 1? upper limit on linear polarization objects. Follow-up conducted by 12 telescopes observing from X-ray to radio wavelengths was unable to identify a variable multiwavelength counterpart, allowing us to rule out models in which FRBs originate from nearby (z < 0.3) supernovae and long duration gamma-ray bursts.

  15. Assessing the Value of Regulation Resources Based on Their Time Response Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Lu, Shuai; Ma, Jian; Nguyen, Tony B.

    2008-06-01

    Fast responsive regulation resources are potentially more valuable as a power system regulation resource (more efficient) because they allow applying controls at the exact moment and in the exact amount as needed. Faster control is desirable because it facilitates more reliable compliance with the NERC Control Performance Standards at relatively lesser regulation capacity procurements. The current California ISO practices and markets do not provide a differentiation among the regulation resources based on their speed of response (with the exception of some minimum ramping capabilities). Some demand response technologies, including some generation and energy storage resources, can provide quicker control actions. California ISO practices and markets could be updated to welcome more fast regulation resources into the California ISO service area. The project work reported in this work was pursuing the following objectives: • Develop methodology to assess the relative value of generation resources used for regulation and load following California ISO functions • This assessment should be done based on physical characteristics including the ability to quickly change their output following California ISO signals • Evaluate what power is worth on different time scales • Analyze the benefits of new regulation resources to provide effective compliance with the mandatory NERC Control Performance Standards • Evaluate impacts of the newly proposed BAAL and FRR standards on the potential value of fast regulation and distributed regulation resources • Develop a scope for the follow-up projects to pave a road for the new efficient types of balancing resources in California. The work included the following studies: • Analysis of California ISO regulating units characteristics • California ISO automatic generation system (AGC) analysis • California ISO regulation procurement and market analysis • Fast regulation efficiency analysis • Projection of the California ISO load following and regulation requirements into the future • Value of fast responsive resources depending on their ramping capability • Potential impacts of the balancing authority area control error limit (BAAL), which is a part of the newly proposed NERC standard “Balancing Resources and Demand” • Potential impacts of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) frequency responsive reserve (FRR) standard • Recommendations for the next phase of the project. The following main conclusions and suggestions for the future have been made: • The analysis of regulation ramping requirements shows that the regulation system should be able to provide ramps of at least 40-60 MW per minute for a period up to 6 minutes. • Evaluate if changes are needed in the California ISO AGC system to effectively accommodate new types of fast regulation resources and minimize the California ISO regulation procurement. • California ISO may consider creating better market opportunities for and incentives for fast responsive resources. • An additional study of low probability high ramp events can be recommended to the California ISO. • The California ISO may be willing to consider establishing a more relaxed target CPS2 compliance level. • A BAAL-related study can be recommended for the California ISO as soon as more clarity is achieved concerning the actual enforcement of the BAAL standard and its numerical values for the California ISO. The study may involve an assessment of advantages of the distributed frequency-based control for the California ISO system. The market-related issues that arise in this connection can be also investigated. • A FRR-related study can be recommended for the California ISO as soon as more clarity is achieved concerning the actual enforcement of the FRR standard and its numerical values for the California ISO.

  16. Reduced computational cost in the calculation of worst case response time for real time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Urriza, Jose? M.; Schorb, Lucas; Orozco, Javier D.; Cayssials, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Modern Real Time Operating Systems require reducing computational costs even though the microprocessors become more powerful each day. It is usual that Real Time Operating Systems for embedded systems have advance features to administrate the resources of the applications that they support. In order to guarantee either the schedulability of the system or the schedulability of a new task in a dynamic Real Time System, it is necessary to know the Worst Case Response Time of the Real Time tasks ...

  17. Time response of protection in event of vacuum failure based on Nude ionization gauge controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Wang, Qiuping; Wang, Weibin; Wu, Qinglin; Chen, Wentong; Sheng, Liusi; Zhang, Yunwu

    2001-10-01

    This article describes the design and application of fast-response vacuum protection sensor module, based on the Nude ionization gauge and a homemade controller named GH07X. A simulative test indicated that the controller's response time was less than 200 ?s when 1 atm air rushed into the vacuum system through a pulsed valve with 0.8 mm orifice nozzle and the emitting current of the Nude gauge was 4 mA. The experiment result showed that the response time mainly depended on the gas density as well as the electron emitting current of the Nude gauge filament. Compared with the vacuum protection sensors based on sputter ion pump and cold-cathode gauge, GH07X is faster and reliable besides, GH07X can be used as an ultrahigh-vacuum slow valve interlock controller with response time of 100 ms, which is faster than other gauge controllers. The widely used field-bus interface CAN and common serial interface RS232/RS485 are embedded in GH07X controller system.

  18. SeaMon-HC Buoy. A specific real-time-lightweight-moored platform as a tool for fast hydrocarbon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, C.; Rueda, M. J.; Moran, R.; Llerandi, C.; Llinas, O.

    2009-04-01

    The present paper-work describes the design, last development stages and the derived results from a specific buoy platform for fast hydrocarbon detection in seawater. Under the name of SeaMon-HC, (Patent No. P200302219/8) the buoy represents a very chief tool for coastal monitoring, mainly surrounding areas with a high oil-spill risk level, like harbours, off-shore fish farming, beaches and so on. Nowadays, the Macaronesian area has nine units working in real-time, under the frame of the Red ACOMAR Network. The main innovative aspect from this buoy is the detection system. It's based in polymer technology, working as a resistance, who increase its value when the pollutant on water surface is detected. The response time from the sensor is a direct function of the hydrocarbon volatility level. For hydrocarbons with high volatility levels (like petrol), the sensor needs less time (around 3 minutes) than others with less volatility such as oils. SeaMon-HC is an autonomous, modular, reusable and a very low-cost development integrated by four subsystems (SS): SS-Flotation (different materials and shapes available); SS-Sensors (hydrocarbon detector and additional sensors -up to 15-, to solve specific sensor configuration requirements); SS-Power Supply (equipped in its basic configuration with a couple of solar modules and two 12V batteries) and the SS-Communication (based on a RF or GSM/GPRS modem technology, with a selectable communication frequency). All SeaMon-HC units, as well the rest of the ODAS buoys who joint together the Red ACOMAR Network, works in real-time, sending the collected information to the control centre that manages the communications, providing data, in a useful form (as a web site), to diverse socio-economic important sectors which make an exhaustive use of the littoral in the Macaronesian region. The access to the information by the users is done through a specific GIS software application.

  19. A 3 A sink/source current fast transient response low-dropout G{sub m} driven linear regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu Xiuqin; Li Qingwei; Lai Xinquan; Yuan Bing [Institute of Electronic CAD, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Li Yanming [School of Electronic and Control Engineering, Chang' an University, Xi' an 710064 (China); Zhao Yongrui, E-mail: liqw309@163.com, E-mail: xqchu@mail.xidian.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of High-Speed Circuit Design and EMC, Ministry of Education, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2011-06-15

    A 3 A sink/source G{sub m}-driven CMOS low-dropout regulator (LDO), specially designed for low input voltage and low cost, is presented by utilizing the structure of a current mirror G{sub m} (transconductance) driving technique, which provides high stability as well as a fast load transient response. The proposed LDO was fabricated by a 0.5 {mu}m standard CMOS process, and the die size is as small as 1.0 mm{sup 2}. The proposed LDO dissipates 220 {mu}A of quiescent current in no-load conditions and is able to deliver up to 3 A of load current. The measured results show that the output voltage can be resumed within 2 {mu}s with a less than 1 mV overshoot and undershoot in the output current step from -1.8 to 1.8 A with a 0.1 {mu}s rising and falling time at three 10 {mu}F ceramic capacitors. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. A Fast-Time Study of Aircraft Reordering in Arrival Sequencing and Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Greg; Neuman, Frank; Tobias, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In order to ensure that the safe capacity of the terminal area is not exceeded, Air Traffic Management ATM often places restrictions on arriving flights transitioning from en route airspace to terminal airspace. This restriction of arrival traffic is commonly referred to as arrival flow management, and includes techniques such as metering, vectoring, fix-load balancing, and the imposition of miles-in-trail separations. These restrictions are enacted without regard for the relative priority which airlines may be placing on individual flights based on factors such as crew criticality, passenger connectivity, critical turn times, gate availability, on-time performance, fuel status, or runway preference. The development of new arrival flow management techniques which take into consideration priorities expressed by air carriers will likely reduce the economic impact of ATM restrictions on the airlines and lead to increased airline economic efficiency by allowing airlines to have greater control over their individual arrival banks of aircraft. NASA and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) have designed and developed a suite of software decision support tools (DSTs) collectively known as the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). One of these tools, the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) is currently being used at the Fort Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center to perform arrival flow management of traffic into the Dallas/Fort Worth airport (DFW). The TMA is a time-based strategic planning tool that assists Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs) and En Route Air Traffic Controllers in efficiently balancing arrival demand with airport capacity. The primary algorithm in the TMA is a real-time scheduler which generates efficient landing sequences and landing times for arrivals within about 200 no a. from touchdown. This scheduler will sequence aircraft so that they arrive in a first- come - first-served (FCFS) order. While FCFS sequencing establishes a fair order based on estimated times of arrival, it does not take into account individual airline priorities among incoming flights. NASA is exploring the possibility of allowing airlines to express relative arrival priorities to air traffic management through the development of new CTAS scheduling algorithms which take into consideration airline arrival preferences. The accommodation of airline priorities in arrival sequencing and scheduling would under most circumstances result in a deviation from a "natural" or FCFS arrival order. As a First step toward developing airline influenced sequencing algorithms, an investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of reordering arrival traffic from a strict FCFS sequence. A fast-time simulation has been developed which allows statistical evaluation of sequencing and scheduling algorithms for arrival traffic at the Dallas/Fort Worth Airport. In contrast to real-time simulation or field tests, which would require on the order of ninety minutes to examine a single traffic rush period, the fast-time simulation allows examination of multiple rush periods in a matter of seconds.

  1. Surface layer characteristics derived from fast-response micrometeorological observations over a mountain peak in the central Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Raman; Dhaka, Surendra; Rajeev, Kunjukrishnapillai; Singh, Narendra; Nadimpally, Kirankumar

    Diurnal evolution of atmospheric boundary layer over hilly terrains is highly complex and least understood. Fast-response micrometeorological observations carried out at Manora Peak, Nainital (29.2°N, 79.3°E, 1960 m ASL), a hill station located in the Central Himalayas during March-2013 to February-2014 has been used to investigate diurnal variations in the surface layer characteristics, energy budget and atmospheric circulation over complex terrains. This study mainly employs tower-based sonic anemometer observations (25 Hz) carried out at two levels (12 m and 27 m above the ground level) which are used to derive the variations of zonal, meridional and vertical winds, virtual temperature, momentum flux, turbulent kinetic energy, and Monin-Obukhov stability parameter during fair-weather conditions. In general, this station is manifested by warm and dry conditions as well as relatively high wind speed during pre-monsoon season (March-May); while highly moist conditions prevail during the summer monsoon season (June-September). The sensible heat flux (SHF) undergoes a prominent diurnal variation during winter and pre-monsoon seasons with peak values (200 to 400 Wm-2) occurring between 11-15 Local Time (LT) and weakly negative values (typically -20 Wm-2) during night, the latter indicating a downward transfer of heat from atmosphere to surface. The noon-time peak values systematically increases from winter to pre-monsoon season. Remarkably, the large noon-time values of SHF observed during the pre-monsoon season over this station (peak SHF of more than 400 Wm-2 during May) arise from the forced lifting of air masses, caused by the prevailing horizontal winds that blow perpendicular to the mountain. The intricate details of the surface layer parameters and fluxes over this site will assist in investigating how such a complex topography influences the flux generation process.

  2. Fast-timing measurements performed at ALTO on 137,139Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast-timing measurements were performed on 137,139Cs obtained from the ?- decay of 137'139Xe. The neutron-rich Xe nuclei were produced by the 238U photofission induced by the 50 MeV electron beam delivered by the ALTO facility. The half-lives of the first excited state in 137Cs and of six excited states in 139Cs were measured for the first time. These T1/2 results give new information on the structure of the 137,13955Cs82,84 nuclei located near the neutron closed shell N = 82. In particular, it is shown that, in both nuclei, the first excited 5/2+ level corresponds mainly to the one-proton state issued from the ?2d5/2 orbital. From the comparison with other N = 84 isotones, the most probable spin values for the states located at 289.8, 393.5, and 393.8 keV in 139Cs appear to be 5/2+, 3/2+, and 1/2+.

  3. Fast magnetosonic wave excitation by an array of wires with time-modulated currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sanchez-Arriaga

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The excitation of Fast Magnetosonic (FMS waves by a cylindrical array of parallel tethers carrying time-modulated current is discussed. The tethers would fly vertical in the equatorial plane, which is perpendicular to the geomagnetic field when its tilt is ignored, and would be stabilized by the gravity gradient. The tether array would radiate a single FMS wave. In the time-dependent background made of geomagnetic field plus radiated wave, plasma FMS perturbations are excited in the array vicinity through a parametric instability. The growth rate is estimated by truncating the evolution equation for FMS perturbations to the two azimuthal modes of lowest order. Design parameters such as tether length and number, required power and mass are discussed for Low Earth Orbit conditions. The array-attached wave structure would have the radiated wave controlled by the intensity and modulation frequency of the currents, making an active experiment on non-linear low frequency waves possible in real space plasma conditions.

  4. Fault tolerant distributed real time computer systems for I and C of prototype fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manimaran, M., E-mail: maran@igcar.gov.in; Shanmugam, A.; Parimalam, P.; Murali, N.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Architecture of distributed real time computer system (DRTCS) used in I and C of PFBR is explained. • Fault tolerant (hot standby) architecture, fault detection and switch over are detailed. • Scaled down model was used to study functional and performance requirements of DRTCS. • Quality of service parameters for scaled down model was critically studied. - Abstract: Prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) is in the advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam, India. Three-tier architecture is adopted for instrumentation and control (I and C) of PFBR wherein bottom tier consists of real time computer (RTC) systems, middle tier consists of process computers and top tier constitutes of display stations. These RTC systems are geographically distributed and networked together with process computers and display stations. Hot standby architecture comprising of dual redundant RTC systems with switch over logic system is deployed in order to achieve fault tolerance. Fault tolerant dual redundant network connectivity is provided in each RTC system and TCP/IP protocol is selected for network communication. In order to assess the performance of distributed RTC systems, scaled down model was developed with 9 representative systems and nearly 15% of I and C signals of PFBR were connected and monitored. Functional and performance testing were carried out for each RTC system and the fault tolerant characteristics were studied by creating various faults into the system and observed the performance. Various quality of service parameters like connection establishment delay, priority parameter, transit delay, throughput, residual error ratio, etc., are critically studied for the network.

  5. High time resolution electron measurement by Fast Electron energy Spectrum Analyzer (FESA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have newly developed an electron energy analyzer FESA (Fast Electron energy Spectrum Analyzer) for a future magnetospheric satellite mission SCOPE. The SCOPE mission is designed in order that observational studies from the cross-scale coupling viewpoint are enabled. One of the key observations necessary for the SCOPE mission is high-time resolution electron measurement. Eight FESAs on a spinning spacecraft are capable of measuring three dimensional electron distribution function with time resolution of 8 msec. FESA consists of two electrostatic analyzers that are composed of three nested hemispherical deflectors. Single FESA functions as four top-hat type electrostatic analyzers that can measure electrons with four different energies simultaneously. By measuring the characteristics of the test model FESA, we proved the validity of the design concept of FESA. Based on the measured characteristics, we designed FESA optimized for the SCOPE mission. This optimized analyzer has good enough performance to measure three dimensional electron distribution functions around the magnetic reconnection region in the Earth's magnetotail.

  6. Equilibrium and response properties of the integrate-and-fire neuron in discrete time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MoritzHelias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrate-and-fire neuron with exponential postsynaptic potentials is a frequently employed model to study neural networks. Simulations in discrete time still have highest performance at moderate numerical errors, which makes them first choice for long-term simulations of plastic networks. Here we extend the population density approach to investigate how the equilibrium and response properties of the leaky integrate-and-fire neuron are affected by time discretization. We present a novel analytical treatment of the boundary condition at threshold, taking both discretization of time and finite synaptic weights into account. We uncover an increased membrane potential density just below threshold as the decisive property that explains the deviations found between simulations and the classical diffusion approximation. Temporal discretization and finite synaptic weights both contribute to this effect. Our treatment improves the standard formula to calculate the neuron’s equilibrium firing rate. Direct solution of the Markov process describing the evolution of the membrane potential density confirms our analysis and yields a method to calculate the firing rate exactly. Knowing the shape of the membrane potential distribution near threshold enables us to devise the transient response properties of the neuron model to synaptic input. We find a pronounced non-linear fast response component that has not been described by the prevailing continuous time theory for Gaussian white noise input.

  7. Fast and slow timescales in the tropical low-cloud response to increasing CO{sub 2} in two climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Yoshimori, Masakazu; Kimoto, Masahide [The University of Tokyo, Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, Chiba (Japan); Shiogama, Hideo; Ogura, Tomoo; Yokohata, Tokuta [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Okamoto, Hajime [Kyushu University, Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Fukuoka (Japan); Emori, Seita [The University of Tokyo, Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, Chiba (Japan); National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    To obtain physical insights into the response and feedback of low clouds (C{sub l}) to global warming, ensemble 4 x CO{sub 2} experiments were carried out with two climate models, the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC) versions 3.2 and 5. For quadrupling CO{sub 2}, tropical-mean C{sub l} decreases, and hence, acts as positive feedback in MIROC3, whereas it increases and serves as negative feedback in MIROC5. Three time scales of tropical-mean C{sub l} change were identified - an initial adjustment without change in the global-mean surface air temperature, a slow response emerging after 10-20 years, and a fast response in between. The two models share common features for the former two changes in which C{sub l} decreases. The slow response reflects the variability of C{sub l} associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation in the control integration, and may therefore be constrained by observations. However, the fast response is opposite in the two models and dominates the total response of C{sub l}. Its sign is determined by a subtle residual of the C{sub l} increase and decrease over the ascending and subsidence regions, respectively. The regional C{sub l} increase is consistent with a more frequent occurrence of a stable condition, and vice versa, as measured by lower-tropospheric stability (LTS). The above frequency change in LTS is similarly found in six other climate models despite a large difference in both the mean and the changes in the low-cloud fraction for a given LTS. This suggests that the response of the thermodynamic constraint for C{sub l} to increasing CO{sub 2} concentrations is a robust part of the climate change. (orig.)

  8. Analytic Calculus of Response Time in Networked Automation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Addad, Boussad; Amari, Sai?d; Lesage, Jean-jacques

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to evaluate the response time in networked automation systems (NAS) that use a client/server protocol. The developments introduced are derived from modeling the entire architecture in the form of timed event graphs (TEGs), as well as from the resulting state representation in Max-Plus algebra. The various architectural stages are actually modeled in a very abstract pattern, which yields just those TEG models where local delays are sufficient to perform the...

  9. Evaluation of Response Time in Ethernet-based Automation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Marsal, Gae?lle; Denis, Bruno; Faure, Jean-marc; Frey, Georg

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a method to assess response time of automation system architectures including industrial switched Ethernet networks using client/server protocols. This method relies upon modeling of the behavior of the components of these architectures in the form of Hierarchical Timed Colored Petri Nets and upon simulation of these models. A case study exemplifies the method and shows how it can facilitate design of automation systems including this kind of industrial Ethernet networks.

  10. EVALUATION OF A FAST-RESPONSE URBAN WIND MODEL - COMPARISON TO SINGLE-BUILDING WIND TUNNEL DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prediction of the 3-dimensional flow field around buildings and other obstacles is important for a number of applications, including urban air quality studies, the tracking of plumes from accidental releases of toxic air contaminants, indoor/outdoor air pollution problems, and thermal comfort assessments. Various types of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been used for determining the flow fields around buildings (e.g., Reisner et al., 1998; Eichhorn et al., 1988). Comparisons to measurements show that these models work reasonably well for the most part (e.g., Ehrhard et al., 2 ; Johnson and Hunter, 1998; Murakami, 1997). However, CFD models are computationally intensive and for some applications turn-around time is of the essence. For example, planning and assessment studies in which hundreds of cases must be analyzed or emergency response scenarios in which plume transport must be computed quickly. Several fast-response dispersion models of varying levels of fidelity have been developed to explicitly account for the effects of a single building or groups of buildings (e.g., UDM - Hall et al. (2000), NRC-Ramsdell and Fosmire (1995), CBP-3 - Yamartino and Wiegand (1986), APRAC - Daerdt et al. (1973)). Although a few of these models include the Hotchkiss and Harlow (1973) analytical solution for potential flow in a notch to describe the velocity field within an urban canyon, in general, these models do not explicitly compute the velocity field around grouply compute the velocity field around groups of buildings. The EPA PRIME model (Schulman et al., 2000) has been empirically derived to provide streamlines around a single isolated building

  11. FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR TURNOVER IN A FAST FOOD COMPANY OF SANTA MARIA – RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian dos Santos Rosa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current scene of the organizations, each time more, the collaborator comes conquering excellent space, where the good course of the functional activities depends on the motivation of each one of these members. Inside of this context, the present objective study to analyze the organizational climate, focusing in the motivation and the rotation of the collaborators of a great company of Fast Food of the city of Saint Maria- RS, known world-wide in this sort. Study of cases was carried through, using the Survey method, being the characterized research as exploratory, quantitative and descriptive, where 57 collaborators had answered to a questionnaire of 65 questions having aimed at to answer the problematic one of the study. The gotten results disclose that the collaborators correctly are trained and as consequence the quality is seen as a positive factor, however one has left of these collaborators if it showed not motivated, influenced for the half organizational not to be very healthful, had to the environment of extreme pressure that is part of the routine of this organization, beyond a sufficiently young team of collaborators, main factors of an index of turnover considerable, identified in this company.

  12. Fast Geometric T2-Fuzzy Based Improved Lower Extremities Stimulation Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendi Wicaksono

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study emphasizes the use of type-2 fuzzy (T2-Fuzzy adaptive proportional-integrative-derivative (PID control to replace the previous research. The problem that emerged in previous studies is the achievement of the target angle is slow, and the oscillations in the achievement of the target blade. Alleged causes of the oscillations due to the early adaptive PID have not been enough to overcome the nonlinearity lower extremities. The difference between methods of using T2-Fuzzy with others T2-Fuzzy lies in the method defuzzification. This research used defuzzification fast geometric that maintain the level of T2-Fuzzy uncertainty, can also be applied in real-time. A functional electrical stimulation (FES stimulator designed and connected to the computer as a processing T2-Fuzzy. It stimulates lower extremities of normal subjects each cycle, and the computer recorded the point of achievement as measured using a goniometer sensors mounted on a knee joint. The results of the achievement of the target point of the lower extremities of range at three initial cycles, and no oscillations occur in the achievement of the angle. It also found that T2-Fuzzy able to immediately restore the point of achievement when the external parameters of control occurs.

  13. Time-domain response of the ARIANNA detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwick, S. W.; Berg, E. C.; Besson, D. Z.; Duffin, T.; Hanson, J. C.; Klein, S. R.; Kleinfelder, S. A.; Piasecki, M.; Ratzlaff, K.; Reed, C.; Roumi, M.; Stezelberger, T.; Tatar, J.; Walker, J.; Young, R.; Zou, L.

    2015-03-01

    The Antarctic Ross Ice Shelf Antenna Neutrino Array (ARIANNA) is a high-energy neutrino detector designed to record the Askaryan electric field signature of cosmogenic neutrino interactions in ice. To understand the inherent radio-frequency (RF) neutrino signature, the time-domain response of the ARIANNA RF receiver must be measured. ARIANNA uses Create CLP5130-2N log-periodic dipole arrays (LPDAs). The associated effective height operator converts incident electric fields to voltage waveforms at the LDPA terminals. The effective height versus time and incident angle was measured, along with the associated response of the ARIANNA RF amplifier. The results are verified by correlating to field measurements in air and ice, using oscilloscopes. Finally, theoretical models for the Askaryan electric field are combined with the detector response to predict the neutrino signature.

  14. In situ response time measurements of RTD temperature sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The loop-current-step-response test provides a mean for determining the time constant of resistence thermometers. The test consist in heating the sensor a few degrees above ambient temperature by causing a step pertubation in the electric current that flows through the sensor leads. The developed mathematical transformation permits to use data collected during the internal heating transient to predict the sensor response to perturbations in fluid temperature. Experimental data obtained show that the time constant determined by method is within 15 percent of true value. The loop-current-step-response test is a remote in situ test, which can be performed with the sensor installed in the process. Consequently it takes account the local heat transfer conditions, and appropriated for nuclear power plants, where sensors are installed in points of difficult access. (author)

  15. Combined, Time-Resolved ?-Ray and Fast Neutron Radiography for Contraband Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soreq NRC and PTB are developing dual-probe (gamma-ray and fast neutron) high-spatial-resolution radiography for detection of explosives and special nuclear materials (SNM). The explosives are detected by Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), that exploits the specific energy-dependent cross-section characteristics of several low-Z elements in the neutron energy-range En=1-10 MeV. The neutrons are produced in 1-2 ns bursts using a pulsed beam of 12 MeV deuterons impinging on a thick Be target. Neutron spectroscopy is performed by means of a novel, integral-mode variant of the time of flight (TOF) technique. This method holds promise for detecting a broad range of conventional and improvised explosives, by determining the identity and density distribution of light elements such as C, N and O within an inspected object. It is expected that the high spatial resolution and the capability of operating at very high counting rates particular to this method will ultimately permit a significant improvement in baggage screening capabilities at airports, in terms of enhanced throughput and operator-independent detection of sheet explosives. In addition to neutrons, the d-Be reaction also yields prompt gamma-rays in the 0.5-6 MeV range. These gamma-rays are readily distinguished from neutrons by TOF. By taking the attenuation ratio of neutrons to gamma-rays through the inspected object it is possible to distinguish materials according to their atomic number. For els according to their atomic number. For example, the ratio for tungsten is higher by a factor of 4.2 and 2.3 than that of water and iron, respectively. The method produces high resolution images and also has the potential to detect small quantities of SNM. In this paper we shall describe the time-resolved neutron-gamma ray imaging detector and present studies of various detector parameters, such as spatial and energy resolution, imaging and material discrimination capabilities. (author)

  16. Insulin induced growth hormone response in fast-growing, lean and in slow-growing, obese pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, P J; Martin, R J; Gatchel, B B

    1980-12-01

    The effect of intravenous (IV) infusion of insulin on subsequent serum growth hormone (GH) response was studied in fasted lean, fast-growing and in genetically obese, slow-growing pigs at 6 months of age. A smaller GH response in obese compared to lean pigs was observed from 30 to 60 min after insulin infusion. Concurrently, marked hypoglycemia and a decrease in serum free fatty acids (FFA) were evident. Changes in serum glucose and FFA were similar in both pig strains. After IV administration of exogenous GH, the decrease in serum GH (half-life) and the simultaneous increase in serum FFA were not different for lean and obese pigs. The reduced GH secretory potential in obese pigs is consistent with reduced muscle development and growth rate. PMID:7014390

  17. Using random response input in Ibrahim Time Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Brincker, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the time domain technique Ibrahim Time Domain (ITD) is used to analyze random time data. ITD is known to be a technique for identification of output only systems. The traditional formulation of ITD is claimed to be limited, when identifying closely spaced modes, because of the technique being Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO). It has earlier been showed that when modifying ITD with Toeplitz matrix averaging. Identification of time data with closely spaced modes is improved. In the traditional formulation of ITD the time data has to be free decays or impulse response functions. In this article it is showed that when using the modified ITD random time data can be analyzed. The application of the technique is displayed by a case study, with simulations and experimental data.

  18. Neutron-proton asymmetry and fast fission: two extreme time evolution in dissipative heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review two different phenomena occuring in dissipative heavy ion collisions: neutron-proton asymmetry and fast fission. The first one is very fast and exhibits quantum fluctuations. The second one is very slow and dominated by statistical fluctuations. A dynamical model treating both these processes is also described

  19. Fast magnetic response in gigahertz-band for columnar-structured Fe nanoparticle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, T.; Kura, H.; Tate, R.; Oikawa, T.; Hata, K.

    2014-05-01

    High density Fe-based ferromagnetic nanoparticle (NP) assembly is expected to have unique magnetic properties, such as superferromagnetism and super-spin-glass, different from magnetically isolated NP systems due to strong dipole interactions among the NPs. A high dipole interaction field, Hdip, of ˜3.5 kOe can result in a high effective internal field to the magnetic moment of the NP, expecting for ultra-fast magnetic response, that is, a high magnetic resonance frequency, fr, of ˜10 GHz. However, for a simply molded Fe NP assembly, a low fr was observed due to inhomogeneous distribution of the internal field, implying the necessity of a unidirectional state of Hdip for higher fr. In this study, we fabricated a columnar Fe NP assembly for realizing the unidirectional state of Hdip by applying our uniquely developed external field-induced agglomeration method for monodispersed Fe NPs (13 nm in average size) as a function of the field (0-30 kOe) and volume fraction of the Fe NPs (0.5%-51%) in a polymer matrix with dimensions of 4 mm × 4 mm × 0.7 mmt. A columnar-structured Fe NP assembly was successfully achieved along an in-plane direction (defined as the x-axis) under optimized conditions. From static magnetization curves, induced uniaxial magnetic anisotropy was observed according to the shape of the columnar structure of the Fe NP assembly, where easy and hard axes of magnetization were realized along the parallel (x-axis) and normal directions (in-plane y-axis and z-axis in the thickness direction) to the external field during the process, respectively. Interestingly, this fabricated columnar-structured Fe NP assembly exhibited very high fr in the range from 3 to 11 GHz judging from the complex susceptibility spectra obtained. The fr values were well-scaled by a modified Snoek's-limit-law using demagnetization factors quantitatively estimated from the static magnetization curves. Thus, shape-induced anisotropy originating from the unidirectional state of Hdip in the columnar structure of the Fe NP assembly plays an important role for high frequency magnetic response in the GHz-band.

  20. Fast magnetic response in gigahertz-band for columnar-structured Fe nanoparticle assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, T., E-mail: tomoyuki@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp; Tate, R. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kura, H. [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Oikawa, T.; Hata, K. [Samsung R and D Institute Japan Co., Ltd., 2-7 Sugasawa-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0027 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    High density Fe-based ferromagnetic nanoparticle (NP) assembly is expected to have unique magnetic properties, such as superferromagnetism and super-spin-glass, different from magnetically isolated NP systems due to strong dipole interactions among the NPs. A high dipole interaction field, H{sub dip}, of ?3.5 kOe can result in a high effective internal field to the magnetic moment of the NP, expecting for ultra-fast magnetic response, that is, a high magnetic resonance frequency, f{sub r}, of ?10 GHz. However, for a simply molded Fe NP assembly, a low f{sub r} was observed due to inhomogeneous distribution of the internal field, implying the necessity of a unidirectional state of H{sub dip} for higher f{sub r}. In this study, we fabricated a columnar Fe NP assembly for realizing the unidirectional state of H{sub dip} by applying our uniquely developed external field-induced agglomeration method for monodispersed Fe NPs (13 nm in average size) as a function of the field (0–30 kOe) and volume fraction of the Fe NPs (0.5%–51%) in a polymer matrix with dimensions of 4 mm × 4 mm × 0.7 mm{sup t}. A columnar-structured Fe NP assembly was successfully achieved along an in-plane direction (defined as the x-axis) under optimized conditions. From static magnetization curves, induced uniaxial magnetic anisotropy was observed according to the shape of the columnar structure of the Fe NP assembly, where easy and hard axes of magnetization were realized along the parallel (x-axis) and normal directions (in-plane y-axis and z-axis in the thickness direction) to the external field during the process, respectively. Interestingly, this fabricated columnar-structured Fe NP assembly exhibited very high f{sub r} in the range from 3 to 11 GHz judging from the complex susceptibility spectra obtained. The f{sub r} values were well-scaled by a modified Snoek's-limit-law using demagnetization factors quantitatively estimated from the static magnetization curves. Thus, shape-induced anisotropy originating from the unidirectional state of H{sub dip} in the columnar structure of the Fe NP assembly plays an important role for high frequency magnetic response in the GHz-band.

  1. Fast magnetic response in gigahertz-band for columnar-structured Fe nanoparticle assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High density Fe-based ferromagnetic nanoparticle (NP) assembly is expected to have unique magnetic properties, such as superferromagnetism and super-spin-glass, different from magnetically isolated NP systems due to strong dipole interactions among the NPs. A high dipole interaction field, Hdip, of ?3.5 kOe can result in a high effective internal field to the magnetic moment of the NP, expecting for ultra-fast magnetic response, that is, a high magnetic resonance frequency, fr, of ?10 GHz. However, for a simply molded Fe NP assembly, a low fr was observed due to inhomogeneous distribution of the internal field, implying the necessity of a unidirectional state of Hdip for higher fr. In this study, we fabricated a columnar Fe NP assembly for realizing the unidirectional state of Hdip by applying our uniquely developed external field-induced agglomeration method for monodispersed Fe NPs (13 nm in average size) as a function of the field (0–30 kOe) and volume fraction of the Fe NPs (0.5%–51%) in a polymer matrix with dimensions of 4 mm × 4 mm × 0.7 mmt. A columnar-structured Fe NP assembly was successfully achieved along an in-plane direction (defined as the x-axis) under optimized conditions. From static magnetization curves, induced uniaxial magnetic anisotropy was observed according to the shape of the columnar structure of the Fe NP assembly, where easy and hard axes of magnetization were realized along the parallel (x-axis) and normal directions (in-plane y-axis and z-axis in the thickness direction) to the external field during the process, respectively. Interestingly, this fabricated columnar-structured Fe NP assembly exhibited very high fr in the range from 3 to 11 GHz judging from the complex susceptibility spectra obtained. The fr values were well-scaled by a modified Snoek's-limit-law using demagnetization factors quantitatively estimated from the static magnetization curves. Thus, shape-induced anisotropy originating from the unidirectional state of Hdip in the columnar structure of the Fe NP assembly plays an important role for high frequency magnetic response in the GHz-band

  2. Timing and causality in the generation of learned eyelid responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RaudelSánchez-Campusano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum-red nucleus-facial motoneuron (Mn pathway has been reported as being involved in the proper timing of classically conditioned eyelid responses. This special type of associative learning serves as a model of event timing for studying the role of the cerebellum in dynamic motor control. Here, we have re-analyzed the firing activities of cerebellar posterior interpositus (IP neurons and orbicularis oculi (OO Mns in alert behaving cats during classical eyeblink conditioning, using a delay paradigm. The aim was to revisit the hypothesis that the IP neurons can be considered a neuronal phase-modulating device supporting OO Mns firing with an emergent timing mechanism and an explicit correlation code during learned eyelid movements. Optimized experimental and computational tools allowed us to determine the different causal relationships (temporal order and correlation code during and between trials. These intra- and inter-trial timing strategies expanding from sub-second range (millisecond timing to longer-lasting ranges (interval timing expanded the functional domain of cerebellar timing beyond motor control. Interestingly, the results supported the above-mentioned hypothesis. The causal inferences were influenced by the precise motor and premotor spike-timing in the cause-effect interval, and, in addition, the timing of the learned responses depended on cerebellar-Mn network causality. Furthermore, the timing of CRs depended upon the probability of simulated causal conditions in the cause-effect interval and not the mere duration of the inter-stimulus interval. In this work, the close relation between timing and causality was verified. It could thus be concluded that the firing activities of IP neurons may be related more to the proper performance of ongoing CRs (i.e., the proper timing as a consequence of the pertinent causality than to their generation and/or initiation.

  3. Surface Response-based Behavioral Modeling of Accurate Digitizers a Case Study on a Fast Digital Integrator at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Arpaia, P; Spiezia, G; Tiso, S

    2007-01-01

    A statistical approach to behavioral modeling for assessing dynamic metrological performance during the concept design of accurate digitizers is proposed. A surface-response approach based on statistical experiment design is exploited for avoiding unrealistic hypothesis of linearity, optimizing simulation, exploring operating conditions systematically, as well as verifying identification and validation uncertainty. An actual case study on the dynamic metrological characterization of a Fast Digital Integrator for high-performance magnetic measurements at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is presented.

  4. Development of a fast response detector using Yb:Lu2O3 scintillator for lifetime measurement positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a three-dimensional imaging measurement method of the defect distribution inside industrial materials by measuring the lifetime of positrons in addition to the imaging technique of positron emission tomography. A compact and fast response detector which uses an Yb3+-doped Lu2O3 scintillator and a photomultiplier tube was developed and tested. We have successfully measured the positron lifetimes of a bulk material using the Yb:Lu2O3 scintillator. (author)

  5. Fast-Response, Sensitivitive and Low-Powered Chemosensors by Fusing Nanostructured Porous Thin Film and IDEs-Microheater Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengfei Dai; Lei Xu; Guotao Duan; Tie Li; Hongwen Zhang; Yue Li; Yi Wang(Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo (WPI), 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583, Japan); Yuelin Wang; Weiping Cai

    2013-01-01

    The chemiresistive thin film gas sensors with fast response, high sensitivity, low power consumption and mass-produced potency, have been expected for practical application. It requires both sensitive materials, especially exquisite nanomaterials, and efficient substrate chip for heating and electrical addressing. However, it is challenging to achieve repeatable microstructures across the films and low power consumption of substrate chip. Here we presented a new sensor structure via the fusio...

  6. Cell-autonomous regulation of fast troponin T pre-mRNA alternative splicing in response to mechanical stretch

    OpenAIRE

    Schilder, Rudolf J.; Kimball, Scot R.; Jefferson, Leonard S.

    2012-01-01

    How mechanochemical signals induced by the amount of weight borne by the skeletal musculature are translated into modifications to muscle sarcomeres is poorly understood. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that, in response to experimentally induced increases in the weight load borne by a rat, alternative splicing of the fast skeletal muscle troponin T (Tnnt3) pre-mRNA in gastrocnemius was adjusted in a correlated fashion with the amount of added weight. (Schilder RJ, Kimball SR, Marden JH,...

  7. V2ic Control: A Novel Control Technique with Very Fast Response under Load and Voltage Steps

    OpenAIRE

    Viejo Frutos, Miriam Del; Alou Cervera, Pedro; Oliver Rami?rez, Jesu?s Angel; Garci?a Sua?rez, Oscar; Cobos Ma?rquez, Jose? Antonio

    2011-01-01

    High switching frequencies (several MHz) allow the integration of low power DC/DC converters. Although, in theory, a high switching frequency would make possible to implement a conventional voltage mode control with very high bandwidth, in practice, parasitic effects and robustness make very complex to achieve bandwidths higher than 1MHz. This paper proposes a fast control technique to optimize the dynamic response of high switching frequency DC/DC converters. The proposed control is based on...

  8. Effects of training the coincidence-anticipation timing task on response time and activity in the cortical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshizawa, Ryo; Mori, Akio; Oki, Kazuma; Takayose, Masaki; Minakawa, Nahoko Therese

    2014-05-01

    We examined the effects of training the coincidence-anticipation timing task on response time and activity in the cortical region. The task, which used a partially masked stimulus runway, required 12 participants to press a button at the time that they anticipated a moving visual target would arrive at the end of the runway. Training involved practicing the task a total of 10 times (once per day) over a 3-week period. Continuous electroencephalograms were recorded while performing the task before training and after training. The electroencephalograms were subjected to fast Fourier transform to obtain the power density in the beta bands. Peak amplitude and peak latency of event-related potentials were also determined. The results showed that, compared with before training, in the masked section of the task, the percentage of beta band activity was significantly increased in Brodmann's area 6 and significantly decreased in Brodmann's area 46 bilaterally after training. In addition, peak latency was significantly shorter in Brodmann's area 6 after training. These findings suggest that activation of Brodmann's area 6 in the masked section of the task after training might reflect the transfer from processing visual information of the moving target in the visible section of the task to predicting the target's movement in the masked section. In addition, the shortened peak latency in Brodmann's area 6 after training might reflect facilitation of information processing, which is why the mean absolute error was decreased after training. PMID:24513706

  9. Staging of malignant lymphoma with three-station black-blood fast short-inversion time inversion recovery (STIR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Tajika, Kenji; Uchiyama, Nachiko; Takahama, Katsuya; Dan, Kazuo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of three-station black-blood fast short-inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) imaging in detecting and staging malignant lymphoma. Seventeen patients with malignant lymphoma were examined with a 1.5T imager. The findings and stagings determined with three-station black-blood fast STIR imaging were compared with reference standards (e.g., computed tomography [CT] findings and clinical stagings). Three-station black-blood fast STIR imaging provided a fat-suppressed T{sub 2}-weighted imaging contrast with fewer flow artifacts and revealed nodal involvement as well as bone marrow and spleen involvement to an extent comparable with CT. Especially notable was the excellent specificity (94%) of this imaging technique. Regarding disease staging, significant agreement was observed between clinical staging (k=0.60) and staging as evaluated by three-station black-blood fast STIR, although the detection of lymphadenopathy in the thorax was relatively poor. The average time required for this imaging was approximately 30 min. Three-station black-blood fast STIR MR imaging may be useful as a staging tool for malignant lymphoma because this imaging technique reveals lymphoma lesions, which determine the staging, without radiation exposure or the use of contrast agents. (author)

  10. Development of a very fast spectral response measurement system for analysis of hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells and modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Spectral response equipment for measuring a-Si:H solar cells in a few seconds. ? Equipment based on 16 LEDs with simultaneous illumination of the solar cell. ? The current generated by each LED is analyzed by a Fast Fourier Transform. ? Cheap equipment without lock-in technology for the current measurement. ? Measurement error vs. conventional measurement less than 1% in Jsc. - Abstract: An important requirement for a very fast spectral response measurement system is the simultaneous illumination of the solar cell at multiple well defined wavelengths. Nowadays this can be done by means of light emitting diodes (LEDs) available for a multitude of wavelengths. For the purpose to measure the spectral response (SR) of amorphous silicon solar cells a detailed characterization of LEDs emitting in the wavelength range from 300 nm to 800 nm was performed. In the here developed equipment the LED illumination is modulated in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 200 Hz and the current generated by each LED is analyzed by a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to determine the current component corresponding to each wavelength. The equipment provides a signal to noise ratio of 2–4 orders of magnitude for individual wavelengths resulting in a precise measurement of the SR over the whole wavelength range. The difference of the short circuit current determined from the SR is less than 1% in comparison to a conventional system with monochromator.with monochromator.

  11. Measurement of time-dependent fast neutron energy spectra in a depleted uranium assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-dependent neutron energy spectra in the range 0.6 to 6.4 MeV have been measured in a depleted uranium assembly. By selecting windows in the time range 0.9 to 82 ns after the beam pulse, it was possible to observe the change of the neutron energy distributions from spectra of predominantly 4 to 6 MeV neutrons to spectra composed almost entirely of fission neutrons. The measured spectra were compared to a Monte Carlo calculation of the experiment using the ENDF/B-IV data file. At times and energies at which the calculation predicted a fission spectrum, the experiment agreed with the calculation, confirming the accuracy of the neutron spectroscopy system. However, the presence of discrepancies at other times and energies suggested that there are significant inconsistencies in the inelastic cross sections in the 1 to 6 MeV range. The time response generated concurrently with the energy spectra was compared to the Monte Carlo calculation. From this comparison, and from examination of time spectra measured by other workers using 235U and 237Np fission detectors, it would appear that there are discrepancies in the ENDF/B-IV cross sections below 1 MeV. The predicted decay rates were too low below and too high above 0.8 MeV

  12. A novel time-to-pulse height converter for fast-neutron time-of-flight techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electronic time-to-pulse height converter is described which uses a multiplicative method instead of the usual one of adding overlapping pulses. This is achieved by a coincidence of a linear sawtooth and a sharply clipped needle-pulse. The sawtooth is fed to the grid of a beam-deflecting tube (E80T) and the needle-pulse is applied to the deflecting plates and opens the tube only during a time-interval of about 5.10-9 s. The plate gets a charge proportional to the time-difference between the start of the sawtooth and the needle pulse. The plate-pulse is stretched and amplified and its height represents a measurement of the time-difference. With this method we got a time resolution of 2? = 7 x 10-12s with artificial pulses, 2? = 3 x 10-10s with Co60 ?-coincidences by using NE 102 plastic crystals and 2? = 1.4 x 10-9 s with 511-keV ?-coincidences using NaI(Te) crystals. The method was also used with pulsed beam techniques. In this case we got from the pulsing RF an 8-Mc, sharply-peaked pulse-sequence, which was fed to the E80T plates. We had a time-resolution of 2? = 1.1 x 10-9 s with 4-MeV neutrons using plastic crystals 0.7 in long. Normally the region of linear response was 30 ns but it was possible to go up to 120 ns. (author)

  13. Overview of the SPS/LEP fast broadcast message timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast broadcast message system, also referred to as the general machine timing system, has recently been installed at CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). It is used to control the SPS in its roles as a multi-cycling, multi-user service accelerator. The messages are centrally generated by an IBM compatible PC/AT card and broadcast to all users of the system. At the receiving end the frames are decoded and presented to the user in the form of either an interrupt to his intelligent equipment, a hardware pulse or a short message. They are used to synchronise the SPS when used as a 450 GeV fixed target machine, a 315 GeV p-pbar collider, a 100/450 GeV pulsing-coasting machine and also as an injector for the Large Electron Positron (LEP) machine. In the future it will also be used for LEP control. Implementation details and constraints are described, as are experience to date and foreseen expansions

  14. Fast Timing Analysis of Cygnus X-1 using SPI on board INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Cabanac, C; Jourdain, E

    2011-01-01

    For the very first time, we report the high frequency analysis of Cyg X-1 up to hard X-ray using SPI on-board INTEGRAL. After analyzing the possible contribution fromthe background, and using INTEGRAL archive from March 2005 to May 2008, Power Density Spectra (PDS) were obtained until 130 keV. First, we show that their overall shape is very similar to that observed at lower energies, as they are well described by sets of Lorentzians. The strength of this fast variability (up to 40 Hz) does not drop at high energy since we show that it remains at ~25% rms, even in the highest energy bands. Second, the hard X-ray variability patterns of Cyg X-1 are state dependent: the softer the spectrum (or the lower the hardness ratio), the lower the total fractional variability and the higher the typical frequencies observed. The strength of total variability as a function of energy and state is then investigated. By comparison with simultaneous and published RXTE/PCA data, we showed that in the hard state, it remains quite...

  15. A 200 kV fast rise time, low jitter, trigger system with magnetic pulse sharpener

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DARHT Facility is being designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to produce high resolution flash radiographs of hydrodynamic experiments. Two linear induction accelerators (LIA), each in the range of 16 to 20 MeV, will be used to produce intense bremsstrahlung X-ray pulses of short duration (60 ns flat top). Each LIA will produce a 3 kA, high brightness, electron beam using a 4 MeV injector and a series of 250 kV induction cells. Technology demonstration of key accelerator subsystems is under progress at the DARHT Integrated Test Stand (ITS). The eight inductions cells present in the ITS are driven by a Maxwell prototype Induction Cell Pulsed Power Supply (ICPPS) which provides 250 kV, 70ns pulses via four Blumleins. Each Blumlein drives two cells and is triggered using independently controlled trigger units. This turnkey DARHT Trigger System, consisting of four separate trigger units, provides 200 kV trigger pulses with low jitter and fast rise time to each of the four Blumlein coaxial spark gaps. Details of the trigger system design and results obtained during extensive testing at Maxwell are described

  16. Response of Gut Microbiota to Fasting and Hibernation in Syrian Hamsters? †

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoyama, Kei; Fujiwara, Reiko; Takemura, Naoki; Ogasawara, Toru; Watanabe, Jun; Ito, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Although hibernating mammals wake occasionally to eat during torpor, this period represents a state of fasting. Fasting is known to alter the gut microbiota in nonhibernating mammals; therefore, hibernation may also affect the gut microbiota. However, there are few reports of gut microbiota in hibernating mammals. The present study aimed to compare the gut microbiota in hibernating torpid Syrian hamsters with that in active counterparts by using culture-independent analyses. Hamsters were all...

  17. Synchronization on fast and slow dynamics in drive-response systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Liang; Zhu, Shiqun; Li, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Two types of synchronization, Achronal Synchronization and Isochronous synchronization are investigated numerically when unidirectionally coupled laser systems are considered both on fast and slow dynamics by studying the correlation function. Although the synchronization behaviors are found to be separated on relatively fast dynamics of chaotic fluctuations while blended together on slow dynamics of dropout events, their main features revealed are in a good agreement, which...

  18. Some Measurements of Fast Reactor Spectra by the Time-of-Flight Technique Using a Pulsed Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The zero-energy fast reactor VERA is equipped with a pulsed neutron source and a 50-m neutron flight path and these facilities have been used for time-of-flight neutron spectrometry in the energy range 100 eV to 50 keV. The results are discussed and are compared with calculated values. (author)

  19. Fast Response, vertically oriented graphene nanosheet electric double layer capacitors synthesized from C(2)H(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Minzhen; Outlaw, Ronald A; Quinlan, Ronald A; Premathilake, Dilshan; Butler, Sue M; Miller, John R

    2014-06-24

    The growth and electrical characteristics of vertically oriented graphene nanosheets grown by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition from C2H2 feedstock on nickel substrates and used as electrodes in symmetric electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) are presented. The nanosheets exhibited 2.7 times faster growth rate and much greater specific capacitance for a given growth time than CH4 synthesized films. Raman spectra showed that the intensity ratio of the D band to G band versus temperature initially decreased to a minimum value of 0.45 at a growth temperature of 750 °C, but increased rapidly with further temperature increase (1.15 at 850 °C). The AC specific capacitance at 120 Hz of these EDLC devices increased in a linear fashion with growth temperature, up to 265 ?F/cm(2) (2 ?m high film, 850 °C with 10 min growth). These devices exhibited ultrafast frequency response: the frequency response at -45° phase angle reached over 20 kHz. Consistent with the increase in D band to G band ratio, the morphology of the films became less vertical, less crystalline, and disordered at substrate temperatures of 800 °C and above. This deterioration in morphology resulted in an increase in graphene surface area and defect density, which, in turn, contributed to the increased capacitance, as well as a slight decrease in frequency response. The low equivalent series resistance varied from 0.07 to 0.08 ? and was attributed to the significant carbon incorporation into the Ni substrate. PMID:24797018

  20. Time-delayed upper atmospheric responses to solar EUV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shunrong; Erickson, Philip; Goncharenko, Larisa

    2015-04-01

    It is well recognized that solar EUV irradiations at various wavelengths are the dominant driver of the quiet-time upper atmospheric variations, including thermospheric temperature and densities, as well as ionospheric density and temperatures. However, responses of the upper atmosphere have been found not as straightforward as expected, but rather complicated with time-delays for approximately 2 days relative to solar flux proxy F10.7. Using measurements of TIMED/SEE solar UV flux at various wavelengths and incoherent scatter radar-based ionospheric and thermospheric parameters, this paper addresses characteristic upper atmospheric variability on the time scales from hours to days, and the associated solar UV variations. It is found that exospheric temperature Tex is most sensitive to solar EUV flux with an approximately 2-day delay at wavelengths of 27--34 nm (including 30.4 nm). In fact, a 20--60-hour time delay occurs in Tex response to EUV flux at the 27-34 nm band, with shorter delays in the morning and longer delays in the afternoon and at night. Ionospheric electron delays are altitude dependent: in the E-region, there is no time delay, and in the F2 region, there exist delays for 2-3 days in both electron density and ion temperature. These delays are perhaps representatives of the upper atmospheric memory and will be discussed in the paper.

  1. Preparation of fast response superabsorbent hydrogels by radiation polymerization and crosslinking of N-isopropylacrylamide in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Mohdy, H.L. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Safrany, Agnes [Institute of Isotopes HAS, P.O. Box 77, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: safrany@sunserv.kfki.hu

    2008-03-15

    Macroporous temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) hydrogels with high equilibrium swelling and fast response rates were obtained by a {sup 60}Co {gamma}- and electron beam (EB) irradiation of aqueous N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) monomer solutions. The effect of irradiation temperatures, the dose, the addition of a pore-forming agent on the swelling ratio, and the kinetics of swelling and shrinking of the PNIPAAm gels was studied. The gels synthesized above the LCST exhibited the highest equilibrium swelling (300-400) and fastest response rate measured by minutes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures revealed that the gels synthesized above the LCST have larger pores than those prepared at temperatures below the LCST. The gels showed a reversible response to cyclical changes in temperature and might be used in a pulsed drug delivery device. The gels synthesized above the LCST exhibited the highest testosterone propionate release.

  2. Preparation of fast response superabsorbent hydrogels by radiation polymerization and crosslinking of N-isopropylacrylamide in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macroporous temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) hydrogels with high equilibrium swelling and fast response rates were obtained by a 60Co ?- and electron beam (EB) irradiation of aqueous N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) monomer solutions. The effect of irradiation temperatures, the dose, the addition of a pore-forming agent on the swelling ratio, and the kinetics of swelling and shrinking of the PNIPAAm gels was studied. The gels synthesized above the LCST exhibited the highest equilibrium swelling (300-400) and fastest response rate measured by minutes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures revealed that the gels synthesized above the LCST have larger pores than those prepared at temperatures below the LCST. The gels showed a reversible response to cyclical changes in temperature and might be used in a pulsed drug delivery device. The gels synthesized above the LCST exhibited the highest testosterone propionate release

  3. Time-resolved observation of fast domain-walls driven by vertical spin currents in short tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, Joao; Lequeux, Steven; Chanthbouala, Andre; Cros, Vincent; Grollier, Julie [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales and Université Paris-Sud 11, 1 Ave. A. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Metaxas, Peter J. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales and Université Paris-Sud 11, 1 Ave. A. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); School of Physics, M013, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Matsumoto, Rie; Yakushiji, Kay; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nagamine, Yoshinori; Maehara, Hiroki; Tsunekawa, Koji [Process Development Center, Canon ANELVA Corporation, Kurigi 2-5-1, Asao, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 215-8550 (Japan)

    2013-12-09

    We present time-resolved measurements of the displacement of magnetic domain-walls (DWs) driven by vertical spin-polarized currents in track-shaped magnetic tunnel junctions. In these structures, we observe very high DW velocities (600?m/s) at current densities below 10{sup 7}?A/cm{sup 2}. We show that the efficient spin-transfer torque combined with a short propagation distance allows avoiding the Walker breakdown process and achieving deterministic, reversible, and fast (?1?ns) DW-mediated switching of magnetic tunnel junction elements, which is of great interest for the implementation of fast DW-based spintronic devices.

  4. Time-resolved observation of fast domain-walls driven by vertical spin currents in short tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Joao; Lequeux, Steven; Metaxas, Peter J.; Chanthbouala, Andre; Matsumoto, Rie; Yakushiji, Kay; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nagamine, Yoshinori; Maehara, Hiroki; Tsunekawa, Koji; Cros, Vincent; Grollier, Julie

    2013-12-01

    We present time-resolved measurements of the displacement of magnetic domain-walls (DWs) driven by vertical spin-polarized currents in track-shaped magnetic tunnel junctions. In these structures, we observe very high DW velocities (600 m/s) at current densities below 107 A/cm2. We show that the efficient spin-transfer torque combined with a short propagation distance allows avoiding the Walker breakdown process and achieving deterministic, reversible, and fast (?1 ns) DW-mediated switching of magnetic tunnel junction elements, which is of great interest for the implementation of fast DW-based spintronic devices.

  5. Modeling responses and response times in personality tests with rating scales

    OpenAIRE

    Jochen Ranger

    2013-01-01

    In this article several latent trait models for the joint distribution of the responses and response times in rating scales are compared. Among these models are two generalizations of established models for binary items, namely a generalization of the approach of Ferrando and Lorenzo-Seva (2007a) and a generalization of the approach of Ranger and Ortner (2011). Two new models and a variant of the hierarchical model of van der Linden (2007) are also considered. All these models combine the gra...

  6. Spectrum response and analysis of 77 GHz band collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for bulk and fast ions in LHD plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic was developed and used to measure the bulk and fast ions originating from 180 keV neutral beams in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Electromagnetic waves from a gyrotron at 77 GHz with 1 MW power output function as both the probe and electron cyclotron heating beam. To clarify the diagnostic applicability of the gyrotron in the 77 GHz frequency band, we investigated the dependence of the probe and receiver beam trajectories in plasmas with high electron densities of (4–5) × 1019 m?3 and low electron densities of (1–2) × 1019 m?3. At high density, a stray radiation component was observed in the CTS spectrum whereas it was negligibly small at low density. The CTS spectrum was measured and analysed after the in situ beam alignment using a beam scan. Qualitatively, the CTS spectrogram shows consistent response to ion temperatures of 1–2 keV for electron densities of (1–2) × 1019 m?3 and electron temperatures of 2–4 keV. The measured CTS spectrum shows an asymmetric shape at the foot of the bulk-ion region during the injection of 180 keV fast ions. This shape is explained by the fast-ion distribution in the velocity space (v?, v?) based on Monte Carlo simulation results. The analysis method of the CTS spectra is used to evaluate the ion temperature and fast-ion velocity distribution from the measured

  7. Planck 2013 results. VII. HFI time response and beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bowyer, J. W.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Haissinski, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matsumura, T.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polegre, A. M.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Sauvé, A.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    This paper characterizes the effective beams, the effective beam window functions and the associated errors for the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) detectors. The effective beam is theangular response including the effect of the optics, detectors, data processing and the scan strategy. The window function is the representation of this beam in the harmonic domain which is required to recover an unbiased measurement of the cosmic microwave background angular power spectrum. The HFI is a scanning instrument and its effective beams are the convolution of: a) the optical response of the telescope and feeds; b) the processing of the time-ordered data and deconvolution of the bolometric and electronic transfer function; and c) the merging of several surveys to produce maps. The time response transfer functions are measured using observations of Jupiter and Saturn and by minimizing survey difference residuals. The scanning beam is the post-deconvolution angular response of the instrument, and is characterized with observations of Mars. The main beam solid angles are determined to better than 0.5% at each HFI frequency band. Observations of Jupiter and Saturn limit near sidelobes (within 5°) to about 0.1% of the total solid angle. Time response residuals remain as long tails in the scanning beams, but contribute less than 0.1% of the total solid angle. The bias and uncertainty in the beam products are estimated using ensembles of simulated planet observations that include the impact of instrumental noise and known systematic effects. The correlation structure of these ensembles is well-described by five error eigenmodes that are sub-dominant to sample variance and instrumental noise in the harmonic domain. A suite of consistency tests provide confidence that the error model represents a sufficient description of the data. The total error in the effective beam window functions is below 1% at 100 GHz up to multipole ? ~ 1500, and below 0.5% at 143 and 217 GHz up to ? ~ 2000.

  8. Longitudinal time-dependent response of segmental tunnel linings

    OpenAIRE

    Arnau Delgado, Oriol; Molins I Borrell, Climent; Blom, C. B. M.; Walraven, Joost

    2012-01-01

    The longitudinal forces introduced by tunnel boring machines (TBMs) to the segmental tunnel linings influence their structural response. The analyses of the linings construction process and the ground-structure interaction mechanisms have shown the influence of the lining creep on the progressive loss of the initial longitudinal force. An analytical formulation to predict the remaining compression of the linings as a function of time is proposed, supported by means of a complete numerical mod...

  9. Time series analysis of the response of measurement instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakaki, Dimitra; Polatoglou, Hariton

    2012-01-01

    In this work the significance of treating a set of measurements as a time series is being explored. Time Series Analysis (TSA) techniques, part of the Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) approach, can provide much insight regarding the stochastic correlations that are induced on the outcome of an experiment by the measurement system and can provide criteria for the limited use of the classical variance in metrology. Specifically, techniques such as the Lag Plots, Autocorrelation Function, Power Spectral Density and Allan Variance are used to analyze series of sequential measurements, collected at equal time intervals from an electromechanical transducer. These techniques are used in conjunction with power law models of stochastic noise in order to characterize time or frequency regimes for which the usually assumed white noise model is adequate for the description of the measurement system response. However, through the detection of colored noise, usually referred to as flicker noise, which is expected to appear ...

  10. Time-dependent response of filamentary composite spherical pressure vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A filamentary composite spherical pressure vessel is modeled as a pseudoisotropic (or transversely isotropic) composite shell, with the effects of the liner and fill tubes omitted. Equations of elasticity, macromechanical and micromechanical formulations, and laminate properties are derived for the application of an internally pressured spherical composite vessel. Viscoelastic properties for the composite matrix are used to characterize time-dependent behavior. Using the maximum strain theory of failure, burst pressure and critical strain equations are formulated, solved in the Laplace domain with an associated elastic solution, and inverted back into the time domain using the method of collocation. Viscoelastic properties of HBFR-55 resin are experimentally determined and a Kevlar/HBFR-55 system is evaluated with a FORTRAN program. The computed reduction in burst pressure with respect to time indicates that the analysis employed may be used to predict the time-dependent response of a filamentary composite spherical pressure vessel.

  11. Noncausal Time Response in Frustrated Total Internal Reflection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John J.; Zawadzka, Justyna; Jaroszynski, Dino A.; Wynne, Klaas

    2000-02-01

    Tunneling of photons in frustrated total internal reflection has been studied in the time domain with single-cycle femtosecond pulses. It is seen that both the phase and energy of the pulse travel faster than the speed of light in vacuum. Theoretical analysis of the experiments shows that the time-response function for electromagnetic waves propagating in the air gap is noncausal. However, it is found that superluminal signal propagation is not possible in this case because of the inevitable diffractive spreading of the signal beam.

  12. High frequency dielectrophoretic response of microalgae over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadady, Hanieh; Wong, Johnson J; Hiibel, Sage R; Redelman, Doug; Geiger, Emil J

    2014-12-01

    The high frequency dielectrophoresis (>20 MHz) response of microalgae cells with different lipid content was monitored over time. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was cultured in regular medium and under nitrogen-depleted conditions in order to produce populations of cells with low and high lipid content, respectively. The electrical conductivity of the culture media was also monitored over the same time. The upper crossover frequency decreased for high-lipid cells over time. The single-shell model predicts that the upper crossover frequency is dictated primarily by the dielectric properties of the cytoplasm. The high frequency DEP response of the high-lipid cells' cytoplasm was changed by lipid accumulation. DEP response of the low-lipid cells also varied with the conductivity of the culture media due to nutrient consumption. Relative lipid content was estimated with BODIPY 505/515 dye by calculating the area-weighted intensity average of fluorescent images. Finally, microalgae cells were successfully separated based on lipid content at 41 MHz and DEP media conductivity 106 ± 1 ?S/cm. PMID:25229637

  13. A novel Fast Gas Chromatography based technique for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C10-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a ~ 14 min analysis time. Moreover, in situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an ~ 11 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to ~ 19 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). This corresponds to a two- to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest ~ 30 km west of central Tokyo, Japan, the Fast-GC limit of detection with respect to monoterpenes was 4-5 ppt, and the agreement between Fast-GC and PTR-MS derived total monoterpene mixing ratios was consistent with previous GC/PTR-MS comparisons. The measurement uncertainties associated with the Fast-GC quantification of monoterpenes are ? 10%, while larger uncertainties (up to ~ 25%) are associated with the OBVOC and sesquiterpene measurements.

  14. Processes in current sheets responsible for fast energy conversion in the magnetospheric collisionless plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Kropotkin, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of the magnetospheric plasma configuration intrinsically features intermittent slow and fast phases. The fast transition is a nonlinear process, loss of equilibrium which ends up the slow quasi-static evolution. The process is analysed as a dynamical bifurcation. It appears when marginal stability state is reached in the course of that evolution, either for tearing mode or for ballooning mode disturbances. The resulting force imbalance leads to spontaneous formation of nonlinear kinetic thin current structures. Those are either a pair of slow collisionless shocks or a specific anisotropic thin current sheet embedded in a thicker plasma sheet structure. Both are the sites of intense energy conversion, and they implement fast magnetic reconnection in the magnetospheric collisionless plasma.

  15. Time and frequency response of structures with frequency dependent, non-proportional linear damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghaib, L.; Mattei, P.-O.

    2014-02-01

    A method to compute the non-stationary time and frequency response of structures with a frequency-dependent non-proportional linear damping, called the resonance modes method, is presented in this paper. It consists of two main steps. The first step aims at spotting the structure resonance modes, which are the solutions of the matrix nonlinear eigenvalue problem obtained using the finite element method in the complex plane. This step requires a complex eigensolver and an iterative scheme, a perturbation technique or a combination of both. The second step uses the computed resonance modes and an analytical expression of the inverse Laplace transform to deduce the time or frequency response of structures to general excitations. The response of an aluminum plate damped with an elastomer treatment to a point-force excitation, computed with the classical modal approach, the direct solution and the presented method shows its precision and efficiency. An acoustic power computation finally validates the implementation of a fast variant, based on the perturbation technique, for vibroacoustic applications.

  16. Destruction of hazardous air pollutants using a fast rise time pulsed corona reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzekwa, R.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico87545-1663 (United States); Grothaus, M.G. [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, P.O. Drawer 28510, San Antonio, Texas78228-0510 (United States); Hutcherson, R.K. [OSRAM Sylvania, Inc., 71 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, Massachusetts 01915 (United States); Roush, R.A. [Federal Bureau of Investigation, Engineering Research Facility, MS EST-5, Building 27958-A, Quantico, Virginia22135 (United States); Brown, R. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, Virginia22448-5100 (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Increasingly stringent environmental regulation imposed on both the military and civilian sectors has created a growing demand for alternative abatement methods for a variety of hazardous compounds. One alternative, the nonthermal plasma, shows promise of providing an efficient means for the destruction of dilute concentrations of hazardous air pollutants. The Dahlgren Laboratory of the Naval Surface Warfare Center has extensively investigated one type of nonthermal plasma discharge, the pulsed corona reactor, for the destruction of volatile organic compounds and chemical warfare agents. In this reactor, a fast rise time ({approximately}10ns), short duration ({lt}100ns), high-voltage pulse is repetitively delivered to a wire-cylinder electrode geometry, thereby producing a multitude of streamer discharges along its length. The resulting nonthermal plasma contains highly reactive chemical radicals which can interact with and destroy the hazardous molecules entrained in the ambient atmosphere flowing through the reactor volume. Increased electrical efficiency was obtained using a combination of high efficiency constant-current capacitor-charging, high repetition-rate spark gap switching, and resonant energy transfer to the reactor. Promising results have been obtained for toluene, methylene chloride, and dichlorodifluoromethane in air at concentrations of a few hundred parts per million. The device has been operated at voltages up to 30 kV, pulse repetition rates up to 1.4 kHz, and flow rates up to 60 scr(l)/min. Detailed electrical measurements have been made to properly characterize the electrical properties of the pulsed corona reactor and to validate subsequent improvements in the reactor energy efficiency. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Destruction of hazardous air pollutants using a fast rise time pulsed corona reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzekwa, R. A.; Grothaus, M. G.; Hutcherson, R. K.; Roush, R. A.; Brown, R.

    1998-04-01

    Increasingly stringent environmental regulation imposed on both the military and civilian sectors has created a growing demand for alternative abatement methods for a variety of hazardous compounds. One alternative, the nonthermal plasma, shows promise of providing an efficient means for the destruction of dilute concentrations of hazardous air pollutants. The Dahlgren Laboratory of the Naval Surface Warfare Center has extensively investigated one type of nonthermal plasma discharge, the pulsed corona reactor, for the destruction of volatile organic compounds and chemical warfare agents. In this reactor, a fast rise time (˜10 ns), short duration (<100 ns), high-voltage pulse is repetitively delivered to a wire-cylinder electrode geometry, thereby producing a multitude of streamer discharges along its length. The resulting nonthermal plasma contains highly reactive chemical radicals which can interact with and destroy the hazardous molecules entrained in the ambient atmosphere flowing through the reactor volume. Increased electrical efficiency was obtained using a combination of high efficiency constant-current capacitor-charging, high repetition-rate spark gap switching, and resonant energy transfer to the reactor. Promising results have been obtained for toluene, methylene chloride, and dichlorodifluoromethane in air at concentrations of a few hundred parts per million. The device has been operated at voltages up to 30 kV, pulse repetition rates up to 1.4 kHz, and flow rates up to 60 l/min. Detailed electrical measurements have been made to properly characterize the electrical properties of the pulsed corona reactor and to validate subsequent improvements in the reactor energy efficiency.

  18. High-fat diet feeding alters metabolic response to fasting/non fasting conditions. Effect on caveolin expression and insulin signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez J Alfredo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of food intake on caveolin expression in relation to insulin signalling was studied in skeletal muscle and adipocytes from retroperitoneal (RP and subcutaneous (SC adipose tissue, comparing fasted (F to not fasted (NF rats that had been fed a control or high-fat (HF diet for 72 days. Methods Serum glucose was analysed enzymatically and insulin and leptin by ELISA. Caveolins and insulin signalling intermediaries (IR, IRS-1 and 2 and GLUT4 were determined by RT-PCR and western blotting. Caveolin and IR phosphorylation was measured by immunoprecipitation. Data were analysed with Mann-Whitney U test. Results High-fat fed animals showed metabolic alterations and developed obesity and insulin resistance. In skeletal muscle, food intake (NF induced activation of IR and increased expression of IRS-2 in control animals with normal metabolic response. HF animals became overweight, hyperglycaemic, hyperinsulinemic, hyperleptinemic and showed insulin resistance. In skeletal muscle of these animals, food intake (NF also induced IRS-2 expression together with IR, although this was not active. Caveolin 3 expression in this tissue was increased by food intake (NF in animals fed either diet. In RP adipocytes of control animals, food intake (NF decreased IR and IRS-2 expression but increased that of GLUT4. A similar but less intense response was found in SC adipocytes. Food intake (NF did not change caveolin expression in RP adipocytes with either diet, but in SC adipocytes of HF animals a reduction was observed. Food intake (NF decreased caveolin-1 phosphorylation in RP but increased it in SC adipocytes of control animals, whereas it increased caveolin-2 phosphorylation in both types of adipocytes independently of the diet. Conclusions Animals fed a control-diet show a normal response to food intake (NF, with activation of the insulin signalling pathway but without appreciable changes in caveolin expression, except a small increase of caveolin-3 in muscle. Animals fed a high-fat diet develop metabolic changes that result in insulin signalling impairment. In these animals, caveolin expression in muscle and adipocytes seems to be regulated independently of insulin signalling.

  19. The time-course of cortico-limbic neural responses to air hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Andrew P; Evans, Karleyton C; Reed, Jeffrey D; Moosavi, Shakeeb H; Banzett, Robert B

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have mapped brain regions associated with acute dyspnea perception. However, the time-course of brain activity during sustained dyspnea is unknown. Our objective was to determine the time-course of neural activity when dyspnea is sustained. Eight healthy subjects underwent brain blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic imaging (BOLD-fMRI) during mechanical ventilation with constant mild hypercapnia (? 45 mm Hg). Subjects rated dyspnea (air hunger) via visual analog scale (VAS). Tidal volume (V(T)) was alternated every 90 s between high VT (0.96 ± 0.23 L) that provided respiratory comfort (12 ± 6% full scale) and low V(T) (0.48 ± 0.08 L) which evoked air hunger (56 ± 11% full scale). BOLD signal was extracted from a priori brain regions and combined with VAS data to determine air hunger related neural time-course. Air hunger onset was associated with BOLD signal increases that followed two distinct temporal profiles within sub-regions of the anterior insula, anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices (cortico-limbic circuitry): (1) fast, BOLD signal peak signal peak >40s. BOLD signal during air hunger offset followed fast and slow temporal profiles symmetrical, but inverse (signal decreases) to the time-courses of air hunger onset. We conclude that differential cortico-limbic circuit elements have unique contributions to dyspnea sensation over time. We suggest that previously unidentified sub-regions are responsible for either the acute awareness or maintenance of dyspnea. These data enhance interpretation of previous studies and inform hypotheses for future dyspnea research. PMID:25263029

  20. Modeling responses and response times in personality tests with rating scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Ranger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article several latent trait models for the joint distribution of the responses and response times in rating scales are compared. Among these models are two generalizations of established models for binary items, namely a generalization of the approach of Ferrando and Lorenzo-Seva (2007a and a generalization of the approach of Ranger and Ortner (2011. Two new models and a variant of the hierarchical model of van der Linden (2007 are also considered. All these models combine the graded response model with a response time model based on the log-normal distribu-tion. The models differ in the assumed relationship between the expected log response time and the underlying latent traits. Although the proposed models have different interpretations and implications they can all be calibrated within the same general framework using marginal maximum likelihood estimation and an application of the ECM-algorithm. The models are used for the analysis of an empirical data set. According to the AIC index, the generalization of the model of Ranger and Ortner (2011 can represent the data best.

  1. Faraday rotation in a multimode optical fiber in a fast rise-time, high magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A magneto-optic Faraday rotation diagnostic was implemented on a Z-pinch driven flux-compression generator to measure line-averaged, megagauss, axial-magnetic fields up to 1.6 MG with rise times of 30 kG/ns. The axial-magnetic field rotated the plane of polarization of a 2-W argon laser beam in a 0.725-mm-diam, fused silica quartz fiber mounted coaxial with the Z pinch. The rapid rise time and the high radiation environment presented by the Z-pinch plasma caused a high-pressure impulse <100 kbar, to be coupled into the quartz-fiber probe disrupting the polarization-preserving properties of the fiber. The time scale for disruption was characteristic of a shock propagating radially through the fiber to its core. This paper will describe the response of the Faraday diagnostic under these conditions and present a simple model that describes the effects of fiber depolarization that is consistent with previous observations of stress-induced depolarization in optical fibers

  2. Quartz tube orifice leaks for local, fast-response gas sampling to mass spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemo, B

    1979-12-01

    Simple and versatile quartz tube orifice leaks, suitable for sampling of gas mixtures to mass spectrometers, have been made by heating the tip of a quartz tube in a hydrogen-oxygen flame. With these leaks the requirement of expensive and clumsy differential pumping stages is removed. The quartz probes have been used in gas sampling from catalytic reaction cells at 1 atm to a mass spectrometer. The sampling position can be located within 0.1 mm from the catalyst. Continuous recording of the local gas composition is then achieved with a response time of about 0.05 s, and with a minimum perturbation of the gas flow. The probes have been used in ambient air and at temperatures around 1000 K for extended periods of time without deterioration or plugging. The high stability at elevated temperatures and chemical resistance seem to make these probes useful for various applications, e.g., in sampling from combustion flames. The gas flow through the leak is determined by a very short and narrow constriction at the tube tip. In a leak with a throughput of 1x10(-4) Torr l/s at 1 atm inlet pressure, the constriction has a diameter of 5-7x10(-4) cm and a length of about 0.015. cm. PMID:18699444

  3. State-of-the-art review on the mechanical response of fast reactor sub-assemblies in local accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of work on the mechanical response of fast reactor sub-assemblies (SAs) in local accident conditions has been made. The review deals with the consequences of a supposed molten fuel-coolant interaction in one SA. It covers work done in France, Germany, Italy, UK, USA and at JRC Ispra. The topics reviewed are SA design data, material properties, single SA response to internal and external loads and the response of the array of SAs surrounding the incident one. Results of static and dynamic tests on single SAs and arrays of SAs are summarised. A comparison of the predictions of theoretical methods with these test results is made. The adequacy of existing data and methods is evaluated and recommendations for further work are made. (orig.)

  4. Sensitivity and response time improvements in millimeter-wave spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new version of a microwave spectrometer for the detection of gaseous pollutants and other atmospheric constituents is described. The spectrometer, which operates in the vicinity of 70 GHz, employs a Fabry-Perot resonator as a sample cell and uses superhetrodyne detection for high sensitivity. The spectrometer has been modified to incorporate a frequency doubler modulated at 30 MHz to permit operation with a single Gunn oscillator source. As a result, faster response time and somewhat greater sensitivity are obtained. The spectrometer is capable of detecting a minimum concentration of 1 ppM of SO2 diluted in air with a 1 second time constant. For OCS diluted in air, the minimum detectable concentration is 800 ppB and with a 10 second time constant 300 ppB

  5. Evaluating Cognitive Theory: A Joint Modeling Approach Using Responses and Response Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein Entink, Rinke H.; Kuhn, Jorg-Tobias; Hornke, Lutz F.; Fox, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    In current psychological research, the analysis of data from computer-based assessments or experiments is often confined to accuracy scores. Response times, although being an important source of additional information, are either neglected or analyzed separately. In this article, a new model is developed that allows the simultaneous analysis of…

  6. Caire - A real-time feedback system for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cases of nuclear emergencies it is the primary task of emergency response forces and decision making authorities to act properly. Whatever the specific reason for the contingency may be, a quick and most accurate estimate of the radiation exposure in consequence of the emergency must be made. This is a necessary prerequisite for decisions on protective measures and off-site emergency management. With respect to this fact ant the recent experience of the Chernobyl accident, remote monitoring systems have increased their importance as an inherent part of environmental surveillance installations in the FRG and in other countries. The existing systems in Germany are designed to cover both, routine operation and emergency situations. They provide site specific meteorological data, gross effluent dose rates, and dose rate measurements at on-site and approximately 30 off-site locations in the vicinity of a plant. Based on such telemetric surveillance networks an advanced automatic on-line system named CAIRE (Computer Aided Response to Emergencies) has been developed as a real time emergency response tool for nuclear facilities. this tool is designed to provide decision makers with most relevant radiation exposure data of the population at risk. The development phase of CAIRE has already been finished. CAIRE is now in an operational status and available for applications in emergency planning and response

  7. Time-resolved photo and radio-luminescence studies demonstrate the possibility of using InGaN/GaN quantum wells as fast scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, G.

    2015-03-01

    In the recent publication by Hospodková et al, the authors investigate III-N quantum well structures as potential fast scintillators (Hospodková et al 2014 Nanotechnology 25 455501). The InGaN/GaN quantum well structures are grown using metal organic vapour phase epitaxy on a sapphire substrate and the fast carrier decay times are characterized by time resolved photo and radioluminescence.

  8. Unsaturated-zone fast-path flow calculations for Yucca Mountain groundwater travel time analyses (GWTT-94)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of groundwater travel time (GWTT) is required as part of the investigation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential high-level nuclear-waste repository site. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's GWTT regulation is considered to be a measure of the intrinsic ability of the site to contain radionuclide releases from the repository. The work reported here is the first step in a program to provide an estimate of GWTT at the Yucca Mountain site in support of the DOE's Technical Site Suitability and as a component of a license application. Preliminary estimation of the GWTT distribution in the unsaturated zone was accomplished using a numerical model of the physical processes of groundwater flow in the fractured, porous medium of the bedrock. Based on prior investigations of groundwater flow at the site, fractures are thought to provide the fastest paths for groundwater flow; conditions that lead to flow in fractures were investigated and simulated. Uncertainty in the geologic interpretation of Yucca Mountain was incorporated through the use of geostatistical simulations, while variability of hydrogeologic parameters within each unit was accounted for by the random sampling of parameter probability density functions. The composite-porosity formulation of groundwater flow was employed to simulate flow in both the matrix and fracture domains. In this conceptualization, the occurrence of locally saturated conditions within the unsaturated zone is responsible for the initiation of fast-path flow through fractures. The results of the GWTT-94 study show that heterogeneity in the hydraulic properties of the model domain is an important factor in simulating local regions of high groundwater saturation. Capillary-pressure conditions at the surface boundary influence the extent of the local saturation simulated

  9. Unsaturated-zone fast-path flow calculations for Yucca Mountain groundwater travel time analyses (GWTT-94)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, B.W.; Altman, S.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robey, T.H. [Spectra Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Evaluation of groundwater travel time (GWTT) is required as part of the investigation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential high-level nuclear-waste repository site. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s GWTT regulation is considered to be a measure of the intrinsic ability of the site to contain radionuclide releases from the repository. The work reported here is the first step in a program to provide an estimate of GWTT at the Yucca Mountain site in support of the DOE`s Technical Site Suitability and as a component of a license application. Preliminary estimation of the GWTT distribution in the unsaturated zone was accomplished using a numerical model of the physical processes of groundwater flow in the fractured, porous medium of the bedrock. Based on prior investigations of groundwater flow at the site, fractures are thought to provide the fastest paths for groundwater flow; conditions that lead to flow in fractures were investigated and simulated. Uncertainty in the geologic interpretation of Yucca Mountain was incorporated through the use of geostatistical simulations, while variability of hydrogeologic parameters within each unit was accounted for by the random sampling of parameter probability density functions. The composite-porosity formulation of groundwater flow was employed to simulate flow in both the matrix and fracture domains. In this conceptualization, the occurrence of locally saturated conditions within the unsaturated zone is responsible for the initiation of fast-path flow through fractures. The results of the GWTT-94 study show that heterogeneity in the hydraulic properties of the model domain is an important factor in simulating local regions of high groundwater saturation. Capillary-pressure conditions at the surface boundary influence the extent of the local saturation simulated.

  10. Time-resolved two-color monochromatic x-ray imagers for fast-ignitor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Minoru; Fujiwara, Takashi; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Azechi, Hiroshi; Mima, Kunioki

    2008-11-01

    Ultrafast two-dimensional (2D) x-ray imaging is required to investigate the dynamics of fast-heated core plasma in fast ignition research. A novel x-ray imager, consisting of two toroidally bent Bragg crystals and an ultrafast two-dimensional x-ray imaging camera, has been demonstrated in order to measure an electron temperature profile of fast-ignitor plasma. Sequential, two-color, and 2D monochromatic x-ray images of laser-imploded core plasma were obtained with a temporal resolution of 20 ps, a spatial resolution of 31 ?m, and a spectral resolution of over 200, simultaneously. Details of the experimental results and analysis will be discussed

  11. Bayesian meta-analysis of the effect of fasting, transport and lairage times on four attributes of pork meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, B; Trefan, L; Bünger, L; Doeschl-Wilson, A; Bidanel, J P; Terlouw, C; Larzul, C

    2012-03-01

    Technological meat quality is a significant economic factor in pork production, and numerous publications have shown that it is strongly influenced both by genetic status and by rearing and slaughter conditions. The quality of meat is often described by meat pH at different times postmortem, as well as by color and drip loss. A meta-analysis based on a database built from 27 studies corresponding to a total of 6526 animals classified was carried out. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to study the effect of fasting, lairage and transport durations on four main attributes of the technological pork meat quality. A Bayesian hierarchical meta-regression approach was adopted. The results of our meta-analysis showed that fasting time had a significant effect on pH measured 24h post-mortem (pHu) and drip loss (DL) measured in longissimus muscle. While, lairage affected only the pHu in semimembranosus muscle. Interestingly, we found that DL was the lone attribute that was affected by transport time and its interaction with fasting time. PMID:22075265

  12. Fast Mode Decision on H.264/AVC Baseline Profile for real-time performance

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto Doncel, Marcos; Salgado A?lvarez Sotomayor, Luis; Cabrera Quesada, Julian; Garci?a Santos, Narciso

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a new fast mode decision (FMD) algorithm is proposed for the recent H.264/AVC video coding standard, aiming to reduce its computational load without loosing coding efficiency. This algorithm identifies redundancy and selects the minimum sub-set of modes for each macroblock (MB) required to provide high rate-distortion (RD) efficiency. It is based on a fast analysis of the histogram of the difference image between frames which classifies the areas of each frame as active or non-a...

  13. Fast-starting after a breath: air-breathing motions are kinematically similar to escape responses in the catfish Hoplosternum littorale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G; Johansen, Jacob L; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Svendsen, Morten B S; Steffensen, John F; Abe, Augusto S

    2014-01-01

    Fast-starts are brief accelerations commonly observed in fish within the context of predator-prey interactions. In typical C-start escape responses, fish react to a threatening stimulus by bending their body into a C-shape during the first muscle contraction (i.e. stage 1) which provides a sudden acceleration away from the stimulus. Recently, similar C-starts have been recorded in fish aiming at a prey. Little is known about C-starts outside the context of predator-prey interactions, though recent work has shown that escape response can also be induced by high temperature. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts in the context of gulping air at the surface. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of air-gulping at the surface, followed by a fast turn which re-directs the fish towards the bottom. Using high-speed video in the laboratory, we compared the kinematics of the turn immediately following air-gulping performed by H. littorale in normoxia with those of mechanically-triggered C-start escape responses and with routine (i.e. spontaneous) turns. Our results show that air-breathing events overlap considerably with escape responses with a large stage 1 angle in terms of turning rates, distance covered and the relationship between these rates. Therefore, these two behaviours can be considered kinematically comparable, suggesting that air-breathing in this species is followed by escape-like C-start motions, presumably to minimise time at the surface and exposure to avian predators. These findings show that C-starts can occur in a variety of contexts in which fish may need to get away from areas of potential danger. PMID:25527644

  14. Fast-starting after a breath: air-breathing motions are kinematically similar to escape responses in the catfish Hoplosternum littorale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.; Johansen, Jacob L.; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Svendsen, Morten B. S.; Steffensen, John F.; Abe, Augusto S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fast-starts are brief accelerations commonly observed in fish within the context of predator–prey interactions. In typical C-start escape responses, fish react to a threatening stimulus by bending their body into a C-shape during the first muscle contraction (i.e. stage 1) which provides a sudden acceleration away from the stimulus. Recently, similar C-starts have been recorded in fish aiming at a prey. Little is known about C-starts outside the context of predator–prey interactions, though recent work has shown that escape response can also be induced by high temperature. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts in the context of gulping air at the surface. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of air-gulping at the surface, followed by a fast turn which re-directs the fish towards the bottom. Using high-speed video in the laboratory, we compared the kinematics of the turn immediately following air-gulping performed by H. littorale in normoxia with those of mechanically-triggered C-start escape responses and with routine (i.e. spontaneous) turns. Our results show that air-breathing events overlap considerably with escape responses with a large stage 1 angle in terms of turning rates, distance covered and the relationship between these rates. Therefore, these two behaviours can be considered kinematically comparable, suggesting that air-breathing in this species is followed by escape-like C-start motions, presumably to minimise time at the surface and exposure to avian predators. These findings show that C-starts can occur in a variety of contexts in which fish may need to get away from areas of potential danger. PMID:25527644

  15. A GPU-based real time high performance computing service in a fast plant system controller prototype for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Implementation of fast plant system controller (FPSC) for ITER CODAC. ? GPU-based real time high performance computing service. ? Performance evaluation with respect to other solutions based in multi-core processors. - Abstract: EURATOM/CIEMAT and the Technical University of Madrid UPM are involved in the development of a FPSC (fast plant system control) prototype for ITER based on PXIe form factor. The FPSC architecture includes a GPU-based real time high performance computing service which has been integrated under EPICS (experimental physics and industrial control system). In this work we present the design of this service and its performance evaluation with respect to other solutions based in multi-core processors. Plasma pre-processing algorithms, illustrative of the type of tasks that could be required for both control and diagnostics, are used during the performance evaluation.

  16. Fast non-blind deconvolution based on 2D point spread function database for real-time ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jooyoung; Park, Sung-Chan; Kim, Kyuhong; Kim, Jung-Ho

    2013-02-01

    In the ultrasound medical imaging system, blurring which occurs after passing through ultrasound scanner system, represents Point Spread Function (PSF) that describes the response of the ultrasound imaging system to a point source distribution. So, de-blurring can be achieved by de-convolving the images with an estimated of PSF. However, it is hard to attain an accurate estimation of PSF due to the unknown properties of the tissues of the human body through the ultrasound signal propagates. In addition to, the complexity is very high in order to estimate point spread function and de-convolve the ultrasound image with estimated PSF for real-time implementation of ultrasound imaging. Therefore, conventional methods of ultrasound image restoration are based on a simple 1D PSF estimation [8] that axial direction only by restoring the performance improvement is not in the direction of Lateral. And, in case of 2D PSF estimation, PSF estimation and restoration of the high complexity is not being widely used. In this paper, we proposed new method for selection of the 2D PSF (estimated PSF of the average speed sound and depth) simultaneously with performing fast non-blind 2D de-convolution in the ultrasound imaging system. Our algorithm works on the beam-formed uncompressed radio-frequency data, with pre-measured and estimated 2D PSFs database from actual probe used. In the 2d PSF database, there are pre-measured and estimated 2D PSFs that classified the each different depth (about 5 different depths) and speed of sound (about 1450 or 1540m/s). Using a minimum variance and simple Weiner filter method, we present a novel way to select the optimal 2D PSF in pre-measured and estimated 2D PSFs database that acquired from the actual transducer being used. For de-convolution part with the chosen PSF, we focused on the low complexity issue. So, we are using the Weiner Filter and fast de-convolution technique using hyper-Laplacian priors [11], [12] which is several orders of magnitude faster than existing techniques that use hyper-Laplacian priors. Then, in order to prevent discontinuities between the differently restored each depth image regions, we use the piecewise linear interpolation on overlapping regions. We have tested our algorithm with vera-sonic system and commercial ultrasound scanner (Philips C4-2), in known speed of sound phantoms and unknown speeds in vivo scans. We have applied a non-blind de-convolution with 2D PSFs database for ultrasound imaging system. Using the real PSF from actual transducer being used, our algorithm produces a better restoration of ultrasound image than de-convolution by simulated PSF, and has low complexity for real-time ultrasound imaging. This method is robust and easy to implement. This method may be a realistic candidate for real-time implementation.

  17. A fast algorithm to compute precise type-2 centroids for real-time control applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sumantra; Konar, Amit; Ralescu, Anca; Pal, Nikhil R

    2015-02-01

    An interval type-2 fuzzy set (IT2 FS) is characterized by its upper and lower membership functions containing all possible embedded fuzzy sets, which together is referred to as the footprint of uncertainty (FOU). The FOU results in a span of uncertainty measured in the defuzzified space and is determined by the positional difference of the centroids of all the embedded fuzzy sets taken together. This paper provides a closed-form formula to evaluate the span of uncertainty of an IT2 FS. The closed-form formula offers a precise measurement of the degree of uncertainty in an IT2 FS with a runtime complexity less than that of the classical iterative Karnik-Mendel algorithm and other formulations employing the iterative Newton-Raphson algorithm. This paper also demonstrates a real-time control application using the proposed closed-form formula of centroids with reduced root mean square error and computational overhead than those of the existing methods. Computer simulations for this real-time control application indicate that parallel realization of the IT2 defuzzification outperforms its competitors with respect to maximum overshoot even at high sampling rates. Furthermore, in the presence of measurement noise in system (plant) states, the proposed IT2 FS based scheme outperforms its type-1 counterpart with respect to peak overshoot and root mean square error in plant response. PMID:24691554

  18. FF-MAC : Fast Forward IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Protocol for Real-Time Data Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    El Gholami, Khalid; Elkamoun, Najib; Hou, Kun Mean

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a Fast Forward MAC layer designed for hard real-time applications in wireless sensor networks. This protocol is an enhancement to the IEEE 802.15.4 standard MAC layer proposed for Low-Rate Personal Area Network. The energy conservation mechanism proposed by the current standard is quite efficient and very flexible. This flexibility comes from the ability to configure different duty cycles to meet specific application’s requirements. However, this mechanism has a c...

  19. Fast Response Scintillator Based Detector for MHD Induced Energetic Ion Losses in ASDEX Upgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Garci?a Mun?oz, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    In fusion plasma devices, fast particles i.e. suprathermal ions generated by heating systems and fusion born a particles must be well confined, until they have transferred their energy to the plasma bulk. Signicant loss of these ions may reduce drastically the heating eficiency and, in addition, may cause damage to plasma facing components in the vacuum vessel, if it is suficiently intense and localized. A detailed knowledge of the underlying physics in particular in the presence of magnetohy...

  20. Formulation and optimization of fast dissolving intraoral drug delivery system for clobazam using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Bala, Rajni; Khanna, Sushil; Pawar, Pravin K.

    2013-01-01

    Clobazam is a newer 1,5-benzodiazepine used for the treatment of epilepsy. It is better tolerated and less sedating than other benzodiazepines. Absorption of the drug can be impacted by oral fast dissolving dosage form; this may have implications for epilepsy in pediatrics and those having difficulty in swallowing tablets/capsules resulting in improved patient compliance. The purpose of the present investigation was to formulate and optimize clobazam oro-dissolving tablets by direct compressi...

  1. Design and evaluation of novel fast forming pilocarpine-loaded ocular hydrogels for sustained pharmacological response

    OpenAIRE

    Anumolu, Sivanaga S.; Singh, Yashveer; Gao, Dayuan; Stein, Stanley; Sinko, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    Fast forming hydrogels prepared by crosslinking a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based copolymer containing multiple thiol (SH) groups were evaluated for the controlled ocular delivery of pilocarpine and subsequent pupillary constriction. Physical properties of the hydrogels were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), rheometry, and swelling kinetics. Pilocarpine loading efficiency and release properties were measured in simulated tear fluid. The hy...

  2. Increased sensitivity of fast BOLD fMRI with a subject-specific hemodynamic response function and application to epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Sébastien; Safi-Harb, Mouna; Levan, Pierre; An, Dongmei; Watanabe, Satsuki; Gotman, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Activation detection in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) typically assumes the hemodynamic response to neuronal activity to be invariant across brain regions and subjects. Reports of substantial variability of the morphology of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) responses are accumulating, suggesting that the use of a single generic model of the expected response in general linear model (GLM) analyses does not provide optimal sensitivity due to model misspecification. Relaxing assumptions of the model can limit the impact of hemodynamic response function (HRF) variability, but at a cost on model parsimony. Alternatively, better specification of the model could be obtained from a priori knowledge of the HRF of a given subject, but the effectiveness of this approach has only been tested on simulation data. Using fast BOLD fMRI, we characterized the variability of hemodynamic responses to a simple event-related auditory-motor task, as well as its effect on activation detection with GLM analyses. We show the variability to be higher between subjects than between regions and variation in different regions to correlate from one subject to the other. Accounting for subject-related variability by deriving subject-specific models from responses to the task in some regions lead to more sensitive detection of responses in other regions. We applied the approach to epilepsy patients, where task-derived patient-specific models provided additional information compared to the use of a generic model for the detection of BOLD responses to epileptiform activity identified on scalp electro-encephalogram (EEG). This work highlights the importance of improving the accuracy of the model for detecting neuronal activation with fMRI, and the fact that it can be done at no cost to model parsimony through the acquisition of independent a priori information about the hemodynamic response. PMID:24582920

  3. Time-dependent response of hydrogels under constrained swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, A. D.; Sommer-Larsen, P.; Christiansen, J. deClaville; Sanporean, C.-G.

    2014-06-01

    Constitutive equations are developed for the viscoplastic behavior of covalently cross-linked hydrogels subjected to swelling. The ability of the model to describe the time-dependent response is confirmed by comparison of results of simulation with observations on partially swollen poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) gel specimens in uniaxial tensile tests with a constant strain rate and tensile relaxation tests. The stress-strain relations are applied to study the kinetics of unconstrained and constrained swelling. The following conclusions are drawn from numerical analysis: (i) maximum water uptake under constrained swelling a viscoplastic hydrogel is lower than that for unconstrained swelling of its elastic counterpart and exceeds maximum water uptake under constrained swelling of the elastic gel, (ii) when the rate of water diffusion exceeds the rate of plastic flow in a polymer network, swelling curves (mass uptake versus time) for viscoplastic gels under constraints demonstrate characteristic features of non-Fickian diffusion.

  4. The response of quiescent cell populations in murine solid tumors to irradiation with fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BUdR) was injected into SCC VII tumor-bearing mice intraperitoneally to label all proliferating tumor cells. The mice were irradiated with fast neutrons or X-rays. Immediately, or 24 h after irradiation, the tumors were excised, minced and trypsinized. The tumor cell suspensions were incubated with cytochalasin-B (a cytokinesis blocker). The micronucleus frequency was determined using immunofluorescence staining to BUdR. The cells that were not labeled with BUdR could be regarded as the quiescent cells. The micronucleus frequency in total tumor cells was determined from the irradiated tumors that were not pretreated with BUdR. The difference in radiosensitivity between total and quiescent cells was markedly reduced with fast neutrons, especially at higher doses of radiation. Potentially lethal damage repair by total and quiescent cells was inhibited more strongly with neutrons than with X-rays. When using fast neutrons, the radiosensitivity of solid tumors depends on their heterogeneity less critically than for X-rays. (orig.)

  5. Fast-response high-resolution temperature sonde aimed at contamination-free profile observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shimizu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An innovative temperature sonde, equipped with an ultra thin tungsten wire, has been developed to meet the scientific requirements suitable for climate change research. The response time, shorter than 40 ms achieved at the altitude of 30 km, enables the temperature observations with the radiation correction of less than 0.4 K in the whole observation range. Test flights during the development stage reveal significant artificial perturbations in the observed temperature profiles. They are identified as the thermal contamination arising primarily from radiosonde package box with some additional effect from the launching balloon. The modification of the sensor mount successfully removed the contribution from the former effect. On the other hand, some filtering procedure need to be applied to remove the latter, although the use of a long suspension line will be effective to reduce the noise. There remain unavoidable small fluctuations (less than 0.4 K that are brought about by the solid angle modulation of the illumination against the sensor body in the daytime. While conventional radiation correction may unintentionally have taken a part of such contaminations into account, they may not be properly corrected in existing radiosonde data, as the origin of errors has not been identified. Our tungsten sonde that scarcely relies on the ambiguous correction procedures is ideal for serving as an international reference.

  6. Fast-response high-resolution temperature sonde aimed at contamination-free profile observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shimizu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An innovative temperature sonde, equipped with an ultra thin tungsten wire (10 ?m in diameter, has been developed to meet the scientific requirements suitable for climate change research. The response time, shorter than 40 ms achieved at the altitude of 30 km, enables the temperature observations with the radiation correction of less than 0.5 K in the whole observation range. Test flights during the development stage reveal significant artificial perturbations in the observed temperature profiles. They are identified as the thermal contamination arising primarily from radiosonde package box with some additional effect from the launching balloon. The modification of the sensor mount successfully removed the contribution from the former effect. On the other hand, some filtering procedure need to be applied to remove the latter, although the use of a long suspension line will be effective. There remain unavoidable small fluctuations (less than 0.4 K that are brought about by the solid angle modulation of the illumination against the sensor body in the daytime. While conventional radiation correction may unintentionally have taken a part of such contaminations into account, they may not be properly corrected in existing radiosonde data, as the origin of errors has not been identified. Our tungsten sonde that scarcely relies on the ambiguous correction procedures will be ideal for serving as a kind of an international reference.

  7. Fast-response high-resolution temperature sonde aimed at contamination-free profile observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K.; Hasebe, F.

    2010-12-01

    An innovative temperature sonde, equipped with an ultra thin tungsten wire (10 ?m in diameter), has been developed to meet the scientific requirements suitable for climate change research. The response time, shorter than 40 ms achieved at the altitude of 30 km, enables the temperature observations with the radiation correction of less than 0.5 K in the whole observation range. Test flights during the development stage reveal significant artificial perturbations in the observed temperature profiles. They are identified as the thermal contamination arising primarily from radiosonde package box with some additional effect from the launching balloon. The modification of the sensor mount successfully removed the contribution from the former effect. On the other hand, some filtering procedure need to be applied to remove the latter, although the use of a long suspension line will be effective. There remain unavoidable small fluctuations (less than 0.4 K) that are brought about by the solid angle modulation of the illumination against the sensor body in the daytime. While conventional radiation correction may unintentionally have taken a part of such contaminations into account, they may not be properly corrected in existing radiosonde data, as the origin of errors has not been identified. Our tungsten sonde that scarcely relies on the ambiguous correction procedures will be ideal for serving as a kind of an international reference.

  8. The dynamic response of resistive microswitches: switching time and bouncing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granaldi, Alessandro; Decuzzi, Paolo

    2006-07-01

    The dynamic response of a cantilever-based microswitch has been analyzed employing a one-degree-of-freedom model, placing particular emphasis on the interaction between the cantilever tip and the substrate which has been modeled introducing a general Lennard-Jones force. Five dimensionless key parameters have been identified, the most important being A1—the ratio of the electrostatic actuation force versus the elastic restoring force—and Q—the quality factor which is inversely proportional to the damping coefficient of the system. From dynamic analysis three characteristic times have been derived: the time ti for establishing the first tip/substrate contact, the time tf for the final permanent contact and switch closure and the time interval ?t(=tf - ti) during which the beam tip bounces several times over the substrate before achieving a full effective contact. It has been shown that the formulae currently available for the switching time, which neglect bouncing and damping, accurately estimate ti, but significantly underestimate the actual switching time which in fact coincides with tf. It has been predicted that as the actuation voltage increases, ti and tf reduce, whereas ?t and the number of bounces increase favoring mechanical damage as the tip/substrate interface. On the other hand, as the damping coefficient of the system increases, the number of bounces reduces monotonically, whereas tf has a biphasic behavior showing a minimum for an optimal Q. Maps have been presented which can be used in a preliminary design process of the cantilever-based switch.

  9. On selection for flowering time plasticity in response to density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Different genotypes often exhibit opposite plastic responses in the timing of the onset of flowering with increasing plant density. In experimental studies, selection for accelerated flowering is generally found. By contrast, game theoretical studies predict that there should be selection for delayed flowering when competition increases. Combining different optimality criteria, the conditions under which accelerated or delayed flowering in response to density would be selected for are analysed with a logistic growth simulation model. To maximize seed production at the whole-stand level (simple optimization), selection should lead to accelerated flowering at high plant density, unless very short growing seasons select for similar onset of flowering at all densities. By contrast, selection of relative individual fitness will lead to delayed flowering when season length is long and/or growth rates are high. These different results give a potential explanation for the observed differences in direction of the plastic responses within and between species, including homeostasis, as a result of the effect of the variation in season length on the benefits of delayed flowering. This suggests that limited plasticity can evolve without the costs and limits that are currently thought to constrain the evolution of plasticity. PMID:25124368

  10. Electrodermal response propagation time as a potential psychophysiological marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hugo; Fred, Ana; Lourenco, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Electrodermal activity is amongst the main psychophysiological arousal indicators used in clinical and affective computing application scenarios. This is mostly due to the relation between the skin conductance responses and the autonomic nervous system activity, in particular, the sympathetic subsystem operation. Although thermal regulation is also controlled by these components of the nervous system, which is expressed as a tonic variation in the electrodermal activity signals, reactions to psychological stimuli can also be detected, in this case, expressed as phasic variations. So far, there is still no clear consensus regarding the relation between the specific responses of the autonomic nervous system activity, and the features typically extracted from the electrodermal activity signals. Therefore, signal processing and feature extraction have been active research topics in the field. In this paper we present an experimental setup and corresponding data analysis for electrodermal response propagation time measurement. Experimental results have revealed interesting properties in this signal, enhancing its potential as a psychophysiological marker, and thus further expanding the toolbox for researchers in the field. PMID:23367480

  11. Developmental mediation of genetic variation in response to the Fast Track prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dustin; Belsky, Daniel W; Crowley, D Max; Bates, John E; Pettit, Gregory S; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dick, Danielle; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2015-02-01

    We conducted a developmental analysis of genetic moderation of the effect of the Fast Track intervention on adult externalizing psychopathology. The Fast Track intervention enrolled 891 children at high risk to develop externalizing behavior problems when they were in kindergarten. Half of the enrolled children were randomly assigned to receive 10 years of treatment, with a range of services and resources provided to the children and their families, and the other half to usual care (controls). We previously showed that the effect of the Fast Track intervention on participants' risk of externalizing psychopathology at age 25 years was moderated by a variant in the glucocorticoid receptor gene. Children who carried copies of the A allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs10482672 had the highest risk of externalizing psychopathology if they were in the control arm of the trial and the lowest risk of externalizing psychopathology if they were in the treatment arm. In this study, we test a developmental hypothesis about the origins of this for better and for worse Gene × Intervention interaction (G × I): that the observed G × I effect on adult psychopathology is mediated by the proximal impact of intervention on childhood externalizing problems and adolescent substance use and delinquency. We analyzed longitudinal data tracking the 270 European American children in the Fast Track randomized control trial with available genetic information (129 intervention children, 141 control group peers, 69% male) from kindergarten through age 25 years. Results show that the same pattern of for better and for worse susceptibility to intervention observed at the age 25 follow-up was evident already during childhood. At the elementary school follow-ups and at the middle/high school follow-ups, rs10482672 predicted better adjustment among children receiving the Fast Track intervention and worse adjustment among children in the control condition. In turn, these proximal G × I effects early in development mediated the ultimate G × I effect on externalizing psychopathology at age 25 years. We discuss the contribution of these findings to the growing literature on genetic susceptibility to environmental intervention. PMID:25640832

  12. LHCb: Beam and Background Monitoring and the Upgrade of the Timing and Fast Control System of the LHCb experiment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, F

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at CERN is preparing for first real data taking, foreseen by the end of the year 2009 with the start-up of the LHC. A large amount of work of commissioning, tests and improvements of the full detector has been done in order to optimize its performance. During my first year as a Doctoral Student at CERN, I have been working on the timing and readout control of the LHCb experiment in the frame of the LHCb Online group. The group is responsible for the full data acquisition of the LHCb experiment, from the Front-End Electronics (FEE) to the storage of the data for offline analysis, as well as the Timing and Fast Control (TFC) system. The latter controls and distributes centrally timing and trigger information, as well as synchronous and asynchronous commands to the readout system. It is also responsible for receiving and adjusting the bunch and orbit clocks of the LHC machine and distributing it to the electronics of the whole experiment. It is of vital importance to assure that the timing o...

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of the response to fast neutrons of a multi-gap RPC (MRPC) by using the GEANT4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports the simulated response to fast neutrons of a multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) by using the GEANT4 MC code. In this study, a thin polyethylene layer, which acted as the converter material for the detection of fast neutrons, was coated on the surface of the MRPC, which acts as the converter material for the detection of fast neutrons. The converter based on the polyethylene material improved the chamber's ability to detect fast neutrons. By employing the GEANT4 MC code, fast neutrons were inserted into the converter-based MRPC chamber in the energy range of 1.0 - 20.0 MeV. The response of the polyethylene-coated MRPC were evaluated as a function of the neutron energy by using the QGSPBERTHP and the QGSPBICHP physics list with the GEANT4 code. For a 0.13-mm converter thickness, a detection efficiency of 6.4x10-3 were found for fast neutrons with an energy of En = 6.0 by the QGSPBERTHP physics list. The simulation test further confirmed that a higher response of the fast neutrons could be achieved if the converter thickness were to be increased. A detailed outline of the simulation test and the obtained results are presented.

  14. Fast-response liquid crystal display by the VA-IPS display mode with nematic liquid crystal and polymer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tien-Jung; Lin, Guan-Jhong; Chen, Bo-Yu; Wu, Jin-Jei; Yang, Ying-Jay

    2012-10-01

    To improve electrooptical characteristics of the vertical aligned (VA) liquid crystal displays (LCDs), the monomer material and in-plane switching (IPS) field produced by interdigital electrodes are employed in LC cells. The fast switching response and well optical transmittance of the VA-IPS display mode are successfully achieved by mixing the nematic LC with polymer networks, attributed to the surface anchoring, and the molecular orientation of the LC cell will be further governed, especially under the greater applied voltage. Furthermore, the high concentration doping of the monomer can effectively improve the response behavior, but it also results in the transmittance sacrificed due to the light scattering, and the threshold voltage (Vth) increased.

  15. Optimal scan timing of hepatic arterial-phase imaging of hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma determined by multiphasic fast CT imaging technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagawa, Yuki; Okada, Masahiro; Yagyu, Yukinobu; Kumano, Seishi; Murakami, Takamichi [Dept. of Radiology, Kinki Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Osaka (Japan)], e-mail: murakami@med.kindai.ac.jp; Kanematsu, Masayuki [Dept. of Radiology, Gifu Univ., School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Kudo, Masayuki [CT Research JP, GE Healthcare JP Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Background: A new multiphasic fast imaging technique, known as volume helical shuttle technique, is a breakthrough for liver imaging that offers new clinical opportunities in dynamic blood flow studies. This technique enables virtually real-time hemodynamics assessment by shuttling the patient cradle back and forth during serial scanning. Purpose: To determine optimal scan timing of hepatic arterial-phase imaging for detecting hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with maximum tumor-to-liver contrast by volume helical shuttle technique. Material and Methods: One hundred and one hypervascular HCCs in 50 patients were prospectively studied by 64-channel multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) with multiphasic fast imaging technique. Contrast medium containing 600 mg iodine per kg body weight was intravenously injected for 30 s. Six seconds after the contrast arrival in the abdominal aorta detected with bolus tracking, serial 12-phase imaging of the whole liver was performed during 24-s breath-holding with multiphasic fast imaging technique during arterial phase. By placing regions of interest in the abdominal aorta, portal vein, liver parenchyma, and hypervascular HCCs on the multiphase images, time-density curves of anatomical regions and HCCs were composed. Timing of maximum tumor-to-liver contrast after the contrast arrival in the abdominal aorta was determined. Results: For the detection of hypervascular HCC at arterial phase, mean time and value of maximum tumor-to-liver contrast after the contrast arrival were 21 s and 38.0 HU, respectively. Conclusion: Optimal delay time for the hepatic arterial-phase imaging maximizing the contrast enhancement of hypervascular HCCs was 21 s after arrival of contrast medium in the abdominal aorta.

  16. Aspects of radiation beam quality and their effect on the dose response of polymer gels: Photons, electrons and fast neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Andreas; Bayreder, Christian; Georg, Dietmar; Bankamp, Achim; Wolber, Gerd

    2009-05-01

    Polymer gels are generally assumed to exhibit no significant dependence of the dose response on the energy or type of irradiation for clinically used beam qualities. Based on reports on differences in dose response for low energy photons and particle beams with high linear energy transfer (LET) we here investigate the dose response and energy dependence for a normoxic methacrylic acid polymer gel (MAGAT) for X-rays (100 kV), high energy photon beams (E = 1.2 MeV (60Co), 6 MV and 15 MV) and for three different electron energies (4, 12 and 20 MeV). Due to the possible impact also the sensitivity of the dose response to the dose rate is reported. A reduction in polymer gel relaxation rate has been observed for proton and carbon beams due to the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) of these types of radiations. We here report on the dose response of an acryl-amide polymer gel (PAG) in a fast neutron field along with collimation as proposed for Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT).

  17. Temporal Gillespie algorithm: Fast simulation of contagion processes on time-varying networks

    CERN Document Server

    Vestergaard, Christian L

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic simulations are one of the cornerstones of the analysis of dynamical processes on complex networks, and are often the only accessible way to explore their behavior. The development of fast algorithms is paramount to allow large-scale simulations. The Gillespie algorithm can be used for fast simulation of stochastic processes, and variants of it have been applied to simulate dynamical processes on static networks. However, its adaptation to temporal networks remains non-trivial. We here present a temporal Gillespie algorithm that solves this problem. Our method is applicable to general Poisson (constant-rate) processes on temporal networks, stochastically exact, and up to orders of magnitude faster than traditional simulation schemes based on rejection sampling. We also show how it can be extended to simulate non-Markovian processes. The algorithm is easily applicable in practice, and as an illustration we detail how to simulate both Poissonian and non-Markovian models of epidemic spreading. Namely,...

  18. A huntingtin-mediated fast stress response halting endosomal trafficking is defective in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Siddharth; Munsie, Lise N; Truant, Ray

    2015-01-15

    Cellular stress is a normal part of the aging process and is especially relevant in neurodegenerative disease. Canonical stress responses, such as the heat shock response, activate following exposure to stress and restore proteostasis through the action of isomerases and chaperones within the cytosol. Through live-cell imaging, we demonstrate involvement of the Huntington's disease (HD) protein, huntingtin, in a rapid cell stress response that lies temporally upstream of canonical stress responses. This response is characterized by the formation of distinct cytosolic puncta and reversible localization of huntingtin to early endosomes. The formation of these puncta, which we have termed huntingtin stress bodies (HSBs), is associated with arrest of early-to-recycling and early-to-late endosomal trafficking. The critical domains for this response have been mapped to two regions of huntingtin flanking the polyglutamine tract, and we observe polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin-expressing cells to be defective in their ability to recover from this stress response. We propose that HSB formation rapidly diverts high ATP use from vesicular trafficking during stress, thus mobilizing canonical stress responses without relying on increased energy metabolism, and that restoration from this response is defective in HD. PMID:25205111

  19. A generalizable, tunable microfluidic platform for delivering fast temporally varying chemical signals to probe single-cell response dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingozha, Loice; Zhan, Mei; Zhu, Cheng; Lu, Hang

    2014-10-21

    Understanding how biological systems transduce dynamic, soluble chemical cues into physiological processes requires robust experimental tools for generating diverse temporal chemical patterns. The advent of microfluidics has seen the development of platforms for rapid fluid exchange allowing ease of changes in the cellular microenvironment and precise cell handling. Rapid exchange is important for exposing systems to temporally varying signals. However, direct coupling of macroscale fluid flow with microstructures is potentially problematic due to the high shear stresses that inevitably add confounding mechanical perturbation effects to the biological system of interest. Here, we have devised a method of translating fast and precise macroscale flows to microscale flows using a monolithically integrated perforated membrane. We integrated a high-density cell trap array for nonadherent cells that are challenging to handle under flow conditions with a soluble chemical signal generator module. The platform enables fast and repeatable switching of stimulus and buffer at low shear stresses for quantitative live, single-cell fluorescent studies. This modular design allows facile integration of any cell-handling chip design with any chemical delivery module. We demonstrate the utility of this device by characterizing heterogeneity of oscillatory response for cells exposed to alternating Ca(2+) waveforms at various periodicities. This platform enables the analysis of cell responses to chemical perturbations at a single-cell resolution that is necessary in understanding signal transduction pathways. PMID:25254360

  20. Development of time-of-flight neutron detector with fast-decay and low-afterglow scintillator for fast ignition experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagai T.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A fast-decay and low-afterglow liquid scintillator was developed for the fast ignition experiment at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE. The liquid scintillator was coupled to a gated photomultiplier (PMT, and the gating performance under high-intensity ?-rays was experimentally checked. In 2010, a detector with a high detection efficiency of 10?4 was developed and installed in this experiment. The neutron yield in the fast heating experiment was successfully measured using this detector.

  1. Development of time-of-flight neutron detector with fast-decay and low-afterglow scintillator for fast ignition experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Nagai T; Arikawa Y.; Hosoda H.; Ioka Y.; Hasegawa A.; Wada K.; Takaoku S.; Takata M; Noritake K.; Minami Y.; Watanabe K.; Yamanoi K.; Nakamura H.; Watari T.; Cadatal-Raduban M.

    2013-01-01

    A fast-decay and low-afterglow liquid scintillator was developed for the fast ignition experiment at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE). The liquid scintillator was coupled to a gated photomultiplier (PMT), and the gating performance under high-intensity ?-rays was experimentally checked. In 2010, a detector with a high detection efficiency of 10?4 was developed and installed in this experiment. The neutron yield in the fast heating experiment was successfully measured using this det...

  2. A time-resolved spectroscopic diagnostic based on fast scintillator and optical fiber array for z-pinch plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Fan [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, P.O. Box 919-212, Mianyang 621900 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Qin Yi; Jiang Shuqing; Xue Feibiao; Li Zhenghong; Yang Jianlun; Xu Rongkun [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, P.O. Box 919-212, Mianyang 621900 (China); Anan' ev, S. S.; Dan' ko, S. A.; Kalinin, Yu. G. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-15

    We report a specially designed type of temporal resolved x-ray spectroscopic diagnostic using a spherically bent quartz crystal for z-pinch plasmas. Registration of time-resolved spectra was accomplished by coupling fast plastic scintillator, an optical fiber array, an optical streak camera, and a charge coupled device as the recording medium of this diagnostic. The diagnostic has been tested in imploding wire array experiments on S-300 pulsed power facility. Time-resolved K-shell lines were successfully obtained for aluminum wire array implosion plasmas.

  3. A time-resolved spectroscopic diagnostic based on fast scintillator and optical fiber array for z-pinch plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a specially designed type of temporal resolved x-ray spectroscopic diagnostic using a spherically bent quartz crystal for z-pinch plasmas. Registration of time-resolved spectra was accomplished by coupling fast plastic scintillator, an optical fiber array, an optical streak camera, and a charge coupled device as the recording medium of this diagnostic. The diagnostic has been tested in imploding wire array experiments on S-300 pulsed power facility. Time-resolved K-shell lines were successfully obtained for aluminum wire array implosion plasmas.

  4. A time-resolved spectroscopic diagnostic based on fast scintillator and optical fiber array for z-pinch plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fan; Qin, Yi; Jiang, Shuqing; Xue, Feibiao; Li, Zhenghong; Yang, Jianlun; Xu, Rongkun; Anan'ev, S. S.; Dan'ko, S. A.; Kalinin, Yu. G.

    2009-10-01

    We report a specially designed type of temporal resolved x-ray spectroscopic diagnostic using a spherically bent quartz crystal for z-pinch plasmas. Registration of time-resolved spectra was accomplished by coupling fast plastic scintillator, an optical fiber array, an optical streak camera, and a charge coupled device as the recording medium of this diagnostic. The diagnostic has been tested in imploding wire array experiments on S-300 pulsed power facility. Time-resolved K-shell lines were successfully obtained for aluminum wire array implosion plasmas.

  5. Excessive fasting times: still an underaddressed challenge for African pediatrics and anesthesia?

    OpenAIRE

    Pollach G; Kapenda R; Anusa B; Waluza E; Namboya F

    2014-01-01

    Gregor Pollach,1,2 Rose Kapenda,2 Beauty Anusa,2 Ethel Waluza,2 Felix Namboya1,21Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, 2Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi, Central AfricaBackground: Children are starved before surgery following international preoperative guidelines. Extreme fasting is still reported, but data for Africa are scarce. Starving in hot climates leads to challenges arising from dehydration, hypotension, metabolic di...

  6. A fast, flexible and low cost real time data acquisition system for nuclear physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system has been developed to permit fast, efficient data collection from a relatively complex nuclear experiment. Incorporated into this system is the communication framework for on-line analysis of the incoming data. The system makes extensive use of readily available low cost Intel based microprocessors. Results from recent measurements of the 16O(?,n) cross section made using tagged photons, performed at previously unachievable collection rates are presented. 6 refs., 6 figs

  7. Performance evaluation of different types of nuclear fuels loaded in fast reactor core for a long time operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using a typical fast reactor core model formed by hexagonal lattice cell, this paper studied the performance of different types of nuclear fuels, which are loaded respectively as fuel in this fast reactor core model for a long time operation, and analyzed the spent fuel compositions of different fuel types at EOL. The results indicated that, in the case of same lattice cell and similar initial reactivity, the burnup reactivity loss of metallic fuel is the smallest, followed by nitride fuel, carbide fuel and finally oxide fuel, while within same chemical form, fuels driven by Pu provide smaller reactivity loss compared to fuels driven by 235 U. Analysis of spent fuel composition shows that metallic fuel also exhibits smallest TRUs mass (averaged by initial fuel mass) of spent fuel, and then followed by oxide fuel, nitride fuel and carbide fuel, while at the same time, compared to fuels driven by 235 U, Pu based fuels were found to discharge more TRUs mass because of the increase of initial Pu loading mass, and thus lower percent of fissile materials in spent fuel. In terms of neutronics UZr fuel is an ideal fuel for long life fast reactor core. (authors)

  8. Response of intestinal flora of laboratory-reared leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) to cold and fasting.

    OpenAIRE

    Gossling, J.; Loesche, W. J.; Nace, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    The bacterial flora of the large intestine was examined in 35 laboratory-reared leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) subjected to one of the following four treatments: (i) normal feeding at 21 degrees C (10 frogs); (ii) fasting for 2 weeks at 21 degrees C (8 frogs); (iii) chilling for 1 week at 4 degrees C (9 frogs); and (iv) simulated hibernation for 3 weeks at 4 degrees C (8 frogs). Bacteria from the intestinal contents and mucosa were counted microscopically and by colony counting after strictly a...

  9. Fast time correlation detection in associated particle spectrometry of spontaneous fission neutrons and cosmic-ray backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Leon; Dioszegi, Istvan; Vanier, Peter E.

    2010-08-01

    We have investigated neutron spectrometry using fast gamma-ray detectors (BaF2) in coincidence with a gamma/neutron detector (plastic scintillator). Neutron spectra of spontaneous fission sources are determined by time-of-flight between correlated gamma and neutron detections using the associated particle (AP) technique. When the source is within a {1 meter zone of detector separation, the correlated neutron detection efficiency is high because of the multiplicity of gamma-rays (10 gammas/fission in 252Cf) and neutrons (3.6 neutrons/fission). Cosmic-ray produced neutron detection efficiency is quite low in an AP measurement using a HEU) provide separable signatures because fast neutron multiplication is much higher in HEU.

  10. A Nonintrusive Approach to Estimate Web Server Response Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul Nalin Vora

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With proliferation of internet and webapplications usage, server performance is a critical research area in last decade. This paper presents a nonintrusive approach to estimate server response time for user-initiated web-page requests from web-server access-log data using a variant of fuzzy c-means algorithm. The approach presented here is particularly suitable for a system of web-application(s accessed concurrently by multiple users and running in a constrained production environment where minimal amount of monitoring or logging data is available. In such scenarios, proposed approach will be useful conducting advance system level testing as well as in verifying compliance to service level agreements (SLAs. Algorithm presented here has been tested using open source web application JPetStoreApp and java based load testing framework Grinder.

  11. Interpreting response time effects in functional imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J S H; Rastle, Kathleen; Davis, Matthew H

    2014-10-01

    It has been suggested that differential neural activity in imaging studies is most informative if it is independent of response time (RT) differences. However, others view RT as a behavioural index of key cognitive processes, which is likely linked to underlying neural activity. Here, we reconcile these views using the effort and engagement framework developed by Taylor, Rastle, and Davis (2013) and data from the domain of reading aloud. We propose that differences in neural engagement should be independent of RT, whereas, differences in neural effort should co-vary with RT. We illustrate these different mechanisms using data from an fMRI study of neural activity during reading aloud of regular words, irregular words, and pseudowords. In line with our proposals, activation revealed by contrasts designed to tap differences in neural engagement (e.g., words are meaningful and therefore engage semantic representations more than pseudowords) survived correction for RT, whereas activation for contrasts designed to tap differences in neural effort (e.g., it is more difficult to generate the pronunciation of pseudowords than words) correlated with RT. However, even for contrasts designed to tap neural effort, activity remained after factoring out the RT-BOLD response correlation. This may reveal unpredicted differences in neural engagement (e.g., learning phonological forms for pseudowords>words) that could further the development of cognitive models of reading aloud. Our framework provides a theoretically well-grounded and easily implemented method for analysing and interpreting RT effects in neuroimaging studies of cognitive processes. PMID:24904992

  12. Leptin, gastrointestinal and stress hormones in response to exercise in fasted or fed subjects and before or after blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwowski, Z; Lorens, K; Konturek, S J; Bielanski, W; Zo?ad?, J A

    2001-03-01

    Leptin, an ob gene product of adipocytes, plays a key role in the control of food intake and energy expenditure but little is known about leptin response to strenuous exercise in fasted and fed subjects or before and after blood donation. This study was designed to determine the immediate effects of strenuous exercise in healthy volunteers under fasting or fed conditions and before and one day after blood donation (450 ml) on plasma levels of leptin and gut hormones [gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and insulin], as well as on "stress" hormones (cortisol, catecholamines and growth hormone. Two groups (A and B) of healthy non-smoking male volunteers were studied. All subjects performed incremental exercise tests until exhaustion (up to maximal oxygen uptake--VO2max), followed by 2 h of rest session. Group A perfomed the tests on a treadmill, while group B on a cycloergometer. In group A, one exercise was performed under fasting conditions and the second following ingestion of a standard liquid meal. In group B, one exercise test was performed as a control test and the second 24 h after blood donation (450 ml). Blood samples were withdrawn 5 min before the start of the test, at the VO2max, and 2 h after finishing the exercise. No significant change in plasma teptin were observed both immediately and 2 h after the exercise in fasted subjects, but after the meal the plasma leptin at VO2max and 2 h after the test was significantly higher, while after blood donation was significantly reduced. The postprandial rise in plasma leptin was accompanied by a marked increment in gut hormones; gastrin, CCK and PP and stress hormones such as norepinephrine, cortisol and GH. These hormonal changes could contribute to the postprandial rise in plasma leptin concentrations, while the fall of leptin after blood donation could be attributed to the inadequate response of stress hormones and autonomic nervous system to exhausting exercise. We conclude that strenuous physical exercise; 1) fails to affect plasma leptin level but when performed after meal but not after blood withdrawal it results in an increase and fall in plasma leptin, and 2) the release of gut hormones (gastrin, CCK and PP) and stress hormones (norepinephrine, cortisol, GH) increase immediately after exercise independently of feeding or blood donation and 3) following blood donation the strenuous exercise resulted in a marked reduction in the plasma leptin, cortisol and GH concentrations, possibly due to the impairment in the autonomic nervous control of these hormones. PMID:11321513

  13. Bayesian Procedures for Identifying Aberrant Response-Time Patterns in Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Guo, Fanmin

    2008-01-01

    In order to identify aberrant response-time patterns on educational and psychological tests, it is important to be able to separate the speed at which the test taker operates from the time the items require. A lognormal model for response times with this feature was used to derive a Bayesian procedure for detecting aberrant response times.…

  14. Stochastic optimization for modeling physiological time series: application to the heart rate response to exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakynthinaki, M. S.; Stirling, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Stochastic optimization is applied to the problem of optimizing the fit of a model to the time series of raw physiological (heart rate) data. The physiological response to exercise has been recently modeled as a dynamical system. Fitting the model to a set of raw physiological time series data is, however, not a trivial task. For this reason and in order to calculate the optimal values of the parameters of the model, the present study implements the powerful stochastic optimization method ALOPEX IV, an algorithm that has been proven to be fast, effective and easy to implement. The optimal parameters of the model, calculated by the optimization method for the particular athlete, are very important as they characterize the athlete's current condition. The present study applies the ALOPEX IV stochastic optimization to the modeling of a set of heart rate time series data corresponding to different exercises of constant intensity. An analysis of the optimization algorithm, together with an analytic proof of its convergence (in the absence of noise), is also presented.

  15. Time-varying boundaries for diffusion models of decision making and response time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shunan; Lee, Michael D.; Vandekerckhove, Joachim; Maris, Gunter; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion models are widely-used and successful accounts of the time course of two-choice decision making. Most diffusion models assume constant boundaries, which are the threshold levels of evidence that must be sampled from a stimulus to reach a decision. We summarize theoretical results from statistics that relate distributions of decisions and response times to diffusion models with time-varying boundaries. We then develop a computational method for finding time-varying boundaries from empirical data, and apply our new method to two problems. The first problem involves finding the time-varying boundaries that make diffusion models equivalent to the alternative sequential sampling class of accumulator models. The second problem involves finding the time-varying boundaries, at the individual level, that best fit empirical data for perceptual stimuli that provide equal evidence for both decision alternatives. We discuss the theoretical and modeling implications of using time-varying boundaries in diffusion models, as well as the limitations and potential of our approach to their inference. PMID:25538642

  16. A fast time-to-digital converter for position-sensitive radiation detectors with delay line readouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast time-to-digital converter (TDC) has been developed for use with position-sensitive radiation detectors having delay line readouts. The device is recommended for detector applications where high position resolution and low distortion are required at high rates. The device has 2 ns time resolution, less than 0.1% differential nonlinearity, and a recovery time of 70 ns. When used with a detector system having a delay line of temporal length ?, the following performance has been achieved: (1) a position digitization of 1 position resolution element per ns of delay line; (2) an average dead time of (3/4 ? + 70) ns; (3) a maximum incident radiation rate of ?4/?; and (4) a maximum conversion rate of ? 1/(3?). Discriminator circuits reduce pile-up distortion to negligible levels for rates as high as those listed above. Finally, two converters may be connected together for synchronous operation as required by 2-dimensional (?-?) detectors. (orig.)

  17. Intercomparison of fast response commercial gas analysers for nitrous oxide flux measurements under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannik, Ü.; Haapanala, S.; Shurpali, N. J.; Mammarella, I.; Lind, S.; Hyvönen, N.; Peltola, O.; Zahniser, M.; Martikainen, P. J.; Vesala, T.

    2014-08-01

    Four gas analysers capable of measuring nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration at a response time necessary for eddy covariance flux measurements were operated from spring till winter 2011 over a field cultivated with reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinaceae, L.), a perennial bioenergy crop in Eastern Finland. The instruments were TGA100A (Campbell Scientific Inc.), CW-TILDAS-CS (Aerodyne Research Inc.), N2O/CO-23d (Los Gatos Research Inc.) and QC-TILDAS-76-CS (Aerodyne Research Inc.). The period with high emission, lasting for about two weeks after fertilization in late May, was characterised by an up to two orders of magnitude higher emission, whereas during the rest of the campaign the N2O fluxes were small, from 0.1 to 1 nmol m-2 s-1. Two instruments, CW-TILDAS-CS and N2O/CO-23d, determined the N2O exchange with minor systematic difference throughout the campaign, when operated simultaneously. TGA100A produced cumulatively highest N2O estimates (with 29% higher value during the period when all instruments were operational). QC-TILDAS-76-CS obtained 36% lower fluxes than CW-TILDAS-CS during the first period, including the emission episode, whereas the correspondence with other instruments during the rest of the campaign was good. The reason for these episodic higher and lower estimates by the two instruments is not currently known, suggesting further need for detailed evaluation of instrument performance under field conditions with emphasis on stability, calibration and, in particular, simultaneous accurate determination of water vapour concentration due to its large impact on small N2O fluxes through spectroscopic and dilution corrections. The instrument CW-TILDAS-CS was characterised by the lowest noise level (std around 0.12 ppb at 10 Hz sampling rate), as compared to N2O/CO-23d and QC-TILDAS-76-CS (around 0.50 ppb) and TGA100A (around 2 ppb). Both instruments based on Continuous-Wave Quantum Cascade Lasers, CW-TILDAS-CS and N2O/CO-23d, were able to determine the same sample of low N2O fluxes with high mutual coefficient of determination at 30 min averaging level and with minor systematic difference over the observation period of several months.

  18. Intercomparison of fast response commercial gas analysers for nitrous oxide flux measurements under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ü. Rannik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Four gas analysers capable of measuring nitrous oxide (N2O concentration at a response time necessary for eddy covariance flux measurements were operated from spring till winter 2011 over a field cultivated with reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinaceae, L., a perennial bioenergy crop in Eastern Finland. The instruments were TGA100A (Campbell Scientific Inc., CW-TILDAS-CS (Aerodyne Research Inc., N2O/CO-23d (Los Gatos Research Inc. and QC-TILDAS-76-CS (Aerodyne Research Inc.. The period with high emission, lasting for about two weeks after fertilization in late May, was characterised by an up to two orders of magnitude higher emission, whereas during the rest of the campaign the N2O fluxes were small, from 0.1 to 1 nmol m?2 s?1. Two instruments, CW-TILDAS-CS and N2O/CO-23d, determined the N2O exchange with minor systematic difference throughout the campaign, when operated simultaneously. TGA100A produced cumulatively highest N2O estimates (with 29% higher value during the period when all instruments were operational. QC-TILDAS-76-CS obtained 36% lower fluxes than CW-TILDAS-CS during the first period, including the emission episode, whereas the correspondence with other instruments during the rest of the campaign was good. The reason for these episodic higher and lower estimates by the two instruments is not currently known, suggesting further need for detailed evaluation of instrument performance under field conditions with emphasis on stability, calibration and, in particular, simultaneous accurate determination of water vapour concentration due to its large impact on small N2O fluxes through spectroscopic and dilution corrections. The instrument CW-TILDAS-CS was characterised by the lowest noise level (std around 0.12 ppb at 10 Hz sampling rate, as compared to N2O/CO-23d and QC-TILDAS-76-CS (around 0.50 ppb and TGA100A (around 2 ppb. Both instruments based on Continuous-Wave Quantum Cascade Lasers, CW-TILDAS-CS and N2O/CO-23d, were able to determine the same sample of low N2O fluxes with high mutual coefficient of determination at 30 min averaging level and with minor systematic difference over the observation period of several months.

  19. An expert system for real-time diagnostics of a fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide on-line operator support for surveillance and diagnostics of a remotely operated fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant, where process parameters are evaluated from indirect instrumental measurements, a modular prototype expert system OASIS (Operator Assistant) is being developed at our laboratory. Design of this expert system is based on several new concepts. Unlike other available expert systems, it is not based on commercial shells. Instead it has a custom designed knowledge engineering architecture which is user-friendly to a high degree. (author). 7 refs., 2 figs

  20. A time-dependent semiclassical wavepacket method using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new semiclassical propagator based on a local expansion of the potential up to second order around the moving center of the wavepackt is proposed. Formulas for the propagator are derived and the implementation using grid and fast Fourier transform (FFT) methods is discussed. The semiclassical propagator can be improved up to the exact quantum mechanical limit by including anharmonic corrections using a split operator approach. Preliminary applications to the CH3I photodissociation problem show the applicability and accuracy of the proposed method. (orig.)D

  1. Design and performance of a fast thermal response miniature Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) salt pill for use in a millikelvin cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, J.; Hardy, G.; Hepburn, I. D.

    2015-01-01

    The design and performance of a fast thermal response miniature (24 mm outer diameter by 30 mm long) Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) salt pill is described. The need for a fast thermal response has been driven by the development of a continuously operating millikelvin cryocooler (mKCC) which uses 2 T superconducting magnets that can be ramped to full field in 30 s. The consequence of magnetising and demagnetising the CPA pill in such a short time is that thermal boundary resistance and eddy current heating have a significant impact on the performance of the pill, which was investigated in detail using modelling. The complete design of a prototype CPA pill is described in this paper, including the methods used to minimise thermal boundary resistance and eddy current heating as well as the manufacturing and assembly processes. The performance of the prototype CPA pill operated from a 3.6 K bath is presented, demonstrating that a complete CPA cycle (magnetising, cooling to bath and demagnetising) can be accomplished in under 2.5 min, with magnetisation and demagnetisation taking just 30 s each. The cold finger base temperature of the prototype varies with demagnetisation speed as a consequence of eddy current heating; for a 30 s demagnetisation, a base temperature of 161 mK is obtained, whilst for a 5 min demagnetisation, a base temperature of 149 mK was measured (both from a 3.6 K and 2 T starting position). The measured hold times of the CPA pill at 200 mK, 300 mK, and 1 K are given, proving that the hold time far exceeds the recycle time and demonstrating the potential for continuous operation when two ADRs are used in a tandem configuration. The ease and speed at which the CPA pill temperature can be changed and controlled when stepping between operating temperatures in the range of 200 mK to 4 K using a servo control program is also shown, once again highlighting the excellent thermal response of the pill. All of the test results are in good agreement with the modelling used to design the CPA pill, giving good confidence in our ability to understand and estimate the effects of eddy current heating and thermal boundary resistance. To conclude, the design for the CPA pill to be used in the mKCC (which is heavily based on the design of the prototype) is presented.

  2. Minimizing Maximum Response Time and Delay Factor in Broadcast Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Chekuri, Chandra; Moseley, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    We consider online algorithms for pull-based broadcast scheduling. In this setting there are n pages of information at a server and requests for pages arrive online. When the server serves (broadcasts) a page p, all outstanding requests for that page are satisfied. We study two related metrics, namely maximum response time (waiting time) and maximum delay-factor and their weighted versions. We obtain the following results in the worst-case online competitive model. - We show that FIFO (first-in first-out) is 2-competitive even when the page sizes are different. Previously this was known only for unit-sized pages [10] via a delicate argument. Our proof differs from [10] and is perhaps more intuitive. - We give an online algorithm for maximum delay-factor that is O(1/eps^2)-competitive with (1+\\eps)-speed for unit-sized pages and with (2+\\eps)-speed for different sized pages. This improves on the algorithm in [12] which required (2+\\eps)-speed and (4+\\eps)-speed respectively. In addition we show that the algori...

  3. Fast time resolved measurements of the EEDF (Electron Energy Distribution Function) in a helicon wave plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the biggest problems encountered when using electric probe diagnostics in RF plasmas is the high frequency fluctuation of the plasma potential. This fluctuation makes the probe sheath voltage drop an unknown quantity and in general makes the analysis of the probe characteristic impossible. In addition, the entire integrated volume of the fluctuating sheath will add displacement current to the probe signal, causing further distortion. In the past, the authors have used high impedance mini-inductors built into the probe tip to reduce the RF sheath voltage drop. This scheme is easy to implement but has two major drawbacks: (1) the effectiveness of this filtering method requires a low ratio of sheath to circuit impedance, which limits the range of plasma parameters over which the probe is reliable, and (2) this method cannot measure fast variations of the EEDF, which have been inferred from fast fluctuations of the plasma optical emission. For these reasons, they have used a gridded energy analyzer with a 250-MHz digitizing oscilloscope to measure the instantaneous electron current over an entire RF period. Each signal can be recorded, and by varying the DC grid bias the current-voltage characteristic can be constructed at any phase of the RF cycle. Special considerations in the analyzer design, measured EEDFs under various discharge conditions, and comparison with results from RF-compensated Langmuir probes will be discusseded

  4. LYSO scintillator studies for a fast low-energy calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djilkibaev, R.; Karavichev, O.; Postoev, V.

    2015-03-01

    Detector cells consisting of fast LYSO crystals viewed by avalanche photo-diodes were designed, built and bench-tested. Using two avalanche photo-diodes per crystal and using fast pulse shaping provided the light yield, low noise, and fast response needed for use in 50 MeV calorimetry for high beam rates. The achieved stochastic term coefficient is 0.17% and the time response was characterized by a single decay term of 50 ns.

  5. Dasatinib induces fast and deep responses in newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukaemia patients in chronic phase: clinical results from a randomised phase-2 study (NordCML006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth-Hansen, Henrik; Stenke, Leif; Söderlund, Stina; Dreimane, Arta; Ehrencrona, Hans; Gedde-Dahl, Tobias; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; Höglund, Martin; Koskenvesa, Perttu; Lotfi, Kourosh; Majeed, Waleed; Markevärn, Berit; Ohm, Lotta; Olsson-Strömberg, Ulla; Remes, Kari; Suominen, Merja; Simonsson, Bengt; Porkka, Kimmo; Mustjoki, Satu; Richter, Johan

    2015-03-01

    We randomised 46 newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (median age 56) to receive dasatinib 100 mg QD or imatinib 400 mg QD and report outcome as an intention-to-treat analysis with 36 months follow-up. Early cytogenetic and molecular responses were superior in the dasatinib group, with a tendency that imatinib patients caught up with time. For instance, MR(3.0) was reached at 3 months in 36% vs. 8% (P = 0.02), at 12 months in 81% vs. 46% (P = 0.02) and at 18 months in 73% vs. 65% (n.s.) of the patients in the two groups. In contrast, MR(4.5) was consistently superior in the dasatinib group at all time points from 6 months onwards, reaching 61% vs. 21% (P < 0.05) at 36 months. Sixty-four vs. 71% of the patients in the dasatinib and imatinib arms, respectively, remained on assigned drug. Dasatinib dose was frequently reduced, but with maintained excellent effect. One imatinib patient progressed to blastic phase, but no CML-related deaths occurred. In conclusion, our data compare favourably with those of the dasatinib registration study, DASISION. The fast and deep molecular responses induced by dasatinib compared with imatinib may be exploited to increase the proportion of patients who can achieve a treatment-free remission after treatment discontinuation. PMID:25082346

  6. Dasatinib induces fast and deep responses in newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukaemia patients in chronic phase: clinical results from a randomised phase-2 study (NordCML006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth-Hansen, Henrik; Stenke, Leif; Söderlund, Stina; Dreimane, Arta; Ehrencrona, Hans; Gedde-Dahl, Tobias; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; Höglund, Martin; Koskenvesa, Perttu; Lotfi, Kourosh; Majeed, Waleed; Markevärn, Berit; Ohm, Lotta; Olsson-Strömberg, Ulla; Remes, Kari; Suominen, Merja; Simonsson, Bengt; Porkka, Kimmo; Mustjoki, Satu; Richter, Johan

    2015-01-01

    We randomised 46 newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (median age 56) to receive dasatinib 100 mg QD or imatinib 400 mg QD and report outcome as an intention-to-treat analysis with 36 months follow-up. Early cytogenetic and molecular responses were superior in the dasatinib group, with a tendency that imatinib patients caught up with time. For instance, MR3.0 was reached at 3 months in 36% vs. 8% (P = 0.02), at 12 months in 81% vs. 46% (P = 0.02) and at 18 months in 73% vs. 65% (n.s.) of the patients in the two groups. In contrast, MR4.5 was consistently superior in the dasatinib group at all time points from 6 months onwards, reaching 61% vs. 21% (P < 0.05) at 36 months. Sixty-four vs. 71% of the patients in the dasatinib and imatinib arms, respectively, remained on assigned drug. Dasatinib dose was frequently reduced, but with maintained excellent effect. One imatinib patient progressed to blastic phase, but no CML-related deaths occurred. In conclusion, our data compare favourably with those of the dasatinib registration study, DASISION. The fast and deep molecular responses induced by dasatinib compared with imatinib may be exploited to increase the proportion of patients who can achieve a treatment-free remission after treatment discontinuation. PMID:25082346

  7. Computation Offloading for Frame-Based Real-Time Tasks under Given Server Response Time Guarantees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas S. M. Toma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Computation offloading has been adopted to improve the performance of embedded systems by offloading the computation of some tasks, especially computation-intensive tasks, to servers or clouds. This paper explores computation offloading for real-time tasks in embedded systems, provided given response time guarantees from the servers, to decide which tasks should be offloaded to get the results in time. We consider frame-based real-time tasks with the same period and relative deadline. When the execution order of the tasks is given, the problem can be solved in linear time. However, when the execution order is not specified, we prove that the problem is NP-complete. We develop a pseudo-polynomial-time algorithm for deriving feasible schedules, if they exist.  An approximation scheme is also developed to trade the error made from the algorithm and the complexity. Our algorithms are extended to minimize the period/relative deadline of the tasks for performance maximization. The algorithms are evaluated with a case study for a surveillance system and synthesized benchmarks.

  8. High-fat diet feeding alters metabolic response to fasting/non fasting conditions. Effect on caveolin expression and insulin signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo, Marti?nez J.; Campión Javier; Milagro Fermín I; Gómez-Ruiz Ana; de Miguel Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The effect of food intake on caveolin expression in relation to insulin signalling was studied in skeletal muscle and adipocytes from retroperitoneal (RP) and subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue, comparing fasted (F) to not fasted (NF) rats that had been fed a control or high-fat (HF) diet for 72 days. Methods Serum glucose was analysed enzymatically and insulin and leptin by ELISA. Caveolins and insulin signalling intermediaries (IR, IRS-1 and 2 and GLUT4) were determined by...

  9. Parametric control of structural vibrations and sound radiation by fast time-space variation of distributed stiffness parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of a Euler-Bernoulli beam with a time-and-space dependent bending stiffness is studied. The , problem is considered in connection with the application of noise control using smart structures. It is shown that a control for the vibrations of the beam can be achieved by varying the bending stiffness. The technique of direct separation of fast and slow motion coupled with a Green's function method is used to analyze the dynamics of the beam with high-frequency modulation of the stiffness

  10. Low distortion, continuously tunable, positive and negative time delays by slow and fast light using stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Zhimin, E-mail: zshi@optics.rochester.ed [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Schweinsberg, Aaron; Vornehm, Joseph E. [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Martinez Gamez, M. Alejandrina [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Col. Lomas del Campestre, Leon 37150, Gto. (Mexico); Boyd, Robert W., E-mail: boyd@optics.rochester.ed [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2010-08-30

    We demonstrate a single optical timing module that can provide both tunable delay and advancement with low distortion using a reconfigurable gain medium based on stimulated Brillouin scattering. Dual-stage intensity modulation method is used to achieve optimized gain profiles for both slow- and fast-light operation. Using 6.5 ns Gaussian pulses, we demonstrate a continuous temporal adjustment from a fractional advancement of 0.31 to a fractional delay of 0.82, giving more than a full pulse width of total tunability.

  11. Reclaiming Spare Capacity and Improving Aperiodic Response Times in Real-Time Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scheduling recurring task sets that allow some instances of the tasks to be skipped produces holes in the schedule which are nonuniformly distributed. Similarly, when the recurring tasks are not strictly periodic but are sporadic, there is extra processor bandwidth arising because of irregular job arrivals. The additional computation capacity that results from skips or sporadic tasks can be reclaimed to service aperiodic task requests efficiently and quickly. We present techniques for improving the response times of aperiodic tasks by identifying nonuniformly distributed spare capacity—because of skips or sporadic tasks—in the schedule and adding such extra capacity to the capacity queue of a BASH server. These gaps can account for a significant portion of aperiodic capacity, and their reclamation results in considerable improvement to aperiodic response times. We present two schemes: NCLB-CBS, which performs well in periodic real-time environments with firm tasks, and NCLB-CUS, which can be deployed when the basic task set to schedule is sporadic. Evaluation via simulations and implementation suggests that performance improvements for aperiodic tasks can be obtained with limited additional overhead.

  12. 40 CFR 86.329-79 - System response time; check procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...false System response time; check procedure. 86.329-79 Section 86.329-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.329-79 System response time; check procedure....

  13. Intercomparison of fast response commercial gas analysers for nitrous oxide flux measurements under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannik, Ü.; Haapanala, S.; Shurpali, N. J.; Mammarella, I.; Lind, S.; Hyvönen, N.; Peltola, O.; Zahniser, M.; Martikainen, P. J.; Vesala, T.

    2015-01-01

    Four gas analysers capable of measuring nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration at a response time necessary for eddy covariance flux measurements were operated from spring until winter 2011 over a field cultivated with reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea, L.), a perennial bioenergy crop in eastern Finland. The instruments were TGA100A (Campbell Scientific Inc.), CW-TILDAS-CS (Aerodyne Research Inc.), N2O / CO-23d (Los Gatos Research Inc.) and QC-TILDAS-76-CS (Aerodyne Research Inc.). The period with high emissions, lasting for about 2 weeks after fertilization in late May, was characterized by an up to 2 orders of magnitude higher emission, whereas during the rest of the campaign the N2O fluxes were small, from 0.01 to 1 nmol m-2 s-1. Two instruments, CW-TILDAS-CS and N2O / CO-23d, determined the N2O exchange with minor systematic difference throughout the campaign, when operated simultaneously. TGA100A produced the cumulatively highest N2O estimates (with 29% higher values during the period when all instruments were operational). QC-TILDAS-76-CS obtained 36% lower fluxes than CW-TILDAS-CS during the first period, including the emission episode, whereas the correspondence with other instruments during the rest of the campaign was good. The reasons for systematic differences were not identified, suggesting further need for detailed evaluation of instrument performance under field conditions with emphasis on stability, calibration and any other factors that can systematically affect the accuracy of flux measurements. The instrument CW-TILDAS-CS was characterized by the lowest noise level (with a standard deviation of around 0.12 ppb at 10 Hz sampling rate) as compared to N2O / CO-23d and QC-TILDAS-76-CS (around 0.50 ppb) and TGA100A (around 2 ppb). We identified that for all instruments except CW-TILDAS-CS the random error due to instrumental noise was an important source of uncertainty at the 30 min averaging level and the total stochastic error was frequently of the same magnitude as the fluxes when N2O exchange was small at the measurement site. Both instruments based on continuous-wave quantum cascade laser, CW-TILDAS-CS and N2O / CO-23d, were able to determine the same sample of low N2O fluxes with a high mutual coefficient of determination at the 30 min averaging level and with minor systematic difference over the observation period of several months. This enables us to conclude that the new-generation instrumentation is capable of measuring small N2O exchange with high precision and accuracy at sites with low fluxes.

  14. Fast two-dimensional position-sensitive detection of neutrons in a time-of-flight reflectometer

    CERN Document Server

    Kruijs, R W E

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional position-sensitive neutron detector with a maximum count rate of 500 kHz is described. The high counting rate is obtained by making use of dedicated electronics for data handling. The electronics convert the wire charges of a position-sensitive photomultiplier into a position using internal look-up tables. Timing modules are presented for neutron time-of-flight (TOF) determination and for dynamic measurements with an independent time-base. The position and TOF information are stored by a fast Data Handling Module. The detector is calibrated with a grid of 256 centre dot 256 channels, using channel widths of 0.25 mm.The maximum error in position determination is 0.25 mm.This error is reduced to less than 0.05 mm when the electronics are used one dimensionally instead of two dimensionally. The total detector resolution was determined to be 0.6 mm.

  15. Trigger-responsive, fast-degradable poly(?-amino ester)s for enhanced DNA unpackaging and reduced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaojian; Zheng, Nan; Song, Ziyuan; Yin, Lichen; Cheng, Jianjun

    2014-06-01

    Poly(?-amino ester)s (PBAEs) represent an important class of cationic gene delivery materials which, however, suffer from uncontrolled DNA release due in part to the slow degradation of their polyester backbone. Additionally, PBAEs with high molecular weight (MW) also show considerable toxicities. In this study, we designed and developed PBAEs with trigger-responsive domains built-in polymer backbones that can be rapidly cleaved upon external UV light triggering to promote intracellular DNA release as well as reduce material toxicity. Photo-responsive PBAEs were prepared via polyaddition of (2-nitro-1,3-phenylene)bis(methylene) diacrylate and a bifunctional amine. The nitrobenzene moiety was placed in each repeating unit of the PBAE to allow fast response to external UV irradiation, and thus the ester linkers were cleaved and the polymers were degraded within several minutes upon UV irradiation. Cationic PBAEs with high MWs were able to mediate effective intracellular gene delivery, while upon UV irradiation post-transfection, enhanced DNA unpackaging and reduced material toxicity were observed, which collectively contributed to greatly improved transfection efficiencies in various mammalian cell types tested. This strategy allows precise manipulation of material toxicity and gene release profiles of PBAEs, and thus provides an effective design approach to address critical issues in non-viral gene delivery. PMID:24674461

  16. BODIPY fluorescent chemosensor for Cu2+ detection and its applications in living cells: fast response and high sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Li; Sun, Tingting; Lin, Wenhai; Guan, Xingang; Zheng, Min; Xie, Zhigang; Jing, Xiabin

    2014-05-01

    Copper is an essential trace element for the proper functioning of organ and metabolic process in humans. However, both its excess and deficiency in the body can result in adverse health effects. A BODIPY containing 2,2'-bipyridyl group was synthesized and used as a fluorescent chemodosimeter for selective Cu2+ detection in mild condition. This BODIPY shows fast response (~1 min) and high sensitivity for Cu2+ in aqueous solution due to the photoinduced electron transfer from the excited state of fluorophore to the bipyridyl unit complexed to Cu2+. The fluorescence quenching mechanism revealed by MALDI-TOF Mass spectra showed one Cu2+ could coordinate with two BODIPY molecules, and this coordination is reversible. This simple BODIPY dyes also could be used for sensing the Cu2+ in living cell. This work contributes to extend the potential applications of BODIPY to the biological and environmental areas. PMID:24522344

  17. A defined network of fast-spiking interneurons in orbitofrontal cortex: responses to behavioral contingencies and ketamine administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DaraLSosulski

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC is a region of prefrontal cortex implicated in the motivational control of behavior and in related abnormalities seen in psychosis and depression. It has been hypothesized that a critical mechanism in these disorders is the dysfunction of GABAergic interneurons that normally regulate prefrontal information processing. Here, we studied a subclass of interneurons isolated in rat OFC using extracellular waveform and spike train analysis. During performance of a goal-directed behavioral task, the firing of this class of putative fast-spiking (FS interneurons showed robust temporal correlations indicative of a functionally coherent network. FS cell activity also co-varied with behavioral response latency, a key indicator of motivational state. Systemic administration of ketamine, a drug that can mimic psychosis, preferentially inhibited this cell class. Together, these results support the idea that OFC-FS interneurons form a critical link in the regulation of motivation by prefrontal circuits during normal and abnormal brain and behavioral states.

  18. TREAT fast-neutron hodoscope: improvements in time and mass resolution of fuel motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fast-neutron hodoscope at the Transient Reactor Test Facility detects fuel motion in thick opaque capsules during in-core destructive transient tests. Counts from several hundred detectors, each with rates up to a megahertz, are collected at intervals as short as a millisecond for up to tens of seconds. The large amount of data must be decoded, normalized, represented in suitable forms, and analyzed. A computer-controlled magnet disk data acquisition system has been installed which provides shorter data collection intervals, simplifies decoding, and permits immediate data analysis. Data normalizations and representations have been developed which significantly increase the dynamic range, yield sensitive quantitative indications of fuel mass motion, and render the data intuitively comprehensible. The improved hodoscope system performance level is demonstrated by results from a recent transient test, Pinex-2, which show the quantitative evolution of fuel mass motion from 1515 MW peak reactor power through a 1 MW post-scram radiation level

  19. Containment response to postulated core meltdown accidents in the Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the containment margin available in the Fast Flux Test Facility to mitigate the consequences of a postulated failure on in-vessel post-accident heat removal following a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA) has been completed. Two general meltdown configurations (termed in-vessel and ex-vessel) have been considered, and it is concluded that: (1) For the in-vessel meltdown scenario, the quantity of sodium assumed ejected from the vessel into the cavity during the HCDA is crucial to the subsequent reactor containment building (RCB) pressurization. If the reactor cavity liner is also assumed to fail, then the containment integrity could be challenged within 10 hours. (2) For the ex-vessel meltdown scenario, the collapse of the reactor cavity floor, which allows sodium to contact the unlined subcavity, is crucial to the subsequent RCB pressurization. Predictions of cavity floor penetration vary between 2 to 60 hours depending on the initial assumptions made; however, after floor collapse occurs overpressurization of the RCB occurs rapidly within several hours

  20. Particle size distributions from laboratory-scale biomass fires using fast response instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hosseini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Particle size distribution from biomass combustion is an important parameter as it affects air quality, climate modelling and health effects. To date particle size distributions reported from prior studies vary not only due to difference in fuels but also difference in experimental conditions. This study aims to report characteristics of particle size distribution in a well controlled repeatable lab scale biomass fires for southwestern US fuels. The combustion facility at the USDA Forest Service's Fire Science Laboratory (FSL, Missoula, MT provided repeatable combustion and dilution environment ideal for particle size distribution study. For a variety of fuels tested the major mode of particle size distribution was in the range of 29 to 52 nm, which was attributable to dilution of the fresh smoke. Comparing volume size distribution from Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS and Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS measurements, ~30% of particle volume was attributable to the particles ranging from 0.5 to 10 ?m for PM10. Geometric mean diameter rapidly increased during flaming and gradually decreased during mixed and smoldering phase combustion. Most of fuels gave unimodal distribution during flaming phase and strong biomodal distribution during smoldering phase. The mode of combustion (flaming, mixed and smoldering could be better distinguished using slopes in Modified Combustion Efficiency (MCE vs. geometric mean diameter from each mode of combustion than only using MCE values.

  1. Finite-time rotation number: A fast indicator for chaotic dynamical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrangian coherent structures are effective barriers, sticky regions, that separate chaotic phase space regions of different dynamical behavior. The usual way to detect such structures is by calculating finite-time Lyapunov exponents. We show that similar results can be obtained for time-periodic systems by calculating finite-time rotation numbers, which are faster to compute. We illustrate our claim by considering examples of continuous- and discrete-time dynamical systems of physical interest.

  2. Tilings of the time-frequency plane: construction of arbitrary orthogonal bases and fast tiling algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Herley, Cormac; Kovacevic, Jelena; Ramchandran, Kannan; Vetterli, Martin

    1993-01-01

    The authors consider expansions which give arbitrary orthonormal tilings of the time-frequency plane. These differ from the short-time Fourier transform, wavelet transform, and wavelet packets tilings in that they change over time. They show how this can be achieved using time-varying orthogonal tree structures, which preserve orthogonality, even across transitions. The method is based on the construction of boundary and transition filters; these allow us to construct essentially arbitrary ti...

  3. Gamma-ray fast-timing coincidence measurements from the 18O+18O fusion-evaporation reaction using a mixed LaBr3-HPGe array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, T; Mason, P J R; Regan, P H; Podolyák, Zs; M?rginean, N; Nakhostin, M; Bowry, M; Bucurescu, D; C?ta-Danil, G; C?ta-Danil, I; Deleanu, D; Filipescu, D; Glodariu, T; Ghi??, D; M?rginean, R; Mihai, C; Negret, A; Pascu, S; Sava, T; Stroe, L; Suliman, G; Zamfir, N V; Bruce, A M; Rodriguez Triguero, C; Bender, P C; Garg, U; Erduran, M N; Kusoglu, A; Bostan, M; Detistov, P; Alkhomashi, N; Sinha, A K; Chakrabarti, R; Ghugre, S S

    2012-07-01

    We report on a gamma-ray coincidence analysis using a mixed array of hyperpure germanium and cerium-doped lanthanum tri-bromide (LaBr3:Ce) scintillation detectors to study nuclear electromagnetic transition rates in the pico-to-nanosecond time regime in 33,34P and 33S following fusion-evaporation reactions between an 18O beam and an isotopically enriched 18O implanted tantalum target. Energies from decay gamma-rays associated with the reaction residues were measured in event-by-event coincidence mode, with the measured time difference information between the pairs of gamma-rays in each event also recorded using the ultra-fast coincidence timing technique. The experiment used the good full-energy peak resolution of the LaBr3:Ce detectors coupled with their excellent timing responses in order to determine the excited state lifetime associated with the lowest lying, cross-shell, I?=4- "intruder" state previously reported in the N=19 isotone 34P. The extracted lifetime is consistent with a mainly single-particle M2 multipolarity associated with a f7/2?d5/2 single particle transition. PMID:22154387

  4. Behavioural and kinematic components of the fast-start escape response in fish: individual variation and temporal repeatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Stefano; Killen, Shaun S; Claireaux, Guy; Domenici, Paolo; McKenzie, David J

    2011-09-15

    Inter-individual variation in physiological performance traits, which is stable over time, can be of potential ecological and evolutionary significance. The fish escape response is interesting in this regard because it is a performance trait for which inter-individual variation may determine individual survival. The temporal stability of such variation is, however, largely unexplored. We quantified individual variation of various components of the escape response in a population of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), considering both non-locomotor (responsiveness and latency) and locomotor (speed, acceleration, turning rate, turning angle and distance travelled in a fixed time, D(esc)) variables. We assessed whether variation in performance was temporally stable and we searched for any trade-offs among the components of the response that might explain why the variation persisted in the population. The coefficient of variation was high for all components, from 23% for turning rate to 41% for D(esc), highlighting the non-stereotypic nature of the response. Individual performance for all variables was significantly repeatable over five sequential responses at 30 min intervals, and also repeatable after a 30 day interval for most of the components. This indicates that the variation is intrinsic to the individuals, but there was no evidence for trade-offs amongst the components of the response, suggesting that, if trade-offs exist, they must be against other ecologically important behavioural or performance traits. PMID:21865523

  5. Fast X-Ray Timing: A Window into the Strong-Field Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2010-01-01

    The dynamical time-scales in the vicinity of neutron star surfaces and black hole horizons are in the millisecond range. Over the past decade, timing signatures on such scales, either quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) and/or coherent pulsations, have been discovered and studied from both neutron stars and black holes with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, Although theoretical interpretations are still hotly debated, these timing properties almost certainly reflect the dynamics of matter in regions dominated by relativistic gravity. I will survey our current understanding of these timing properties, with a focus on how they might he used as probes of fundamental physics.

  6. A modified infrared spectrometer with high time resolution and its application for investigating fast conformational changes of the GTPase Ras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Gerwert, Klaus; Kötting, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Time-resolved infrared spectroscopy is a valuable tool for the investigation of proteins and protein interactions. The investigation of many biological processes is possible by means of caged compounds, which set free biologically active substances upon light activation. Some caged compounds could provide sub-nanosecond time resolution, e.g., para-hydroxyphenacyl-guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) forms GTP in picoseconds. However, the time resolution in single shot experiments with rapid-scan Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometers is limited to about 10 ms. Here we use an infrared diode laser instead of the conventional globar and achieve a time resolution of 100 ns. This allows for the time-resolved measurement of the fast Ras(off) to Ras(on) conformational change at room temperature. We quantified the activation parameters for this reaction and found that the free energy of activation for this reaction is mainly enthalpic. Investigation of the same reaction in the presence of the Ras binding domain of the effector Raf (RafRBD) reveals a four orders of magnitude faster reaction, indicating that Ras·RafRBD complex formation directly induces the conformational change. Recent developments of broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers will further improve time resolution and usability of the setup. The reported 100 ns time resolution is the best achieved for a non-repetitive experiment so far. PMID:25014595

  7. Fast converging path integrals for time-dependent potentials: I. Recursive calculation of short-time expansion of the propagator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this and the subsequent paper (Balaž et al 2011 J. Stat. Mech. P03005) we develop a recursive approach for calculating the short-time expansion of the propagator for a general quantum system in a time-dependent potential to orders that have not been accessible before. To this end the propagator is expressed in terms of a discretized effective potential, for which we derive and analytically solve a set of efficient recursion relations. Such a discretized effective potential can be used to substantially speed up numerical Monte Carlo simulations for path integrals, or to set up various analytic approximation techniques to study properties of quantum systems in time-dependent potentials. The analytically derived results are numerically verified by treating several simple models

  8. Fast Monte Carlo Estimation of Timing Yield: Importance Sampling with Stochastic Logical Effort (ISLE)

    CERN Document Server

    Bayrakci, Alp Arslan; Tasiran, Serdar

    2008-01-01

    In the nano era in integrated circuit fabrication technologies, the performance variability due to statistical process and circuit parameter variations is becoming more and more significant. Considerable effort has been expended in the EDA community during the past several years in trying to cope with the so-called statistical timing problem. Most of this effort has been aimed at generalizing the static timing analyzers to the statistical case. In this paper, we take a pragmatic approach in pursuit of making the Monte Carlo method for timing yield estimation practically feasible. The Monte Carlo method is widely used as a golden reference in assessing the accuracy of other timing yield estimation techniques. However, it is generally believed that it can not be used in practice for estimating timing yield as it requires too many costly full circuit simulations for acceptable accuracy. In this paper, we present a novel approach to constructing an improvedMonte Carlo estimator for timing yield which provides the...

  9. Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Etsushi; Yamanaka, Shogo; Kisaka, Yoshiaki; Nakagawa, Tadao; Murata, Koichi; Yoshida, Eiji; Sakano, Toshikazu; Tomizawa, Masahito; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Matsuoka, Shinji; Matsui, Junichiro; Shibayama, Atsufumi; Abe, Jun-ichi; Nakamura, Yuichi; Noguchi, Hidemi; Fukuchi, Kiyoshi; Onaka, Hiroshi; Fukumitsu, Katsumi; Komaki, Kousuke; Takeuchi, Osamu; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Nakashima, Hisao; Mizuochi, Takashi; Kubo, Kazuo; Miyata, Yoshikuni; Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Hirano, Susumu; Onohara, Kiyoshi

    2011-07-01

    A field trial of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over an optical transport network (OTN) is conducted using a real-time digital coherent signal processor. Error free operation with the Q-margin of 3.2 dB is confirmed at a 100 Gbit/s Ethernet analyzer by concatenating a low-density parity-check code with a OTN framer forward error correction, after 80-ch WDM transmission through 6 spans x 70 km of dispersion shifted fiber without inline-dispersion compensation. Also, the recovery time of 12 msec is observed in an optical route switching experiment, which is achieved through fast chromatic dispersion estimation functionality. PMID:21747472

  10. Fast Tracker : A Hardware Real Time Track Finder for the ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) after the 2013-­?2014 shutdown period is expected to improve the yet impressive performance obtained up to this year: collisions’ energy will increase to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosity will reach and then overcome 10^34 cm?2s?1, with a bunch crossing period of 25 ns. The LHC experiments will need to adapt to the more crowded events, maintaining the physics output and the quality of the final results. The pileup higher than the LHC run 1, with peaks expected to reach 50 or more, will make more difficult to have efficient online selection of rare events based mostly on calorimeters and muon detectors as it is done now. A more extensive use of the information collected by the tracking detector will allow building more robust selections, limiting the degradation effects due to the high pileup. We report on the development of the Fast Tracker (FTK) processor for the ATLAS experiment, devoted to reconstruct tracks with transverse momentum above 1 GeV in the whole detect...

  11. Improved target detection and bearing estimation utilizing fast orthogonal search for real-time spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of target detection and tracking in the ocean environment has attracted considerable attention due to its importance in military and civilian applications. Sonobuoys are one of the capable passive sonar systems used in underwater target detection. Target detection and bearing estimation are mainly obtained through spectral analysis of received signals. The frequency resolution introduced by current techniques is limited which affects the accuracy of target detection and bearing estimation at a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This research investigates the development of a bearing estimation method using fast orthogonal search (FOS) for enhanced spectral estimation. FOS is employed in this research in order to improve both target detection and bearing estimation in the case of low SNR inputs. The proposed methods were tested using simulated data developed for two different scenarios under different underwater environmental conditions. The results show that the proposed method is capable of enhancing the accuracy for target detection as well as bearing estimation especially in cases of a very low SNR

  12. Improved target detection and bearing estimation utilizing fast orthogonal search for real-time spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Abdalla; Nourledin, Aboelamgd; El-Sheimy, Naser; Theriault, Jim; Campbell, Scott

    2009-06-01

    The problem of target detection and tracking in the ocean environment has attracted considerable attention due to its importance in military and civilian applications. Sonobuoys are one of the capable passive sonar systems used in underwater target detection. Target detection and bearing estimation are mainly obtained through spectral analysis of received signals. The frequency resolution introduced by current techniques is limited which affects the accuracy of target detection and bearing estimation at a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This research investigates the development of a bearing estimation method using fast orthogonal search (FOS) for enhanced spectral estimation. FOS is employed in this research in order to improve both target detection and bearing estimation in the case of low SNR inputs. The proposed methods were tested using simulated data developed for two different scenarios under different underwater environmental conditions. The results show that the proposed method is capable of enhancing the accuracy for target detection as well as bearing estimation especially in cases of a very low SNR.

  13. Higher order time asymptotics of fast diffusion in euclidean space: a dynamical systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    Denzler, Jochen; McCann, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper quantifies the speed of convergence and higher- order asymptotics of fast diffusion dynamics on R^n to the Barenblatt (self similar) solution. Degeneracies in the parabolicity of this equation are cured by re-expressing the dynamics on a manifold with a cylindrical end, called the cigar. The nonlinear evolution becomes differentiable in Hoelder spaces on the cigar. The linearization of the dynamics is given by the Laplace-Beltrami operator plus a transport term (which can be suppressed by introducing appropriate weights into the function space norm), plus a finite-depth potential well with a universal profile. In the limiting case of the (linear) heat equation, the depth diverges, the number of eigenstates increases without bound, and the continuous spectrum recedes to infinity. We provide a detailed study of the linear and nonlinear problems in Hoelder spaces on the cigar, including a sharp boundedness estimate for the semi-group, and use this as a tool to obtain sharp convergence results toward t...

  14. Sonoluminescence as Instrument for the Measurement of Time Parameters of Fast Photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobev, P V; Frolov, A R; Shaftan, T V

    1998-01-01

    The apparatus description for control of the time parameters of photomultipliers with high time resolution is described. For generation of ultrashort light flashes have been used sonoluminescence effect -- emission of the light flashes which is appearing at the stressed interior of collapsing air microbubble by sound wave in water.

  15. Fast reactor parameter optimization taking into account changes in fuel charge type during reactor operation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formulation and solution of optimization problem for parameters determining the layout of the central part of sodium cooled power reactor taking into account possible changes in fuel charge type during reactor operation time are performed. The losses under change of fuel composition type for two reactor modifications providing for minimum doubling time for oxide and carbide fuels respectively, are estimated

  16. A fast response hafnium selective polymeric membrane electrode based on N,N'-bis(?-methyl-salicylidene)-dipropylenetriamine as a neutral carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study a new hafnium selective sensor was fabricated from polyvinylchloride (PVC) matrix membrane containing neutral carrier N,N'-bis(?-methyl-salicylidene)-dipropylenetriamine (Mesaldpt) as a new ionophore, sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB) as anionic discriminator and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as plasticizing solvent mediator in tetrahydrofuran solvent. The electrode exhibits Nernstian response for Hf4+ (Hafnium(IV)) over a wide concentration range (2.0 x 10-7 to 1.0 x 10-1 M) with the determination coefficient of 0.9966 and slope of 15.1 ± 0.1 mV decades-1. The limit of detection is 1.9 x 10-7 M. The electrode has a fast response time of 18 s and a working pH range of 4-8. The proposed membrane shows excellent discriminating ability towards Hf4+ ion with regard to several alkali, alkaline earth transition and heavy metal ions. It can be used over a period of 1.5 months with good reproducibility. It is successfully applied for direct determination of Hf4+ in solutions by standard addition method for real sample analysis

  17. Response of RadFET Dosimeters to High Fluences of Fast Neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Ravotti, F; Moll, Michael; Ilgner, C; Camanzi, B; Holmes-Siedle, A G; 10.1109/TNS.2005.852709

    2005-01-01

    We present irradiation experiments carried out on RadFETs in the 20.4 MeV high intensity T2 neutron beam at the CRC-UCL in Belgium. The aim of the test was to characterize the neutron response of RadFETs in view of their use as an integrated part of a radiationmonitoring sensor for the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. Two types of RadFETs were investigated up to a total neutron fluence of 3x10^14 cm-2 corresponding to a deposited dose of 744 Gy in Silicon. The responses of bare devices to neutrons are compared to the commonly used reference measurements with gamma rays. It is found that the gamma ray calibration cannot directly be adopted to convert the RadFET signals into neutron dose. In a second experiment, the influence of a plastic packaging, simulated by Polyethylene slabs of different thicknesses, was tested in the neutron beam and compared to GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. An increase of the RadFET neutron sensitivity by a factor of up to 7 due to the packaging is found. The influence of...

  18. On assessing operator response time in human reliability analysis (HRA) using a possibilistic fuzzy regression model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operator response times for off-normal events in nuclear power plants have been used to assess human failure probabilities. Usually, log-normal distribution is applied to the relation of response times and failure probabilities. In the literature there have been several studies on estimating the response times. Since the response times are affected by the performance shaping factors, a regression model can be applied to estimate the response times. The conventional regression model regards the deviations between the observed and estimated values as measurement errors. However, the deviations of the dependent variable, the response times can be dependent upon the fuzziness of the parameters for the independent variables, the performance shaping factors. In this research, possibilistic linear regression models have been used to asses fuzzy parameters and furthermore response times associated with the performance shaping factors

  19. Response of the R3327-AT1 Dunning prostate tumor to fast neutrons and cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reasons why neutron therapy may be successful include tumor's rate of proliferation, state of oxygenation at time of onset of radiation and the efficacy of reoxygenation during therapy, inherent radioresistance and repair capacity. In an effort to better understand the action of neutrons on tumor tissues we started studies with the Dunning rat prostate tumor system. This tumor system has sublines available with differing histologies, doubling times, hormone dependency and metastatic potential. The present report pertains to anaplastic carcinoma R3327-AT1 subline. The tumors transplanted into the distal thigh received single doses of 8 through 15 Gy of 14.5 MeV neutrons and 18 through 30 Gy Co-60 after they had reached a volume of about 450 mm3. The tumors exhibited a dose dependent retardation in further growth. An RBE of 3 was estimated by comparing the time required for a tumor to reach a normalized value of five times the initial treatment volume. We plan to extend our studies to include a slower growing well differentiated subline. (orig.)

  20. Fast response of the optical nonlinearity in a GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric triple quantum well structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, S H; Sawaki, N

    1999-01-01

    The time response of the optical nonlinear behavior in a GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric triple quantum well structure is estimated by using a picosecond pump-probe method at 77 K. From the results of the transmission of the probe pulse as a function of the delay time at the excitation wavelengths, a rise time of 5 approx 10 ps and a fall time of 8 approx 16 ps are obtained. The nonlinear behavior is attributed to the triple resonance of the electronic states due to the build-up of the internal field induced by the separation of photo-excited electrons and holes. It is found that the rise time is determined by the tunneling transfer time of the electrons in the narrowest well to an adjacent well separated by a thin potential barrier.