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FACTORS AFFECTING GERMINATION AND PREGERMINATIVE TREATMENTS OF Lupinus montanus SEEDS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se a germinação da semente de Lupinus montanus, tomando em conta os seguintes fatores: regime de temperaturas dia/noite, luz e tratamento pré-germinativo. Para a germinação, resultou significativa a interação entre os fatores temperatura, luz e tratamento pré-germinativo. Os maiores valores [...] de germinação se acharam no regime de temperatura 20/15ºC, com escarificação química (ácido sulfúrico) durante 15 minutos, tanto com luz (100% de germinação) como sem luz (98% de germinação). A interação entre temperatura e luz também foi significativa. Neste último caso, a maior germinação se alcançou no regime de temperatura 20/15ºC, tanto com luz como sem luz (72,5% e 73,8%, respectivamente). A maiores temperaturas sem luz, a germinação foi maior (41,2% a 25/20ºC, e 33,4% a 30/25ºC), que com luz (17,4% a 25/20ºC e 12,8% a 30/25ºC); o qual indica que os microsítios com sombra podem beneficiar a germinação da semente da espécie a temperaturas altas. Abstract in spanish Se estudió la germinación de la semilla de Lupinus montanus, tomando en cuenta los siguientes factores: régimen de temperaturas día/noche, luz y tratamiento pregerminativo. Para la germinación, resultó significativa la interacción entre los factores temperatura, luz y tratamiento pregerminativo. Los [...] mayores valores de germinación se hallaron en el régimen de temperatura 20/15ºC, con escarificación química (ácido sulfúrico) durante 15 minutos, tanto con luz (100% de germinación) como sin luz (98% de germinación). La interacción entre temperatura y luz también fue significativa. En este último caso, la mayor germinación se alcanzó en el régimen de temperatura 20/15ºC, tanto con luz como sin luz (72,5 y 73,8%, respectivamente). A mayores temperaturas sin luz, la germinación fue mayor (41,2% a 25/20ºC, y 33,4% a 30/25ºC), que con luz (17,4% a 25/20ºC y 12,8% a 30/25ºC); lo cual indica que los micrositios con sombra pudieran beneficiar la germinación de la semilla de la especie a temperaturas altas. Abstract in english The germinative characteristics of Lupinus montanus seeds were studied, taking into account the following factors: day/night temperature regime, light, and pregerminative treatment. The interaction between temperature, light and pregerminative treatment was significant for germination. The best germ [...] inations were found in the 20/15ºC temperature regime, with chemical scarification (sulfuric acid) during 15min, both under light (100% germination) and in darkness (98%). The interaction between temperature and light was also significant, with the best germination results in the 20/15ºC temperature regime, both with and without light (72.5 and 73.8%, respectively). At higher temperatures, the germination in absence of light was greater (41.2 and 33.4% at 25/20ºC and 30/25ºC, respectively) than under light (17.4 and 12.8% at 25/20ºC and 30/25ºC, respectively). This indicates that shady microsites can benefit germination of the species at higher temperatures.

Jeanette, Acosta-Percástegui; Dante Arturo, Rodríguez-Trejo.

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FACTORS AFFECTING GERMINATION AND PREGERMINATIVE TREATMENTS OF Lupinus montanus SEEDS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se a germinação da semente de Lupinus montanus, tomando em conta os seguintes fatores: regime de temperaturas dia/noite, luz e tratamento pré-germinativo. Para a germinação, resultou significativa a interação entre os fatores temperatura, luz e tratamento pré-germinativo. Os maiores valores [...] de germinação se acharam no regime de temperatura 20/15ºC, com escarificação química (ácido sulfúrico) durante 15 minutos, tanto com luz (100% de germinação) como sem luz (98% de germinação). A interação entre temperatura e luz também foi significativa. Neste último caso, a maior germinação se alcançou no regime de temperatura 20/15ºC, tanto com luz como sem luz (72,5% e 73,8%, respectivamente). A maiores temperaturas sem luz, a germinação foi maior (41,2% a 25/20ºC, e 33,4% a 30/25ºC), que com luz (17,4% a 25/20ºC e 12,8% a 30/25ºC); o qual indica que os microsítios com sombra podem beneficiar a germinação da semente da espécie a temperaturas altas. Abstract in spanish Se estudió la germinación de la semilla de Lupinus montanus, tomando en cuenta los siguientes factores: régimen de temperaturas día/noche, luz y tratamiento pregerminativo. Para la germinación, resultó significativa la interacción entre los factores temperatura, luz y tratamiento pregerminativo. Los [...] mayores valores de germinación se hallaron en el régimen de temperatura 20/15ºC, con escarificación química (ácido sulfúrico) durante 15 minutos, tanto con luz (100% de germinación) como sin luz (98% de germinación). La interacción entre temperatura y luz también fue significativa. En este último caso, la mayor germinación se alcanzó en el régimen de temperatura 20/15ºC, tanto con luz como sin luz (72,5 y 73,8%, respectivamente). A mayores temperaturas sin luz, la germinación fue mayor (41,2% a 25/20ºC, y 33,4% a 30/25ºC), que con luz (17,4% a 25/20ºC y 12,8% a 30/25ºC); lo cual indica que los micrositios con sombra pudieran beneficiar la germinación de la semilla de la especie a temperaturas altas. Abstract in english The germinative characteristics of Lupinus montanus seeds were studied, taking into account the following factors: day/night temperature regime, light, and pregerminative treatment. The interaction between temperature, light and pregerminative treatment was significant for germination. The best germ [...] inations were found in the 20/15ºC temperature regime, with chemical scarification (sulfuric acid) during 15min, both under light (100% germination) and in darkness (98%). The interaction between temperature and light was also significant, with the best germination results in the 20/15ºC temperature regime, both with and without light (72.5 and 73.8%, respectively). At higher temperatures, the germination in absence of light was greater (41.2 and 33.4% at 25/20ºC and 30/25ºC, respectively) than under light (17.4 and 12.8% at 25/20ºC and 30/25ºC, respectively). This indicates that shady microsites can benefit germination of the species at higher temperatures.

Jeanette, Acosta-Percástegui; Dante Arturo, Rodríguez-Trejo.

2005-09-01

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Culinary and nutritional quality of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds as affected by environmental factors  

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Full Text Available Efficient selection for specific culinary and nutritional quality traits needs a better understanding of the genetic and environmental control of quality traits at the structural, physiological and biochemical levels. Field experiments indicate great variability in the Phaseolus gene pool regarding the content of antinutritional compounds, as well as in cooking characteristics of the seeds. These seed attributes are strongly affected by geographic location, edaphic and climatic conditions at site of cultivation. However, information on the influence of specific environmental factors (such as temperature, water availability, edaphic conditions, etc. on seed quality traits, as well as on their stability is very scarce. This lack of knowledge impairs a faster progress in the improvement of Phaseolus seed quality.

Kigel J.

1999-01-01

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Impact of Weed Seed Mixture in Seed Health of Aus Rice and Factors Affecting it  

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Full Text Available A socio-agronomical survey and a laboratory experiment on weed seed mixture with rice seed were carried out at the three different villages of Mymensingh district and in the laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh respectively during the period from January to June 2002 to know the farmer’s knowledge and idea about the impact of weed seed mixture on the quality of rice seeds, and to know the status of seed purity in rice collected from different locations of Bangladesh. In the socio-agronomical survey, 100 farmers from six villages e.g. Kazirshimla, Dewanibari, Seedstore, Bharadoba, Churkhai and Rampur under three Upazilas namely Trishal, Bhaluka and Sadar were randomly selected for interview. Pre-prepared questionnaire were used to ask questions on different aspects of weed contamination with rice seeds. Results revealed that 90% farmers of the area cultivated IR50 and only 3% farmers grew BR2 rice variety. They got higher average yields from IR50 (1.96 t ha-1 than other varieties e.g. BR2 (1.65 t ha-1 and BR3 (1.75 t ha-1. Farmers found five noxious weed seeds e.g. Echinochloa crusglli, E. colonum, Cyperus iria, Scirpus spp. and C. difformis in the rice seeds. E. crusgalli was appeared as the notorious weed to rice farmers. Forty percent of the interviewed farmers were educated up to class five and literate farmers used higher seed rate, which led to less weed infestation in the field. Eighty nine percent farmers used their own seed, which were produced and processed with care, and there was less possibility of weed seed contamination. Eight percent farmers used seeds from market, which contained more weed seeds in rice seeds. Laboratory analysis of seed samples collected from different locations of the country revealed that location has an impact on the weed seed mixture in rice seeds. Samples collected from the village more away from Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh contained more weed seeds. The purity percentage of farmers saved seed was about 95% and it contained 0.08% weed seed. The weed seeds found in the farmers saved seed samples were E. crusgalli, E.colonum, Scirpus spp. and Cyperus difformis.

Md. Fazlul Islam

2003-01-01

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Factors Affecting Tausch’s Goatgrass (Aegilops tauschii Coss. Seed Germination and Seedling Emergence  

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Full Text Available Tausch’s goatgrass, Aegilops tauschii (Coss. is one of the most troublesome weeds in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. producing areas of Yellow River valley of China. The effects of environmental factors affecting seed germination and seedling emergence were evaluated in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. The germination of Tausch’s goatgrass seeds occurred at temperatures ranging from 0 to 40oC, with optimum germination attained between 15 and 25oC. Tausch’s goatgrass seed is rather tolerant to low water potential and high salinity stress as germination was 70% and 65% at osmotic potentials of -1.7 MPa and salinity level of 400 mM, respectively. Medium pH and light have no significant effect on seed germination. Highest emergence (>80% occurred from depths of 1 to 3cm, but no seedlings emerged when burial depth reached 8cm. Knowledge of germination biology of Tausch’s goatgrass obtained in this study will be useful in predicting the potential distribution area and developing effective management strategies for this species.

Feng Fang

2012-01-01

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Seed Size, the Only Factor Positively Affecting Direct Seeding Success in an Abandoned Field in Quebec, Canada  

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Full Text Available Direct tree seeding is potentially an economical technique for restoring forests on abandoned fields. However, the success of tree establishment depends on many factors related to species and seed characteristics, environmental conditions, competition and predation. We compared seedling emergence, survival and growth of six tree species of different seed sizes in a forest restoration project of abandoned fields. Species were seeded in plots with and without herbaceous vegetation and with and without protection from bird and mammal predation. Yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis did not emerge in all treatments, paper birch (Betula papyrifera and tamarack (Larix laricina had a seedling emergence rate lower than 1%, and sugar maple (Acer saccharum had a low overall emergence rate of 6%. Seedling emergence reached 57% for northern red oak (Quercus rubra and 34% for red pine (Pinus resinosa, but survival of oak after one year was much higher (92% than pine seedlings (16%. Overall, protection from birds and mammals and elimination of the herbaceous vegetation cover had no detectable effects on seedling emergence, survival and height. Nonetheless, red oak seedlings growing in the presence of vegetation had a smaller diameter and shoot biomass and a larger specific leaf area. We conclude that only large seeded species, such as oak, should be used for forest restoration of abandoned fields by direct seeding in our region.

Annick St-Denis

2013-06-01

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Factors affecting seed germination and protocorm development of Vandopsis gigantea (Lindl. Pfitz. in vitro  

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Full Text Available Seeds of Vandopsis gigantea (Lindl. Pfitz. germinated with highest percentage of 60.62±7.24% on modified VW (Vacin and Went, 1949 medium supplemented with coconut water under light condition. Light not only caused seed germination percentage significantly higher than in darkness (p<0.01, it also induced normal protocorm development to a more advanced stage than those in dark condition. Protocorms after 14-16 weeks of culture in the dark formed abnormal elongated shape and some eventually terminated their growth and finally became brown. The addition of coconut water to basal medium also induced higher percentage of seed germination than that without coconut water (p<0.05. Although, protocorm development in both types of media was comparatively normal, coconut water seemed to promote development slightly more progressive than without coconut water. After 14-16 weeks of culture, most protocorms with coconut water formed 1-2 small expanding leaves while those without coconut water developed only the acute end of shoot initial. Lastly, seed germination in liquid or solid medium was not significantly different, however, protocorms in the latter developed slightly more quickly.

Thibul, S.

2006-03-01

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Factor Analysis of Seed Yield in Linseed  

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Full Text Available Correlations in twenty genotypes of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. were used for factor analysis, based on seed yield and five yield contributing traits, through the principal component method. The seed yield was positively associated with other traits, however, significantly only with number of seeds per pod and number of pods per plant. Three factors accounted for 94 percent of the variation. Factor-I included number of branches per plant; Factor-II, number of seeds per pod; and Factor-III, 1000 seed weight and plant height. Thus, traits related with seed yield were affected by different factors. Number of seeds per pod in Factor-II appeared to be the most important yield component. Direct improvement in this character would improve seed yield potential without affecting other plant characters.

Noor-ul-Islam Khan

2000-01-01

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Factors Affecting the Optimum Seeding Level of Coal or Char-Fired, Open-Cycle MHD Power Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of the optimum seed level with ash-containing, seeded fuels was made using a mathematical model to determine the composition and amounts of the combustion products which included a slag phase and condensed seed compounds. The results indicate that: the mechanism of seed condensation is the formation of liquid alkali sulphate; the contamination of the liquid seed with silica occurs because silica condenses over approximately the same temperature range as the alkali sulphate; and the level of seed contamination with silica plays a major role in deciding the system seed level. This contamination is unavoidable due to the difficulty of separating the alkali from the glass-like slag by ordinary chemical or physical means. Therefore the silica remaining in the gas phase when the bulk of the slag is separated from the combustion products must be recycled to the system with the co-condensed seed. This increased silica lowers the combustion temperature because of the energy required for its volatilization. The important factors in establishing the steady-state silica level in the system are: (1) The air/fuel level. Lowering this parameter below stoichiometric requirements decreases the silica contamination and increases the electrical conductivity of the combustion products; (2) The nature of the fuel. Silica levels are in general higher for a char than for a coal fuel. This is compensated for to a degree,by the higher electrical conductivity of the combustion products from char; (3) The sulphur level of the fuel. The higher the sulphur level the higher the temperature at which seed condensation (as the sulphate) initiates hence the greater the fraction of silica remaining in the gas phase; (4) The silica content of the fuel: (5) The seeding level. The greater the seed/coal ratio, the higher the initiation temperature of seed condensation; (6) The type of seed. A non-sulphur-containing seed results in a lower initiation temperature of seed condensation; (7) The separation temperature of the bulk of the liquid slag from the combustion products. This temperature should be just above the seed condensation initiation temperature for minimum silica recycle with minimum seed loss. Data are presented which illustrate the above factors for a bituminous coal at sulphur levels of 0.5 and 4 wt% sulphur and a bituminous coal char. Seeding materials, considered are potassium carbonate and potassium sulphate. A combustor pressure of 5 atm is assumed with the air-preheat temperature used as a parameter. The results show an increase in electrical conductivity of the combustion products when the sulphur level of the system is reduced. One way of effecting this reduction is to remove the sulphur from the spent seed-silica mixture before its return to the combustor. In addition to increased conductivity, this reduced sulphur mode of operation also allows an MHD/steam power plant to be operated free of sulphur oxide effluent gases. (author)

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Soybean Seed Matured on Different Dates Affect Seed Quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Production of quality seed is one of the major problem in soybean (Glycine max. (L) Mell.,) in tropical countries including Pakistan. Seed quality in soybean, as determined by germination, seed weight and infection by seed pathogens is affected by date of maturity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality of soybean seed matured at different temperature. Soybean was planted on January 13, January 16, February 19, March 1, July 10, July 20, July 26 and August 25, 1991 at Agri...

Khalil, Shad K.; Mexal, John G.; Murray, Leigh W.

2001-01-01

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Preimplant factors affecting postimplant CT-determined prostate volume and the CT/TRUS volume ratio after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to identify preimplant factors affecting postimplant prostate volume and the increase in prostate volume after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds. Methods We reviewed the records of 180 patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds for clinical T1/T2 prostate cancer. Eighty-one (45% of the 180 patients underwent neoadjuvant hormonal therapy. No patient received supplemental external beam radiotherapy. Postimplant computed tomography was undertaken, and postimplant dosimetric analysis was performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify preimplant factors affecting postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography and the increase in prostate volume after implantation. Results Preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound, serum prostate-specific antigen, number of needles, and number of seeds implanted were significantly correlated with postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography. The increase in prostate volume after implantation was significantly higher in patients with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy than in those without. Preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound, number of needles, and number of seeds implanted were significantly correlated with the increase in prostate volume after implantation. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound and neoadjuvant hormonal therapy were significant independent factors affecting both postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography and the increase in prostate volume after implantation. Conclusions The results of the present study show that preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound and neoadjuvant hormonal therapy are significant preimplant factors affecting both postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography and the increase in prostate volume after implantation.

Asakura Hirotaka

2010-09-01

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Loss-of-function mutations affecting a specific Glycine max R2R3 MYB transcription factor result in brown hilum and brown seed coats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although modern soybean cultivars feature yellow seed coats, with the only color variation found at the hila, the ancestral condition is black seed coats. Both seed coat and hila coloration are due to the presence of phenylpropanoid pathway derivatives, principally anthocyanins. The genetics of soybean seed coat and hilum coloration were first investigated during the resurgence of genetics during the 1920s, following the rediscovery of Mendel's work. Despite the inclusion of this phenotypic marker into the extensive genetic maps developed for soybean over the last twenty years, the genetic basis behind the phenomenon of brown seed coats (the R locus has remained undetermined until now. Results In order to identify the gene responsible for the r gene effect (brown hilum or seed coat color, we utilized bulk segregant analysis and identified recombinant lines derived from a population segregating for two phenotypically distinct alleles of the R locus. Fine mapping was accelerated through use of a novel, bioinformatically determined set of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR markers which allowed us to delimit the genomic region containing the r gene to less than 200 kbp, despite the use of a mapping population of only 100 F6 lines. Candidate gene analysis identified a loss of function mutation affecting a seed coat-specific expressed R2R3 MYB transcription factor gene (Glyma09g36990 as a strong candidate for the brown hilum phenotype. We observed a near perfect correlation between the mRNA expression levels of the functional R gene candidate and an UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UF3GT gene, which is responsible for the final step in anthocyanin biosynthesis. In contrast, when a null allele of Glyma09g36990 is expressed no upregulation of the UF3GT gene was found. Conclusions We discovered an allelic series of four loss of function mutations affecting our R locus gene candidate. The presence of any one of these mutations was perfectly correlated with the brown seed coat/hilum phenotype in a broadly distributed survey of soybean cultivars, barring the presence of the epistatic dominant I allele or gray pubescence, both of which can mask the effect of the r allele, resulting in yellow or buff hila. These findings strongly suggest that loss of function for one particular seed coat-expressed R2R3 MYB gene is responsible for the brown seed coat/hilum phenotype in soybean.

Gillman Jason D

2011-11-01

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Soybean Seed Matured on Different Dates Affect Seed Quality  

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Full Text Available Production of quality seed is one of the major problem in soybean (Glycine max. (L Mell., in tropical countries including Pakistan. Seed quality in soybean, as determined by germination, seed weight and infection by seed pathogens is affected by date of maturity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality of soybean seed matured at different temperature. Soybean was planted on January 13, January 16, February 19, March 1, July 10, July 20, July 26 and August 25, 1991 at Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan. Seeds planted in January, February, and March matured during hot weather conditions (June, July, produced heavier seeds, but had lower germination, and higher infection with seed borne pathogens. Seed planted in July and August reached maturity after hot weather conditions in October and November had ended and exhibited higher germination, little infection with seed borne pathogen, but produced smaller seeds. Seed size was inversely related to germination. Conditions that favor production of large seeds also favor infection with seed borne pathogens and lower germination.

Shad K. Khalil

2001-01-01

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Changes in chemical composition and anti nutritional factors in sesame seeds as affected by gamma and microwave radiations during storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of gamma radiation, microwave radiation, interaction between them and storage of sesame seeds were investigated to find out the best treatment which cause the maximum reduction of anti nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities) without exerting significant effect on the chemical constituents. The gamma rays was used at doses of 2.5, 5.0 and 8.0 KGy, microwave radiation was at 70 level power for 2 and 4 min and the storage of seeds was at room temperature and Rh 50-55% for six months. The obtained results on the effect of gamma radiation and storage showed slight decrease in crude protein contents, significant decrease in total free amino acids, total lipids had either slightly or non-significantly changed, decreased total carbohydrates and slight changes in total soluble sugars content. Reduction of trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities were increased as the irradiation dose levels and storage time increased. Slightly decreases in tannin and phenol contents and significant decrease in phytic acid content were observed. The obtained results on the effect of microwave radiation and storage indicated non-significant effect on protein and total lipids contents, decrease in total free amino acids, slight changes in total carbohydrate content and non-significant changes in total soluble and reducing sugars. Trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities were significantly reduced by microwave, while increasing the storage period deve, while increasing the storage period decreased lipoxygenase activity. Significant changes were observed in tannin and phenol contents, while phytic acid was decreased

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Factors affecting in vitro seed germination and shoot multiplication of a pitcher plant (Nepenthes mirabilis (Lour.) Druce)  

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Mature seeds of a pitcher plant (Nepenthes mirabilis (Lour.) Druce) were cultured in liquid and solid MS medium (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) supplemented with BA (6-benzyladenine) at 1, 3 or 5 mg/l or withcoconut water (20% v/v). The cultures were incubated under light and dark conditions. Seeds germinated only under light incubation and BA supplemented to both types of media, and solid medium with 3 mg/l BAresulted the highest seed germination (26%) with good development of seedlings. On the ...

Tokhao, W.; Khompat, K.; Jantasilp, A.

2007-01-01

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Factors affecting in vitro seed germination and shoot multiplication of a pitcher plant (Nepenthes mirabilis (Lour. Druce  

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Full Text Available Mature seeds of a pitcher plant (Nepenthes mirabilis (Lour. Druce were cultured in liquid and solid MS medium (Murashige and Skoog, 1962 supplemented with BA (6-benzyladenine at 1, 3 or 5 mg/l or withcoconut water (20% v/v. The cultures were incubated under light and dark conditions. Seeds germinated only under light incubation and BA supplemented to both types of media, and solid medium with 3 mg/l BAresulted the highest seed germination (26% with good development of seedlings. On the contrary, the addition of coconut water to the basal medium produced poor seed germination and seedling growth. Moreover,all cultures in liquid medium terminated their growth after 6 weeks of culture. Young seedlings were subsequently transferred to fresh media of the same treatments after 15 weeks of seed culture. Multipleshoots were proliferated in all levels of BA after 6 weeks of transferring and more shoots were produced as BA level was increased. However, at high BA level of 5 mg/l, rosetting of shoots occurred while lowering BA level to 3 mg/l, fewer shoots were produced but they were vigorous, larger shoots with complete leaves. Rootdevelopment finally occurred in all BA treatments except the addition of coconut water.To evaluate the potential of shoot multiplication in different strengths of MS macromutrient, two types of explants, viz. shoot explants and stem explants (both approx. 1.5 cm long from in vitro seedlings,were cultured on full-strength MS macronutrient medium, 1/2 MS, 1/4 MS and 1/8 MS medium. Following 16 weeks of culture, shoot production (number/ explant increased in both explant types as the macronutrientstrength decreased. However, when lowering to 1/8 MS, the fewest shoots were produced and exhibited nutrient deficiency of leaf chlorosis. The optimum strength of MS macronutrient for the maximumproduction of normal shoots with complete leaves was 1/2 MS medium while 1/4 MS medium produced the highest shoot number from stem explants but shoots were small with abnormal narrow leaf blade. In vitro pitcher development occurred spontaneously in all levels of MS macronutrient .

Tokhao, W

2007-03-01

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Arabidopsis thaliana bZIP44: a transcription factor affecting seed germination and expression of the mannanase-encoding gene AtMAN7.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endo-?-mannanases (MAN; EC. 3.2.1.78) catalyze the cleavage of ?1?4 bonds in mannan polymers and have been associated with the process of weakening the tissues surrounding the embryo during seed germination. In germinating Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, the most highly expressed MAN gene is AtMAN7 and its transcripts are restricted to the micropylar endosperm and to the radicle tip just before radicle emergence. Mutants with a T-DNA insertion in AtMAN7 have a slower germination than the wild type. To gain insight into the transcriptional regulation of the AtMAN7 gene, a bioinformatic search for conserved non-coding cis-elements (phylogenetic shadowing) within the Brassicaceae MAN7 gene promoters has been done, and these conserved motifs have been used as bait to look for their interacting transcription factors (TFs), using as a prey an arrayed yeast library from A. thaliana. The basic-leucine zipper TF AtbZIP44, but not the closely related AtbZIP11, has thus been identified and its transcriptional activation upon AtMAN7 has been validated at the molecular level. In the knock-out lines of AtbZIP44, not only is the expression of the AtMAN7 gene drastically reduced, but these mutants have a significantly slower germination than the wild type, being affected in the two phases of the germination process, both in the rupture of the seed coat and in the breakage of the micropylar endosperm cell walls. In the over-expression lines the opposite phenotype is observed. PMID:23461773

Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Barrero-Sicilia, Cristina; Carrillo-Barral, Néstor; Oñate-Sánchez, Luis; Carbonero, Pilar

2013-06-01

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Factors affecting forage stand establishment  

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Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should be expanded in the industry to enable matching seed lot performance to specific environmental conditions where performance can be maximized. Seed treatment and seed coating are used in the forage seed industry, and studies have shown they are of benefit in some environments. There is an increase in no-tillage seeding of forage crops, but improvements in the no-tillage planting equipment are needed to make them better suited to small seeds. Other recent developments in seeding techniques include broadcasting seed with dry granular and fluid fertilizers, which improves the efficiency of the seeding operation.

Sulc R.M.

1998-01-01

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Affective Factors: Anxiety  

Science.gov (United States)

Affective factors seem to play a crucial role in success or failure in second language acquisition. Negative attitudes can reduce learners' motivation and harm language learning, while positive attitudes can do the reverse. Discovering students' attitudes about language will help both teacher and student in teaching learning process. Anxiety is…

Tasnimi, Mahshad

2009-01-01

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Methylation Affects Transposition and Splicing of a Large CACTA Transposon from a MYB Transcription Factor Regulating Anthocyanin Synthase Genes in Soybean Seed Coats  

Science.gov (United States)

We determined the molecular basis of three soybean lines that vary in seed coat color at the R locus which is thought to encode a MYB transcription factor. RM55-rm is homozygous for a mutable allele (rm) that specifies black and brown striped seeds; RM30-R* is a stable black revertant isoline derived from the mutable line; and RM38-r has brown seed coats due to a recessive r allele shown to translate a truncated MYB protein. Using long range PCR, 454 sequencing of amplicons, and whole genome re-sequencing, we determined that the variegated RM55-rm line had a 13 kb CACTA subfamily transposon insertion (designated TgmR*) at a position 110 bp from the beginning of Intron2 of the R locus, Glyma09g36983. Although the MYB encoded by R was expressed at only very low levels in older seed coats of the black revertant RM30-R* line, it upregulated expression of anthocyanidin synthase genes (ANS2, ANS3) to promote the synthesis of anthocyanins. Surprisingly, the RM30-R* revertant also carried the 13 kb TgmR* insertion in Intron2. Using RNA-Seq, we showed that intron splicing was accurate, albeit at lower levels, despite the presence of the 13 kb TgmR* element. As determined by whole genome methylation sequencing, we demonstrate that the TgmR* sequence was relatively more methylated in RM30-R* than in the mutable RM55-rm progenitor line. The stabilized and more methylated RM30-R* revertant line apparently lacks effective binding of a transposae to its subterminal repeats, thus allowing intron splicing to proceed resulting in sufficient MYB protein to stimulate anthocyanin production and thus black seed coats. In this regard, the TgmR* element in soybean resembles McClintock's Spm-suppressible and change-of-state alleles of maize. This comparison explains the opposite effects of the TgmR* element on intron splicing of the MYB gene in which it resides depending on the methylation state of the element. PMID:25369033

Zabala, Gracia; Vodkin, Lila O.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Factors affecting Cyperus difformis seed germination and seedling emergence / Fatores que afetam a germinação de sementes e a emergência de plântulas de Cyperus difformis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O conhecimento específico sobre os padrões de dormência, germinação e emergência de espécies de plantas daninhas auxilia o desenvolvimento de estratégias integradas de gestão. Foram realizados estudos de laboratório para determinar o efeito de vários fatores ambientais na germinação de sementes e em [...] ergência de plântulas de Cyperus difformis. A germinação das sementes recém-colhidas foi inibida pela escuridão; no entanto, quando as sementes foram transferidas posteriormente para a luz total, germinaram prontamente. Nossos resultados mostraram que duas semanas de estratificação fria superam o requisito de luz para a germinação. As sementes de C. difformis conseguiram germinar numa ampla gama de temperaturas (25/15, 30/20, 35/25, e 40/30 ºC dia/noite). A resposta da taxa de germinação à temperatura foi descrito como uma função não-linear. Com base em resultados do modelo, as temperaturas de base, ótima e e teto foram estimadas em 14,81, 37,72 e 45 ºC, respectivamente. Foi preciso uma temperatura de 120 ºC por mais 5 minutos para inibir 50% da germinação máxima. O potencial osmótico e a salinidade necessários para uma inibição de 50% da máxima germinação foram -0,47 MPa e 135,57 mM, respectivamente. Foi observada uma alta percentagem de germinação das sementes (89%) com pH=6, a qual diminuiu para 12% em meio alcalino (pH 9) de pH. As sementes semeadas na superfície do solo resultaram na maior porcentagem de emergência de plântulas, e nenhuma plântula emergiu a partir de sementes enterradas no solo a uma profundidade de 1 cm. Abstract in english Specific knowledge about the dormancy, germination, and emergence patterns of weed species aids the development of integrated management strategies. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effect of several environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of Cyperus diffor [...] mis. Germination of freshly harvested seeds was inhibited by darkness; however, when seeds were subsequently transferred to complete light they germinated readily. Our results showed that 2 wk of cold stratification overcome the light requirement for germination. Seeds of C. difformis were able to germinate over a broad range of temperatures (25/15, 30/20, 35/25, and 40/30 ºC day/night). The response of germination rate to temperature was described as a non-linear function. Based on model outputs, the base, the optimum and the ceiling temperatures were estimated as 14.81, 37.72 and 45 ºC, respectively. A temperature of 120 ºC for a 5 min was required to inhibit 50% of maximum germination. The osmotic potential and salinity required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.47 MPa and 135.57 mM, respectively. High percentage of seed germination (89%) was observed at pH=6 and decreased to 12% at alkaline medium (pH 9) pH. Seeds sown on the soil surface gave the greatest percentage of seedling emergence, and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried in soil at depths of 1 cm.

A., Derakhshan; J., Gherekhloo.

2013-12-01

22

Factors affecting vegetable stand establishment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several factors can influence stand establishment in vegetable crop production. Environmental conditions such as soil physical characteristics, temperature and moisture, various cultural practices, and diseases may all be limiting factors in establishing maximum stands and achieving the highest possible yields. Measures taken to increase stands include soil improvements, implementing cultural practices, and use of chemical and biological seed treatments. Combining seed treatments and cultural/tillage practices to minimize environmental constraints can lead to maximum stands and yields in the production of high quality vegetable crops.

Grassbaugh E. M.

1998-01-01

23

The seed's protein and oil content, fatty acid composition, and growing cycle length of a single genotype of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as affected by environmental factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a botanical source, variability in chia seed composition could be expected between growing locations, and between years within a location, due to genotype and environment effects as well genetic x environment's interactions. The objective of the present study was to determine the location effect on the growing cycle length, and seed's protein content, lipid content, and fatty acid profiles, of a single chia genotype. Seeds of chia genotype Tzotzol grown on eight sites in five different ecosystems were tested. One site was in Argentina, in the Semi-Arid Chaco ecosystem (T(5)); one was in Bolivia, in the Sub-Humid Chaco ecosystem (T(4)); and six in Ecuador, one in the Coastal Desert (T(3)), two on the Tropical Rain Forest (T(2)), and three in the Inter-Andean Dry Valley ecosystem (T(1)). Seeds from plants grown in T(4) and in T(3) contained significantly (P seeds from the other three ecosystems. No significant (P Seeds from T(1) and T(5) ecosystems, with 33.5 and 32.2%, respectively, were the numerically highest oil content producers, but their results were only significantly (P seeds. Significant (P seeds grown in different ecosystems were detected, however. Oil of seeds grown in the T(3) ecosystem had the palmitic, stearic and oleic fatty acids' highest contents. Palmitic and oleic fatty acid levels were significantly (P seeds grown in the T(1) ecosystem, and stearic when was compared to that of seeds grown in the T(5) ecosystem; omega-6 linoleic fatty acid content was significantly (P seeds produced in T(1), and T(2) than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5) ecosystems; omega-3 alpha-linolenic fatty acid content was significantly (P seeds produced in T(1), than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5), but not in those produced in T(2). PMID:19491529

Ayerza, Ricardo

2009-01-01

24

Factors Affecting Biodiesel Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biodiesel is a renewable alternate fuel to diesel engines that could be partially orfully replace or reduce the use of petroleum diesel fuel. Biodiesel can be produced fromplant and animal fats through transesterification reaction. The transesterification reaction isaffected by molar ratio of alcohol, presence of water and Free Fatty Acid content, reactiontemperature, catalyst concentration and agitation speed. This review paper discuss aboutthe factors involved in transesterification reaction.

M.Mathiyazhagan

2011-06-01

25

Factors Affecting Students' Performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Determinants of students' performance have been the subject of ongoing debate among educators, academics, and policy makers. There have been many studies that sought to examine this issue and their findings point out to hard work, previous schooling, parents’ education, family income and self motivation as factors that have a significant effect on the students GPA. Most of those studies have focused on students' performance in the U.S. and Europe. However, since cultural differences may...

Harb, Nasri; El-shaarawi, Ahmed

2006-01-01

26

Seed treatments affect functional and antinutritional properties of amaranth flours  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping germination and flour air classification, on the functional properties and antinutritional factors of Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus seeds were studied. Thermal treatments increased the water absorption with a maximum value of 5.1 and 6.3 g g-1 in flour of popped seeds of both species. Generally, fat absorption increased after the treatments. Air classification and germination followed by drying at low temperature increas...

Gamel, T. H.; Linssen, J. P. H.; Mesallam, A. S.; Damir, A. A.; Shekib, L. A.

2006-01-01

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Fatores que afetam a germinação de sementes e emergência de plântulas de arruda (Ruta graveolens L.) / Factors affecting seed germination and seedling emergence in rue (Ruta graveolens L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Ruta graveolens L., também conhecida com arruda, é planta originária do sul da Europa, cultivada no Brasil e em outros países como planta medicinal, muito utilizada em rituais religiosos. Tendo em vista que a germinação constitui um fator primordial para que a semente possa gerar uma planta vigorosa [...] e com alto potencial produtivo, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a resposta germinativa de sementes para arruda sob condições de temperatura, luminosidade, estresse hídrico e salino e emergência de plântulas em diferentes profundidades de semeadura. Sementes de Ruta graveolens são indiferentes à luz, germinando melhor em temperatura constante de 25ºC ou alterna (20-30ºC). Os potenciais osmóticos induzidos por manitol a partir de -0,4MPa e por NaCl a partir de -0,8MPa influenciam negativamente o processo germinativo. Maiores percentuais de plântulas são obtidas quando a espécie é semeada na superfície do substrato. Abstract in english Ruta graveolens L., also known as rue, is from the south of Europe, cultivated in Brazil and other countries as a medicinal plant greatly used in religious rituals. Since germination is essential for the seed to generate a vigorous plant of high productive potential, this work aimed to evaluate the [...] germinative response of rue seeds under different temperatures, luminosity conditions, and water and salt stress, besides seedling emergence at different sowing depths. Ruta graveolens L. seeds are indifferent to light, better germinating at constant temperature of 25ºC or alternated temperature (20-30ºC). The osmotic potentials induced by mannitol from -0.4MPa and by NaCl from -0.8MPa negatively influenced the germination process. Higher seedling percentages are obtained when the species is sown on the substratum surface.

O.M., Yamashita; E., Fernandes Neto; O.R., Campos; S.C., Guimarães.

28

Fatores que afetam a germinação de sementes e emergência de plântulas de arruda (Ruta graveolens L. Factors affecting seed germination and seedling emergence in rue (Ruta graveolens L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ruta graveolens L., também conhecida com arruda, é planta originária do sul da Europa, cultivada no Brasil e em outros países como planta medicinal, muito utilizada em rituais religiosos. Tendo em vista que a germinação constitui um fator primordial para que a semente possa gerar uma planta vigorosa e com alto potencial produtivo, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a resposta germinativa de sementes para arruda sob condições de temperatura, luminosidade, estresse hídrico e salino e emergência de plântulas em diferentes profundidades de semeadura. Sementes de Ruta graveolens são indiferentes à luz, germinando melhor em temperatura constante de 25ºC ou alterna (20-30ºC. Os potenciais osmóticos induzidos por manitol a partir de -0,4MPa e por NaCl a partir de -0,8MPa influenciam negativamente o processo germinativo. Maiores percentuais de plântulas são obtidas quando a espécie é semeada na superfície do substrato.Ruta graveolens L., also known as rue, is from the south of Europe, cultivated in Brazil and other countries as a medicinal plant greatly used in religious rituals. Since germination is essential for the seed to generate a vigorous plant of high productive potential, this work aimed to evaluate the germinative response of rue seeds under different temperatures, luminosity conditions, and water and salt stress, besides seedling emergence at different sowing depths. Ruta graveolens L. seeds are indifferent to light, better germinating at constant temperature of 25ºC or alternated temperature (20-30ºC. The osmotic potentials induced by mannitol from -0.4MPa and by NaCl from -0.8MPa negatively influenced the germination process. Higher seedling percentages are obtained when the species is sown on the substratum surface.

O.M. Yamashita

2009-01-01

29

Soybean Seed Phenol, Lignin, and Isoflavones Partitioning as Affected by Seed Node Position and Genotype Differences  

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Full Text Available Factors controlling the production and partitioning of seed phenolics within soybean are not understood. Understanding these factors may justify selection for higher levels of seed phenolics because of their beneficial impact on human health and soybean defense mechanism against diseases. The objective of this research was to investigate the partitioning of seed phenolics (phenol, lignin, and isoflavones along the main stem of soybean genotypes. A repeated green- house experiment was conducted on different soybean genotypes of different maturity and different stem archi-tecture (determinate and indeterminate. Genotypes were DT 97-4290, maturity group (MG IV; Stressland, MG IV; Hutcheson, MG V; and Tracy-M, MG VI. Seed were harvested from top and bottom nodes at seed-fill stage (R6 and harvest ma- turity stage (R8. At R6, seed phenolic compounds (phenol, lignin, and isoflavones daidzein, genistein, and glycitein were greater in the bottom seed than the top seed. This trend was observed in DT 97-4290, Tracy-M, and Hutcheson, but not in Stressland. Also, this trend was more obvious with daidzein and genistein isoflavones than glycitein. The maximum phenolic compounds were recorded at R8. The higher phenolic compounds concentration in bottom seed than in top seed was accompanied by higher cell wall boron (B percentage and lower total B in bottom seed. The current research demonstrated that phenolic compounds partitioned differently between the top and bottom seed nodes. This trend cannot be generalized in soybean genotypes unless enough germplasm is tested. The partitioning of higher phenolic compounds concentration along the main stem would allow for single seed selection in the breeding program for higher levels of phenolic compounds and for accurate measurements of seed phenolics in breeding lines. The associa- tion of B trend with phenolic compound trend may suggest B involvement in phenolic metabolism, and support the structural role of B. Breeding for higher levels of phenolics, especially isoflavones, would benefit human health, pro- vide higher nutritional value of soy meal, and increase plant disease resistance.

Nacer Bellaloui

2012-04-01

30

Sugarbeet seed’s yield and quality as affected by irrigation  

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Full Text Available Irrigation to the sugar-beet seed crop is a common practice since many years in Emilia Romagna region, even though information on the most suitable ways to irrigate is very limited. The aim of this three-year long experimentation was to evaluate the influence of timing and number of irrigation treatments on seed yield and quality. Treatments at the onset, at full, and at the end of flowering, wit all their possible combinations were compared among themselves and with the non-irrigated control. During the second and third years the water content of the soil was monitored weekly, starting from just before the first treatment to harvest. These measurements indicate that the upper layers (0-20 cm, which are more subjected to evapotranspiration, are more affected by irrigations than the deeper layers (20-40. The effectiveness of irrigation treatments on seed yield was tightly dependent in the distribution of precipitations. The treatments applied in full or late flowering, both separately or together, determined significant increases in yield and in the percentage of seed balls with a diameter higher than 4.0 mm, whereas those at the beginning of flowering did not produced any improvements. No significant effects of the different treatments on 1000-seed weight and germinability were observed, except for a slightly negative influence of irrigations applied at the end of flowering.When all the traits were considered, an overall moderate correlation was detected between seed yield and quality.

Enrico Noli

31

Sugarbeet seed’s yield and quality as affected by irrigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Irrigation to the sugar-beet seed crop is a common practice since many years in Emilia Romagna region, even though information on the most suitable ways to irrigate is very limited. The aim of this three-year long experimentation was to evaluate the influence of timing and number of irrigation treatments on seed yield and quality. Treatments at the onset, at full, and at the end of flowering, wit all their possible combinations were compared among themselves and with the non-irrigated control. During the second and third years the water content of the soil was monitored weekly, starting from just before the first treatment to harvest. These measurements indicate that the upper layers (0-20 cm, which are more subjected to evapotranspiration, are more affected by irrigations than the deeper layers (20-40. The effectiveness of irrigation treatments on seed yield was tightly dependent in the distribution of precipitations. The treatments applied in full or late flowering, both separately or together, determined significant increases in yield and in the percentage of seed balls with a diameter higher than 4.0 mm, whereas those at the beginning of flowering did not produced any improvements. No significant effects of the different treatments on 1000-seed weight and germinability were observed, except for a slightly negative influence of irrigations applied at the end of flowering.When all the traits were considered, an overall moderate correlation was detected between seed yield and quality.

Paola Rossi Pisa

2011-02-01

32

Risk communication: factors affecting impact.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of risk communication depends upon a complex interaction between the characteristics of the audience, the source of the message, and its content. Audience perception of risk is influenced by demographic factors (e.g. age, gender), personality profile, past experience, and ideological orientation. It is also affected by cognitive biases (e.g. unrealistic optimism) and lay 'mental models' of the hazard. For food hazards, the important dimensions of risk are controllability, novelty and naturalness. The source must be trusted for a risk message to be effective. Trust is associated with believing the source is expert, unbiased, disinterested, and not sensationalising. To maximise impact, risk communications must have a content which triggers attention, achieves comprehension and can influence decision-making. It must be unambiguous, definitive and easily interpretable--rarely achievable particularly when risk is shrouded in scientific uncertainty. Risk messages initiate social processes of amplification and attenuation, consequently their ramifications are rarely controllable. PMID:10885109

Breakwell, G M

2000-01-01

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Psychological Factors Affecting Infertile Women  

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Full Text Available AIM: This study was performed to determine the psychological factors affecting infertile women presenting at the infertility outpatients department. METHOD: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 344 women who presented at the IVF center of a special branch hospital or a university hospital, March 2008 through September 2008, as determined by the non-random sampling method. All participating women gave their informed consent. The data were collected using the Data Form that consisted of questions on socio-demographic features and the Infertility Distress Scale (IDS. In the results, percentages were provided along with the Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann-Whitney U and Spearman correlation tests. RESULTS: The mean IDS was 39.01±9.6. There was a statistically significant linear relationship between the mean IDS score and age (r=0.106, p=0.048, marriage duration (r=0.232, p<0.001 and duration of desire to have a child (r=0.217, p<0.001. Women who were primary school graduates (X²=13.03, p=0.004, did not work (p=0.007, had no social security benefits (p=0.021 or from low socioeconomic status (X²=24.85, p<0.001 had significantly higher mean IDS scores. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show women become more adversely affected by infertility as their age, duration of marriage, and duration of desire to have a child increase. Women who are primary school graduates, do not work, have no social security benefits or have lower income are affected more negatively. We believe that taking these features into account when evaluating and planning supportive approaches for women presenting at the infertility treatment center and determining the psychological state of the women using the IDS will increase treatment success. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 481-486

Sati Unal

2010-10-01

34

Principal Factors Affecting IDBT Evolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on Italian Double-entry Bookkeeping Thought (IDBT evolution are seldom found in such aspects as accounts with persons (AP, accounts with goods (AG, and accounts equilibria (AE, etc., so we studied IDBT evolution in the aspects stated above and the principal factors for IDBT evolution, including their selection, contribution and sequence in this thesis. By our analysis, IDBT evolved in such aspects as accounts with persons (AP, accounts with goods (AG, loss and net income accounts (LNIA, capital accounts (AC and accounts equilibria (AE, etc., and ripened in the period of 1430-1482. Principal factors affecting IDBT evolution can be ordered by contribution as follows: social conditions (SCS3 and relationships between supply and demand of accounting thought (RBSDAT2. And our related advice is as follows: governments should adopt appropriate policy, and help to build proper social conditions and strengthen the relationships between supply and demand of accounting thought to promote the evolution of accounting thought. Especially as to social conditions, IDBT evolution is mainly owing to external causes from the outside of Italy. Once the outside motive disappeared, IDBT would lose the strong power of evolution and slow down its pace. So governments should place more emphases on building proper social conditions by encouraging internal powers from the inside of Italy.

Changqing Liu

2011-12-01

35

Arabidopsis thaliana DOF6 negatively affects germination in non-after-ripened seeds and interacts with TCP14.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed dormancy prevents seeds from germinating under environmental conditions unfavourable for plant growth and development and constitutes an evolutionary advantage. Dry storage, also known as after-ripening, gradually decreases seed dormancy by mechanisms not well understood. An Arabidopsis thaliana DOF transcription factor gene (DOF6) affecting seed germination has been characterized. The transcript levels of this gene accumulate in dry seeds and decay gradually during after-ripening and also upon seed imbibition. While constitutive over-expression of DOF6 produced aberrant growth and sterility in the plant, its over-expression induced upon seed imbibition triggered delayed germination, abscisic acid (ABA)-hypersensitive phenotypes and increased expression of the ABA biosynthetic gene ABA1 and ABA-related stress genes. Wild-type germination and gene expression were gradually restored during seed after-ripening, despite of DOF6-induced over-expression. DOF6 was found to interact in a yeast two-hybrid system and in planta with TCP14, a previously described positive regulator of seed germination. The expression of ABA1 and ABA-related stress genes was also enhanced in tcp14 knock-out mutants. Taken together, these results indicate that DOF6 negatively affects seed germination and opposes TCP14 function in the regulation of a specific set of ABA-related genes. PMID:22155632

Rueda-Romero, Paloma; Barrero-Sicilia, Cristina; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Carbonero, Pilar; Oñate-Sánchez, Luis

2012-03-01

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PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SORGHUM SEEDS AS AFFECTED BY SIDEDRESSED NITROGEN FERTILIZATION  

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Full Text Available Sorghum has been used as promising specie in dry winter regions at crop rotation systems. Among the factors that interfere on its seed production, the action of the soil environment, due to its management, associated to plant nutrition mainly by nitrogen, can produce seeds of high quality. The present research had the objective to evaluate the effects of side-dressed nitrogen doses on physiological quality of sorghum seeds. The experimental design was the completely randomized block, with five treatments of side-dressed nitrogen, applied at the doses 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1, in the urea form, with four replications. The sorghum seeds were evaluated by protein, germination and vigor tests. The results were submitted to analysis of variance, regression and correlation test. By the results it can be concluded that the physiological quality of sorghum seeds is affected by side-dressed nitrogen application and that the dose of 100 kg ha-1 resulted in higher seed quality.

MARIANA ZAMPAR TOLEDO

2007-08-01

37

Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol) contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ...

Abu-alruz, K.; Afaneh, I. A.; Quasem, J. M.; Hmidat, M. A.; Abbady, J.; Mazahreh, A. S.

2011-01-01

38

FACTORS AFFECTING INTERNATIONAL LABOR MIGRATION  

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Full Text Available  The article reviews the evolution of the main theories that explain the labor migration system impacts on international labor migration are shown. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of external labor migration factors in Ukraine based on the use of the basic tenets of the "push and pull factors" theory.

?.?. ???????

2012-03-01

39

Endozoochorous dispersal of aquatic plants: does seed gut passage affect plant performance?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ingestion of seeds by vertebrates can affect the germinability and/or germination rate of seeds. It is, however, unclear if an earlier germination as a result of ingestion affects later plant performance. For sago pondweed, Potamogeton pectinatus, the effects of seed ingestion by ducks on both germinability and germination rate have been previously reported from laboratory experiments. We performed an experiment to determine the effects of seed ingestion by ducks on germination, seedling ...

Figuerola, J.; Santamari?a, L.; Green, A. J.; Luque, I.; Alvarez, R.; Charalambidou, I.

2005-01-01

40

Endozoochorus dispersal of aquatic plants: does seed gut passage affect plant perfomance?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ingestion of seeds by vertebrates can affect the germinability and/or germination rate of seeds. It is, however, unclear if an earlier germination as a result of ingestion affects later plant performance. For sago pondweed, Potamogeton pectinatus, the effects of seed ingestion by ducks on both germinability and germination rate have been previously reported from laboratory experiments. We performed an experiment to determine the effects of seed ingestion by ducks on germination, seedling ...

Figuerola, Jordi; Santamari?a, Luis; Green, Andy J.; Luque, Isabel; Alvarez, Raquel; Charalambidou, Iris

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Harvest time of Cryptomeria japonica seeds depending on climate factors  

Science.gov (United States)

Sound seeds should have good germination rates and seed germination can be influenced by several factors. Seed picking time is regarded as one of the necessary elements to obtain sound seeds. From a clonal seed orchard of Cryptomeria japonica located in southern part of Korean peninsular, cones were picked about every 10 days from 30th of July 2005 to 30th of October in both 2005 and 2006. We have also analyzed the effects of climatic factors about two consecutive years on seed productivity. From the picked cones, seeds were collected and these germination ability, seed size and embryo shapes were investigated according to cone picking time. The 1,000-seed weight picked on 18th of August was 3.3 g and 5.3 g on 30th of September 2005and 2006. The size of seeds picked from 18th of August to 30th of September increased from 19.3 mm to 21.3 mm in length and from 15.8 mm to 18.5 mm in width. Depending on picking time, various shapes of embryos, including embryos with liquid material, jellied material and fully matured ones were observed. Germination aspects also varied throughout the test days. About two weeks after seeding in a glass petri-dish, germinal apparatuses appeared from each test seed sets which had been picked from after 10 August 2005 and 10 August 2006. The germination rates started from 10.7% from seeds picked 20 August 2006. Average germination rate in 2005 was 18.3 and 19.6 in 2006. In 2005, the highest germination rate was 34.3% from seeds picked on the 30th of September. In 2006, the highest germination rate was 31.7% for seeds picked at the same date as the 2005 seeds. After September, the highest germination rate for picked seeds decreased in both 2005 and 2006. Among the climatic factors, monthly sum of temperature and of precipitation were the main factors for maturation of C. japonica seeds. The results implied that the best cone picking time for the Korean C. japonica seed orchard to be around the end of September.

Son, Seog-Gu; Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Chang-Soo; Byun, Kwang-Ok

2010-05-01

42

Differential seed handling by two African primates affects seed fate and establishment of large-seeded trees  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the influence of seed handling by two semi-terrestrial African forest primates, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) and l'Hoest's monkeys ( Cercopithecus lhoesti), on the fate of large-seeded tree species in an afromontane forest. Chimpanzees and l'Hoest's monkeys dispersed eleven seed species over one year, with quantity and quality of dispersal varying through time. Primates differed in their seed handling behaviors with chimpanzees defecating large seeds (>0.5 cm) significantly more than l'Hoest's. Furthermore, they exhibited different oral-processing techniques with chimpanzees discarding wadges containing many seeds and l'Hoest's monkeys spitting single seeds. A PCA examined the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and the site where primates deposited seeds. The first two components explained almost half of the observed variation. Microhabitat characteristics associated with sites where seeds were defecated had little overlap with those characteristics describing where spit seeds arrived, suggesting that seed handling in part determines the location where seeds are deposited. We monitored a total of 552 seed depositions through time, recording seed persistence, germination, and establishment. Defecations were deposited significantly farther from an adult conspecific than orally-discarded seeds where they experienced the greatest persistence but poorest establishment. In contrast, spit seeds were deposited closest to an adult conspecific but experienced the highest seed establishment rates. We used experimental plots to examine the relationship between seed handling, deposition site, and seed fate. We found a significant difference in seed handling and fate, with undispersed seeds in whole fruits experiencing the lowest establishment rates. Seed germination differed by habitat type with open forest experiencing the highest rates of germination. Our results highlight the relationship between primate seed handling and deposition site and seed fate, and may be helpful in developing models to predict seed shadows and recruitment patterns of large-seeded trees.

Gross-Camp, Nicole D.; Kaplin, Beth A.

2011-11-01

43

Factors Affecting Auditory Training Gains.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was undertaken to determine which of nine variables were most related to success in auditory training, using as Ss 43 students at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. Findings showed that the single largest contributing factor to postcourse gain was the entering English score. (PHR)

Moreau, Roberta M.

1980-01-01

44

Factors Affecting Performance of AODV  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs it is hard for a route to sustain for a longer period of time due to the mobility of nodes. High mobility of nodes results in active route failure and re-route discoveries. Such frequent route discoveries result in decreased network performance. In this study we have analyzed in detail the affect of different node mobility parameters on the performance of AODV (Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol. Simulation results are provided at the end.

S.A. Hussain

2007-01-01

45

Teratogenic factors affect transcription factor expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical compounds are produced every day, many with adverse effects on human health, and hence it is vital to predict the risks to humans simply, rapidly, and accurately. Teratogens have a serious impact on fetal development. This has been studied mainly by phenotypic analysis of experimental animals. However, since phenotypes can vary within different species, we established a new evaluation system based on our recent finding that teratogens influence Hox gene expression in mice. Similarly to the Hox gene expression changes, the expression patterns of several transcription factors involved in development, including the Dlx, Irx, Sall, and T-box families, were altered after 6 h of exposure to retinoic acid (RA) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The expression changes in Dlx4, Dlx6, Irx5, Sall2, Sall3, Sall4, Tbx10, and Tbx22 were linked to teratogen-induced phenotypes, and our results indicate that expression changes in developmental transcription factors can help to predict teratogenic risk. PMID:23649242

Kojima, Takuya; Asano, Shinya; Takahashi, Naoki

2013-01-01

46

Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ended in July 2008. The following 11 factors were taken into consideration during sample collection: olive fly infection, topography, olive storage before pressing, geographical area, effect of olive seeds during oil extraction, effect of pressing temperature, presence of olive leaves during oil extraction, soil type, maturity index of the olive fruit, olive variety and oil preservation and storage in terms of storage container types. The results show that soil type, region, maturity index and olive fly infection are the main factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol. Pressing temperature, olive storage before pressing, olive variety and oil storage showed a moderate effect. Olive seeds, topography and presence of olive leaves had a negligible effect on D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil.

K. Abu-Alruz

2011-01-01

47

Factors affecting gamma ray transmission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma ray transmission and the parameters which affect this process; attenuation coefficients, cross-section, effective atomic numbers and electron densities, were studied for brass, Fe, Al, PVC and perspex, using gamma spectroscopy. The comparsion between experimental and theoretical values is make; thses are found to be in good agreement. The inverse relations between energy and attenuation coefficients, as well as cross-section were emphasized. In the energy range (661.6 Ke V-1332.5 Ke V), the effective atomic numbers showed a constant behavior with energy. Brass shows up as a good attenuating material, while other samples are re,atively weak attenators. The effect of the compostion of the compound appears obviously in this study. (authors).

48

Conditions Affecting Shelf-Life of Inoculated Legume Seed  

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Full Text Available Microbial inoculants are becoming more available as sustainable alternatives to fertilizers and other agrichemicals in broad-acre cropping. However, with the exception of legume inoculants little is understood about effective delivery and survival of the inoculum. Legume inoculants are applied to both seed and soil but seed inoculation is the most economical technique. Large quantities of pasture seed in Australia are inoculated by commercial seed coating companies, but the long-term survival of seed-applied inoculum is variable and monitoring of viability requires specialist microbiology skills and facilities. The aim of our research was to define optimum storage conditions for survival of rhizobia on legume seed and evaluate water activity as a means of monitoring shelf-life. The relationship between survival and water activity varied according to seed species, inoculum preparation, coating ingredients, initial water activity and time suggesting that storage conditions would need to be defined for each different combination. Although drying seeds after coating significantly reduced viable numbers of rhizobia, survival of rhizobia on dried commercially coated lucerne seed after 11 weeks was less variable than seeds that had not been dried. The highest numbers were maintained when seeds remained dry with water activities of between 0.47 and 0.38. The quality of inoculated seed could be improved by reducing the death rate of inoculum during preparation and providing optimum storage conditions for long-term survival.

Greg Gemell

2012-02-01

49

Seed viability and functional properties of broccoli sprouts during germination and postharvest storage as affected by irradiation of seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The viability of broccoli seeds and functional properties, such as ascorbic acid, carotenoid, chlorophyll, and total phenol contents, of broccoli sprouts grown from irradiated seeds were evaluated. The seeds were irradiated using electron beam and gamma ray at doses up to 8 kGy. High germination percentages (>90%) were observed in seeds irradiated at irradiation dose. Irradiation at > or =6 kGy resulted in curling of the sprout roots. Germinated seeds contained higher amounts of nutrients than raw seeds but the nutritional quality of sprouts decreased during postharvest storage. Radiation treatment hampered the growth of irradiated seeds resulting in underdeveloped sprouts with decreased ascorbic acid, carotenoid, and chlorophyll contents. In addition, the decrease in functional content of sprouts was more substantial in samples grown from high-dose (5 kGy) irradiated seeds than that of the low-dose (1 kGy) treated ones. Seed irradiation did not negatively affect the total phenol content of sprouts. In general, electron beam and gamma irradiation of broccoli seeds showed similar effects on the viability and functional properties of sprouts. PMID:19646029

Waje, Catherine K; Jun, So-Yun; Lee, Yeon-Kyung; Moon, Kwang-Deog; Choi, Yong Hee; Kwon, Joong-Ho

2009-06-01

50

Host factors affecting disease transmission.  

Science.gov (United States)

In prevention of transmission of infectious disease, the host uses a variety of protective mechanisms and can elicit many different responses. Nonspecific defense mechanisms include an intact integument (skin and mucous membranes). The host also can use specialized substances it may secrete, such as mucin or fatty acids to prevent colonization or to inhibit growth of potential pathogens. Specialized surface structures are also used by the host in prevention of disease transmission. These structures include cells composed of keratin and cells with cilia. Additionally, nonspecific protection can be achieved through the actions of the host's nonpathogenic microflora. If these nonspecific barriers to microorganism invasion are breached, other host interactions occur. Complement has many nonspecific actions that may be used to control invasion of microorganisms. PMLs are an additional line of defense the host has available in prevention of infection. These cells are responsible for intracellular killing of pathogens through the use of enzymatic and oxidative mechanisms. The mononuclear phagocyte system allows for elimination of foreign material and debris from the inflammatory reaction. Additionally, the macrophages process and present antigens to T lymphocytes. B lymphocytes differentiate to produce plasma cells, which produce specific antibodies aimed at the invading microorganism. T lymphocytes are involved in the killing of pathogenic microorganisms and in the production of powerful immune modulators known as lymphokines. Fever and inflammation also serve to stimulate reactions aimed at destroying and removing the pathogen from the host system. These factors all play an important role in prevention of disease transmission in a human host. PMID:8641520

Muzyka, B C

1996-04-01

51

Factors affecting calculation of L  

Science.gov (United States)

A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient, radio signals from billions of stars. SETI could succeed tomorrow, or it may be an endeavor for multiple generations. We are a very young technology in a very old galaxy. While our own leakage radiation continues to outshine the Sun at many frequencies, we remain detectable to others. When our use of the spectrum becomes more efficient, it will be time to consider deliberate transmissions and the really tough questions: Who will speak for Earth? What will they say?

Ciotola, Mark P.

2001-08-01

52

Indirect interactions between browsers and seed predators affect the seed bank dynamics of a chaparral shrub.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interactions between herbivores and seed predators may have long-term consequences for plant populations that rely on persistent seed banks for recovery after unpredictable fires. We assessed the effects of browsing by deer and seed predation by rodents, ants and birds on the densities of seeds entering the seed bank of Ceanothus cuneatus var. rigidus, a maritime chaparral shrub in coastal California. Ceanothus produced many more seeds when protected from browsers in long-term experimental exclosures than did browsed plants, but the seed densities in the soil beneath browsed and unbrowsed Ceanothus were the same at the start of an intensive one-year study. The density of seeds in the soil initially increased in both treatments following summer seed drop: while densities returned to pre-drop levels within a few weeks under browsed plants, soil seed densities remained high for 5-8 months beneath unbrowsed plants. Rodent abundance (especially deer mice) was higher near unbrowsed plants than >30 m away, and rodents removed Ceanothus seeds from dishes in the experimental plots. At least in the short term, rodent density and rates of seed removal were inversely related to the intensity of browsing. Our data have management implications for maintaining viable Ceanothus populations by regulating the intensity of browsing and the timing, intensity and frequency of fires. PMID:16896769

Deveny, Adrian J; Fox, Laurel R

2006-11-01

53

Proteomic insights into seed germination in response to environmental factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed germination is a critical process in the life cycle of higher plants. During germination, the imbibed mature seed is highly sensitive to different environmental factors.However, knowledge about the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the environmental effects on germination has been lacking. Recent proteomic work has provided invaluable insight into the molecular processes in germinating seeds of Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max), barley (Hordeum vulgare), maize (Zeamays), tea (Camellia sinensis), European beech (Fagus sylvatica), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides) under different treatments including metal ions (e.g. copper and cadmium), drought, low temperature, hormones, and chemicals (gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and ?-amanitin), as well as Fusarium graminearum infection. A total of 561 environmental factor-responsive proteins have been identified with various expression patterns in germinating seeds. The data highlight diverse regulatory and metabolic mechanisms upon seed germination, including induction of environmental factor-responsive signaling pathways, seed storage reserve mobilization and utilization, enhancement of DNA repair and modification, regulation of gene expression and protein synthesis, modulation of cell structure, and cell defense. In this review, we summarize the interesting findings and discuss the relevance and significance for our understanding of environmental regulation of seed germination. PMID:23986916

Tan, Longyan; Chen, Sixue; Wang, Tai; Dai, Shaojun

2013-06-01

54

Endozoochorous dispersal of aquatic plants: does seed gut passage affect plant performance?  

Science.gov (United States)

The ingestion of seeds by vertebrates can affect the germinability and/or germination rate of seeds. It is, however, unclear if an earlier germination as a result of ingestion affects later plant performance. For sago pondweed, Potamogeton pectinatus, the effects of seed ingestion by ducks on both germinability and germination rate have been previously reported from laboratory experiments. We performed an experiment to determine the effects of seed ingestion by ducks on germination, seedling survival, plant growth and asexual multiplication. Both at the start and end of the winter, seeds were fed to three captive shovelers (Anas clypeata) and planted outdoors in water-filled containers. Plant biomass and its allocation to vegetative parts (shoot and roots), tubers, and seeds were determined in autumn. More duck-ingested seeds than control (uningested) seeds germinated in early winter, but this difference disappeared for seeds planted in late winter, when the treatments were first stratified for 3 mo. None of the variables for measuring seedling survival and plant performance varied between treatments. Under our experimental conditions (no herbivory or competition), ingestion by ducks in early winter resulted in increased performance for seeds surviving gut passage due to enhanced seed germinability, without other costs or benefits for the seedlings. PMID:21652448

Figuerola, Jordi; Santamaría, Luis; Green, Andy J; Luque, Isabel; Alvarez, Raquel; Charalambidou, Iris

2005-04-01

55

Seed Physiological Quality of Three Capsicum Species as Affected by Seed Density and Hydropriming Treatment Durations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seeds uniformity and seedling establishment are major problem in pepper production in developing countries and have great impact on production quality and performance. Seed enhancement technology like hydropriming can be done to address this gap. A study was initiated to determine the physiological quality of three Capsicum species (Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens and Capsicum chinense in relation to seed density and hydropriming treatment durations. In the first experiment, fresh ungraded seeds were subjected to different hours of hydropriming durations with second experiment light and heavy density seed lots were subjected to the same hydropriming durations. Seedling emergence, energy of emergence, seedling vigour index and emergence rate were evaluated in the experiments. The result revealed that among the ungraded, light and heavy density seed lots, Capsicum chinense had superior seedling emergence, energy of emergence, seedling vigour index and emergence index. Hydropriming for 0 to 12 h resulted in lower days to emergence. Hydropriming of light density seeds gave high seedling emergence in the three Capsicum species compared to hydropriming of heavy density seeds. An increase in hydropriming durations of the light density seeds resulted in an increase in the seedling emergence, energy of emergence, seedling vigour and emergence index. Positive and significant relationships were obtained between seedling emergence or energy of emergence and seedling vigour index in each of the three Capsicum species over the hydropriming durations. Therefore, the study suggests the use of hydropriming as a simple and cost-effective strategy in pepper production especially in developing countries.

O.A. Esuruoso

2013-01-01

56

Does invasion by an alien plant species affect the soil seed bank?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Questions: How does invasion affect old-?eld seed bank species richness, composition and density? How consistent are these effects across sites? Does the soil seed bank match vegetation structure in old-?elds? Location: Menorca, Balearic Islands, Spain, western Mediter- ranean basin. Methods: We monitored seed germination in soils from old- ?elds that were both uninvaded and invaded (legacy effect) by the annual geophyte Oxalis pes-caprae. We also added O. pes-caprae bulbs to u...

Vila?, Montserrat; Gimeno, Isabel

2007-01-01

57

Fluorescein. Physiochemical factors affecting its fluorescence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescein's property of fluorescence is reviewed. Of the many factors which affect its fluorescence, concentration is probably the most important and it best explains why leaking aqueous turns fluorescein bright green during Seidel's test. The intensity and pattern of fluorescein staining of corneal lesions is probably due to the concentration and distribution of fluorescein in the cornea. The concentration of fluorescein achieved in the retinal blood vessels during fluorescein angiography affects its fluorescence. PMID:7046118

Romanchuk, K G

1982-01-01

58

Seed wasp invasions promoted by unregulated seed trade affect vegetal and animal biodiversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cone and seed insects are considered the most important predators of tree seeds during the pre-dispersal phase of development. Among them, exotic seed chalcids in the genus Megastigmus invaded Europe as a result of the rapidly-increasing and mostly unregulated seed trade for afforestation and ornamental plantations. Unlike their economic impact in seed orchards, until recently, little attention was paid to the ecological impact of these insects. In the present study, selected case studies of alien Megastigmus spp. were considered to assess their specific impact on the potential of natural regeneration of native woody plants and on the native entomofauna competing for seed resource. We re-analyzed data from former studies that did not focus on these ecological interactions and, here, present previously unpublished results. Seeds of Douglas-fir, true cedars, true firs and wild roses were sampled all over Europe, and the relative importance of the native and invasive chalcid species was assessed as well as their specific impact on seed yield. In most cases, the recent arrival of alien chalcids resulted in a significant decrease in the regeneration potential of the host trees. In the absence of competitors, alien chalcids occupied the entire seed niche in Douglas-fir, but their impact tended to decrease after the arrival of invasive seed bugs. In firs, alien chalcids tended to displace the native chalcids, but not in wild roses and cedars, where their damage was increasing. Different biological traits that might explain invasive success of alien chalcids are discussed. However, no general invasive patterns seem to exist. PMID:22938521

Auger-Rozenberg, Marie-Anne; Roques, Alain

2012-09-01

59

Factors Affecting Profitability of Layer Hens Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Layer hen enterprises suffer from low profitability or losses in many of developing countries all over the world. Jordan is not an acceptance. Approach: This study aimed at investigating the influence of ten main factors affecting the profitability of layer hen producers. The investigated factors include price of purchased pullet, feed price, cost of labor, cost of veterinary service and medicine, building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance an...

Ebraheem Altahat; Ali AL-Sharafat; Mohammad Altarawneh

2012-01-01

60

Factors Affecting Smoking Tendency and Smoking Intensity  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative effect of relevant explanatory variable on smoking tendency and smoking intensity. Design/methodology/approach: Using survey data collected by the Israeli Bureau of Statistics in 2003-2004, a probit procedure is estimated for analyzing factors that affect the probability of being a…

David, Nissim Ben; Zion, Uri Ben

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Factors affecting the outcome in subdural empyema.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The case reports of 102 patients with subdural empyema, diagnosed in the years 1935-83, were reviewed to determine the factors affecting the outcome. Statistical analysis (likelihood ratio tests with chi square approximation and logistic regression) showed that year of diagnosis (p less than 0.01) and level of consciousness at the moment of diagnosis (p less than 0.01) had a significant bearing on the chance to survive and that these same two factors (each factor p less than 0.01) and extent ...

Mauser, H. W.; Houwelingen, H. C.; Tulleken, C. A.

1987-01-01

62

Tillage and residue burning affects weed populations and seed banks.  

Science.gov (United States)

An integrated weed management approach requires alternative management practices to herbicide use such as tillage, crop rotations and cultural controls to reduce soil weed seed banks. The objective of this study was to examine the value of different tillage practices and stubble burning to exhaust the seed bank of common weeds from the northern grain region of Australia. Five tillage and burning treatments were incorporated in a field experiment, at Armidale (30 degrees 30'S, 151 degrees 40'E), New South Wales, Australia in July 2004 in a randomized block design replicated four times. The trial was continued and treatments repeated in July 2005 with all the mature plants from the first year being allowed to shed seed in their respective treatment plots. The treatments were (i) no tillage (NT), (ii) chisel ploughing (CP), (iii) mould board ploughing (MBP), (iv) wheat straw burning with no tillage (SBNT) and (v) wheat straw burning with chisel ploughing (SBC). Soil samples were collected before applying treatments and before the weeds flowered to establish the seed bank status of the various weeds in the soil. Wheat was sown after the tillage treatments. Burning treatments were only initiated in the second year, one month prior to tillage treatments. The major weeds present in the seed bank before initiating the trial were Polygonum aviculare, Sonchus oleraceus and Avena fatua. Tillage promoted the germination of other weeds like Hibiscus trionum, Medicago sativa, Vicia sp. and Phalaris paradoxa later in the season in 2004 and Convolvulus erubescens emerged as a new weed in 2005. The MBP treatment in 2004 reduced the weed biomass to a significantly lower level of 55 g/m2 than the other treatments of CP (118 g/m2) and NT plots (196 g/m2) (P < 0.05). However, in 2005 SBC and MBP treatments were similar in reducing the weed biomass. In 2004, the grain yield trend of wheat was significantly different between CP and NT, and MBP and NT (P < 0.05) with maximum yield of 5898 kg/ha in CP and 5731 kg/ha in MBP. Rainfall before the start of the second trial season promoted the germination of a large numbers of weeds. SBC and MBP treatments reduced the numbers of most of the individual weed species compared with CP, SBNT and NT. SBC was able to destroy a large proportion of seeds most likely through burning and burying some in the soil and was found to be the best treatment in exhausting the seed bank followed closely by MBP which probably buried large number of seeds deep in the soil and promoted others to germinate. CP might have buried some of the seeds in the top 5-10 cm but also promoted parts of the seed bank to germinate. SBNT and NT provided an ideal medium for weeds to germinate and resulted in heavy infestations of weeds. PMID:17390813

Narwal, S; Sindel, B M; Jessop, R S

2006-01-01

63

Path Coefficient Analysis of Fescue Seed Yield and its Components Affected by Fungal Endophyte  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fescues (Festuca spp are widely distributed in the temperate regions and are used for turf, forage and soil conservation. Though seed traits are important measures of the effects of endophytic fungi on their host, little information is available in this respect for Festuca. In this study, endophyte-infected (E+ and endophyte-free (E- clones of the six fescue genotypes were used to investigate the effects of endophyte on seed production. The relationships between seed traits plus direct and indirect effects of components on seed yield were also studied. Endophyte infection resulted in 38.1% to 249% more seed yields in some genotypes, though some were not affected by this symbiotic relationship. Correlations between traits and also results of stepwise regression were influenced by the presence of the symbiotic fungi. Path analysis showed that endophytic fungi changed direct and indirect effects of components on seed yield. In endophyte containing clones, panicle fertility had the most direct effects and number of panicle per plant and seed per panicle the most indirect effects on seed yield. In E- clones, panicle fertility had the highest indirect effects and other components had direct effects on seed yield. The results suggested that breeding strategies for increasing seed yield in fescue should consider the presence or absence of endophyte in germplasm.

M.R. Sabzalian

2007-10-01

64

Milling Performance and Other Quality Traits Affected by Seed Shape in Isogenic Lines of Desi Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milling of pulses generally involves removal of the seed coat and splitting of the cotyledons to produce splits or ‘dhal’. The aim of this research was to investigate whether seed shape affected seed quality using two sets of near-isogenic lines differing by a single allele at the seed shape locus (Rd/rd. Seed shape had a profound effect on milling quality: rounded seeds produced 7% more dhal than their angular counterparts. There were also significant effects on other quality parameters attributable to seed shape: rounded seeds had less seed coat content because it was thinner, a more intense seed coat colour, faster water absorption but lower hydration capacity and a slightly longer dhal cooking time. This study shows that seed shape is more important than seed coat thickness from a milling perspective and suggests that breeding programs should select for rounder shaped desi chickpeas to maximise dhal yields and profitability for the splitting industry.

Jennifer A. Wood

2012-08-01

65

The factors affecting the recarburization process indicators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the factors affecting the carburizing rates obtained (rate and efficiency during the process of melting cast iron. The analysis includes the recarburizer type (anthracite, natural and synthetic graphite, petroleum coke and particle size. Further factors considered in work are the methods of recarburization (recarburizer introduction to a solid charge and on the surface of the metal bath and the parameters of the melt (temperature and chemical composition. The analysis was based on experiments performed, the calculation results of computer simulations and literature data.

K. Janerka

2011-07-01

66

Human Factor Issues Affecting CAD Implementations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrial companies have been implementing Computer Aided Engineering tools for many years with varying degrees of success. In the early implementations considerable emphasis was placed upon the organisational structure necessary to receive and optimise system output. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that any successful CAE implementation has to satisfy three inter-related factors of technology, organisation and human issues. This paper presents the results of an investigation into human factors affecting successful CAD implementation, undertaken through selected case studies and a more general survey of UK industry.

C. Short

2000-01-01

67

Factors controlling the hormesis response in irradiated seed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation at very low doses frequently has a stimulating or hormetic effect on the growth of organisms. Irradiation of seed before planting can stimulate early plant growth, leading to advanced maturity and increased yield. The unreliability of this response has limited its application. However, the technique has been extensively studied and now is practiced on a large scale on some farms in certain countries. Our research has addressed various factors that may determine the stimulation response with the goal of developing an ability to predict the occurrence of increased economic yield. In this paper, we discuss several of these factors in light of our data and data from other field studies in Canada. A hormesis response was observed for most species studied, but varied among cultivars and among seed lots within a cultivar. Seed condition may be the underlying factor in these effects. The response was most frequently evident at very early stages of growth and was often masked in subsequent growth. This suggests that the hormesis phenomenon in seeds may be quite common and is not reliably manifest in advanced maturity or yield increases because of environmental effects. Storage time after irradiation must be minimized to gain the greatest response. There is little evidence to suggest that the photon energy or dose rate of the radiation source is an important factor

68

Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) were investigated. Types of explants, strains and densities of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and co-culture methods were examined to optimize gene transformation. The results showed that among strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tested, LBA 4404 containing pBI 121 gave the calli with the highest resistance to kanamycin. Kanamycin at the concentration of 50-100 mg/l was the best range for selection of transformants. Hig...

Sompong Te-chato*; Vitoon Chaipakdee

2003-01-01

69

Experimental factors affecting white strobe pulse frequency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Changes made to the standard strobe compositions used as a baseline, and the resultant effects in intensity, duration and pulse frequency are described. The changes involved variations in particle sizes and mix ratios in order to cause performance changes in the original pyrotechnic strobe composition. Several factors, such as binder material, binder percentage, the addition of sulfur or antimony trisulfide and sulfates were found to affect strobe frequency. Technical data, photographic and videotape evidence of burning characteristics are highlighted. 3 refs., 7 figs.

Domanico, J. A. [Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (United States)

2000-04-01

70

Weed Infestation in Direct Seeded and Transplanted Aus Rice as Affected by Method of Planting and Weeding Regime  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the weed vegetation due to the effect of planting methods and weeding regime. Two factors included in the experiment were: methods of planting and weeding regime. The results revealed that weed vegetation in the two methods of planting varied remarkable. Fifty-five weed species belonging to 17 families infested the crop. Among the weed species, Fimbristylis miliacea (L. Vahl was the principal weed in direct seeded aus rice and Panicum repens L. in the transplanted aus rice. Twenty-four weed species were found to grow only in the direct seeded crop and only eight in the transplanted crop. Weed density and weed dry weight was significantly affected by the method of planting and weeding regime. Weed density and dry weight was significantly higher in direct seeded than in transplanted crop.

M.Y. Sarker

2002-01-01

71

Interaction of factors modifying the radiosensitivity of dormant seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented on modification of radiation-induced effects in dormant plant seeds. Possible sources of discrepancy of data in the earlier literature are analysed. Approaches to the correct experimental study of mechanisms of interaction of environmental factors (water content, temperature, storage conditions) in the modification of radiobiological reactions are discussed. Progress in the radiation biology of plant seeds, achieved by precise control of experimental conditions, is considered. Plant genera used were barley, rice, maize, wheat, lupins, cotton, oats, pine, pea, crepis, brassica, lactuca, lycopersicon, trifohum, festuca, hibiscus. (author)

72

FACTORS AFFECTING THE SPORT RELATED CONSUMER EXPENDITURES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years there has been a significant change in the importance given to economic and social role of sport related economic activities since sport has changed to a much broader concept involving sport clubs, associations, organizations and businesses where the implementation of carefully designed marketing strategies became vital for success. This study aims to explore the factors affecting the sport related consumer expenditures. Empirical results were obtained by means of a questionnaire survey in Izmir, the third biggest city in Turkey. The results include demographic and socio-economic analysis of respondents, their practices about sport related activities and expenditures associated with these activities. Six factors were obtained from the factor analysis depending on the respondents’ attitudes towards sporting activities were examined for their effects on sport related expenditures of the consumers.

Aykan CANDEM?R

2012-01-01

73

Productivity of Egyptian Clover as Affected by Seeding Rates and Cutting Schedules II-Chemical Dry Matter Analysis  

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Full Text Available Two field experiments were conducted at the Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University during the two successive seasons of 2000/2001 and 2001/2002. A split-plot design in four replications was used. This investigation aimed to study the effect of seeding rates and cutting schedules parameters on chemical dry matter analysis of Egyptian clover variety Miskawi Giza 6. Crude protein and fiber, ash content, ether extract and nitrogen free-extract percentages in blades and stems and its yields/fed were significantly affected due to cuttings. Highest percentages of CP and ash in blades and stems were produced from the second cut. While highest percentages of CF and EE in blades and stems were produced from the third cut. The fifth cut achieved the highest percentages of NFE in both blades and stems. Moreover, highest crude protein and ash yields per feddan were produced at the second cut. The third cut produced highest averages of CF, EE and NFE yields per feddan. Seeding rates caused significant differences on Crude protein (CP, Crude fiber (CF, ash content, EE and NFE percentages in blades and stems and its yields/fed were significantly affected due to seeding rates. Highest percentages of CP and EE in stems were resulted from sown with 30 kg seed/fed. While, using 45 kg seed/fed was accompanied with the highest percentages of CF and ash content in both blades and stems as well as NFE % in blades only. Moreover, the highest yields of CP, CF, ash, EE and NFE yields per feddan were produced from the medium seeding rate of 30 kg seed/fed. Percentages of CP, CF, ash content, EE and NFE in blades and stems as well as CP, CF, ash content, EE and NFE yields/fed significantly responded as a result of cutting schedules under study. Highest CP % produced from cutting plants at 30 cm height and after 25 days intervals in both blades and stems, respectively. While, highest percentages of CF, ash content and EE in both blades and stems were produced from cutting at 50 cm height. Cutting Egyptian clover plants at 55 days intervals produced highest NFE %. Moreover, highest of CP, CF, ash content, EE and NFE yields/fed were produced from cutting at 30 cm height. There was non significant interactions between seeding rates and cutting schedules treatments on chemical dry matter analysis, this mean that each factor acted separately. It could be summarized that for maximizing forage quality of Egyptian clover Giza 6 cultivar with sowing at seeding rate of 30 kg seed/fed and cutting plants at 30 cm height under the environmental conditions of Dakahlia Governorate.

A.A. Kandil

2005-01-01

74

Factors affecting the determination of cerebrovascular reactivity  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Purpose Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), measures the ability of the cerebrovasculature to respond to vasoactive stimuli such as CO2. CVR is often expressed as the ratio of cerebral blood flow change to CO2 change. We examine several factors affecting this measurement: blood pressure, stimulus pattern, response analysis and subject position. Methods Step and ramp increases in CO2 were implemented in nine subjects, seated and supine. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were determined breath-by-breath. Cerebrovascular conductance (MCAc) was estimated as MCAv/MAP. CVR was calculated from both the relative and absolute measures of MCAc and MCAv responses. Results MAP increased with CO2 in some subjects so that relative CVR calculated from conductance responses were less than those calculated from CVR calculated from velocity responses. CVR measured from step responses were affected by the response dynamics, and were less than those calculated from CVR measured from ramp responses. Subject position did not affect CVR. Conclusions (1) MAP increases with CO2 and acts as a confounding factor for CVR measurement; (2) CVR depends on the stimulus pattern used; (3) CVR did not differ from the sitting versus supine in these experiments; (4) CVR calculated from absolute changes of MCAv was less than that calculated from relative changes. PMID:25328852

Regan, Rosemary E; Fisher, Joseph A; Duffin, James

2014-01-01

75

Reappraising factors affecting mourning dove perch coos  

Science.gov (United States)

Results confirmed pairing as the primary factor influencing perch-cooing rates of wild mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). Marked unmated males cooed at substantially higher rates (6.2x) than mated males, had greater probability of cooing (2.3x) during 3-minute periods, and continued cooing longer each morning than mated males. Population density was not a major factor affecting cooing. Unmated males cooed more frequently in the presence of other cooing doves (P < 0.05) than when alone, but the number of additional doves above 1 was unimportant. Cooing rates of both mated and unmated males on areas with dissimilar dove densities were not significantly different. Within limits of standard call-count procedure, weather exerted no detectable influence on cooing.

Sayre, M.W.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Haas, G.H.

1978-01-01

76

AN OVERVIEW ON FACTORS AFFECTING GLOBAL HRM  

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Full Text Available The mounting economic interdependence of countries globally through rising volume and multiplicity of cross border transactions in goods and services and international capital flows, and also through the more rapid and prevalent diffusion of technology had influences organizations that compete for customers with high expectations for performance, quality, and cost. The globe trade and industry order is changing speedily. Evolutionary transformations are taking place at revolutionary speed, principally pressed by strong external forces, arising out of a desire to rising competitiveness and competence. The organizations of world are no longer defined by national boundaries. Globalization also put forth stress on the Human Resource Management (HRM function to adjust to changing organizational needs, add greater value and hence, HRM is especially involved with those employees who are working across national boundaries in multinational or global enterprises. Functioning on an international level entails that the assumption of a universality of HR policies and practices and the faith in to administer in one best way has become indefensible. Aglobal organization wishes a worldwide HRM system that features decision making from a global point of view, managers from across national boundaries, and thoughts contributed by people from a diversity of cultures. The participants from different countries and cultures contribute ideas from a position of equality, rather than the home country's culture dominating. Organizations that function in more than one country must be acquainted with the countries that are not identical and differ in terms of many factors. This present research paper is an attempt to reviews major factors affecting HRM. The intention of this study is to examine the challenges/factors affecting the role of HRM.

G. G. Gondane

2014-09-01

77

Maturity dates affect soybean seed constituents protein, oil ash and moisture  

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Full Text Available The quality of soybean seed at harvest is dependent on the field production environment during development and maturation on the plant. These investigations were conducted to evaluate the effect of planting dates on soybean protein, oil, ash and moisture content. Soybean seeds were planted in the spring (January 13, January 16, February 19 and March 1 and in the Fall (July 10, July 20, July 26 and August 25, 1991 at Agriculture Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan. Planting dates were manipulated in such a way that seed developed and matured at high temperature for spring planted crops, while seed development and maturation occurred at low temperature for all planted crops. Mature seeds that developed under these conditions were analyzed for differences in composition. Protein, oil and ash contents were strongly affected by planting date (different temperature at pod fill. Seed that matured at high temperature (spring planting resulted in higher protein, oil and ash content than the seed that matured at low temperature (fall planting. A positive correlation was found between protein and oil content and protein and ash content. The effect of temperature during pod filling storage was much greater than the temperature during early growth. Protein, oil and ash contents were positively correlated with temperature during pod filling stage and increased with each increment of temperature. Moisture content was unaffected by planting date.

Shad K. Khalil

2000-01-01

78

Factors Affecting Profitability of Layer Hens Enterprises  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Layer hen enterprises suffer from low profitability or losses in many of developing countries all over the world. Jordan is not an acceptance. Approach: This study aimed at investigating the influence of ten main factors affecting the profitability of layer hen producers. The investigated factors include price of purchased pullet, feed price, cost of labor, cost of veterinary service and medicine, building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance and miscellaneous costs, length of production cycle, feed conversion ratio, mortality rate, egg sale price and laying percentage. Results: The study used a multiple regression profit model to estimate the effect of the above mentioned factors on profit per kg egg produced. The direction and quantity of relationship between profit per kg egg and variables affecting profit were investigated. Data from 40 operating and randomly selected egg production enterprises in the country was collected. Data was obtained directly from the producers during April to mid August 2010. Semi structured interviews were conducted with a pre-tested questionnaire. The data obtained via interview surveys were processed to calculate profit per kg egg and other relevant information for inclusion in a profit function model. Fifteen eggs are registered to be 1 kg in the study. Cost and income items used to calculate profit in the study. The results of the study revealed that the feed price was found to be the factor which has the highest negative impact on the profitability showing the coefficient-3.01. The egg sale price was with high positive impact on profitability showing the coefficient 2.633. Conclusion/Recommendations: From the results of the study it could be concluded that higher prices of purchased or breeding pullet, higher feed price, higher cost of labor, higher cost of veterinary service and medicine, higher other costs including building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance and miscellaneous costs, higher feed quantity to be converted to eggs and higher mortality rate are associated with lower profitability of laying hen enterprises, while higher length of production cycle, higher egg sale price and higher laying percentage are associated with higher profitability. Critical limits indicated for various cost components should be used as a guideline to adjust budget in commercial egg operation thereby, ensuring higher net profit per bird.

Ebraheem Altahat

2012-01-01

79

Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

80

Factors affecting success of agricultural producers groups  

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Full Text Available Poor organisation of agricultural markets in Poland remains one of the biggest problems for agricultural sector. There are about 510 agricultural producer groups, but only 2% of Polish farmers selling for market are members. Knowledge on cooperation determinants and different aspects of producer groups performance is crucial to build references for policy makers and producer groups’ managers. The aim of the article was to discuss factors affecting success of producers groups understood as a level of members’ satisfaction. Data for 2006 and 2011 from 30 producers groups in fruit and vegetable sector were analysed using logit model. Three determinants occurred to be statistically important: scope of a group functions, informal cooperation with farmers before starting a formal cooperation and homogeneity of farms.

Aleksandra Chlebicka

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT  

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Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

Yu-Jia Hu

2012-01-01

82

Factors affecting the quality of bottled water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ever-increasing popularity of bottled water means that it is important to analyze not only its mineral content but also, above all, its content of possible contaminants, especially the organic ones. In this respect, bottled waters are a special case, because apart from organic chemical contaminants derived from the well from which they were acquired, their secondary contamination is always possible, during treatment or storage or transport in unsuitable conditions (sunlight and elevated temperature). This paper describes how various factors, from the area around the well, and the method of drawing and treating water, to the manner in which the finished product is stored and transported may affect the quality of bottled waters. It also summarizes literature information on the levels of organic contaminants in various kinds of bottled water samples. PMID:23093103

Diduch, Malwina; Polkowska, ?aneta; Namie?nik, Jacek

2013-03-01

83

Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey  

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Full Text Available In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It has been found that milk has the largest share of animal produce values consumed by the household, while particularly processed milk products are sold informally and that the consumption and sales values of animal produce processed in the households are required to be added to the unrecorded value calculation. Consumption of crops varies depending on the type of product. The own consumption ratio of crops is affected by the size of the enterprise, the number of individuals in the households and particularly the access to the markets of the enterprises in each region. An average informal value of 6,400.04 USD has been calculated per household, which is higher than the farm income, accounting for 4/5 of total household income. This can be attributed to the fact that the farms are generally small family enterprises with limited market-access opportunities.

Sertac Gonenc

2007-01-01

84

Factors Affecting E-Service Satisfaction  

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Full Text Available User satisfaction is an important predictor of online consumer behavior and the success of a web-based system. If customers are satisfied with the services received through the online system, it is likely they will keep using the system. To examine factors affecting user satisfaction with e-services, a questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of (615 students out of (5918 at Petra University in Jordan to explore their perceptions. Regression analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses. The results indicated that website design, navigation, and personalization were found to be predictors of e-service satisfaction. The results of this study provide a comprehensive set of implications for practitioners and researchers. This study shows how the website design, navigation, and personalization play a crucial role in the overall evaluation of e-service satisfaction. Management of universities need to be aware that a bad experience with website design, navigation, and personalization can affect satisfaction, if a student has a bad experience regarding interactivity, customization, or website design, then a student might make an overall e-service judgment even before a transaction can take place. If customers believe that an organization’s website is hard to use, poorly designed, and doesn’t take into consideration distinguished services for each user, then customers are likely to move to other organizations’ websites.

Mohammed Mufaddy Al-Kasasbeh

2011-03-01

85

Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It has been found that milk has the largest share of animal produce values consumed by the household, while particularly processed milk products are sold informally and that the consumption and sales values of animal produce processed in the households are required to be added to the unrecorded value calculation. Consumption of crops varies depending on the type of product. The own consumption ratio of crops is affected by the size of the enterprise, the number of individuals in the households and particularly the access to the markets of the enterprises in each region. An average informal value of 6,400.04 USD has been calculated per household, which is higher than the farm income, accounting for 4/5 of total household income. This can be attributed to the fact that the farms are generally small family enterprises with limited market-access opportunities.

Gonenc, Sertac; Tanrivermis, Harun

86

FACTORS AFFECTING PHARMACOKINETIC DISPOSITION OF DRUGS  

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Full Text Available Absorption of drugs from the gastrointestinal tract is a complex process the variability of which is influenced by many physicochemical and physiologic factors. The two most important physicochemical factors that affect both the extent and the rate of absorption are lipophilicity and solubility. The rate and extent of absorption are governed by the solubility, permeability and stability of the drug, with solubility being a pH-dependent parameter for weak acids and bases. The gastrointestinal tract can be viewed as discrete sections with a variety of differential local pH environments ranging from the acidic stomach to the more basic small intestine. The multiple peaking, double peaking or secondary peaking phenomena can occur in the disposition of a variety of xenobiotics during drug development (the pre-clinical phase and in subsequent clinical studies and use. The physicochemical and physiological mechanisms underlying the occurrence of this phenomenon are often multi factorial and include but are not limited to solubility-limited absorption, modified-release formulations, complexation, enterohepatic recirculation, gastric emptying and the intestinal transit time, site-specific absorption, gastric secretion-enteral reabsorption. Double peak absorption has been described with several orally administered drugs such as cimetidine furosemide, piroxicam, ranitidine, talinolol, alprazolam and phenazopyridine.

Mehta Hiren R

2011-05-01

87

Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency  

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Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

Virgilijus Sakalauskas

2011-12-01

88

Factors that affect toilet training in children  

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Full Text Available Objective: To identify age of initiation of toilet training and affecting factors for children. Material and Methods: 861 children were included in this study. "Chi square test", "Mann-Whitney U Test" and "Kruskall-Wallis Variance Analysis" statistical analysis methods have been applied. Ethical permission has been provided by local ethical committee. Results: 861 children under age of five were evaluated in this study (average age was 4±0.9; 433 children were boy (50.3%, 428 children were girl (49.7%. Age of initiation of toilet training was younger than 1 years old for 45 children (5.2%, between 13-18 month for 223 children (25.9%, between 19-24 month for 307 children (35.7%, between 25-30 month for 201 children (23.3% and older than 30 month for 85 children (9.9%. That families who live below hunger threshold and small families initiate toilet training earlier that other families were determined (p=0.001. Children in 19-24 month have shorter duration of toilet training than other groups (p<0.05. That children who live in shanty have longer duration of toilet training than children who live in apartment were determined (p=0,031. That 219 children (25.4% who had faced traumatic experiences which may affect training process, recently have longer duration of toilet training than other children (p=0,008. Duration of the training is shorter for f amilies who did not use toilet training methods than families who used methods. Conclusion: In our study, we found that age of initiation of toilet training is smaller for children who belong to family which has low level of income and small families. Duration of training is the longer for children whose initiation of toilet training was earlier than 18 month and later than 30 month, live in shanty, faced traumatic experiences.

Serdar Önen

2012-01-01

89

Seed Yield of Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L. as Affected by Row Distance and Herbicide Applications  

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Full Text Available The experiment on the effects of row distances and herbicide applications on the seed yield and some characteristics of Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L. was conducted in 1998-1999 and 1999-2000 growing seasons in Bornova, Izmir, Turkey. The experimental design was split-plots design with three replications. Row distances were 20, 30 and 40 cm and the herbicides were imazethapyr, imazamox and bentazone. Imazethapyr is not a suitable herbicide for weed control in Persian clover. Bentazone must be used for broad-leaved weeds such as Anagallis caerula, Matricaria chamomilla, Polygonum aviculare, Sinapis arvensis and Stellaria media. It had an effect on Fumaria parviflora in second year, only. In case of presence of wild oat (Avena sterilis and some broad-leaved weeds such as Sinapis arvensis, Anagallis caerula, Polygonum aviculare and Stellaria media, it is thought that imazamox is useful to achieve a satisfactory seed yield. The row distance had an effect on the number of lateral branches per plant and 1000 seed weight. Herbicide applications affected the number of lateral branches per plant, the number of heads per plant and seed yield. The highest seed yields were obtained from the control, imazamox and bentazone applications and the yields were 799, 733 and 712 kg ha-1, respectively. Although there were no statistical important differences among the row distances, more seed yield (752 kg ha-1 was obtained from the row distance of 40 cm.

Naci Algan

2007-01-01

90

Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen  

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Full Text Available Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. were investigated. Types of explants, strains and densities of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and co-culture methods were examined to optimize gene transformation. The results showed that among strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tested, LBA 4404 containing pBI 121 gave the calli with the highest resistance to kanamycin. Kanamycin at the concentration of 50-100 mg/l was the best range for selection of transformants. Higher density of agrobacteria tended to promote higher frequency of transformation. The best co-culture method was dipping the explant in a solution of agrobacteria for 10 minutes, followed by culturing onto co-culture medium without antibiotic for 48 hours. Among the explants used to co- culture with bacteria, half leaf treatment gave the best result for transformation; however, callus proliferation and plantlet regeneration were inferior to whole leaf treatment. Activity of ?-Glucuronidase (GUS could not be detected, thus resistance to kanamycin was used for detecting transformability. Shoot primordia could be induced from kanamycin-resistant calli grown in regeneration medium. After maintenance by subculturing to the same medium 2 to 3 times in 2-3 months, the developed shoots turned brown and finally died. Hence, the transformed plant of mangosteen was not obtained from this experiment.

Sompong Te-chato

2003-05-01

91

Factors affecting small axial cooling fan performance  

Science.gov (United States)

Many factors such as outer diameter, hub ratio, blade numbers, shape and stagger angle affect the performance of small cooling fans. A small cooling fan was simulated using CFD software for three blade stagger angles (30.5°, 37.5°, 44.5°)and obtained the internal flow field and the static characteristics. Research indicated that the stagger angle has an obvious effect on the static characteristics of a fan. For flow rates below 0.0104 m3/s, total pressure is the greatest when the stagger angle is 37.5°; flow rates higher than 0.0104 m3/s, the total pressure is greatest when the stagger angle is 44.5° For the same flow rates, the velocity at inlet of pressure surface increases with increasing stagger angle, but the change of velocity on the suction surface is very small. For one model, vortices and the speed of revolution surfaces decrease with tip clearance increasing. But for other three models, increasing the stagger angle, the vortex intensity and speed of revolution surfaces at same height tip clearance increases, simultaneously, the position of vortex offset from the top of the rotor blade to the suction surface.

Wang, Lihong; Jin, Yingzi; Cui, Baoling; Jin, Yuzhen; Lin, Jin; Wang, Yanping; Wu, Chuanyu

2010-04-01

92

Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students  

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Full Text Available This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and demographic variables.The results showed that the different measures of career progress had distinct determinants implying different dynamics. It appeared that measures of career progress that are sensitive to the value employers attach to the individual (Whitely, Dougherty, & Dreher, 1991 such as total compensation, total number of promotion and years per promotion were related with human capital factors such as work experience and number of companies worked for. On the other hand, measures that relate to centrality if the position, in which market forces have less impact, were associated with organizational variables such as organization size and the demographic variable gender.While gender did not explain variation in total compensation, number of promotions and number of uears between promotions, these null results are important for two reasons. First, it implies that the female MBA students were at par with their male counterparts as fas as these measures of career progress are concerned. Second, it challenges the generalizability of the finding of gender segregation at the organizational level-where men receive significantly higher wages that women-which is a common finding among studies done in the United States. The results using the MBA students as sample show that income and promotion parity may indeed be achievable and this brings hope to women in general.However, the statistical significance of gender in explaining career progress as centrality of position does not augur well for women. This result implies that despite the fact that the women in the sample were intelligent (that is, they passed the stringent MBA screening, motivated and obviously were able to manage their time well-being able to balance work, school and in some cases, family responsibilities-they were still far removed from the top. These women still faced some hostile environment that prevented them from fully contributing to making decisions that matter.

Vivien T. Supangco

2001-06-01

93

Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / ... to learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. ...

94

Factors affecting ejection risk in rollover crashes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 - 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Bain, Charles E; Wirth, Jeffrey L; Bonugli, Enrique B; Watson, Richard A

2012-01-01

95

Fungicide Seed Treatments Minimally Affect Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Fungal (AMF Colonization of Selected Vegetable Crops  

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Full Text Available Fungicides applied as soil drenches have been shown to adversely affect beneficial Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Fungal (AMF colonization of plant roots. We tested the effects of four common fungicides applied as seed treatments, mefenoxam, thiram, tebuconazole+metalaxyl and captan, on colonization of muskmelon (Cucumis melo, squash (Cucurbita pepo and C. moschata, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum and corn (Zea mays roots by the AMF Glomus intraradices. All inoculated seedlings were colonized with AMF, with treatment averages ranging from 6 to 99% root length containing hyphae and 0 to 68% containing vesicles. Overall, fungicidal seed treatment effects on AMF colonization were relatively minor and where significant effects were noted, they were inconsistent across species and/or sampling times. This study provides evidence that fungicidal seed treatments can be compatible with AMF inoculation and colonization.

Rhoda L. Burrows

2007-01-01

96

Characterization of green seed, an enchancer of abi3-1 in Arabidopsis that affects seed longevity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seeds are usually stored in physiological conditions in which they gradually lose their viability and vigor depending on storage conditions, storage time, and genotype. Very little is known about the underlying genetics of seed storability and seed deterioration. We analyzed a mutant in Arabidopsis disturbed in seed storability. This mutant was isolated as a grs (green-seeded) mutant in an abi3-1 (abscisic acid 3) mutant background. Genetic and physiological characterization showed that the m...

Clerkx, E. J. M.; Vries, M. H. C.; Ruijs, G. J.; Groot, S. P. C.; Koornneef, M.

2003-01-01

97

Factors Affecting Transfer of Training in Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

To begin the validation process for the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) in Thailand, research replicating Holton, Bates, and Ruona's study (2000) was conducted in Thailand. The LTSI was administered to 1,029 employees. Exploratory factor analysis and MANOVA were used to identify factors. A factor structure almost identical to that of…

Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.

2005-01-01

98

Factors Affecting Turkish Students' Achievement in Mathematics  

Science.gov (United States)

Following past researches, student background, learning strategies, self-related cognitions in mathematics and school climate variables were important for achievement. The purpose of this study was to identify a number of factors that represent the relationship among sets of interrelated variables using principal component factor analysis and…

Demir, Ibrahim; Kilic, Serpil; Depren, Ozer

2009-01-01

99

Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1) aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 2...

Nascimento Warley Marcos; Aragão Fernando Antônio Souza de

2004-01-01

100

Factors Defining Field Germination of Oilseed Radish Seeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Influence of temperature, depth of crops and granulometric of soil structure on germination speed, laboratory and field germination of oilseed radish seeds were studied. It was established that the period of seed-germination is defined both by temperature and granulometric structure of soil. The highest field germination was marked on sandy loam at depth of crops' seeds at 3 cm and 20°?.

Dorofeev, N. V.; Bojarkin, E. V.; Peshkova, A. A.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Antinutrient Factors of Vegetable Cowpea (Sesquipedalis Seeds During Thermal Processing  

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Full Text Available The effect of boiling, roasting and autoclaving on the levels of some antinutrient factors present in the seeds of vegetable cowpea (sesquipedalis were studied. The reduction of trypsin inhibitor was found to be highest (100% with autoclaving at 60 min. Boiling was more effective in reducing phytic acid (68.34% and haemagglutinin (75.98% respectively at 60 min than the other processing treatments at the same time. The hydrogen cyanide was markedly reduced up to 81.25% at 15 min by autoclaving method while boiling at 60min resulted in (81.25% reduction. Tannin content was reduced by boiling and roasting up to 75.00% at 60 min and 75.00% at 120 min respectively. Boiling and autoclaving at 60 min significantly reduced stachyose (60.52% - 84.21% and raffinose (67.97 - 83.66%.

E.A. Udensi

2007-01-01

102

Epidemiological Factors Affecting Low Birth Weight  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the epidemiological factors influencing low birthweight. The prominent factors associated with low birth weight (LBW such as maternal age, parity,obstetric and maternal anthropometry were studied in a rural community of district Dehradun. Theaverage birth weight of all newborns was 2.67± 0.42 kg and 23.84% of newborns were LBW. Thefactors which were significant for LBW were antenatal care, parity, inter-pregnancy interval, gestationalweight, and bad obstetric history. However, the relationship between maternal age and height withlow birth weight was not found to be statistically significant (p>.05.

K.S. Negi, S.D. Kandpal, M. Kukreti

2006-01-01

103

Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

2008-01-01

104

Factors affecting alum-protein interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alum (or aluminum-containing) adjuvants are key components of many vaccines currently on the market. The immuno-potentiation effect of alum adjuvants is presumably due to their interaction with antigens, leading to adsorption on the alum particle surface. Understanding the mechanism of antigen adsorption/desorption and its influencing factors could provide guidance on formulation design and ensure proper in-vivo immuno-potentiation effect. In this paper, surface adsorption of several model proteins on two types of aluminum adjuvants (Alhydrogel(®) and Adjuphos(®)) are investigated to understand the underlying adsorption mechanisms, capacities, and potential influencing factors. It was found that electrostatic interactions are the major driving force for surface adsorption of all the model proteins except ovalbumin. Alhydrogel has a significantly higher adsorption capacity than Adjuphos. Several factors significantly change the adsorption capacity of both Alhydrogel and Adjuphos, including molecular weight of protein antigens, sodium chloride, phosphate buffer, denaturing agents, and size of aluminum particles. These important factors need to be carefully considered in the design of an effective protein antigen-based vaccine. PMID:24607202

Huang, Min; Wang, Wei

2014-05-15

105

Factors That Affect Performance in Accounting Classes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study determined (1) effect of high school bookkeeping on college accounting performance, (2) relationship of performance to potential measured by SCAT, (3) influence of first on subsequent study. For number one, five factors were studied: (1) whether bookkeeping was taken in high school, (2) at which high school, (3) how many courses, (4)…

San Mateo Coll., CA.

106

Ionome of soybean seed affected by previous cropping with mycorrhizal plant and manure application.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of previous cultivation of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) host plant and manure application on the concentration of 19 mineral elements in soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr. cv. Tsurumusume) seeds. Each experiment ran for two years (experiment 1 took place in 2007-2008, and experiment 2 took place in 2008-2009) with a split plot design. Soybeans were cultivated after growing either an AM host plant (maize, Zea mays L. cv. New dental) or a non-AM host plant (buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. cv. Kitawase-soba) in the first year in the main plots, with manure application (0 and 20 t/ha) during the soybean season in split plots from both main plots. On the basis of the two experiments, manure application significantly increased the available potassium (K) and decreased the available iron (Fe) and cesium (Cs) in the soil. However, higher concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba) and lower concentrations of Cs in the seed were induced by the application of manure. Cd levels in the seed were decreased by prior cultivation with the AM host plant. The present study showed that the identity of the prior crop and manure application changed the mineral contents of the soybean seed and suggests a connection between environmental factors and food safety. PMID:22950648

Sha, Zhimin; Oka, Norikuni; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Tampubolon, Biatna Dulbert; Okazaki, Keiki; Osaki, Mitsuru; Shinano, Takuro

2012-09-26

107

Proximate Composition, Antinutritional Factors and Protein Fractions of Guar Gum Seeds as Influenced by Processing Treatments  

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Full Text Available The proximate composition, antinutritional factors and protein fractions of guar seeds were studied before and after autoclaving, soaking followed by dehulling and germination treatments. Chemical composition was varied between the treatments. Soaking of seeds followed by dehulling significantly increase protein content to 67.8%. Germination of seeds increased tannin and phytic acid content of the seeds. Polyphenols were fluctuating during processing. Albumin fraction of the seeds was decreased; prolamin and globulin were fluctuated during processing while glutelin was greatly increased.

Majed B. Ahmed

2006-01-01

108

SOME FACTORS AFFECTING UNDERGRADUATE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT.  

Science.gov (United States)

A related series of studies, most of which have been published previously, is described. These studies form a coherent whole and demonstrate the development of a theme, namely, the identification of factors in the student and the medical school which, in their interaction, influenced undergraduate academic performance at one medical school. In the population concerned no reliable positive or negative correlation could be demonstrated between cognitive ability and academic performance, when the former was measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Medical College Admission Test, and the latter by the current assessment methods of the medical school. Other factors, including socioeconomic and individual personality variables, are at present under investigation as to their effect on academic achievement. It is emphasized that the results of these studies cannot be regarded as valid for all medical schools, but the methods employed can be generalized. PMID:14278025

HUNTER, R C

1965-04-01

109

Factors Affecting Labour Productivity in Manufacturing Enterprises  

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Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis of the factors influencing labour productivity in the manufacturing business sector in 20042008. Labour productivity was analyzed in the context of the assets productivity, technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, wages, value added and depreciation costs, and using linear stepwise regression. The study shows that despite significant progress, the level of labour productivity in domestic manufacturing significantly lower than the average in the European Union. Lower than in Poland, the level of labour productivity gain only companies in Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Estimated parameters of the regression function showed that the most important determinants of labour productivity in manufacturing are technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, assets productivity, level of added value in relation to revenues. These factors explain the variability of labour productivity in 20042008 in a high degree.

Zbigniew Go?a?

2011-07-01

110

Internal factors affecting the jury members verdict  

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Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of socio-demographic and individual psychological characteristics that influence the verdict of jury. The study involved 38 men and women aged 25 to 64 years. With the help of a questionnaire, developed on the basis of legal development model by J. Tapp and F. Levine, we revealed levels of jury members’ legal conscience, which, together with socio-demographic characteristics and personality characteristics of the subjects, identified by R. Cattell 16PF Questionnaire, were related to the responses on the Questionnaire while returning verdict on specially selected criminal cases with implicit guilt of the defendant. According to the study, it was determined that the socio-demographic characteristics of the jurors did not significantly affect their verdict, and among the psychological characteristics of the jurors the greatest impact on their verdict has the level of legal development. Thus, depending on the nature of the crime (violent, non-violent or committed through negligence, the same level of legal conscience differently affect the decision of jurors.

Kalashnikova A.S.

2013-09-01

111

Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do n...

Wilhelm Jordaan; Margie Sutherland

2004-01-01

112

ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING PARTNERSHIP ON SEED POTATO SUPPLY CHAIN IN WEST JAVA  

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Full Text Available The low productivity of certified seed potatoes is a national problem needs to be solved hrough a partnership system. This study aimed to determine the dominant factors that affect the partnership and to analyze critical issues of the partnership's life cycle through an optimization approach of the success of the supply chain partnership. Data were collected through interviews and distribution of questionnaires to 175 respondents involved in the seed potato partnership within the period of June to December 2013. Results of the study indicated that the dominant factors affecting the level of partnership were commitment, trust, mutual dependence on knowledge and process, and knowledge of the partners. Management of critical issues in the implementation phase of the partnership needed to be done through the development of expertise and reliability, open-mindedness, core competence, provision of capital based on the price policy, and easiness for access to banking, and designing standard procedures. In the shakedown phase, it needed to be done through strong leadership to change mindset of the members, building equality and avoiding group dominances, conducting formal trainings and apprenticeships, fairness in implementation of reward and punishment policy, increase in communication intensities, as well as routine monitoring and evaluation.

M.Takdir Mulyad

2014-07-01

113

Risk factors affecting pancreatic fistulas after pancreaticoduodenectomy  

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Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the risk factors of pancreatic leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 172 consecutive patients who had undergone pancreatico-duodenectomy at Inha University Hospital between April 1996 and March 2006. We analyzed the pancreatic fistula rate according to the clinical characteristics, the pathologic and laboratory findings, and the anastomotic methods.RESULTS: The incidence of developing pancreatic fistulas in patients older than 60 years of age was 21.7% (25/115, while the incidence was 8.8% (5/57 for younger patients; the difference was significant (P = 0.03. Patients with a dilated pancreatic duct had a lower rate of post-operative pancreatic fistulas than patients with a non-dilated duct (P = 0.001. Other factors, including clinical features, anastomotic methods, and pathologic diagnosis, did not show any statistical difference.CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that pancreatic fistulas are related to age and a dilated pancreatic duct. The surgeon must take these risk factors into consideration when performing a pancre-aticoduodenectomy.

Yun-Mee Choe, Keon-Young Lee, Cheong-Ah Oh, Joung-Bum Lee, Sun Keun Choi, Yoon-Seok Hur, Sei-Joong Kim, Young Up Cho, Seung-Ik Ahn, Kee-Chun Hong, Seok-Hwan Shin, Kyung-Rae Kim

2008-12-01

114

Factors affecting fuel rate in Corex process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Corex process has been developed as an alternative to the blast furnace where 80-85% non-coking coal and 15-20% coke is used as fuel for heat generation, production of reduction gases and to maintain adequate char bed permeability in the melter-gasifier. Non-coking coals, which can be used in Corex, have to meet certain physical, chemical and high temperature properties for stable process and to attain high performance levels. JSW Steel operates largest Corex based integrated steel plant with two modules each of 0.8 Mtpa capacity where several coals have been used so far and the type of coal used significantly influenced operation. Statistical analysis shows that the significant parameters affecting fuel rate are moisture, volatile matter, slag rate and melting rate. It was observed that at high rate of production, stability and permeability of char bed becomes critical hence coals producing char of high strength after reaction are required.

Kumar, P.P.; Gupta, D.; Naha, T.K.; Gupta, S.S. [JSW Steel Ltd., Bellary (India)

2006-08-15

115

Factors Affecting Industrial Cogeneration of Electricity.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research addresses the need to understand the conditions under which industrial firms will generate their own electricity. Utility companies need this information to plan their future expansion. Equipment manufacturers need this information to plan their production and industrial firms need it to help make decisions. The specific purpose of this research was to determine which factors are good determinates of industrial cogeneration. This research used a two-pronged triangulation approach. The first approach was a statistical analysis of levels of cogeneration and selected production variables for industrial firms. The second approach was a survey of industrial firms, energy consultants and utility personnel. The statistical analysis found most of the variance in on-site cogeneration is explained using variables that directly impact the economics of cogeneration. These variables included the cost of energy sources, steam usage, and the use of other fuels. The survey confirmed these results and added the cost of the cogeneration equipment as an another important factor in explaining on-site cogeneration.

Richardson, Ronny Lee

116

Factors Defining Field Germination of Oilseed Radish Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influence of temperature, depth of crops and granulometric of soil structure on germination speed, laboratory and field germination of oilseed radish seeds were studied. It was established that the period of seed-germination is defined both by temperature and granulometric structure of soil. The highest field germination was marked on sandy loam at depth of crops' seeds at 3 cm and 20°?.

N.V. Dorofeev

2013-08-01

117

Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management) scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response) and environmental (physical envi...

Nitzke Susan; Brown Roger; Chang Mei-Wei

2008-01-01

118

Genetic factors affecting susceptibility to udder pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many studies have identified genetic factors underlying resistance or susceptibility to mastitis in dairy cows and heifers. Some authors focused on polygenic variation while others searched for genes and/or quantitative trait loci with major effects on mastitis. Classical traits related to mastitis include somatic cell counts, electrical conductivity and clinical cases of the disease. With the development of automatic milking devices and '-omics' technologies, new traits are considered, such as acute phase proteins, immunological assays, and milk flow patterns, and new biological pathways are discovered, for example the role of mammary epithelium and the nervous system. The usefulness of these traits for the identification of resistant cows is discussed in relation to the biological mechanisms underlying the development of the disease. In addition, the utility of these traits for genetic improvement is reviewed. Finally, the problem of durability in resistance is addressed, including co-evolution and the cost of resistance. PMID:18930606

Detilleux, J C

2009-02-16

119

Treatment Compliance Affecting Factors in Hypertension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hypertension is to be responsible for death which accounts for 6% of adult deaths all over the world. It is the third ranks among causes of death. These ranks are similar both in developed and developing countries. Hypertension has important role causes of death. But, hypertension can be prevented to great extent. On the other hand, a lot of countries in the world hypertension control rates are reported to be inadequate in sample communities representing the general society and in patients treated under health service conditions. Patient no adherence to treatment is one of the significant factors in failing to raise blood pressure (BP control over 25% around the world and in our country. No adherence reason of hypertension treatment was examined in this review article. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(2.000: 167-172

Rabia Hacihasanoglu

2009-04-01

120

Examining Factors Affecting Classroom Attendance and Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Abstract: This study examined the relationship between four class attitudinal variables and how it affects class attendance and performance. A questionnaire was administered to 134 undergraduate students at medium sized college in Taiwan. The data included questions about the participant’s rating of the level of difficulty of the course (Difficulty, the topics covered in the course (Topics, their motivation towards attending the course (Motivation, and whether or not the participants felt that the course is practical and useful to their future (Practicality. The results of the Pearson correlation coefficients showed that 4 out of the 15 correlations were statistically significant. The negative correlation found between motivation and topics; and practicality and topics suggest the attitude that when choosing courses, students tend to choose courses that they think would easy to pass. The finding that none of the variables were significantly correlated to course attendance and course performance suggests that the strongest predictor of success of a course is based on the student’s level of attendance. This lead to the discussion in the conclusion about pedagogical implications for what teachers can do in their classrooms.

Peter Tze-Ming Chou

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
121

Economic Factors Affecting Diversified Farming Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In response to a shift toward specialization and mechanization during the 20th century, there has been momentum on the part of a vocal contingent of consumers, producers, researchers, and policy makers who call for a transition toward a new model of agriculture. This model employs fewer synthetic inputs, incorporates practices which enhance biodiversity and environmental services at local, regional, and global scales, and takes into account the social implications of production practices, market dynamics, and product mixes. Within this vision, diversified farming systems (DFS have emerged as a model that incorporates functional biodiversity at multiple temporal and spatial scales to maintain ecosystem services critical to agricultural production. Our aim is to provide an economists' perspective on the factors which make diversified farming systems (DFS economically attractive, or not-so-attractive, to farmers, and to discuss the potential for and roadblocks to widespread adoption. We focus on how a range of existing and emerging factors drive profitability and adoption of DFS. We believe that, in order for DFS to thrive, a number of structural changes are needed. These include: 1 public and private investment in the development of low-cost, practical technologies that reduce the costs of production in DFS, 2 support for and coordination of evolving markets for ecosystem services and products from DFS and 3 the elimination of subsidies and crop insurance programs that perpetuate the unsustainable production of staple crops. We suggest that subsidies and funding be directed, instead, toward points 1 and 2, as well as toward incentives for consumption of nutritious food.

Maria S. Bowman

2013-03-01

122

Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do not predict knowledge workers’ proposed future length of service.Factor analysis revealed seven underlying dimensions of retention cognitions. Cluster analysis revealed nine distinct clusters of knowledge workers with regard to their retention cognitions. High levels of individualism, need for challenge and focus on personal development were demonstrated. The implications of these findings are discussed. Opsomming
Een van die eienskappe van kenniswerkers is hulle hoë vlak van mobiliteit. Die koste van arbeidsomset van hierdie sleutelbronne is hoog in beide finansiële en nie-finansiële terme. Daar bestaan dus ’n behoefte om die faktore wat onderliggend is aan die retensiekognisies van kenniswerkers te verstaan. Data is ingesamel van 306 kenniswerkers in voltydse diens wat ’n wye reeks demografiese groeperings verteenwoordig. Die resultate dui daarop dat werktevredenheid en organisasieverbondenheid nie die kenniswerkers se verwagte lengte van diens voorspel nie. Faktorontleding het sewe onderliggende dimensies van retensiekognisies blootgelê. ’n Bondelontleding het nege duidelike bondels van kenniswerkers ten opsigte van hulle retensiekognisies onderskei. Hoë vlakke van individualisme, behoefte aan uitdaging en fokus op persoonlike ontwikkeling is aangedui. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

Wilhelm Jordaan

2004-11-01

123

Fenugreek seed affects intestinal microbiota and immunological variables in piglets after weaning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fenugreek seed has been shown to affect the intestinal microbiota and immunological responses in animals. A feeding trial with male castrated piglets was performed over 28 d without or with the addition of 1·5 g fenugreek seeds/kg complete diet in ten and eleven piglets, weaned at 21 d. In the intestinal tract, pH, lactate and SCFA were measured as major bacterial metabolites. Immune cell phenotypes, phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferation after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen, concanavalin A and phytohaemagglutinin M were measured by flow cytometry. Health status and performance of the piglets were not affected by fenugreek. The pH in the caecum and colon were reduced compared with the control (P< 0·05). Higher concentrations of l-lactic acid were recorded in the small-intestinal digesta (average concentrations from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum; P< 0·05), while the concentrations of SCFA remained unchanged except an increase in n-butyric acid in colon contents (P< 0·05). The piglets fed the fenugreek diet had higher Lactobacillus and clostridium cluster I concentrations and lower Escherichia, Hafnia and Shigella concentrations in the small intestine. The addition of fenugreek increased the relative concentration of the ?? T-cell population (TCR1+CD8?-) in the blood with a simultaneous reduction of antigen-presenting cells (MHCII+CD5-) (P< 0·05). Proliferation rate and phagocytosis activity of monocytes were not affected by the additive. In conclusion, fenugreek seeds might be interesting as a feed ingredient for young piglets due to their effects on the intestinal microbiota and immunological variables. The impact on performance and animal health has to be further evaluated. PMID:22874597

Zentek, Jürgen; Gärtner, Stefanie; Tedin, Lydia; Männer, Klaus; Mader, Anneluise; Vahjen, Wilfried

2013-03-14

124

Factors Affecting Patient Satisfaction During Endoscopic Procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the quality and patient satisfaction in Endoscopy Unit of Shifa International Hospital. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Division of Gastroenterology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from July 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Quality and patient satisfaction after the endoscopic procedure was assessed using a modified GHAA-9 questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 1028 patients were included with a mean age of 45 A+- 14.21 years. Out of all the procedures, 670 (65.17%) were gastroscopies, 181 (17.60%) were flexible sigmoidoscopies and 177 (17.21%) were colonoscopies. The maximum unsatisfactory responses were on the waiting time before the procedure (13.13 %), followed by unsatisfactory explanation of the procedure and answers to questions (7.58%). Overall, unsatisfied impression was 4.86%. The problem rate was 6.22%. Conclusion: The quality of procedures and level of satisfaction of patients undergoing a gastroscopy or colonoscopy was generally good. The factors that influence the satisfaction of these patients are related to communication between doctor and patient, doctor's manner and waiting time for the procedure. Feedback information in an endoscopy unit may be useful in improving standards, including the performance of endoscopists. (author)

125

FACTORS AFFECTING VASECTOMY ACCEPTABILITY IN ETHIOPIA  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vasectomy is one of the most effective but less utilized types of contraception method which could addresses the involvement of males to the family planning. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate the awareness about and practice of men towards vasectomy among workers in Dashen brewery, Ethiopia. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted using pre tested self-administered questioner to assess the Knowledge, attitude and factors associated with low utilization of vasectomy. A total of 187 study participants were included to this study using single population proportion formula and random sampling technique. Majority of the participants 155 (82.9% never heard about vasectomy as a contraception method. Their knowledge about vasectomy is generally very poor as large proportion of respondents didn’t know how it works, its effectiveness and its effect on their sexual performance. None of the respondents have ever used vasectomy as a modern male contraception method. Misleading information towards its impact on sexual performance/desire was reported as a main reason not to use this method. Among others need of more children, unavailability of services, lack of information, spouse refusal and religious concerns were mentioned as a potential reasons for their negative perception towards vasectomy. Lack of awareness, myths and rumors, limited access to services, and indifference and bias on the part of providers about vasectomy limit its popularity in Ethiopia. Therefore, it is vital to introduce appropriate educational plan to increase awareness and usage of vasectomy in Ethiopia.

E. Admasu , Negalign chekol , Temesegen Chekol , Z. Shewamene*, Zelalem Eteffa

2013-04-01

126

[The psychological factors affecting athletic performance].  

Science.gov (United States)

The physical and mental health complex is claimed as achievement of the XXI. century, whereby also among the sportsmen and sportswomen, beside the somatic medicine, growing attention is devoted to the psyche as well. The sports psychiatry was dragged in and put into service to enhance performance after all biological weapons run out of ammunition, and the long-awaited results still failed to come about. Moreover, despite the energy increasingly invested it was going from bad to worse. Among athletes many psychiatric disorders call attention, either by the high prevalence or by the development of a specific syndrome. Symptoms of depression (depression after the competition, depression following the failure at the competition), chronic stress, anxiety, fatigue syndrome of overtraining, enervation, sleep disturbances, eating problems, burnout, eating disorders (anorexia athletics, athlete triad), personality factors and the chemical addiction are all extremely important. The present study is the first to summarize the most crucial psychiatric disorders that may have great significance in the athlete population, in varying degrees according to the individual sports. PMID:20442052

Resch, Mária

2010-05-16

127

Factors affecting the performance of ultrasonic flowmeters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A programme of work is currently underway at NEL to investigate and characterise the performance of liquid ultrasonic meters over a wide range of conditions. This paper presents the results of laboratory evaluations in addition to the initial results of combined flow and flowmeter modelling. Two-phase, oil/gas performance tests were conducted on commercially available meters of 4-inch nominal bore. Specific results have been selected to illustrate performance variations related to factors in meter design and operation. Two-phase, oil/water performance tests with water-cuts of up to 15 % were also conducted on the above meters. These results are presented in their entirety. The results show deviations from single-phase performance which vary for each meter design. Baseline calibration results for four commercially available clamp-on meters are presented. The results were obtained in good installation conditions on stainless steel pipes of 4-inch and 8-inch nominal bore. The results show different levels of accuracy associated with each meter and a general conformation with predicted behaviour. The final section of the paper presents results obtained by a systematic numerical method of determining the flow profile sensitivity of various meter configurations. The results provide quantitative confirmation of the reduced sensitivity of multipath designs to variations in the velocity profile. (author)

Brown, G.J.

1997-07-01

128

Factors affecting chromatin stability of bovine spermatozoa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The structural stability of transcriptionally inert paternal chromatin is of vital importance for the fertilization process and early embryonic development. Accordingly, a series of eight experiments were conducted during a 7-month period to investigate: (1) effects of bull breed, individuality, successive ejaculations, semen quality characteristics (SQC), semen dilution rates and hypothermic storage of semen in a Tris-egg yolk extender on incidence of sperm nuclear chromatin instability (NCI), and (2) effects of the interaction between variation of NCI within a frozen ejaculate and variation of oocytes quality due to maturation time and/or season on the efficiency of in vitro embryo production (IVEP). Semen samples were collected once a week from six bulls using an AV and only ejaculates (n=220) of >0.30x10(9) sperm/ml and >or=60% motility were used. NCI was measured by: (1) detection of lysine-rich histones in sperm chromatin using aniline blue staining, (2) sperm susceptibility to acid-induced nuclear DNA denaturation in situ using acridine orange test, and (3) sperm susceptibility to nuclear chromatin decondensation (NCD). Bovine oocytes (n=695) were matured in vitro for 18 or 24 h, fertilized after sperm selection through a swim-up procedure and cultured for 72 h. The results showed that the 2nd ejaculates were superior to the 1st ones with respect to chromatin stability. Dilution of semen to 49.67+/-8.56x10(6) sperm/ml (1:19) decreased resistance of sperm to NCD. Cooling of semen had no significant effect on chromatin stability. Cryopreservation of semen augmented sperm vulnerability to DNA denaturation. Improvement of SQC (semen volume, sperm motility, velocity, viability and morphological normalcy) was generally concomitant with increase of sperm resistance to NCI. While Blonde d'Aquitaine bulls had a resistance to NCD higher than Limousine bulls in fresh semen, the former showed a greater susceptibility to DNA denaturation than the latter in cooled semen. Individuality significantly influenced NCI. The variability of NCI within a frozen ejaculate affected efficiency of IVEP. Significant negative correlations were observed between incidence of NCI and both fertilization rate and developmental capacity of embryos after maturation of oocytes for 18 h. The significant variation in IVEP traits due to season was independent of the effect of sperm chromatin instability. PMID:17398042

Khalifa, T A A; Rekkas, C A; Lymberopoulos, A G; Sioga, A; Dimitriadis, I; Papanikolaou, Th

2008-03-01

129

Factors affecting proximal tubular reabsorption during development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies performed in several animal species have demonstrated that glomerulotubular balance is maintained throughout development despite the many changes that occur in the factors known to control it. In an attempt to understand the nature of this phenomenon the authors quantified the magnitude and described the profile of these changes in guinea pigs. The changes in physical forces were assessed from measurements of hydrostatic and oncotic pressures, whereas those in the permeability characteristics of the proximal tubule epithelium were estimated from permanence to radioactivity-labelled macromolecules of graded radii, histologic measurements of the intercellular channels, and measurements of end-proximal ratio of tubular fluid-to-plasma osmolality (TF/P/sub osm/). Between 1 and 50 days of age the net pressure for reabsorption increased from 15.0 to 30.9 mmHg with the major change occurring during the first 2-3 wk of postnatal life. The urinary recovery of [3H]inulin, [14C]sucrose, and [14C]creatinine, injected in the early segment of proximal tubules did not vary with age. The urinary recovery of [14C]mannitol increased from 92% at birth to 100% at 49 days of age. The length of the zonulae occludens and the width of the intercellular channels did not change during this period. The findings support the hypothesis that during early postnatal life glomerulotubular balance is made possible by a high permeability of the proximal tubule, which compensates for the low net reabsorptive pressure. As the animal matures and the proximal tubule epithelium becomes tighter, for glomerulotubular balance to be maintained, an increase in the number of intercellular channels and in the active transport of sodium need to be postulated

130

Determination of Minerals and Anti-Nutritional Factors of Some Lesser-Known Crop Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cost of raw material needed for the production of animal feed has led to the evaluation and ascertaining the adequacy of some lesser known crop seeds for minerals composition and the possible effects of anti nutritional factors on the availability of the required nutrients. The mineral elements and anti nutritional factors Jatropha curcas, Trichosanthes cucumerina, Citrillius vulgaris, were determined using standard analytical methods. The concentration of copper (16.00 mg/kg-43.00 mg/kg, Zinc [33.00 mg/kg-45.00 mg/kg], Manganese [51.70 mg/kg-63.00 mg/kg], Potassium [8704.15 mg/kg-9246.33 mg/kg], Sodium [170v mg/kg-206. mg/kg], Phosphorus [322.20 mg/kg-411.60 mg/kg], Iron [133 mg/kg-187 mg/kg], Magnesium [1896.00 mg/kg-2394 mg/kg] and Calcium [1534.00 mg/kg-1826.00 mg/kg], varied significantly in the seeds respectively. The content of the minerals in metabolize state were greatly affected by the anti-nutritional factors, tannin [7.50 mg/100 g-25.30 mg/100 g], saponin [1100.00 mg/100 g-2097 mg/100 g], oxalate [17.40 mg/100 g-40.65 mg/100 g], nitrite [50.30 mg/100 g-57.30 mg/100 g], nitrate [9.00 mg/100 g-24.60 mg/100 g] and phytic acid [480.03 mg/100 g-2012.02 mg/100 g]. Concentration of mineral elements in all lesser known crop seeds are below the dietary requirements for animal.

N.O.A. Ilelaboye

2009-01-01

131

Critical Factors that Affecting Efficiency of Solar Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device which generates electricity directly from visible light. However, their efficiency is fairly low. So, the solar cell costs expensive according to other energy resources products. Several factors affect solar cell efficiency. This paper presents the most important factors that affecting efficiency of solar cells. These effects are cell temperature, MPPT (maximum power point tracking and energy conversion efficiency. The changing of these factors improves solar cell efficiency for more reliable applications.

Furkan Dincer

2010-05-01

132

Critical Factors that Affecting Efficiency of Solar Cells  

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A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device which generates electricity directly from visible light. However, their efficiency is fairly low. So, the solar cell costs expensive according to other energy resources products. Several factors affect solar cell efficiency. This paper presents the most important factors that affecting efficiency of solar cells. These effects are cell temperature, MPPT (maximum power point tracking) and energy conversion efficiency. The changing of these factors i...

Furkan Dincer; Mehmet Emin Meral

2010-01-01

133

Transcription factor AtTCP14 regulates embryonic growth potential during seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of seed germination, we searched enriched cis elements in the upstream regions of Arabidopsis genes whose transcript levels increased during seed germination. Using available published microarray data, we found that two cis elements, Up1 or Up2, which regulate outgrowth of Arabidopsis axillary shoots, were significantly over-represented. Classification of Up1- and Up2-containing genes by gene ontology revealed that protein synthesis-related genes, especially ribosomal protein genes, were highly over-represented. Expression analysis using a reporter gene driven by a synthetic promoter regulated by these elements showed that the Up1 is necessary and sufficient for germination-associated gene induction, whereas Up2 acts as an enhancer of Up1. Up1-mediated gene expression was suppressed by treatments that blocked germination. Up1 is almost identical to the site II motif, which is the predicted target of TCP transcription factors. Of 24 AtTCP genes, AtTCP14, which showed the highest transcript level just prior to germination, was functionally characterized to test its involvement in the regulation of seed germination. Transposon-tagged lines for AtTCP14 showed delayed germination. In addition, germination of attcp14 mutants exhibited hypersensitivity to exogenously applied abscisic acid and paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis. AtTCP14 was predominantly expressed in the vascular tissues of the embryo, and affected gene expression in radicles in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Taken together, these results indicate that AtTCP14 regulates the activation of embryonic growth potential in Arabidopsis seeds. PMID:17953649

Tatematsu, Kiyoshi; Nakabayashi, Kazumi; Kamiya, Yuji; Nambara, Eiji

2008-01-01

134

Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Faculty-Doctoral Student Coauthorship  

Science.gov (United States)

Using faculty narratives, this study identifies factors affecting the occurrence of faculty-doctoral student coauthorship. Norms of the discipline, resources, faculty goals for students, faculty goals for themselves, and institutional expectations emerged as dominant factors. Each factor is explored separately and as part of an interlocking…

Maher, Michelle A.; Timmerman, Briana Crotwell; Feldon, David F.; Strickland, Denise

2013-01-01

135

The Direct and Indirect Factors on Affecting Organizational Sustainability  

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Full Text Available Successful firms pursue organizational sustainability. The aim of this study is to explore the direct and indirect factors affecting on organizational sustainability. Indirect factors being those that first influence competitive advantage, and then affecting organizational sustainability. This study analyzes 145 articles retrieved from the SDOL (Science Driect Online database that were published between 2009 and January 2013. Papers were retrieved using ‘organizational sustainability’ and ‘competitive advantage’ as keywords, searching on ‘Abstract, Title, Keywords’, and subject headings of ‘Business, Management and Accounting’. The results identify that 13 indirect factors and 3 direct factors can have an impact on organizational sustainability.

Meng-Shan Tsai

2013-11-01

136

Does Cold Plasma Affect Breaking Dormancy and Seed Germination? A Study on Seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low-pressure discharge is applied for stimulation of germination of two seed lots of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) with different starting germinations (17%, 8%) and in different stages of dormancy. Different exposition durations with cold plasma treatment were applied. The variable of the ratio cumulative germination was calculated. The Richards' equation was used for curve-fitting and simulation of the growth curves. Population parameters, namely Vi - viability, Me - time, Qu - dispersion, and Sk - skewness, counted from the curves described the germination rate well. Significant differences among Qu confirmed the erratic dormancy and gradual germination of Lamb's Quarters. No difference in the Me parameter was found between two tested seed lots, and no interspecies characteristics were changed using low-pressure discharge. The results suggested that plasma treatment changed seed germination in Lamb's Quarters seeds.

137

Does Cold Plasma Affect Breaking Dormancy and Seed Germination? A Study on Seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Low-pressure discharge is applied for stimulation of germination of two seed lots of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) with different starting germinations (17%, 8%) and in different stages of dormancy. Different exposition durations with cold plasma treatment were applied. The variable of the ratio cumulative germination was calculated. The Richards' equation was used for curve-fitting and simulation of the growth curves. Population parameters, namely Vi - viability, Me - time, Qu - dispersion, and Sk - skewness, counted from the curves described the germination rate well. Significant differences among Qu confirmed the erratic dormancy and gradual germination of Lamb's Quarters. No difference in the Me parameter was found between two tested seed lots, and no interspecies characteristics were changed using low-pressure discharge. The results suggested that plasma treatment changed seed germination in Lamb's Quarters seeds.

Božena, Šerá; Michal, Šerý; Vit?zslav, Štrañák; Petr, Špatenka; Milan, tichý

2009-12-01

138

Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer  

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Full Text Available The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

1984-05-01

139

Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

Sven Skjenneberg (ed. in chief)

1984-01-01

140

Ethylene, a key factor in the regulation of seed dormancy  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethylene is an important component of the gaseous environment, and regulates numerous plant developmental processes including seed germination and seedling establishment. Dormancy, the inability to germinate in apparently favorable conditions, has been demonstrated to be regulated by the hormonal balance between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs). Ethylene plays a key role in dormancy release in numerous species, the effective concentrations allowing the germination of dormant seeds ranging between 0.1 and 200 ?L L-1. Studies using inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or of ethylene action and analysis of mutant lines altered in genes involved in the ethylene signaling pathway (etr1, ein2, ain1, etr1, and erf1) demonstrate the involvement of ethylene in the regulation of germination and dormancy. Ethylene counteracts ABA effects through a regulation of ABA metabolism and signaling pathways. Moreover, ethylene insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis are more sensitive to ABA and the seeds are more dormant. Numerous data also show an interaction between ABA, GAs and ethylene metabolism and signaling pathways. It has been increasingly demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a significant role in the regulation of seed germination interacting with hormonal signaling pathways. In the present review the responsiveness of seeds to ethylene will be described, and the key role of ethylene in the regulation of seed dormancy via a crosstalk between hormones and other signals will be discussed. PMID:25346747

Corbineau, Francoise; Xia, Qiong; Bailly, Christophe

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

FACTORS AFFECTING INTENT TO PURCHASE VIRTUAL GOODS IN ONLINE GAMES  

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Online games increasingly sell virtual goods to generate real income. As a result, it isincreasingly important to identify factors and theory of consumption values that affect intent topurchase virtual goods in online games. However, very little research has been devoted to thetopic. This study is an empirical investigation of the factors and theory of consumption valuesthat affect intent to purchase virtual goods in online games. The study determines the effects ofgame type, satisfaction wit...

Cheng-Hsun Ho; Ting-Yun Wu

2012-01-01

142

What Factors Affect Response to Ads? A Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of "frame of reference" offers a perspective from which to examine the many factors which affect advertising response. The advertiser is interested in affecting two types of overt behavior. First, the individual is induced to select a particular stimulus (the advertisement) from competing stimuli (such as other people, noise, and other…

Rotzoll, Kim B.

143

Influence of Nitrogenous Fertilizers, Gypsum and Seed Priming on Wheat Yield under Salt Affected Soil Conditions  

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Full Text Available Field experiment, to evaluate the effect of nitrogenous fertilizers i.e. urea, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate with and without gypsum and seed priming on productivity of wheat, was performed.The field was surveyed by EM-38 at 2x2m grid to identify areas of uniform salinity. The experimental design was factorial randomized, having ECe values of 3.5 to 5.5, 4.0 to 6.9, 5.0 to 9.1 and 6.1 to 10.1 dSm-1 in R1, R2, R3 and R4 respectively. There was no significant effect of fertilizer type, gypsum and seed priming on any yield parameters. However, ammonium nitrate was better over the other two fertilizers in terms of yield. Similar to yield, soil and plant K+, Na+ concentrations and K/Na ratio were not affected significantly with various treatments. Leaf K+ and K/Na ratio was positively correlated with grain yield and Na+ concentration was negatively correlated.

Muhammad Jamal Khan

2001-01-01

144

Grape seed extract affects proliferation and differentiation of human intestinal Caco-2 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of daily contact of a grape seed extract (GSE) on Caco-2 cell proliferation and differentiation was investigated. GSE at 400 mg/L was added to Caco-2 cells for 2 h a day after successive incubation in saliva, gastric, and pancreatic media. When applied at the beginning of the cell culture, GSE triggered inhibition of cell growth associated with a possible cytotoxic reaction. On the other hand, when the treatment was applied to confluent cells, treated cells displayed a higher protein content than control cells and a more developed brush border, with taller and denser microvilli. These observations were accompanied by stimulation of alkaline phosphatase activity, especially at day 5 postconfluency, with a 2.2-fold increase in comparison with the control. On the other hand, aminopeptidase N activity was inhibited throughout the differentiation period in GSE-treated cells to reach 28.8% of control cell activity on day 30. GSE did not affect either sucrase-isomaltase activity or cytoplasmic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, which otherwise appeared to be a good cellular marker. GSE treatment of Caco-2 cells thus inhibited their proliferation from seeding onward and stimulated both proliferation and differentiation after confluency. PMID:15161187

Laurent, Caroline; Besançon, Pierre; Auger, Cyril; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Caporiccio, Bertrand

2004-06-01

145

Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

Bista, Krishna K.

2008-01-01

146

FACTORS AFFECTING TRACE METAL MOBILITY IN SUBSURFACE SOILS  

Science.gov (United States)

Field and laboratory studies were conducted to examine factors affecting metal movement in subsurface materials to groundwater and how these factors interact. Subsoil pH as with surface soils was found to be the property that most influenced metal immobilization. The inclusion of...

147

Physical factors affecting the electrically assisted thermal bitumen recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the heavy oil industry, thermal processes are used to enhance oil recovery by increasing the reservoir temperature which results in better oil mobility. Low frequency heating (LFH) is a technology using electrical conductivity of connate water to propagate current between electrodes, thus generating heat in the reservoir through the Joule effect. During the preheating and production periods, many physical factors may affect the LFH process and the aim of this study was to determine which factors affect the process and how, using a particular pattern of electrodes. Simulations were conducted using the CMG Stars reservoir simulator under different configurations, conditions and parameters. Important physical properties and operational conditions affecting the LFH process were determined and results showed that convection heat, bulk electrical conductivity and power distribution can be improved by salt water circulation. This paper highlighted the physical factors affecting LFH efficiency and these findings will be useful for future process design.

Bogdanov, I.I.; Torres, J.-A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, University of Pau (France); Corre, B. [CSTJF, Total (France)

2011-07-01

148

Factors Affecting Milk Production in Buffaloes: A Case Study  

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Full Text Available This study quantified the effect of major factors affecting the milk production in buffaloes. The important factors considered for the estimation of milk production included the value of dry fodder, the value of green fodder, the value of concentrate, number of lactations and the value of labour hours. A production function for milk was estimated by employing Ordinary Least Square (OLS regression. In the estimated model among all the relevant variables, green fodder, lactation number and labour hours were found to be the influential factors affecting milk production in this species.

Maqsood Hussain*, Abdul Ghafoor1and Abdul Saboor2

2010-04-01

149

Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

150

The Quality of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas) Seeds Affected by Water Activity and Duration of Storage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The quality of physic nut (Jatropha curcas) seeds should be maintained during storage, either as seeds for seedlings or oil production to be used for biodiesel. The effects of water activity and duration of storage on the quality, i.e. fungal population, lipid, fatty acid and free fatty acid contents, and viability of physic nut seeds were investigated. The results showed that the moisture content of seeds and total fungal population decreased at low water activities, and increased at high wa...

OKKY SETYAWATI DHARMAPUTRA; RANTJE LILLY WORANG; RIZAL SYARIEF; MIFTAHUDIN

2009-01-01

151

Methods to assess factors that influence grass seed yield  

Science.gov (United States)

A greater than 10-fold increase in Canada goose (Branta canadensis ) populations over the past several years has resulted in concerns over grazing impacts on grass seed production in the mid-Willamette Valley, Oregon. This study was designed to develop methods to quantify and statistically analyze goose-grazing impacts on seed yields of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Yield-mapping-system equipped combines, incorporating global positioning system (GPS) technology, were used to measure and map yields. Image processing of ground-level photography to estimate crop cover and other relevant observations were spatially located via GPS to establish spatial-temporal goose grazing patterns. We sampled each field semi-monthly from mid-winter through spring. Spatially located yield data, soils information, exclosure locations, and grazing patterns were integrated via geographical information system (GIS) technology. To avoid concerns about autocorrelation, a bootstrapping procedure for subsampling spatially contiguous seed yield data was used to organize the data for appropriate use of analysis of variance. The procedure was used to evaluate grazing impacts on seed yield for areas of fields with different soils and with differential timing and intensity of goose grazing activity. We also used a standard paired-plot procedure, involving exclosures and associated plots available for grazing. The combination of spatially explicit photography and yield mapping, integrated with GIS, proved effective in establishing cause-and-effect relationships between goose grazing and seed yield differences. Exclosures were essential for providing nongrazed controls. Both statistical approaches were effective in documenting goose-grazing impacts. Paired-plots were restricted by small size and few numbers and did not capture grazing impacts as effectively as comparison of larger areas to exclosures. Bootstrapping to subsample larger areas of yield for comparison was an effective method of avoiding autocorrelation of data while better representing impacts within a field. Occasional yield increases, ranging from 1 to 5 percent, were recorded following goose grazing. Goose grazing generally resulted in seed yield reductions, ranging up to 20 percent. Later and more intensive grazing tended to increase yield reductions. Newly seeded tall fescue tended to be the most sensitive to grazing. Established perennial ryegrass tended to be more resilient.

Louhaichi, Mounir

152

Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response and environmental (physical environment, social environment, situation factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management. Low-income African American and white mothers were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in three counties in Michigan. In Phase one, 45 mothers completed individual cognitive interviews. Content analyses were performed. In Phase two, items modified from the cognitive interviews were administered to 216 mothers. Factor analysis and multiple indicators/multiple causes were performed. Results Results of cognitive interviews were used to revise items for the instrument that was tested in Phase two. The factor solution revealed 19 dimensions to measure personal and environmental factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior (three dimensions, physical activity (eight dimensions, and stress management (eight dimensions. Results of multiple indicators/multiple causes model showed scale invariance. Of 19 dimensions, 15 had Cronbach alpha between 0.76 and 0.94 and four were between 0.66 and 0.69. All dimensions had composite construct reliability scores between 0.74 to 0.97 and satisfactory construct and discriminant validities. Conclusion The theory-based FADESM scales have documented good validity and reliability for measuring factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income women. Results of this study support the use of these scales with low-income African American and white mothers in community settings.

Nitzke Susan

2008-02-01

153

Factors Affecting Forest Area Changes in Cambodia: An Econometric Approach  

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Clarifying factors affecting forest area changes is critical to implementing REDD+ scheme properly. We analyzed some socio-economic factors and clarified their relationships with deforestation in Cambodia for the period of 2002 to 2010. A panel data analysis was conducted for 18 provinces, while six other provinces were deleted from the list because only a small amount of their land was forested. Time effects, cross-sectional dependence, serial correlation in idiosyncratic errors, and heteros...

Tetsuya Michinaka; Motoe Miyamoto; Yasuhiro Yokota; Heng Sokh; Sethaphal Lao; Vuthy Ma

2013-01-01

154

EXPLORING THE FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEES’ ADOPTION AND USE OF INNOVATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores the factors affecting innovation adoption by individual employees within an organization in Australia. Following a qualitative research approach, this paper uses a series of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions involving academic and administrative employees at a tertiary educational institution in Australia. The qualitative approach is adopted to have a deeper insight into the complexities and dynamism associated with the factors influencing innovation adoption...

Majharul Talukder; Ali Quazi

2010-01-01

155

An experiment on the factors affecting simple reaction time  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reaction time is considered as an important measure that affects performance of an individual both in business and private life. Especially, reaction time, which can be defined as a period of time being required for giving appropriate responses to the perceived stimuli, is an important factor in terms of efficiency of organization and also health and safety at work. Moreover, reaction time is regarded as an important factor in product design. In this study, an experiment is designed to reveal...

Hale Akkocao?lu; Burcu Kaya; Ufuk Türen

2013-01-01

156

Factors affecting the diffusion of online end user literature searching.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect diffusion of usage of online end user literature searching. Fifteen factors clustered into three attribute sets (innovation attributes, organizational attributes, and marketing attributes) were measured to study their effect on the diffusion of online searching within institutions. METHODS: A random sample of sixty-seven academic health sciences centers was selected and then 1,335 library and informatics staff members at th...

Ash, J. S.

1999-01-01

157

Seed improvement by selection and invigoration  

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The basis of differences in seed quality are described for two groups of crops, grain legumes and vegetables and approaches to the improvement of quality are proposed. In grain legumes the major factors affecting seed quality are imbibition damage, seed ageing and their interaction. It is proposed that use of seed vigour tests, specifically the electrical conductivity test, to identify the incidence of imbibition damage and ageing allows the selection of seed lots for sale and for use under d...

Powell A.A.

1998-01-01

158

Processing Effects on Some Antinutritional Factors and In vitro Multienzyme Protein Digestibility (IVPD of Three Tropical Seeds: Breadnut (Artocarpus altilis, Cashewnut (Anacardium occidentale and Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mature seeds of breadnut, cashewnut and fluted pumpkin were processed in the laboratory into the raw dried, boiled, fermented, germinated and roasted seeds. Differently processed seeds were dried at 50°C, ground and sieved through 500?m sieves. The seed flours were evaluated for trypsin inhibitor activity, tannin, phosphorus compounds and in vitro multienzyme protein digestibility (IVPD. The results show that processing significantly (P = 0.05 affected the antinutritional factors in the seed flours. Breadnut flours contain 2.8-5.3g/kg phytic acid, 5.8-9.2g/kg tannin and 0.9-8.1mg/g flour of trypsin inhibitor activity. Cashewnut flours contain 6.0-9.9g/kg phytic acid, 5.1-13.3g/kg tannin and 0.8-2.5mg/g flour of trypsin inhibitor activity. Fluted pumpkin seed flours contain 2.8-13.8g/kg phytic acid, 7.5-19.1g/kg tannin and 0.0-11.0mg/g flour of trypsin inhibitor activity. Fermentation is the most effective processing method to reduce phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor activity while boiling is most effective in reducing the tannin content. The result of IVPD of the seeds generally show that the boiled samples are the most digestible followed by the fermented samples while the raw dried/germinated samples are the least. The order of digestibility of the three seeds is fluted pumpkin (72.0 - 86.0% > cashewnut (74.3 - 82.9% > Breadnut flour (71.3 - 78.3%. Processing techniques used reduced the antinutritional factors in the seeds and improve its IVPD when compared with the raw dried seed flours.

T.N. Fagbemi

2005-01-01

159

Can salvage logging affect seed dispersal by birds into burned forests?  

Science.gov (United States)

The recovery of vegetation in Mediterranean ecosystems after wildfire is mostly a result of direct regeneration, since the same species existing before the fire regenerate on-site by seeding or resprouting. However, the possibility of plant colonization by dispersal of seeds from unburned areas remains poorly studied. We addressed the role of the frugivorous, bird-dependent seed dispersal (seed rain) of fleshy-fruited plants in a burned and managed forest in the second winter after a fire, before on-site fruit production had begun. We also assessed the effect on seed rain of different microhabitats resulting from salvage logging (erosion barriers, standing snags, open areas), as well as the microhabitats of unlogged patches and an unburned control forest, taking account of the importance of perches as seed rain sites. We found considerable seed rain by birds in the burned area. Seeds, mostly from Olive trees Olea europaea and Evergreen pistaches Pistacia lentiscus, belonged to plants fruiting only in surrounding unburned areas. Seed rain was heterogeneous, and depended on microhabitat, with the highest seed density in the unburned control forest but closely followed by the wood piles of erosion barriers. In contrast, very low densities were found under perches of standing snags. Furthermore, frugivorous bird richness seemed to be higher in the erosion barriers than elsewhere. Our results highlight the importance of this specific post-fire management in bird-dependent seed rain and also may suggest a consequent heterogeneous distribution of fleshy-fruited plants in burned and managed areas. However, there needs to be more study of the establishment success of dispersed seeds before an accurate assessment can be made of the role of bird-mediated seed dispersal in post-fire regeneration.

Rost, J.; Pons, P.; Bas, J. M.

2009-09-01

160

Effects of prolonged exposure to space flight factors for 175 days on lettuce seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied the effects of prolonged (up to 175 days) exposure of Lactuca sativa seeds to space flight factors, including primary cosmic radiation heavy ions. The data obtained evidence a significant fourfold increase ofs pontaneous mutagenesis in seeds both with regard to the total number of aberrant cells as well as the formation of single cells with multiple aberrations. Comparison of the present experiment with earlier works shows that the frequency of such aberrations increases with the duration of the flight.

Nevzgodina, L. V.; Maximova, E. N.; Akatov, Yu. A.

 
 
 
 
161

Effects of prolonged exposure to space flight factors for 175 days on lettuce seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of prolonged (up to 175 days) exposure of Lactuca sativa seeds to space flight factors, including primary cosmic radiation heavy ions have been studied. The data obtained evidence a significant fourfold increase of spontaneous mutagenesis in seeds both with regard to the total number of aberrant cells as well as the formation of single cells with multiple aberrations. Comparison of the present experiment with earlier works shows that the frequency of such aberrations increases with the duration of the flight

162

Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth

2009-01-01

163

Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

Kwenda, Maxwell

2011-01-01

164

The Synergistic Effect of Affective Factors on Student Learning Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates how affective and self-related factors impact participation in science learning and environmental awareness and responsibility. Using PISA 2006 datasets from Taiwan and Canada having similar level of science competency, the model for this study verifies and expands an earlier model by examining the relationships among…

Jack, Brady Michael; Lin, Huann-shyang; Yore, Larry D.

2014-01-01

165

Students' Views on Factors Affecting Empathy in Medical Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…

Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria

2009-01-01

166

Motivational Factors Affecting Online Learning by Japanese MBA Students  

Science.gov (United States)

In Japan, Internet based learning is still at an early stage. However, adult learners in Japanese society expect the development of flexible e-learning programs. This case study examines motivational factors affecting online learning in a Japanese and Australian MBA program, using observations, interviews and a questionnaire survey. The data were…

Kikuchi, Hisayo

2006-01-01

167

Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

2009-01-01

168

Family Mobility: An Examination of Factors Affecting Migration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The major purpose of this study was to examine one set of factors affecting family mobility, as well as to ascertain the circumstances influencing a choice of destination. Data employed were based upon the 1960 one-in-a-thousand sample Census. Family unit movement was distinguished from individual movement, as was mobility from migration. Major…

Kirschenbaum, Alan B.

169

Factors Affecting the Development and Use of Learning Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored barriers and facilitating factors affecting the development and use of learning objects in developing instructional materials and their use in supporting individualized learning. Over a two-month period, students in a graduate-level instructional design course developed instructional materials incorporating learning objects or…

Moisey, Susan D.; Ally, Mohamed; Spencer, Bob

2006-01-01

170

Key Factors Affecting Conceptual Gains from CAL Materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifies key factors affecting conceptual gains from using a CAL (computer-assisted learning) package and their application to a college practical laboratory class. Considers students' biographical characteristics, design features of the CAL package, and the way that the CAL was integrated into the curriculum. (Author/LRW)

Watson, Barbara

2001-01-01

171

Factors affecting visual inspection of thin film network  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was made of various factors that affect the visual inspection of thin film networks. The effect of various types of reflected illumination, the effect of defect size or shape, the time required for inspection, and the inspection uniformity were evaluated. The use of polarized light is recommended for the visual inspection of thin film networks.

Hines, R.E.

1978-01-01

172

Factors Affecting Wedding Banquet Venue Selection of Thai Wedding Couples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The wedding day is one of the most important days for couples, so they want their ceremony to be as near to perfect as possible. Finding a venue for the wedding banquet is the first stage of the couple’s planning and many factors affect this decision. The objective of this research was to study the factors that affect the selection of wedding banquet venues among Thai wedding couples. This study obtained data via questionnaires and used statistical tests such as the Mann-Whitney U test and one-way analysis of variance. Results showed that among the 30 factors that were assessed by 222 respondents, good service from employees, food quality, the venue’s atmosphere, size of the event room and facilities in the wedding room were the five most important factors determining the attractiveness of a wedding banquet venue. The results demonstrated that respondents who organized a wedding banquet at a hotel prioritized the atmosphere. In contrast, respondents who organized a wedding banquet at a restaurant placed highest priority on the facilities of the wedding room. Results showed that significant differences regarding the factors that affect the selection of wedding banquet venues exist across groups with different demographic variables (i.e., age, income, education level.

Kulkanya Napompech

2014-01-01

173

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors inf [...] luencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. METHOD: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia. RESULTS: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

Magdalene H., Awases; Marthie C., Bezuidenhout; Janetta H., Roos.

2013-01-01

174

Factors affecting farm diversification in rice-wheat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The risk in agriculture sector is due to various factors like weather and market conditions, particularly the demand of the commodities. This uncertainty can result in variable returns (farm income) to the decisions that farmers make in a particular season. Diversification is a frequently used risk management strategy that involves participation in more than one activity. It has the added advantage of mitigating price risk as well as fluctuations in outputs. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the factors affecting crop diversification. For determining the effect of different factors on diversification a multiple regression model was used. The values of Entropy index computed for measuring horizontal diversification were taken as dependent variable and different factors affecting diversification were taken as independent variables. The results showed that the main factors affecting diversification were size of land holding, age of respondent, education level of respondent, farming experience of respondent, off farm income of respondent, distance of farm from main road, distance of farm from main market and farm machinery. (author)

175

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research. PMID:23718720

Awases, Magdalene H; Bezuidenhout, Marthie C; Roos, Janetta H

2013-01-01

176

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors inf [...] luencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. METHOD: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia. RESULTS: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

Magdalene H., Awases; Marthie C., Bezuidenhout; Janetta H., Roos.

177

The Germination of European Type Olive Seed as Affected by Different Sowing Methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of different cultivation methods on germination percentage, seedling height and number of leaves per seedling of European type Olive was investigated. The results revealed that sowing of seeds on raised bed resulted maximum germination percentage, seedling height and number of leaves per seedling. Minimum germination percentage, seedling height and number of leaves per seedling was recorded when sow the seeds on flat land. Sowing of cultivated Olive seeds on raised bees is therefore recommended for obtaining higher germination percentage.

Azmat Ali Awan

2003-01-01

178

An Evaluation of Factors Affecting E-learner\\\\\\'s Satisfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Worldwide, the e-learning has a growth, but failures exist. Previous researches showed that user’s satisfaction is one of the most important factors in assessing the success of e-learning system implementation and a variety of factors affecting users' satisfaction. In this research, eight independent variables namely learner Internet self-efficacy, instructor response timeliness, e-learning course flexibility, e-learning course quality, technology quality, system usefulness, system ease of use, and diversity in assessment with nine hypotheses were discussed. The Spearman's correlation analysis was used to test initial eight hypotheses and a stepwise multiple linear regression model was conducted to test the ninth hypothesis. The results revealed that e-learning course flexibility, e-learning course quality, technology quality, and diversity in assessment were the critical factors affecting e-learner satisfaction that could not be neglected when implementing successful e-learning courses.

Davood Karimzadegan Moghadam

2012-03-01

179

An experiment on the factors affecting simple reaction time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reaction time is considered as an important measure that affects performance of an individual both in business and private life. Especially, reaction time, which can be defined as a period of time being required for giving appropriate responses to the perceived stimuli, is an important factor in terms of efficiency of organization and also health and safety at work. Moreover, reaction time is regarded as an important factor in product design. In this study, an experiment is designed to reveal the factors that affect simple reaction time and the effects of (discrete / continuous variables such as age, height, weight, gender, sight defects, smoking and alcohol use, regular habits of sports and academic achievement on reaction time of individuals are investigated, and the findings are interpreted.

Hale Akkocao?lu

2013-10-01

180

Factors Affecting the Performance of Labour in Nigerian Construction Sites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper identified some factors perceived to be negatively affecting the performance of construction labour and also examined how these factors vary from site to site in the Nigerian construction industry. To achieve this, structured questionnaires were administered on contractors and labour (operatives on forty construction sites in the study area to sample their opinions. A Likert statistical technique was employed for the analysis in this perspective. The result indicated that unfair wages (RI = 0.89, negative influencing factors (RI = 0.85 and lack of motivation (RI = 0.79 were ranked high by the labour while the contractors ranked lack of training (RI = 0.84, poor communication (RI = 0.79 and inclement weather (RI = 0.71 as being affecting the performance labour in this respect. It was recommended, among other things, that contractors must study the peculiarities of their workers and identify their main motivators.

Fagbenle Olabosipo I

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
181

Removal of antinutritional factors from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds  

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Full Text Available Phytohemagglutinin and the lectin-related proteins present in bean seeds are toxic to monogastric animals and lower the nutritional value of beans. Since these antimetabolites are present in substantial amounts, a breeding program aimed to the removal ofphytohemagglutinin was developed. The character ""absence of phytohemagglutinin"" was transferred into a bean cultivar by backcrossing. The lines obtained maintained the agronomic performance of the recurrent parent. Preliminary results show that removal of phytohemagglutinin results in a higher true protein digestibility. Further modification in the composition of the lectin-related protein family is now under way.

Bollini R.

1999-01-01

182

Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor  

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Full Text Available A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1 aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 25°C and germination percentage at 17°C. An interaction effect on germination performance between vigor and priming was observed, especially at low temperature. Priming increased germination performance in seeds of low vigor, and the response was cultivar dependent.

Nascimento Warley Marcos

2004-01-01

183

Relationship between Factors of Construction Resources Affecting Project Cost  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The success of any construction project highly depends on how proper and effective the management of construction resources flow. Studies show that various resources factors affected cost management and have resulted to significant amount of cost overrun worldwide. However, a few investigations had been carried out in Malaysia regarding the effect of resources in construction industry. Hence, this study focuses on identifying significant resource factors causing construction cost overrun and also assessing the relationship between these factors. Data collection was carried out through a structured questionnaire survey consisting of 20 factors identified through a comprehensive literature review. Data was analyzed using statistical software package SPSS. The Cronbach’s alpha of the data was 0.910 which means that the collected data was highly reliable. The factors were ranked through mean rank approach and it was found that 3 most significant factors are “fluctuation of prices of materials”, “cash flow and financial difficulties faced by contractors” and “shortages of materials”. While the least significant factors in causing cost overrun are “insufficient numbers of equipment”, “relationship between management and labour”, and “labour absenteeism”. The result of Spearman test indicates that “cash flow and financial difficulties faced by contractors” with “financial difficulties of owner” correlate strongly at a significant level of 0.752. This identification of factors and relationships will help construction community in controlling resopurce factors for achieving project completion within the budget.

Ismail Abdul Rahman

2012-12-01

184

Postimplant dosimetry for 125I prostate implants: definitions and factors affecting outcome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: An analysis of CT-based dosimetry was performed to assess the efficacy of the real time method of prostate implantation, explore the relationship of various dose descriptions and determine implant factors affecting outcome. Methods and Materials: Between 7/95 and 8/99, 297 patients underwent 125I implants for T1-T2 prostate cancer and had CT-based dosimetry performed (TG43 formalism). Dosimetry was performed 1 month postimplant. Using a dose-volume histogram, doses delivered to 100%, 95%, 90%, and 80% of the prostate (D100, D95, D90, D80, respectively) as well as percentages of the gland receiving 240 Gy, 160 Gy, 140 Gy (V240, V160, V140, respectively) were reported. Correlations between the various dose parameters and D90 were generated. The effect of the number of seeds implanted, seeds/volume, prostate volume, experience as assessed by time (8/01/99--date of implant), ultrasound probe (mechanical sector vs. dual phased electronic), and the ratio of the CT dosimetry prostate volume/ultrasound implant volume (CT/US vol) were analyzed. Results: The median D100, D95, D90, and D80 values were 10,200 cGy, 15,655 cGy, 17,578 cGy, and 19,873 cGy, respectively. The median V240, V160, and V140 were 56%, 94%, and 98%, respectively. Correlations of dose descriptions found a close relationship of D95, D80, V240, V160, and V140 with D90 with r values of 0.928, 0.973, 0.911, 0.816, and 0.733, respectively. D100 correlated poorly with D90 (r = 0.099). Using a stepwise regression analysis, CT/US vol ratio, prostate volume, and seed number were the only significant factors affecting D90 with CT/US vol ratio having the greatest effect. The dual-phased electronic probe was associated with fewer D90 values of less than 140 Gy (2%) compared to the mechanical sector probe (14%) (p = 0.02). Conclusion: CT-based dosimetry results reveal the real-time implant technique to be an effective method of prostate implantation. Factors associated with more precise implantation, such as decreased postimplant edema, new technology, and increased number of seeds will lead to higher D90 values

185

Common gas phase molecules from fungi affect seed germination and plant health in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important ecophysiological roles in mediating inter-kingdom signaling with arthropods but less is known about their interactions with plants. In this study, Arabidopsis thaliana was used as a model in order to test the physiological effects of 23 common vapor-phase fungal VOCs that included alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and other chemical classes. After exposure to a shared atmosphere with the 23 individual VOCs for 72 hrs, seeds were assayed for rate of germination and seedling formation; vegetative plants were assayed for fresh weight and chlorophyll concentration. All but five of the VOCs tested (1-decene, 2-n-heptylfuran, nonanal, geosmin and -limonene) had a significant effect in inhibiting either germination, seedling formation or both. Seedling formation was entirely inhibited by exposure to 1-octen-3-one, 2-ethylhexanal, 3-methylbutanal, and butanal. As assayed by a combination of fresh weight and chlorophyll concentration, 2-ethylhexanal had a negative impact on two-week-old vegetative plants. Three other compounds (1-octen-3-ol, 2-ethylhexanal, and 2-heptylfuran) decreased fresh weight alone. Most of the VOCs tested did not change the fresh weight or chlorophyll concentration of vegetative plants. In summary, when tested as single compounds, fungal VOCs affected A. thaliana in positive, negative or neutral ways. PMID:25045602

Hung, Richard; Lee, Samantha; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Bennett, Joan W

2014-01-01

186

Common gas phase molecules from fungi affect seed germination and plant health in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important ecophysiological roles in mediating inter-kingdom signaling with arthropods but less is known about their interactions with plants. In this study, Arabidopsis thaliana was used as a model in order to test the physiological effects of 23 common vapor-phase fungal VOCs that included alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and other chemical classes. After exposure to a shared atmosphere with the 23 individual VOCs for 72 hrs, seeds were assayed for rate of germination and seedling formation; vegetative plants were assayed for fresh weight and chlorophyll concentration. All but five of the VOCs tested (1-decene, 2-n-heptylfuran, nonanal, geosmin and -limonene) had a significant effect in inhibiting either germination, seedling formation or both. Seedling formation was entirely inhibited by exposure to 1-octen-3-one, 2-ethylhexanal, 3-methylbutanal, and butanal. As assayed by a combination of fresh weight and chlorophyll concentration, 2-ethylhexanal had a negative impact on two-week-old vegetative plants. Three other compounds (1-octen-3-ol, 2-ethylhexanal, and 2-heptylfuran) decreased fresh weight alone. Most of the VOCs tested did not change the fresh weight or chlorophyll concentration of vegetative plants. In summary, when tested as single compounds, fungal VOCs affected A. thaliana in positive, negative or neutral ways. PMID:25045602

2014-01-01

187

FACTORS AFFECTING INTENT TO PURCHASE VIRTUAL GOODS IN ONLINE GAMES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Online games increasingly sell virtual goods to generate real income. As a result, it isincreasingly important to identify factors and theory of consumption values that affect intent topurchase virtual goods in online games. However, very little research has been devoted to thetopic. This study is an empirical investigation of the factors and theory of consumption valuesthat affect intent to purchase virtual goods in online games. The study determines the effects ofgame type, satisfaction with the game, identification with the character, and theory ofconsumption values on intent to purchase virtual goods. The study used a survey to collectinformation from 523 virtual game users. Study results showed that game type is a moderatingvariable that affects intent to purchase virtual goods. And it demonstrated that role-playing gameusers are affected by theory of consumption values: functional quality, playfulness, and socialrelationship support. Moreover, war-strategy game users are affected by satisfaction with thegame, identification with the character, and theory of consumption values: price, utility, andplayfulness. The study also presents conclusions, proposes applications, and describesopportunities for further research.

Cheng-Hsun Ho

2012-10-01

188

Factors Affecting Hoteliers’ Decision to Advertise in Travel Magazine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advertising is a paid, mass-mediated attempt to persuade. That mean Advertising is paid communication by a company or organization that wants its information disseminated through a communication medium designed to reach more than one person, typically a large number or mass of people and advertising includes an attempt to persuade consumer to like the brand and because of that liking to eventually buy the brand. Advertising in travel magazine is one of the promotional methods to promote hoteliers products or services to the market place. By advertising in travel magazine, it can reach the target audience, educate them about the products or services, and move them closer to make a purchase. The purpose of the research is to recognize and rank the factors affecting hotelier’s decision to advertise in travel magazine. The respondents for the research are those hoteliers operating in Malaysia. The factors for this research are reached target readers, cost of advertising, contents of the magazine, frequency of advertising and media of advertising. The result of the research shows two of the factors significantly affecting hoteliers advertising decision. Furthermore, cost of advertising ranks the first follow by reach target readers, contents of magazine, media of advertising and frequency of advertising ranks the last. This research will help the publisher of travel magazine to understand and recognize the ranking of factors affecting hoteliers’ decision to advertise in travel magazine.

Mohd Faiz Hilmi

2011-09-01

189

Factors affecting corticosteroid concentrations in yellow-bellied marmots.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Bound and total corticosteroid concentrations of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) were lowest in May after emergence from hibernation and peaked in August prior to immergence. 2. Total corticosteroids were affected by age but not by sex or reproductive status. 3. There was no consistent relationship between measures of population density and concentrations of corticosteroids; when a significant relationship occurred, only 22-34% of the variation was explained. 4. Social status and social behavior were the major factors affecting corticosteroid concentrations. PMID:1673377

Armitage, K B

1991-01-01

190

Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

Daniel P. Molloy

2004-02-24

191

Factors affecting plant absorption, transport and fate of plutonium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study determined the extent to which several agricultural plants control plutonium (Pu) uptake and provides a general understanding of the fate and behavior of Pu in plants after absorption. Investigations were directed toward variables affecting the accumulation of Pu by plants from soils, transport of Pu within the plant, factors affecting transport with plant age, effects of different plant species on transport processes, form of Pu deposited in plant tissues, and effect of chemical form on animal gut absorption of Pu. 18 references, 10 figures, 14 tables

192

Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

Al-Quran Firas A

2011-12-01

193

Does solar radiation affect the growth of tomato seeds relative to their environment?  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this experiment is to sequentially study and analyze the data collected from the germination and growth of irradiated Rutgers Supreme tomato seeds to adult producing plants. This experiment will not use irradiated seeds as a control as I plan to note growth in artificial verses natural environment as the basic experiment.

Holzer, Kristi

1995-01-01

194

Breeding for Grass Seed Yield  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses.

Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

2010-01-01

195

Yield component and seed yield of wheat as affected by seed size under the rain-fed condition of Dera Ismail Khan  

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Full Text Available Field experiments on the seed sizes conducted during 1994-95 and 1995-96 to determine its effect on yield component and seed yield of wheat CV. Pirsabak-85. T he treatments consisted of Large and small seed sizes. The data indicated that crop seeded with large seed size significantly produced maximum seed yield by increased number of plant stand/m2 and generally provide the greater seed weight both the years, respectively.

Rahmat Ullah Khan

2000-01-01

196

The Quality of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas Seeds Affected by Water Activity and Duration of Storage  

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Full Text Available The quality of physic nut (Jatropha curcas seeds should be maintained during storage, either as seeds for seedlings or oil production to be used for biodiesel. The effects of water activity and duration of storage on the quality, i.e. fungal population, lipid, fatty acid and free fatty acid contents, and viability of physic nut seeds were investigated. The results showed that the moisture content of seeds and total fungal population decreased at low water activities, and increased at high water activities (aw. At aw 0.64, at the beginning of storage and after 20 weeks of storage, total fungal populations were 5.4 x 103 and 1.8 x 102 cfu g-1 dry basis (db,respectively. At aw 0.93, at the beginning of storage and after 20 weeks of storage, total fungal populations were 5.0 x 103 and 3.3 x 106 cfu g-1 db, respectively. At the beginning of storage fungi infecting seeds were field fungi, i.e. Cladosporium sp., Colletotrichum sp., Fusarium semitectum, and F. verticillioides. The population of field fungi decreased with the increase of storage duration. They were replaced by postharvest fungi, i.e. Aspergillus restrictus, A. penicillioides, Eurotium chevalieri, E. rubrum, Penicillium citrinum, P. implicatum and P. oxalicum. Lipid content and viability of seeds decreased with the increase of water activities and seed moisture contents, while free fatty acid contents increased with the increase of water activities and seed moisture contents during storage. Fatty acids of lipid were dominated by unsaturated fatty acids, i.e. oleic and linoleic acids. Physic nut seeds could be stored at aw 0.64-0.75 up to eight weeks when the seeds will be used for seedling, or up to 16 weeks when they will be used for producing oil.

OKKY SETYAWATI DHARMAPUTRA

2009-12-01

197

The transcriptomes of dormant leafy spurge seeds under alternating temperature are differentially affected by a germination-enhancing pretreatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed dormancy is an important stage in the life cycle of many non-domesticated plants, often characterized by the temporary failure to germinate under conditions that normally favor the process. Pre-treating dormant imbibed seeds at a constant temperate accelerated germination of leafy spurge seeds under alternating temperatures. However, dormant seeds will also germinate without a pre-treatment, albeit at a much slower rate, which gives rise to longer periods of imbibition before germination. Transcriptome analyses on seeds exposed to prolonged imbibition highlighted pathways associated with phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and interacting networks of genes involved in plant defense. In addition to the many pathways associated with phenylpropanoid biosynthesis enriched with down-regulated genes upon germination, there were also numerous pathways enriched with up-regulated genes associated with energy metabolism, such as glycolysis. Transcriptome data further suggest that metabolism and signaling by the plant hormones ethylene, gibberellin, and abscisic acid are involved in the developmental transition from dormancy to germination. More specifically, sub-network enrichment analysis identified ABI3 as a central hub of a sub-network at germination including several down-regulated genes such as DELLA (i.e., RGL2), which represses gibberellin signaling processes required for germination. The 595-fold increase in the expression of ACC oxidase (ACO4) at germination also suggests an important role for ethylene biosynthesis in germinating leafy surge seeds. Furthermore, the 10-578-fold difference in expression of many genes such as HY5 and Histone H3 between two populations at germination, which were treated with and without a constant temperature germination-enhancing pretreatment, revealed disparate impacts on various biosynthetic, growth, signaling, and response processes. Overall, our results indicate a constant temperature pretreatment (20°C for 21d) is not required for germination of leafy spurge seeds at an alternating temperature. However, the presence or absence of the pretreatment does affect the rate of germination and the germination transcriptional programs. PMID:23261266

Foley, Michael E; Chao, Wun S; Horvath, David P; Do?ramaci, Münevver; Anderson, James V

2013-04-15

198

Analysis of Factors that Affect e-Governance .  

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Full Text Available e-Governance is an application of ICT (Information & Communication technology to provide government services to its citizens and organizations. Punjab is one of the leading states in implementation of e-Governance but still there are some obstacles in its effective implementation at rural level. This research paper highlights the factors that are affecting the implementation of e-Governance. It also includes a survey questionnaire which takes all the factors into account and before starting actual survey a pilot study for this questionnaire was done which confirms its acceptance

Dr. Pardeep Mittal

2013-05-01

199

Analysis on Psychological Factors to Affect the Vocal Stage Performance  

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Full Text Available

The stage performance is an important part of artistic practice for vocal students. To perfectly express the music on stage is the dream of every vocal music performer. This essay is about analysis of the psychological factors to affect the vocal stage performance and to explore the reasons for stage fright and the methods to overcome this, to enable students to further enhance the level of their vocal music.

Key words: Vocal music; Stage performance; Psychological factor

Xihong CHEN

2012-11-01

200

Irradiation inactivation of some antinutritional factors in plant seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of gamma-irradiation (1.0-10 kGy) on trypsin, chymotrypsin, and alpha-amylase inhibitors of soybean and Moringa peregrina seeds on tannin of sorghum, gossypol of cottonseed, and in vitro digestibility of soybean were investigated. A dose of 10.0 kGy caused decreases in trypsin (by 34.9%) and chymotrypsin (by 71.4%) inhibitor activities in soybean defatted flour, whereas its in vitro digestibility increased from 79.8 to 84.2%. The alpha-amylase inhibitor activity of Al-Yassar (M. peregrina) was decreased by 43.6 and 47.8% upon treatment of 7.0 and 10.0 kGy, respectively. Doses of 10.0 and 7.0 kGy significantly reduced the tannin content in Shahlla sorghum but not in Hemaira sorghum. Total and free gossypol contents were slightly reduced by irradiation

 
 
 
 
201

Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh  

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Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author

2011-09-01

202

The quantum walk search algorithm: Factors affecting efficiency  

CERN Document Server

We numerically study the quantum walk search algorithm of Shenvi, Kempe and Whaley [PRA \\textbf{67} 052307] and the factors which affect its efficiency in finding an individual state from an unsorted set. Previous work has focused purely on the effects of the dimensionality of the dataset to be searched. Here, we consider the effects of interpolating between dimensions, connectivity of the dataset, and the possibility of disorder in the underlying substrate: all these factors affect the efficiency of the search algorithm. We show that, as well as the strong dependence on the spatial dimension of the structure to be searched, there are also secondary dependencies on the connectivity and symmetry of the lattice, with greater connectivity providing a more efficient algorithm. In addition, we also show that the algorithm can tolerate a non-trivial level of disorder in the underlying substrate.

Lovett, Neil B; Heath, Robert M; Kendon, Viv

2011-01-01

203

Factors affecting the dermal bioavailability of hydrocarbons in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The science of risk assessment has advanced significantly in recent years, in a continuing effort to more accurately represent potential human health effects from exposure to chemicals in the environment. This paper describes some environmental factors that affect the behavior of chemicals in soil and the relationship of this chemical behavior to the prediction of dermal exposures relating to soil contamination. The information presented in this paper suggests that the mass transfer of chemicals from the soil to the skin is as much an issue in dermal exposures to soil-sorbed chemicals as the actual absorption of the chemical through the skin. Relevant factor affecting the sorption, desorption, and mass transfer of hydrocarbon chemicals in soil are discussed. A summary of the scientific literature related to research on chemicals sorbed to soil is also presented

204

Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.

S. Bauer

2012-03-01

205

Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed ...

Bauer, S.; Ketema, M.

2012-01-01

206

Factors affecting the adoption of quality assurance technologies in healthcare  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose – In the light of public concern and of strong policy emphasis on quality and safety in the nursing care of patients in hospital settings, this paper focuses on the factors affecting the adoption of innovative quality assurance technologies. Design/methodology/approach – Two sets of complementary literatures were mined for key themes. Next, new empirical insights were sought. Data gathering was conducted in three phases. The first involved contact with NHS Technology Hubs and ...

Storey, John

2013-01-01

207

Environmental factors affecting tourists' experience in South African national parks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study, the first of its kind involving South African National Parks, aimed to determine which environmental factors in these parks have a negative effect on tourists’ experience, and whether tourists who visit parks frequently are more aware of environmental impacts than those who visit only occasionally. The findings will help to inform South African National Parks (SANParks) management about the impacts of tourism in the parks and how these affect tourists’ experience. Data was obt...

Saayman, Melville; Du Plessis, Liezel; Merwe, Petrus

2012-01-01

208

Factors affecting the stabiliti of the ground crane runway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Immediate or obvious causes of these circumstances might be considered using supply and demand terminology. Long distances between homes and schools, and the shortage of proper sanitation for girls could be major factors that affect the supply side In addition sexual harassment by older boys and male teachers seems to be serious in some schools. On the demand side three levels can be identified. At the individual level, the biggest reason for girls to drop out of school is failure to pass exa...

?????????, ?. ?.; ?????, ?. ?.; ??????????, ?. ?.

2013-01-01

209

Muskmelon seed germination and seedling development in response to seed priming  

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Important factors affecting seed priming have not been extensively reported in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) studies. The optimization of the seed priming technique becomes very important at the commercial scale. Little information has been reported on seedling development of muskmelon subsequent to seed priming. Seeds of muskmelon were primed in darkness at 25degreesC in different solutions and three osmotic potentials. Seeds were also primed with and without aeration during different periods....

Nascimento Warley Marcos

2003-01-01

210

Factors That Affect Body Mass Index of Adults  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the factors that contribute to the body mass index (BMI of adults and evaluate the eating habits of the individuals. The study was conducted on 498 adults whose ages were ranging from 20 to 85 (39.1±14.9 year. The data were collected using a questionnaire form that consisted of questions concerning general characteristics of individuals, frequency of food consumption and eating habits. Food types in the food consumption frequency were grouped together according to Nutrition Guide for Turkey. Body weights and heights of the individuals were measured. BMI of the 55% of the individuals participated in the study is 25 or higher than 25. The average BMI of the individuals differs according to age, educational, marital, smoking status, parity and sleep duration (p0.05. A statistically significant correlation was found between BMI of participants and their habit of eating at night, appetite and use of sweeteners (p<0.05. Individuals with BMI<25 were determined to have a lower consumption frequency of milk and dairy products and fruits-vegetables monthly (p<0.05. In this study; age, educational, marital, smoking status and sleep duration were found to affect body mass index. Analysis of genetic and environmental factors affecting obesity is required to reveal the factors affecting body mass index of individuals more clearly.

Esma Asil

2014-01-01

211

Multiple viral determinants affect seed transmission of pea seedborne mosaic virus in Pisum sativum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two pea seedborne mosaic potyvirus (PSbMV) isolates, P-1 DPD1 (P-1), which is highly seed-transmitted, and P-4 NY (P-4), which is rarely seed-transmitted, and chimeras between P-1 and P-4 were analysed to map the viral genetic determinants of seed transmission. Infectivity of chimeric viruses was evaluated by inoculating Pisum sativum with RNA transcribed in vitro from recombinant full-length cDNA clones. The chimeric viruses that were used demonstrated that a genomic segment encoding the 49 kDa protease and putative RNA polymerase was responsible for symptom induction. Attempts to determine transmission of the chimeric viruses in P. sativum cultivars known to transmit P1 at high frequencies showed that seed transmission is a quantitative character influenced by multiple viral determinants. Seed transmission frequency did not correlate with accumulation of virus in vegetative tissue. The 5' 2.5 kb of the 10 kb PSbMV genome had a major influence on the seed transmission frequency and was analysed further. This showed that, while the helper-component protease was a major determinant of seed transmission, the potyviral P1 -protease exerted no measurable influence. PMID:9000110

Johansen, I E; Dougherty, W G; Keller, K E; Wang, D; Hampton, R O

1996-12-01

212

EXPLORING THE FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEES’ ADOPTION AND USE OF INNOVATION  

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Full Text Available This paper explores the factors affecting innovation adoption by individual employees within an organization in Australia. Following a qualitative research approach, this paper uses a series of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions involving academic and administrative employees at a tertiary educational institution in Australia. The qualitative approach is adopted to have a deeper insight into the complexities and dynamism associated with the factors influencing innovation adoption process in organizational settings. The findings of this research highlight the need for broadening an understanding of the key factors affecting employee’s decisions to uptake the adoption of innovation. The results provide important clues for comprehending the factors influencing and determining the employee’s adoption and continued use of innovation in the work environment. In the face of the current trend towards end-user applications of technological innovation, the results suggest some guidelines for management toward effective and efficient adoption and use of innovation in organizational settings. This paper has highlighted the above findings and their implications for management practices related to innovation management in an Australian organizational setting. This paper also identifies possible limitations and future research potential in the relevant field.

Majharul Talukder

2010-01-01

213

Lamb meat quality and intramuscular fatty acid composition as affected by concentrates including different legume seeds  

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Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of concentrates including legume seeds (Vicia faba var. minor or Pisum sativum on lamb performances and on meat quality, with an emphasis on intramuscular fatty acid composition. Thirty lambs (14.5 ± 3.45 kg live weight were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments: PEA group (concentrate including 400 g/kg of peas; FB group (concentrate including 380 g/kg of faba bean; SBM group (concentrate including 180 g/kg of soybean meal. Growth and slaughter performances were not affected by treatments as well as physical and proximate chemical meat characteristics. FB and SBM meat showed higher (P<0.001 vaccenic acid levels compared to PEA meat. Oleic acid was higher (P<0.05 in PEA meat compared to SBM meat while its level in FB meat was similar to counterparts. Linoleic acid levels tended to increase (P<0.10 in SBM lambs compared to PEA animals. PEA group showed higher (P<0.001 ?-linolenic acid proportions compared to FB and SBM groups and a tendentially higher (P<0.10 eicosapentaenoic acid content compared to SBM meat. As a result, total n-3 fatty acids were higher (P<0.05 in PEA meat compared to SBM one while the proportions in FB meat were at intermediate level. These findings accounted for a lower and more favourable (P<0.001 n-6/n-3 ratio in PEA group compared to counterparts. Peas based-concentrate seemed to be more effective than faba bean- or soybean meal-included concentrates to improve the acidic profile of meat leading to higher ?-linolenic acid levels and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio.

Pietro Pennisi

2011-04-01

214

Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation by Rhizobium  

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Full Text Available Recent reports pointed to a decline in agricultural dependence on symbiotic nitrogen fixation, and in the use of rhizobial inoculants. The aim of the present review was to study the environmental factors that affect the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium in soil. These factors included pH, salinity, moisture, temperature, microorganisms, organic matter and soil texture. The overall conclusion is that symbiotic nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium is a critical biological process. Environmental stresses are generally the limiting factors of the symbiotic nitrogen fixation. With the selection of the appropriate legume and rhizobial inoculant, nitrogen fixation can be increased and concomitantly food production can be improved even under environmentally stressed conditions.

Abdullah M. K. Al-Falih

2002-01-01

215

FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHERS’ USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY  

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Full Text Available Research studies in the past decade have shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. Studies reveal a number of factors influencing teachers’ decisions to use ICT in the classroom: non-manipulative and manipulative school and teacher factors. These factors are interrelated. The success of the implementation of ICT is not dependent on the availability or absence of one individual factor, but is determined through a dynamic process involving a set of interrelated factors. It is suggested that ongoing professional development must be provided for teachers to model the new pedagogies and tools for learning with the aim of enhancing the teaching-learning process. However, it is important for teacher trainers and policy makers to understand the factors affecting effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different approaches to ICT use in teacher training so training strategies can be appropriately explored to make such changes viable to all.

Mojgan Afshari

2009-01-01

216

Studies on the dormancy of cereal seeds as affected by gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of gamma radiation (10 kR) was studied on the germination of freshly harvested seeds of several varieties of barley, wheat and triticale. On the basis of the germination in irradiated seeds in comparison to controls, barley varieties may be categorized into three groups: (i) those showing reduction in germination, (ii) those showing stimulation in germination and (iii) those remaining unaffected. The mean germination percentage of the controls was 50.7, 19.4 and 2.1 in group i, ii and iii varieties, respectively. After 6 weeks, varieties in group iii lost seed dormancy. The response of these varieties to irradiation then became similar to group i or ii. Wheat and triticale varieties also could be grouped in similar way. It has been suggested that germination response of seeds of these cereal varieties to relatively 'low doses' of gamma radiation depends on their innate dormancy status and germination could be stimulated by gamma radiation (10 kR) in seeds having low germination due to seed dormancy. (author)

217

The Effects of Storage on Germination Characteristics and Enzyme Activity of Sorghum Seeds  

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Seed moisture content (MC) and storage temperature are the most important factors affecting seed longevity and vigor. Exposure to warm, moist air is principally responsible for this. Proper storage and optimum seed moisture content can affect the grain quality significantly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the different storage treatments on seed quality of sorghum. The seed materials were fresh without any storage period. For storage treatments, 3 seed moisture contents (6, 10, ...

Azadi M.S.; Younesi E.

2013-01-01

218

An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors  

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Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs, problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL. Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

Takashi Kuremoto

2013-07-01

219

Factors affecting ?-ODAP content in Lathyrus sativus and their possible physiological mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

A neuroexcitatory non-protein amino acid, ?-N-oxalyl-L-?,?-diaminopropionic acid (?-ODAP), present in the seeds of the hardy legume crop grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), was considered responsible for human lathyrism. The levels of ?-ODAP were reported to vary in different tissues during plant development, and to be affected by a wide range of environmental stresses. In this paper, dynamic changes in ?-ODAP level at specific stages of plant development as well as the influences of various environmental factors, including nutrient deficiency, drought, salinity, toxic heavy metals, and Rhizobium symbiosis on ?-ODAP levels were analyzed, highlighting the relationship between changes in ?-ODAP concentrations and Rhizobium growth. Possible mechanisms underlying ?-ODAP accumulation are proposed and future research is suggested. PMID:20510335

Jiao, C-J; Jiang, J-L; Ke, L-M; Cheng, W; Li, F-M; Li, Z-X; Wang, C-Y

2011-03-01

220

Factors Affecting The Entrepreneurial Behavior Of TUMS Research Centers Managers  

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Full Text Available  Background and Aim: Entrepreneurial roles can be performed by managers at different levels. In fact, entrepreneurship can be interpreted as a tendency adopted by managers towards their environment in which they should have the ability to discover new opportunities for their innovative activities. This study aims to identify factors affecting entrepreneurial behavior of research centers managers at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS.  Materials and Methods: Considering the sample size determined through Cochran’s formula, 90 questionnaires were distributed among TUMS research centers managers. The data were analyzed based on structural equation modeling applying partial least squares approach through Smartpls.2 software.  Results: Of the 90 questionnaires distributed, 67 were acceptable for study. The model created for effective factors enjoyed an acceptable goodness of fit index (GOF=0.49. Factors loading for the observed variables were above 0.4 and the constructs had an acceptable level of reliability and validity.  Conclusion : The results show that contextual and behavioral factors have a positive effect on entrepreneurial behavior and that structural factors have a negative effect on it. 

Mahdi Khayatan

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

Factors affecting surface and release properties of thin PDMS films  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) elastomers are commonly used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP). DEAP films are used in making actuators, generators and sensors. In the large scale manufacture of DEAP films, release of films from the substrate (carrier web) induces some defects and pre-strain in the films which affect the overall performance of the films. The current research is directed towards investigating factors affecting the peel force and release of thin, corrugated polydimethylsiloxane films used in DEAP films. It has been shown that doping the PDMS films with small quantities of perfluoroether allylamide (PFE) lowered the surface energy which could ease the release. This is further investigated together with an evaluation of the resulting change in actuator performance. The relationship between the adhesive energy, surface energy, Young’s modulus and peel force of the films is analyzed.

Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

2013-01-01

222

Soil seed banks and their germination responses to cadmium and salinity stresses in coastal wetlands affected by reclamation and urbanization based on indoor and outdoor experiments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indoor and outdoor seedling emergence experiments were conducted to thoroughly investigate germination patterns as affected by reclamation and urbanization, the ecological characteristics of soil seed banks, and their relationships with environmental factors in both urbanized and reclaimed regions of the Pearl River Delta in coastal wetlands. The germination rate of the soil seed bank was higher in the indoor experiment compared with that in the outdoor experiment, whereas the number and destiny of the germinated seedlings were greater in the outdoor experiment. The species diversity and number, as well as the richness and evenness indices, were higher in the urbanized region compared with the reclaimed region. However, the dominance and Sørensen similarity indices were greater in the reclaimed region compared with those indices in the urbanized region. Higher salinity and Cadmium (Cd) levels could inhibit seed germination; however, their suitable ranges (i.e. [0-2000mgkg(-1)] for salinity and [0-4.0mgkg(-1)] for available Cd) can activate seedling emergence, and more seedlings germinated under the intersectional levels at 0.34mgkg(-1) available Cd and 778.6mgkg(-1) salinity. Seawater intrusion caused by the sea level rise will possibly result in the salt-tolerant community in this area due to increasing salinity. PMID:25173982

Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Gao, Zhaoqin; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing; Zhao, Qingqing

2014-09-15

223

Effect of Different Processing Methods on Proximate, Mineral and Anti Nutritional Factors Content of Baobab (Adansonia digitata Seeds  

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Full Text Available Effect of different processing methods on chemical profile of Baobab (Adansonia digitata seed meal was investigated. Raw Baobab seeds were collected for the study. Five different processing methods (Boiling, toasting, soaking, soak and boiling and sprouting were used. All the processed seeds with the exception of toasted seeds were oven dried before milling for chemical analysis. Result of the study shows that raw baobab seed contains 28.85% CP with a reasonable amount of mineral and energy, it also contain some anti-nutritional factors. Processing significantly reduced crude protein, mineral and anti nutrition factors content but improved energy content. Boiling gave the least percentage reduction of crude protein and highest percentage reduction of anti nutritional factor. Boiling processing is recommended for baobab seed.

L.A. Saulawa

2014-01-01

224

Arabidopsis WRKY2 transcription factor mediates seed germination and postgermination arrest of development by abscisic acid  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant WRKY DNA-binding transcription factors are key regulators in certain developmental programs. A number of studies have suggested that WRKY genes may mediate seed germination and postgermination growth. However, it is unclear whether WRKY genes mediate ABA-dependent seed germination and postgermination growth arrest. Results To determine directly the role of Arabidopsis WRKY2 transcription factor during ABA-dependent seed germination and postgermination growth arrest, we isolated T-DNA insertion mutants. Two independent T-DNA insertion mutants for WRKY2 were hypersensitive to ABA responses only during seed germination and postgermination early growth. wrky2 mutants displayed delayed or decreased expression of ABI5 and ABI3, but increased or prolonged expression of Em1 and Em6. wrky2 mutants and wild type showed similar levels of expression for miR159 and its target genes MYB33 and MYB101. Analysis of WRKY2 expression level in ABA-insensitive and ABA-deficient mutants abi5-1, abi3-1, aba2-3 and aba3-1 further indicated that ABA-induced WRKY2 accumulation during germination and postgermination early growth requires ABI5, ABI3, ABA2 and ABA3. Conclusion ABA hypersensitivity of the wrky2 mutants during seed germination and postgermination early seedling establishment is attributable to elevated mRNA levels of ABI5, ABI3 and ABI5-induced Em1 and Em6 in the mutants. WRKY2-mediated ABA responses are independent of miR159 and its target genes MYB33 and MYB101. ABI5, ABI3, ABA2 and ABA3 are important regulators of the transcripts of WRKY2 by ABA treatment. Our results suggest that WRKY2 transcription factor mediates seed germination and postgermination developmental arrest by ABA.

Yu Diqiu

2009-07-01

225

Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

226

Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

227

Factors Affecting the End-User Computing Satisfaction  

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Full Text Available In this study we investigate factors that are affecting the end-user computing of accounting information system satisfaction from financial managers' point of view. Our sample is selected from companies listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. This research is a descriptive - empirical field study. The required data is collected by sending out questionnaires to the financial managers of the sampled companies. Our findings indicate that, the information content, ease of using accounting information system, accuracy and correctness of information, format of the reports and timeliness of information have an impact on the end-user computing satisfaction.

Mohsen Dastgir

2012-07-01

228

Factors affecting lactate and malate utilization by Selenomonas ruminantium.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lactate utilization by Selenomonas ruminantium is stimulated in the presence of malate. Because little information is available describing lactate-plus-malate utilization by this organism, the objective of this study was to evaluate factors affecting utilization of these two organic acids by two strains of S. ruminantium. When S. ruminantium HD4 and H18 were grown in batch culture on DL-lactate and DL-malate, both strains coutilized both organic acids for the initial 20 to 24 h of incubation ...

Evans, J. D.; Martin, S. A.

1997-01-01

229

Chinese multinationals: how do institutional factors affect their location patterns?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of various host country institutional factors on the location patterns of 29 large Chinese multinationals. From a sample of 127 outward foreign direct investment (FDI decisions made in 52 countries, our findings suggest that a greater difficulty in doing business and a high political risk in the host country do not discourage Chinese multinationals. However, the presence of overseas Chinese in the host country, a larger absolute host market size and a higher volume of Chinese exports to that country affect positively.

Diego Quer Ramón

2011-11-01

230

[Psychological factors affecting medical conditions--a method of measurement].  

Science.gov (United States)

Improving the way of diagnosing diseases is reflected in changes which are being introduced into the existing systems of classifications. Researchers aim to create such a system that will be free of assumptions that are controversial and difficult to approve on the medical basis. Currently completed works associated with the preparation and introduced the DSM-5, in which they prepared criteria for the assessment psychological factors affecting medical conditions and their method of measurement. An interview which is presented in this article has been created for the evaluation of those groups of syndromes and has been translated into the Polish language. PMID:25344974

Basi?ska, Malgorzata A; Wo?niewicz, Agnieszka

2014-01-01

231

Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

Lemontt, J F

1979-01-01

232

Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

Lemontt, J F

1979-01-01

233

Factors affecting the stability of chloroplast membranes in vitro  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Factors which affect the stability of light-induced atebrin fluorescence quenching activity in chloroplast membranes, a measure of the electron transport dependent formation of energy-linked H/sup +/ gradients, were investigated in vitro. Class II spinach chloroplast membranes were isolated and stored at 0 to 4/sup 0/C and aliquots were subsequently tested for their retention of energizing capacity. The main factors which increase the stability of this activity were found to be (a) isolation in a potassium-containing medium but storage in a sucrose medium containing a low concentration of electrolytes; (b) the presence of butylated hydroxytoluene (an antioxidant), and a protein such as bovine serum albumin to remove free fatty acids in the medium during storage. Under these conditions, the energization capacity of chloroplasts is retained for more than 40 days.

Takaoki, T.; Torres-Pereira, J.; Packer, L.

1974-01-01

234

Human Factors Affecting the Patient's Acceptance of Wireless Biomedical Sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

In monitoring arrhythmia, the quality of medical data from the ECG sensors may be enhanced by being based on everyday life situations. Hence, the development of wireless biomedical sensors is of growing interest, both to diagnose the heart patient, as well as to adjust the regimen. However, human factors such as emotional barriers and stigmatization, may affect the patient's behavior while wearing the equipment, which in turn may influence quality of data. The study of human factors and patient acceptance is important both in relation to the development of such equipment, as well as in evaluating the quality of data gathered from the individual patient. In this paper, we highlight some important aspects in patient acceptance by comparing results from a preliminary clinical trial with patients using a wireless ECG sensor for three days out-of-hospital service, to available published results from telehomecare projects, and discuss important aspects to be taken into account in future investigations.

Fensli, Rune; Boisen, Egil

235

Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service syste [...] m such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT) and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - 'wireless internet' and 'mobile applications' - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.

Youngmo, Kang; Mingook, Lee; Sungjoo, Lee.

236

Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service syste [...] m such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT) and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - 'wireless internet' and 'mobile applications' - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.

Youngmo, Kang; Mingook, Lee; Sungjoo, Lee.

2014-07-01

237

Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study’s findings show that many factors hinder the quality of English teaching and learning: uninteresting teaching style; insufficient time for communicative activities; grammar-driven teaching; unreasonable time-management; unclear instructions; large class sizes; teachers’ limited ability in classroom organization; unequal students’ English levels; inadequate lesson preparation; teachers’ limited use of teaching aids and technology; and students’ lack of confidence in using oral English in class activities. Based on these results, recommendations are given to improve the quality of non-major English teaching and learning, at HUTECH University in particular and in Vietnamese higher education in general.

Hong Thi Nguyen

2014-07-01

238

11-Year Experience with Gastroschisis: Factors Affecting Mortality and Morbidity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was the evaluation of patients treated with a diagnosis of gastroschisis and to establish the factors which affected the morbidity and mortality.Methods: Twenty-nine patients, managed for gastroschisis during 2000-2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were analysed in respect to gestational age, birth weight, associated anomalies, type of delivery, operative procedures, postoperative complications, total parenteral nutrition (TPN related complications. The factors affecting mortality and morbidity were determined .Findings: Associated abnormalities were present in 24% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent elective reduction in the incubator (Bianchi procedure without anaesthesia. Eight patients had delayed reduction with silo and ten patients had primary closure. Although the type of delivery had an effect on morbidity but not mortality, gestational age, birth weight, and the operative procedure performed had no effect on morbidity or mortality. Duration until tolerance of oral intake, and of TPN and hospitalization were found to be statistically significantly shorter in the group of babies delivered by caesarean section.Conclusion: The mortality of gastroschisis is reported to be decreasing with the development of antenatal care, neonatal intensive care and TPN. In our study the most important cause of mortality was the abdominal compartment syndrome and multi-organ failure in the early years. Long hospitalization periods and sepsis were the main causes of mortality in recent years.

Derya Erdo?an

2012-09-01

239

Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs. A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM. The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36, as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37. Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players’ willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs.

Michael D. Cusimano

2013-05-01

240

Factors Affecting Success and Complication of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL is the first choice renal stones especially larger than 2 cm, and high success rates can be achieved after PNL. But several severe complications may be occurred. In this study, factors which affect the success rate and complications were investigated. Material and Method: Between July 2004 and August 2007, 176 patients (102 men/74 women underwent PNL operation. Because of the bilateral renal stones PNL was performed in two separate sessions of 9 patients. Percutaneous access was doing in prone position. Factors affecting the success and complication data were collected. Results: Mean age was 47.610,7 (17%uFFFD76 year, median=47. Complete success rate was detected 77.8% with the direct X-rays taken in the first postoperative day. The success rate was up to 87% after the additional post-treatment therapy. Success rates were 83.1% for complex stones and 89.4% for simple stones (p

Soner Yalç?nkaya

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

Factors affecting the leaching of lead from UPVC pipes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper summarizes the results of a series of studies on the various factors that affect the leaching of lead from unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (UPVC) pipes. Factors that were studied include temperature, pH and extractants. Results showed that, for a given UPVC pipe, the rate of leaching of lead depended primarily on temperature and the nature of extractants. While the rate of leaching of lead was quite low with distilled water, it was very much enhanced by the presence of low concentration of anions such as Cl(-), HPO inf4 (sup2-) HCO inf3 (sup-) , NO inf3 (sup-) , SO inf4 (sup2-) and EDTA. EDTA, being a strong complexing agent, was most effective. Rates of leaching were found to be higher at elevated temperature except in the cases of HPO inf4 (sup2-) and EDTA. Effect of pH was not pronounced. The temperature at which the UPVC pipes were extruded was found to affect the rate of leaching of lead. Pipes extruded at 190°C were found to have lower rate of leaching than those extruded at 180°C and 170°C. Analysis of the pipes by Scanning Electron Microscopy showed that the distribution of lead in the pipes extruded at 190°C was more uniform than those extruded at 170°C. PMID:24233940

Koh, L L; Wong, M K; Gan, L M; Yap, C T

1991-10-01

242

Factors affecting the reproductive potential of dairy cows  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various factors that affect fertility were examined in high yielding dairy cows. In cows treated for the synchronization of oestrous cycles, manifestation of oestrus following synchronization treatment was affected by the body condition score in the winter; 74% of the cows had a low score. Primiparous cows that were thin or fat had a low conception rate. The conception rate of multiparous cows with different body condition scores did not differ in the winter. However, in the summer, thin, medium-low, medium-high and fat cows had a conception rate of 15, 36, 48 and 27%, respectively (P4) levels five days before the first post-partum AI affected conception rates. Primiparous cows with low (?2 ng/mL), medium (2.1-4.0 ng/mL) and high (?4.1 ng/mL) P4 levels had a conception rate of 28, 17 and 61%, respectively (P4 had a conception rate of 25, 46 and 52%, respectively (P<0.02). Cows in their fifth or later lactation that were fed straw as their sole roughage had a conception rate of 23% and a 120 day pregnancy rate of 23%. Cows of the same parities that were fed hay had a conception rate of 50% (P<0.05) and a pregnancy rate of 80% (P<0.005). (author). 15 refs, 5 tabs

243

Physiological Responses of West African Dwarf Buck as Affected by Datura Stramonium Linn Seed Extract  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To evaluate the action of aqueous extract of Datura stramonium seeds on the physiological status of West African Dwarf (WAD) -bucks, the effects of aqueous extract of the seed of Datura stramonium Linn was investigated for some physiological parameters in twenty (20) West African Dwarf bucks aged 12- 18 months and averaged 8.76±1.23kg for a period of 2months. The bucks were grouped into five treatments consisting four bucks and using Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The bucks were subcu...

Fatoba, T. A.; Adeloye, A. A.; Soladoye, A. O.

2012-01-01

244

Factors Affecting the Adoption and use of NERICA Varieties among Rice Producing Households in Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper uses cross sectional data which were collected from 200 smallholder rice producers in Ghana, to examine the factors influencing the adoption and extent of use of NERICA rice varieties in Ghana. About 57.93 per cent of the sampled rice producers allocated 35.77 per cent of their land to NERICA accounting for about 33.13 per cent of seeds planted. The Tobit regression model suggests fertilizer use, existence of other complementary projects in the area, proportion of active persons in household, access to alternative income sources, distance to seed source and education as key factors influencing the quantity of seeds planted as well as the proportion of land allocated to the NERICA varieties. With the exception of distance to seed source, all the other factors positively influenced the extents of adoption. The findings suggest the need to ensure availability of NERICA seeds within acceptable distances to farming communities. This could be achieved through identification of certified rice seed growers in strategic locations throughout the country and supported with necessary logistics to produce NERICA seeds at reasonable proximities to rice producing communities. This could also be enhanced through establishment of linkages with existing institutions and projects to compliment promotional efforts.

Asante Bright Owusu

2013-10-01

245

Systematic factors that affect ostrich egg incubation traits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock maintained at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate environmental and genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), water loss of incubated eggs up to 21 days (WL21), water loss up to 35 days (WL35), pipping time (PT) and weight of day-old chicks (C [...] WT). Between 13806 and 19913 artificially incubated ostrich eggs during the 2003 to 2006 production years were used. Systematic factors affecting these traits such as production year, breeding season, female age, incubator type, storage time and ostrich breed, were initially assessed in single-trait-analyses, using ASREML. Eggs and chicks produced by Zimbabwean Blue (ZB) females were 5 and 7% heavier, respectively, than those produced by South African Black (SAB) females. WL21 and WL35 were not significantly different between ZB and SAB birds. There were trends for within-season effects on EWT and CWT, but no general, robust trend applicable to all years could be discerned. Season had a significant effect on WL21, WL35 and PT. An increase was apparent in EWT, CWT and PT with an increase in female age. There was a linear increase in pipping time as egg storage time prior to incubation increased. Incubator type had an effect on WL21 and WL35. Systematic factors affect traits such as WL21, WL35 and PT and should be accounted for before the estimation of genetic parameters. These factors should be considered when planning commercial ostrich husbandry and artificial incubation operations.

Z., Brand; S.W.P., Cloete; C.R., Brown; I.A., Malecki.

2008-04-01

246

Systematic factors that affect ostrich egg incubation traits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock maintained at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate environmental and genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), water loss of incubated eggs up to 21 days (WL21), water loss up to 35 days (WL35), pipping time (PT) and weight of day-old chicks (C [...] WT). Between 13806 and 19913 artificially incubated ostrich eggs during the 2003 to 2006 production years were used. Systematic factors affecting these traits such as production year, breeding season, female age, incubator type, storage time and ostrich breed, were initially assessed in single-trait-analyses, using ASREML. Eggs and chicks produced by Zimbabwean Blue (ZB) females were 5 and 7% heavier, respectively, than those produced by South African Black (SAB) females. WL21 and WL35 were not significantly different between ZB and SAB birds. There were trends for within-season effects on EWT and CWT, but no general, robust trend applicable to all years could be discerned. Season had a significant effect on WL21, WL35 and PT. An increase was apparent in EWT, CWT and PT with an increase in female age. There was a linear increase in pipping time as egg storage time prior to incubation increased. Incubator type had an effect on WL21 and WL35. Systematic factors affect traits such as WL21, WL35 and PT and should be accounted for before the estimation of genetic parameters. These factors should be considered when planning commercial ostrich husbandry and artificial incubation operations.

Z., Brand; S.W.P., Cloete; C.R., Brown; I.A., Malecki.

247

Study of factors affecting the appearance of colors under microscopes  

Science.gov (United States)

The variation of colors in microscopy systems can be quite critical for some users. To address this problem, a study is conducted to analyze how different factors such as size of the sample, intensity of the microscope's light source and the characteristics of the material like chroma and saturation can affect the color appearance through the eyepiece of the microscope. To study the changes in colors considering these factors, the spectral reflectance of 24 colors of GretagMacbeth Classic ColorChecker® and Mini ColorChecker® which are placed under a Nikon ECLIPSE MA200 microscope®2 using dark filed and bright field illuminations which result in different intensity levels, is measured using a spectroradiometer®3 which was placed in front of the eyepiece of the microscope. The results are compared with the original data from N. Ohta1. The evaluation is done by observing the shift in colors in the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram and the CIELAB space, also by applying a wide set of color-difference formulas, namely: CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, DIN99d and DIN99b. Furthermore, to emphasize on the color regions in which the highest difference is observed, the authors have obtained the results from another microscope; Olympus SZX10®4, which in this case the measurement is done by mounting the spectroradiometer to the camera port of the microscope. The experiment leads to some interesting results, among which is the consistency in the highest difference observed considering different factors or how the change in saturation of the samples of the same hue can affect the results.

Zakizadeh, Roshanak; Martinez-Garcia, Juan; Raja, Kiran B.; Siakidis, Christos

2013-11-01

248

Determination of Factors Affecting HRTEM Gate Dielectric Thickness Measurement Uncertainty  

Science.gov (United States)

Because high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) relies on a complex contrast mechanism to produce images of gate dielectric films in cross section, there are many factors affecting the uncertainty of thickness measurements based on these images. A preliminary survey revealed approximately 50 parameters that affect the uncertainty in a gate dielectric dimensional metrology experiment using HRTEM, along with approximately 1,200 two-term interactions and almost 20,000 three-term interactions. Using established design-of-experiment (DEX) methodologies, I performed a screening experiment based on a 2IV(8-4) fractional factorial design to determine which factors had the greatest impact on the absolute error of the thickness measurements. Absolute error was determined by simulating HRTEM micrographs using a multislice calculation. The model used for the simulation consisted of a variable SiO2 film approximately 2 nm thick positioned between two pieces of crystalline Si. This approximation to a gate stack was built atom-by-atom using commercial molecular modeling software supplemented with custom Tcl scripts to assemble the gate structures from simpler primitives. By varying the molecular model, sample parameters such as crystallographic orientation, film thickness, density, and along-beam thickness can be varied precisely. Instrument parameters and details of the imaging conditions are inputs to the multislice calculation, a simulation technique that has been vetted by the microscopy community and has been in use for decades. Beam tilt, defocus, and vibration amplitude were the main factors found to have the largest effects, while beam-tilt?defocus and defocus?vibration were the most important two-term interactions.

Scott, John Henry J.

2003-09-01

249

Geolocation by light: accuracy and precision affected by environmental factors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1. Geolocation by light allows for tracking animal movements, based on measurements of light intensity over time by a data-logging device (‘geolocator’). Recent developments of ultra-light devices (<2 g) broadened the range of target species and boosted the number of studies using geolocators. However, an inherent problem of geolocators is that any factor or process that changes the natural light intensity pattern also affects the positions calculated from these light patterns. Although the most important factors have been identified, estimation of their effect on the accuracy and precision of positions estimated has been lacking but is very important for the analyses and interpretation of geolocator data. 2. The ‘threshold method’ is mainly used to derive positions by defining sunrise and sunset times from the light intensity pattern for each recorded day. This method requires calibration: a predefined sun elevation angle for estimating latitude by fitting the recorded day / night lengthsto theoretical values across latitudes. Therewith, almost constant shading can be corrected for by finding the appropriate sun elevation angle. 3. Weather, topography and vegetation are the most important factors that influence light intensities. We demonstrated their effect on the measurement of day /night length, time of solar midnight /noon and the resulting position estimates using light measurements from stationary geolocators at known places and from geolocators mounted on birds. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of different calibration methods on the accuracy of the latitudinal positions. 4. All three environmental factors can influence the light intensity pattern significantly. Weather and an animal’s behaviour result in increased noise in positioning, whereas topography and vegetation result in systematic shading and biased positions. Calibration can significantly shift the estimated latitudes and potentially increase the accuracy, but detailed knowledge about the particular confounding factors and the behaviour of the studied animal is crucial for the choice of the most appropriate calibration method.

Lisovski, Simeon; Hewson, Chris M.

2012-01-01

250

Agronomic Traits of Mungbean and Subsequent Rice Crop as Affected by Seed Inoculation and Different Fertilizer Level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of seed inoculation and different fertilizer levels on the yield and yield components of mungbean and subsequent rice crop was studied. Results showed that seed inoculation and different fertilizer levels significantly affected yield and yield components of mungbean and rice crops. Treatment (T6 exhibited superior performance for exploiting maximum potential of mungbean crop (954.8 kg ha-1 grains, which was 50% more than that of control. Whereas T7 gave maximum residual effect (4075 kg ha-1 paddy yield, however statistically it was at par with T3, T4, T5 and T6. In conclusion, T6 proved better for getting maximum mungbean yield while T7 produced highest paddy yield.

Aasrar Mahboob

2003-01-01

251

Yield and Yield Components of Wheat as Affected by Different Planting Dates, Seed Rate and Nitrogen Levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to study the yield and yield components of wheat as affected by different planting dates, seed rate and nitrogen levels, an experiment was carried out at Malakandhar Research Farms, NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan during 2000. Mean value of the data indicated that different sowing dates and nitrogen levels had a significant effect on productive tillers m -2 spike length, spiklets spike -1, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index, while the effect of different seed rates on the above parameters was non significant. October 25th sowing (early had maximum productive tillers m -2, grain yield and biological yield. Plots fertilized with 160 kg N ha -1 recorded maximum productive tillers m -2, spike length, spiklets spike -1, grain yield and biological yield.

Ejaz Hameed

2002-01-01

252

Tri-trophic interactions affect density dependence of seed fate in a tropical forest palm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural enemies, especially host-specific enemies, are hypothesised to facilitate the coexistence of plant species by disproportionately inflicting more damage at increasing host abundance. However, few studies have assessed such Janzen-Connell mechanisms on a scale relevant for coexistence and no study has evaluated potential top-down influences on the specialized pests. We quantified seed predation by specialist invertebrates and generalist vertebrates, as well as larval predation on these invertebrates, for the Neotropical palm Attalea butyracea across ten 4-ha plots spanning 20-fold variation in palm density. As palm density increased, seed attack by bruchid beetles increased, whereas seed predation by rodents held constant. But because rodent predation on bruchid larvae increased disproportionately with increasing palm density, bruchid emergence rates and total seed predation by rodents and bruchids combined were both density-independent. Our results demonstrate that top-down effects can limit the potential of host-specific insects to induce negative-density dependence in plant populations. PMID:21899693

Visser, Marco D; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Wright, S Joseph; Rutten, Gemma; Jansen, Patrick A

2011-11-01

253

Soybean seed yield and its components as affected by different irrigation regimes at different reproductive stages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of an efficient and economical irrigation management system for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is essential to apply irrigations at specific stages of reproductive ontogeny. Soybean cultivar, Williams-82 was subjected to a factorial set of irrigated treatments: R1 to R2 flowering (F), R3 to R4 pod elongation (P) and R5 to R6 seed enlargement (S). The experiment was conducted for two years in spring 1986 and 1987 on a clay-loam soil at the National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad. An F-irrigation at flowering sage had great effect on seed yield (2253 kg/ha). Almost similar yield response was observed for an F-S irrigation and F-P-S irrigation, soybean seed yield for S-irrigation, P-irrigation, F-P and P-S irrigations were significantly lower than a single F-irrigation, F-S and F-P-S irrigation. Also a single irrigation at pod elongation stage (P) and seed enlargement stage (S) enhanced more yield than duel irrigations of F-P and P-S.(author)

254

Crucial Factors Affecting Stress: A Study among Undergraduates in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stress is normally unavoidable part of everyone’s life living in this world. It portrays a negative notion that can have an impact on one’s mental and physical well-being. The core intention of this study was to detect the most influencing factors of stress affecting undergraduates. The four factors that had taken under consideration were Family stress, Emotional stress, Financial Stress and Social Stress. To accomplish this research stress inventory has developed using scientific methods. Respondents were undergraduate students of university with different demographics. Results has presented graphically, descriptively and inferentially using SPSS and Excel. Pearson’s chi-square and correlation has applied to verify the relationship between stress factors and demographics. Results show that living persuasively under strict rules and regulations can be a family stressor. Unavailability of best choices and paramount match to live with as a partner can be an emotional stress. Less income students find difficulty to spend money on buying and enjoying which is a predictor of financial stress. Pressurized life and squat admiration from people has lied under Social stress. Other verdicts are also deemed according to Pakistani cultural context.

Kashif Ud Din Khan

2013-02-01

255

Factors affecting inulin crystallization after its complete dissolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we analyzed inulin crystallization during one year after its complete dissolution and an effect of inulin crystal seeds concentration on rheological and textural properties of inulin gels. 20% and 25% solutions of three different inulins, one native and two high performance (crystal and amorphous), were prepared by heating at 100°C for 5 min. During one year of storage at 20°C, inulin did not form a gel structure, but only precipitates and a crystal layer on the walls of the containers. Addition of crystal seeds (0.02-2%) caused formation of gel structure. Minimal concentration of the crystal seeds necessary to form a strong inulin gel was 0.4%. Crystallographic structure of inulin powder did not have an influence on the formed gels. The obtained results allow inulin gelation to control which can be crucial in novel foods, the structure of which is based on inulin. PMID:24906735

Glibowski, Pawel; Pikus, Stanislaw; Jurek, Justyna; Kotowoda, Marcin

2014-09-22

256

FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that salary, efficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The overall job satisfaction of the employees in pharmaceutical sector is at the positive level. The nature of business operation, the work culture and the level of job satisfaction have undergone sea change for the pharmaceutical companies. As a business proposition initiated huge investment whereas majority of their stocks is going down bringing a high level of apprehension related to job security among its employees. This research paper highlights some of these problems and presents a picture of level of job satisfaction among employees of pharmaceutical companies. It also identifies unique issues of job satisfaction in the companies. Pharmaceuticals Companies are selected for the research because they are currently undergoing continued expansion. In order to gain competitive advantage and adapt to the dramatic changing environment, it is important for them to achieve management efficiency by increasing employee satisfaction in the organisation. Hence this research was mainly undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting the job satisfaction. This paper presents a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of pharmaceutical business, the factors causing the dissatisfaction & suggestions to improve them.

Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin

2011-10-01

257

Percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation of osteoid osteomas: factors affecting therapeutic outcome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine factors which affect local recurrence of osteoid osteomas treated with percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation. A prospective study was carried out on 45 patients with osteoid osteoma who underwent percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation with a minimum follow-up of 12 months There were seven local recurrences (16%); all occurred within the first year. Local recurrence was significantly related to a non-diaphyseal location (P<0.01). There was no significant relationship (P=0.05) between local recurrence and age of the patient, duration of symptoms, previous treatment, size of the lesion, positive biopsy, radiofrequency generator used or the number of needle positions. There were no complications. Osteoid osteomas in a non-diaphyseal location are statistically more likely to recur than those in a diaphyseal location when treated with CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation. This relationship between local recurrence and location has not been previously reported. (orig.)

258

studies on some factors affecting oxidative low density lipoprotein  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of occupational radiation exposure on some oxidant antioxidant parameters in addition to other factors affecting oxidative stress such as age, smoking, hypertension, high sedimentation rate for this purpose. a total of 131 individuals were included in this study 81 of them working in the radiation field the age was from 27 to 63 years. the occupational time from five to more than 25 where the control groups was composed of 50 healthy volunteers who had never worked in radiology related job otherwise with the same characteristics . the parameters tested are LDL, HDL, triglycerides, cholesterol, vitamin E, SOD, MDA, hemoglobin, fasting blood sugar, urea, creatinine, and liver enzymes GOT, GPT.our results show that time of exposure to radiation shows remarkable effect beginning with decrease of vitamin E after five years exposure,extending to MDA, triglycerides and LDL which increased while SOD decreased

259

Factors affecting the low temperature pumpability of used engine oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A large number of studies have been published on the low temperature pumpability characteristics of fresh oils; however, less is known about the effects of oil aging on this property. In laboratory viscometric tests, fuel dilution, mechanical shearing, oxidative degradation and oil contaminants were all shown to significantly affect low temperature fluidity of multigrade engine oil formulations sensitive to slow cool gelation. Moreover, the cooling and shear rate applied to the test oil was found to play an important role in the overall impact of these factors. For example, fuel dilution may improve cold cranking viscosity while degrading slow-cool MRV performance. These laboratory viscometric studies have been supplemented by full scale All-Weather Chassis Dynamometer testing comparing the pumpability performance of new and used SAE 10W-30 engine oils.

May, C.J.; Habeeb

1987-01-01

260

FACTORS AFFECTED DECARBOXYLATION ACTIVITY OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM ISOLATED FROM RABBIT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Biogenic amines (BA are basic nitrogenous compounds formed mainly by decarboxylation of amino acids. There are generated in course of microbial, vegetable and animal metabolisms. The aim of the study was to monitor factors affected production of biogenic amines by Enterococcus faecium, which is found in rabbit meat. Biogenic amines were analyzed by means of UPLC (ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. Decarboxylation activity of E. faecium was mainly influenced by the cultivation temperature and the amount of NaCl in this study. E. faecium produced most of the monitored biogenic amines levels: tyramine ?2500 mg.l-1; putrescine ?30 mg.l-1; spermidine ?10 mg.l-1 and cadaverine ?5 mg.l-1.doi:10.5219/182

František Bu?ka

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Five Factors Affecting Stability and Security in the Middle East  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are five factors that affect security and stability in the Middle East. The first of these is the ticking bomb of sectarianism between the Sunni and Shiite strands of Islam, which have become more widespread in recent years due to the politisation of sectarian tensions and their transformation among some actors to a means to achieve political demands. Secondly, the impact of the Arab revolutions and the accompanying rise of Islamist groups through the new democratic tendencies encouraged by those revolutions. Thirdly, Iran’s behaviour through the use of both direct and indirect threats to several countries in the region. Fourthly, the existence of a fertile environment for terrorist groups in Yemen. Finally, the struggle between Arabs and Israelis over the existence of the State of Israel and the plight of the Palestinians. This article provides a clear set of linkages between these and investigates them with the intention of enhancing understanding and encouraging debate.

Yahya Alshammari

2012-12-01

262

Factors affecting focusing performance of continuous phase plate concentration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To improve the far field focal spot in inertial confinement fusion, the paper analyzes the main factors affecting the focusing performance of continuous phase plates. The encircled energy fraction and the far-field root-mean-square spot size are analyzed. The results show that, the aperture error, alignment error and amplitude distortion error have little effect on the focusing ability of continuous phase plates. The wavefront distortion lowers the energy concentrated especially when the correlation length is equivalent to the minimum spatial period (about 10 mm) of continuous phase plates. Thus improving the correlation length of the wavefront distortion in the inertial confinement fusion system is an effective way to improve the energy concentration degree of the focal spot. (authors)

263

Factors affecting tuberculosis retreatment defaults in Nanded, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out to determine factors affecting tuberculosis retreatment defaults in Nanded, India. All patients registered as tuberculosis retreatment cases (n = 107 excluding deaths during treatment) were interviewed by home visits. Their sociodemographic characteristics and treatment history were recorded and later compared with their treatment outcomes. Among the patients registered for re-treatment of tuberculosis (n = 112), 24 (21.4%) defaulted on treatment. The rate of default was 25.8% among those who had previously defaulted on treatment. Those who were employed, illiterate and alcoholics were 3.5, 3.5 and 3.4 times more likely to default, respectively, than others; these differences were significant. PMID:21073036

Bhagat, Vijay Manohar; Gattani, Prakash Laxminarayan

2010-09-01

264

Simulated lidar waveforms for understanding factors affecting waveform shape  

Science.gov (United States)

Full-waveform LIDAR is a technology which enables the analysis of the 3-D structure and arrangement of objects. An in-depth understanding of the factors that affect the shape of the full-waveform signal is required in order to extract as much information as possible from the signal. A simple model of LIDAR propagation has been created which simulates the interaction of LIDAR energy with objects in a scene. A 2-dimensional model tree allows controlled manipulation of the geometric arrangement of branches and leaves with varying spectral properties. Results suggest complex interactions of the LIDAR energy with the tree canopy, including the occurrence of multiple bounces for energy reaching the ground under the canopy. Idealized sensor instrument response functions incorporated in the simulation illustrate a large impact on waveform shape. A waveform recording laser rangefinder has been built which will allow validation or model results; preliminary collection results are presented here.

Kim, Angela M.; Olsen, Richard C.

2011-06-01

265

Factors affecting survival in total artificial heart recipients before transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

To identify factors affecting the successful bridge to transplantation, experience with 32 recipients of the Jarvik-7 artificial heart was reviewed. Between patients with and without a successful bridge, there were no significant differences in preoperative hepatorenal function or postoperative hemodynamics, but there were significant differences in body size. When recipients were divided according to body surface areas of less than or greater than 1.8 m2, the smaller patients more frequently developed respirator dependence (73% vs. 18%, p less than 0.01), renal failure (53% vs. 18%, p less than 0.05), and hepatic failure and sepsis, resulting in less frequent qualification for transplantation (20% vs. 65%, p less than 0.05). There were no successful bridge operations in seven patients with body surface areas of less than 1.7 m2, and only one success in nine patients who were less than 170 cm in height, despite use of a smaller stroke volume model. The smaller patients had poorer ventricular filling, which was largely compensated for by the drive controls set for significantly longer diastole and higher vacuum, resulting in similar hemodynamics between the groups. The results suggest that device fitting as manifested by body size is an important factor affecting major organ recovery and subsequent transplantation in recipients of the Jarvik-7 artificial heart. A paracorporeal device may be advisable for patients with body surface areas of less than 1.8 m2 or who were less than 175 cm in height until an even smaller model with a better fit in the thorax becomes available. PMID:2225424

Kawaguchi, A T; Gandjbakhch, I; Pavie, A; Muneretto, C; Solis, E; Bors, V; Leger, P; Vaissier, E; Levasseur, J P; Szefner, J

1990-11-01

266

Factors Affecting Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for either 24 or 48 hr, followed by inoculation onto bermudagrass. A second experiment evaluated effects of exposure of B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural in soil solution on bermudagrass with or without an organic thatch layer. A third experiment evaluated effects on B. longicaudatus of increasing concentrations of furfural applied as a spray treatment to creeping bentgrass. Results from the in vitro exposure experiment found decreasing numbers of B. longicaudatus with increasing furfural concentration beginning with the lowest concentration tested (270 ppm). Belonolaimus longicaudatus were virtually eliminated with furfural concentrations ? 720 ppm. Similarly, exposure to increasing concentration of furfural in soil solution resulted in increasing reduction in numbers of B. longicaudatus. Presence of thatch slightly reduced the population density of B. longicaudatus. Spray application of furfural only reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus at the two highest rates (3,600 and 4,950 ppm). PMID:24379484

Luc, J. E.; Crow, W. T.

2013-01-01

267

Características agronômicas e rendimento de sementes de soja na semeadura realizada no período de safrinha / Agronomic traits and seed parameters of soybean cultivars as affected by delayed sowings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Dentre os fatores que afetam o rendimento das sementes de soja, a definição da época de semeadura é fundamental para obter sementes de melhor qualidade e em maiores quantidades. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da semeadura da soja (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) na [...] época denominada "safrinha" nas características agronômicas das plantas e no rendimento de sementes de cinco cultivares. Foram desenvolvidos três experimentos de competição de cultivares em dois anos agrícolas (1998/99 e 1999/00), com delineamento em blocos completos casualizados, instalando-se um experimento em cada época de semeadura (15/11, 15/1 e 15/2). A semeadura realizada em novembro foi utilizada na comparação com os períodos de safrinha. As cultivares estudadas, bem como os respectivos grupos de maturação, foram os seguintes: 'BRS 132' (precoce), 'BRS 133' (semiprecoce), 'BR 16' (semiprecoce), 'BRS 134' (médio) e 'FT-Estrela' (tardio). No campo, foram realizadas as seguintes determinações: números de dias para a emergência, para o florescimento e para a maturação, grau de acamamento das plantas, altura de inserção das primeiras vagens, altura das plantas, número de vagens por planta, massa de mil sementes e rendimento de sementes. A semeadura realizada nos meses de janeiro e fevereiro não é alternativa viável para a produção quantitativa de sementes na Região de Maringá (PR), independentemente da duração de ciclo da cultivar de soja utilizada. Abstract in english Sowing date is one of the most important factors affecting soybean yielding potential. The main aim of this research work was to evaluate the effects of delayed sowings on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) cultivar agronomic traits and seed yields. Experimental trials were carried out during the 199 [...] 8/1999 and 1999/2000 growing seasons, using three sowing dates (November 15th, January 15th; and February 15th) and five soybean cultivars with different seed maturation periods (BRS-132: very early; BRS-133: early; BR-16: early; BRS-134: intermediate and FT-Estrela: late). A randomized complete block design, with three replications, was set up for each sowing date, the November sowing date considered as the reference. The following agronomic traits were scored: number of days from sowing to seedling emergence, full blooming and seed maturation; first pod insertion height; plant height and degree of laid-down plants as well as the seed parameters overall seed yields, number of pods per plant and mass of thousand seeds. The strong seed yield reductions in delayed sowings for all soybean cultivars (not talking into their flowering and/or seed maturation periods), in both growing seasons, regardless the seed maturation periods of soybean cultivars, as compared to the usual growing season (November), as well as other agronomic traits, clearly indicate the unfeasibility of delayed sowings at the region of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil.

Alessandro de Lucca e, Braccini; Ivo de Sá, Motta; Carlos Alberto, Scapim; Maria do Carmo Lana, Braccini; Marizangela Rizzatti, Ávila; Dana Kátia, Meschede.

268

Características agronômicas e rendimento de sementes de soja na semeadura realizada no período de safrinha Agronomic traits and seed parameters of soybean cultivars as affected by delayed sowings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dentre os fatores que afetam o rendimento das sementes de soja, a definição da época de semeadura é fundamental para obter sementes de melhor qualidade e em maiores quantidades. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da semeadura da soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill na época denominada "safrinha" nas características agronômicas das plantas e no rendimento de sementes de cinco cultivares. Foram desenvolvidos três experimentos de competição de cultivares em dois anos agrícolas (1998/99 e 1999/00, com delineamento em blocos completos casualizados, instalando-se um experimento em cada época de semeadura (15/11, 15/1 e 15/2. A semeadura realizada em novembro foi utilizada na comparação com os períodos de safrinha. As cultivares estudadas, bem como os respectivos grupos de maturação, foram os seguintes: 'BRS 132' (precoce, 'BRS 133' (semiprecoce, 'BR 16' (semiprecoce, 'BRS 134' (médio e 'FT-Estrela' (tardio. No campo, foram realizadas as seguintes determinações: números de dias para a emergência, para o florescimento e para a maturação, grau de acamamento das plantas, altura de inserção das primeiras vagens, altura das plantas, número de vagens por planta, massa de mil sementes e rendimento de sementes. A semeadura realizada nos meses de janeiro e fevereiro não é alternativa viável para a produção quantitativa de sementes na Região de Maringá (PR, independentemente da duração de ciclo da cultivar de soja utilizada.Sowing date is one of the most important factors affecting soybean yielding potential. The main aim of this research work was to evaluate the effects of delayed sowings on soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril cultivar agronomic traits and seed yields. Experimental trials were carried out during the 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 growing seasons, using three sowing dates (November 15th, January 15th; and February 15th and five soybean cultivars with different seed maturation periods (BRS-132: very early; BRS-133: early; BR-16: early; BRS-134: intermediate and FT-Estrela: late. A randomized complete block design, with three replications, was set up for each sowing date, the November sowing date considered as the reference. The following agronomic traits were scored: number of days from sowing to seedling emergence, full blooming and seed maturation; first pod insertion height; plant height and degree of laid-down plants as well as the seed parameters overall seed yields, number of pods per plant and mass of thousand seeds. The strong seed yield reductions in delayed sowings for all soybean cultivars (not talking into their flowering and/or seed maturation periods, in both growing seasons, regardless the seed maturation periods of soybean cultivars, as compared to the usual growing season (November, as well as other agronomic traits, clearly indicate the unfeasibility of delayed sowings at the region of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil.

Alessandro de Lucca e Braccini

2004-01-01

269

ANTI-NUTRIENT FACTORS, PERFORMANCE AND SERUM BIOCHEMISTRY OF BROILER CHICKS FED RAW AND FERMENTED ALCHORNEA CORDIFOLIA SEEDS  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine some anti-nutrient factors in differently processed Christmas bush (Alchornea cordifolia seeds and the effect of the processed seed meals on the performance and blood chemistry of broiler chicks fed from 1 to 35 day of age. Ground and fermented, and dehulled Christmas bush (CB seed meals were analyzed for their anti-nutrient contents whereas ground and sieved (GS, ground-sieved and fermented (GSF and non-sieved and fermented (NSF seed meals were incorporated into starter broiler diets to replace 10% of maize, respectively. Fermented and dehulled CB seed meals contain 574.4 and 21.3mg/100g phytic acid, respectively. Cyanide was not identified in any of the meals. Dehulling eliminated the anthraquinone and tannin contents whereas fermentation only eliminated the tannin content. None of the methods completely eliminated the saponin, cardiac glycoside, flavonoid and alkaloid contents of the seed meals. With GS seed meal, broilers had lower average daily weight gain (P<0.05 than the control group. Feed intake decreased (P<0.05 but feed conversion ratio was not different when compared with control. Inclusion of GSF seed meal improved growth and feed intake when compared with the NSF seed meal and by day 35, growth and feed intake were comparable to those of the control birds. Blood plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphates and aspartate aminotransferase increased with GS CB seed meal diet, while serum calcium decreased. Neither raw nor fermented seed meals altered other measures of the blood chemistry. It is concluded that CB seeds contain toxic anti-nutrient compounds and that sieving out the hulls in the ground raw seed meal before fermentation improved the feeding value of the seeds for broilers at 10% replacement for maize.

O.O. EMENALOM

2012-02-01

270

The exogenous factors affecting the cost efficiency of power generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper employs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to examine cost efficiency and scale economies in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) by using the panel data covering the period of 1995-2006. In most previous studies, the efficiency estimated by the Panel Data without testing the endogeneity may bring about a biased estimator resulting from the correlation between input and individual effect. A Hausman test is conducted in this paper to examine the endogeneity of input variables and thus an appropriate model is selected based on the test result. This study finds that the power generation executes an increasing return to scale across all the power plants based on the pooled data. We also use installed capacity, service years of the power plant, and type of fuel as explanatory variable for accounting for the estimated cost efficiency of each plant by a logistic regression model to examine the factor affecting the individual efficiency estimates. The results demonstrate that the variable of installed capacity keeps a positive relationship with cost efficiency while the factor of working years has a negative relationship.

271

Factors Affecting Forest Area Changes in Cambodia: An Econometric Approach  

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Full Text Available Clarifying factors affecting forest area changes is critical to implementing REDD+ scheme properly. We analyzed some socio-economic factors and clarified their relationships with deforestation in Cambodia for the period of 2002 to 2010. A panel data analysis was conducted for 18 provinces, while six other provinces were deleted from the list because only a small amount of their land was forested. Time effects, cross-sectional dependence, serial correlation in idiosyncratic errors, and heteroskedasticity were tested, and robust variance matrix estimations were obtained to solve the problems of heteroskedasticity and serial correlation. The model estimation results showed that population, gross agricultural production and large-scale plantation development have negative impacts on forest area changes. On the other hand, the impacts of rice cultivation, gross industrial production, household income and house floor area by household were found not to be significant. Overall, however, the results indicated that forests in Cambodia still face pressure from the increases in population, agriculture production, and the enlargement of land development. As the increase in productivity of agriculture gives a better use of current agricultural land and lessens the pressure on forest, intensifying agriculture is important. It is also important to develop industry and other economic ventures to grow national economy while not imposing pressure on forest. This research reminds decision makers to use discretion when developing large-scale plantations.

Tetsuya Michinaka

2013-04-01

272

Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future

273

Renovascular hypertension: factors affecting the outcome following surgical revascularisation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan to evaluate factors that affect outcome following revascularisation in patients with renovascular hypertension. We included all the patients diagnosed to have renovascular hypertension, confirmed by renal angiography, between July 1997 and September 2000. Of the total 15 patients, nine were males and six were females. Eleven patients received venous grafts, three received polytetraflouroethyline (PTFE) grafts while one patient underwent angioplasty and stenting. All were followed-up for a period of nine months (median) with the range from 2 to 84 months. A total of 33.3% of the study patients were completely cured, as they became normotensive without anti-hypertensive therapy after operation, while 27% showed marked improvement in blood pressure control post-operatively. Thus, extended cure or improvement of renovascular hypertension was achieved in 60% of patients. Normal pre-operative serum creatinine level, high pre-operative unstimulated peripheral renin levels and renal vein renin ratio of at least 1.75:1 were the most significant predictive factors for favorable outcome (p < 0.012). The pre-operative severity and duration of hypertension as well as degree of disparity in kidney sizes did not predict the post-operative improvement in renal function and blood pressure control. PMID:17657118

Rabbani, Malik Anas; Zaidi, Alia; Ali, Syed Sohail; Anas, Bushra; Younus, Asmooni; Shah, Syed Mansoor Ahmad

2003-01-01

274

Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study  

Science.gov (United States)

The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

2006-09-01

275

Irrigation amounts affect the compositional changes of Moringa oleifera seeds throughout different developmental stages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The compositional development of Moringa oleifera seed across a range of growth stages was monitored at three irrigation treatments, simulating total annual rainfall of 900 mm, 600 mm and 300 mm/annum over two consecutive growing seasons (24 months). Fruit developmental stages were categorized according to fruit diameter (0 mm – 28 mm) at 2 mm increments. Starch was the first to accumulate during the initial histo-differentiation phase (fruit diameters of 0 mm-12 mm), while oil ...

Muhl, Quintin Ernst; Du Toit, Elsa Sophia; Steyn, J. M.

2014-01-01

276

Germination Characteristics of Korean and Southeast Asian Redrice (Oryza sativa L. Seeds as Affected by Temperature  

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Full Text Available Red rice (Oryza sativa L. is considered an important weed in many paddy fields. We performed a laboratory investigation to evaluate the germination percent, germination speed and days to 50% germination (T50 of red rice seed three groups were selected: (1 four Southeast Asian varieties/germplasms, (2 six Korean varieties/germplasms with enhanced yield and (3 four Korean varieties/germplasms which are problem in direct-sown paddy fields. The selected varieties/germplasms were incubated at four different day/night temperature settings: 15/10, 20/15, 25/20 and 30/25°C. This study has been carried out at phytotron and glass house between 2007 through 2009 to find out the characteristics of Asian redrice germ plasms. According to results, the germination percent and germination speed of red rice seed generally increased with increasing temperature. At low temperature (20/15°C, red rice seeds, selected or imported red rice from cold areas, resulted in lowest germination percent (9% and germination speed (12.3, however, T50 was the lowest (7.2 at 15/10°C compared to all the Southeast Asia red rice varieties/germplasms. Germination characteristics of Korean red rice seeds showed similar responses to temperature conditions depending on where they came from and local temperature: southern part of Korea (Hapcheon or northern part (Suwon. However, Yeongcheon red rice showed high germination percent (96-100% and low T50 (9.0-2.7 which was very similar to group 2 which were already selected as cultivars/germplasms for high vigor and high yield. The critical temperature for red rice germination related characteristics was 25/20°C and activity (germination speed and T50 did not increase much at 30/25°C. In conclusion, red rice varieties/germplasms selected from a local area would represent the temperature of the area partially.

Young-Son Cho

2010-01-01

277

Identifying the Factors Affecting the Participation of Agricultural Cooperatives' Members  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: 40-year history of agricultural production cooperatives in the country shows that this type of exploitation system has faced many ups and downs during this period. First, despite the help and support by the government, the cooperative sector has not been able to play a major role in the development of the country and its share has not exceeded 3% of development program. The main aim of this study is identifying the factors affecting the participation of Shirvan-Chardavol township?s agricultural cooperatives? members. Approach: This casual comparative applied research which uses survey method for data accumulation, is of Quasi-experimental research type because of impossibility of controlling the research variables. A researcher-made questionnair was used as the main tool for gathering data. The face and content validity of the questionnaire were confirmed by a group of university professors and cooperative experts; also the reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed through calculating the Kronbach alfa coefficient (a = 0.80. Results: The statistical society of the research included 751 active members of Shirvan-Chardavol township?s agricultural cooperatives, among which 260 people were selected for the study using classified proportional random sampling method and with the aid of Morgan sample-volume table. Data processing was performed using SPSS estatistial software, as well as descriptive estatistics (central and inferential indexes and analytical estatistics (correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Conclusion: The correlation coefficient results show that there is significant relationship between the variables like age, background history of membership in cooperatives, the members? agricultural land areas, annual income of the members, socio-cultural features, economical features, educational-extensional features, managerial factors, psychological features, political factors and communicational-informational factors from the one hand and the dependent variable of agricultural cooperatives? members? level of participation from the other. The multiple regression analysis results showed that variables like political, economic, managerial and social factors have positive effect on the dependent variable of agricultural cooperatives? members? participation, describing 65% of the changes of the mentioned dependent variable.

Bagher Arayesh

2011-01-01

278

Factors that affect the nutritive value of canola meal for poultry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the factors affecting the nutritive value of canola meal (CM), including glucosinolates, sinapine, phytic acid, tannins, dietary fiber, and electrolyte balance. It also addresses the means of improving the nutritive value of CM throughout seed dehulling, development of low-fiber canola, or application of feed enzymes. Over the years, the glucosinolate content of canola has been declining steadily and is now only about one-twelfth of that of the older high-glucosinolate rapeseed (that is, 10 vs. 120 ?mol/g). Therefore, the rations for broilers or laying hens could now contain 20% of CM without producing any adverse effects. Tannins are of lesser importance due to their presence in the hull fraction and thus low water solubility. Sinapine has been implicated with the production of a "fishy" taint in brown-shelled eggs, which results from a genetic defect among the strain of Rhode Island Red laying hens. The White Leghorns have been reported not to be affected. Although lower in protein, CM compares favorably with soybean meal with regard to amino acid content. Because CM contains more methionine and cysteine but less lysine, both meals tend to complement each other when used together in poultry diets. Canola meal is low in arginine (Arg) which could be of importance when introducing CM to broiler diets at high inclusion rates. The Arg content of CM is approximately two-thirds of that of soybean meal. Chickens fail to synthesize Arg and are highly dependent on dietary sources for this amino acid. Supplementation of Arg to CM-based diets has been shown to partly restore the growth performance. Dietary cation-anion difference in CM is also less than optimal due to the high sulfur and low potassium contents. Seed dehulling has not been very successful due to excessive fineness and thus difficulties with percolation of the miscella through the cake. Development of low-fiber, yellow-seeded canola and the use of enzymes have proven to increase the energy utilization and the nutritive value of CM for poultry. PMID:22991543

Khajali, F; Slominski, B A

2012-10-01

279

Factors Affecting in-Hospital Mortality of Acute Myocardial Infarction  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. Considering immense socioeconomic damages of growing AMI in developing countries we estimated prognostic value of major risk factors of AMI to predict probable In-hospital AMI mortality."nMethods: In a cohort survey from June 2004 to March 2006, 1798 patients hospitalized with proven AMI entered into two groups: Survived (patients discharged alive and Expired (patients expired during hospitalization due to AMI. We evaluated relationship of 17 risk factors including age, sex, smoking, opium usage, hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM, dyslipidemia, Killip class, existence of Q wave, St segment elevation, bundle branch blocks (BBB, involved surface of heart, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, mitral valve regurgitation (MR, and serum level of Troponin I and CKMB, with patients' survival and expiry by using chi square test, T test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. P value ? 0.05 was considered significant."nResults: There were 1629 (90.6% survived and 169 (9.4% expired patients. Factors significantly affected in-hospital mortality of AMI include: age (P< 0.001, femaleness (P< 0.001, smoking (P< 0.001, Killip class>II (P< 0.001, hy­per­tension (P= 0.036, DM (P< 0.001, bundle branch block (P< 0.001, Moderate to severe mitral regurgitation (P< 0.001, lower Mean LVEF (P< 0.001, and lower mean serum concentration of CKMB and Troponin I (P< 0.001. Mortality was significantly higher in anterolateral infarction."nConclusion: Mean age> 69.01 yr, femaleness, Killip class III & V, hypertension, DM, moderate to severe MR, anterolateral AMI, bundle branch block and higher serum concentration of CKMB & Troponin I are associated with higher In-hospital post-AMI mortality.

M Salarifar

2009-09-01

280

ANTI-NUTRIENT FACTORS, PERFORMANCE AND SERUM BIOCHEMISTRY OF BROILER CHICKS FED RAW AND FERMENTED ALCHORNEA CORDIFOLIA SEEDS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was carried out to determine some anti-nutrient factors in differently processed Christmas bush (Alchornea cordifolia) seeds and the effect of the processed seed meals on the performance and blood chemistry of broiler chicks fed from 1 to 35 day of age. Ground and fermented, and dehulled Christmas bush (CB) seed meals were analyzed for their anti-nutrient contents whereas ground and sieved (GS), ground-sieved and fermented (GSF) and non-sieved and fermented (NSF) seed meals were i...

Emenalom, O. O.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Seed dimorphism, nutrients and salinity differentially affect seed traits of the desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica via multiple maternal effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Maternal effects may influence a range of seed traits simultaneously and are likely to be context-dependent. Disentangling the interactions of plant phenotype and growth environment on various seed traits is important for understanding regeneration and establishment of species in natural environments. Here, we used the seed-dimorphic plant Suaeda aralocaspica to test the hypothesis that seed traits are regulated by multiple maternal effects. <...

Wang Lei; Baskin Jerry M; Baskin Carol C; Cornelissen J Hans C; Dong Ming; Huang Zhenying

2012-01-01

282

Studies and Research on Friction, Friction Factor and Affecting Factors : A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The friction and friction factors are very significant factors in flow through pipes, channels, heat exchangers . From the pumping cost point of view, minimum friction is desirable as it will decrease the energy loss. In the rotating components like axle-shaft arrangements, the friction and slip are important factors. In case of heat exchanger, the friction factor is important as the heat transfer depends on it. The research was also reported on effect of submerged vegetation on friction for river. The friction coefficient was a function of flow depth and velocity. Also various models were suggested by investigators to predict friction coefficient based on their research related to factors affecting the friction coefficient and the nature and gravity of their effect on friction.

Sunil J. Kulkarni

2014-10-01

283

Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

Pyo, Katrina A.

284

Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients  

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Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols.

Azin Ayatollahi

2013-01-01

285

Seed yield, N- uptake and oil quality in Helianthus annuus as affected by N- fertilizer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field experiment was conducted to study the impact of different nitrogen fertilizer rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N/ha as urea) on dry matter yield, N uptake, seed yield, grain oil content and properties of sunflower Helianthus annuus using the 15N labeling technique. Sunflower plants responded strongly to increasing N supply with respect to growth performance. Dry matter yield and total N uptake were significantly increased with increasing N-supply. Partitioning of N yield in different plant parts showed that capitulum was the principle sink of N (60%) followed by leaves (30%) and stem (10%) regardless of N-fertilizer rates. Seed yield of sunflower was significantly increased at higher N-supply. However, oil concentration was significantly reduced in the N-fertilized treatments. Decreasing of grain oil content due to N addition was overcompensated by the seed yield increase. Consequently, no significant effect of N supply on oil yield was observed. The effect of N supply on iodine number was small, and only a small trend towards lower iodine value in the N100 was observed. No clear trend of the effect of N supply on other oil quality parameters was observed. Nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff) was significantly increased with increasing N-supply. Recovery of fertilizer 15N was of 64% regardless of N-rates. This efficiency was less pronounced in stem and leaves than that in capitulum which had a greater value at higher N-supply. (author)ter value at higher N-supply. (author)

286

Factors affecting on the particle deposition in the respiratory tract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the respiratory tracts is affected by anatomical structure of the respiratory tracts and respiratory pattern of animals, which are modified by many factors as animal species, physiological and psychological conditions, age, sex, smoking drug, lung diseases, etc. In human, studies have been focused on the initial lung deposition of particles and have made it clear that the respiratory pattern, gender, and diseases may have influence on the deposition pattern. On the other hand, there was little knowledge on the initial lung deposition of particles in laboratory animals. Recently, Raabe et al. have reported the initial lung deposition of 169Yb-aluminosilicate particles in mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits. The authors have also investigated the lung deposition of latex particles with different sizes and 198Au-colloid in rats whose respiratory volumes during the inhalation were monitored by body plethysmography. These experiments indicated that the deposition of inhaled particles in distal lung e.g. small bronchiolar and alveolar region, was much lower in laboratory animals than that of human. This species difference may be due to smaller diameter of respiratory tract and/or shallower breathing and higher respiratory rate of laboratory animals. The experimental animals in which respiratory diseases were induced artificially have been used to investigate the modification factors on the deposition pattern of inhaled particles. As respiratory diseases, emphysema was induced in rats, hamsters, beagle dogs in some laboratories and pulmonary delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats was in our laboratory. The initial lung deposition of particles in these animals was consistently decreased in comparison with normals, regardless of the animal species and the type of disease. (author)

287

Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space  

Science.gov (United States)

Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band and water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge for photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from spave. A 17,000-station data set is used to show that space-based estimates of maximum photosynthesis could improve predictions of psi, the water column light utiliztion index, which is an important term in many primary productivity models. Temperature is also examined as a factor for predicting hydrographic structure and primary production. A simple model is used to relate temperature and maximum photosynthesis; the model incorporates (1) the positive relationship between maximum photosynthesis and temperature and (2) the strongly negative relationship between temperature and nitrate in the ocean (which directly affects maximum growth rates via nitrogen limitation). Since these two factors relate to carbon and nitrogen, 'balanced carbon/nitrogen assimilation' was calculated using the Redfield ratio, It is expected that the relationship between maximum balanced carbon assimilation versus temperature is concave-down, with the peak dependent on nitrate uptake kinetics, temperature-nitrate relationships,a nd the carbon chlorophyll ration. These predictions were compared with the sea truth data. The minimum turnover time for nitrate was also calculated using this approach. Lastly, sea surface temperature gradients were used to predict the slope of isotherms (a proxy for the slope of isopycnals in many waters). Sea truth data show that at size scales of several hundred kilometers, surface temperature gradients can provide information on the slope of isotherms in the top 200 m of the water column. This is directly relevant to the supply of nutrients into the surface mixed layer, which is useful for predicting integral biomass and primary production.

Balch, W. M.; Byrne, C. F.

1994-01-01

288

Factors affecting mortality and morbidity in the abdominal operations  

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Full Text Available Objective: Postoperative complications after abdominal operations is affected by many factors. The aim of this study was to identify factors that predict complications in abdominal operations. Material and Methods: 461 patients who had undergone abdominal operations at our clinic were prospectively researched. In this study age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA grade of the patients and timing of surgery (elective or emergency, concomittant disease, type of operation, hospital stay and the mortality were examined. Results: The overall complication rate was 23%. Significantly higher complication occurred in male patients than female patients (30% vs 17.1% (p<0.05. While the complication rate of the patients undergone emergent operation was 35.2%, the complication rate of the patients undergone elective operation was 18%(p<0.05. Significant differences between the age groups were observed for general postoperative complications (16.8% for 0-59 years 33.1% for 60-74 years, and 35.7% for over 75 years. The concomittant disease and timing of operation had a significant effect on complication (p<0.05. The median ASA score of the complication group was 3, the other group was 2 (p<0.05. Hospital stay was 19.6±12 in the complication group and the other group’s hospital stay was 7.1±6 (p<0.05. The mortality rate of our patients was 6.7%. Conclusion: Age older than 60 years old, ASA grade, concomittant disease, timing of operation, severity of operation are associated with the progressing of the complications after abdominal operations. Male gender is also associated with the incerasing complication rate.

Bar?? Saylam

2009-01-01

289

Copper affects the cotyledonary carbohydrate status during the germination of bean seed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seeds of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were germinated by soaking in distilled water or copper chloride solution. The relationships among copper excess treatment, germination rate, dry weight, sugar contents, and carbohydrase activities in cotyledon were investigated. Heavy metal stress provoked a diminution in germination rate and biomass mobilization, as compared with the control. A drastic disorder in soluble sugars export, especially glucose and fructose liberation, was also imposed after exposure to excess copper. This restricted the starch and sucrose breakdown in reserve tissue, as evidenced by the inhibition in the activities of alpha-amylase and invertase isoenzymes (soluble acid, soluble neutral, cell wall-bound acid). PMID:19888556

Sfaxi-Bousbih, Amira; Chaoui, Abdelilah; El Ferjani, Ezzedine

2010-10-01

290

Influence of Nitrogenous Fertilizers, Gypsum and Seed Priming on Wheat Yield under Salt Affected Soil Conditions  

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Field experiment, to evaluate the effect of nitrogenous fertilizers i.e. urea, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate with and without gypsum and seed priming on productivity of wheat, was performed.The field was surveyed by EM-38 at 2x2m grid to identify areas of uniform salinity. The experimental design was factorial randomized, having ECe values of 3.5 to 5.5, 4.0 to 6.9, 5.0 to 9.1 and 6.1 to 10.1 dSm-1 in R1, R2, R3 and R4 respectively. There was no significant effect of ...

Muhammad Jamal Khan; Mazhar Ali Khan Tanoli; Khattak, Riaz A.

2001-01-01

291

Factors that differentially affect daytime and nighttime sleep in Drosophila  

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Full Text Available Rest in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has key characteristics of mammalian sleep and is thus considered as a fly version of sleep. Drosophila sleep has been studied extensively, with the aim of gaining fundamental insights into the evolutionarily conserved functions of sleep as well as the mechanisms that regulate it. An interesting question that has not yet been addressed is whether fly sleep can be classified into distinct sleep types, each having particular biological roles—like REM and non-REM sleep in birds and mammals. Typically, Drosophila sleep displays a bimodal pattern, consisting of distinct daytime and nighttime components. Notably, daytime and nighttime sleep differ with respect to a number of qualities, such as sleep bout lengths and arousal thresholds. In this short review, we describe several genetic and environmental factors that differentially affect daytime and nighttime sleep, highlighting the observations suggesting the notion that these temporally distinct components of Drosophila sleep may have unique biological functions and be regulated by different homeostatic regulatory mechanisms.

ToshihiroKitamoto

2012-02-01

292

Factors Affecting Internet Banking Usage in India: An Empirical Analysis  

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Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for Internet banking usage by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The study was conducted on the private, public and foreign banks which included ICICI Bank Ltd., HDFC Bank Ltd. and AXIS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and Yes Bank. Among public sector banks the respondents were from Bank of Baroda, Punjab National Bank and State Bank of India and Canara Bank. The sample size of 450 has been taken from among the urban population of above 18 years of age. The result indicates that the educated respondents use the service of internet banking. Based on occupation we can say that the service class and the business class is the one who use internet banking service to nearly 2 times as other occupation. The high income respondents having more than 1 lack income prefer to use this service. The private sector bank account holders use this service as compared to public sector banks. The banking attributes i.e. convenience and security do have very attentive influence on the use of Internet banking.

Shariq Mohammed

2013-10-01

293

Factors Affecting the Disposition Effect in Tehran Stock Market  

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Full Text Available Given the significance and perceived inevitability of disposition effect and its impact on investment decisions, we investigate factors affecting the disposition effect in the Tehran Stock Exchange. Four hypotheses were developed and the data used in the study were collected through availability sampling. One-sample t-test, two-sample t-test and one-way ANOVA were run to analyze the data while Pearson correlation test and multiple regressions were used to assess relationships among variables in question. The results of the analyses indicate that overconfidence and mental accounting were not significantly correlated with disposition effect. Regret aversion had a positive relationship with disposition effect while self control was negatively associated. It was also observed that there was a negative relationship between participants’ level of education and their disposition effect indicating that the higher the level of education, the less the rate of disposition effect. Furthermore, the results of the study show that males enjoy a higher level of overconfidence than females, and 20 to 30 year-old age groups displayed much overconfidence than other age groups.

Reza Tehrani

2012-02-01

294

Factors affecting the whiteness of optically brightened material.  

Science.gov (United States)

The whiteness of fluorescent white materials is in part due to the absorption of ultraviolet (UV) light and subsequent emission of visible blue light. The UV content of light sources in viewing booths and in spectrophotometers can thus significantly affect the perceived whiteness (PW) and measured sum of reflected and emitted light of fluorescent materials. The effect of UV content on the spectral radiance factor of fluorescent white materials containing different amounts of a fluorescent brightening agent and the subsequent assessment of their PW were evaluated. The UV content of sources in two calibrated viewing booths that simulated D65 and D75 illuminants, separately, was changed by selectively blocking UV emission of the source by approximately 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. The radiance spectra of a series of white fabrics were also obtained using a reflectance spectrophotometer at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% UV transmittance. The CIE and Uchida whiteness indices (WIs) were calculated for white samples and compared to perceptual results under varying illumination and UV conditions. Results indicate relatively modest agreement between perceptual assessments of fluorescent samples and whiteness metrics examined. Results also show that when the UV content of sources used in the viewing booths is adjusted to be similar to that used in measurements, improved correlations between perceptual and calculated results are obtained. The CIE WI was found to outperform the Uchida index under both sources. PMID:23201789

Lin, Juan; Shamey, Renzo; Hinks, David

2012-11-01

295

Factors affecting return to driving post-stroke.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect a person\\'s ability to drive, an important means of transportation in the developed world. AIMS: To determine percentage of patients and factors associated with return to driving post-stroke in a service with emphasis on driver assessment. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients discharged from the Stroke Service of our 470-bed teaching hospital from 1998 to 2002. RESULTS: Of 72 drivers pre-stroke, 54% recalled a driving assessment and 68% returned to driving. Younger patients (58.6 +\\/- 12.0 vs. 66.5 +\\/- 10.5, p = 0.008) with lower Modified Rankin Score (median 1 vs. 2, p = 0.0001) and normal cognition (55 vs. 43%, p = 0.45) were more likely to resume driving. More patients who were assessed returned to driving than those who were not (74 vs. 61%, p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high level of return to driving can be achieved post-stroke with a pro-active approach to driver assessment and rehabilitation. A structured assessment and referral programme should be offered where appropriate.

Tan, K M

2012-02-01

296

Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels, artificial insemination stud (4 levels and sire of bull (137 levels. All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

Martino Cassandro

2012-01-01

297

Factors affecting benthic impacts at Scottish fish farms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The factors affecting patterns of benthic [seabed] biology and chemistry around 50 Scottish fish farms were investigated using linear mixed-effects models that account for inherent correlations between observations from the same farm. The abundance of benthic macrofauna and sediment concentrations of organic carbon were both influenced by a significant, albeit weak, interaction between farm size, defined as the maximum weight of fish permitted on site at any one time, and current speed. Above a farm size threshold of between 800 and 1000 t, the magnitude of effects at farms located in areas of elevated current speeds were greater than at equivalent farms located in more quiescent waters. Sediment concentrations of total organic matter were influenced by an interaction between distance and depth, indicating that wind-driven resuspension events may help reduce the accumulation of organic waste at farms located in shallow waters. The analyses presented here demonstrate that the production and subsequent fate of organic waste at fish farms is more complex than is often assumed; in isolation, current speed, water depth, and farr size are not necessarily good predictors of benthic impact. PMID:20178333

Mayor, Daniel J; Zuur, Alain F; Solan, Martin; Paton, Graeme I; Killham, Ken

2010-03-15

298

Chordoma: review of clinico radiological features and factors affecting survival  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study reviews the clinico radiological features of cranial and sacrospinal chordomas and identifies factors affecting survival. Nineteen patients seen between January 1980 and December 2000 with histopathological diagnosis of chordomas were retrospectively reviewed with reference to clinical presentation, imaging features, treatment modalities and post-therapy status. Eight had tumours in the skull base while 11 patients had spinal and sacro-coccygeal lesions. Surgical resection was performed in 16 patients whose subsequent natural history was used to identify clinical indicators that may influence survival. Completeness of resection, age, gender and postoperative irradiation were subjected to analysis using the Cox proportional hazard models. Kaplan-Meir survival curves illustrate the survival distributions. Diplopia and facial pain are prime clinical presentations in cranial lesions, while extremity weakness and a sacrogluteal mass are common complaints in the sacrospinal group. Lesional calcifications are present in 40% while an osteolytic soft tissue mass is detectable by CT in all cases. Heterogeneous signals and internal septations on T2-weighted MRI are predominant features. In sacrospinal tumours, complete excision with adjuvant radiotherapy achieves the best results with a disease-free survival of more than 5 years. The clinical and imaging findings in this study are in accordance with those of other series. Except for complete surgical excision followed by radiotherapy in the subset of patients with sacrospinal tumours, none of the other clinical indicators show a statistical significant influence on survival. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

299

Factors affecting the ion beam implantation in silicon  

CERN Document Server

The factors affecting the ion beam implantation in silicon have been studied using boron, phosphorus, oxygen, and argon ions having energy range 0.5 ke V-200 ke V. It was found that the range of the ions in silicon increases with the increase of their energy and decreases with the increase of their masses. The ionization process is found to be the main process for causing damage in the silicon matrix whether it is produced by the accelerated ions or by the recoiled silicon atoms. The magnitude of ionization in silicon is found to be inversely proportional to the mass of ions. Ionization produced by ions or recoils shows different contributions to the damage depending on the mass of ions where the ions energy loss to ionization decreases from 70% to 23% as the mass is increased from 11 for boron (B) to 40 for argon (Ar). Its magnitude, as produced by ions, is found to decrease with the increase of their masses. Its value is observed to increase in a complementary way with the mass increase. Ions energy loss to...

El-Shanshoury, A I

2003-01-01

300

Factors affecting visual inference in single-case designs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual inspection remains the most frequently applied method for detecting treatment effects in single-case designs. The advantages and limitations of visual inference are here discussed in relation to other procedures for assessing intervention effectiveness. The first part of the paper reviews previous research on visual analysis, paying special attention to the validation of visual analysts' decisions, inter-judge agreement, and false alarm and omission rates. The most relevant factors affecting visual inspection (i.e., effect size, autocorrelation, data variability, and analysts' expertise) are highlighted and incorporated into an empirical simulation study with the aim of providing further evidence about the reliability of visual analysis. Our results concur with previous studies that have reported the relationship between serial dependence and increased Type I rates. Participants with greater experience appeared to be more conservative and used more consistent criteria when assessing graphed data. Nonetheless, the decisions made by both professionals and students did not match sufficiently the simulated data features, and we also found low intra-judge agreement, thus suggesting that visual inspection should be complemented by other methods when assessing treatment effectiveness. PMID:19899683

Ximenes, Verônica M; Manolov, Rumen; Solanas, Antonio; Quera, Vicenç

2009-11-01

 
 
 
 
301

Factors Affecting the Radii of Close-in Transiting Exoplanets  

CERN Document Server

The radius of an exoplanet may be affected by various factors, including irradiation, planet mass and heavy element content. A significant number of transiting exoplanets have now been discovered for which the mass, radius, semi-major axis, host star metallicity and stellar effective temperature are known. We use multivariate regression models to determine the dependence of planetary radius on planetary equilibrium temperature T_eq, planetary mass M_p, stellar metallicity [Fe/H], orbital semi-major axis a, and tidal heating rate H_tidal, for 119 transiting planets in three distinct mass regimes. We determine that heating leads to larger planet radii, as expected, increasing mass leads to increased or decreased radii of low-mass (2.0R_J) planets, respectively (with no mass effect on Jupiter-mass planets), and increased host-star metallicity leads to smaller planetary radii, indicating a relationship between host-star metallicity and planet heavy element content. For Saturn-mass planets, a good fit to the radii...

Enoch, B; Horne, K

2012-01-01

302

Factors affecting the vaporisation of silica during coal combustion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study has quantified the amount of silica vaporised during the combustion of five Australian bituminous coals in a drop tube furnace at two oxygen partial pressures. The coals have been analysed extensively using a wide range of analytical techniques including QEMSCAN, quantitative XRD analysis, and ICP-AES. These analyses provided the modes of occurrence of the silica in these coals. The amounts vaporised were compared with the modes of occurrence of the silica, to determine the factors contributing to its vaporisation. Three main conclusions were drawn from these experiments: Increasing the char combustion temperature by elevating the oxygen partial pressure from 0.21 to 0.50 atm during combustion increases the extent of silica vaporisation significantly. This is consistent with previous findings. The size distribution of the included quartz minerals greater than 2 {mu}m does not affect the extent of silica vaporisation significantly, qualitative measurements indicate that finely dispersed silicon-bearing minerals of a size less than 2 {mu}m could play an important role on the vaporisation of silica. An analytical procedure to quantify these minerals is necessary to establish this relationship. (author)

Buhre, Bart; Hinkley, Jim; Gupta, Rajender; Wall, Terry [Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development, University of Newcastle, Chemical Engineering, NSW 2308 (Australia); Nelson, Peter [Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development, Macquarie University, Graduate School of the Environment, NSW 2109 (Australia)

2007-02-15

303

Factors affecting hospital mortality in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This retrospective analysis studied the records of 564 consecutive patients admitted to Gastrointestinal Bleeding Unit of Riyadh Medical Complex with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding over a 2-year period (May 1996-April 1998. The purpose of the study was to analyze the mortality with an aim to identify the risk factors affecting mortality in these patients. Majority of patients were men (82% and Saudis (54%. Their mean age was 52.46 + 17.8 years. Esophageal varices (45% were the main causes of bleeding followed by duodenal ulcers (24%. Overall mortality in this series was 15.8% (89 patients. Comorbid diseases were responsible for death in 68 (76% patients, whereas, bleeding was considered to be directly responsible for death in 21 (24% patients. On analysis of data from this study, old age (>60 years, systolic pressure < 90 mm Hg on admission, comorbid disease, variceal bleeding and Child?s grade C in patients with chronic liver disease were associated with adverse outcome.

Alam Mohammed

2000-01-01

304

Factors affecting development of a motion imagery quality metric  

Science.gov (United States)

The motion imagery community would benefit from the availability of standard measures for assessing image interpretability. The National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS) has served as a community standard for still imagery, but no comparable scale exists for motion imagery. Several considerations unique to motion imagery indicate that the standard methodology employed in the past for NIIRS development may not be applicable or, at a minimum, require modifications. Traditional methods for NIIRS development rely on a close linkage between perceived image quality, as captured by specific image interpretation tasks, and the sensor parameters associated with image acquisition. The dynamic nature of motion imagery suggests that this type of linkage may not exist or may be modulated by other factors. An initial study was conducted to understand the effects target motion, camera motion, and scene complexity have on perceived image interpretability for motion imagery. This paper summarizes the findings from this evaluation. In addition, several issues emerged that require further investigation: - The effect of frame rate on the perceived interpretability of motion imagery - Interactions between color and target motion which could affect perceived interpretability - The relationships among resolution, viewing geometry, and image interpretability - The ability of an analyst to satisfy specific image exploitation tasks relative to different types of motion imagery clips Plans are being developed to address each of these issues through direct evaluations. This paper discusses each of these concerns, presents the plans for evaluations, and explores the implications for development of a motion imagery quality metric.

Irvine, John M.; Fenimore, Charles; Cannon, David; Roberts, John; Israel, Steven A.; Simon, Larry; Watts, Charles; Miller, James D.; Aviles, Ana I.; Tighe, Paul F.; Behrens, Richard J.; Haverkamp, Donna

2005-05-01

305

[Factors affecting young mothers' social and family relations after pregnancy].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to analyze factors affecting social and family relations of young mothers in the two-year postpartum period. This was a cross-sectional study of 464 young mothers in Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, who gave birth during the first four months of 2006 in six maternity hospitals. Data were collected from May to December 2008 after identifying the young women in the maternity hospital records. Multivariate analysis used multinomial logistic regression. Married young women (including those in common-law marriages) were 80% less likely to have negative relations with their partners. Participants 20 to 22 years of age related 2.4 times better with their mothers than those 17 to 19 years of age. Young women not attending school showed 97% higher odds of negative changes in relations with friends, and Catholics were 50% less likely to have worse relations with friends following childbirth. Measures are needed to orient individuals living with young mothers (especially their partners and mothers) concerning the importance of support in this phase of life, particularly encouraging them to stay in school. PMID:24936816

Maranhão, Thatiana Araújo; Gomes, Keila Rejane Oliveira; Silva, José Mário Nunes da

2014-05-01

306

Some factors affecting the in vitro culture of banana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Factors affecting in vitro regeneration of shoots in shoot tip explant cultures of banana cultivar 'Basrai', such as solid and liquid media, growth regulators, vitamins, and antioxidants were studied. Three-quarters strength of MS liquid medium supplemented with 17.75 micro m 6-benzyladenine (BA), 11.42 micro M indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 205 micro M adenine sulphate induced the formation of mean number of 12.3 shoots, with the mean length of 3.0 cm, after three weeks of culture. Maximum shoot multiplication (14.33) occurred in liquid medium containing 22.19 micro M BA. Addition of 2.0% activated charcoal (AC) to the liquid medium improved quality of the regenerated plants with expanded and glossy leaves, though the number of shoots was reduced (13.66). Profuse formation of roots was characteristically induced by AC. Addition of citric acid (CA) to the medium caused decline in morphogenetic expression of the cultures. (author)

307

Factors Affecting Fiber Design and Selection for Advanced Ceramic Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) have the potential for application in the hot sections of a variety of advanced propulsion and power systems. It is therefore necessary to have a general understanding of the key properties of CMC and Reinforcing Fibers. This need is complicated by the wide variety of application conditions and structural requirements for which CMC's will be used, and the proprietary concerns of the design engineers. CMC's, to be successful, must display properties which are competitive with the currently used high temperature structural materials: (i.e., Iron and Nickel based superalloys, tough monolithic ceramics, and carbon/carbon composites.) Structural CMC offers several areas of competition: (1) performance, (i.e., strength and strength retention, creep resistance, and thermal conductivity), (2) reliability (i.e., environmental durability, and damage tolerance) and (3) processing (i.e., capability for varying sizes and shapes, and cost effective fabrication). The presentation further discusses, and illustrates with fiber and CMC data the key fiber properties and processes which strongly affect each CMC area of competition. The presentation further discusses the current knowledge of the important factors which control the key fiber properties. A design guidelines for the optimum fiber characteristics is developed, and the currently available fibers are compared against those guidelines.

DiCarlo, James A.

1998-01-01

308

THEORIES AND FACTORS AFFECTING MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bioadhesion is an interfacial phenomenon in which two materials, at least one of which is biological, are held together by means of interfacial forces. When the associated biological system is mucous, it is called mucoadhesion. This property of certain polymeric systems have got place in the drug delivery research in order to prolong contact time in the various mucosal route of drug administration, as the ability to maintain a delivery system at a particular location for an extended period of time has a great appeal for both local action as well as systemic drug bioavailability. A complete and comprehensive theory that can predict adhesion based on the chemical and/or physical nature of a polymer is not yet available. Several theories have been proposed to explain the fundamental mechanisms of adhesion such as glues, adhesives, and paints, have been adopted to study the mucoadhesion. Mucoadhesion is a complex process and numerous theories have been presented to explain the mechanisms involved. These theories include mechanical-interlocking, electrostatic, diffusion–interpenetration, adsorption and fracture processes. They are Electronic theory, Adsorption theory, Wetting theory, Diffusion theory, Fracture theory. The objective of the study is to explain the different mechanisms involved in mucoadhesion and various factors affecting mucoadhesion.

Alexander Amit

2011-04-01

309

Factors Affecting the Habitability of Earth-like Planets  

Science.gov (United States)

Habitability is a measure of an environment's potential to support life. For exoplanets, the concept of habitability can be used broadly - to inform our calculations of the possibility and distribution of life elsewhere - or as a practical tool to inform mission designs and to prioritize specific targets in the search for extrasolar life. Although a planet's habitability does depend critically on the effect of stellar type and planetary semi-major axis on climate balance, work in the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology has identified many additional factors that can affect a planet's environment and its potential ability to support life. Life requires material for metabolism and structures, a liquid medium for chemical transport, and an energy source to drive metabolism and other life processes. Whether a planet's surface or sub-surface can provide these requirements is the result of numerous planetary and astrophysical processes that affect the planet's formation and evolution. Many of these factors are interdependent, and fall into three main categories: stellar effects, planetary effects and planetary system effects. Key abiotic processes affecting the resultant planetary environment include photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2003; 2005), stellar effects on climate balance (e.g. Joshii et al., 2012; Shields et al., 2013), atmospheric loss (e.g. Lopez and Fortney, 2013), and gravitational interactions with the star (e.g. Barnes et al., 2013). In many cases, the effect of these processes is strongly dependent on a specific planet's existing environmental properties. Examples include the resultant UV flux at a planetary surface as a product of stellar activity and the strength of a planet's atmospheric UV shield (Segura et al., 2010); and the amount of tidal energy available to a planet to drive plate tectonics and heat the surface (Barnes et al., 2009), which is in turn due to a combination of stellar mass, planetary mass and composition, planetary orbital parameters and the gravitational influence of other planets in the system. A thorough assessment of a planet's environment and its potential habitability is a necessary first step in the search for biosignatures. Targeted environmental characteristics include surface temperature and pressure (e.g. Misra et al., 2013), a census of bulk and trace atmospheric gases, and whether there are signs of liquid water on the planetary surface (e.g. Robinson et al., 2010). The robustness of a planetary biosignature is dependent on being able to characterize the environment sufficiently well, and to understand likely star-planet interactions, to preclude formation of a biosignature gas via abiotic processes such as photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2007; Domagal-Goldman et al., 2011; Grenfell et al., 2012). Here we also discuss potential false positives for O2 and O3, which, in large quantities, are often considered robust biosignatures for oxygenic photosynthesis. There is clearly significant future work required to better identify and understand the key environmental processes and interactions that allow a planet to support life, and to distinguish life's global impact on an environment from the environment itself.

Meadows, Victoria; NAI-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team

2014-03-01

310

Dinâmica do banco de sementes de arroz-vermelho afetado pelo pisoteio bovino e tempo de pousio da área Red rice seed bank dynamics affected by cattle trampling and fallow duration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Para avaliar a influência do pisoteio bovino e do tempo de pousio na dinâmica do banco de sementes de arroz-vermelho foi conduzido um experimento em lavoura comercial de arroz irrigado, que adota o sistema de cultivo mínimo, seguido de dois anos de pousio, manejada, nesse período, pelo pastejo de bovinos. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições no esquema bifatorial. O fator A constou dos manejos pós-colheita da cultura de arroz: [M1] - pousio com pisoteio animal e [M2] - pousio sem pisoteio animal. O fator B constou dos anos de amostragem: [A1] - 1999, [A2] - 2000 e [A3] - 2001. O banco de sementes de arroz-vermelho foi estimado através de 12 amostras de solo por parcela, em abril de 1999, abril de 2000 e abril de 2001, com trado cilíndrico de 10 cm de diâmetro. As profundidades de coleta das amostras de solo foram de 0-1 cm, 1-5 cm, 5-10 cm e 10-15 cm. Após a coleta, os grãos de arroz-vermelho foram separados do solo, contados e submetidos ao teste de tetrazólio, para estimativa da viabilidade. O pisoteio bovino não afetou a distribuição das sementes no perfil do solo, bem como a dinâmica do banco de sementes. Houve efeito do tempo de pousio sobre o banco de sementes de arroz-vermelho; a equação que melhor explica a correlação entre número de sementes viáveis e tempo de pousio, em meses, foi a equação exponencial y = 1382,15 exp (-0,1988*x pAn experiment was conducted in a commercial lowland rice-producing area, adopting the minimum tillage system of rice production, followed by two years of fallow, managed, during this time, by cattle production, in order to evaluate the influence on red rice seed bank dynamics. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with three replications, in a bifactorial design. Factor A consisted of rice post-harvest management of the area: [T1] - fallow with cattle trampling and [T2] - fallow without cattle trampling. Factor B was the sampling time: [A1] - 1999, [A2] 2000 and [A3] - 2001. The red rice seed bank estimation was made using 12 soil samples by plot, in April 1999, April 2000 and April 2001, using a 10 cm diameter cylinder soil sampler. The sampling depths were 0-1 cm, 1-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm. After being extracted from the soil, the grains of red rice were counted and submitted to a tetrazolium test to estimate seed viability. Cattle trampling did not affect seed distribution in the soil profile and the dynamics of the red rice seed bank. Fallow duration affected the seed bank of red rice; the regression equation fit that best explains the correlation between number of viable seeds and fallow duration in months was the exponential equation: y = 1382.15 exp (-0.1988*x p<0.05, showing a decrease in the number of seeds within 12 months, from 1,448 to 151 (90% reduction, and 38 (98% reduction viable seeds per square meter in 24 months of fallow. Regarding the red rice seed burial depths, seed bank reduction was greater on the soil surface in 2000, with no difference between the depths in 2001. The seeds located on the soil surface lost their viability rapidly, with an average of 99% within one year fallow with or without cattle trampling. It can be concluded that cattle trampling does not affect red rice seed bank dynamics in fallow areas. Soil fallow, with or without cattle trampling, reduces in the red rice seed bank.

E. Marchezan

2003-04-01

311

Physiological Responses of West African Dwarf Buck as Affected by Datura Stramonium Linn Seed Extract  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To evaluate the action of aqueous extract of Datura stramonium seeds on the physiological status of West African Dwarf (WAD -bucks, the effects of aqueous extract of the seed of Datura stramonium Linn was investigated for some physiological parameters in twenty (20 West African Dwarf bucks aged 12- 18 months and averaged 8.76±1.23kg for a period of 2months. The bucks were grouped into five treatments consisting four bucks and using Completely Randomized Design (CRD. The bucks were subcutaneously administered with the plant extract at a dose of 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08ml/kg bodyweight respectively. The results of the study revealed that the treated bucks had higher (p>0.05 body weight than the control but treated had lower rectal temperature than the control (p>0.05. However, the extract produced significant effect (p<0.05 on the pulse and heart rate and this may be as a result of the active principles present in the extract used for the study. Based on the findings of the present study, the aqueous extract of Datura stramonium could serve as a stimulatory agent and if properly screened using additional solvents, pharmacologically active drugs could be obtained. The significant effect produced by the aqueous extract on the animals has provided scientific justification for the ethno medicinal uses of the plant in India and South Africa.

Fatoba, T. A.

2012-12-01

312

Seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals concentration as affected by foliar K-glyphosate applications in soybean cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous studies showed that glyphosate (Gly may chelate cation nutrients, including potassium (K, which might affect the nutritional status of soybean seed. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals as influenced by foliar applications of K + Gly. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at Mississippi Valley State University, using two glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivars DK 4968 and Pioneer 95Y70 grown in a randomized complete block design. The treatments were foliar applications of K alone, Gly alone, K + Gly combined, and nontreated control (C. A single application of potassium (1.75% as K2SO4 was applied, and Gly was applied at a rate of 0.75 ae/ha at V5 stage. Leaf samples were harvested one week after treatment (1WAT and 3WAT. Mature seeds were collected at harvest maturity (R8. The results showed that K, nitrogen (N, and phosphorus (P concentrations increased in leaves in K alone and K + Gly treatments at 1WAT, but significantly increased at 3WAT in all treatments. The concentration of iron (Fe and zinc (Zn showed a decrease in leaf concentration in Gly and K + Gly treatments compared to C. Boron (B concentration increased in Gly treatment. Seed protein percentage was higher in all treatments in cultivar DK 4968, and the increase was about 4.0% in K treatment, 6.9% in Gly treatment, and 3.5% in K + Gly treatment compared to C. The opposite trend was observed in oil concentration, especially in Gly treatment where the percentage decrease was 11.2% compared to C. Stearic fatty acid was significantly higher in K + Gly treatment compared to K treatment for DK 4968. A higher percentage increase in linolenic acid was observed in DK 4968 in K treatment (an increase of 24.5% and in K + Gly treatment (an increase of 29.5% compared to C. In Pioneer 95Y70, the decrease in oil was 2.7% in K treatment and 2.3% in K + Gly treatment compared to C. Stearic acid in Pioneer 95Y70 was significantly higher in Gly treatment, an increase of 8.3%, compared to C. Our research demonstrated that foliar application of K and Gly altered mineral concentration in leaves and shifted seed composition towards protein and stearic concentration. Further research under field conditions is needed before final conclusions are made.

Manju Pande

2012-10-01

313

Physiology of seed germination and seedling growth in Coccinia indica L. as affected by morphactin and gamma radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper deals with the seed germination and seeding growth in Coccinia indica L. in relation to morphactin and gamma radiation. Morphactin had inhibitory effect on seed germination. Gamma radiation promoted the seed germination. The promotive effective of gamma radiation was suppressed by the inhibitory effect of morphactin on radicle and hypocotyl growth in all treatments of the interaction of gamma radiation and morphactin.

Singh, I. (Forest Research Inst., Dehra Dun (India)); Kaushik, M.P.; Raja Ram; Sharma, Y.K. (D.A.V. Coll., Muzaffarnagar (India))

314

Selenium uptake and its antioxidant role in ryegrass cultivars as affected by selenite seed pelletization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english A greenhouse study was carried out to evaluate the effect of seed pelletization with increasing selenite doses (from 0 to 60 g Se ha-1) on the yield, Se uptake and the antioxidant responses of three ryegrass cultivars (Aries, Nui and Quartet) cultivated on an Andisol during two consecutive growth pe [...] riods. In addition, a second assay was conducted to determine the residual effect of Se in the shoots during four consecutive plant cuts. Results showed that selenite-pelleted seeds at rates up to 60 g Se ha-1 did not influence the yield of shoots and roots of the three ryegrass cultivars. Selenium concentration in shoots and roots steadily increased as a consequence of increased Se supply, and it was accumulated mainly in the roots. Plants of the different cultivars accumulated similar amounts of Se in their shoots, but Quartet roots built up greater Se concentration than those of Aries or Nui at rates of application above 35 g Se ha-1. Whereas Se doses above 10 g ha-1 increased the shoot Se concentration in the two yields of the three ryegrass cultivars to suitable levels according to the minimum dietary requirement of beef and dairy cattle, the residual effect of Se was maintained through four cuts at Se supply of 30 and 60 g ha-1. Likewise, the different cultivars displayed differential patterns of lipid peroxidation in response to the added Se. During the growth period, reductions of the oxidative damage of membranes were accompanied by inhibition of SOD in Aries and Nui and by the activation of GSH-Px antioxidant enzymes in the three ryegrass cultivars. Thus, in our study the benefits of Se on the plant health were closely related to an enhancement of the antioxidant system in the ryegrass cultivars. In summary, our results indicate that selenite-pelleted ryegrass seeds seem to be a promissory tool to increase both the Se content and the antioxidant ability of pastures. Its potential use requires, however, to be evaluated under field conditions in Se deficient soils.

P, Cartes; L, Gianfreda; C, Paredes; M.L, Mora.

315

Selenium uptake and its antioxidant role in ryegrass cultivars as affected by selenite seed pelletization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A greenhouse study was carried out to evaluate the effect of seed pelletization with increasing selenite doses (from 0 to 60 g Se ha-1 on the yield, Se uptake and the antioxidant responses of three ryegrass cultivars (Aries, Nui and Quartet cultivated on an Andisol during two consecutive growth periods. In addition, a second assay was conducted to determine the residual effect of Se in the shoots during four consecutive plant cuts. Results showed that selenite-pelleted seeds at rates up to 60 g Se ha-1 did not influence the yield of shoots and roots of the three ryegrass cultivars. Selenium concentration in shoots and roots steadily increased as a consequence of increased Se supply, and it was accumulated mainly in the roots. Plants of the different cultivars accumulated similar amounts of Se in their shoots, but Quartet roots built up greater Se concentration than those of Aries or Nui at rates of application above 35 g Se ha-1. Whereas Se doses above 10 g ha-1 increased the shoot Se concentration in the two yields of the three ryegrass cultivars to suitable levels according to the minimum dietary requirement of beef and dairy cattle, the residual effect of Se was maintained through four cuts at Se supply of 30 and 60 g ha-1. Likewise, the different cultivars displayed differential patterns of lipid peroxidation in response to the added Se. During the growth period, reductions of the oxidative damage of membranes were accompanied by inhibition of SOD in Aries and Nui and by the activation of GSH-Px antioxidant enzymes in the three ryegrass cultivars. Thus, in our study the benefits of Se on the plant health were closely related to an enhancement of the antioxidant system in the ryegrass cultivars. In summary, our results indicate that selenite-pelleted ryegrass seeds seem to be a promissory tool to increase both the Se content and the antioxidant ability of pastures. Its potential use requires, however, to be evaluated under field conditions in Se deficient soils.

P Cartes

2011-01-01

316

Chemical composition of tomato seeds affected by conventional and organic production systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tomato is amongst the most consumed vegetables in the world, not only for its culinary versatility but also for its high nutritional value. In the last years, consumers have shown an increased concern regarding food origin and safety. The organic tomato production has been a promising alternative for the consumer offering a safer food in relation to environmental, social and nutritional aspects. This study assessed the chemical composition of tomato seeds produced in both conventional and organic systems by INAA. The results showed significant differences (p?0.05) in the mass fractions of Br, Cs, Eu, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb and Sm between both systems, indicating influence of the crop management adopted in the different tomato production systems. (author)

317

Factors affecting student performance in an undergraduate genetics course.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine some of the factors that affect student success in a genetics course. Genetics for the Kansas State University College of Agriculture is taught in the Department of Animal Sciences and Industry and covers Mendelian inheritance, molecular genetics, and quantitative/population genetics. Data collected from 1,516 students over 7 yr included year and semester of the course; age; gender; state of residence; population of hometown; Kansas City metro resident or not; instructor of course; American College Testing Program (ACT) scores; number of transfer credits; major; college; preveterinary student or not; freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior grade point average (GPA); semester credits when taking genetics; class standing when enrolled in genetics; cumulative GPA before and after taking genetics; semester GPA in semester taking genetics, number of semesters between the biology prerequisite and genetics; grade in biology; location of biology course; and final percentage in genetics. Final percentage in genetics did not differ due to instructor, gender, state of residence, major, or college (P > 0.16). Transfer students tended to perform better than nontransfer students (P = 0.09), and students from the Kansas City metro outscored students from other areas (P = 0.03). Preveterinary option students scored higher in genetics than non-preveterinary students (P students with higher grades in biology to perform better in genetics (P = 0.06). Students who took biology at Kansas State University performed better in genetics than students who transferred the credit (P students should take biology from Kansas State, perform well in biology, and wait until at least sophomore standing to enroll in genetics. PMID:23408825

Bormann, J Minick; Moser, D W; Bates, K E

2013-05-01

318

Factors affecting performance of Nili-Ravi buffaloes in Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of herd, year, age, season, and lactation length on milk yield and reproductive efficiency for the Nili-Ravi breed of buffalo were determined by analysis of variance of 5,716 lactation records from two herds in Pakistan. Herds differed in all traits. Herd average milk yields were 1,702 and 2,064 kg. Year, season, herd, parity number, days in milk, days open, age, and sire all influenced milk yield. Herd, year, season, and parity number also had significant effects on days open and calving interval. Month of calving was important for time until return to estrus. Percentages of variance in milk yield attributed to herd, year, sire, cow, and residual were 20.3, 11.4, 4.3, 17.0, and 47.0. Classification of lactation length (greater than 60, greater than 250, or at least 305 days) markedly influenced the sire component of variance suggesting some interdependence of milk yield and lactation length. Total variance for milk yield was 466,911 kg2. Within herd heritability for milk yield was .25, and repeatability was low (.31). Predicted breeding values for sires for 250 to 305-day milk ranged from -172 kg to +260. Cows in Herd 1 completed 5.58 lactations with an average herd life of 12.3 yr; Herd 2 cows completed 4.52 lactations with culling at 10.6 yr. Frequency of termination of lactations because of mastitis, reproductive problems, or health was similar to frequencies for cattle. Factors affecting milk yield in buffaloes are similar to those of cattle. PMID:6841754

Cady, R A; Shah, S K; Schermerhorn, E C; McDowell, R E

1983-03-01

319

Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L) in promoting weight loss and altering disease risk factors in overweight adults. The hypothesis was that the high dietary fiber and alpha-linolenic (ALA) contents of chia seed would induce a small but significant decrease in body weight and fat and improve disease risk factors. Subjects were randomized to chia seed (CS) and placebo (P) groups, and under single-blinded procedures, ingested 25 g CS or P supplements mixed in 0.25 L water twice daily before the first and last meal for 12 weeks. Ninety nondiseased, overweight/obese men and women between the ages of 20 and 70 years were recruited into the study, with 76 subjects (n = 39 CS, n = 37 P) completing all phases of the study. Pre- and poststudy measures included body mass and composition (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), inflammation markers from fasting blood samples (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), oxidative stress markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and plasma nitrite), blood pressure, and a serum lipid profile. Plasma ALA increased 24.4% compared to a 2.8% decrease in CS and P, respectively (interaction effect, P = .012). No group differences were measured for changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (interaction effects, P = .420 and .980, respectively). Pre-to-post measures of body composition, inflammation, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and lipoproteins did not differ between CS and P for both sexes. In conclusion, ingestion of 50 g/d CS vs P for 12 weeks by overweight/obese men and women had no influence on body mass or composition, or various disease risk factor measures. PMID:19628108

Nieman, David C; Cayea, Erin J; Austin, Melanie D; Henson, Dru A; McAnulty, Steven R; Jin, Fuxia

2009-06-01

320

Germination season and watering regime, but not seed morph, affect life history traits in a cold desert diaspore-heteromorphic annual.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed morph, abiotic conditions and time of germination can affect plant fitness, but few studies have tested their combined effects on plasticity of plant life history traits. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that seed morph, germination season and watering regime influence phenotypic expression of post-germination life history traits in the diaspore-heteromorphic cold desert winter annual/spring ephemeral Diptychocarpus strictus. The two seed morphs were sown in watered and non-watered plots in late summer, and plants derived from them were watered or not-watered throughout the study. Seed morph did not affect phenology, growth and morphology, survival, dry mass accumulation and allocation or silique and seed production. Seeds in watered plots germinated in autumn (AW) and spring (SW) but only in spring for non-watered plots (SNW). A high percentage of AW, SW and SNW plants survived and reproduced, but flowering date and flowering period of autumn- vs. spring-germinated plants differed. Dry mass also differed with germination season/watering regime (AW > SW > SNW). Number of siliques and seeds increased with plant size (AW > SW > SNW), whereas percent dry mass allocated to reproduction was higher in small plants: SNW > SW > AW. Thus, although seed morph did not affect the expression of life history traits, germination season and watering regime significantly affected phenology, plant size and accumulation and allocation of biomass to reproduction. Flexibility throughout the life cycle of D. strictus is an adaptation to the variation in timing and amount of rainfall in its cold desert habitat. PMID:25013967

Lu, Juan J; Tan, Dun Y; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. A surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). In the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survival of seeds of seven species of weeds and non-embryonated eggs of the large roundworm of pigs, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still maintained low levels (~1%) of germination ability after 1 week. Chenopodium album was the only weed species which survived 1 week at substantial levels (7%) although after 11 d germination ability was totally lost. Similarly, at 55°C, no Ascaris eggs survived more than 3h of incubation. Incubation at 37°C did not affect egg survival during the first 48 h and it took up to 10 days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites and weeds so that the digestates can be applied without risking spread of these pests. PMID:23266071

Johansen, Anders; Nielsen, Henrik B; Hansen, Christian M; Andreasen, Christian; Carlsgart, Josefine; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Roepstorff, Allan

2013-04-01

322

Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. A surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). In the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survival of seeds of seven species of weeds and non-embryonated eggs of the large roundworm of pigs, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55 °C) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still maintained low levels (~1%) of germination ability after 1 week. Chenopodium album was the only weed species which survived 1 week at substantial levels (7%) although after 11 d germination ability was totally lost. Similarly, at 55 °C, no Ascaris eggs survived more than 3 h of incubation. Incubation at 37 °C did not affect egg survival during the first 48 h and it took up to 10 days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites and weeds so that the digestates can be applied without risking spread of these pests.

Johansen, Anders; Nielsen, Henrik Breusch

2013-01-01

323

A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor regulates cell elongation and seed germination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants are sessile and rely on a wide variety of growth hormones to adjust growth and development in response to internal and external stimuli. We have identified a gene, designated NAN, encoding a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that regulates cell elongation and seed germination in plants. NAN has an HLH motif in its C-terminal region but does not have any other discernible homologies to bHLH proteins. A bipartite nuclear localization signal is located close to the HLH motif. An Arabidopsis mutant, nan-1D, in which NAN is activated by the insertion of the 35S enhancer, exhibits growth retardation with short hypocotyls and curled leaves. It is also characterized by reduced seed germination and apical hook formation, symptomatic of GA deficiency or disrupted GA signaling. The phenotypic effects of nan-1D were increased by treatment with paclobutrazol (PAC), an inhibitor of gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthesis. NAN is constitutively expressed throughout the life cycle. Our observations indicate that NAN has a housekeeping role in plant growth and development, particularly in seed germination and cell elongation, and that it may modulate GA signaling. PMID:15995349

Kim, Jin-A; Lee, Misun; Kim, Youn-Sung; Woo, Jae-Chang; Park, Chung-Mo

2005-06-30

324

Factors affecting the absorption of hydrogen by zircaloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A proton model has been employed to calculate how the elements Sn, Fe, Cr and Ni in Zircaloy affect the absorption of hydrogen compared with in zirconium. It is found that Fe, Cr and Ni reduce the absorption of hydrogen by almost equal amounts per atom added, whereas Sn has little or no affect on the absorption. (orig.)

325

To Invest Or Not Invest? : Factors affecting IT investment decisions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

  Introduction Many studies indicate that there are numerous factors that promote or hamper the adoption of IT applications and are a prime concern for many researchers and practitioners (Abrahamson, 1991). Two main factors which need to be examined closely when making decisions about IT investments are the internal and external factors. Since these factors play a great role in decision making of IT investments, it is imperative to study their impact on the strategic planning because this fo...

Tarabay, Raymond; Eigbire, Raphael

2009-01-01

326

Emission factor of single pellet cake seed Jatropha curcas in a fix bed reactor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the emission factor of oil cake seed Jatropha curcas that was formed into pellets with three parameters: pyrolisis, densification and air flow rate. The effect of pyrolisis was investigated using four samples of pellet: nonpyrolysis pellet, 90 minutes pyrolysis pellet, 120 minutes pyrolysis pellet, 150 minutes pyrolysis pellet. The effect of densification was provided by three samples: 11 mm, 13 mm, and 16 mm diameter. Furthermore, the parameter of air flow rate was varied from 0.1 m/s to 0.4 m/s. The results show that the lowest emission factor occurs in the non-pyrolysis pellet containing 14.3 gram carbon monoxide per kilogram pellet. Meanwhile the best densification was obtained by 13-mm diameter pellet containing 14.8 gram carbon monoxide. Air flow rate of 2.0 m/s was the suitable air flow rate to achieve lowest emission factor.

N. Agung Pambudi

2012-06-01

327

[Seed rain, soil seed bank, and natural regeneration of natural Toona ciliata var. pubescens forest].  

Science.gov (United States)

Taking the natural Toona ciliata var. pubescens forest in the Jiujiangshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province of China as test object, an investigation was conducted on the seed rain, soil seed bank, and seedlings number in 2008-2011. The seed rain of the forest was dispersed from late October to the end of December. In 2010, the seed rain intensity in different sampling plots was in the order of Xiagongtang observatory (320.3 +/- 23.5 seeds x m(-2)) > Xiagongtang protection station (284.7 +/- 24.2 seeds x m(-2)) > Daqiutian protection station (251.6 +/- 24.7 seeds x m(-2)), and the quantity of the intact seeds in soil supplied for seed germination and regeneration was 222.0, 34.3, and 22.6 seeds x m(-2), respectively. The seed bank reserves was affected by the seed production amount, bird feeding, and seed viability, etc., of which, bird feeding was the prime factor for the substantial drop of the seed bank reserves. Due to the low resistance against storage and a large number of rot during storage, the seeds in soil could hardly be effectively stored beyond one month. The seedlings germinated in December were averagely less than 2 stands x m(-2), and the soil seed reserves in the next January was the least (6.7-11.8 seeds x m(-2)), with the germinated seedlings averagely 0.4-0.6 stands x m(-2), which was consistent with the rare distribution of natural seedlings in the forest. It was concluded that the small seed rain reserves, low seed vigor of soil seed bank, and low seedling establishment were the important factors impacting the natural regeneration of T. ciliata var. pubescens. PMID:22803462

Huang, Hong-Lan; Zhang, Lu; Liao, Cheng-Kai

2012-04-01

328

Fragmentation of Atlantic forest has not affected gene flow of a widespread seed-dispersing bat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Habitat loss and resultant fragmentation are major threats to biodiversity, particularly in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. It is increasingly urgent to understand fragmentation effects, which are often complex and vary across taxa, time and space. We determined whether recent fragmentation of Atlantic forest is causing population subdivision in a widespread and important Neotropical seed disperser: Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). Genetic structure within highly fragmented forest in Paraguay was compared to that in mostly contiguous forest in neighbouring Misiones, Argentina. Further, observed genetic structure across the fragmented landscape was compared with expected levels of structure for similar time spans in realistic simulated landscapes under different degrees of reduction in gene flow. If fragmentation significantly reduced successful dispersal, greater population differentiation and stronger isolation by distance would be expected in the fragmented than in the continuous landscape, and genetic structure in the fragmented landscape should be similar to structure for simulated landscapes where dispersal had been substantially reduced. Instead, little genetic differentiation was observed, and no significant correlation was found between genetic and geographic distance in fragmented or continuous landscapes. Furthermore, comparison of empirical and simulated landscapes indicated empirical results were consistent with regular long-distance dispersal and high migration rates. Our results suggest maintenance of high gene flow for this relatively mobile and generalist species, which could be preventing or significantly delaying reduction in population connectivity in fragmented habitat. Our conclusions apply to A. lituratus in Interior Atlantic Forest, and do not contradict broad evidence that habitat fragmentation is contributing to extinction of populations and species, and poses a threat to biodiversity worldwide. PMID:23909879

McCulloch, Eve S; Tello, J Sebastián; Whitehead, Andrew; Rolón-Mendoza, Claudia M J; Maldonado-Rodríguez, Mario C D; Stevens, Richard D

2013-09-01

329

Factors Affecting the Success of Natural Regeneration in Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) Forests in Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The success of natural regeneration using the Uniform Shelterwood Method (USM) wasdetermined in an oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) stand, in the Bart?n-Sökü Forest RangeDistrict. Number, height growth and root collar diameter of seedlings were investigated in the10 experimental plots in the 5.0 ha regeneration area for 7 years (2004–2010). According to the resultof factor analyses, it was found that amount of filled seeds, soil cover, growth status of seed trees,stand canopy cl...

O?zel, Halil Bar?s?; Ertekin, Murat; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Kirdar, Erol

2010-01-01

330

Factors Affecting Teachers' Student-Centered Classroom Computer Use  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aims at investigating which factors are relevant to induce teachers' student-centered classroom computer use. Survey data were collected from 361 teachers at comprehensive schools. Based on a systemic view of technology use in schools, different individual teacher characteristics and school contextual factors were examined.…

Friedrich, Helmut Felix; Hron, Aemilian

2011-01-01

331

Physiology of seed germination and seedling growth in Coccinia indica L. as affected by morphactin and gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with the seed germination and seeding growth in Coccinia indica L. in relation to morphactin and gamma radiation. Morphactin had inhibitory effect on seed germination. Gamma radiation promoted the seed germination. The promotive effective of gamma radiation was suppressed by the inhibitory effect of morphactin on radicle and hypocotyl growth in all treatments of the interaction of gamma radiation and morphactin. (author)

332

Bioclimatic factors affecting daily Cupressaceae flowering in southwest Spain  

Science.gov (United States)

Daily variations in Cupressaceae pollen counts were analysed, together with climatic variables in the southwest of Spain, in order to understand the bioclimatic variables affecting Cupressaceae flowering in a Mediterranean climate. The study was carried out using the Spanish Aerobiology Network recommendations, using a Burkard Hirst-type spore trap. Regression analyses were applied to the pollen counts of the winter months of 13 consecutive years. The regression analysis applied to each year indicated that temperature is the most important variable to include in the model. Temperature affected the pollen counts differently according to the yearly climatic trend. During the coldest years, pollen counts depended on the minimum temperature, while in the warmest ones they were affected by higher temperatures. However, during the driest years, pollen counts depended more on the humidity level, while in the wettest years they depended more on the hours of sunshine.

Galán, C.; Fuillerat, M. Jose; Comtois, Paul; Dominguez-Vilches, Eugenio

333

Factors Affecting the Success of Natural Regeneration in Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky Forests in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The success of natural regeneration using the Uniform Shelterwood Method (USM wasdetermined in an oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. stand, in the Bart?n-Sökü Forest RangeDistrict. Number, height growth and root collar diameter of seedlings were investigated in the10 experimental plots in the 5.0 ha regeneration area for 7 years (2004–2010. According to the resultof factor analyses, it was found that amount of filled seeds, soil cover, growth status of seed trees,stand canopy closure, average crown projection area of seed trees, amount of organic substance in theupper soil layer, soil reaction in the upper soil layer and hillside status were the most effective factorsdetermining the success of natural regeneration.

ÖZEL, Halil Bar??

2010-01-01

334

Environmental factors affecting inflammatory bowel disease: have we made progress?  

Science.gov (United States)

The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is only partially understood; various environmental and host (e.g. genetic, epithelial, immune, and nonimmune) factors are involved. The critical role for environmental factors is strongly supported by recent worldwide trends in IBD epidemiology. One important environmental factor is smoking. A meta-analysis partially confirms previous findings that smoking was found to be protective against ulcerative colitis and, after the onset of the disease, might improve its course, decreasing the need for colectomy. In contrast, smoking increases the risk of developing Crohn's disease and aggravates its course. The history of IBD is dotted by cyclic reports on the isolation of specific infectious agents responsible for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The more recently published cold chain hypothesis is providing an even broader platform by linking dietary factors and microbial agents. An additional, recent theory has suggested a breakdown in the balance between putative species of 'protective' versus 'harmful' intestinal bacteria - this concept has been termed dysbiosis resulting in decreased bacterial diversity. Other factors such as oral contraceptive use, appendectomy, dietary factors (e.g. refined sugar, fat, and fast food), perinatal events, and childhood infections have also been associated with both diseases, but their role is more controversial. Nonetheless, there is no doubt that economic development, leading to improved hygiene and other changes in lifestyle ('westernized lifestyle') may play a role in the increase in IBD. This review article focuses on the role of environmental factors in the pathogenesis and progression of IBDs. PMID:19786744

Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

2009-01-01

335

Factors That Affect Academic Performance Among Pharmacy Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective The objective of this study was to examine factors such as academic competence, test competence, time management, strategic studying, and test anxiety, and identify whether these factors could distinguish differences among students, based on academic performance and enrollment in the experiential program. Methods A cross-sectional study design utilizing questionnaires measuring previously validated constructs was used to evaluate the effect of these factors on students with low and high cumulative grade point averages (GPAs). Pharmacy students (N = 198) enrolled at the University of Houston participated in the study. Results Academic performance was significantly associated with factors such as academic competence and test competence. Students with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or greater significantly differed in their level of test competence than those with a GPA of less than 3.0. Students enrolled in their experiential year differed from students enrolled in their second year of curriculum on factors such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, and time management skills. Conclusion Test competence was an important factor to distinguish students with low vs. high academic performance. Factors such as academic competence, test competence, test anxiety and time management improve as students' progress in their experiential year. PMID:17149433

Sansgiry, Sujit S.; Bhosle, Monali; Sail, Kavita

2006-01-01

336

The role of the Arabidopsis FUSCA3 transcription factor during inhibition of seed germination at high temperature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Imbibed seeds integrate environmental and endogenous signals to break dormancy and initiate growth under optimal conditions. Seed maturation plays an important role in determining the survival of germinating seeds, for example one of the roles of dormancy is to stagger germination to prevent mass growth under suboptimal conditions. The B3-domain transcription factor FUSCA3 (FUS3 is a master regulator of seed development and an important node in hormonal interaction networks in Arabidopsis thaliana. Its function has been mainly characterized during embryonic development, where FUS3 is highly expressed to promote seed maturation and dormancy by regulating ABA/GA levels. Results In this study, we present evidence for a role of FUS3 in delaying seed germination at supraoptimal temperatures that would be lethal for the developing seedlings. During seed imbibition at supraoptimal temperature, the FUS3 promoter is reactivated and induces de novo synthesis of FUS3 mRNA, followed by FUS3 protein accumulation. Genetic analysis shows that FUS3 contributes to the delay of seed germination at high temperature. Unlike WT, seeds overexpressing FUS3 (ML1:FUS3-GFP during imbibition are hypersensitive to high temperature and do not germinate, however, they can fully germinate after recovery at control temperature reaching 90% seedling survival. ML1:FUS3-GFP hypersensitivity to high temperature can be partly recovered in the presence of fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, suggesting this hypersensitivity is due in part to higher ABA level in this mutant. Transcriptomic analysis shows that WT seeds imbibed at supraoptimal temperature activate seed-specific genes and ABA biosynthetic and signaling genes, while inhibiting genes that promote germination and growth, such as GA biosynthetic and signaling genes. Conclusion In this study, we have uncovered a novel function for the master regulator of seed maturation, FUS3, in delaying germination at supraoptimal temperature. Physiologically, this is important since delaying germination has a protective role at high temperature. Transcriptomic analysis of seeds imbibed at supraoptimal temperature reveal that a complex program is in place, which involves not only the regulation of heat and dehydration response genes to adjust cellular functions, but also the activation of seed-specific programs and the inhibition of germination-promoting programs to delay germination.

Chiu Rex S

2012-01-01

337

Effects of Some Environmental Factors on Seed Germination and Spreading Potentials of Silybum marianum Gaertner  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Silybum marianum Gaertner is spreading in many crops of Southern Italy, particularly in durum wheat, sugar beet and some vegetable crops. Information about its biology are useful to set up effective control strategies. Four experiments were carried out at the Crop Science Department of the University of Bari (Southern Italy. Two trials were conducted in Petri dishes and evaluated the effects of different light, temperature and osmotic stress conditions on the seed germination. Another trial evaluated the ability of seedlings to emerge from different depths. The effects of eight different sowing periods on the plant growth were assessed in the fourth experiment. The highest germination rate was found with constant temperatures of 25 °C or 30 °C and with alternating temperatures of 25- 15 °C for 8 and 16 hours respectively. Germination was affected by the light and was significantly decreased at 0.2 Mpa and completely inhibited at -0.8 Mpa. Plant emergence was strongly reduced from a depth of more than 3 cm. The plant size at the first bloom was reduced by postponing the sowing period from October to February. The same decreasing trend was observed in the number of flower heads and in the number of days required for the first bloom. Results can suggest some important strategies to manage this species. False sowing, followed by irrigation, can be recommended in summer, in order to obtain the highest seed germination. Since the emergence of this plant is very scarce from a depth of more than 3 cm, ploughing can be effective to bury seeds in case of strong disseminations in order to reduce the infestation in the following crop.

Antonio Lonigro

2011-02-01

338

Effects of Some Environmental Factors on Seed Germination and Spreading Potentials of Silybum marianum Gaertner  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Silybum marianum Gaertner is spreading in many crops of Southern Italy, particularly in durum wheat, sugar beet and some vegetable crops. Information about its biology are useful to set up effective control strategies. Four experiments were carried out at the Crop Science Department of the University of Bari (Southern Italy. Two trials were conducted in Petri dishes and evaluated the effects of different light, temperature and osmotic stress conditions on the seed germination. Another trial evaluated the ability of seedlings to emerge from different depths. The effects of eight different sowing periods on the plant growth were assessed in the fourth experiment. The highest germination rate was found with constant temperatures of 25 °C or 30 °C and with alternating temperatures of 25- 15 °C for 8 and 16 hours respectively. Germination was affected by the light and was significantly decreased at 0.2 Mpa and completely inhibited at -0.8 Mpa. Plant emergence was strongly reduced from a depth of more than 3 cm. The plant size at the first bloom was reduced by postponing the sowing period from October to February. The same decreasing trend was observed in the number of flower heads and in the number of days required for the first bloom. Results can suggest some important strategies to manage this species. False sowing, followed by irrigation, can be recommended in summer, in order to obtain the highest seed germination. Since the emergence of this plant is very scarce from a depth of more than 3 cm, ploughing can be effective to bury seeds in case of strong disseminations in order to reduce the infestation in the following crop.

Pasquale Montemurro

339

Looking under the Bonnet: Factors Affecting Student Adoption of E-Learning Systems in Jordan  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary questions addressed in this paper are the following: what are the factors that affect students' adoption of an e-learning system and what are the relationships among these factors? This paper investigates and identifies some of the major factors affecting students' adoption of an e-learning system in a university in Jordan. E-learning…

Abbad, Muneer Mahmood; Morris, David; de Nahlik, Carmel

2009-01-01

340

Factors That Affect Feed Intake of Meat Birds: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Feed intake is the major factor that influences both the body weight gain and feed efficiency in meat-type poultry. Because so many factors can influence feed intake, it is often difficult to correct a problem of poor feed intake unless a complete review of feed and management practices is made. Management and flock health issues are usually more likely to reduce feed intake than dietary factors. Dietary factors that influence feed intake would be common among all flocks in a complex rather than on individual flocks. In contrast, environmental or immunological stresses have the most profound effects on flock variation in feed intake. Any management protocol that would alleviate these stressors will improve feed intake. To improve flock feed intake, initially investigate the source of greatest stress or disease challenge.

Peter R. Ferket

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Institutional Factors Affecting Biophysical Outcomes in Forest Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there is considerable interest in the impact of diverse policies affecting the biophysical outcomes in forests, gaining a substantial sample over time of forests under different institutional arrangements has been difficult. This article analyzes data from 46 forests located in six countries over time. In forests where policies have been…

Coleman, Eric A.

2009-01-01

342

Factors and pharmaceuticals that affect the radiopharmaceuticals bio distributions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pattern of biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals may be affected by various agents and therapeutical procedures, chemotherapy agents, thyroid hormones, metals, radiotherapy, surgery, anesthetic agents, dialysis other radiopharmaceutical interactions. Recommendations for the detection of altered biodistribution in patients by causes not directly related with the pathology itself was given. pathology itself was given

343

Factors Affecting Students' Self-Efficacy in Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…

van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien

2011-01-01

344

External Factors Affecting Gifted Girls' Academic and Career Achievements.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the unique position that teachers have for observing the environmental influences affecting the career choices of gifted girls. It suggests ways for teachers to educate parents on the family's role in education and career achievement and to create an educational environment that promotes the development of talent. (Contains…

Nelson, Mary Ann; Smith, Stephen W.

2001-01-01

345

Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intention among UniSZA Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Graduates contributions to entrepreneurship would stimulate the country’s economic growth. The aim of this study is to determine and investigate factors influence on students’ perception of the entrepreneurial intention, in order to present the most contemporary future generation of entrepreneurs that can shape the future of the economy and the country. The area of this study covers demographic profiles, attitudinal and behavioral factors, and how these influence the intentions of student...

Zaharah Ghazali; Nor Asmahani Ibrahim; Fakhrul Anwar Zainol

2012-01-01

346

Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting  

Science.gov (United States)

A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

Loewenthal, S. H.

1984-01-01

347

Muskmelon seed germination and seedling development in response to seed priming Germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento de plântulas de melão em resposta ao condicionamento osmótico  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Important factors affecting seed priming have not been extensively reported in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) studies. The optimization of the seed priming technique becomes very important at the commercial scale. Little information has been reported on seedling development of muskmelon subsequent to seed priming. Seeds of muskmelon were primed in darkness at 25°C in different solutions and three osmotic potentials. Seeds were also primed with and without aeration during different periods. I...

Warley Marcos Nascimento

2003-01-01

348

ACCURACY OF PESTICIDE REFERENCE STANDARD SOLUTIONS. PART I. FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIC SOLVENT EVAPORATION  

Science.gov (United States)

A gravimetric experiment was undertaken to identify the factors affecting solvent evaporation from analytical reference standard solutions and to establish the magnitude of the resultant solvent evaporation. The evaporation of organic solvent from standard solutions is affected b...

349

Mutation of the transcription factor LEAFY COTYLEDON 2 alters the chemical composition of Arabidopsis seeds, decreasing oil and protein content, while maintaining high levels of starch and sucrose in mature seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transcription factor LEAFY COTYLEDON 2 (LEC2; At1g28300) is preferentially expressed in developing seeds of Arabidopsis. Detailed biochemical analysis of a loss-of-function lec2 mutant was carried out in seeds 6-21 days after flowering (DAF). In comparison to wild type controls, lec2 seeds had 15% less protein and 30% less oil, but accumulated 140% more sucrose and >5-fold more starch. We also quantified biomass and carbohydrates in the seed coat and embryo. The lec2 mutant had smaller seeds and an altered proportion of dry weight (bigger seed coat and smaller embryos). Mutant plants produced less mature seeds per silique and the harvest index was reduced. Soluble sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) was accumulated in the seed coat of the lec2 mutant, whereas the opposite effect was observed in the embryos (decrease in comparison to wild type). The rate of starch synthesis increased during early development, whereas the rate of starch degradation was diminished during late development, leading to higher residual starch in mature seed of the mutant. Starch accumulated in both seed coat and embryo. Homozygous mutant plants produced seeds that could germinate well if they were harvested immaturely, whereas seeds that became dry during maturity lost their germination efficiency very rapidly. We conclude that the LEC2 transcription factor not only controls cotyledon identity and morphology as previously reported, but also alters: (1) the delivery of photosynthates from the seed coat to the embryo (sink strength), (2) carbon partitioning towards different storage compounds (oil, proteins and carbohydrates), (3) the rate of starch synthesis and degradation in developing seeds and (4) germination capacity of dry seeds. PMID:21665323

Angeles-Núñez, Juan Gabriel; Tiessen, Axel

2011-11-01

350

Multiscale Factors Affecting Human Attitudes toward Snow Leopards and Wolves.  

Science.gov (United States)

The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at appropriate scales. Our results reiterate the need for conflict management programs to be multipronged. Factores Multi-Escala que Afectan las Actitudes Humanas hacia Leopardos de las Nieves y Lobos. PMID:25039397

Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

2014-12-01

351

Relation between growth stages and synthesis of flavonoids and essential oils affected by irradiation in Ruta graveolens seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ruta graveolens plants are radio-adaptive up to 8 Krad gamma radiation. Flavonoids and essential oils were remarkably increased as function of irradiation doses from 2 up to 8 Krad. Doses of 4 and 8 Krad were the most effective ones. Concerning flavonoids, 4 and 8 Krad treatments exerted the following percent increase over control plants: 76, 77% (leaves), 137, 100% (stems), 153, 80% (flowers) and 77, 61% (fruits). The distribution pattern of flavonoids was in the following order: Leaves > flowers > fruits > stems. Treated plants with 4 or 8 Krad resulted in an increase in essential oil yield by 65-67% over control plants. Chemical constitution of oil: ketones and esters did not seem to be affected by seed irradiation (0-8 Krad). Similarly, physical properties ''refractive index, solubility and specific gravity'' did not materially affect. However, chemical properties ''acid value, ester value and saponification value'' were increased by 24% over control treatment as a function of 4 Krad. Yet higher doses had the capacity of increasing the acid value but not of both ester or saponification value

352

Factors Affecting the Wheel Rutting on Rural Roads  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the wheel ruts frequency and dimensions were investigated according to geographical aspects, longitudinal gradient and surfacing layer of rural roads in Denji Kola village, Mazandaran Province, Iran. Ruts were divided into shallow and deep wheel ruts. Results showed that the ruts length and area were significantly affected by longitudinal gradient of rural roads (p<0.0001). Ruts length in longitudinal gradient class 8-12% was significantly more than other classes (p<...

Parsakhoo, A.; Hosseini, S. A.

2009-01-01

353

In vitro investigation of the factors affecting pulse oximetry.  

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The effect of a number of physiological parameters on pulse oximetry accuracy has been investigated in an in vitro model. We have found that above 50% saturation, pulse oximeters will not be affected by variations in haematocrit, blood flow rate, tissue blood content and pulse amplitude. At low saturations, however, it is known that the accuracy of pulse oximeters decreases and our in vitro results suggest how this may be corrected.

Kock, Jp; Tarassenko, L.

1991-01-01

354

Factors affecting the spontaneous mutational spectra in somatic mammalian cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  In our survey of references we are discussed the influence of factors biological origin on the spontaneous mutation specters in mammalian. Seasonal and age components influence on the frequence of cytogenetic anomalies. The immune and endocrinous systems are take part in control of the alteration of the spontaneous mutation specters. Genetical difference of sensibility in animal and human at the alteration of factors enviroment as and  genetical differences of repair systems activity are may influence on individual variation of spontaneous destabilization characters of chromosomal apparatus.

?.?. ?????????

2006-04-01

355

Conservação de sementes de Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh seed storability as affected by temperature and seed moisture content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As sementes de Myrciaria dubia apresentam baixa longevidade e demandam a ampliação do conhecimento sobre fatores interferentes na sua conservação. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar as influências do grau de umidade e da temperatura do ambiente na manutenção da qualidade dessas sementes. Para tanto, sementes com 48%, 43%, 40%, 34%, 30%, 24%, 18% e 14% de água, acondicionadas em sacos de polietileno, foram armazenadas sob temperaturas controladas de 10 ºC, 20 ºC e 30 ºC, durante 280 dias, e submetidas, periodicamente, à avaliação do grau de umidade, da germinação, do vigor e da sanidade. Constatou-se que as sementes têm a conservação favorecida pela associação do grau de umidade de 43% com a temperatura de armazenamento de 10 °C.Myrciaria dubia seeds have a short life span and few informations are available about the factors that determine their storability. The main aim of this research work was to check the effects of three temperatures (10 ºC, 20 ºC and 30 ºC and eight seed moisture contents (48%, 43%, 40%, 34%, 30%, 24%, 18% and 14% on seed storability, during a time period of 280 days. Periodic evaluations of seed moisture content, germination, vigor and healthness were carried out throughout the experimental time. The best seed storability conditions were observed at 10 °C and 43% of seed moisture content.

Daniel Felipe de Oliveira Gentil

2004-12-01

356

Factors that Affect Nontraditional Vocational Enrollment among Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vocational training program females (N=470) completed a questionnaire assessing the role of personality and social support factors in nontraditional training enrollment. Results revealed differences in the amount of support and encouragement received from others, with nontraditional students receiving more support from female friends, family…

Houser, Betsy Bosak; Garvey, Chris

1985-01-01

357

Factors Affecting Case Management Services for the Chronically Mentally Ill.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthesizes the results of studies of case management with case management literature to summarize factors influencing case management services. Discusses characteristics of individuals providing case management, the clients they serve, the design of their jobs, and the services network in which they work. (Author/BH)

Intagliata, James; Baker, Frank

1983-01-01

358

Factors Affecting the Misperception of Friendliness Cues in Initial Interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some researchers have found men to attribute more sexual meaning to heterosexual interactions than do women. This study was conducted to examine factors which may enhance or diminish this gender difference on perceptions of sexual intent by considering the three variables of physical attractiveness of target, similarity of target's personality to…

Harnish, Richard J.; And Others

359

Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors

Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

2013-01-01

360

Factors Affecting the Success of Hmong College Students in America  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores barriers and success factors of Hmong students in American colleges by interviewing five Hmong graduate students from refugee families in the US. Emerging themes revolve around academic, cultural and financial barriers. Professors, advisors, classmates, academic support programmes, family, financial aid and their own…

Xiong, Soua; Lam, Sarah K. Y.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Guiding Teacher Development towards STL Teaching: Identifying Factors Affecting Change.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the effectiveness of an intervention training and draws attention to the most important factors to be considered in developing inservice programs for the promotion of Science and Technological Literacy (STL) teaching skills. Concludes that teachers who acknowledged the need for teaching social skills in conjunction with science concepts…

Ranniknae, Miia

2001-01-01

362

A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting College Sports' Team Unity  

Science.gov (United States)

The competitiveness of National Collegiate Association (NCAA) schools increases in intensity each year. With the increased pressure on college sport staffs to be undefeated season after season, coaches have to find ways to keep players happy; to do this, they have to find factors that contribute to unify the players. It is nearly impossible to…

Aghazadeh, Seyed-Mahmoud; Kyei, Kwasi

2009-01-01

363

Factors Affecting University Teaching Team Effectiveness in Detached Working Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…

Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

2014-01-01

364

Factors Affecting Location Decisions of Food Processing Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to examine the determinants of location choices for food processing plants using the results of 59 personal surveys. The 61.3% of the food processing plants that were interviewed are small scale plants, 9.1% are large scale plants and 29.6% are medium scale plants. Sixteen of the firms process vegetables, 12 process poultry, 12 process dairy and 9 process seafood products. Business climate factors are divided into six categories (market, infrastructure, raw material, labor, personal and environmental and 17 specific location factors are considered. The survey responses are analyzed by types of raw materials processed and by plant size. 43.7, 55.3 and 42.2% of the respondents cited categories of Market, Raw Material and Infrastructure respectively as important, while 44.3, 50.7 and 74.4% of the respondents cited, labor, personal and environmental regulation categories of as not important. Thus survey findings indicate that plant location choices are mainly driven by market, raw material and infra structural factors. Environmental factors such as environmental regulations and permissions are relatively insignificant.

Sule Turhan

2007-01-01

365

Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

2009-01-01

366

Students' Perceptions of Factors that Affect College Funding Decisions  

Science.gov (United States)

This exploratory study examines the factors that college students perceive are important in helping them make good financial decisions about paying for a college education. The study categorizes and summarizes students' self-reported responses to an open-ended survey question about recommendations for changes in financial aid counseling practices.…

Porter, Julia Y.; Fossey, W. Richard; Davis, William E.; Burnett, Michael F.; Stuhlmann, Janice; Suchy, Patricia A.

2006-01-01

367

Factors Affecting Recreation Preferences and Expectations of Disabled Adult Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

Generalizing recreation services, one of the essential well-being sources of disabled persons who experience deprivation in many dimensions of life and which fulfill their learning needs, is a social responsibility. The present study aims to determine factors effective on recreation preferences and expectations of the disabled individuals who…

Arslan, Sibel

2014-01-01

368

Analysis on the Main Factors Affecting the Reliability of Test Papers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reliability is an important factor to evaluate test papers. This paper analyzes the factors which affect the reliability of test papers and discusses the methods to increase the reliability of test papers.

Jiang Zhu

2011-01-01

369

FACTORS AFFECTING SENSITIVITY OF CHEMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MARINE EMBAYMEMTS TO NITROGEN LOADING  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper summarizes an ongoing examination of the primary factors that affect sensitivity of marine embayment responses to nitrogen loading. Included is a discussion of two methods for using these factors: classification of embayments into discrete sensitivity classes and norma...

370

Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function  

Science.gov (United States)

Gene risk factors for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... many of these same gene variants are known risk factors for diseases that occur later in life, including ...

371

Factors affecting sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus 196E to polyphosphates.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of polyphosphates (eight compounds) on growth of Staphylococcus aureus 196E in brain heart infusion broth was studied. The organism was sensitive (in decreasing order) to chain polyphosphates with 21, 3, 13, and 15 PO4 groups, and bactericidal effects were observed with 0.5% of these compounds. No inhibition was effected by PPi or a metaphosphate. The inhibitory effects were pH dependent, and bacterial sensitivity was highest at pH greater than 7.4. Initial populations affected the...

Jen, C. M.; Shelef, L. A.

1986-01-01

372

Formulation and Sun Protection Factor Estimation of Squash Cucurbita maxima Seeds Sunblock Lotion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fact that the sun's ultraviolet (UVA and UVB radiation reaches the earth's surface associates sun exposure with many skin problems such as sunburn, photoaging, hyperpigmentation, and skin cancers. Because sunlight is unavoidable, sunscreen/sunblock application is essential to protect the skin from the mentioned problems. Zinc, in the form of zinc oxide, is an active ingredient in sunblocks as it deflects away UVA and UVB. Zinc is an immunologically important mineral that helps in wound healing, antiinflammation, and cell protection. One natural and rich source of zinc is squash seeds, which many consider as trash. This study features the formulation of a sunblock lotion using squash seeds as the active ingredient. Squash seeds extract and powder were first subjected to Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS to quantitate zinc content, and enough were used to formulate a sunblock lotion to a final zinc concentration of 5%. Various physical tests on the finished product showed that it is stable and gentle, having high melting point of 440C, and being easily spreadable, water insoluble, and weakly basic at pH 7.5. Patch tests gave negative results in all subjects, indicating the product's hypoallergenicity. UV spectrophotometry revealed substantially low UV absorbance (<0.03 from 290nm - 320nm wavelengths, which is consistent with the action of zinc oxide as UV deflector, not absorber. The Sun Protection Factor (SPF was determined using a modified formula set by the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 based on the ratio of minimal erythema (skin redness due to dilated dermal capillaries on protected skin to that on unprotected skin, and was calculated to be SPF20. Further, costing and pricing analysis showed the production cost to be P0.80/mL, and recommended selling price (at 100% markup of P1.60/mL, which is up to 13 times cheaper than popular commercial brands of similar effectiveness. Thus, the study successfully formulated a gentle, effective, and affordable sunblock lotion using squash seeds as organic active ingredient

Mary Jane G. Barluado

2012-10-01

373

Factors affecting visualization of posterior rib fractures in abused infants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rib fractures in abused infants commonly occur in the posterior rib arcs. Fractures occurring near the costovertebral articulations are usually identified radiographically only once callus has formed. To assess the factors influencing the visibility of fractures near the costovertical articulations, the authors studied 103 posterior rib fractures occurring in 16 abused infants. Radiologic findings were correlated with CT findings and pathologic material from nine ribs in four patients. The limited visibility of fractures relates to (1) the frequent superimposition of the transverse process over the rib fracture site, (2) a fracture line that crosses at an obliquity to the x-ray beam, and (3) nondisplacement of rib fragments due to preservation of the posterior periosteum. Fresh rib fractures invisible on a frontal projection may be clearly defined on axial CT scans, or on postmortem radiographs. A knowledge of the factors influencing the visibility of these important injuries is useful in planning an appropriate diagnostic evaluation of suspected infant abuse

374

Animal factors affecting the meat quality of Australian lamb meat.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper integrates the key industry findings from the twelve preceding papers in this special edition of Meat science. In so doing, various animal factors important for the quality of Australian lamb meat are highlighted for sensory, visual appeal and human health attributes. Intramuscular fat concentration (IMF) was found to be a key element of eating quality that interacts both positively and negatively with a range of other factors. Shear force, IMF, colour stability and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) will likely respond to genetic selection whilst other omega-3 fatty acids require nutritional intervention. Australian lamb meat can generally be regarded as a good source of the minerals iron and zinc; and a source of omega 3 fatty acids when finished on green pasture. Breeding priorities for meat quality will likely depend on breed type with improvement of meat colour stability more important for the wool focused Merino breed and improvement of sensory quality for the terminal sire breeds. PMID:24268675

Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W

2014-02-01

375

Somatic cell and factors which affect their count in milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milk quality is determined by chemical composition, physical characteristics and hygienic parameters. The main indicators of hygienic quality of milk are total number of microorganisms and somatic cell count (SCC. Environmental factors have the greatest influence on increasing SCC. The most important environmental parameters are status of udder infection, age of cow, stage of lactation, number of lactation, breed, housing, geographicalarea and seasons, herd size, stress, heavy physical activity and, milking. A farmer (milk producer himself can control a great number of environmental factors using good management practise and permanent education. Since SCC participate in creating the price of milk, it is necessary to inform milk producers how to organise their production so that they would produce maximum quantity of good hygienic quality milk.

Zrinka ?a?i?

2003-01-01

376

Factors Affecting the Real Estate Prices in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current study examines the effect of factors influencing the prices of real estate inQuetta city. Hypothetically, this study is based upon five observed factors(urbanization, refugees’ influx, monetary, lack of investment alternatives and inflow offoreign remittances in relation to the prices of real estate. Questionnaire developed onthe basis of above variables were administered to a heterogeneous sample of 50property dealers and Quetta Development Authority. Descriptive statistics (percentage,percentile and frequency distribution were used to identify the level of influence andthe relation of above mentioned attributes towards the prices of real estate. The resultsrevealed that the prices of real estate in the region have been on an increasing trendand strong influence of all variables especially of government’s monetary and fiscalpolices and urbanization was found significant on the prices of real estate in Quetta.

Mehmood khan kakar

2011-06-01

377

Socioeconomic, cultural, and behavioral factors affecting Hispanic health outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher porverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of the epidemiological paradox. They find substantial support for the existence of the epidemiological paradox, particularly among Mexican Americans. Census undercounts of Hispanics, misclassification of Hispanic deaths, and emigration of Hispanics do not fully account for the epidemiological paradox. Identifying protective factors underlying the epidemiological paradox, while improving access to care and the economic conditions among Hispanics, are important research and policy implications of this review. PMID:12407964

Morales, Leo S; Lara, Marielena; Kington, Raynard S; Valdez, Robert O; Escarce, José J

2002-11-01

378

Factors affecting the solubility of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A detailed study of the solubility of recombinant Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase has been conducted. A semi-purified preparation from a bulk crystallisation was chos en that contained six isoforms with pI-values of between 5.5 and 6.1. The solubility was strongly affected by pH and could be reduced approximately 200-fold at pH 6 as compared to pH 10, leaving only 0.1 mg/mL in solution. Solubility could also be dramatically manipulated using salts. The choice of anions was found to be more important than of the cations, and the lowest solubility was found using sodium sulphate. For the anions, solubility followed the order expected from the Hofmeister series, however, a more complex behaviour was seen for the cations. With the exception of lithium, their efficiency to influence the solubility was reversed to what was expected. The polydispersity of the solution was reduced by salt addition and zeta potential measurements indicated a shift in pI caused by lithium. Possible explanations for the observations are discussed, extending our present understanding of how salts affect the solubility of proteins, one that to date is primarily based on experiments with lysozyme. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Faber, Cornelius; Hobley, Timothy John

2008-01-01

379

Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

2014-06-01

380

Factors affecting the supply of minority physicians in 2000.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There was a substantial increase in the number of black and Hispanic physicians between 1970 and 1985. During the next 15 years, 1985 to 2000, the increase is projected to continue. The factors that will determine the size of the increase and the changes in physician to population ratios include black and Hispanic population increases, medical school costs, availability of student support, minority enrollment in undergraduate schools and the pool of these students who will be applicants to me...

Simpson, C. E.; Aronoff, R.

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Analysis on some factors affecting MIMO in tunnel  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the 3D-GBSB (three-dimensional Geometrically Based Single-Bounce) model and MIMO channel capacity function, by geometric analysis, it is analyzed that transceiver antenna arrays, antenna spacing, antenna array angle, SNR and Rician K-factor and so on impact on the frequency-nonselective fading MIMO channel capacity. Monte Carlo method can be applied to stimulate the wireless fading channel and demonstrate Cumulative Distribution Function of above.

Zheng, Hong-dang; Nie, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Zhao

2009-07-01

382

Specialty Preference Among Medical Students and Factors Affecting It  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Medical education is one of the core part of educational system of any country. Medical education requires undergraduate students to study a wide range of medical specialties. It is often assumed that students do not make their career preferences until after they have graduated from medical school. So the reasons and factors responsible for preferences need to be found out among medical students. Material and Methods: It was a Cross sectional study on 180 medical students to assess preference for specialty and factors responsible. Results: Out of total 190 medical students more or less everyone (97.89% wanted to pursue specialization and majority of them (96.84% wanted to pursue the same in Medical Field(p>0.05. majority of male students were interested to pursue their specialization in the field of medicine (37.63%, surgery (23.65% and pediatrics (13.97%. On the other hand female students were more interested in medicine (24.17%, pediatrics (32.96% and obstetrics & gynecology (24.17%(p<0.05. Interest, by far was found to be most common factor (76.63% responsible for the preference of particular medical specialty among all four groups of students (1st professional-25.27%, 2nd professional-75.92%, final professional-89.47%, interns-68.42%.Conclusion: It is thus concluded there are many factors playing role in the specialty selection and preference among the medical students and should be equally justified and addressed.

Neeraj Gour

2011-07-01

383

A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspec...

Eda Atilgan-Inan; Aslihan Buyukkupcu; Serkan Akinci

2010-01-01

384

Detection of key factors affecting lycopene in vitro accessibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

On the basis of a Plackett-Burman experimental design for a resolution IV level obtained via a foldover strategy, the effect of 11 factors on lycopene in vitro accessibility was investigated. The selected factors were thermal treatment (X1), olive oil addition (X2), gastric pH (X3), gastric digestion time (X4), pepsin concentration (X5), intestinal pH (X6), pancreatin concentration (X7), bile salts concentration (X8), colipase addition (X9), intestinal digestion time (X10), and intestinal digestion speed (X11). Tomato passata was used as a natural source of lycopene. Samples were collected after gastric and intestinal digestion, and from the micellar phase, to quantify the (all-E)-lycopene and its (Z)-isomers by HPLC. Except for X3, X6, X7, and X11, the other factors studied explained lycopene in vitro accessibility, mainly regarding intestinal digestion, with R(2) values ? 0.60. Our results showed that the accessibility of lycopene is influenced by the conditions applied during in vitro intestinal digestion. PMID:23547942

Periago, M J; Bravo, S; García-Alonso, F J; Rincón, F

2013-04-24

385

Factors affecting the retention of nurses. A survival analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To identify and explore factors that mostly influence nurses’ turnover and retention, and to estimate the length of employment for nurses in the hospital. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study examining the standard Exit Questionnaires completed by all the female pediatric nurses who joined and left the hospital during the period between January 2006 and October 2010. The Developed Questionnaires where completed by nurses who were still employees in October 2010. The nurses who left the job will be considered as events and the nurses who are still working will be considered as censored.The study took place at the Pediatric Department, Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results: A total of 254 nurses were included in the study. Most of the nurses left their jobs due to family reasons (39.7% followed by other reasons (37.3%. Seventy five percent of all the pediatric nurses remained in their jobs, on average, for 2.2 years. Both simple and multivariate analysis indicated a strong positive correlation between length of employment (turnover and the demographic and organization factors. Conclusion: This study has identified several factors that played a key role in staff retention, which can help in predicting nursing turnover at  PSMMC. The findings of this study could help PSMMC and its Nursing Administration, in particular, to understand the seriousness of the high turnover rates, to develop and implement strategies to reduce this problem, and improve the retention of nursing staff. 

Noufa A. Alonazi

2013-03-01

386

A Study on Students’ Affective Factors in Junior High School English Teaching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Affect is considered as aspects of emotion, feeling, mood or attitude which condition behaviors in second language acquisition. Positive affect is good for studying while negative affect will inevitably hinder learners’ learning process. As we know, students in junior high school are special groups as they are experiencing great changes both in physiology and psychology. Their affect can be easily influenced by external and internal factors. Therefore, it is of vital importance to pay close attention to students’ affective factors in English learning process, particularly to the negative ones. Based on the results of the previous research about affects in second language acquisition, the study finds that junior high school students have the following negative affective factors such as boredom, anxiety, hopelessness, inhibition and low self-confidence in their English learning. Then some suggestions for cultivating and improving students’ affect are put forward in the hope of improving junior high school English teaching and learning.

Biyi Zhu

2012-06-01

387

Factores que pueden afectar la seguridad del paciente / Factors that may affect patient's safety  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento: la seguridad del paciente es la garantía de las personas de estar libres de sufrir cualquier tipo de daño cuando interactúan con alguno de los servicios de salud. Objetivo: determinar factores que podrían afectar la seguridad del paciente a través de una investigación realizada en el Hos [...] pital Provincial y en el Hospital Pediátrico. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, mediante la búsqueda de información bibliográfica sobre la temática de la seguridad del paciente, en las bases de datos disponibles en INFOMED. Para la primera etapa se diseña e implementa una encuesta de 49 preguntas que se les realiza en el año 2009 a trabajadores vinculados a la atención de salud. Para la segunda etapa se implementa una encuesta de 23 preguntas derivadas de las preguntas más relevantes de la primera etapa que se implementó en el Hospital Pediátrico y se va a realizar en el Hospital Provincial Univerrsitar