WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors affecting seed

  1. Factors affecting the density of Brassica napus seeds

    Young, L.; Jalink, H.; Denkert, R.; Reaney , M

    2006-01-01

    Brassica napus seed is composed of low density oil (0.92 g.cm(-3)) and higher density solids (1.3-1.45 g.cm(-3)). Seed buoyant density may potentially be used to determine seed oil content and to separate seeds with different oil contents, however, we have found that seeds with the lowest buoyant density had lower than expected oil contents. It is proposed that the low oil content observed in the lowest density seed is a function of air gaps or pockets within the seed coat with sufficient vol...

  2. Key factors affecting seed germination of Copaifera langsdorffii, a Neotropical tree

    Matheus Lopes Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In natural conditions biotic and abiotic factors interact, synergistically affecting seed germination. In this study, we experimentally simulated natural conditions that occur during seed dispersal that can affect the germination of Copaifera langsdorffii. Specifically we evaluated the effect of aril removal by different dispersal agents (birds and ants and fire on germination. The seeds were submitted to the following treatments: Control (seeds placed to germinate with aril intact; Acid (simulation of passage through the digestive tract of a bird; Aril removal (simulation of aril removed by ants; Fire (seeds exposed to fire. Germination percentage and time varied among treatments (X²=89.735, P<0.001; X²=16.225, P<0.001, respectively. None of the control seeds (intact aril germinated. Treatments that simulated dispersal (Acid, Aril removal did not differ in germination percentage, with about 50% of the seeds germinating, however, the acid treatment accelerated seed germination. Fire also had a positive effect on seed germination with about 80% of the seeds germinating. Our results demonstrate the importance of dispersal agents to the population dynamics of C. langsdorffii. Furthermore, the capacity of seeds of C. langsdorffii to tolerate high temperatures is an important attribute for the occurrence of this species in the Cerrado.

  3. Culinary and nutritional quality of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds as affected by environmental factors

    Kigel J.

    1999-01-01

    Efficient selection for specific culinary and nutritional quality traits needs a better understanding of the genetic and environmental control of quality traits at the structural, physiological and biochemical levels. Field experiments indicate great variability in the Phaseolus gene pool regarding the content of antinutritional compounds, as well as in cooking characteristics of the seeds. These seed attributes are strongly affected by geographic location, edaphic and climatic conditions at ...

  4. Factors affecting seed germination and protocorm development of Vandopsis gigantea (Lindl.) Pfitz. in vitro

    Thibul, S.; Jantasilp, A.

    2006-01-01

    Seeds of Vandopsis gigantea (Lindl.) Pfitz. germinated with highest percentage of 60.62±7.24% on modified VW (Vacin and Went, 1949) medium supplemented with coconut water under light condition. Light not only caused seed germination percentage significantly higher than in darkness (p

  5. [Biotic and abiotic factors that affect the quality of Schinopsis balansae Engl. and Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schltdl. seeds].

    Alzugaray, Claudia; Carnevale, Nélida J; Salinas, Adriana R; Pioli, Rosanna

    2007-06-01

    Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco (white quebracho) and Schinopsis balansae (red quebracho) are distinctive trees of the South American Park in Argentina. Quebrachos are found in forests that have been exploited very intensively. The object of this work was the identification of biotic and abiotic factors specially fungal pathogen that affect the quality of both species and its relation with germination. Seeds where evaluated through germination test and the percentage of the incidence of fungal agents in two different years of harvest was determined. In S. balansae the germination rate was 77% and of 27% in 2000 and 2001 harvests, respectively. Associations fungi-germination were found in 2001 for Alternaria spp., Curvularia spp., and Fusarium spp., showing an coefficient of correlation = -0.84; -0.85 and -0.73 (p quebracho-blanco seeds, the germination rate was 50% and 90% in 2000 and 2003 respectively, with a 42% of immature seeds in 2000 harvest that was associated to high precipitations and high temperatures during flowering and ripping of fruits. The incidence of pathogens was low and did not have association to germination. PMID:17604434

  6. Factors affecting post-control reinvasion by seed of an invasive species, Phragmites australis, in the central Platte River, Nebraska.

    Galatowitsch, Susan M.; Larson, Diane L.; Larson, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants, such as Phragmites australis, can profoundly affect channel environments of large rivers by stabilizing sediments and altering water flows. Invasive plant removal is considered necessary where restoration of dynamic channels is needed to provide critical habitat for species of conservation concern. However, these programs are widely reported to be inefficient. Post-control reinvasion is frequent, suggesting increased attention is needed to prevent seed regeneration. To develop more effective responses to this invader in the Central Platte River (Nebraska, USA), we investigated several aspects of Phragmites seed ecology potentially linked to post-control reinvasion, in comparison to other common species: extent of viable seed production, importance of water transport, and regeneration responses to hydrology. We observed that although Phragmites seed does not mature until very late in the ice-free season, populations produce significant amounts of viable seed (>50 % of filled seed). Most seed transported via water in the Platte River are invasive perennial species, although Phragmites abundances are much lower than species such as Lythrum salicaria, Cyperus esculentus and Phalaris arundinacea. Seed regeneration of Phragmites varies greatly depending on hydrology, especially timing of water level changes. Flood events coinciding with the beginning of seedling emergence reduced establishment by as much as 59 % compared to flood events that occurred a few weeks later. Results of these investigations suggest that prevention of seed set (i.e., by removal of flowering culms) should be a priority in vegetation stands not being treated annually. After seeds are in the seedbank, preventing reinvasion using prescribed flooding has a low chance of success given that Phragmites can regenerate in a wide variety of hydrologic microsites.

  7. Factors Affecting the Optimum Seeding Level of Coal or Char-Fired, Open-Cycle MHD Power Plants

    A study of the optimum seed level with ash-containing, seeded fuels was made using a mathematical model to determine the composition and amounts of the combustion products which included a slag phase and condensed seed compounds. The results indicate that: the mechanism of seed condensation is the formation of liquid alkali sulphate; the contamination of the liquid seed with silica occurs because silica condenses over approximately the same temperature range as the alkali sulphate; and the level of seed contamination with silica plays a major role in deciding the system seed level. This contamination is unavoidable due to the difficulty of separating the alkali from the glass-like slag by ordinary chemical or physical means. Therefore the silica remaining in the gas phase when the bulk of the slag is separated from the combustion products must be recycled to the system with the co-condensed seed. This increased silica lowers the combustion temperature because of the energy required for its volatilization. The important factors in establishing the steady-state silica level in the system are: (1) The air/fuel level. Lowering this parameter below stoichiometric requirements decreases the silica contamination and increases the electrical conductivity of the combustion products; (2) The nature of the fuel. Silica levels are in general higher for a char than for a coal fuel. This is compensated for to a degree,by the higher electrical conductivity of the combustion products from char; (3) The sulphur level of the fuel. The higher the sulphur level the higher the temperature at which seed condensation (as the sulphate) initiates hence the greater the fraction of silica remaining in the gas phase; (4) The silica content of the fuel: (5) The seeding level. The greater the seed/coal ratio, the higher the initiation temperature of seed condensation; (6) The type of seed. A non-sulphur-containing seed results in a lower initiation temperature of seed condensation; (7) The

  8. Preimplant factors affecting postimplant CT-determined prostate volume and the CT/TRUS volume ratio after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds

    The aim was to identify preimplant factors affecting postimplant prostate volume and the increase in prostate volume after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds. We reviewed the records of 180 patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds for clinical T1/T2 prostate cancer. Eighty-one (45%) of the 180 patients underwent neoadjuvant hormonal therapy. No patient received supplemental external beam radiotherapy. Postimplant computed tomography was undertaken, and postimplant dosimetric analysis was performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify preimplant factors affecting postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography and the increase in prostate volume after implantation. Preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound, serum prostate-specific antigen, number of needles, and number of seeds implanted were significantly correlated with postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography. The increase in prostate volume after implantation was significantly higher in patients with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy than in those without. Preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound, number of needles, and number of seeds implanted were significantly correlated with the increase in prostate volume after implantation. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound and neoadjuvant hormonal therapy were significant independent factors affecting both postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography and the increase in prostate volume after implantation. The results of the present study show that preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound and neoadjuvant hormonal therapy are significant preimplant factors affecting both postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography and the increase in prostate volume after implantation

  9. Factors affecting the formation of zeolite seed layers and the effects of seed layers on the growth of zeolite silicalite-1 membranes

    ZHANG Xiongfu; LIU Hai'ou; WANG Anjie; WANG Jinqu

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates the formation of silicalite-1 seed layers on a porous carbon support of 0.5 μm pore size and a-Al2O3 supports with different pore sizes (0.1 μm and 4 μm) via the slip-casting technique.The effects of support property,seed size and solvent on the formation of seed layers were investigated in detail.The growth of silicalite-1 membranes on different seeded supports by hydrothermal synthesis was also evaluated.The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations indicate that a continuous seed layer can be obtained on the smooth support of 0.1 μm pore size by using any seed of 100 nm,600 nm or 2.2 μm in size,whereas,on the coarse supports with either 0.5 μm or 4 μm pore size,a continuous seed layer cannot be formed using the above seed sizes and the same seeding time.At a longer contact time,a seed layer can also be formed using 100 nm seed on the supports with larger pore size.However,the layer is not uniform and smooth.For a hydrophobic porous carbon support,seeding ethanol suspension,which has weak polarity,favors the formation of a continuous seed layer.The seed layers and membranes grown from the smaller seed are more uniform and continuous and possess smoother surfaces than those from the larger seed.The seed layer and respective grown membrane formed from nanosized seed (100 nm) are the most uniform and compact.With this method of seeded secondary synthesis of zeolite membranes,the quality of a membrane mainly 、depends on the quality of the seed layer.

  10. The seed factor in forest establishment

    Oboho E. G.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Large scale deforestation all over the world necessitates planting of more trees to augment the forest estate. Tree planting and forest production require the use of lots of seeds to raise seedlings. Factors of importance are those directly relating to the seed as well as those indirect factors affecting the germination of seeds, early growth and survival of seedlings. The main factors include physiological and physical attributes of seeds, factors controlling availability in time and quantity, seed extraction/handling, viability, storage, germination and early growth characteristics; nursery site condition, management know-how and dedicated staff are also vital to the success of forest production by affecting the sustenance of growth, development and survival of seedlings raised. Nursery staff, seed vendors and seedling producers should be properly trained in seed technology and nursery practices in order to enhance the quality and quantity of seedlings produced from available seeds. This is because seed is an invaluable regenerative propagule without which there would be neither seedlings nor forest establishment.

  11. Changes in chemical composition and anti nutritional factors in sesame seeds as affected by gamma and microwave radiations during storage

    The effect of gamma radiation, microwave radiation, interaction between them and storage of sesame seeds were investigated to find out the best treatment which cause the maximum reduction of anti nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities) without exerting significant effect on the chemical constituents. The gamma rays was used at doses of 2.5, 5.0 and 8.0 KGy, microwave radiation was at 70 level power for 2 and 4 min and the storage of seeds was at room temperature and Rh 50-55% for six months. The obtained results on the effect of gamma radiation and storage showed slight decrease in crude protein contents, significant decrease in total free amino acids, total lipids had either slightly or non-significantly changed, decreased total carbohydrates and slight changes in total soluble sugars content. Reduction of trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities were increased as the irradiation dose levels and storage time increased. Slightly decreases in tannin and phenol contents and significant decrease in phytic acid content were observed. The obtained results on the effect of microwave radiation and storage indicated non-significant effect on protein and total lipids contents, decrease in total free amino acids, slight changes in total carbohydrate content and non-significant changes in total soluble and reducing sugars. Trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities were significantly reduced by microwave, while increasing the storage period decreased lipoxygenase activity. Significant changes were observed in tannin and phenol contents, while phytic acid was decreased

  12. Factors affecting in vitro seed germination and shoot multiplication of a pitcher plant (Nepenthes mirabilis (Lour. Druce

    Tokhao, W

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Mature seeds of a pitcher plant (Nepenthes mirabilis (Lour. Druce were cultured in liquid and solid MS medium (Murashige and Skoog, 1962 supplemented with BA (6-benzyladenine at 1, 3 or 5 mg/l or withcoconut water (20% v/v. The cultures were incubated under light and dark conditions. Seeds germinated only under light incubation and BA supplemented to both types of media, and solid medium with 3 mg/l BAresulted the highest seed germination (26% with good development of seedlings. On the contrary, the addition of coconut water to the basal medium produced poor seed germination and seedling growth. Moreover,all cultures in liquid medium terminated their growth after 6 weeks of culture. Young seedlings were subsequently transferred to fresh media of the same treatments after 15 weeks of seed culture. Multipleshoots were proliferated in all levels of BA after 6 weeks of transferring and more shoots were produced as BA level was increased. However, at high BA level of 5 mg/l, rosetting of shoots occurred while lowering BA level to 3 mg/l, fewer shoots were produced but they were vigorous, larger shoots with complete leaves. Rootdevelopment finally occurred in all BA treatments except the addition of coconut water.To evaluate the potential of shoot multiplication in different strengths of MS macromutrient, two types of explants, viz. shoot explants and stem explants (both approx. 1.5 cm long from in vitro seedlings,were cultured on full-strength MS macronutrient medium, 1/2 MS, 1/4 MS and 1/8 MS medium. Following 16 weeks of culture, shoot production (number/ explant increased in both explant types as the macronutrientstrength decreased. However, when lowering to 1/8 MS, the fewest shoots were produced and exhibited nutrient deficiency of leaf chlorosis. The optimum strength of MS macronutrient for the maximumproduction of normal shoots with complete leaves was 1/2 MS medium while 1/4 MS medium produced the highest shoot number from stem explants but

  13. Factors affecting forage stand establishment

    Sulc R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should b...

  14. Factors affecting forage stand establishment

    Sulc R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should be expanded in the industry to enable matching seed lot performance to specific environmental conditions where performance can be maximized. Seed treatment and seed coating are used in the forage seed industry, and studies have shown they are of benefit in some environments. There is an increase in no-tillage seeding of forage crops, but improvements in the no-tillage planting equipment are needed to make them better suited to small seeds. Other recent developments in seeding techniques include broadcasting seed with dry granular and fluid fertilizers, which improves the efficiency of the seeding operation.

  15. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    Guo, S; DiPietro, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  16. Methylation affects transposition and splicing of a large CACTA transposon from a MYB transcription factor regulating anthocyanin synthase genes in soybean seed coats.

    Gracia Zabala

    Full Text Available We determined the molecular basis of three soybean lines that vary in seed coat color at the R locus which is thought to encode a MYB transcription factor. RM55-r(m is homozygous for a mutable allele (r(m that specifies black and brown striped seeds; RM30-R* is a stable black revertant isoline derived from the mutable line; and RM38-r has brown seed coats due to a recessive r allele shown to translate a truncated MYB protein. Using long range PCR, 454 sequencing of amplicons, and whole genome re-sequencing, we determined that the variegated RM55-r(m line had a 13 kb CACTA subfamily transposon insertion (designated TgmR* at a position 110 bp from the beginning of Intron2 of the R locus, Glyma09g36983. Although the MYB encoded by R was expressed at only very low levels in older seed coats of the black revertant RM30-R* line, it upregulated expression of anthocyanidin synthase genes (ANS2, ANS3 to promote the synthesis of anthocyanins. Surprisingly, the RM30-R* revertant also carried the 13 kb TgmR* insertion in Intron2. Using RNA-Seq, we showed that intron splicing was accurate, albeit at lower levels, despite the presence of the 13 kb TgmR* element. As determined by whole genome methylation sequencing, we demonstrate that the TgmR* sequence was relatively more methylated in RM30-R* than in the mutable RM55-r(m progenitor line. The stabilized and more methylated RM30-R* revertant line apparently lacks effective binding of a transposae to its subterminal repeats, thus allowing intron splicing to proceed resulting in sufficient MYB protein to stimulate anthocyanin production and thus black seed coats. In this regard, the TgmR* element in soybean resembles McClintock's Spm-suppressible and change-of-state alleles of maize. This comparison explains the opposite effects of the TgmR* element on intron splicing of the MYB gene in which it resides depending on the methylation state of the element.

  17. Endocarp thickness affects seed removal speed by small rodents in a warm-temperate broad-leafed deciduous forest, China

    Zhang, Hongmao; Zhang, Zhibin

    2008-11-01

    Seed traits are important factors affecting seed predation by rodents and thereby the success of recruitment. Seeds of many tree species have hard hulls. These are thought to confer mechanical protection, but the effect of endocarp thickness on seed predation by rodents has not been well investigated. Wild apricot ( Prunus armeniaca), wild peach ( Amygdalus davidiana), cultivated walnut ( Juglans regia), wild walnut ( Juglans mandshurica Maxim) and Liaodong oak ( Quercus liaotungensis) are very common tree species in northwestern Beijing city, China. Their seeds vary greatly in size, endocarp thickness, caloric value and tannin content. This paper aims to study the effects of seed traits on seed removal speed of these five tree species by small rodents in a temperate deciduous forest, with emphasis on the effect of endocarp thickness. The results indicated that speed of removal of seeds released at stations in the field decreased significantly with increasing endocarp thickness. We found no significant correlations between seed removal speed and other seed traits such as seed size, caloric value and tannin content. In seed selection experiments in small cages, Père David's rock squirrel ( Sciurotamias davidianus), a large-bodied, strong-jawed rodent, selected all of the five seed species, and the selection order among the five seed species was determined by endocarp thickness and the ratio of endocarp mass/seed mass. In contrast, the Korean field mouse ( Apodemus peninsulae) and Chinese white-bellied rat ( Niviventer confucianus), with relatively small bodies and weak jaws, preferred to select small seeds like acorns of Q. liaotungensis and seeds of P. armeniaca, indicating that rodent body size is also an important factor affecting food selection based on seed size. These results suggest endocarp thickness significantly reduces seed removal speed by rodents and then negatively affects dispersal fitness of seeds before seed removal of tree species in the study

  18. Species-abundance--seed-size patterns within a plant community affected by grazing disturbance.

    Wu, Gao-lin; Shang, Zhan-huan; Zhu, Yuan-jun; Ding, Lu-ming; Wang, Dong

    2015-04-01

    Seed size has been advanced as a key factor that influences the dynamics of plant communities, but there are few empirical or theoretical predictions of how community dynamics progress based on seed size patterns. Information on the abundance of adults, seedlings, soil seed banks, seed rains, and the seed mass of 96 species was collected in alpine meadows of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (China), which had different levels of grazing disturbance. The relationships between seed-mass-abundance patterns for adults, seedlings, the soil seed bank, and seed rain in the plant community were evaluated using regression models. Results showed that grazing levels affected the relationship between seed size and abundance properties of adult species, seedlings, and the soil seed bank, suggesting that there is a shift in seed-size--species-abundance relationships as a response to the grazing gradient. Grazing had no effect on the pattern of seed-size-seed-rain-abundance at four grazing levels. Grazing also had little effect on the pattern of seed-size--species-abundance and pattern of seed-size--soil-seed-bank-abundance in meadows with no grazing, light grazing, and moderate grazing), but there was a significant negative effect in meadows with heavy grazing. Grazing had little effect on the pattern of seed-size--seedling-abundance with no grazing, but had significant negative effects with light, moderate, and heavy grazing, and the |r| values increased with grazing levels. This indicated that increasing grazing pressure enhanced the advantage of smaller-seeded species in terms of the abundances of adult species, seedlings, and soil seed banks, whereas only the light grazing level promoted the seed rain abundance of larger-seeded species in the plant communities. This study suggests that grazing disturbances are favorable for increasing the species abundance for smaller-seeded species but not for the larger-seeded species in an alpine meadow community. Hence, there is a clear

  19. The seed's protein and oil content, fatty acid composition, and growing cycle length of a single genotype of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as affected by environmental factors.

    Ayerza, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    As a botanical source, variability in chia seed composition could be expected between growing locations, and between years within a location, due to genotype and environment effects as well genetic x environment's interactions. The objective of the present study was to determine the location effect on the growing cycle length, and seed's protein content, lipid content, and fatty acid profiles, of a single chia genotype. Seeds of chia genotype Tzotzol grown on eight sites in five different ecosystems were tested. One site was in Argentina, in the Semi-Arid Chaco ecosystem (T(5)); one was in Bolivia, in the Sub-Humid Chaco ecosystem (T(4)); and six in Ecuador, one in the Coastal Desert (T(3)), two on the Tropical Rain Forest (T(2)), and three in the Inter-Andean Dry Valley ecosystem (T(1)). Seeds from plants grown in T(4) and in T(3) contained significantly (P <0.05) more protein percentage than did seeds from the other three ecosystems. No significant (P <0.05) differences in protein content were found between T(3) and T(4), and between T(1), T(2), and T(5). Seeds from T(1) and T(5) ecosystems, with 33.5 and 32.2%, respectively, were the numerically highest oil content producers, but their results were only significantly (P <0.05) higher when compared with the T(2) seeds. Significant (P <0.05) differences in palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic fatty acids between oils from seeds grown in different ecosystems were detected, however. Oil of seeds grown in the T(3) ecosystem had the palmitic, stearic and oleic fatty acids' highest contents. Palmitic and oleic fatty acid levels were significantly (P <0.05) higher when were compared to that of seeds grown in the T(1) ecosystem, and stearic when was compared to that of seeds grown in the T(5) ecosystem; omega-6 linoleic fatty acid content was significantly (P <0.05) lower in oils of seeds produced in T(1), and T(2) than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5) ecosystems; omega-3 alpha-linolenic fatty

  20. Intracellular ice and cell survival in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum: an ultrastructural study of factors affecting cell and ice structures

    Cryogenic technologies are required to preserve embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds. Formation of potentially lethal intracellular ice limits successful cryopreservation; thus, it is important to understand the relationships among cryo-exposure techniques, water content and survival. In this pap...

  1. Factors influencig seeds development and maturation

    Werschallová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    Perennial common wheat is one of the three most grown cereals in the world, along with corn and rice. In the Czech Republic, the common wheat covers approximately 32 % of seeded areas of cereals. Countless numbers of species suitable for different locations were made by their cultivation. This bachelor´s thesis „Factors influencing seeds development and maturation“ is made by compilation of knowledge gained by several authors, writing about effects of outer space and its influence on a mother...

  2. Research progress in seegrass seed dormancy, germination, and seedling growth and related affecting factors%海草种子休眠、萌发、幼苗生长及其影响因素的研究进展

    张沛东; 孙燕; 牛淑娜; 张秀梅

    2011-01-01

    海草床是沿岸海域重要的初级生产者,具有极其重要的生态价值和经济价值,是重要的浅海生态系统之一.本文综述了近年来国内外对海草种子休眠、萌发、幼苗生长及其影响因素的研究进展,总结了海草种子的休眠方式和休眠历期及其影响因素,探讨了盐度、温度、光、激素、溶解氧及种群等因素对海草种子萌发、幼苗存活和生长的影响,并对目前研究中存在的问题和今后的研究方向进行了展望.%Seagrass bed is the main primary producer in coastal areas, having highly ecological and economical values, and being one of the most important shallow-marine ecosystems. This paper reviewed the research progress in the seed dormancy, germination, and seedling growth of seagrass and related affecting factors, summarized the seed dormancy modes and durations and their affecting factors, and discussed the effects of water salinity, temperature, transparency, hormone, dissolved oxygen, and population structure on the seed germination and the seedling survival and growth. Some issues in related researches and several research directions in the future were prospected.

  3. Substrate but not seed size affects seed germination of Dypsis onilahensis (Jum. & H. Perrier Beentje & J. Dransf

    Petterson Baptista da Luz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dypsis onilahensis, commonly known as sibara palm, is a palm tree with enormous ornamental potential. Commercial propagation occurs through seeds, but few studies have evaluated the factors that affect the germination process of this species. Thus, we aimed at evaluating the effects of seed size and substrate on D. onilahensis germination. We used a completely randomized experimental design and a 2 x 3 factorial scheme with two seed sizes (> 15 mm and < 15 mm in diameter and three substrate types (sand, Plantmax®, and vermiculite, with four replications of 15 seeds. We analyzed germination percentage (G%, number of germinated seeds (NGS, and germination speed index (GSI. Data underwent variance analysis, and means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability. Germination began 73 days after sowing. Seed size had no effect on germination. Among substrates, vermiculite showed the best results for GSI, NGS, and G%, followed by sand and then by Plantmax®. Our study provides the first data on factors that affect the germination of this palm tree species. 

  4. Problems that Affect Quality of Rice Seeds During Processing

    WAYAN SUENA; I GUSTI NGURAH RAKA; KETUT BUDIAWAN

    2013-01-01

    Temporary storage ofthe rice seed during processing, their quality mostly affected by moisture content.Aimed of the experiment is to know the effect of moisture content to the viability of rice seed during processing (short or temporarystorage). The experiment was conducted at Laboratory Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University. The experiment results show that the interaction effect between moisture content and storage were highly significant to almost all variables...

  5. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  6. Factors Affecting Students' Performance

    Harb, Nasri; El-Shaarawi, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Determinants of students' performance have been the subject of ongoing debate among educators, academics, and policy makers. There have been many studies that sought to examine this issue and their findings point out to hard work, previous schooling, parents’ education, family income and self motivation as factors that have a significant effect on the students GPA. Most of those studies have focused on students' performance in the U.S. and Europe. However, since cultural differences may play ...

  7. Factors Affecting Students' Performance

    Harb, Nasri; El-Shaarawi, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Determinants of students' performance have been the subject of ongoing debate among educators, academics, and policy makers. There have been many studies that sought to examine this issue and their findings point out to hard work, previous schooling, parents’ education, family income and self motivation as factors that have a significant effect on the students GPA. Most of those studies have focused on students' performance in the U.S. and Europe. However, since cultural differences may p...

  8. On Factors Affecting Listening Comprehension

    苗琴

    2014-01-01

    In English teaching and learning, listening ability is an important part of communicative competence, is a very practical integrated skill. It has been a difficult skill in second language acquisition for many students. Many Chinese students are skilled in reading, but often they tend to neglect the listening. However, owing to the higher requirements of many English tests and the great importance in communication, students begin to pay attention to develop their English listening skills. But there are many factors affecting listening, the paper mainly focuses on linguistic factors and non-linguistic factors that affect listening, to provide a theoretical basis to help exploring ways of improving listening and comprehension skills.

  9. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality.

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians.Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran.Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment.Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality.

  10. Environmental factors and seed abundance influence seedling emergence of a perennial forest herb

    Kolb, Annette; Barsch, Katharina

    2010-09-01

    Seedlings are an important, but vulnerable stage in the life cycle of plants. The identification of factors affecting their recruitment is therefore fundamental for understanding basic plant population processes as well as plant distribution and abundance. In this study, we used a combined experimental and observational approach to examine how microsite quality and quantity as well as seed supply affect different processes of seedling establishment, using the perennial forest herb Phyteuma spicatum (Campanulaceae) as model species. This species reproduces exclusively by seed, and seedling emergence, growth and survival are therefore critical stages in its life cycle. Seedlings were frequent in microsites with bare soil and overall high light intensities, and were less common in sites with deep litter layers as well as dense and low vegetation. Seed addition, via experimental sowings or via the natural seed rain, consistently enhanced seedling emergence. Seed density effects, however, were variable among years; seedling emergence rates decreased at high seed densities in one of two seed cohorts. Seedling emergence time, size and survival were largely not affected by microhabitat type or seed density. In summary, our findings suggest that environmental factors and seed abundance determine recruitment success of P. spicatum and that effects on early processes of seedling establishment (emergence) are stronger than effects on late processes of establishment (growth and survival). Our work thereby contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying recruitment patterns of this species and other perennial herbs.

  11. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  12. Differential seed handling by two African primates affects seed fate and establishment of large-seeded trees

    Gross-Camp, Nicole D.; Kaplin, Beth A.

    2011-11-01

    We examined the influence of seed handling by two semi-terrestrial African forest primates, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) and l'Hoest's monkeys ( Cercopithecus lhoesti), on the fate of large-seeded tree species in an afromontane forest. Chimpanzees and l'Hoest's monkeys dispersed eleven seed species over one year, with quantity and quality of dispersal varying through time. Primates differed in their seed handling behaviors with chimpanzees defecating large seeds (>0.5 cm) significantly more than l'Hoest's. Furthermore, they exhibited different oral-processing techniques with chimpanzees discarding wadges containing many seeds and l'Hoest's monkeys spitting single seeds. A PCA examined the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and the site where primates deposited seeds. The first two components explained almost half of the observed variation. Microhabitat characteristics associated with sites where seeds were defecated had little overlap with those characteristics describing where spit seeds arrived, suggesting that seed handling in part determines the location where seeds are deposited. We monitored a total of 552 seed depositions through time, recording seed persistence, germination, and establishment. Defecations were deposited significantly farther from an adult conspecific than orally-discarded seeds where they experienced the greatest persistence but poorest establishment. In contrast, spit seeds were deposited closest to an adult conspecific but experienced the highest seed establishment rates. We used experimental plots to examine the relationship between seed handling, deposition site, and seed fate. We found a significant difference in seed handling and fate, with undispersed seeds in whole fruits experiencing the lowest establishment rates. Seed germination differed by habitat type with open forest experiencing the highest rates of germination. Our results highlight the relationship between primate seed handling and deposition site and seed

  13. Radish (Raphanus sativus) seed size affects germination response to coumarin

    The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. Studies reporting these results used a large number of plant species that varied in seed size, which might have introduced differences in germination characteristics or various parameter...

  14. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health

    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging.

  15. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health.

    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin; Yang, Soo Jin

    2016-07-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518

  16. Conditions Affecting Shelf-Life of Inoculated Legume Seed

    Greg Gemell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial inoculants are becoming more available as sustainable alternatives to fertilizers and other agrichemicals in broad-acre cropping. However, with the exception of legume inoculants little is understood about effective delivery and survival of the inoculum. Legume inoculants are applied to both seed and soil but seed inoculation is the most economical technique. Large quantities of pasture seed in Australia are inoculated by commercial seed coating companies, but the long-term survival of seed-applied inoculum is variable and monitoring of viability requires specialist microbiology skills and facilities. The aim of our research was to define optimum storage conditions for survival of rhizobia on legume seed and evaluate water activity as a means of monitoring shelf-life. The relationship between survival and water activity varied according to seed species, inoculum preparation, coating ingredients, initial water activity and time suggesting that storage conditions would need to be defined for each different combination. Although drying seeds after coating significantly reduced viable numbers of rhizobia, survival of rhizobia on dried commercially coated lucerne seed after 11 weeks was less variable than seeds that had not been dried. The highest numbers were maintained when seeds remained dry with water activities of between 0.47 and 0.38. The quality of inoculated seed could be improved by reducing the death rate of inoculum during preparation and providing optimum storage conditions for long-term survival.

  17. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  18. DOF AFFECTING GERMINATION 2 is a positive regulator of light-mediated seed germination and is repressed by DOF AFFECTING GERMINATION 1.

    Santopolo, Silvia; Boccaccini, Alessandra; Lorrai, Riccardo; Ruta, Veronica; Capauto, Davide; Minutello, Emanuele; Serino, Giovanna; Costantino, Paolo; Vittorioso, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Background The transcription factor DOF AFFECTING GERMINATION1 (DAG1) is a repressor of the light-mediated seed germination process. DAG1 acts downstream PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3-LIKE 5 (PIL5), the master repressor, and negatively regulates gibberellin biosynthesis by directly repressing the biosynthetic gene AtGA3ox1. The Dof protein DOF AFFECTING GERMINATION (DAG2) shares a high degree of aminoacidic identity with DAG1. While DAG1 inactivation considerably increases the germination c...

  19. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Wang, Jingxu; Lin, Jintai; Ni, Ruijing

    2016-04-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant a large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RF of aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissions per unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size. South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions, its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency. The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is lowered by a small per capita GDP. Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The

  20. Proteomic insights into seed germination in response to environmental factors.

    Tan, Longyan; Chen, Sixue; Wang, Tai; Dai, Shaojun

    2013-06-01

    Seed germination is a critical process in the life cycle of higher plants. During germination, the imbibed mature seed is highly sensitive to different environmental factors.However, knowledge about the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the environmental effects on germination has been lacking. Recent proteomic work has provided invaluable insight into the molecular processes in germinating seeds of Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max), barley (Hordeum vulgare), maize (Zeamays), tea (Camellia sinensis), European beech (Fagus sylvatica), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides) under different treatments including metal ions (e.g. copper and cadmium), drought, low temperature, hormones, and chemicals (gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and α-amanitin), as well as Fusarium graminearum infection. A total of 561 environmental factor-responsive proteins have been identified with various expression patterns in germinating seeds. The data highlight diverse regulatory and metabolic mechanisms upon seed germination, including induction of environmental factor-responsive signaling pathways, seed storage reserve mobilization and utilization, enhancement of DNA repair and modification, regulation of gene expression and protein synthesis, modulation of cell structure, and cell defense. In this review, we summarize the interesting findings and discuss the relevance and significance for our understanding of environmental regulation of seed germination. PMID:23986916

  1. Do seed mass and family affect germination and juvenile performance in Knautia arvensis? A study using failure-time methods

    Vange, Vibekke; Heuch, Ivar; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2004-05-01

    Germination and seedling establishment are vulnerable stages in the plant life cycle. We investigated how seed mass and family (progeny origin) affect germination and juvenile performance in the grassland herb Knautia arvensis. Seeds were produced by cross-pollination by hand. The fate of 15 individually weighed seeds from each of 15 plants was followed during a 3-month growth chamber experiment. Progeny origin affected germination, both through seed mass and as an independent factor. Two groups of progenies could be distinguished by having rapid or delayed germination. The two groups had similar mean seed masses, but a positive relationship between seed mass and germination rate could be established only among the rapidly germinating progenies. These biologically relevant patterns were revealed because timing of germination was taken into account in the analyses, not only frequencies. Time-to-event data were analysed with failure-time methods, which gave more stable estimates for the relation between germination and seed mass than the commonly applied logistic regression. Progeny origin and seed mass exerted less impact on later characters like juvenile survival, juvenile biomass, and rosette number. These characters were not affected by the timing of germination under the competition-free study conditions. The decrease in the effect of progeny origin from the seed and germination to the juvenile stages suggests that parental effects other than those contributing to the offspring genotype strongly influenced the offspring phenotype at the earliest life stages. Further, the division of progeny germination patterns into two fairly distinct groups indicates that there was a genetic basis for the variation in stratification requirements among parental plants. Field studies are needed to elucidate effects of different timing of germination in the seasonal grasslands that K. arvensis inhabits.

  2. Effects of seed tuber weight on potato as influenced by other factors under different ecological conditions in Sichuan

    He, W.; Struik, P.C.; Hu, J.J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Lu, X.I.; Jiang, X.; Wang, K.X.

    2007-01-01

    study was carried out to investigate these effects and their interactions with effects of the other factors in sub-tropical double cropping systems. When evaluated at constant spacing, seed tuber weight significantly affected tuber yield in all conditions under study although seed origin, variety, a

  3. Internal factors affecting brand performance

    Harris, Fiona J.

    2002-01-01

    In terms of effective branding, several recent trends have indicated the need for greater attention within the organisation than has traditionally been the case. With increased emphasis on corporate branding, the team responsible for managing a brand is becoming larger and more diverse and all staff, as the corporate brand's representatives, affect consumers' perceptions of the corporate brand. Furthermore, the shift in emphasis in the literature from the externally perceived brand image to t...

  4. Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil

    K. Abu-Alruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ended in July 2008. The following 11 factors were taken into consideration during sample collection: olive fly infection, topography, olive storage before pressing, geographical area, effect of olive seeds during oil extraction, effect of pressing temperature, presence of olive leaves during oil extraction, soil type, maturity index of the olive fruit, olive variety and oil preservation and storage in terms of storage container types. The results show that soil type, region, maturity index and olive fly infection are the main factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol. Pressing temperature, olive storage before pressing, olive variety and oil storage showed a moderate effect. Olive seeds, topography and presence of olive leaves had a negligible effect on D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil.

  5. Factors Affecting Nontraditional Vocational Enrollments.

    Houser, Betsy Bosak; Garvey, Chris

    This study identifies the internal and external factors which differentiate women who enter male-traditional vocational training programs from those who enter female-traditional programs. Data were collected from 470 women enrolled in California vocational training programs. The sample was stratified on both social class and type of vocational…

  6. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    Kim, Yongi-Mi; University of Oklahoma

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR); yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider univers...

  7. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  8. Factors Influencing the Outcrossed Seed-Setting Obstacles of Photo-thermo Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice

    CHENXiong-hui; WANBang-hui; PENGHai-feng; LUYan-peng; LIAYGKe-qin; ZHAOJing

    2004-01-01

    Using photo-thermo sensitive genic male rice (PTGMS) Pei' ai 64S, W7415S, W6154S, N26S, Annong S, Nongken 58S,7001S and 5088S as female parents and conventional indica lines 8258 and U89 as male parents, the factors affecting outcrossed seed-setting were analyzed. The PTGMS had obstacles in outcrossed seed setting influenced by inheritance and environment at varying degrees. Environmental temperature was regarded as the main factor that resulted in the outcrossed seed-setting obstacles.The sensitive stage was at the early stage of grain filling for outcrossed seed setting. There existed remarkable differences at the sensitivity stage, the duration of sensitive period, the sensitive level and the effective level of outcrossed seed-setting obstacles caused by environmental temperature among different PTGMS lines. Therefore, attention should be paid to outcrossed seed-setting obstacles in selection and utilization of PTGMS lines.

  9. Does multiple paternity affect seed mass in angiosperms? An experimental test in Dalechampia scandens.

    Pélabon, C; Albertsen, E; Falahati-Anbaran, M; Wright, J; Armbruster, W S

    2015-09-01

    Flowers fertilized by multiple fathers may be expected to produce heavier seeds than those fertilized by a single father. However, the adaptive mechanisms leading to such differences remain unclear, and the evidence inconsistent. Here, we first review the different hypotheses predicting an increase in seed mass when multiple paternity occurs. We show that distinguishing between these hypotheses requires information about average seed mass, but also about within-fruit variance in seed mass, bias in siring success among pollen donors, and whether siring success and seed mass are correlated. We then report the results of an experiment on Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae), assessing these critical variables in conjunction with a comparison of seed mass resulting from crosses with single vs. multiple pollen donors. Siring success differed among males when competing for fertilization, but average seed mass was not affected by the number of fathers. Furthermore, paternal identity explained only 3.8% of the variance in seed mass, and siring success was not correlated with the mass of the seeds produced. Finally, within-infructescence variance in seed mass was not affected by the number of fathers. These results suggest that neither differential allocation nor sibling rivalry has any effect on the average mass of seeds in multiply sired fruits in D. scandens. Overall, the limited paternal effects observed in most studies and the possibility of diversification bet hedging among flowers (but not within flowers), suggest that multiple paternity within fruits or infructescence is unlikely to affect seed mass in a large number of angiosperm species. PMID:26174371

  10. Factors Affecting Hurricane Evacuation Intentions.

    Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazrus, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Protective actions for hurricane threats are a function of the environmental and information context; individual and household characteristics, including cultural worldviews, past hurricane experiences, and risk perceptions; and motivations and barriers to actions. Using survey data from the Miami-Dade and Houston-Galveston areas, we regress individuals' stated evacuation intentions on these factors in two information conditions: (1) seeing a forecast that a hurricane will hit one's area, and (2) receiving an evacuation order. In both information conditions having an evacuation plan, wanting to keep one's family safe, and viewing one's home as vulnerable to wind damage predict increased evacuation intentions. Some predictors of evacuation intentions differ between locations; for example, Florida respondents with more egalitarian worldviews are more likely to evacuate under both information conditions, and Florida respondents with more individualist worldviews are less likely to evacuate under an evacuation order, but worldview was not significantly associated with evacuation intention for Texas respondents. Differences by information condition also emerge, including: (1) evacuation intentions decrease with age in the evacuation order condition but increase with age in the saw forecast condition, and (2) evacuation intention in the evacuation order condition increases among those who rely on public sources of information on hurricane threats, whereas in the saw forecast condition evacuation intention increases among those who rely on personal sources. Results reinforce the value of focusing hurricane information efforts on evacuation plans and residential vulnerability and suggest avenues for future research on how hurricane contexts shape decision making. PMID:26299597

  11. Seed coating with a neonicotinoid insecticide negatively affects wild bees.

    Rundlöf, Maj; Andersson, Georg K S; Bommarco, Riccardo; Fries, Ingemar; Hederström, Veronica; Herbertsson, Lina; Jonsson, Ove; Klatt, Björn K; Pedersen, Thorsten R; Yourstone, Johanna; Smith, Henrik G

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on bees is vital because of reported declines in bee diversity and distribution and the crucial role bees have as pollinators in ecosystems and agriculture. Neonicotinoids are suspected to pose an unacceptable risk to bees, partly because of their systemic uptake in plants, and the European Union has therefore introduced a moratorium on three neonicotinoids as seed coatings in flowering crops that attract bees. The moratorium has been criticized for being based on weak evidence, particularly because effects have mostly been measured on bees that have been artificially fed neonicotinoids. Thus, the key question is how neonicotinoids influence bees, and wild bees in particular, in real-world agricultural landscapes. Here we show that a commonly used insecticide seed coating in a flowering crop can have serious consequences for wild bees. In a study with replicated and matched landscapes, we found that seed coating with Elado, an insecticide containing a combination of the neonicotinoid clothianidin and the non-systemic pyrethroid β-cyfluthrin, applied to oilseed rape seeds, reduced wild bee density, solitary bee nesting, and bumblebee colony growth and reproduction under field conditions. Hence, such insecticidal use can pose a substantial risk to wild bees in agricultural landscapes, and the contribution of pesticides to the global decline of wild bees may have been underestimated. The lack of a significant response in honeybee colonies suggests that reported pesticide effects on honeybees cannot always be extrapolated to wild bees. PMID:25901681

  12. How various plasma sources may affect seed gemination and growth

    Šerá, Božena; Gajdová, Iveta; Čermák, M.; Gavril, B.; Hnatiuc, E.; Kováčik, D.; Kříha, V.; Sláma, J.; Šerý, M.; Špatenka, P.

    Brasov: Universitatea Transilvania din Brasov, 2012 - (Clotea, L.; Cernat, M.), s. 1365-1370 ISBN 978-1-4673-1650-7. [Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM), 2012 13th International Conference. Brasov (RO), 24.05.2012-26.05.2012] Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : non thermal plasma * atmospheric pressure * biotechnology * systems biology * seed germination * early growth Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  13. How various plasma sources may affect seed germination and growth

    Šerá, Božena; Gajdová, Iveta; Čermák, M.; Gavril, B.; Hnatiuc, E.; Kováčik, D.; Kříha, V.; Sláma, J.; Šerý, M.; Špatenka, P.

    Brasov : Universitatea Transilvania din Brasov, 2012 - (Clotea, L.; Cernat, M.). s. 250-250 ISBN 978-1-4673-1650-7. [International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment /13./ OPTIM 2012. 24.05.-26.05.2012, Brasov] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : seed germination * bio- plasma * nonthermal plasma * biotechnology Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  14. Tillage and residue burning affects weed populations and seed banks.

    Narwal, S; Sindel, B M; Jessop, R S

    2006-01-01

    An integrated weed management approach requires alternative management practices to herbicide use such as tillage, crop rotations and cultural controls to reduce soil weed seed banks. The objective of this study was to examine the value of different tillage practices and stubble burning to exhaust the seed bank of common weeds from the northern grain region of Australia. Five tillage and burning treatments were incorporated in a field experiment, at Armidale (30 degrees 30'S, 151 degrees 40'E), New South Wales, Australia in July 2004 in a randomized block design replicated four times. The trial was continued and treatments repeated in July 2005 with all the mature plants from the first year being allowed to shed seed in their respective treatment plots. The treatments were (i) no tillage (NT), (ii) chisel ploughing (CP), (iii) mould board ploughing (MBP), (iv) wheat straw burning with no tillage (SBNT) and (v) wheat straw burning with chisel ploughing (SBC). Soil samples were collected before applying treatments and before the weeds flowered to establish the seed bank status of the various weeds in the soil. Wheat was sown after the tillage treatments. Burning treatments were only initiated in the second year, one month prior to tillage treatments. The major weeds present in the seed bank before initiating the trial were Polygonum aviculare, Sonchus oleraceus and Avena fatua. Tillage promoted the germination of other weeds like Hibiscus trionum, Medicago sativa, Vicia sp. and Phalaris paradoxa later in the season in 2004 and Convolvulus erubescens emerged as a new weed in 2005. The MBP treatment in 2004 reduced the weed biomass to a significantly lower level of 55 g/m2 than the other treatments of CP (118 g/m2) and NT plots (196 g/m2) (P < 0.05). However, in 2005 SBC and MBP treatments were similar in reducing the weed biomass. In 2004, the grain yield trend of wheat was significantly different between CP and NT, and MBP and NT (P < 0.05) with maximum yield of 5898

  15. Factors Affecting Audit Committee Quality in Nigeria

    Okaro Sunday Chukwunedu; Okafor Gloria Ogochukwu; Oraka Azubuike Onuora

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that affect audit committee quality in Nigeria. A hand administered questionnaire survey of 52 accounting professionals was undertaken. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the most common factors. Independent t-tests were used to determine whether there were any significant differences in the perceptions of the factors according to gender, job type and experience. The questionnaire findings, which include some factors peculiar to Nige...

  16. Factors Affecting Intensive Care Units Nursing Workload

    Mohammadkarim BAHADORI; RAVANGARD, Ramin; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Mosavi, Seyed Masod; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad; Mehrabian, Fardin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The nursing workload has a close and strong association with the quality of services provided for the patients. Therefore, paying careful attention to the factors affecting nursing workload, especially those working in the intensive care units (ICUs), is very important. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the factors affecting nursing workload in the ICUs of the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional a...

  17. Which Factors Affect Adolescent Food Preferences?

    Seray Kabaran; Mercanlıgil, Seyit M.

    2013-01-01

    Hunger, extreme desire to eat a certain food, taste, price, and convenience are among the main There are various factors that affect food preferences. Hunger, extreme desire to eat a certain food, taste, price, and convenience are among the main factors affecting food preferences. Additionally, general nutritional habits, family, friends, commercials, and availability of the food are also important for food preferences. Also, past experiences with foods are related to preferring or rejecting ...

  18. Factors affecting reading recall(Part 1)

    Hirano, Kinue

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has investigated whether many variables affect a reader's ability to understand and recall a text written in a first or second language. The present study reviewed some of the literature related to factors that affect reading recall: background knowledge, the syntactic complexity of the text, the language of recall, the importance of the structure of a passage, story schema, and sex differences and reading ability. Thus the factors considered in this paper should be taken in...

  19. Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

  20. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  1. Understorey Regeneration of Lophira alata as Affected by Seed Tree Size and Growing Conditions

    Bongjoh, CA.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Demographic pressure and slash and burn practices are two factors which reduce the number of Lophira alata plants in its natural range where it is more represented by young plants. The hypothesis that its understorey regeneration may be affected by seed tree size and growing conditions was investigated in the tropical moist forest in southern Cameroon using mature trees of various diameter classes for a sustainable management of the species. Biomass partitioning was also examined in regenerating seedlings growing in loading bays and forest understorey. Seedling density was highest when seed tree diameter at breast height (dbh was 100 cm or more. A strong positive correlation was found between seed tree diameter dbh and crown size expressed as mean diameter of projected crown area, but crown size correlated much better with seedling density. Compared with their counterparts of the same height growing in loading bays in full sunlight but devoid of litter and topsoil, seedlings found in understorey exhibited lower root: shoot ratio, indicating that soil-derived resources were more limiting in loading bays than on undisturbed forest floor. Leaf weight per area (leaf dry weight/leaf area (LWA and leaf packing (leaf number/cm shoot height were almost 2-fold greater in loading bays than in understorey. As seedlings seldom grew taller than 50 cm in the latter environment, it may be inferred that root: shoot ratio, LWA, and leaf packing can be used to assess the sustainability of growth and development of this pioneer species at the seedling stage.

  2. Factors affecting tenure choice in Hong Kong

    Liang, Jiancong; 梁健聰

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the factors that affect the home-ownership propensity of households using a modified two-period equilibrium model. In particular, the study examines the impacts of some social, political and economic factors that in theory should affect housing tenure choice but have limited empirical evidence so far. To test the impacts of these factors, five sets of Hong Kong Census and By-Census cross sectional data over the period from 1991 to 2011 were used to estimate Binary Logi...

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  4. Yield, yield components and seed quality of two rapeseed cultivars as affected by different levels of phosphorus and boron under greenhouse conditions

    M. Tavajjoh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of different levels of phosphorus (P and boron (B on yield, yield components, seed quality (protein and oil content and P and B content of rapeseed (Brassica napus L., a greenhouse experiment (aimed at removal of other environmental factors affecting growth parameters, which are not manageable in the field was conducted. Treatments consisted of two cultivars of rapeseed (Talaye and Zarfam, three levels of P (0, 25 and 50 mg/kg and three levels of B (0, 2 and 4 mg/kg with three replications. Results revealed that significant differences were observed between the rapeseed cultivars in seed yield, plant height, number of siliques per plant, 1000-seed weight, and seed nitrogen (N, P and B content and oil concentration. Increasing the P level significantly increased dry weight of seeds, straw and roots yield, biological yield, plant height, number of siliques per plant, 1000-seed weight, protein yield, seed oil yield and seed oil content (p≤0.05. However, N concentration of seeds decreased by P application. Soil-applied B significantly increased B concentration and total uptake, and seed oil concentration in both rapeseed cultivars. There was a positive and significant correlation between seed yield and protein yield, number of siliques per plant and 1000-seed weight. Application of P and B fertilizers increased concentration and total uptake of P and B in the seeds of both rapeseed cultivars. There was synergistic interaction between P and B on most of the studied traits; but its significance was different in the two cultivars. It is advised to do the same research in the field with more P and B treatments and diverse rapeseed cultivars.

  5. Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students

    Vivien T. Supangco

    2001-01-01

    This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and...

  6. INTERNATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN FACTORS AFFECTING LABOUR MOBILITY.

    SELLIER, F.; ZARKA, C.

    THE GEOGRAPHICAL, OCCUPATIONAL, AND INTERFIRM MOBILITY, AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING THESE MOVEMENTS FOR WORKERS IN FRANCE, ITALY, GERMANY, AND SWEDEN IN THE PERIOD SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR ARE STUDIED. DATA OBTAINED FROM INDUSTRIAL SURVEYS AND GENERAL CENSUSES WERE USED TO COMPARE THE FOUR COUNTRIES WITH EACH OTHER AND WITH THE UNITED STATES.…

  7. Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

  8. CLIL Learning: Achievement Levels and Affective Factors

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how successfully pupils had learned content in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) and to assess pupils' affective learning factors, such as motivation and self-esteem, in CLIL. Learning was presented in terms of achievement level, which was described as the relationship between measured levels…

  9. Factors Affecting the Speed of Free Writing

    Ferrier, Jonathan; Horne, Joanna; Singleton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting the free writing speed of 11-year-old students were investigated using the Group and Individual Assessment of Handwriting Speed. Intelligence, gender, legibility and whether the student has special educational needs or speaks English as an additional language were all found to impact on writing speed to a significant extent. In…

  10. Factors affecting spermatozoa morphology in beef bulls

    The objective of this study was to evaluate factors affecting sperm morphology of bulls (n=908) collected at 320 days of age. Bulls were a composite breed (50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, and 25% Tarentaise) born from 2002 to 2008 to dams fed levels of feed during mid and late gestation that were expe...

  11. FACTORS AFFECTING PERSISTENCE IN STUDENTS' LEARNING

    ShenPanyang

    2004-01-01

    It is one thing that currently in China English learning persists through a student's whole study life, but it is another how long his persistence, an important factor in any language learning, can last. The factors affecting a student's persistence in this regard practically merits our attention. This paper traces and observes twenty students chosen by random. The research conducted here included their study motivation, academic excellence, psychological aspects relating to language learning and established corresponding models showing how these factors affect a student's persistence in his English learning. Although a small sample number was taken,of different students in China.the twenty students were typical of different students in China. The students' backgrounds were varied including both educational and environmental. Some suggestions are given indicating three separate but inter-related ways in how to further develop a student's persistence.

  12. Factors affecting patient dose in diagnostic radiology

    The report, Factors Affecting Patient Dose in Diagnostic Radiology is divided into three main sections. Part one is introductory and covers the basic principles of x-ray production and image formation. It includes discussion of x-ray generators and x-ray tubes, radiation properties and units, specification and measurement of x-ray beams, methods of patient dose measurement, radiation effects, radiation protection philosophy and finally the essentials of imaging systems. Part two examines factors affecting the x-ray output of x-ray machines and the characteristics of x-ray beams. These include the influence of heat ratings, kVp, waveform, exposure timer, filtration, focus-film distance, beam intensity distribution, x-ray tube age and focal spot size. Part three examines x-ray machine, equipment and patient factors which affect the dose received by individual patients. The factors considered include justification of examinations, choice of examination method, film/screen combinations, kVp, mAs, focus-film distance, collimation and field size, exposure time, projection, scatter, generator calibration errors, waveform, filtration, film processing and patient size. The patient dose implications of fluoroscopy systems, CT scanners, special procedures and mammography are also discussed. The report concludes with a brief discussion of patient dose levels in New Zealand and dose optimisation. 104 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs

  13. Remote sensing of environmental factors affecting health

    Jovanovic, Petar

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research to identify, by satellite imagery, parameters of the environment affecting health on Earth. Thus, we suggest expanding the application of space technology to preventive medicine, as a new field in the peaceful uses of outer space. The scope of the study includes all parts of the environment, natural and man-made, and all kinds of protection of life: human, animal and vegetation health. The general objective is to consider and classify those factors, detectable from space, that affect or are relevant to health and may be found in the air, water, sea, soil, land, vegetation, as well as those linked to climate, industry, energy production, development works, irrigation systems, and human settlements. The special objective is the classification of environmental factors detectable from space, that are linked to communicable or chronic endemic diseases or health problems. The method of identifying the factors affecting health was the parallel study of environmental epidemiological and biological parameters. The role of environmental factors common to both human and animal populations is discussed. Conclusive findings are formulated and possible applications, both scientific and practical, in other sectors are also discussed.

  14. Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?

    The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

  15. EASTERN DODDER (CUSCUTA MONOGYNA VAHL.) SEED GERMINATION AFFECTED BY SOME HERBACEOUS DISTILLATES.

    Movassaghi, M; Hassannejad, S

    2015-01-01

    Eastern dodder (Cuscuta monogyna Vahl.) is one of the noxious parasitic weeds that infected many ornamental trees in green spaces and gardens. Our purpose is to find natural inhibitors for prevention of its seed germination. In order to reach this aim, laboratory studies were conducted by using of herbaceous distillates of Dracocephalum moldavica, Nasturtium officinalis, Malva neglecta, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Rosa damascene, Ziziphora tenuior, and Urtica dioica on seed germination of C. monogyna. Z. tenuior distillate stimulated C. monogyna seed germination, whereas others reduced this parasitic weed's seed germination. D. moldavica caused maximum inhibition on weed seed germination. Seedling growth of C. monogyna was more affected than its seed germination. All of these herbaceous distillates reduced C. monogyna seedling length so that the latter decreased from 28.2 mm in distilled water to 4.5, 3.97, 3.85, 3.67, 3.1, 2.87, 2.57, 1.9, and 1.17 in M. pulegium, M. piperita, F. officinalis, Z. tenuior, N. officinalis, M. neglecta, R. damascene, U. dioica and D. moldavica, respectively. By using these medicinal plants distillates instead of herbicides, the parasitic weed seedling length and host plant infection will reduce. PMID:27145591

  16. Factors Affecting the Cost Effectiveness of Antibiotics

    Steven Simoens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In an era of spiraling health care costs and limited resources, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the cost effectiveness of antibiotics. The aim of this study is to draw on published economic evaluations with a view to identify and illustrate the factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. The findings indicate that the cost effectiveness of antibiotics is influenced by factors relating to the characteristics and the use of antibiotics (i.e., diagnosis, comparative costs and comparative effectiveness, resistance, patient compliance with treatment, and treatment failure and by external factors (i.e., funding source, clinical pharmacy interventions, and guideline implementation interventions. Physicians need to take into account these factors when prescribing an antibiotic and assess whether a specific antibiotic treatment adds sufficient value to justify its costs.

  17. Human Factor Issues Affecting CAD Implementations

    C. Short

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial companies have been implementing Computer Aided Engineering tools for many years with varying degrees of success. In the early implementations considerable emphasis was placed upon the organisational structure necessary to receive and optimise system output. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that any successful CAE implementation has to satisfy three inter-related factors of technology, organisation and human issues. This paper presents the results of an investigation into human factors affecting successful CAD implementation, undertaken through selected case studies and a more general survey of UK industry.

  18. Institutional Factors Affecting Agricultural Land Markets

    Ciaian, Pavel; Kancs, D'Artis; Swinnen, Johan F.M.; Van Herck, Kristine; Vranken, Liesbet

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the main institutional factors affecting the rental and sales markets for agricultural land. Particular attention is paid to the effects of the common agricultural policy on land markets, and more specifically the underlying mechanism through which agricultural subsidies are capitalised into land values and farmland rents. This paper also provides a broad overview of the empirical studies that estimate the impact of agricultural support policies on land rents and land pric...

  19. Factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats

    Tadeu Silva de Oliveira; Fernando de Paula Leonel; Cássio José da Silva; Danielle Ferreira Baffa; José Carlos Pereira; Joanis Tilemahos Zervoudakis

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to present some factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats. To develop our work, individual and average data from performance experiments with lactating goats were used. The following variables were evaluated: gross feed efficiency, adjusted feed efficiency, dry matter intake, milk-yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter digestibility, dietary neutral detergent fiber content, different roughage-to-concentrate ratios and body weight. The statistic...

  20. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having th...

  1. Empirical Study on Factors Affecting Biogas Production

    Prasad, Ravita D.

    2012-01-01

    In Fiji, biogas has a huge potential to be one of the energy providers for cooking in rural areas but currently its use is very minimal. Main component of biogas is methane which releases energy when combusted. This paper mainly presents the factors that affect biogas production using experimental study. The first section presents an overview on what is biogas, types of biogas digesters present, and some background on the current use of biogas in Fiji. The second section of the paper describe...

  2. Factors Affecting Farmer Participation in Agritourism

    Bagi, Faqir Singh; Reeder, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a national farm survey, this study estimates a logit model to identify factors affecting U.S. farmers' participation in agritourism. Of the dummy variables, public access to the farm for recreation has the greatest positive impact, followed by farms near central cities, farms in Rocky Mountain and Southern Plains regions, farmers with college education, farmers paying for farm advice, farms organized as partnerships/corporations, farms enrolled in conservation programs, and farmers with...

  3. Which Factors Affect Adolescent Food Preferences?

    Seray Kabaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hunger, extreme desire to eat a certain food, taste, price, and convenience are among the main There are various factors that affect food preferences. Hunger, extreme desire to eat a certain food, taste, price, and convenience are among the main factors affecting food preferences. Additionally, general nutritional habits, family, friends, commercials, and availability of the food are also important for food preferences. Also, past experiences with foods are related to preferring or rejecting some foods. Socializing more with increasing age causes change in the food preferences of adolescents. Unhealthy nutrition habits form as a result of the adolescents consuming fast foods, spending time with their friends outside the house, and consuming more ready-made foods. Current developments in the food industry result in an increase in variety and consumption of snacks such as cookies, chocolate, chips, and crackers in adolescents. Considering all these, in this rewiev article, environmental and personal factors affecting food preferences have been investigated. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2013; 11: 121-7

  4. Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran

    Mohammad Bagher Kamali

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural developmentin Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have abetter insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as alearning forum for bringing about changes for all participants,they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciativeinquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting thefacilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors andpreventing factors. The former are: two-way communication,election of rural eligible facilitators, participation, sense ofresponsibility, and the latter are: cultural and tribal fanaticism,lack of permanent female extension workers and frequentmanagement changes. Appreciative inquiry as a positive modeof action research could facilitate the process of education andcommunication for all stakeholders. We suggested that thereshould be a shift from the extension as a knowledge transfer tofacilitation as people’s own knowledge creation. This studyshowed that appreciative inquiry could facilitate the process ofchange and gender-awareness. This research method couldalso facilitate mutual communication between the rural facilitatorsand extension workers.

  5. Seed Density Significantly Affects Species Richness and Composition in Experimental Plant Communities

    Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 10 (2012), e46704. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/0593 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : species richness * seed rain * species composition Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  6. Factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats

    Tadeu Silva de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to present some factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats. To develop our work, individual and average data from performance experiments with lactating goats were used. The following variables were evaluated: gross feed efficiency, adjusted feed efficiency, dry matter intake, milk-yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter digestibility, dietary neutral detergent fiber content, different roughage-to-concentrate ratios and body weight. The statistical analyses involved the application of descriptive and dispersion measures besides Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis. The analyzed variables were highly correlated with feed efficiency. The feed efficiency of lactating goats was affected by the milk fat correction, dry matter digestibility, dietary fiber content, proportion of roughage in the diet and body weight. Among these factors, standardization of the milk fat appeared to be the most efficient in correcting the feed efficiency in lactating goats. Correction of some of these factors implies greater precision in the measurement of feed efficiency.

  7. Fenugreek seed affects intestinal microbiota and immunological variables in piglets after weaning.

    Zentek, Jürgen; Gärtner, Stefanie; Tedin, Lydia; Männer, Klaus; Mader, Anneluise; Vahjen, Wilfried

    2013-03-14

    Fenugreek seed has been shown to affect the intestinal microbiota and immunological responses in animals. A feeding trial with male castrated piglets was performed over 28 d without or with the addition of 1·5 g fenugreek seeds/kg complete diet in ten and eleven piglets, weaned at 21 d. In the intestinal tract, pH, lactate and SCFA were measured as major bacterial metabolites. Immune cell phenotypes, phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferation after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen, concanavalin A and phytohaemagglutinin M were measured by flow cytometry. Health status and performance of the piglets were not affected by fenugreek. The pH in the caecum and colon were reduced compared with the control (Pingredient for young piglets due to their effects on the intestinal microbiota and immunological variables. The impact on performance and animal health has to be further evaluated. PMID:22874597

  8. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  9. Factors Affecting Corneal Hysteresis in Taiwanese Adults

    Jia-Kang Wang; Tzu-Lun Huang; Pei-Yuan Su; Pei-Yao Chang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation of various corneal hysteresis (CH) factors in Chinese adults. Methods: From January 2009 to November 2011, the healthy right eyes of a total of 292 adults were recruited into the study. Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPG) and CH were measured using an ocular response analyzer (ORA). Central corneal thickness was measured using the ORA’s in-tegrated handheld ultrasonic pachymeter. The IOLMaster was used to obtain the ocular biometric measurements including axial length, anterior chamber depth, and keratometric values. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to test correla-tions between CH and quantitative factors. The chi-square test was used to detect differences in categorical values. Results: Longer axial length (P=0.0001), lower IOPG (P=0.03), older age(P=0.003),and thinner central corneal thick-ness (P=0.0001) were significantly associated with lower CH. The anterior chamber depth (P=0.34), gender (P=0.23), and corneal curvature (P=0.18) had no relationship to CH. Conclusion:Various factors including axial length, intraocular pressure, age, and central corneal thickness can affect measure-ment of corneal biomechanical properties in Chinese adults. But the anterior chamber depth, gender, and corneal curvature were irrelevant to CH.

  10. Studies on the Correlations Between Isoflavone Contents in Soybean Seed and the Eco-Physiological Factors

    LI Wei-dong; LIANG Hui-zhen; LU Wei-guo; WANG Shu-feng; YANG Qing-chun; YANG Cai-yun; LIU Ya-fei

    2004-01-01

    The soybean cultivar Yudou25 was sown at 5 locations of Henan Province on 13 different dates in 2001 and 2002. The data of isoflavone contents for the 109 samples of soybean seed and 33 eco-physiological factors including meteorological factors, soil nutrition and altitudes were received and used for statistical analysis. The step-wise regression was used to screen the correlated factors, which significantly effected isoflavone contents. Results showed that 9 eco-physiological factors were highly correlated with isoflavones. Low mean temperature, high diurnal temperature range at seed filling and maturity, more sunlight hours and low mean temperature at emergence were favorable to isoflavone accumulation. The rainfall at emergence showed a nonlinear relationship with isoflavone content and its optimum value was 75 mm for isoflavone formation. Low diurnal temperature range at branching, high organic matter and low sulfur content in soil were suitable for the formation of isoflavones. The isoflavone contents would not be affected by other eco-physiological factors in this study.

  11. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth

    Moral , Juan; Lozano-Baena, María Dolores; Rubiales, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt) and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic) on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seed...

  12. Germination ecophysiology of coastal plants: seed dormancy and the effect of environmental factors

    Ņečajeva, Jevgenija

    2012-01-01

    Germination ecophysiology of coastal plants: seed dormancy and the effect of environmental factors The aim of this study was to characterize seed dormancy and the effect of various environmental factors on seed germination in several coastal plant species. Dormancy types were characterized in dune and coastal marsh species: Juncus balticus, Triglochin maritimum, T. palustre, Eryngium maritimum, Anthyllis maritima, Linaria loeselii. The effect of NaCl on germination was dete...

  13. Factors affecting sporoplasm release in Kudoa septempunctata.

    Shin, Sang Phil; Zenke, Kosuke; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi

    2015-02-01

    The myxosporean parasite Kudoa septempunctata has been isolated from cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and was recently identified as a cause of food poisoning in humans. Since the sporoplasm plays an important role in causing diarrhea by invading intestinal cells, the specific factors affecting the release of sporoplasm from spores should be determined. Thus, we investigated the effect of digestive and serum enzymes, fetal bovine serum (FBS), temperature, and the role of glucose in cell culture media on the release of sporoplasm. Sporoplasm release was observed in the groups treated with FBS and media containing glucose. In addition, 1,10-phenanthroline inhibited the release of sporoplasm in the FBS medium. These results indicate that K. septempunctata uses glucose for releasing its sporoplasm and that zinc or metalloprotease is related to the release mechanism. The present study provides important information for the development of agents to prevent sporoplasm release and the consequent food poisoning caused by K. septempunctata. PMID:25563617

  14. Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon

    In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

  15. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

  16. Seed trait-mediated selection by rodents affects mutualistic interactions and seedling recruitment of co-occurring tree species.

    Zhang, Hongmao; Yan, Chuan; Chang, Gang; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-02-01

    As mutualists, seed dispersers may significantly affect mutualistic interactions and seedling recruitment of sympatric plants that share similar seed dispersers, but studies are rare. Here, we compared seed dispersal fitness in two co-occurring plant species (Armeniaca sibirica and Amygdalus davidiana) that inhabit warm temperate deciduous forest in northern China. We tested the hypothesis that seed trait-mediated selection by rodents may influence mutualistic interactions with rodents and then seedling establishment of co-occurring plant species. A. davidiana seeds are larger and harder (thick endocarps) than A. sibirica seeds, but they have similar levels of nutrients (crude fat, crude protein), caloric value and tannin. More A. sibirica seedlings are found in the field. Semi-natural enclosure tests indicated that the two seed species were both harvested by the same six rodent species, but that A. sibirica had mutualistic interactions (scatter hoarding) with four rodent species (Apodemus peninsulae, A. agrarius, Sciurotamias davidianus, Tamias sibiricus), and A. davidiana with only one (S. davidianus). Tagged seed dispersal experiments in the field indicated that more A. sibirica seeds were scatter-hoarded by rodents, and more A. sibirica seeds survived to the next spring and became seedlings. A. sibirica seeds derive more benefit from seed dispersal by rodents than A. davidiana seeds, particularly in years with limited seed dispersers, which well explained the higher seedling recruitment of A. sibirica compared with that of A. davidiana under natural conditions. Our results suggest that seed dispersers may play a significant role in seedling recruitment and indirect competition between co-occurring plant species. PMID:26546082

  17. Higher endogenous methionine in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds affects the composition of storage proteins and lipids.

    Cohen, Hagai; Pajak, Agnieszka; Pandurangan, Sudhakar; Amir, Rachel; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    Previous in vitro studies demonstrate that exogenous application of the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine into cultured soybean cotyledons and seedlings reduces the level of methionine-poor storage proteins and elevates those that are methionine-rich. However, the effect of higher endogenous methionine in seeds on the composition of storage products in vivo is not studied yet. We have recently produced transgenic Arabidopsis seeds having significantly higher levels of methionine. In the present work we used these seeds as a model system and profiled them for changes in the abundances of 12S-globulins and 2S-albumins, the two major groups of storage proteins, using 2D-gels and MALDI-MS detection. The findings suggest that higher methionine affects from a certain threshold the accumulation of several subunits of 12S-globulins and 2S-albumins, regardless of their methionine contents, resulting in higher total protein contents. The mRNA abundances of most of the genes encoding these proteins were either correlated or not correlated with the abundances of these proteins, implying that methionine may regulate storage proteins at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The elevations in total protein contents resulted in reduction of total lipids and altered the fatty acid composition. Altogether, the data provide new insights into the regulatory roles of elevated methionine levels on seed composition. PMID:26888094

  18. Environmental Factors Affecting Where People Geocache

    Jennifer Golbeck

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor leisure activities are important for public health as well as family cohesiveness, yet environmental factors may easily affect someone’s ability to participate in such activities. We explored this with a focus on the social web-based treasure hunt game called Geocaching. We collected data on all US and Canadian geocaches from OpenCaching.com and conducted an online survey with twenty geocachers as a follow-up to our data analysis. Data analysis showed that geocaches were more often found in areas that were wealthier, better educated, younger, and more urban, and had higher population density and better weather. Survey results showed similar trends: Most people actively thought about where they would cache and tried to minimize risks, despite cache hiders thinking less about these concerns. These results further emphasize the importance of environmental factors when it comes to participation in outdoor activities and leads to Human–Computer Interaction design implications for location-based online social activities.

  19. Factors affecting seismic response of submarine slopes

    G. Biscontin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of submerged slopes on the continental shelf to seismic or storm loading has become an important element in the risk assessment for offshore structures and 'local' tsunami hazards worldwide. The geological profile of these slopes typically includes normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated soft cohesive soils with layer thickness ranging from a few meters to hundreds of meters. The factor of safety obtained from pseudo-static analyses is not always a useful measure for evaluating the slope response, since values less than one do not necessarily imply slope failure with large movements of the soil mass. This paper addresses the relative importance of different factors affecting the response of submerged slopes during seismic loading. The analyses use a dynamic finite element code which includes a constitutive law describing the anisotropic stress-strain-strength behavior of normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated clays. The model also incorporates anisotropic hardening to describe the effect of different shear strain and stress histories as well as bounding surface principles to provide realistic descriptions of the accumulation of the plastic strains and excess pore pressure during successive loading cycles. The paper presents results from parametric site response analyses on slope geometry and layering, soil material parameters, and input ground motion characteristics. The predicted maximum shear strains, permanent deformations, displacement time histories and maximum excess pore pressure development provide insight of slope performance during a seismic event.

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING PHARMACOKINETIC DISPOSITION OF DRUGS

    Mehta Hiren R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Absorption of drugs from the gastrointestinal tract is a complex process the variability of which is influenced by many physicochemical and physiologic factors. The two most important physicochemical factors that affect both the extent and the rate of absorption are lipophilicity and solubility. The rate and extent of absorption are governed by the solubility, permeability and stability of the drug, with solubility being a pH-dependent parameter for weak acids and bases. The gastrointestinal tract can be viewed as discrete sections with a variety of differential local pH environments ranging from the acidic stomach to the more basic small intestine. The multiple peaking, double peaking or secondary peaking phenomena can occur in the disposition of a variety of xenobiotics during drug development (the pre-clinical phase and in subsequent clinical studies and use. The physicochemical and physiological mechanisms underlying the occurrence of this phenomenon are often multi factorial and include but are not limited to solubility-limited absorption, modified-release formulations, complexation, enterohepatic recirculation, gastric emptying and the intestinal transit time, site-specific absorption, gastric secretion-enteral reabsorption. Double peak absorption has been described with several orally administered drugs such as cimetidine furosemide, piroxicam, ranitidine, talinolol, alprazolam and phenazopyridine.

  1. Factors Defining Field Germination of Oilseed Radish Seeds

    N.V. Dorofeev; E.V. Bojarkin; A.A. Peshkova

    2013-01-01

    Influence of temperature, depth of crops and granulometric of soil structure on germination speed, laboratory and field germination of oilseed radish seeds were studied. It was established that the period of seed-germination is defined both by temperature and granulometric structure of soil. The highest field germination was marked on sandy loam at depth of crops' seeds at 3 cm and 20°С.

  2. Glycosaminoglycan sulphation affects the seeded misfolding of a mutant prion protein.

    Victoria A Lawson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The accumulation of protease resistant conformers of the prion protein (PrP(res is a key pathological feature of prion diseases. Polyanions, including RNA and glycosaminoglycans have been identified as factors that contribute to the propagation, transmission and pathogenesis of prion disease. Recent studies have suggested that the contribution of these cofactors to prion propagation may be species specific. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In this study a cell-free assay was used to investigate the molecular basis of polyanion stimulated PrP(res formation using brain tissue or cell line derived murine PrP. Enzymatic depletion of endogenous nucleic acids or heparan sulphate (HS from the PrP(C substrate was found to specifically prevent PrP(res formation seeded by mouse derived PrP(Sc. Modification of the negative charge afforded by the sulphation of glycosaminoglycans increased the ability of a familial PrP mutant to act as a substrate for PrP(res formation, while having no effect on PrP(res formed by wildtype PrP. This difference may be due to the observed differences in the binding of wild type and mutant PrP for glycosaminoglycans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cofactor requirements for PrP(res formation are host species and prion strain specific and affected by disease associated mutations of the prion protein. This may explain both species and strain dependent propagation characteristics and provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of familial prion disease. It further highlights the challenge of designing effective therapeutics against a disease which effects a range of mammalian species, caused by range of aetiologies and prion strains.

  3. Impact of Seed Applications (Priming) of Fatty Acid Composition of Seed and Seed Quality and Its Relations

    Kaya, Gamze

    2008-01-01

    The most important factors affecting seed quality are the nutritional status of main plant before harvest, harvest period and the pathogenic effects and mechanical damage during harvest, and post-harvest storage conditions (storage temperature, seed moisture, oxygen). In addition, the seed quality depends on seed purity, vitality, strength, moisture content and genetic characteristics. The seed quality is significantly changed by oil content and fatty acid distribution of seeds. Various pre-s...

  4. Abiotic Factors Affecting Canola Establishment and Insect Pest Dynamics

    Christian Nansen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canola is grown mainly as an oil-seed crop, but recently the interest in canola has increased due to its potential as a biodiesel crop. The main objectives of this paper were to evaluate effects of abiotic factors and seed treatment on canola plant establishment and pest pressure in the Southern High Plains of Texas. Data was collected at two field locations during the first seven months of two field seasons. Based on multi-regression analysis, we demonstrated that precipitation was positively associated with ranked plant weight, daily minimum relative humidity and maximum temperature were negatively associated with plant weight, and that there may be specific optimal growth conditions regarding cumulative solar radiation and wind speed. The outlined multi-regression approach may be considered appropriate for ecological studies of canola establishment and pest communities elsewhere and therefore enable identification of suitable regions for successful canola production. We also demonstrated that aphids were about 35% more abundant on non-treated seeds than on treated seeds, but the sensitivity to seed treatment was only within four months after plant emergence. On the other hand, seed treatment had negligible effect on presence of thrips.

  5. Some Environmental Factors Affecting on Growth Characteristics

    N. Tuzemen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Live weights, weight gains and some body measurements at different ages of Eastern Anatolian Red Cattle (EAR were determined and some environmental factors affecting on these traits were investigated. The effect of dam’s age on the birth weight was highly significant (P<0.01. Although the lowest birth weight was obtained from calves of dams at the 3 years of age, the highest birth weight was obtained from calves given birth by cows at the 5 years of age. The males had heavier live weights and weight gains at different ages than the females. The effect of the sex on the live weights except for 9 and 12 months weights was found as highly significant (P<0.01. Feeding of the calves with different amount of milk had significant (P<0.01 influence on the 3, 6 and 9 months weights as well as weight gains. The effect of the years on the daily weight gains in EAR was also highly significant (P<0.01. The results shows the importance of the environmental effects on the traits studied and revealed that there is need for them to be corrected prior to the improvement studies.

  6. Factors affecting coastal wetland loss and restoration

    Cahoon, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    Opening paragraph: Tidal and nontidal wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay watershed provide vital hydrologic, water-quality, and ecological functions. Situated at the interface of land and water, these valuable habitats are vulnerable to alteration and loss by human activities including direct conversion to non-wetland habitat by dredge-and-fill activities from land development, and to the effects of excessive nutrients, altered hydrology and runoff, contaminants, prescribed fire management, and invasive species. Processes such as sea-level rise and climate change also impact wetlands. Although local, State, and Federal regulations provide for protection of wetland resources, the conversion and loss of wetland habitats continue in the Bay watershed. Given the critical values of wetlands, the Chesapeake 2000 Agreement has a goal to achieve a net gain in wetlands by restoring 25,000 acres of tidal and nontidal wetlands by 2010. The USGS has synthesized findings on three topics: (1) sea-level rise and wetland loss, (2) wetland restoration, and (3) factors affecting wetland diversity.

  7. Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students

    Vivien T. Supangco

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and demographic variables.The results showed that the different measures of career progress had distinct determinants implying different dynamics. It appeared that measures of career progress that are sensitive to the value employers attach to the individual (Whitely, Dougherty, & Dreher, 1991 such as total compensation, total number of promotion and years per promotion were related with human capital factors such as work experience and number of companies worked for. On the other hand, measures that relate to centrality if the position, in which market forces have less impact, were associated with organizational variables such as organization size and the demographic variable gender.While gender did not explain variation in total compensation, number of promotions and number of uears between promotions, these null results are important for two reasons. First, it implies that the female MBA students were at par with their male counterparts as fas as these measures of career progress are concerned. Second, it challenges the generalizability of the finding of gender segregation at the organizational level-where men receive significantly higher wages that women-which is a common finding among studies done in the United States. The results using the MBA students as sample show that income and promotion parity may indeed be achievable and this brings hope to women in general.However, the statistical significance of gender in explaining career progress as centrality

  8. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) seed size affects germination response to coumarin

    The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. This response may have significant impact on weed control by allelopathic cover crops where the small-seeded weeds would be more effectively controlled than large-seeded species. The stu...

  9. MODELING POLLINATION FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ALFALFA SEED YIELD IN NORTH-CENTRAL NEVADA

    BREAZEALE, Don; George FERNANDEZ; Rangesan NARAYANAN

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of both environmental and management factors on alfalfa seed yield was investigated on North–Central Nevada farms. Multiple linear regression models using 2002-2003 data revealed that cumulative tripped fl owers increased seed yield in both years. Field location does not appear to make a difference in the observed variation in tripped fl ower production. The results suggest that seed yield can be increased by (a) by placing bee shelters closer and (b) cultural practice...

  10. Explanatory ecological factors for the persistence of desiccation-sensitive seeds in transient soil seed banks : Quercus ilex as a case study

    Joët, Thierry; Ourcival, J. M.; Capelli, M; Dussert, Stéphane; Morin, X

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Dominant tree species in northern temperate forests, for example oak and beech, produce desiccation-sensitive seeds. Despite the potentially major influence of this functional trait on the regeneration and distribution of species under climate change, little is currently known about the ecological determinants of the persistence of desiccation-sensitive seeds in transient soil seed banks. Knowing which key climatic and microsite factors favour seed survival will help defin...

  11. Abiotic Factors Affecting Canola Establishment and Insect Pest Dynamics

    Christian Nansen; Calvin Trostle; Sangu Angadi; Patrick Porter; Xavier Martini

    2012-01-01

    Canola is grown mainly as an oil-seed crop, but recently the interest in canola has increased due to its potential as a biodiesel crop. The main objectives of this paper were to evaluate effects of abiotic factors and seed treatment on canola plant establishment and pest pressure in the Southern High Plains of Texas. Data was collected at two field locations during the first seven months of two field seasons. Based on multi-regression analysis, we demonstrated that precipitation was positivel...

  12. Iatrogenic Factors Affecting the Periodontium: An Overview

    Prasad, Ravi Varma; Chincholi, Siddharth; V, Deepika; Sirajuddin, Syed; Biswas, Shriparna; Prabhu, Sandeep S; MP, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    The principal reason of gingival inflammation is bacterial plaque, along with other predisposing factors. These predisposing factors are calculus, malocclusion, faulty restorations, complications associated with orthodontic therapy, self- inflicted injuries, use of tobacco & radiation therapy. The contributing factors to gingival inflammation & periodontal destruction are deficient dental restorations and prosthesis. Inadequate dental procedures that add to the weakening of the periodontal ti...

  13. Does Cold Plasma Affect Breaking Dormancy and Seed Germination? A Study on Seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.)

    Low-pressure discharge is applied for stimulation of germination of two seed lots of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) with different starting germinations (17%, 8%) and in different stages of dormancy. Different exposition durations with cold plasma treatment were applied. The variable of the ratio cumulative germination was calculated. The Richards' equation was used for curve-fitting and simulation of the growth curves. Population parameters, namely Vi - viability, Me - time, Qu - dispersion, and Sk - skewness, counted from the curves described the germination rate well. Significant differences among Qu confirmed the erratic dormancy and gradual germination of Lamb's Quarters. No difference in the Me parameter was found between two tested seed lots, and no interspecies characteristics were changed using low-pressure discharge. The results suggested that plasma treatment changed seed germination in Lamb's Quarters seeds.

  14. Does Cold Plasma Affect Breaking Dormancy and Seed Germination? A Study on Seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.)

    Božena, Šerá; Michal, Šerý; Vitězslav, Štrañák; Petr, Špatenka; Milan, tichý

    2009-12-01

    Low-pressure discharge is applied for stimulation of germination of two seed lots of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) with different starting germinations (17%, 8%) and in different stages of dormancy. Different exposition durations with cold plasma treatment were applied. The variable of the ratio cumulative germination was calculated. The Richards' equation was used for curve-fitting and simulation of the growth curves. Population parameters, namely Vi - viability, Me - time, Qu - dispersion, and Sk - skewness, counted from the curves described the germination rate well. Significant differences among Qu confirmed the erratic dormancy and gradual germination of Lamb's Quarters. No difference in the Me parameter was found between two tested seed lots, and no interspecies characteristics were changed using low-pressure discharge. The results suggested that plasma treatment changed seed germination in Lamb's Quarters seeds.

  15. Factors Affecting Turkish Students' Achievement in Mathematics

    Demir, Ibrahim; Kilic, Serpil; Depren, Ozer

    2009-01-01

    Following past researches, student background, learning strategies, self-related cognitions in mathematics and school climate variables were important for achievement. The purpose of this study was to identify a number of factors that represent the relationship among sets of interrelated variables using principal component factor analysis and…

  16. Use of mutations to improve cotton plants as an oil and protein source without affecting the seed cotton yield

    In Egypt, cotton seed is a very important source of oil. In 1988, it accounted for about 35% of the national consumption of edible oil. Cotton seed meal provides a considerable amount of the protein used for feeding non-ruminant animals. Therefore, efforts are being made to improve the oil and protein contents of the seed without affecting the seed cotton yield in order to close the gap between the production and consumption of edible oil as food and protein for animals. Twenty-one lines were selected in the M5 generation after treating the seeds of three local cultivars with up to 150 Gy of gamma rays. The results show that breeders can increase the oil and/or protein content of the seed without any loss in the seed cotton yield and percentage lint. This could be of value in overcoming the deficiency in oil production that exists in many developing countries which cultivate cotton for lint or as a cash crop, and may also be valid for seed protein in cakes or meals for feeding animals. However, further investigations will have to be made on the fibre properties. (author). 6 refs, 1 tab

  17. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette;

    2008-01-01

    group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS...

  18. Dietary factors that affect carotenoid bioavailability

    Hof, van het K.

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid bioavailability.In a

  19. The effect of environmental factors on the traits of seeds

    Bláha, L.; Kohout, Ladislav; Hnilička, F.; Gottwaldová, P.; Kadlec, P.; Jankovská, P.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2005), s. 81-86. ISSN 1211-3174 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QF3056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : 24-epibrassinolide * seeds * abiotic stresses Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy

  20. Seed coat color and seed weight contribute differential responses of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds.

    Lee, Jinwook; Hwang, Young-Sun; Kim, Sun Tae; Yoon, Won-Byong; Han, Won Young; Kang, In-Kyu; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2017-01-01

    The distribution and variation of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds are affected by genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we used 192 soybean germplasm accessions collected from two provinces of Korea to elucidate the effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight on the metabolic variation and responses of targeted metabolites. The effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight were present in sucrose, total oligosaccharides, total carbohydrates and all measured fatty acids. The targeted metabolites were clustered within three groups. These metabolites were not only differently related to seeds dry weight, but also responded differentially to seed coat color. The inter-relationship between the targeted metabolites was highly present in the result of correlation analysis. Overall, results revealed that the targeted metabolites were diverged in relation to seed coat color and seeds dry weight within locally collected soybean seed germplasm accessions. PMID:27507473

  1. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Felicity Murphy

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  2. Soil seed banks and their germination responses to cadmium and salinity stresses in coastal wetlands affected by reclamation and urbanization based on indoor and outdoor experiments

    Highlights: • A higher germination rate of soil seed bank was observed in the indoor experiment. • The outdoor experiment showed larger number and destiny of germinated seedlings. • Urbanization had greater impacts on soil seed banks than wetland reclamation. • Soil seed banks for wetland restoration were more suitable in the reclaimed region. • Suitable salt or Cd levels could activate seedling emergence in the soil seed bank. - Abstract: Indoor and outdoor seedling emergence experiments were conducted to thoroughly investigate germination patterns as affected by reclamation and urbanization, the ecological characteristics of soil seed banks, and their relationships with environmental factors in both urbanized and reclaimed regions of the Pearl River Delta in coastal wetlands. The germination rate of the soil seed bank was higher in the indoor experiment compared with that in the outdoor experiment, whereas the number and destiny of the germinated seedlings were greater in the outdoor experiment. The species diversity and number, as well as the richness and evenness indices, were higher in the urbanized region compared with the reclaimed region. However, the dominance and Sørensen similarity indices were greater in the reclaimed region compared with those indices in the urbanized region. Higher salinity and Cadmium (Cd) levels could inhibit seed germination; however, their suitable ranges (i.e. [0–2000 mg kg−1] for salinity and [0–4.0 mg kg−1] for available Cd) can activate seedling emergence, and more seedlings germinated under the intersectional levels at 0.34 mg kg−1 available Cd and 778.6 mg kg−1 salinity. Seawater intrusion caused by the sea level rise will possibly result in the salt-tolerant community in this area due to increasing salinity

  3. Soil seed banks and their germination responses to cadmium and salinity stresses in coastal wetlands affected by reclamation and urbanization based on indoor and outdoor experiments

    Bai, Junhong, E-mail: junhongbai@163.com; Huang, Laibin, E-mail: seahuanglaibin@gmail.com; Gao, Zhaoqin; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing; Zhao, Qingqing

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • A higher germination rate of soil seed bank was observed in the indoor experiment. • The outdoor experiment showed larger number and destiny of germinated seedlings. • Urbanization had greater impacts on soil seed banks than wetland reclamation. • Soil seed banks for wetland restoration were more suitable in the reclaimed region. • Suitable salt or Cd levels could activate seedling emergence in the soil seed bank. - Abstract: Indoor and outdoor seedling emergence experiments were conducted to thoroughly investigate germination patterns as affected by reclamation and urbanization, the ecological characteristics of soil seed banks, and their relationships with environmental factors in both urbanized and reclaimed regions of the Pearl River Delta in coastal wetlands. The germination rate of the soil seed bank was higher in the indoor experiment compared with that in the outdoor experiment, whereas the number and destiny of the germinated seedlings were greater in the outdoor experiment. The species diversity and number, as well as the richness and evenness indices, were higher in the urbanized region compared with the reclaimed region. However, the dominance and Sørensen similarity indices were greater in the reclaimed region compared with those indices in the urbanized region. Higher salinity and Cadmium (Cd) levels could inhibit seed germination; however, their suitable ranges (i.e. [0–2000 mg kg{sup −1}] for salinity and [0–4.0 mg kg{sup −1}] for available Cd) can activate seedling emergence, and more seedlings germinated under the intersectional levels at 0.34 mg kg{sup −1} available Cd and 778.6 mg kg{sup −1} salinity. Seawater intrusion caused by the sea level rise will possibly result in the salt-tolerant community in this area due to increasing salinity.

  4. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer

    Carter, A M

    2009-01-01

    states, are more amenable to analysis. This is exemplified by factors contributing, respectively, to blood oxygen affinity and placental diffusing capacity. Comparative genomics has given fresh insight into the evolution of the beta-globin gene complex. In higher primates, duplication of an embryonic...

  5. Political and institutional factors affecting systems engineering

    Yardley, John F.

    1993-01-01

    External groups have a significant impact on NASA's programs. Ten groups affecting NASA are identified, and examples are given for some of the them. Methods of dealing with these external inputs are discussed, the most important being good and open two way communications and an objective attitude on the part of the NASA participants. The importance of planning ahead, of developing rapport with these groups, and of effective use of NASA contractors is covered. The need for an overall strategic plan for the U.S. space program is stressed.

  6. Growth environment but not seed position on the parent plant affect seed germination of two Thlaspi arvense L. populations

    Thlaspi arvense L. is a common weed found in most temperate regions throughout the world that also shows excellent potential for domestication as an oilseed crop. The complexity of T. arvense seed dormancy presently makes it difficult to manage as a weed or oilseed crop. Therefore, a better understa...

  7. Factors affecting patient education from cultural perspectives

    MOHAMMAD REZA HEIDARI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient education is influenced by cultural factors. This study aims to find out the role of culture in patient education. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted on 23 Iranian nurses. Inclusion criteria were minimum 5 years of working experience in clinical nursing. Semistructured face to face interviews were used to collect the data. Interviews were taped, transcribed and analyzed using content analysis method. Results: The main theme of ‘cultural sensitivity’ was extracted from the interviews. Sub-themes were cultural divergence, cultural connection literacybased instruction. Conclusion: A dynamic process of patient education is influenced by various cultural factors. Nurses must be aware of the cultural norms in patient education to meet their expectations in a respectful manner.

  8. Factors Affecting Performance of Women Entrepreneurs

    Ena-Mary Ibeh

    2009-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is the assumption of risk and responsibility in designing and implementing a business strategy or starting a business. It is common in all societies and is usually embarked upon by choice or as a last resort in economic hardship. Entrepreneurship is usually part of the informal sector in both developed and developing countries and the success rate of gender in this arm of business is dependent on a variety of factors. There are similarities in gender performance between diffe...

  9. Factors affecting quality of informed consent.

    Lavelle-Jones, C; Byrne, D J; Rice, P; Cuschieri, A.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the factors influencing quality of informed consent. DESIGN--Prospective study comprising interviews with patients and patients' completing standard questionnaires. SETTING--Academic surgical unit of large teaching hospital. PATIENTS--265 patients undergoing intrathoracic, intraperitoneal, and vascular surgical procedures. Of these patients, 192 have been followed up for six months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patients' recall of information at various points in the study; th...

  10. Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers

    Margie Sutherland; Wilhelm Jordaan

    2004-01-01

    One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do n...

  11. Factors affecting quits and layoffs in Spain

    Antonio Caparrós Ruiz; Mª Lucía Navarro Gómez

    2002-01-01

    During the last decade, unemployment rates in the European Union have been higher than in other regions, e.g., the United States, and these are even higher in Spain. It has been argued that the different degrees of labour mobility between the European and the American labour markets can account for the differences in the pattern observed. This paper follows the McLaughlin's model (1991) and provides empirical evidence regarding the factors determining quits and layoffs due to contract termina...

  12. Factors Affecting Residential House Prices in Malaysia

    Cheong, Wai Hoong

    2010-01-01

    This research attempts to examine the factors which have significant influence on house prices in Malaysia. It looks into the dynamics of housing prices from the second quarter of 1999 to the fourth quarter of 2009. Independent variables which have been tested against house price in Malaysia are changes in real Gross Domestic Product, Kuala Lumpur Composite Index, Consumer Price Index, Average Lending Rate, Housing Approval and Outstanding Residential Loan in Commercial Banks. Employing th...

  13. Human Factor Issues Affecting CAD Implementations

    Short, C.; Cockerham, G

    2000-01-01

    Industrial companies have been implementing Computer Aided Engineering tools for many years with varying degrees of success. In the early implementations considerable emphasis was placed upon the organisational structure necessary to receive and optimise system output. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that any successful CAE implementation has to satisfy three inter-related factors of technology, organisation and human issues. This paper presents the results of an investigation into...

  14. Empirically testing some factors affecting HMS usage.

    Caccia-Bava, Maria do Carmo; Guimaraes, Valerie C K; Guimaraes, Tor

    2016-07-11

    Purpose - Without use the expected benefits from healthcare management systems (HMS) cannot be derived. Thus, while use alone may not guarantee success, one can safely assume that the more use the better. HMS has been instrumental in facilitating care providers' work. However, many hospitals have encountered usage problems and some user-related factors have been recognized in the literature as potentially important to make HMS more successful. The purpose of this paper is to test the importance of the factors proposed in the literature as important determinants of HMS usage measured by the number of hours used and the frequency of use. Design/methodology/approach - Several user-related variables such as user participation, user expertise, and user training previously studied separately by different authors are brought together into an integrated model to be tested empirically. Data from 213 nurses using their hospital HMS have been used to test proposed relationships between the independent variables and HMS usage results. Findings - The results confirm the importance of these factors and provide the basis for managerial recommendations. Hospital managers can use the resources validated by this study to improve their own operations and improve the likelihood of success implementing HMS. Future research projects may identify other possible factors important for HMS implementation success to improve the model proposed here. Originality/value - HMS is a very widely used and an important system for hospitals, but has been neglected in research. This is one of the first rigorous studies of HMS, and the results provide new practical insights for hospital administrators. PMID:27298061

  15. Factors affecting peri-implant tissue reactions

    Hultin, Margareta

    2001-01-01

    Screw- shaped titanium implants are today routinely used m the substitution of lost teeth. In this thesis some of the biological factors related to the long-term survival and maintenance of dental implants were studied. The first arm of these studies was to evaluate the neutrophil activation around teeth and dental implants (Papers I & II). Secondly we wanted to evaluate the clinical radiographic and microbiological status of implants after long-term. function m partly e...

  16. Factors affecting patient education from cultural perspectives

    MOHAMMAD REZA HEIDARI; REZA NOROUZADEH

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Patient education is influenced by cultural factors. This study aims to find out the role of culture in patient education. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted on 23 Iranian nurses. Inclusion criteria were minimum 5 years of working experience in clinical nursing. Semistructured face to face interviews were used to collect the data. Interviews were taped, transcribed and analyzed using content analysis method. Results: The main theme of ‘cultural sensitiv...

  17. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    Ivan FERENCZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  18. Removal of antinutritional factors from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds

    Bollini R.; Carnovale E.; Campion B.

    1999-01-01

    Phytohemagglutinin and the lectin-related proteins present in bean seeds are toxic to monogastric animals and lower the nutritional value of beans. Since these antimetabolites are present in substantial amounts, a breeding program aimed to the removal ofphytohemagglutinin was developed. The character ""absence of phytohemagglutinin"" was transferred into a bean cultivar by backcrossing. The lines obtained maintained the agronomic performance of the recurrent parent. Preliminary results show t...

  19. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria

    Nojarov, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  20. Factors affecting forage stand establishment Fatores que afetam o estabelecimento do estande em plantas forrageiras

    Sulc, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should b...

  1. Factors affecting radiolytic effects in food

    On basis of radiation chemical considerations supported by model system studies, several general predictions can be made regarding the influence of specific parameters on the chemical effects in irradiated foods. Among the parameters considered are: food composition, physical state of components, irradiation temperature, dose-rate, and total dose. Composition determines the type and extent of reactions initiated by both direct and indirect radiolytic interaction. The multiphasic character of foods influences cross reactions between components. State of hydration introduces both physical and chemical aspects into these considerations. Irradiating systems in which the water is frozen changes substantially the chemical effects because the diffusion of reactive entities is impeded. Temperature, especially in frozen systems, has a specific effect on the type and extent of reactions that could occur. Dose and dose-rate, insofar as they affect the pathways for reaction of intermediate species with the original or new components, also determine the type and amount of final radiolysis products. Illustrations of many of these features of the chemistry have been drawn from experiments on model systems of proteins, frozen aqueous solutions, and compounds derived from lipids, as well as from irradiated meats and poultry. These considerations and related experimental results explain the validity of using chemical data to obtain clearances and to extend clearances from approved food to other foods or to other irradiation conditions. (author)

  2. Factors affecting home range of mallard pairs

    Riechmann, J.H.

    1976-06-01

    Certain habitat and social factors were investigated for their effect on home range size of mallard (Anas platyhynchos) pairs breeding in a forested region of north-central Minnesota during the spring of 1971--72. Data from 31 radio-marked hens and drakes were used, but primary emphasis was placed on 8 pairs (5 with both members of the pair marked). Pairs were radio-tracked on river marsh areas, river channels, and large sand lakes to provide comparative data for evaluating home range size differences. Home ranges varied from an average of 53 ha for pairs using primarily river habitat to 871 ha for pairs using only large sand lakes. River and lake shorelines varied considerably in species and density of vegetation. Interaction between pairs as well as density of flocked males appeared to be influenced by these habitat differences with resultant effects on home range sizes.

  3. Factors affecting the MTW zeolite cristallization process

    Katovic, A.; Giordano, G. [Universita della Calabria, Rende (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    The synthesis mechanism of the high silica zeolite types other than MFI is rarely studied in the open literature. This work is devoted to the role of different parameters governing the zeolite MTW crystallization process. The influence of the most important factors: the nature of the silica and alumina source, the type of the organic cation, the alkalinity of the reaction mixture and the crystallization temperature, was studied. The molar composition of the initial hydrogel was varied in other to determine the crystallization field of the zeolite MTW. The observed morphology and particle size of the crystallites are related to the corresponding reaction conditions. The competitive formation of the other zeolite types (prevalently MFI and BEA) is discussed.

  4. Factors Affecting Methane Emission from Rice Paddies

    于心科; 王卫东; 等

    1995-01-01

    A comparative study of rice paddies and the uncovered water field in Taoyuan(Hunan) showed that methane emission from rice-vegetated paddy fields in 1993 was different from that in 1992(I,e,lower in rates and irregular in pattern).Climate has obvious influence on methane emission .And ebullition made a considerable contribution to the total flux of methane emission from rice paddies (45%).This implies that the intensification of paddy cultivation of rice might not be,as was proposed,the main con-tributor to the observed gradual increasing of atmospheric methane.24-hour automatic measurements of atmospheric temperature,air temperature and methane concentration in the static sampling boxes revealed that temperature,in addition to fertilization and irrigation style,is one of the most important factors that control the emission of methane from rice paddies.

  5. Trust Factors Affecting Cooperation in Construction

    Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; Haugbølle, Kim; Bejder, Erik

    2013-01-01

    With all the advances in professionalism, methods, technology, and human resource training, we should have seen an increase in productivity. However, this has not happened and the construction industry is losing the battle to be competitive and has instead become a high-cost, low-productivity sec......With all the advances in professionalism, methods, technology, and human resource training, we should have seen an increase in productivity. However, this has not happened and the construction industry is losing the battle to be competitive and has instead become a high-cost, low...... advisor was carried out. The analysis showed that the ability to be trustful can be developed through the experience of different factors (e.g. control mechanisms, mutual respect, repeated cooperation, shared understanding and communication). Furthermore, the ability to trust other parties depends...

  6. Factors affecting U-bend cracking

    Stress corrosion cracking of alloy 600 in pure water is assumed to be the damaging process of a large number of small radius U-bends of PWR steam generators. The possible influencing parameters are reviewed. The determining factor is a too high level of stress arising from two main origins: residual stresses; and overstresses induced by the inner pressure in deformed cross sections. The latter have been assessed by two dimensional finite elements computation and by strain gages measurements. Stress corrosion tests in boiling MgCl2 sustain the previous results for outer surface overstresses. Geometrical characterizations were performed on: in service SG tubes by internal spherical gages; and laboratory samples by internal spherical gages, LVDT and ultrasonic measurements, cross sectioning

  7. Economic Factors Affecting Diversified Farming Systems

    Maria S. Bowman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to a shift toward specialization and mechanization during the 20th century, there has been momentum on the part of a vocal contingent of consumers, producers, researchers, and policy makers who call for a transition toward a new model of agriculture. This model employs fewer synthetic inputs, incorporates practices which enhance biodiversity and environmental services at local, regional, and global scales, and takes into account the social implications of production practices, market dynamics, and product mixes. Within this vision, diversified farming systems (DFS have emerged as a model that incorporates functional biodiversity at multiple temporal and spatial scales to maintain ecosystem services critical to agricultural production. Our aim is to provide an economists' perspective on the factors which make diversified farming systems (DFS economically attractive, or not-so-attractive, to farmers, and to discuss the potential for and roadblocks to widespread adoption. We focus on how a range of existing and emerging factors drive profitability and adoption of DFS. We believe that, in order for DFS to thrive, a number of structural changes are needed. These include: 1 public and private investment in the development of low-cost, practical technologies that reduce the costs of production in DFS, 2 support for and coordination of evolving markets for ecosystem services and products from DFS and 3 the elimination of subsidies and crop insurance programs that perpetuate the unsustainable production of staple crops. We suggest that subsidies and funding be directed, instead, toward points 1 and 2, as well as toward incentives for consumption of nutritious food.

  8. Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers

    Margie Sutherland

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do not predict knowledge workers’ proposed future length of service.Factor analysis revealed seven underlying dimensions of retention cognitions. Cluster analysis revealed nine distinct clusters of knowledge workers with regard to their retention cognitions. High levels of individualism, need for challenge and focus on personal development were demonstrated. The implications of these findings are discussed. OpsommingEen van die eienskappe van kenniswerkers is hulle hoë vlak van mobiliteit. Die koste van arbeidsomset van hierdie sleutelbronne is hoog in beide finansiële en nie-finansiële terme. Daar bestaan dus ’n behoefte om die faktore wat onderliggend is aan die retensiekognisies van kenniswerkers te verstaan. Data is ingesamel van 306 kenniswerkers in voltydse diens wat ’n wye reeks demografiese groeperings verteenwoordig. Die resultate dui daarop dat werktevredenheid en organisasieverbondenheid nie die kenniswerkers se verwagte lengte van diens voorspel nie. Faktorontleding het sewe onderliggende dimensies van retensiekognisies blootgelê. ’n Bondelontleding het nege duidelike bondels van kenniswerkers ten opsigte van hulle retensiekognisies onderskei. Hoë vlakke van individualisme, behoefte aan uitdaging en fokus op persoonlike ontwikkeling is aangedui. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

  9. MODELING POLLINATION FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ALFALFA SEED YIELD IN NORTH-CENTRAL NEVADA

    Don BREAZEALE

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The relative importance of both environmental and management factors on alfalfa seed yield was investigated on North–Central Nevada farms. Multiple linear regression models using 2002-2003 data revealed that cumulative tripped fl owers increased seed yield in both years. Field location does not appear to make a difference in the observed variation in tripped fl ower production. The results suggest that seed yield can be increased by (a by placing bee shelters closer and (b cultural practices that increase total fl ower production. Both these factors increased tripped fl owers and thus had a positive effect on yield. In addition, warmer temperatures during the growing season, particularly in the early stages of plant growth is shown to not only increase tripped fl owers but also reduce the time when the maximum tripped fl owers occur. The latter appears to have a signifi cant infl uence on cumulative tripped fl owers and thus the total seed yield.

  10. Rate and duration of seed filling and yield of soybean affected by water and radiation deficits

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed filling and yield of soybean under water and radiation deficits were investigated during 2011 and 2012. Treatments were irrigations (I1, I2, I3 and I4 for irrigation after 60, 90, 120 and 150 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively in main plots and light interceptions (L1: 100 %, L2: 65 % and L3: 25 % sunlight in sub-plots. Seeds per plant under I1 and I2 decreased, but under I3 and I4 increasedas a result of radiation deficit. Maximum seed weight and seed filling duration of plants under 25 % light interception (L3 were higher than those under full sunlight (L1 and 65 % light interception (L2. In contrast, plants under full sunlight had the highest seed filling rate, particularly under water stress. Seed filling duration under severe light deficit (L3 was about 9 days longer than that under full sunlight (L1, leading to 15.8 % enhancement in maximum seed weight. Decreasing seed yield of soybean under well watering and mild water stress and improving it under moderate and severe water deficit due to low solar radiation are directly related with changes in seed filling duration and consequently in seed weight and number of seeds per plant under these conditions.

  11. Factors Affecting Hypertension among the Malaysian Elderly

    Sima Ataollahi Eshkoor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common chronic disease in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the effects of age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, nutritional parameters, and blood elements on the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. This research was conducted on a group of 2322 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The hierarchy binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of hypertension in respondents. Approximately, 45.61% of subjects had hypertension. The findings indicated that the female gender (Odds ratio (OR = 1.54, an increase in body weight (OR = 1.61, and an increase in the blood levels of albumin (OR = 1.51, glucose (OR = 1.92, and triglycerides (OR = 1.27 significantly increased the risk of hypertension in subjects (p < 0.05. Conversely, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates (OR = 0.74, and blood cholesterol level (OR = 0.42 significantly reduced the risk of hypertension in samples (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that ethnicity was a non-relevant factor to increase the risk of hypertension in subjects. It was concluded that female gender, an increase in body weight, and an increase in the blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, and albumin enhanced the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. In addition, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates and blood cholesterol level decreased hypertension in subjects.

  12. Factors affecting mortality in patients with burns

    Halil Erbiş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The increase in life quality and expectancy causes an increase in the elderly population. Improvements in burn treatment resulted in decreased mortality in children and young adults but in elderly patients burns are still an important trauma that should be handed differently than other age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors effecting mortality in patients with burns over 45 years old. Methods: Fifty-eight patients over 45 years of age, who were treated in our burns unit in the last 3 years were included in our study. Their age, burn percentage and depth, coexisting diseases and mortality rates were examined retrospectively. Results: The average age of surviving patients was 57.4 years while it was 70 years for nonsurviving patients (p=0.002. The width of burn area was 21.1 % in surviving and 50 % in nonsurviving patients (p<0.01. The effect of additional coexistent diseases on mortality was significant (p=0.001. The most common reasons of mortality were sepsis and congestive heart failure. Conclusion: We found out that the age, percentage of burns and coexistent diseases had a negative effect on success of treatment and mortality. Mortality rates will decrease in these cases with careful follow-up and a multidisciplinary approach. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 240-243

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING VASECTOMY ACCEPTABILITY IN ETHIOPIA

    E. Admasu , Negalign chekol , Temesegen Chekol , Z. Shewamene*, Zelalem Eteffa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vasectomy is one of the most effective but less utilized types of contraception method which could addresses the involvement of males to the family planning. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate the awareness about and practice of men towards vasectomy among workers in Dashen brewery, Ethiopia. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted using pre tested self-administered questioner to assess the Knowledge, attitude and factors associated with low utilization of vasectomy. A total of 187 study participants were included to this study using single population proportion formula and random sampling technique. Majority of the participants 155 (82.9% never heard about vasectomy as a contraception method. Their knowledge about vasectomy is generally very poor as large proportion of respondents didn’t know how it works, its effectiveness and its effect on their sexual performance. None of the respondents have ever used vasectomy as a modern male contraception method. Misleading information towards its impact on sexual performance/desire was reported as a main reason not to use this method. Among others need of more children, unavailability of services, lack of information, spouse refusal and religious concerns were mentioned as a potential reasons for their negative perception towards vasectomy. Lack of awareness, myths and rumors, limited access to services, and indifference and bias on the part of providers about vasectomy limit its popularity in Ethiopia. Therefore, it is vital to introduce appropriate educational plan to increase awareness and usage of vasectomy in Ethiopia.

  14. Factors Affecting Patient Satisfaction During Endoscopic Procedures

    Objective: To assess the quality and patient satisfaction in Endoscopy Unit of Shifa International Hospital. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Division of Gastroenterology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from July 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Quality and patient satisfaction after the endoscopic procedure was assessed using a modified GHAA-9 questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 1028 patients were included with a mean age of 45 A+- 14.21 years. Out of all the procedures, 670 (65.17%) were gastroscopies, 181 (17.60%) were flexible sigmoidoscopies and 177 (17.21%) were colonoscopies. The maximum unsatisfactory responses were on the waiting time before the procedure (13.13 %), followed by unsatisfactory explanation of the procedure and answers to questions (7.58%). Overall, unsatisfied impression was 4.86%. The problem rate was 6.22%. Conclusion: The quality of procedures and level of satisfaction of patients undergoing a gastroscopy or colonoscopy was generally good. The factors that influence the satisfaction of these patients are related to communication between doctor and patient, doctor's manner and waiting time for the procedure. Feedback information in an endoscopy unit may be useful in improving standards, including the performance of endoscopists. (author)

  15. Factors affecting chromatin stability of bovine spermatozoa.

    Khalifa, T A A; Rekkas, C A; Lymberopoulos, A G; Sioga, A; Dimitriadis, I; Papanikolaou, Th

    2008-03-01

    . Individuality significantly influenced NCI. The variability of NCI within a frozen ejaculate affected efficiency of IVEP. Significant negative correlations were observed between incidence of NCI and both fertilization rate and developmental capacity of embryos after maturation of oocytes for 18 h. The significant variation in IVEP traits due to season was independent of the effect of sperm chromatin instability. PMID:17398042

  16. Removal of antinutritional factors from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds

    Bollini R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytohemagglutinin and the lectin-related proteins present in bean seeds are toxic to monogastric animals and lower the nutritional value of beans. Since these antimetabolites are present in substantial amounts, a breeding program aimed to the removal ofphytohemagglutinin was developed. The character ""absence of phytohemagglutinin"" was transferred into a bean cultivar by backcrossing. The lines obtained maintained the agronomic performance of the recurrent parent. Preliminary results show that removal of phytohemagglutinin results in a higher true protein digestibility. Further modification in the composition of the lectin-related protein family is now under way.

  17. Analysis of factors affecting angle ANB.

    Hussels, W; Nanda, R S

    1984-05-01

    Cephalometric analyses based on angular and linear measurements have obvious fallacies, which have been discussed in detail by Moyers and Bookstein. However, the clinical application of such an analysis by the orthodontic profession in treatment planning is widely accepted. Variations of angle ANB are commonly used to determine relative jaw relationships in most of the cephalometric evaluations. Several authors, including points A and B influences angle ANB, as does rotational growth of the upper and lower jaws. In addition, the authors point out that growth in a vertical direction (distance N to B) and an increase of the dental height (distance A to B) may contribute to changes in angle ANB. For a Class I relation (Wits = 0 mm), a mathematical formula has been developed which enables the authors to study the geometric influence of angle ANB caused by the following four effects: (1) rotation of the jaws and/or occlusal plane relative to the anterior cranial base; (2) anteroposterior position of N relative to point B, (3) vertical growth (distance N to B); (4) increase in dental height (distance A to B). It was observed that, contrary to the common belief that an ANB angle of 2 +/- 3.0 degrees is considered normal for a skeletal Class I relation, the calculated values of angle ANB will vary widely with changes in these four controlling factors under the same skeletal Class I conditions (Wits = 0 mm). Therefore, in a case under consideration, angle ANB must be corrected for these geometric effects in order to get a proper perspective of the skeletal discrepancy. This is facilitated by comparing the measured ANB angle with the corresponding ANB angle calculated by a formula for a Class I relationship. The corresponding calculated angle ANB can be taken from the tables which are based upon the formula using the same values for SNB, omega (angle between occlusal plane and anterior cranial base), b (which is distance N to B) and a (dental height measured as perpendicular

  18. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth.

    Moral, Juan; Lozano-Baena, María Dolores; Rubiales, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt) and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic) on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seeds germinated between 5 and 30°C during both periods, with a maximum around 20°C. Germination increased with increasing Ψt from -1.2 to 0 MPa during conditioning and incubation periods. Likewise, seed germination increased logarithmically with length of conditioning period until 40 days. The impact of the type of water stress on seed germination was similar, although the radicle growth of seeds under osmotic stress was lower than under matric stress, what could explain the lowest infestation of Orobanche sp. in regions characterized by saline soil. The data in this study will be useful to forecast infection of host roots by O. crenata. PMID:26089829

  19. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected by...... agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  20. Rice grain yield as affected by subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatment

    Veneraldo Pinheiro; Luís F. Stone; José A. F. Barrigossi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the effects of subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatments with insecticides on the grain yield of upland rice cultivated under no-tillage. Two experiments were carried out, one in an area with and the other in an area without subsoiling, in which five seed treatments combined with five compaction pressures on the sowing furrow were compared in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme, with three replicates. The seed treatments we...

  1. Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Faculty-Doctoral Student Coauthorship

    Maher, Michelle A.; Timmerman, Briana Crotwell; Feldon, David F.; Strickland, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Using faculty narratives, this study identifies factors affecting the occurrence of faculty-doctoral student coauthorship. Norms of the discipline, resources, faculty goals for students, faculty goals for themselves, and institutional expectations emerged as dominant factors. Each factor is explored separately and as part of an interlocking…

  2. The Application of Affective Factors to English Teaching

    徐倩茹

    2015-01-01

    Education should aim at promoting students’all-round development and unifying cognitive and emotional aspects. However, the reality is that teachers pay too much attention on language cognitive factors and neglect the influence of emotional factors in language learning. This article tries to discuss how to use the affective factors in English teaching so as to enhance students’ comprehensive development.

  3. AN OVERVIEW OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE SIZE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT

    Trueblood, Michael A.; Honadle, Beth Walter

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews many factors affecting the size of local government. These factors include: current demographic trends and changes in alternative service delivery arrangements, theoretical schools of thought, evidence on economies of size, whether current local governments are managed efficiently, and legal and political factors.

  4. Selective Seed Abortion Affects the Performance of the Offspring in Bauhinia ungulata

    Mena-Alí, Jorge I; Rocha, Oscar J.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Under the microgametophytic competition hypothesis, a non-random pattern of seed abortion is expected, in which only the most vigorous seeds reach maturity. In a previous study, it was found that Bauhinia ungulata (Fabaceae) exhibits a pattern of seed abortion dependent on the position of the ovule within the ovary; ovules located in the stylar half of the fruit, close to the point of entry of pollen tubes to the ovary, have a low probability of seed abortion, whereas ov...

  5. Irradiation inactivation of some antinutritional factors in plant seeds

    Effects of gamma-irradiation (1.0-10 kGy) on trypsin, chymotrypsin, and alpha-amylase inhibitors of soybean and Moringa peregrina seeds on tannin of sorghum, gossypol of cottonseed, and in vitro digestibility of soybean were investigated. A dose of 10.0 kGy caused decreases in trypsin (by 34.9%) and chymotrypsin (by 71.4%) inhibitor activities in soybean defatted flour, whereas its in vitro digestibility increased from 79.8 to 84.2%. The alpha-amylase inhibitor activity of Al-Yassar (M. peregrina) was decreased by 43.6 and 47.8% upon treatment of 7.0 and 10.0 kGy, respectively. Doses of 10.0 and 7.0 kGy significantly reduced the tannin content in Shahlla sorghum but not in Hemaira sorghum. Total and free gossypol contents were slightly reduced by irradiation

  6. Factors affecting the retention decisions of female surface warfare officers

    Clifton, Elizabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis delineates factors affecting the retention decisions of female Surface Warfare Officers. The data were obtained from in-depth interviews conducted with 12 female senior officers and 15 female junior officers. The transcripts from the interviews revealed 19 general themes. Based on the research, the data regarding the decisions that female officers make to either stay in the Navy or leave leads to four broad categories: economic factors, Navy taste factors., leadership factor...

  7. Ball milling improves extractability and affects molecular properties of psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) seed husk arabinoxylan.

    Van Craeyveld, Valerie; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2008-12-10

    Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) seed husk (PSH) is very rich in arabinoxylan (AX). However, its high gelling capacity and the complex nature of the AX make it difficult to process. In this study, ball milling was investigated as a tool for enhancing PSH AX water extractability and molecular mass (MM). A 48 h laboratory-scale ball mill treatment under standardized optimal conditions reduced the PSH average particle size from 161 microm for the untreated sample to 6 microm. Concurrently, it increased the water-extractable AX (WE-AX) level from 13 (untreated PSH) to 90% of the total PSH AX. While the WE-AX of the untreated PSH had a peak MM of 216 kDa and an arabinose to xylose (A/X) ratio of 0.20, WE-AX fragments from ball mill-pretreated PSH had a peak MM of 22 kDa and an A/X ratio of 0.31. Ball milling further drastically reduced the intrinsic viscosity of PSH extracts and their water-holding capacity. Prolonged treatment brought almost all AX (98%) in solution and yielded WE-AX fragments with an even higher A/X ratio (0.42) and a lower peak MM (11 kDa). While impact and jet milling of PSH equally led to significant reductions in particle size, these technologies only marginally affected the water extractability of PSH AX. This implies that ball milling affects PSH particles and their constituent molecules differently than impact and jet milling. PMID:19007123

  8. On the Affective Factors in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    程墨芳

    2010-01-01

    The paper talks about the effective factors functioning in the field of education,psychology and foreign language teaching.And it also specifically elaborates the principles of helping language learners overcome negative affections and develop positive ones.

  9. Bracken (\\kur{Pteridium aquilinum}) fertility affecting factors

    JONÁŠOVÁ, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    Usually, Pteridium aquilinum reproduces vigorously by the use of rhizomes. An occurence of fertile populations is rather rarely recorded. The aim of this bachelor thesis was to estimate the cause and factors affecting the fertility.

  10. Humanistic Approach and Affective Factors in Foreign Language Teaching

    罗馨

    2010-01-01

    For a long time,Chinese EFL teaching has been following the teacher-centered model,which emphasizes the cognitive aspect but ignores the affective factors. So "emotional illiteracy" is a common phemenon and harmful to language learning and students' all-round development. This essay lays special stress on humanistic approach and analyzes the influence of some important affective factors on language learning,for the purpose of inviting teachers' attention to students' emotions in fulfilling their teaching task.

  11. Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM)

    Nitzke Susan; Brown Roger; Chang Mei-Wei

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management) scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response) and environmental (physical environment, social environment, si...

  12. Factors Affecting the Execution of Supply Chain Management

    Kotzab, Herbert; Teller, Christoph; Grant, David B

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses factors affecting the execution of supply chain management and presents a conceptual model and six hypotheses based on such factors identified in the literature. The model was tested in two European country-specific cases using structural equation modelling. Findings in both cases confirm the hypothesized hierarchical order of three proposed antecedents: ‘internal SCM conditions’ affect ‘joint SCM conditions’ which in turn influences collaborative ‘SCM-rela...

  13. Factors affecting larval tick feeding success: host, density and time

    Cami R Jones; Brunner, Jesse L.; Scoles, Glen A.; Jeb P Owen

    2015-01-01

    Background Ectoparasites rely on blood-feeding to sustain activity, support development and produce offspring. Blood-feeding is also a route for transmission of diverse vector-borne pathogens. The likelihood of successfully feeding is thus an important aspect of ectoparasite population dynamics and pathogen transmission. Factors that affect blood-feeding include ectoparasite density, host defenses, and ages of the host and ectoparasite. How these factors interact to affect feeding success is ...

  14. Analysis of Affective Factors and Corresponding Solution in English Teaching

    张劲松

    2009-01-01

    Affect is the related issues that influence the students' learning progress and result, including one's interest, emotion, self-confidence and so on. Affective factors are the motivation for the students' learning. In the past few decades, people have always been pursuing the effective methods of teaching, from the Grammar Translation Method, to Communicative Language Teaching. Now people start to focus on affective teaching and have got some good result.

  15. Factors affecting surface and release properties of thin PDMS films

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Junker, Michael Daniel; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2013-01-01

    -strain in the films which affect the overall performance of the films. The current research is directed towards investigating factors affecting the peel force and release of thin, corrugated polydimethylsiloxane films used in DEAP films. It has been shown that doping the PDMS films with small quantities of...

  16. Factors Affecting on Military Medical Job Satisfaction Staff

    Habibi; Gholami Fesharaki; Jamali; Mohamadian

    2015-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction (JS) in the workplace affects absenteeism, turnover and performance. Objectives Considering the importance of JS, this study conducted with aim studying the factors affecting JS in a military hospital. Patients and Methods This descriptive analytical cross sectional study was carried out on 301 workers who worked in a military hospital in year 2009 using...

  17. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  18. Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition

    Bista, Krishna K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

  19. Comprehensive Summary of Performance-Affecting Factors of CCDS

    Umesh Kumar; Navin Chaddha

    1992-01-01

    This paper considers four factors affecting the functioning of a surface channel CCD. The factors considered are: the interface states, feed forward due to barrier modulation, surface potential fluctuations, and the avalanche multiplication in a CCD. A computer program has also been developed to analyze the performance of a CCD.

  20. Exploratory Data Analysis to Identify Factors Influencing Spatial Distributions of Weed Seed Banks

    Comparing distributions of different species in multiple fields will help us understand the spatial dynamics of weed seed banks, but analyzing observational data requires non-traditional statistical methods. We used classification and regression tree analysis (CART) to investigate factors that influ...

  1. Prioritizing the Factor Weights Affecting Tourism Performance by FAHP

    Quang Hung Do; Jeng Fung Chen

    2013-01-01

    The allocation of limited resources to effectively promote tourism is one of the most important issues in the tourism industry, especially in tough economic times. This paper seeks to investigate the relative importance of the key factors affecting tourism performance by applying the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) method. Specifically, the paper identifies the factors and sub-factors of the hierarchical structure from the literature relating to tourism performance. The framework base...

  2. Factors Affecting the Profitability of Azerbaijan Banking System

    Nuriyeva, Zülfiyye

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The financial services industry varies day by day and the evaluation of the profitability of the financial institution become an important aspect in nowadays. Banks are the integral part of the financial market, and in order to stay at that level necessary to determine how banks operate and what factors affect their profitability. This thesis investigates factors influencing the profitability of banks in Azerbaijan. The external and internal factors were reviewed, and the relationsh...

  3. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  4. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  5. Lamb meat quality and intramuscular fatty acid composition as affected by concentrates including different legume seeds

    Pietro Pennisi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of concentrates including legume seeds (Vicia faba var. minor or Pisum sativum on lamb performances and on meat quality, with an emphasis on intramuscular fatty acid composition. Thirty lambs (14.5 ± 3.45 kg live weight were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments: PEA group (concentrate including 400 g/kg of peas; FB group (concentrate including 380 g/kg of faba bean; SBM group (concentrate including 180 g/kg of soybean meal. Growth and slaughter performances were not affected by treatments as well as physical and proximate chemical meat characteristics. FB and SBM meat showed higher (P<0.001 vaccenic acid levels compared to PEA meat. Oleic acid was higher (P<0.05 in PEA meat compared to SBM meat while its level in FB meat was similar to counterparts. Linoleic acid levels tended to increase (P<0.10 in SBM lambs compared to PEA animals. PEA group showed higher (P<0.001 α-linolenic acid proportions compared to FB and SBM groups and a tendentially higher (P<0.10 eicosapentaenoic acid content compared to SBM meat. As a result, total n-3 fatty acids were higher (P<0.05 in PEA meat compared to SBM one while the proportions in FB meat were at intermediate level. These findings accounted for a lower and more favourable (P<0.001 n-6/n-3 ratio in PEA group compared to counterparts. Peas based-concentrate seemed to be more effective than faba bean- or soybean meal-included concentrates to improve the acidic profile of meat leading to higher α-linolenic acid levels and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio.

  6. A proteomic analysis of rice seed germination as affected by high temperature and ABA treatment.

    Liu, Shu-Jun; Xu, Heng-Heng; Wang, Wei-Qing; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Ping; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-05-01

    Seed germination is a critical phase in the plant life cycle, but the specific events associated with seed germination are still not fully understood. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry to investigate the changes in the proteome during imbibition of Oryza sativa seeds at optimal temperature with or without abscisic acid (ABA) and high temperature (germination thermoinhibition) to further identify and quantify key proteins required for seed germination. A total of 121 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance (1.5-fold increase/decrease) during germination under all conditions. Among these proteins, we found seven proteins specifically associated with seed germination including glycosyl hydrolases family 38 protein, granule-bound starch synthase 1, Os03g0842900 (putative steroleosin-B), N-carbamoylputrescine amidase, spermidine synthase 1, tubulin α-1 chain and glutelin type-A; and a total of 20 imbibition response proteins involved in energy metabolism, cell growth, cell defense and storage proteins. High temperature inhibited seed germination by decreasing the abundance of proteins involved in methionine metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, energy metabolism, reserve degradation, protein folding and stress responses. ABA treatment inhibited germination and decreased the abundance of proteins associated with methionine metabolism, energy production and cell division. Our results show that changes in many biological processes including energy metabolism, protein synthesis and cell defense and rescue occurred as a result of all treatments, while enzymes involved in methionine metabolism and weakening of cell wall specifically accumulated when the seeds germinated at the optimal temperature. PMID:25270993

  7. Effect of chemical and physical factors to improve the germination rate of Echinacea angustifolia seeds.

    Chuanren, Duan; Bochu, Wang; Wanqian, Liu; Jing, Chen; Jie, Lian; Huan, Zhao

    2004-09-01

    Seeds of Echinacea angustifolia are known for their deep dormancy. In this paper, we studied the responses of E. angustifolia seeds to some chemical and physical factors, such as scarification, chilling (5 degrees C) period, light and applied BA (6-benzylaminopurine), GA3 (gibberellic acid) and sound stimulation. When the seed coat layers were removed, the germination rate grew up from 6 to 20% (incubated in light) and the mean time germination (MTG) was reduced from 18 to 6.6 days. On the basis of layers-removed, chilling and continuous light gave significantly higher germination rate (up to 70%). Compare the data of seeds chilled by 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 days, the maximum germination rate (up to 70%) achieved at 18-days chilling treatment. Further increases in the chilling period could slightly improve germination. Exogenous application of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 mg/L GA3 or BA in the previous pretreatment increased germination to 78, 90 and 84% or 76, 86 and 84%, respectively. Obviously, the best concentration of GA or BA is 0.3 mg/L. And the GA3 or BA treatment shortened the MTG to about 4 days. The influence of sound stimulation was also tested in the experiment. The result showed that one 100 dB and 1000 Hz sound wave (sine-wave) was beneficial to the germination of E. angustifolia seeds. PMID:15342019

  8. Does cold plasma affect breaking dormancy and seed germination? Study on seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.)

    Šerá, Božena; Šerý, M.; Straňák, V.; Špatenka, P.; Tichý, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2009), s. 750-754. ISSN 1009-0630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : chenopodium album * low-pressure discharge * plasma treatment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.380, year: 2009

  9. Analysis and Research of Factors Affecting Coal Mining with Plough

    刘过兵; 陈胜利

    2002-01-01

    Coal mining with ploughs is an ideal coal mining technology for thin a nd thinner coal seams. The existence conditions of coal seams are different for each other, which affects coal mining with ploughs to different degrees, and the application results are also different. The authors analyze the affecting factors by means of mathematical methods. The research is useful to the wide appli cation of ploughs.

  10. Factors affecting egg predation in Black-tailed Gulls

    Kazama, Kentaro

    2007-01-01

    In colonial seabirds, nesting density, egg-laying date and nest microhabitat affect the probability of eggs being taken by avian predators. Jungle Crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) are dominant predators of eggs of Black-tailed Gulls (Larus crassirostris). Factors affecting the probability of gulls allowing the crows to attack their nests or depredate their eggs and the probability of eggs being taken were studied by direct observation and egg census, respectively. The effect of vegetation heights...

  11. Cetuximab affects the capacity of DNA repair in colorectal cancer cells after 125I seeds irradiation

    Objective: To investigate the effect of C225 on DNA repair and molecular pathways in CL187 colorectal cancer cells after irradiated by 125I radioactive seeds. Methods: In the experiment involved were four groups:control group, 100 nmol/L C225 treatment group,125I radioactive seeds continuous low-dose rate irradiation group and C225 combined with 125I radioactive seeds continuous low dose rate irradiation group. Cells were collected at 48 h after 4 Gy irradiation, and γH2AX foci/cell and γH2AX foci positive cells were counted with immunofluorescence. At the same time, DNA repair proteins were detected by Western blot. Cells were analyzed immediately after 4 Gy irradiation,and changes in EGFR downstream signaling molecules were detected by Western blot. Results: Compared with 125I seeds irradiated cells,cells treated with C225 and 125I seeds irradiation showed more γH2AX foci per cell (t=8.0, P=0.05), and more γH2AX foci positive cells (t=6.8, P<0.05) and less expression of Ku70 (t=6.6, P<0.05) and DNA-PKcs (t=5.6, P<0.05). Combined with 125I-CLDR irradiation, C225 reduced cellular EGFR level (t=4.9, P<0.05) and inhibited the activation of Akt (t=5.5, P<0.05). Conclusions: In the condition of 125I seeds irradiation, C225 reduced the expression of Ku70 and DNA-PKcs, inhibited the activation of Akt and attenuated the DNA damage repair capacity in CL187 colorectal cancer cells. (authors)

  12. Factors Affecting Acceptance of Smartphone Application for Management of Obesity

    Jeon, Eunjoo; Park, Hyeoun-Ae

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The factors affecting the acceptance of mobile obesity-management applications (apps) by the public were analyzed using a mobile healthcare system (MHS) technology acceptance model (TAM). Methods The subjects who participated in this study were Android smartphone users who had an intent to manage their weight. They used the obesity-management app for two weeks, and then completed an 18-item survey designed to determine the factors influencing the acceptance of the app. Three questi...

  13. Factors Affecting Retailer Adoption of the Internet in Ireland

    Vize, Roisin; Coughlan, Joseph; Kennedy, Aileen

    2007-01-01

    To date, most of the commentary on the impact of the Internet on retailing in Ireland has been anecdotal and there is a paucity of academic empirical research examining the factors affecting Internet adoption by retailers in Ireland. The primary aims of this research are to identify the key factors perceived as being influential in determining the resultant level of adoption among traditional retailers in Ireland and to examine the extent and level of its’ adoption in the Irish retail sector....

  14. Investigating the factors affecting the investment decision in residential development.

    Narang, Somil

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a rare insight into the motivation behind residential property investors when looking to purchase an apartment. The factors driving demand preferences for housing are constantly changing, difficult to measure, and often deemed to be a complex bundle of attributes. The project attempts to answer the following questions: What are the factors affecting the investment decision in a Residential Development? To identify the significance and weight of su...

  15. Factors Affecting Pure Orange Juice Purchasing Decisions of Consumers

    Wanvisa Sriratana; Visit Limsombunchai

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes factors affecting pure orange juice purchasing decisions of consumers in Bangkok Metropolitan area. The data used in this research were from interviewing 400 consumers in Bangkok Metropolitan area who used to buy pure orange juice. The data were collected during September to October 2008. The descriptive analysis techniques and Conjoint Analysis were applied. The results showed that certificate of standard and quality assurance was the most important factor which influence...

  16. Factors Affecting Patients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Rafie, Seyyed Reza

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although, there have been extensive research on the motivations driving patient to undergo cosmetic procedures, there is still a big question mark on the persuasive factors which may lead individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery. The present study evaluated various factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran. METHODS From 24th March 2011 to 24th March 2012, eighty-one women and 20 men who wished to be operated in Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Bushehr...

  17. A Review of Factors Affecting Vaccine Preventable Disease in Japan

    Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Ching, Michael SL

    2014-01-01

    Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided ...

  18. Factors Affecting The Profitability Rate of Leading Firms in Makassar

    Rakhman, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to investigate the factors which affecting firms??? profitability in Makassar. The factors are amount of capital, growth of sales, net working capital, leverage ratio, and current ratio. The sample involved in the survey 45 companies which identified as leading companies in Makassar. The result outlined that the leading businesses tended to consider financial ratio in implementing financial policy. The findings indicated that growth of sales, current ratio a...

  19. Buckwheat yield and its quality as affected by laser biostimulation of its seeds

    The influence of various doses of laser radiation applied to buckwheat seed bio stimulation on the yield, and changes of chemical composition was analysed. A 12-25 percent increase of yield was observed in bio stimulated plants. The most positive effects were achieved after seed triple radiation using a laser of 30 mW power for 0.1 s. Bio stimulation caused a slight increase of protein, fat and fiber content a large increase of soluble and reducing sugars and a decrease of starch level

  20. Disentangling factors controlling fruit and seed removal by rodents in temperate forests

    Perea García-Calvo, Ramón; San Miguel Ayanz, Alfonso; Gil Sanchez, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Fleshy fruits fall on to the ground together with cleaned seeds previously ingested by primary dispersers, offering a wide range of fruits and seeds to the ground foragers. Although nutritional properties strongly differ between fruits and seeds, this different seed presentation (cleaned seeds versus seeds within the pulp) has not been addressed in seed removal studies. This study reports on the removal of fruits versus their seeds in five fleshy-fruited species in a temperate forest. We foun...

  1. Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis

    Kwan, Eugene E.

    2005-01-01

    A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

  2. Factors Affecting Children's Math Achievement Scores in Preschool

    Kilday, Carolyn R.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation contains three independently conducted studies on factors that affect the math achievement scores of preschool-aged children. The first study examined the associations between children's executive-functioning (EF) and math achievement scores at 54 months of age. Results suggest that EF is strongly associated with children's…

  3. Factors Affecting the Programming Performance of Computer Science Students

    Raley, John B.

    1996-01-01

    Two studies of factors affecting the programming performance of first- and second year Computer Science students were conducted. In one study students used GIL, a simple application framework, for their programming assignments in a second-semester programming course. Improvements in student performance were realized. In the other study, students submitted detailed logs of how time was spent on p...

  4. Factors Affecting Workers' Valuation of Intrinsic Job Rewards.

    Shapiro, E. Gary

    As the fit between job values and job rewards becomes more important to American workers, it is important to understand factors which may affect these values. Data from the combined General Social Surveys of 1974, 1976, 1977 and 1980 were used to investigate the influence of education, job prestige, earnings, age, sex, race, and family…

  5. Factors Affecting Educational Innovation with in Class Electronic Response Systems

    Freeman, Mark; Bell, Amani; Comerton-Forde, Carole; Pickering, Joanne; Blayney, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the use of Rogers' diffusion of innovation perspective to understand the factors affecting educational innovation decisions, specifically in regard to in class electronic response systems. Despite decreasing costs and four decades of research showing strong student support, academic adoption is limited. Using data collected from…

  6. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…

  7. Factors Affecting the Effectiveness and Use of Moodle: Students' Perception

    Damnjanovic, Vesna; Jednak, Sandra; Mijatovic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the factors affecting the effectiveness of Moodle from the students' perspective. The research hypotheses derived from the suggested extended Seddon model have been empirically validated using the responses to a survey on e-learning usage among 255 users. We tested the model across higher education…

  8. Factors Affecting the Formation of Food Preferences in Preschool Children.

    Alles-White, Monica L.; Welch, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    Identifies and discusses factors that affect the development of food preferences in preschool children, including familiarity, age, parents, peers, teachers, and programs designed to influence food habits. Makes recommendations to preschool and day care programs for creating an atmosphere conducive to trying new foods. (Author/DST)

  9. Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

  10. Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course

    Kwenda, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

  11. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  12. An Analysis of the Social Distance Factor Affecting Language Use

    闫宇

    2015-01-01

    The social distance is the main social factor that influences language use.This paper explores how the social distance affects language use in different ways based on solidarity,status and formality,in order to achieve a better understanding of language use.

  13. Institutional and Managerial Factors Affecting International Student Recruitment Management

    Ross, Mitchell; Heaney, Joo-Gim; Cooper, Maxine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate international student recruitment from an institutional perspective and to consider institutional factors that may affect recruitment. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study is undertaken in which education marketing practitioners are interviewed regarding aspects of international…

  14. Factors Affecting Students' Grades in Principles of Economics

    Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…

  15. Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors

    Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

  16. Students' Views on Factors Affecting Empathy in Medical Education

    Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…

  17. Factors Affecting Soil Microbial Community Structure in Tomato Cropping Systems

    Soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in agroecosystems may be affected by soil, climate, plant species, and management. We identified some of the most important factors controlling microbial biomass and community structure in an agroecosystem utilizing tomato plants with the following nine tre...

  18. Proximate Amino Acid Anti-Nutritional Factor And Mineral Composition Of Different Varieties Of Raw Lablab Purpureus Seeds

    Shaahu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Proximate chemical amino acid anti- nutritional factors ANF and mineral composition of Highworth Rongai White and Rongai Brown varieties of Lablab purpureus seed were determined. Lablab purpureus seed irrespective of the variety was lower in crude protein but higher in crude fibre than FFSB. The three varieties of lablab seed analyzed in the present study contained between 7.22-9.23 of crude fibre while the crude protein content ranged between 24.88-34.33g100g. The ether extract EE content 2.99-5.87 of lablab seed is low compare to other legume seeds such as soyabeans and groundnuts. Due to this low oil content lablab seed may not be suitable as a commercial source of oil reducing the competition for lablab seed from vegetable oil industries. The natural limiting amino acid lysine in cereals is satisfactorily high mean value is above FAO reference pattern in lablab seed. The mean values of the essential amino acids lysine histidine valine methionine isoleucine leucine and phenylalanine in lablab seed are higher than the values reported for FFSB. This suggests that lablab seed can be exploited in feed formulation as an excellent source of amino acid. The aniti-nutritional factors identified in lablab seed are trypsin inhibitors hydrogen cyanide phytate tannin oxalates alkaloids saponin and haemagglutinins which must be deactivated to improve seed utilization. Lablab seed contained 0.3-5.3g100g of major and 14.9-54.5mgkg of minor minerals assayed and this is also low compared to soyabean and groundnut.

  19. Soybean seed yield and its components as affected by different irrigation regimes at different reproductive stages

    Development of an efficient and economical irrigation management system for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is essential to apply irrigations at specific stages of reproductive ontogeny. Soybean cultivar, Williams-82 was subjected to a factorial set of irrigated treatments: R1 to R2 flowering (F), R3 to R4 pod elongation (P) and R5 to R6 seed enlargement (S). The experiment was conducted for two years in spring 1986 and 1987 on a clay-loam soil at the National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad. An F-irrigation at flowering sage had great effect on seed yield (2253 kg/ha). Almost similar yield response was observed for an F-S irrigation and F-P-S irrigation, soybean seed yield for S-irrigation, P-irrigation, F-P and P-S irrigations were significantly lower than a single F-irrigation, F-S and F-P-S irrigation. Also a single irrigation at pod elongation stage (P) and seed enlargement stage (S) enhanced more yield than duel irrigations of F-P and P-S.(author)

  20. ANTI-NUTRIENT FACTORS, PERFORMANCE AND SERUM BIOCHEMISTRY OF BROILER CHICKS FED RAW AND FERMENTED ALCHORNEA CORDIFOLIA SEEDS

    O.O. EMENALOM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine some anti-nutrient factors in differently processed Christmas bush (Alchornea cordifolia seeds and the effect of the processed seed meals on the performance and blood chemistry of broiler chicks fed from 1 to 35 day of age. Ground and fermented, and dehulled Christmas bush (CB seed meals were analyzed for their anti-nutrient contents whereas ground and sieved (GS, ground-sieved and fermented (GSF and non-sieved and fermented (NSF seed meals were incorporated into starter broiler diets to replace 10% of maize, respectively. Fermented and dehulled CB seed meals contain 574.4 and 21.3mg/100g phytic acid, respectively. Cyanide was not identified in any of the meals. Dehulling eliminated the anthraquinone and tannin contents whereas fermentation only eliminated the tannin content. None of the methods completely eliminated the saponin, cardiac glycoside, flavonoid and alkaloid contents of the seed meals. With GS seed meal, broilers had lower average daily weight gain (P<0.05 than the control group. Feed intake decreased (P<0.05 but feed conversion ratio was not different when compared with control. Inclusion of GSF seed meal improved growth and feed intake when compared with the NSF seed meal and by day 35, growth and feed intake were comparable to those of the control birds. Blood plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphates and aspartate aminotransferase increased with GS CB seed meal diet, while serum calcium decreased. Neither raw nor fermented seed meals altered other measures of the blood chemistry. It is concluded that CB seeds contain toxic anti-nutrient compounds and that sieving out the hulls in the ground raw seed meal before fermentation improved the feeding value of the seeds for broilers at 10% replacement for maize.

  1. Factors affecting farm diversification in rice-wheat

    The risk in agriculture sector is due to various factors like weather and market conditions, particularly the demand of the commodities. This uncertainty can result in variable returns (farm income) to the decisions that farmers make in a particular season. Diversification is a frequently used risk management strategy that involves participation in more than one activity. It has the added advantage of mitigating price risk as well as fluctuations in outputs. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the factors affecting crop diversification. For determining the effect of different factors on diversification a multiple regression model was used. The values of Entropy index computed for measuring horizontal diversification were taken as dependent variable and different factors affecting diversification were taken as independent variables. The results showed that the main factors affecting diversification were size of land holding, age of respondent, education level of respondent, farming experience of respondent, off farm income of respondent, distance of farm from main road, distance of farm from main market and farm machinery. (author)

  2. Analysis of Factors Affecting the Quality of an E-commerce Website Using Factor Analysis

    Saurabh Mishra; Prabal Kaushal; Nikita Gupta; Shivani Singh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify factors which affect the quality and effectiveness of an e commerce website which also majorly affect customer satisfaction and ultimately customer retention and loyalty. This research paper examines a set of 23 variables and integrates them into 4 factors which affect the quality of a website. An online questionnaire survey was conducted to generate statistics regarding the preferences of the e-commerce website users.The 23 variables taken from cus...

  3. Identifying and ranking factors affecting entrepreneurship success in palm industry

    N. Mina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Influencing physical environment and valued-entrepreneurship effects on community; it reduces unemployment by creating value; it also leads the society to employment and production rather than consumption. This study aimed to identify and rank factors affecting entrepreneurship success in palm industry in Saravan. After reviewing literatures as well as doing interviews, a questionnaire with 66 items was developed by the researcher. Using snowball sampling method, 106 executives and experts related to palm industry in Saravan were selected and questionnaires were distributed among them .Data were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis methods. Results showed that six factors affect entrepreneurship success in palm industry in Saravan."Marketing" with the scale of 0.89 had the greatest impact.

  4. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed. PMID:26812088

  5. Factors affecting receipt of chemotherapy in women with breast cancer

    Libby Morimoto

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Libby Morimoto1, Jenna Coalson1, Fionna Mowat1, Cynthia O’Malley21Exponent Health Sciences, Menlo Park, CA, USA; 2Amgen Global Epidemiology, Thousand Oaks, CA, USAAims: To review literature describing factors associated with receipt of chemotherapy for breast cancer, to better understand what factors are most relevant to women’s health and whether health disparities are apparent, and to assess how these factors might affect observational studies and outcomes research. Patterns of care for metastatic breast cancer, for which no standard-of-care exists, were of particular interest.Methods: Relevant studies written in English, Italian, French, or Spanish, published in 2000 or later, were identified through MEDLINE and reviewed. Review articles and clinical trials were excluded; all observational studies and surveys were considered. Articles were reviewed for any discussion of patient characteristics, hospital/physician/insurance characteristics, psychosocial characteristics, and clinical characteristics affecting receipt of chemotherapy by breast cancer patients.Results: In general, factors associated with increased likelihood of receiving chemotherapy included younger age, being Caucasian, having good general health and few co-morbidities, having more severe clinical disease, having responded well to previous treatment, and having breast cancer that is estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-negative. Many of the clinical factors found to increase the likelihood of receiving chemotherapy were consistent with current oncology guidelines. Of the relevant 19 studies identified, only six (32% reported data specific to metastatic cancer; most studies aggregated women with stage I–IV for purposes of analysis.Conclusion: Studies of patterns of care in breast cancer treatment can help identify challenges in health care provided to particular subgroups of women and can aid researchers in designing studies that account for such factors in clinical and

  6. Factors Affecting Successful Implementation of Hospital Information Systems

    Farzandipur, Mehrdad; jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Azimi, Esmaeil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Today, the use of information systems in health environments, like any other fields, is necessary and organizational managers are convinced to use these systems. However, managers’ satisfaction is not the only factor in successfully implementing these systems and failed information technology projects (IT) are reported despite the consent of the directors. Therefore, this study aims to determine the factors affecting the successful implementation of a hospital information system. Methods: The study was carried out as a descriptive method in 20 clinical hospitals that the hospital information system (HIS) was conducted in them. The clinical and paraclinical users of mentioned hospitals are the study group. 400 people were chosen as samples in scientific method and the data was collected using a questionnaire consisted of three main human, managerial and organizational, and technological factors, by questionnaire and interview. Then the data was scored in Likert scale (score of 1 to 5) and were analyzed using the SPSS software. Results: About 75 percent of the population were female, with average work experience of 10 years and the mean age was 30 years. The human factors affecting the success of hospital information system implementation achieved the mean score of 3.5, both organizational and managerial factors 2.9 and technological factors the mean of 3. Conclusion: Human factors including computer skills, perceiving usefulness and perceiving the ease of a hospital information system use are more effective on the acceptance and successful implementation of hospital information systems; then the technological factors play a greater role. It is recommended that for the successful implementation of hospital information systems, most of these factors to be considered PMID:27041811

  7. Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral

    Bahieh Moradi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5% such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

  8. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  9. Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities

    Al-Quran Firas A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

  10. Seed imbibition and germination of Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Fabaceae) affected by mercury: possible role of aquaporins

    Amanda Ávila Cardoso; Eduardo Euclydes de Lima e Borges; Genaina Aparecida de Souza; Cristiane Jovelina da Silva; Raquel Maria de Oliveira Pires; Denise Cunha Fernandes dos Santos Dias

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTStudies that evaluate the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of germination within forest species are needed in order to improve our understanding of such processes. Mercury and dithiothreitol are indicated as important tools in studies that assess the activity of aquaporins during imbibition and germination of seeds. To investigate the alterations caused by mercury inPlathymenia reticulata seedsdifferent doses of mercury were used in the presence and absence of dithiothreitol. ...

  11. Seed imbibition and germination of Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Fabaceae affected by mercury: possible role of aquaporins

    Amanda Ávila Cardoso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTStudies that evaluate the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of germination within forest species are needed in order to improve our understanding of such processes. Mercury and dithiothreitol are indicated as important tools in studies that assess the activity of aquaporins during imbibition and germination of seeds. To investigate the alterations caused by mercury inPlathymenia reticulata seedsdifferent doses of mercury were used in the presence and absence of dithiothreitol. Mercury had a dose-dependent effect on the seeds; in the most dilute solutions mercury partially inhibited the imbibition process, whereas in the most concentrated solutions it caused the death of the embryos. A delay in the hydration of the seeds may have caused decreased germination as a result of the reduced functionality of the aquaporins that were oxidized by mercury. In the presence of the reducing agent dithiothreitol, the activity of these proteins was restored and the germination process was re-established. These findings indicate the importance of aquaporins in the imbibition and germination stages of P. reticulataseeds, and they provide a better understanding of these important developmental events in plants.

  12. Seed yield, N- uptake and oil quality in Helianthus annuus as affected by N- fertilizer

    A field experiment was conducted to study the impact of different nitrogen fertilizer rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N/ha as urea) on dry matter yield, N uptake, seed yield, grain oil content and properties of sunflower Helianthus annuus using the 15N labeling technique. Sunflower plants responded strongly to increasing N supply with respect to growth performance. Dry matter yield and total N uptake were significantly increased with increasing N-supply. Partitioning of N yield in different plant parts showed that capitulum was the principle sink of N (60%) followed by leaves (30%) and stem (10%) regardless of N-fertilizer rates. Seed yield of sunflower was significantly increased at higher N-supply. However, oil concentration was significantly reduced in the N-fertilized treatments. Decreasing of grain oil content due to N addition was overcompensated by the seed yield increase. Consequently, no significant effect of N supply on oil yield was observed. The effect of N supply on iodine number was small, and only a small trend towards lower iodine value in the N100 was observed. No clear trend of the effect of N supply on other oil quality parameters was observed. Nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff) was significantly increased with increasing N-supply. Recovery of fertilizer 15N was of 64% regardless of N-rates. This efficiency was less pronounced in stem and leaves than that in capitulum which had a greater value at higher N-supply. (author)

  13. Confounding factors affect the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis

    Yoram Elitsur

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a newly diagnosed esophageal disease in adult and children.The clinical and pathological characteristics of this disease have been established and were recently summarized in the expert clinical guideline published in 2011.In spite of the wide knowledge accumulated on this disease,there are many areas where scientific data are missing,especially in regard to the disease's pathophysiology.Recent publications have suggested that other confounding factors modify the disease and may affect its clinicalphenotypic presentation.Those factors may include place of living,air pollution,race,genetic factors and other.In the present report we discussed and review those confounding factors,the new developments,and what direction we should go to further advance our knowledge of this disease.

  14. Multiple Factors Affecting Human Repregnancy after Microsurgical Vasovasostomy

    黄明孔; 吴晓庆; 付成善; 邹平; 高晓平; 黄强

    1997-01-01

    To determine the factors which might affect the recover), of fertility after an accurate microsurgical vasovasostomy, we conducted a 3 year-follow-up study in 56 men after microsurgical vasovasostomy. Twenty-two variables as putative factors associated with recovery of fertility were measured. The results of Logistic regression and ather statistical analyses suggest that 8 factors including age of husband, age of wife, history of past pregnancies of current wife, number of vasovasostomies, serum FSH, LH and T before vasovasostomy, and sperm granuloma of vas nodule are of no significance in recovery of fertility, whereas 14 factors including years after vasectomy, sperm concentration, progressive motility, sperm motility, viability, normal morphology, sperm egg penetration rate, TAT and SIT before and after vasovasostomy, MAR, IBT adherent IgG and IgA after vasovasostomy are significantly, associated with repregnancy.

  15. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.; Steenstrup, L.D.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2002-01-01

    Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg...... formation. Among the factors contributing to yellow color formation, pH and salt concentration are easy to control for the cheesemaker, while the third factor, P-concentration, is not. Naturally occurring variations in the P-concentration in milk delivered to Blue Cheese plants, could be responsible for the...... metabolites, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening...

  16. Factors Affecting Indigenous West Australians' Health Behavior: Indigenous Perspectives.

    Waterworth, Pippa; Dimmock, James; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include socio-economic factors, racism, and history. The current study focused on exploring Indigenous participants' perspectives of the factors that affect the health behavior of their community members. Participatory action research methodology and a grounded theory approach were utilized. In total, 120 members of two urban West Australian Indigenous communities participated in focus group discussions. There was substantial similarity between the themes that emerged within the discussions held in the two communities. Factors relating to culture, social connections, racism, communication, and personal aspects were particularly salient to health behavior of the participants. Several of the themes including culture, racism, communication, and distrust highlight the tension caused by being a member of a minority cultural group that has been marginalized by the practices and attitudes of the dominant cultural group. Personal choice was sometimes prioritized over health. PMID:25847855

  17. Evaluation of Factors Affecting IASCC of Reactor Internal

    Reactor internal of PWR is highly irradiated. The main damage mechanism of reactor internal has been considered as irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). The effect of neutron irradiation on material has been studied by many researcher. Neutron irradiation depletes Cr content in grain boundary, induces hydrogen and helium, makes vacancy and dislocation loop. And the resistance of IASCC is decreased by neutron irradiation. These effects are different with materials and environment condition. To reduce IASCC, it is necessary to investigate which factor is the most important to IASCC. In this study, the relative importance of factors affecting IASCC is studied by artificial neural network method

  18. Analysis on Psychological Factors to Affect the Vocal Stage Performance

    Xihong CHEN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The stage performance is an important part of artistic practice for vocal students. To perfectly express the music on stage is the dream of every vocal music performer. This essay is about analysis of the psychological factors to affect the vocal stage performance and to explore the reasons for stage fright and the methods to overcome this, to enable students to further enhance the level of their vocal music.

    Key words: Vocal music; Stage performance; Psychological factor

  19. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh

    Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

  20. Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia

    S. Bauer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.

  1. Factors Affecting Microbial Contamination of Market Eggs: A Review

    Svobodová J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review was to analyze the ways of microbial contamination, the protective mechanism of egg, and factors that affect the quantity of contamination and microbial penetration. Eggs can be contaminated during their formation in the infected reproductive organs of hens or after laying, when eggs are exposed to contaminated environment. The eggs are equipped against microbial contamination by several protective mechanisms comprising the presence of cuticle, eggshell, eggshell membranes, occurrence of some antibacterial proteins, and high pH value of albumen. There are several factors that affect the quantity of microbial contamination and penetration such as species of bacteria, the amount of microorganisms, storage conditions, quality of eggshell or number of pores.

  2. Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact

    The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations are made for future work to enhance the effectiveness of water jetting as a nuclear decontamination technique and the importance of containment and effluent treatment is outlined. (author)

  3. Factors affecting adolescents’ choice of branded vs. fashionable clothing

    Marques, Mónica Sofia Ramos

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project is to analyse the importance of branded and fashionable clothing, and which of them is the most important for adolescents when choosing their clothes, according with gender and age. The research analysed how three factors (peers’ influence, materialistic behaviour and self-esteem) affected adolescents’ clothing choices in the Portuguese market. 148 adolescents (12 and 16 years old) participated in the research, by answering a questionnaire. Results show that t...

  4. Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire

    Sohail, Muhammad; Khan, Abdur Rashid

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The ques...

  5. A STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING HEALING OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT ANASTOMOSIS

    Anjani; Amit; Vikram Singh; Rajesh; Jalaj

    2014-01-01

    : Aim of this prospective study to identify the factor which affects the morbidity and mortality of gastrointestinal anastomosis. This prospective study was conducted in G.R. Medical College from November 2012 to October 2013. Our study plan was approved by Ethical Committee of our institute 80 patients were included in this study who underwent gastrointestinal anastomosis whether elective or emergency irrespective of age and gender. A detailed history and relevant preoper...

  6. Factors affecting the molybdenum line slope by reactive ion etching

    Factors affecting the slope of the reactive ion etched molybdenum line have been studied with a simulation method and with experiments. Plasma chemistry and process parameters of the CF4/O2 mixture for the molybdenum etch have been examined. The theoretical calculation matches experimental results. Surface topography and composition of the etched molybdenum have been analyzed. A highly sloped molybdenum profile can be obtained by using the RIE method with a large process window

  7. Factors affecting polyamide prototypes design of Albedo dosemeters

    This work studies the most important factors which affect the response of albedo neutron dosemeters containing LiF TLDs with the aim to improve their sensitivity. It includes tests of thickness and shape of the polyamide moderator body prototypes, albedo window diameter and TLD position inside the moderator. Analyzing the results, an albedo neutron dosemeter prototype, B4C covered, was developed. The prototype has a response three times higher than the albedo dosemeter now in use in Brazil. (author)

  8. Factors Affecting Willingness to Pay for Chicken from Biosecure Farms

    sri lestari, veronica; Natsir, Asmuddin; Karim, Hasmida; Patrick, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to know factors affecting willingness to pay for chicken meat from biosecure farms. This research was conducted in Makassar regency, South Sulawesi province. Sample were choosed through random sampling at two supermarkets namely Lotte Mart and Gelael. Total sample were 50 respondents which consisted of chicken meat consumers. To know the willingness to pay for chicken meat from biosecure farms, contingent valuation method was used. Data were collected through int...

  9. Identifying and ranking factors affecting entrepreneurship success in palm industry

    N. Mina; S. Habobollah; Ebrahim, H.

    2013-01-01

    Influencing physical environment and valued-entrepreneurship effects on community; it reduces unemployment by creating value; it also leads the society to employment and production rather than consumption. This study aimed to identify and rank factors affecting entrepreneurship success in palm industry in Saravan. After reviewing literatures as well as doing interviews, a questionnaire with 66 items was developed by the researcher. Using snowball sampling method, 106 executives and experts re...

  10. Analysis on Psychological Factors to Affect the Vocal Stage Performance

    Xihong CHEN

    2012-01-01

    The stage performance is an important part of artistic practice for vocal students. To perfectly express the music on stage is the dream of every vocal music performer. This essay is about analysis of the psychological factors to affect the vocal stage performance and to explore the reasons for stage fright and the methods to overcome this, to enable students to further enhance the level of their vocal music.

    Key words: Vocal music; Stag...

  11. Financial risks and factors affecting them on Finnish farms

    Pyykkonen, Perttu; Yrjola, Tapani; Latukka, Arto

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of rapid structural change and new investment support scheme agricultural debts have increased and concentrated heavily in Finland. In addition, New Basel Accord (Basel II) regulating the bank business requires more in-depth credit risk assessment from banks. Therefore, there are both endogenous and exogenous reasoning for researching the agricultural credit risks. The purpose of the study is to find out the factors that affect financial risks in agriculture as well as possib...

  12. SOCIOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING CAREER ASPIRATION LEVEL OF HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS

    Hoover, Carole J.

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the significant factors that affected career aspirations for high school seniors in a suburban school. It also analyzed differences in females' and minorities' ­ college plans, diploma type, and changes in career aspirations from 1986 to 1996. The research design was a causal comparative statistical analysis replicating a 1986 study at the same school. In-depth investigations into female and minority aspirations were also expanded in this 1996 study. ...

  13. Success factors affecting E-business:case Taobao

    Fang, X.

    2015-01-01

    E-business has aroused great concern and become a hot topic in both information technology and business field. With many companies’ success in doing e-business, there are also abundant of failure cases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the success factors that can affect e-business so as to provide beneficial guidance to companies. Virtually, many researchers have also studied e-business relating to its success from different perspectives and in various areas. However, ...

  14. A Study on Factors Affecting Turnover Intention of Hotel Empolyees

    2012-01-01

    This study used linear structural modeling to explore the factors affecting the turnover intention of hotel employees in Taiwan. A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed to hotel employees. Among these, 350 were valid samples, a valid return rate of 87.50%. The empirical results showed that (1) more harmonious coworker relationships between hotel employees and a higher level of satisfaction regarding their work environment have a significantly positive effect on job satisfaction; (2) a ...

  15. Factors affecting the adoption of internet banking in Libya

    Shuaieb

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Internet banking has become an important channel to diversify the pull of banking services and products. Many banks have started offering such services and willing to offer themonline, therefore making the servicesavailable at any time. The purpose of this study was toinvestigatethe affecting factors of adopting internet banking in Libya. For this purpose three hypothesesweredeveloped as a part of the research model. A questionnaire was prepared and distributed in order to collect t...

  16. Factors Affecting the Disposition Effect in Tehran Stock Market

    Reza Tehrani; Niloofar Gharehkoolchian

    2012-01-01

    Given the significance and perceived inevitability of disposition effect and its impact on investment decisions, we investigate factors affecting the disposition effect in the Tehran Stock Exchange. Four hypotheses were developed and the data used in the study were collected through availability sampling. One-sample t-test, two-sample t-test and one-way ANOVA were run to analyze the data while Pearson correlation test and multiple regressions were used to assess relationships among variables ...

  17. Statistical Analysis of the Different Factors Affecting the Diarrhea

    Zaman, Qamruz; Khan, Imtiaz

    2011-01-01

    Diarrhea is a worldwide problem facing both developing countries and developed countries, especially in pediatric population. Because of shortage of health facilities and lack of good food in developing countries, it is known fact that developing countries are facing this death taking problem more. The main purpose of this study was to examine the various factors which affect the recovery time of diarrhea. A multiple linear regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a model. The...

  18. Factors Affecting Shopping Behaviour of People in Large Russian Cities

    Грунт, Елена Викторовна

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the concept of 'shopping': its meaning and factors affecting shopping practices of the Russian city population.  The author concludes that shopping is one of the actively developing forms of consumer behaviour in large cities, a way of spending leisure time, and a specific lifestyle for residents of large cities. The article points out social consequences of shopping in large Russian cities.Key  words: shopping, population, large city, leisure time, lifestyle, consumers'...

  19. FACTORS AFFECTING THE ANALYSIS OF FURAN IN HEATED FOODS

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Various experimental factors that might affect the measurement of furan by automated headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry have been investigated. It was established that furan was not lost during sample heating through leakage or decomposition and that deuterium labelled furan used as an internal standard was stable with respect to incubation in the presence of food and stable in model food systems at raised temperature. Saturation of the aqueous phase of the sa...

  20. Midterm Outcome of Femoral Artery Stenting and Factors Affecting Patency

    Yu, Jae Seoung; Park, Keun-Myoung; Jeon, Yong Sun; Cho, Soon Gu; Hong, Kee Chun; Shin, Woo Young; Choe, Yun-Mee; Shin, Seok-Hwan; Kim, Kyung Rae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early and midterm results of superficial femoral artery (SFA) stenting with self-expanding nitinol stents and to identify the factors affecting patency. Materials and Methods: SFA stenting was performed in 165 limbs of 117 patients from January 2009 to December 2013. Patients were followed-up for the first occurrence of occlusion or stenosis based on computed tomography and duplex scan results and a decrease in ankle brachial index of >15...

  1. Motivation-One of the Affective Factors and its Effect

    LIN Fang-hua

    2014-01-01

    Affective factors play a positive role in English study and motivation is the most important. Higher motivation predicts better second language acquisition. The types of motivation are mainly divided into two:extrinsic motivation and intrinsic moti-vation. Teachers should study their students as well as the teaching materials and then select scientific methods and make good use of them to reinforce their students' motivation.

  2. Factors Affecting the Crevice Corrosion Susceptibility of Alloy 22

    Rebak, R B

    2004-11-24

    The susceptibility or Alloy 22 (N06022) to crevice corrosion may depend on environmental or external factors and metallurgical or internal factors. Some of the most important environmental factors are chloride concentration, inhibitors, temperature and potential. The presence of a weld seam or second phase precipitation in the alloy are classified as internal factors. The localized corrosion resistance of Alloy 22 has been extensively investigated in the last five years, however not all affecting factors were considered in the studies. This paper discusses the current findings regarding the effect of many of these variables on the susceptibility (or resistance) of Alloy 22 to crevice corrosion. The effect of variables such as temperature, chloride concentration and nitrate are rather well understood. However there are only limited or no data regarding effect of other factors such as pH, other inhibitive or deleterious species and type of crevicing material and crevice geometry. There are contradictory results regarding the effect of metallurgical factors such as solution heat treatment.

  3. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and

  4. EXPLORING THE FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEES’ ADOPTION AND USE OF INNOVATION

    Majharul Talukder

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the factors affecting innovation adoption by individual employees within an organization in Australia. Following a qualitative research approach, this paper uses a series of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions involving academic and administrative employees at a tertiary educational institution in Australia. The qualitative approach is adopted to have a deeper insight into the complexities and dynamism associated with the factors influencing innovation adoption process in organizational settings. The findings of this research highlight the need for broadening an understanding of the key factors affecting employee’s decisions to uptake the adoption of innovation. The results provide important clues for comprehending the factors influencing and determining the employee’s adoption and continued use of innovation in the work environment. In the face of the current trend towards end-user applications of technological innovation, the results suggest some guidelines for management toward effective and efficient adoption and use of innovation in organizational settings. This paper has highlighted the above findings and their implications for management practices related to innovation management in an Australian organizational setting. This paper also identifies possible limitations and future research potential in the relevant field.

  5. Factors influencing the fruit crops and seed fates of Pistacia chinensis: the results of structural equation modeling

    Hongling Guo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed production and quality are important factors influencing population regeneration in many seed plants. We used structural equation modeling to investigate how plant and fruit traits interact with each other to influence the fruit crops and seed fates of Pistacia chinensis. From May to September 2009, we sampled 45 fruiting female trees and measured plant traits (height, DBH and crown area, fruit traits (infructescence size, fruit size and the fruit crop of each sampled tree in Jiyuan City of Henan Province, Central China. The fruit crops of P. chinensis were positively correlated with tree height, crown area and infructescence size but not significantly correlated with DBH or fruit size. The fruit crop of an individual tree had no negative direct effect on the infestation of seeds by wasps (Eurytoma plotnikovi. Such a direct effect would be predicted by the predator satiation hypothesis. Tree height and fruit size had a positive direct effect on the seed predation rate, but a significant negative correlation was found between the seed predation rate and the rate of seedlessness. Our results indicate that seedless fruits may serve as a defensive mechanism against insect seed predators. In addition, both seedless and insect-infested fruits had a negative direct effect on seed survival, and DBH, infructescence size and fruit crop had a positive indirect effect on seed survival. However, tree height and fruit size had negative indirect effects on seed survival. In conclusion, we have shown that both plant and fruit traits can strongly influence fruit crops and insect seed predation and subsequently determine the seed quality and population regeneration of P. chinensis.

  6. BROCCOLI Spears Yield Affected By GAMMA Rays Irradiated Seeds And Foliar Application Of Some Growth Regulators

    Two field experiments were carried out during 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 winter growing seasons at the experimental farm of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt.The experiments were conducted to study the effect of pre-sowing broccoli seeds (cv. F1 175) irradiated with different doses of gamma rays (2, 3 and 4 Gy). The plants were sprayed with GA3 at rate of 50 ml/liter/fed and 20 ml/liter/fed for NAA. Main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spears fresh and dry weight per plant, total spears yield, ascorbic acid, TSS, carbohydrates, total chlorophyll, NPK and total protein content of spears were evaluated. The results showed that broccoli seeds irradiated with gamma rays up to 4 Gy pre-sowing increased the abovementioned parameters with different magnitudes comparing with the non-irradiated control plants except spears N, P and protein contents showed decrease in their values comparing with un-treated plants.It could be concluded that the foliar application of GA3 and NAA on broccoli spears increased all the abovementioned parameters, except spears N, P and protein contents showed decrease in their values.

  7. Some Analytical Characteristics of Moringa Oleifera Leaves and Seeds Affected by Gamma Irradiation

    Moringa oleifera is an important multipurpose tropical tree under-recognized for its nutritional and medicinal properties. Antioxidants play an important role in inhibiting and scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to human against infections and degenerative diseases. Leaves and seeds of M. oleifera were subjected to different gamma rays dose levels (0, 5, 10 and 15 kGy) and the content of phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidants activity and the profile of phenolics and flavonoids by HPLC were evaluated. The obtained data indicated that the phenolics and flavonoids content increased gradually by increasing irradiation doses in the seeds and leaves extract. Scavenging activity was increased gradually by increasing irradiation dose levels. Regarding to HPLC analysis of phenolic and flavonoid compounds it was shown that irradiation stimulated the biosynthesis of some phenolic compounds such as, chlorogenic, caffeic, salicycic, ellagic and p-OH-benzoic, as well as rosmarinic, naringin and hyper oside for flavonoids. This study showed that gamma irradiation is an effective tool for enhancing the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of M. oleifera.

  8. [Analysis of factors affecting anaerobic threshold in healthy subjects].

    Nitta, Y; Nagatsuka, K; Inage, T; Yokoi, H; Inaoka, Y; Kawanishi, K; Sakamoto, S; Ishikawa, K

    1992-03-01

    The anaerobic threshold (AT) is used to determine the exercise capacity in patients with heart failure and healthy subjects. To determine the factors affecting AT, we determined the AT in healthy subjects, and examined the factors that determine AT in healthy subjects. One hundred and sixteen healthy subjects (79 men and 37 women) performed on a bicycle a stepwise increasing submaximal exercise. During the work test the parameters usually used in the detection of AT (Vo2, Vco2, VE), blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen saturation were recorded by a computerized system every minute. AT was determined from changes in ventilation and gas-exchange. The fat index was calculated from height and body weight measured at the beginning of the ventilatory function test. A significant correlation was obtained between AT and age, AT and fat index, AT and %VC, AT and maximum heart rate during exercise, AT and recovery rate of heart rate after exercise, and AT and Vo2 at rest. In addition, we examined the relationship among the parameters in 4 groups according to sex and age (30-49; younger, 50-69; older), because sex and age affected most parameters. We found a significant correlation between AT and fat index (older men and women), AT and %VC (younger and older women), AT and Vo2 at rest (younger and older men). We considered that the main factors that determined AT in healthy subjects were age, sex, fat index, %VC and Vo2 at rest. PMID:1518183

  9. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental-emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse. PMID:27590367

  10. Molecular insights into how a deficiency of amylose affects carbon allocation – carbohydrate and oil analyses and gene expression profiling in the seeds of a rice waxy mutant

    Zhang Ming-Zhou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding carbon partitioning in cereal seeds is of critical importance to develop cereal crops with enhanced starch yields for food security and for producing specified end-products high in amylose, β-glucan, or fructan, such as functional foods or oils for biofuel applications. Waxy mutants of cereals have a high content of amylopectin and have been well characterized. However, the allocation of carbon to other components, such as β-glucan and oils, and the regulation of the altered carbon distribution to amylopectin in a waxy mutant are poorly understood. In this study, we used a rice mutant, GM077, with a low content of amylose to gain molecular insight into how a deficiency of amylose affects carbon allocation to other end products and to amylopectin. We used carbohydrate analysis, subtractive cDNA libraries, and qPCR to identify candidate genes potentially responsible for the changes in carbon allocation in GM077 seeds. Results Carbohydrate analysis indicated that the content of amylose in GM077 seeds was significantly reduced, while that of amylopectin significantly rose as compared to the wild type BP034. The content of glucose, sucrose, total starch, cell-wall polysaccharides and oil were only slightly affected in the mutant as compared to the wild type. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH experiments generated 116 unigenes in the mutant on the wild-type background. Among the 116 unigenes, three, AGP, ISA1 and SUSIBA2-like, were found to be directly involved in amylopectin synthesis, indicating their possible roles in redirecting carbon flux from amylose to amylopectin. A bioinformatics analysis of the putative SUSIBA2-like binding elements in the promoter regions of the upregulated genes indicated that the SUSIBA2-like transcription factor may be instrumental in promoting the carbon reallocation from amylose to amylopectin. Conclusion Analyses of carbohydrate and oil fractions and gene expression

  11. Main Factors for Affecting Photonic Bandgap of Photonic Crystals

    LI Xia; XUE Wei; JIANG Yu-rong; YU Zhi-nong; WANG Hua-qing

    2007-01-01

    The factors affecting one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) photonic crystals (PhCs) are systemically analyzed in this paper by numerical simulation.Transfer matrix method (TMM) is employed for 1D PCs, both finite difference time domain method (FDTD) and plane wave expansion method (PWE) are employed for 2D PCs.The result shows that the photonic bandgaps (PBG) are directly affected by crystal type, crystal lattice constant, modulation of refractive index and periodicity, and it is should be useful for design of different type photonic crystals with the required PBG and functional devices.Finally, as an example, a near-IR 1D PCs narrow filter was designed.

  12. EFFECT OF DIETARY LEVELS OF COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata SEEDS ON BROILER PERFORMANCE AND SOME SERUM BIOCHEMICAL FACTORS

    N. GUMAA BALAIEL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of inclusion of different levels of untreated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds (0, 5, 10 and 15% in broiler diet on performance and some serum biochemical factors was studied. The research was conducted on basis of a completely Randomized Design (CRD. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein intake and protein efficiency ratio were significantly (P<0.05 reduced with the inclusion of 15% untreated cowpea seeds. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, albumin, total protein, Ca and K contents were significantly (P<0.05 decreased with increasing level of cowpea seeds in diets. Uric acid concentration observed to be higher in birds fed 15% cowpea seed. It is concluded that good performance of broiler chicken is satisfactory maintained with 5 to 10% inclusion of cowpea seeds in balanced diet for broiler.

  13. The importance of heat against antinutritional factors from Chenopodium quinoa seeds

    José Antonio da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa seeds have high protein content. The nutritional value of quinoa is superior compared with traditional cereals. Its essential amino acid composition is considered next to the ideal, and its quality matches that of milk proteins. In this study, the seed storage proteins from Chenopodium quinoa were extracted, fractionated, partially purified, and characterized. The structural characterization was performed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis, and it confirmed the presence of proteins of molecular weight of 30 and 7kDa, probably corresponding to lectins and trypsin inhibitors, respectively. The functional characterization of these proteins evidenced their activity as antinutritional factors due to their in vitro digestibility. Quinoa proteins have an excellent amino acid composition with many essential amino acids. In vitro digestibility evaluation indicated that heat-treated samples showed a more complete digestion than the native state samples. Quinoa seeds can be an important cereal in human diet after adequate heat treatment.

  14. Chemical composition of tomato seeds affected by conventional and organic production systems

    Tomato is amongst the most consumed vegetables in the world, not only for its culinary versatility but also for its high nutritional value. In the last years, consumers have shown an increased concern regarding food origin and safety. The organic tomato production has been a promising alternative for the consumer offering a safer food in relation to environmental, social and nutritional aspects. This study assessed the chemical composition of tomato seeds produced in both conventional and organic systems by INAA. The results showed significant differences (p≤0.05) in the mass fractions of Br, Cs, Eu, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb and Sm between both systems, indicating influence of the crop management adopted in the different tomato production systems. (author)

  15. The concept of and factors affecting transport accessibility of seaports

    Janusz Dąbrowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport accessibility of seaports is a frequently studied area in economic research. In practice, port operators and authorities use it to promote their services and compete in the market. Up to this day, theoretical basis of seaports transport accessibility has not been properly described. The article attempts to systematize and expend the knowledge in this field. New definitions of transport availability from wider and narrower perspectives were suggested; different types of accessibility and their mutual relations were explained. These ideas were complemented by introducing classification of factors affecting transport accessibility of seaports.

  16. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  17. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  18. Factors affecting the prevalence of obesity among primary school students

    Meltem Kürtüncü; Tülay Kuzlu; Hülya Kulakç?

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate the risk factors affecting obesity in students in the 6-15 years old age group. There were 868 students registered at Bahçelievler Elementary School in Zonguldak and were present for face-to-face meetings on the days the research data was collected. Data was collected using demographic questionary forms and weight-length measurements from March to April in 2010. Results: Difference is found to be statistically meaningful with...

  19. Empirical Research on Factors that Influence the Behavior Decision of Repeated Seed Purchase for Farmers – Field investigation based on 519 vegetable farmers in Wuhan City

    Kang Guoguang; Cai Fang; Zhang Shengyong

    2015-01-01

    This article makes an analysis on the factors and impact on decision of repeated seed purchase behavior for farmers by using the field investigation data from 519 vegetable farmers around Wuhan City and the binary Logit model and ordered Logit model. It is found from the research that: repeated seed purchase is a common phenomenon as 84% of sample farmers have this behavior: the factors, such as education degree, risk attitude, Perceived Value, seed quality, seed purchase convenience, relatio...

  20. Extrinsic factors affecting accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeters for LMFBRs

    Assuming that ultrasonic flowmeters of suitable intrinsic accuracy are feasible, this report explores factors extrinsic to the flowmeter which affect the accuracy such as asymmetric flow profile, regions of high turbulence and thermal stratification. By integrating isovelocity flow profile maps, the predicted performance of various flowmeter configurations may be compared to experimental data. For the two pipe arrangements analyzed, the single diametral path flowmeter results were within 5 percent of true flow rate. Theoretical correction factors could reduce the error for the straight pipe but increased the error for asymmetrical flow. On the same pipe arrangements a four path ultrasonic flowmeter spaced for Gaussian integration gave less than 1 percent error. For more general conclusions a range of flow profiles produced by typical LMFBR piping arrangements must be analyzed

  1. Factors affecting the stability of chloroplast membranes in vitro

    Takaoki, T.; Torres-Pereira, J.; Packer, L.

    1974-01-01

    Factors which affect the stability of light-induced atebrin fluorescence quenching activity in chloroplast membranes, a measure of the electron transport dependent formation of energy-linked H/sup +/ gradients, were investigated in vitro. Class II spinach chloroplast membranes were isolated and stored at 0 to 4/sup 0/C and aliquots were subsequently tested for their retention of energizing capacity. The main factors which increase the stability of this activity were found to be (a) isolation in a potassium-containing medium but storage in a sucrose medium containing a low concentration of electrolytes; (b) the presence of butylated hydroxytoluene (an antioxidant), and a protein such as bovine serum albumin to remove free fatty acids in the medium during storage. Under these conditions, the energization capacity of chloroplasts is retained for more than 40 days.

  2. Econometric Analysis of Factors Affecting Special Purpose Forests in China

    Wang Lanhui; Cai Fei

    2003-01-01

    The forest estate is one of our most important natural resources. It is also the material foundation for sustainable forestry development in China. It is a timely topic of concern within the forestry community and touches the entire society. From a social economic point of view, the sustainable development has been promoted by the efficient use of the forest resources in a continuing improvement of the environment. The objective of the present analysis is to measure the effect of various factors, such as population, economic development and related policies on the use of the forest resources. The 29 provinces of Mainland China are classified in three regions, based largely on their level of economic development. For each region, the factors which affect the area of special purpose forests (SPF) are analyzed. Some recommendations are made for further improvement.

  3. Vestibular rehabilitation strategies and factors that affect the outcome.

    Eleftheriadou, Anna; Skalidi, Nikoleta; Velegrakis, Georgios A

    2012-11-01

    Ever since the introduction of Cawthorne-Cooksey exercises, vestibular rehabilitation (VR) has been gaining popularity in the treatment of the dizzy patient. Numerous studies support the effectiveness of VR in improving balance/walking skills, eye-head coordination and the quality of life of the patient. Different rehabilitation protocols have been used to treat patients with peripheral and central vestibular disorders. Assessment of the patients' progress is based on the patients' selfperception of dizziness and their functional skills. Factors such as age, medication, time of onset of vertigo and home based VR have been evaluated on their effect on the rehabilitation's outcome. The aim of this review is to evaluate rehabilitation strategies and discuss the factors that affect the outcome. PMID:22526580

  4. Factors affecting the level of success of community information systems.

    Coombs, C R; Doherty, N F; Loan-Clarke, J

    1999-01-01

    The factors that influence the ultimate level of success or failure of systems development projects have received considerable attention in the academic literature. However, previous research has rarely targeted different instances of a common type of system within a homogeneous organisational sector. This paper presents the results of a survey of IM&T managers within Community Trusts to gain insights into the factors affecting the success of Community Information Systems. The results demonstrate that the most successful operational systems were thoroughly tested prior to implementation and enjoyed high levels of user and senior management commitment. Furthermore, it has been shown that there is a relationship between the level of organisational impact and systems success, with the most successful systems engendering changes to the host organisation's culture, level of empowerment and clinical working practices. In addition to being of academic interest, this research provides many important insights for practising IM&T managers. PMID:10747445

  5. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities

  6. Group decision-making: Factors that affect group effectiveness

    Juliana Osmani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are operating in a dynamic and turbulent environment. In these conditions, they have to make decisions for new problems or situations. Most of decisions are therefore non-programmed and unstructured, accompanied by risk and uncertainty. Moreover, the problems and situations are complex. All organizations are oriented towards group decisionmaking processes, as useful tools to cope with uncertainty and complexity. Apart from the necessity, companies are turning towards participatory processes also to benefit from the important advantages that these processes offer. Organizations have realized the importance of group decision-making processes to contribute to the creation of sustainable competitive advantages. Main objective of this paper is to show that group decision-making processes do not offer guarantee for good decisions, because the effectiveness of group is affected by many factors. So, the first thing done in this paper is discussing about the benefits and limitations that accompany the use of groups with decision-making purpose. Afterwards, we stop on the different factors that influence the group’s ability to make good decisions. The aim is to emphasize that regardless of the many advantages of groups, some factors as group size, type of communication within the group, leadership style, the norms, the differentiation of roles and statuses, cohesion and compliance degree should be the main elements to keep into consideration because they affect the effectiveness of group. In this regard, is discussed how such factors influence the quality of decision and then we try to draw some conclusions that can improve and make better and easier group decision-making processes.

  7. Identification and characterization of seed-specific transcription factors regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in black rice

    Kim, C.-K; Cho, M.-A.; Choi, Y.-H.; Kim, J.-A.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kim, Y.-K.; Park, S.-H

    2011-01-01

    Black rice is rich in anthocyanin and is expected to have more healthful dietary potential than white rice. We assessed expression of anthocyanin in black rice cultivars using a newly designed 135 K Oryza sativa microarray. A total of 12,673 genes exhibited greater than 2.0-fold up- or down-regulation in comparisons between three rice cultivars and three seed developmental stages. The 137 transcription factor genes found to be associated with production of anthocyanin pigment were classified ...

  8. Crop protection by seed coating.

    Ehsanfar, S; Modarres-Sanavy, S A M

    2005-01-01

    Providence of sufficient and healthy food for increasing human population clears the importance of notice to increasing crop production in company with environmental loss reduction. Growth and yield of every plant with sexual reproduction, depends on germination & emergence of sown seeds. Seed is a small alive plant that its biological function is protection and nutrition of embryo. Biological, chemical and physiological characteristics of seed, affect on plant performance & its resistance to undesirable environmental conditions, and even on its total yield. So attention to seed and try to increase its performance is so important. One of the factors that cause reduction in germination percentage and seedling establishment, is seed disease. It's possible to control these diseases by treating the seed before planting it. Coating the seed with pesticides, is one of the ways to gain this goal. Seed coating is a technique in which several material as fertilizers, nutritional elements, moisture attractive or repulsive agents, plant growth regulators, rhizobium inocolum, chemical & pesticide etc, add to seed by adhesive agents and cause to increase seed performance and germination. Seed coating, leads to increase benefits in seed industry, because seeds can use all of their genetic vigor. This technique is used for seeds of many garden plants, valuable crops (such as corn, sunflower, canola, alfalfa,...) and some of the grasses. In this technique that was first used in coating cereal seeds in 1930, a thin and permeable layer of pesticide is stuck on seed surface and prevent damage of seedborn pathogens. This layer is melted or splited after absorption of moisture and suitable temperature by seed, and let the radical to exit the seed. In this approach materials are used accurately with seed, evaporation & leakage of pesticide and also adverse effects of some pesticides on seeds are diminished, and these factors cause to increase the accuracy and performance of pesticide

  9. Factor Affecting the Sustainable Management of Agricultural Water

    Masoud Samian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the sustainable management of agricultural water in Hamedan. The study population included all wheat farmers possessing irrigated farms in Hamedan city (N=1800. Of these farmers a sample of 317 people has been selected by using randomized multi-stage sampling method. The data were collected through a questionnaire's tool with help of the interview technique. Accuracy of the questions in the questionnaire was face validated by a panel of specialists. To test the reliability of the questionnaires, the questionnaires were first given to 30 farmers and Cronbach's Alpha was calculated (Alpha=0.92 then the questionnaire was finalized. Data analyzing methods such as Multiple Regression and the coefficient of variation (CV= standard deviation /mean were used in this study. To determine the level of sustainability of the farms Bossel method proposed for classification and grading the fields was used. The results showed that variables agronomic factors, policy factors and institutional factors were able to explain 34 percent of the dependent variable's changes (sustainable management of agricultural water. According to the results, 95.3 percent of the farmers were categorized into unsustainable group, 4.1 percent into semi-sustainable and only 0.6 percent in sustainable group.

  10. Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions.

    Johansen, Anders; Nielsen, Henrik B; Hansen, Christian M; Andreasen, Christian; Carlsgart, Josefine; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Roepstorff, Allan

    2013-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. A surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). In the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survival of seeds of seven species of weeds and non-embryonated eggs of the large roundworm of pigs, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still maintained low levels (~1%) of germination ability after 1 week. Chenopodium album was the only weed species which survived 1 week at substantial levels (7%) although after 11 d germination ability was totally lost. Similarly, at 55°C, no Ascaris eggs survived more than 3h of incubation. Incubation at 37°C did not affect egg survival during the first 48 h and it took up to 10 days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites and weeds so that the digestates can be applied without risking spread of these pests. PMID:23266071

  11. Factors Affecting the Weaning from Nasal CPAP in Preterm Neonates

    Shantanu Rastogi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Identification of the weight and postmenstrual age (PMA at successful weaning of NCPAP in preterm neonates and the factors influencing the successful wean. Study Design. Retrospective review of 454 neonates ≤32 weeks of gestational age (GA who were placed on NCPAP and successfully weaned to room air was performed. Results. Neonates had a mean birth weight (BW of 1357±392 grams with a mean GA of 29.3±2.2 weeks. Neonates were weaned off NCPAP at mean weight of 1611±432 grams and mean PMA of 32.9±2.4 weeks. Univariate analysis showed that chorioamnionitis, intubation, surfactant use, PDA, sepsis/NEC, anemia, apnea, GER and IVH were significantly associated with the time to NCPAP wean. On multivariate analysis, among neonates that were intubated, BW was the only significant factor (<0.001 that was inversely related to time to successful NCPAP wean. Amongst non-intubated neonates, along with BW (<0.01, chorioamnionitis (<0.01, anemia (<0.0001, and GER (<0.02 played a significant role in weaning from NCPAP. Conclusion. Neonates were weaned off NCPAP at mean weight of 1611±432 grams and mean PMA of 32.9±2.4 weeks. BW significantly affects weaning among intubated and non-intubated neonates, though in neonates who were never intubated chorioamnionitis, anemia and GER also significantly affected the duration on NCPAP.

  12. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  13. Factors affecting interaction of radiocesium with freshwater solids Pt. 2

    The paper aims at the analysis of principal factors affecting the interaction of radiocesium with freshwater solids, important for the migration of radiocesium in rivers. Uptake and release of radiocesium by bottom sediment and suspended solids from a small stream were studied as a function of contact time during the uptake and release, of concentration of the solid phase and of temperature, using laboratory model experiments. Kinetics of the uptake were found to be significantly affected by temperature and concentration of the solid phase. The kinetics and the concentration effect can be quantitatively described using kinetic model of two parallel or consecutive reactions. Kinetic parameters for the model were determined. Distribution coefficient Kd is independent of sediment concentration in the range of 20-70mg·dm-3 but passes through a maximum at higher concentration values. Release of radiocesium absorbed on the freshwater solids was observed. The amount released decreased with increasing contact time of radiocesium with solid phase. Quantitative evaluation of the release revealed partial irreversibility of radiocesium uptake on the solids studied. Results obtained are compared with literature data and conclusions are drawn on the importance of the factors studied for modeling of radiocesium migration in rivers. (author) 40 refs.; 7 figs.; 6 tabs

  14. Factors Affecting Longevity of Tunneled Central Venous Cathe

    Park, Ji Won; Lee, Jong Min [Dept. of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate factors which affect the longevity of tunneled central venous catheters (T-CVCs). A retrospective study was conducted on 363 T-CVCs. We evaluated the relevant factors affecting the longevity of the T-CVCs, such as age, gender, indication for catheterization, site of entry vessel, diameter and type of T-CVC, catheter tip position, and underlying diseases. Of the 363 T-CVCs which had been inserted, 331 (91%) were placed through the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The catheter tip position was the strongest predictor for the longevity of the T-CVC. The short limb of the catheter tip placed either at the cavoatrial junction (CA junction) or below the lower margin of the right main bronchus had a good prognosis. The vessel through which the T-CVC was placed significantly influenced the longevity of the T-CVC; the RIJV was associated with better results than the left internal jugular vein. Also, a split-type catheter was significantly associated with a better result. A two distinct and separate type T-CVC placed through the RIJV in which the short limb catheter tip position was at the level of the CA junction, significantly increased the longevity of T-CVCs.

  15. Arabidopsis Transcription Factor Genes NF-YA1,5, 6, and 9 Play Redundant Roles in Male Gametogenesis, Embryogenesis, and Seed Development

    Jinye Mu; Helin Tan; Sulei Hong; Yan Liang; Jianru Zuo

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is a highly conserved transcription factor presented in all eukaryotic organisms,and is a heterotrimer consisting of three subunits:NF-YA,NF-YB,and NF-YC.In Arabidopsis,these three subunits are encoded by multigene families.The best-studied member of the NF-Y transcription factors is LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1),a NF-YB family member,which plays a critical role in embryogenesis and seed maturation.However,the function of most NF-Y genes remains elusive.Here,we report the characterization of four genes in the NF-YA family.We found that a gainof-function mutant of NF-YA1 showed defects in male gametogenesis and embryogenesis.Consistently,overexpression of NF-YA1,5,6,and 9 affects male gametogenesis,embryogenesis,seed morphology,and seed germination,with a stronger phenotype when overexpressing NF-YA1 and NF-YA9.Moreover,overexpression of these NF-YA genes also causes hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination,retarded seedling growth,and late flowering at different degrees.Intriguingly,overexpmssion of NF-YA1,5,6,and 9 is sufficient to induce the formation of somatic embryos from the vegetative tissues.However,single or double mutants of these NF-YA genes do not have detectable phenotype.Collectively,these results provide evidence that NF-YA1,5,6,and 9 play redundant roles in male gametophyte development,embryogenesis,seed development,and post-germinative growth.

  16. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

    Volker Salewski

    Full Text Available Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and

  17. A Fungal Endosymbiont Affects Host Plant Recruitment Through Seed- and Litter-mediated Mechanisms

    1. Many grass species are associated with maternally transmitted fungal endophytes. Increasing evidence shows that endophytes enhance host plant success under varied conditions, yet studies have rarely considered alternative mechanisms whereby these mutualistic symbionts may affect regeneration from...

  18. Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

  19. Factors Affecting Exercise Test Performance in Patients After Liver Transplantation

    Kotarska, Katarzyna; Wunsch, Ewa; Jodko, Lukasz; Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Joanna; Bania, Izabela; Lawniczak, Malgorzata; Bogdanos, Dimitrios; Kornacewicz-Jach, Zdzislawa; Milkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. In addition, low physical activity is a risk factor for cardiac and cerebrovascular complications. Objectives This study examined potential relationships between physical activity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an exercise test in liver-graft recipients. Patients and Methods A total of 107 participants (62 men/45 women) who had received a liver transplantation (LT) at least 6 months previously were evaluated. Physical activity was assessed using three different questionnaires, while HRQoL was assessed using the medical outcomes study short form (SF)-36 questionnaire, and health behaviors were evaluated using the health behavior inventory (HBI). The exercise test was performed in a standard manner. Results Seven participants (6.5%) had a positive exercise test, and these individuals were older than those who had a negative exercise test (P = 0.04). A significant association between a negative exercise test and a higher level of physical activity was shown by the Seven-day physical activity recall questionnaire. In addition, HRQoL was improved in various domains of the SF-36 in participants who had a negative exercise test. No correlations between physical activity, the exercise test and healthy behaviors, as assessed via the HBI were observed. Conclusions Exercise test performance was affected by lower quality of life and lower physical activity after LT. With the exception of hypertension, well known factors that affect the risk of coronary artery disease had no effect on the exercise test results.

  20. Factors Affecting Moisture Exchange in the Organic Layer of the Forest Floor

    Raaflaub, L.; Valeo, C.

    2004-05-01

    Virtually all of the mineral soil in the Canadian boreal forest is covered by a layer of decomposing organic matter known as duff. Due to its highly porous nature, only a small portion of incoming precipitation is absorbed by the duff layer, even when it is not completely saturated. The duff layer fosters high percolation rates to the mineral soil below and dries rather quickly; thus, it has a relatively low moisture content. This level of moisture content is not conducive to either seed germination or seedling survival. Duff consumption during forest fires provides areas of exposed mineral soil that are suitable for seed germination. Tree regrowth is much more likely to occur in areas where the mineral soil has been exposed. The location and amount of duff consumed during a fire is a function of several factors including duff density, depth and moisture content. Factors affecting duff moisture content include its physical characteristics, overlying canopy type, hillslope position, soil type and climate. In this study, an investigation is made into the relative significance of capillary suction and other processes influencing the moisture exchange between duff and mineral soil. These processes are analysed in a controlled laboratory experiment using duff collected from different types of canopies. The duff samples, extracted from the boreal forest in central Saskatchewan, were collected from canopies of black spruce, jack pine and trembling aspen. Comparisons are made between the overlying canopy types, as well as between samples from similar canopies at different locations. Physical properties of the duff, such as the porosity and hydraulic conductivity, are analysed in combination with soil-duff interactions. The influence between mineral soil and duff moisture is determined through the use of a soil column that allows for both variable soil moisture and precipitation inputs. Results from this investigation give insight into the relationship between duff and soil

  1. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials.

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Boutin, Sébastien; Mercier, Pierre-Luc; Loublier, Yves; Chagnon, Madeleine; Derome, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp) on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV) and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads. PMID:25993642

  2. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials.

    Mohamed Alburaki

    Full Text Available Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads.

  3. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Boutin, Sébastien; Mercier, Pierre-Luc; Loublier, Yves; Chagnon, Madeleine; Derome, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp) on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV) and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads. PMID:25993642

  4. A Study on Factors Affecting Airborne LiDAR Penetration

    Wei-Chen Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.

  5. Factors Affecting Healthful Eating Among Touring Popular Musicians and Singers.

    Cizek, Erin; Kelly, Patrick; Kress, Kathleen; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining good health is essential for touring musicians and singers. The stressful demands of touring may impact food choices, leading to detrimental effects on health and performance. This exploratory pilot study aimed to assess factors affecting healthful eating of touring musicians and singers. A 46-item survey was used to assess food- and nutrition-related attitudes, knowledge and behaviors, and environmental factors, as well as lifestyle, musical background, and demographic data. Participants (n=35) were recruited from a musicians' assistance foundation as well as touring musical theater productions and a music festival. Results indicate that touring musicians and singers had positive attitudes regarding healthful foods. Of 35 respondents, 80.0% indicated eating healthful food was important to them. Respondents reported feeling confident selecting (76.5%) and preparing (82.4%) healthful foods; however, they showed uncertainty when determining if carbohydrate-containing foods should be consumed or avoided. Respondents indicated environmental factors including availability and cost of healthy food options and tour schedules limited access to healthful foods. Venues (73.5%), fast food restaurants (67.6%), and airports (64.7%) were the most frequently identified locations in need of offering more healthful food choices. Respondents (52.9%) indicated more support from others while touring would help them make healthier food choices. More research is needed to develop mobile wellness programs as well as performance-based nutrition guidelines for musicians and singers that address the unique demands associated with touring. PMID:27281376

  6. Factors Affecting Software Cost Estimation in Developing Countries

    Ali Javed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cost is the main driving factor for all projects. When it is done correctly, it helps in the successful completion of the project. In this research we have discussed various factors that affect the estimation procedure. These include team structure, team culture, managerial style, project type (Core application or integrated application, client’s working environment. Accurate estimation is far difficult in developing countries where most of the organizations follow local standards. These inaccurate estimations lead to late delivery, less profit or in worst case complete failure. Software requirement gathering, development, maintenance, quality assurance and cost of poor quality are major groups responsible for overall cost in software production process. The exact proportion among them varies significantly in consecutive software releases, which is caused by many factors. The ever increasing need for the reliability of the software systems, especially mission critical applications in the public safety domain, raises the bar for the accuracy of prediction and estimation techniques. The accuracy of estimations in many areas brings about more concerns regarding techniques already used in the software industry. Widely deployed techniques, such as Wideband Delphi method, stress the engineering and technical aspects of the process of how estimates are prepared.

  7. Technological Factors Affecting Biogenic Amine Content in Foods: A Review.

    Gardini, Fausto; Özogul, Yesim; Suzzi, Giovanna; Tabanelli, Giulia; Özogul, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are molecules, which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in foods is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BAs accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting BA content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity, and other BAs), environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, and pH). In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolizing BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances) are addressed. PMID:27570519

  8. Increasing the stearate content in seed oil of Brassica juncea by heterologous expression of MlFatB affects lipid content and germination frequency of transgenic seeds.

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Sinha, Saheli; Das, Natasha; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acids from dietary lipids can impart both beneficial and harmful health effects. The compositional balance between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids plays a decisive role in maintaining the physiological harmony, proper growth and development in the human system. In case of Brassica juncea seed oil, the level of saturated fatty acid, especially desirable stearate is very much lower than the recommended value, along with a high content of nutritionally undesirable erucic acid. Therefore, in order to shift the carbon flux towards the production of stearate at the expense of erucate, the MlFatB gene encoding a FatB thioesterase from Madhuca longifolia (latifolia) was expressed heterologously in seed tissues of B. juncea. The functional MlFatB competed with the highly active endogenous BjFatA thioesterase, and the transgenic B. juncea lines showed noteworthy changes in their seed fatty acid profiles. The proportion of stearate increased up to 16-fold, constituting almost 31% of the total fatty acids along with the production of arachidic acid in significant amount (up to ∼11%). Moreover, the content of erucate was reduced up to 71% in the seed oils of transgenic lines. Although a nutritionally desirable fatty acid profile was achieved, the transgenic seeds exhibit reduction or abolition of seed germination in addition to a decrease in seed lipid content. The findings of the present study revealing the stearoyl-ACP thioesterase-mediated enhancement of the stearate content that is associated with reduced germination frequency of transgenic B. juncea seeds, may explain why no natural or induced stearate-rich Brassica has been found or developed. Furthermore, this study also suggests that the newly characterized MlFatB is a potential candidate gene for refined metabolic engineering strategy in B. juncea or other plant species for increasing stearate content in seed oil. PMID:26351151

  9. Effects of Some Environmental Factors on Seed Germination and Spreading Potentials of Silybum marianum Gaertner

    Antonio Lonigro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Silybum marianum Gaertner is spreading in many crops of Southern Italy, particularly in durum wheat, sugar beet and some vegetable crops. Information about its biology are useful to set up effective control strategies. Four experiments were carried out at the Crop Science Department of the University of Bari (Southern Italy. Two trials were conducted in Petri dishes and evaluated the effects of different light, temperature and osmotic stress conditions on the seed germination. Another trial evaluated the ability of seedlings to emerge from different depths. The effects of eight different sowing periods on the plant growth were assessed in the fourth experiment. The highest germination rate was found with constant temperatures of 25 °C or 30 °C and with alternating temperatures of 25- 15 °C for 8 and 16 hours respectively. Germination was affected by the light and was significantly decreased at 0.2 Mpa and completely inhibited at -0.8 Mpa. Plant emergence was strongly reduced from a depth of more than 3 cm. The plant size at the first bloom was reduced by postponing the sowing period from October to February. The same decreasing trend was observed in the number of flower heads and in the number of days required for the first bloom. Results can suggest some important strategies to manage this species. False sowing, followed by irrigation, can be recommended in summer, in order to obtain the highest seed germination. Since the emergence of this plant is very scarce from a depth of more than 3 cm, ploughing can be effective to bury seeds in case of strong disseminations in order to reduce the infestation in the following crop.

  10. Chemical properties and oxidative stability of perilla oils obtained from roasted perilla seeds as affected by extraction methods.

    Jung, Dong Min; Yoon, Suk Hoo; Jung, Mun Yhung

    2012-12-01

    The chemical properties and oxidative stability of perilla oils obtained from roasted perilla seeds as affected by extraction methods (supercritical carbon dioxide [SC-CO(2)], mechanical press, and solvent extraction) were studied. The SC-CO(2) extraction at 420 bar and 50 °C and hexane extraction showed significantly higher oil yield than mechanical press extraction (P oils were virtually identical regardless of the extraction methods. The contents of tocopherol, sterol, policosanol, and phosphorus in the perilla oils greatly varied with the extraction methods. The SC-CO(2) -extracted perilla oils contained significantly higher contents of tocopherols, sterols, and policosanols than the mechanical press-extracted and hexane-extracted oils (P extracted oil showed the greatly lower oxidative stability than press-extracted and hexane-extracted oils during the storage in the oven under dark at 60 °C. However, the photooxidative stabilities of the oils were not considerably different with extraction methods. PMID:23106331

  11. Denaturation and Oxidative Stability of Hemp Seed (Cannabis sativa L.) Protein Isolate as Affected by Heat Treatment.

    Raikos, Vassilios; Duthie, Garry; Ranawana, Viren

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated the impact of heat treatments on the denaturation and oxidative stability of hemp seed protein during simulated gastrointestinal digestion (GID). Heat-denatured hemp protein isolate (HPI) solutions were prepared by heating HPI (2 mg/ml, pH 6.8) to 40, 60, 80 and 100 °C for 10 min. Heat-induced denaturation of the protein isolates was monitored by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Heating HPI at temperatures above 80 °C significantly reduced solubility and led to the formation of large protein aggregates. The isolates were then subjected to in vitro GID and the oxidative stability of the generated peptides was investigated. Heating did not significantly affect the formation of oxidation products during GID. The results suggest that heat treatments should ideally remain below 80 °C if heat stability and solubility of HPI are to be preserved. PMID:26142888

  12. FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR

    Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that salary, efficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The overall job satisfaction of the employees in pharmaceutical sector is at the positive level. The nature of business operation, the work culture and the level of job satisfaction have undergone sea change for the pharmaceutical companies. As a business proposition initiated huge investment whereas majority of their stocks is going down bringing a high level of apprehension related to job security among its employees. This research paper highlights some of these problems and presents a picture of level of job satisfaction among employees of pharmaceutical companies. It also identifies unique issues of job satisfaction in the companies. Pharmaceuticals Companies are selected for the research because they are currently undergoing continued expansion. In order to gain competitive advantage and adapt to the dramatic changing environment, it is important for them to achieve management efficiency by increasing employee satisfaction in the organisation. Hence this research was mainly undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting the job satisfaction. This paper presents a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of pharmaceutical business, the factors causing the dissatisfaction

  13. Comparative evaluation of Jatropha curcas L. seed meals obtained by different methods of defatting on toxic, antinutritional and nutritive factors

    Xiao, Jianhui; Zhang, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Different methods of defatting have a great impact on toxic, antinutritional and nutritive factors in the oilseed meals. In order to find the most suitable methods of defatting for Jatropha curcas seed meals, the Jatropha curcas L. seed meals, defatted by Soxhlet extraction and screw-press were characterized for their toxic, anti-nutritional and nutrient factors in this study. The toxins (phorbolesters, 3.1 and 2.9 mg/g) and some anti-nutritional factors (saponins, 2.9 and 2.6%; phytates, 11....

  14. FACTORS AFFECTED DECARBOXYLATION ACTIVITY OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM ISOLATED FROM RABBIT

    František Buňka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Biogenic amines (BA are basic nitrogenous compounds formed mainly by decarboxylation of amino acids. There are generated in course of microbial, vegetable and animal metabolisms. The aim of the study was to monitor factors affected production of biogenic amines by Enterococcus faecium, which is found in rabbit meat. Biogenic amines were analyzed by means of UPLC (ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. Decarboxylation activity of E. faecium was mainly influenced by the cultivation temperature and the amount of NaCl in this study. E. faecium produced most of the monitored biogenic amines levels: tyramine ˂2500 mg.l-1; putrescine ˂30 mg.l-1; spermidine ˂10 mg.l-1 and cadaverine ˂5 mg.l-1.doi:10.5219/182

  15. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts

    Song, Hokwang

    2016-01-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress. PMID:27247604

  16. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Motivation of Agricultural Students at Razi University

    Nematollah Shiri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting entrepreneurial motivations of agricultural students at Razi University. Statistical population of this study consisted of all agricultural undergraduate students (senior (N=186, that 164 of them were selected as research sample using proportionate stratified sampling method. The main instrument in this study was questionnaire which its validity was confirmed by the panel of experts and its reliability was established by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Data was analyzed by SPSSWin20 software. Findings revealed that agricultural students at Razi University have the entrepreneurial motivations at moderate to high level. In addition, multiple regression analysis showed that three variables including the attitude toward entrepreneurship, the role model, and the courses of entrepreneurship education can be explaining 35.5 percent of variances of the student's entrepreneurial motivations. Results of this study have applications for planners of higher agricultural education system in order to improving the agricultural student's entrepreneurial motivations.

  17. Cultutal Factors Affecting English Proficiency in Rurl Areas

    Ee Chop Ler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to the rural and the ‘cultural’ and to determine their problems effect on the learning of English. Twenty students from different ethnic backgrounds and English language proficiency in six rural schools in Terengganu, Malaysia were interviewed. In addition the teachers also from different rural schools and ethnic backgrounds responded to a questionnaire. The problems discussed by both the teacher and student respondents arose due to the rural cultural setting. The findings of this study show that 1 five major problem areas exist, namely peer pressure and motivation, attitudes towards English ,teaching methodology, school culture ,influence of Islamic teaching on the learning of English 2 the problems discussed by the teachers and students are similar and 3 most importantly all these identified problems are closely related to the rural setting. Therefore, one can conclude that rural cultural factors adversely affect English Proficiency of the rural students of this study.

  18. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts.

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-05-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress. PMID:27247604

  19. Analysis of factors affecting the effect of stope leaching

    The industrial test and industrial trial production of stope leaching were carried out at Taoshan orefield of Dabu deposit. The results of test and trial production showed obvious differences in leaching rate and leaching time. Compared with industrial trial production of stope leaching, the leaching rate of industrial test was higher, and leaching time was shorter. It was considered that the blasting method and liquid arrangement were the main factors affecting the leaching rate and leaching time according to analysis. So we put forward the following suggestions: the technique of deep hole slicing tight-face blasting was used to reduce the yield of lump ores, the effective liquid arrangement methods were adopted to make the lixiviant infiltrating throughout whole ore heap, and bacterial leaching was introduced. (authors)

  20. Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care

    Monika Chrenková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the system of care for endangered children has changed from the institutional as well as legislative point of view. In one of the partial areas of ongoing changes, research activities realised within the Students’ Grant Competition called The Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care are being focused. We deal with this topic because various forms of substitute family care are distinguished in the Czech Republic, where children are placed for various reasons, but we do not know the correct context of such placements. The main aim of the realised research was to find out the frequency of choosing a given form of placing children in substitute family care according to followed variables. The research sample of the quantitative research was consisted of children placed in one of the forms of substitute family care in the Moravian-Silesian region.

  1. Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire

    Sohail, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as...

  2. Simulated lidar waveforms for understanding factors affecting waveform shape

    Kim, Angela M.; Olsen, Richard C.

    2011-06-01

    Full-waveform LIDAR is a technology which enables the analysis of the 3-D structure and arrangement of objects. An in-depth understanding of the factors that affect the shape of the full-waveform signal is required in order to extract as much information as possible from the signal. A simple model of LIDAR propagation has been created which simulates the interaction of LIDAR energy with objects in a scene. A 2-dimensional model tree allows controlled manipulation of the geometric arrangement of branches and leaves with varying spectral properties. Results suggest complex interactions of the LIDAR energy with the tree canopy, including the occurrence of multiple bounces for energy reaching the ground under the canopy. Idealized sensor instrument response functions incorporated in the simulation illustrate a large impact on waveform shape. A waveform recording laser rangefinder has been built which will allow validation or model results; preliminary collection results are presented here.

  3. Statistical Analysis of Factors Affecting Child Mortality in Pakistan.

    Ahmed, Zoya; Kamal, Asifa; Kamal, Asma

    2016-06-01

    Child mortality is a composite indicator reflecting economic, social, environmental, healthcare services, and their delivery situation in a country. Globally, Pakistan has the third highest burden of fetal, maternal, and child mortality. Factors affecting child mortality in Pakistan are investigated by using Binary Logistic Regression Analysis. Region, education of mother, birth order, preceding birth interval (the period between the previous child birth and the index child birth), size of child at birth, and breastfeeding and family size were found to be significantly important with child mortality in Pakistan. Child mortality decreased as level of mother's education, preceding birth interval, size of child at birth, and family size increased. Child mortality was found to be significantly higher in Balochistan as compared to other regions. Child mortality was low for low birth orders. Child survival was significantly higher for children who were breastfed as compared to those who were not. PMID:27354000

  4. An Analysis on the Contextual Factors Affecting Motivation in SLA

    2007-01-01

    <正>For us Chinese,a foreign language is something to be acquired as a kind of communicative tool,so we can infer that an effective way in SLA(Second Language Acquisition) must be learning the target language in a communicative context.A communicative context certainly concerns not only the interactional classroom activities designed in accordance with some stated curriculum tasks to lead the L2 students to learning swimming by swimming,but also other relevant elements which have a lot to do with all the situational,interactional and cultural contexts.In order to lessen some potential sources of conflict between L2 teacher and L2 learner,this article is an attempt to urge a careful study on the contextual factors affecting motivation in SLA.

  5. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  6. Physiology of seed germination and seedling growth in Coccinia indica L. as affected by morphactin and gamma radiation

    This paper deals with the seed germination and seeding growth in Coccinia indica L. in relation to morphactin and gamma radiation. Morphactin had inhibitory effect on seed germination. Gamma radiation promoted the seed germination. The promotive effective of gamma radiation was suppressed by the inhibitory effect of morphactin on radicle and hypocotyl growth in all treatments of the interaction of gamma radiation and morphactin. (author)

  7. Factors Affecting Public Investment in Manufacturing Sector of Pakistan

    Gulzar Ali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Public Investment in manufacturing sector has emerged as one of the most active part all over the world. In Pakistan public investment had made a significant contribution in different sectors and has played a fundamental role in the financial system of the country. This study has been an attempt to identify the factors, which affect public investment in manufacturing sector significantly in Pakistan. The data used in this study are from 1981 to 2014. Descriptive as well as quantitative techniques are applied to derive the results and advance statistical software E-views are used. In time-series analysis there always remains a suspicion about spurious relationship. This research study is also based on time-series data, that’s why before going to estimate the model, the data are tested by applying Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF, but the data used in the study did not show any sign of spurious relationship. In order to capture the effect of various factors affecting public investment in manufacturing sector, the investment accelerator model is used and regressed through NLS and ARIMA model. The regression results shows that the variables Value-added in large-scale manufacturing sector (Vm, and Lagged Public Investment in Large-Scale Manufacturing Sector (Igm(-1, Index of Price of Capital (Ipk, Change in Domestic Credit available to Public Sector (ΔDcp and dummy (Dps for political stability and favorable economic conditions of the country plays a significant role in public investment in manufacturing sector. The study recommends that the government should create a sufficient demand by increasing domestic purchasing power, by export expansion, by import substitutions through assets redistribution. The study also found that stable political condition also necessary for the rapid economic and investment growth.

  8. Factors affecting the valve movements in freshwater unionids

    Pynnoenen, K.S.; Englund, V.P.M. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    1994-12-31

    In order to avoid harmful conditions, freshwater unionids are able to close their valves and to resist extended long periods of complete anoxia. Xenobiotics and diverse abiotic and biotic factors can change the rhythm of valve movements and thus affect the accumulation of heavy metals in these bivalves. When bivalves are used a bioindicators in the field and when the accumulation of toxicants are studied under the laboratory conditions, the effects of valve movements and shell closure have to be involved. In this study, the authors have recorded valve movements of two different unionid species (Anodonta anatina, Unio tumidus) in the field and in the laboratory using a digital monitoring system. Several experimental arrangements were compared (caged mussels vs. sediment dwelling mussels, flow-through vials vs. static aquaria with and without sediment). Some parameters of the mussel hemolymph, such as electrolytes, gases and acid base status, were compared with the results on the valve activity (time with valves open, number of adductions). The natural valve activity of the two unionid species differed clearly. In the field, effects of transfer and caging were found, and in the laboratory, sediment and water flow changed their behavior. The level of the blood oxygen was most affected, whereas, the acid-base status and the concentrations of electrolytes were effectively regulated by the unionids. The correlation between valve movements and the hemolymph parameters was weaker than expected.

  9. Factors Affecting on Military Medical Job Satisfaction Staff

    Habibi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Job satisfaction (JS in the workplace affects absenteeism, turnover and performance. Objectives Considering the importance of JS, this study conducted with aim studying the factors affecting JS in a military hospital. Patients and Methods This descriptive analytical cross sectional study was carried out on 301 workers who worked in a military hospital in year 2009 using of stratified random sampling. In this study JSS questioner was used for measuring JS, ANOVA and Dunnett post hoc and SPSS and Excel software were used for statistical analysis and data analysis respectively. Results In this study, age, work experience, type of job and work position shown relationship with JS but gender, marriage status and education were not shown any statistical significant relationship with JS. In this study technician operating room and anesthesia (TORA had less, physicians and specialist and par clinical jobs had more and handy jobs and administrative jobs had same JS compare with nurses. Conclusions According to results of this study, we propose actions like modified and increased salaries and benefits of employees, making effective communication, improved working conditions, reform official promotion and more attention to TORA and nurses can be useful way for improving JS.

  10. An expression analysis of 57 transcription factors derived from ESTs of developing seeds in Maize (Zea mays).

    Wang, Guifeng; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Jia; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Fei; Tang, Yuanping; Mei, Bing; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2010-06-01

    Maize seeds are an important source of food, animal feed, and industrial raw materials. To understand global gene expression and regulation during maize seed development, a normalized cDNA library, covering most of the developmental stages of maize seeds, was constructed. Sequencing analysis of 10,848 randomly selected clones identified 6,630 unique ESTs. Among them, 57 putative transcription factors (TFs) were identified. The TFs belong to seven different super-families, specifically 17 Zinc-finger, 13 bZIP, 8 bHLH, 6 MADS, 7 MYB, 3 Homedomain, and 3 AP2/EREBP. The spatial and temporal expression of the TFs was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR with representative tissue types and seeds at different developmental stages, revealing their diverse expression patterns and expression levels. One-third (19) of the maize TFs was found their putative orthologs in Arabidopsis. Similar expression patterns were observed in both maize and Arabidopsis for the majority of orthologous pairs (15 out of 19), suggesting their conserved functions during seed development. In conclusion, the systematic analysis of maize seed TFs has provided valuable insight into transcriptional regulation during maize seed development. PMID:20336461

  11. Seed-based systematic discovery of specific transcription factor target genes.

    Mrowka, Ralf; Blüthgen, Nils; Fähling, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Reliable prediction of specific transcription factor target genes is a major challenge in systems biology and functional genomics. Current sequence-based methods yield many false predictions, due to the short and degenerated DNA-binding motifs. Here, we describe a new systematic genome-wide approach, the seed-distribution-distance method, that searches large-scale genome-wide expression data for genes that are similarly expressed as known targets. This method is used to identify genes that are likely targets, allowing sequence-based methods to focus on a subset of genes, giving rise to fewer false-positive predictions. We show by cross-validation that this method is robust in recovering specific target genes. Furthermore, this method identifies genes with typical functions and binding motifs of the seed. The method is illustrated by predicting novel targets of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). Among the new targets is optineurin, which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acquired blindness caused by adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma. We show experimentally that the optineurin gene and other predicted genes are targets of NF-kappaB. Thus, our data provide a missing link in the signalling of NF-kappaB and the damping function of optineurin in signalling feedback of NF-kappaB. We present a robust and reliable method to enhance the genome-wide prediction of specific transcription factor target genes that exploits the vast amount of expression information available in public databases today. PMID:18485006

  12. Effects of environmental factors and sowing depth on seed germination in cleome gynandra L. (Capparaceae)

    Cleome gynandra is a wild vegetable that is rich in nutrients especially vitamins, mineral elements and protein. It is consumed in most parts of South Africa as a vegetable. The leaves and seeds of this plant are used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of head and stomach aches. Despite its high dietary-medicinal value, the plant is still regarded as a weed in many Provinces of South Africa while the conditions necessary for its optimum growth in the wild are still obscure. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of various environmental factors and sowing depth on the germination of two types of seeds of C. gynandra in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The result shows that the average seed weight was 1.2 ± 0.003 mg and the viability of Lot A and B were 22.6 ± 2.3 percentage and 67.3 ± 5.0 percentage respectively. The optimum germination was achieved at 30 degree C for both Lots A and B when watered bi-weekly at a sowing depth of 0.5 cm. The result also showed that germination was best in the dark (28.7 percentage) for both Lot A and B. In overall, the germination rate under all the conditions was highest in Lot B. This study indicates that Cleome gynandra has the potential of thriving successfully under varied environmental conditions despite the great fluctuations of temperatures in South Africa during summer and winter respectively. (author)

  13. Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists

    Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future

  14. The exogenous factors affecting the cost efficiency of power generation

    This paper employs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to examine cost efficiency and scale economies in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) by using the panel data covering the period of 1995-2006. In most previous studies, the efficiency estimated by the Panel Data without testing the endogeneity may bring about a biased estimator resulting from the correlation between input and individual effect. A Hausman test is conducted in this paper to examine the endogeneity of input variables and thus an appropriate model is selected based on the test result. This study finds that the power generation executes an increasing return to scale across all the power plants based on the pooled data. We also use installed capacity, service years of the power plant, and type of fuel as explanatory variable for accounting for the estimated cost efficiency of each plant by a logistic regression model to examine the factor affecting the individual efficiency estimates. The results demonstrate that the variable of installed capacity keeps a positive relationship with cost efficiency while the factor of working years has a negative relationship.

  15. Factors affecting RAIU in hyperthyroidism patients: an analysis

    Objective: To analyze the factors affecting thyroid radioiodine uptake (RAIU) of hyperthyroidism patients. Methods; RAIU was performed in 106 hyperthyroidism patients. Some factors were studied to analyze influences on the peak of RAIU, including patients' age and sex, gland weight, taking antithyroid drugs (ATD) or not, time of ATD taking and withdrawal. Results: Patients' RAIU peak had no significant difference for different ages and sex (F=1.68, P=0.1439). If preparation was performed according to the requirements before RAIU measurement, taking ATD or not had no influence on RAIU (t=1.1362, P=0.2625). RAIU peak was different between patients whose gland weight was ≤ 30 g and >30 g. Conclusions: Age and sex have no influence on RAIU. As long as ATD was discontinued at least one week before RAIU measurement, time of taking ATD and discontinuation have no influence on RAIU, and the result of measurement coincide with that of patients who do not take medicine. RAIU peak has relation with gland weight, and RAIU of people with gland weight ≤30 g was lower than that of people with gland weight >30 g

  16. Factors affecting production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial matter

    Reedy, R. C.

    2015-10-01

    Good production rates are needed for cosmic-ray-produced nuclides to interpret their measurements. Rates depend on many factors, especially the pre-atmospheric object's size, the location of the sample in that object (such as near surface or deep inside), and the object's bulk composition. The bulk composition affects rates, especially in objects with very low and very high iron contents. Extraterrestrial materials with high iron contents usually have higher rates for making nuclides made by reactions with energetic particles and lower rates for the capture of thermal neutrons. In small objects and near the surface of objects, the cascade of secondary neutrons is being developed as primary particles are being removed. Deep in large objects, that secondary cascade is fully developed and the fluxes of primary particles are low. Recent work shows that even the shape of an object in space has a small but measureable effect. Work has been done and continues to be done on better understanding those and other factors. More good sets of measurements in meteorites with known exposure geometries in space are needed. With the use of modern Monte Carlo codes for the production and transport of particles, the nature of these effects have been and is being studied. Work needs to be done to improve the results of these calculations, especially the cross sections for making spallogenic nuclides.

  17. Factors Affecting Mortality in Elderly Patients Hospitalized for Nonmalignant Reasons

    Teslime Ayaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elderly population is hospitalized more frequently than young people, and they suffer from more severe diseases that are difficult to diagnose and treat. The present study aimed to investigate the factors affecting mortality in elderly patients hospitalized for nonmalignant reasons. Demographic data, reason for hospitalization, comorbidities, duration of hospital stay, and results of routine blood testing at the time of first hospitalization were obtained from the hospital records of the patients, who were over 65 years of age and hospitalized primarily for nonmalignant reasons. The mean age of 1012 patients included in the study was 77.8 ± 7.6. The most common reason for hospitalization was diabetes mellitus (18.3%. Of the patients, 90.3% had at least a single comorbidity. Whilst 927 (91.6% of the hospitalized patients were discharged, 85 (8.4% died. Comparison of the characteristics of the discharged and dead groups revealed that the dead group was older and had higher rates of poor general status and comorbidity. Differences were observed between the discharged and dead groups in most of the laboratory parameters. Hypoalbuminemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypopotassemia, hypernatremia, hyperuricemia, and high TSH level were the predictors of mortality. In order to meet the health necessities of the elderly population, it is necessary to well define the patient profiles and to identify the risk factors.

  18. Factors affecting the prevalence of obesity among primary school students

    Meltem Kürtüncü

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate the risk factors affecting obesity in students in the 6-15 years old age group. There were 868 students registered at Bahçelievler Elementary School in Zonguldak and were present for face-to-face meetings on the days the research data was collected. Data was collected using demographic questionary forms and weight-length measurements from March to April in 2010. Results: Difference is found to be statistically meaningful with respect to the relationship between obesity of children and their age, gender, number of siblings, fathers’ jobs, education level of their mothers, fast food consumption and family history of obesity (p<0.05. Conclusions: The study concludes that there are certain ciriteria related to the development of obesity during a specific period of childhood and that taking certain precautions are effective in preventing the development of obesity. Keywords: Body Mass Index; Children; Obesity; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Turkey.

  19. Identifying the Factors Affecting the Participation of Agricultural Cooperatives' Members

    Bagher Arayesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: 40-year history of agricultural production cooperatives in the country shows that this type of exploitation system has faced many ups and downs during this period. First, despite the help and support by the government, the cooperative sector has not been able to play a major role in the development of the country and its share has not exceeded 3% of development program. The main aim of this study is identifying the factors affecting the participation of Shirvan-Chardavol township’s agricultural cooperatives’ members. Approach: This casual comparative applied research which uses survey method for data accumulation, is of Quasi-experimental research type because of impossibility of controlling the research variables. A researcher-made questionnair was used as the main tool for gathering data. The face and content validity of the questionnaire were confirmed by a group of university professors and cooperative experts; also the reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed through calculating the Kronbach alfa coefficient (a = 0.80. Results: The statistical society of the research included 751 active members of Shirvan-Chardavol township’s agricultural cooperatives, among which 260 people were selected for the study using classified proportional random sampling method and with the aid of Morgan sample-volume table. Data processing was performed using SPSS estatistial software, as well as descriptive estatistics (central and inferential indexes and analytical estatistics (correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Conclusion: The correlation coefficient results show that there is significant relationship between the variables like age, background history of membership in cooperatives, the members’ agricultural land areas, annual income of the members, socio-cultural features, economical features, educational-extensional features, managerial factors, psychological features, political factors and

  20. Factors Affecting in-Hospital Mortality of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    M Salarifar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. Considering immense socioeconomic damages of growing AMI in developing countries we estimated prognostic value of major risk factors of AMI to predict probable In-hospital AMI mortality."nMethods: In a cohort survey from June 2004 to March 2006, 1798 patients hospitalized with proven AMI entered into two groups: Survived (patients discharged alive and Expired (patients expired during hospitalization due to AMI. We evaluated relationship of 17 risk factors including age, sex, smoking, opium usage, hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM, dyslipidemia, Killip class, existence of Q wave, St segment elevation, bundle branch blocks (BBB, involved surface of heart, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, mitral valve regurgitation (MR, and serum level of Troponin I and CKMB, with patients' survival and expiry by using chi square test, T test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant."nResults: There were 1629 (90.6% survived and 169 (9.4% expired patients. Factors significantly affected in-hospital mortality of AMI include: age (P< 0.001, femaleness (P< 0.001, smoking (P< 0.001, Killip class>II (P< 0.001, hy­per­tension (P= 0.036, DM (P< 0.001, bundle branch block (P< 0.001, Moderate to severe mitral regurgitation (P< 0.001, lower Mean LVEF (P< 0.001, and lower mean serum concentration of CKMB and Troponin I (P< 0.001. Mortality was significantly higher in anterolateral infarction."nConclusion: Mean age> 69.01 yr, femaleness, Killip class III & V, hypertension, DM, moderate to severe MR, anterolateral AMI, bundle branch block and higher serum concentration of CKMB & Troponin I are associated with higher In-hospital post-AMI mortality.

  1. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),leisure time and 1 h/week (1 h men, 1.5 h women) while commuting to work. Factors associated with increased occupational cold exposure among men were: being employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  2. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  3. Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys

    Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

  4. A study of autorotating plant seeds.

    Sunada, S; Ide, A; Hoshino, Y; Okamoto, M

    2015-12-01

    A leading edge vortex exists on the upper surface of an autorotating plant seed. The vortex enhances the vertical aerodynamic force acting on the seed and decreases the rate of descent. We analyzed the flight data of rotary seeds and revealed that the lift-drag ratio affects the descent factor more strongly than the vertical force coefficient. This has also been confirmed by falling tests of model rotors, which have various aspect ratios, airfoil shapes and total masses. PMID:26382230

  5. Seed germination and emergence of Eragrostis tenuifolia (A. Rich. Hochst. ex Steud. in response to environmental factors

    Hertwig Bittencourt Henrique von

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eragrostis tenuifolia is a weed species that is gaining ground in Brazil. This weed occurs in pastures, grasslands, crop fields, and roadsides. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of different environmental factors on E. tenuifolia seed germination and seedling emergence. The optimum constant temperature for germination was around 35-30°C. It was also found that 85% of seeds germinated under a 30/20°C alternate temperature regime. Light appears to have a positive effect on seed germination. No seedlings emerged when seeds were buried 3 cm or deeper. The results suggested that E. tenuifolia has the potential to spread into pastures and in no-tillage crop systems in Brazil. Measures such as the use of cover crops and/or soil cultivation can be used to limit germination and seedling emergence, respectively.

  6. Analysis on Factors Affecting Seedling Establishment in Rice

    LUO Ju; TANG Shao-qing; HU Pei-song; Aleman LOUIS; JIAO Gui-ai; TANG Jian

    2007-01-01

    Elongations of coleoptile and mesocotyl are related directly to rice seedling establishment in soil and height of plant is related to lodging in rice production. Twelve typical rice cultivars with different lengths of coleoptile and mesocotyl (long, medium and short) were selected by screening the lengths of coleoptile and mesocotyl in 1500 accessions. The seedling establishments of these typical cultivars were compared under the combinations of different sowing depths and flooding durations, and two semi-dwarf varieties (G140, Zhong 96-21) with good seedling establishments and optimum mesocotyl lengths were found. The length of mesocotyl was completely fitted negative binomial distribution and the length of coleoptile was nearly fitted Iognormal distribution.Analysis of the relationships among mesocotyl, coleoptile, seeding depth, flooding duration, and their interactions to seedling establishment percentage showed that there existed significant relations among mesocotyl, coleoptile, mesocotyl × coleoptile,seeding depth, flooding duration and mesocotyl × sowing depth in the experiment for seedling establishment.

  7. Larval and adult seed consumption affected by the degree of food specialization in Amara (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Klimeš, Petr; Saska, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 8 (2010), s. 659-666. ISSN 0931-2048 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/09/1436 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : diet * feeding habits * ground beetles Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.276, year: 2010

  8. Postoperative [{sup 125}I] seed brachytherapy in the treatment of acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland. With associated risk factors

    Mao, Ming-hui; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Lei; Liu, Shu-ming; Huang, Ming-wei; Shi, Yan [Peking Univ. School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

    2014-11-15

    This retrospective study was undertaken to analyze data from patients receiving iodine-125 ([{sup 125}I]) seed brachytherapy postoperatively for the treatment of acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) of the parotid gland along with the following risk factors: residual tumor, recurrent tumor, facial nerve invasion, positive resection margins, advanced tumor stage, or tumor spillage. Twenty-nine patients with ACC (17 females, 12 males; age range, 13-73 years; median age, 37.3 years) were included. Median follow-up was 58.2 months (range, 14-122 months). Patients received [{sup 125}I] seed brachytherapy (median actuarial D90, 177 Gy) 3-41 days (median, 14 days) following surgery. Radioactivity was 18.5-33.3 MBq per seed, and the prescription dose was 80-120 Gy. The 3-, 5-, and 10-year rates of local control were 93.1, 88.7, and 88.7 %, respectively; overall survival was 96.6, 92, and 92 %; disease-free survival was 93.1, 88.4, and 88.4 %; and freedom from distant metastasis was 96.6, 91.2, and 91.2 %. Lymph node metastases were absent in all patients, although two patients died with distant metastases. Facial nerve recovery was quick, and no severe radiotherapy-related complications were noted. Recurrence history, local recurrence, and distant metastasis significantly affected overall survival. Postoperative [{sup 125}I] seed brachytherapy is effective in treating ACC and has minor complications. Patients with a history of recurrence showed poor prognosis and were more likely to experience disease recurrence and develop metastases. (orig.) [German] Diese retrospektive Studie wurde durchgefuehrt, um die Daten von Patienten zu analysieren, die postoperativ eine Seed-Brachytherapie mit Iod-125 ([{sup 125}I]) zur Behandlung von Azinuszellkarzinomen der Ohrspeicheldruese mit begleitenden Risikofaktoren, wie Residualtumor, Rezidivtumor, Invasion in den N. facialis, positive (= nicht tumorfreie) Resektionsraender, fortgeschrittenes Tumorstadium oder lokale Verbreitung von Tumorzellen

  9. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities

    Pyo, Katrina A.

    2011-07-01

    A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

  10. Factors Affecting Prostate Volume Estimation in Computed Tomography Images

    The aim of this study was to investigate how apex-localizing methods and the computed tomography (CT) slice thickness affected the CT-based prostate volume estimation. Twenty-eight volunteers underwent evaluations of prostate volume by CT, where the contour segmentations were performed by three observers. The bottom of ischial tuberosities (ITs) and the bulb of the penis were used as reference positions to locate the apex, and the distances to the apex were recorded as 1.3 and 2.0 cm, respectively. Interobserver variations to locate ITs and the bulb of the penis were, on average, 0.10 cm (range 0.03-0.38 cm) and 0.30 cm (range 0.00-0.98 cm), respectively. The range of CT slice thickness varied from 0.08-0.48 cm and was adopted to examine the influence of the variation on volume estimation. The volume deviation from the reference case (0.08 cm), which increases in tandem with the slice thickness, was within ± 3 cm3, regardless of the adopted apex-locating reference positions. In addition, the maximum error of apex identification was 1.5 times of slice thickness. Finally, based on the precise CT films and the methods of apex identification, there were strong positive correlation coefficients for the estimated prostate volume by CT and the transabdominal ultrasonography, as found in the present study (r > 0.87; p < 0.0001), and this was confirmed by Bland-Altman analysis. These results will help to identify factors that affect prostate volume calculation and to contribute to the improved estimation of the prostate volume based on CT images.

  11. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Azin Ayatollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients

  12. Interaction Between Optical and Neural Factors Affecting Visual Performance

    Sabesan, Ramkumar

    The human eye suffers from higher order aberrations, in addition to conventional spherical and cylindrical refractive errors. Advanced optical techniques have been devised to correct them in order to achieve superior retinal image quality. However, vision is not completely defined by the optical quality of the eye, but also depends on how the image quality is processed by the neural system. In particular, how neural processing is affected by the past visual experience with optical blur has remained largely unexplored. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the interaction of optical and neural factors affecting vision. To achieve this goal, pathological keratoconic eyes were chosen as the ideal population to study since they are severely afflicted by degraded retinal image quality due to higher order aberrations and their neural system has been exposed to that habitually for a long period of time. Firstly, we have developed advanced customized ophthalmic lenses for correcting the higher order aberration of keratoconic eyes and demonstrated their feasibility in providing substantial visual benefit over conventional corrective methodologies. However, the achieved visual benefit was significantly smaller than that predicted optically. To better understand this, the second goal of the thesis was set to investigate if the neural system optimizes its underlying mechanisms in response to the long-term visual experience with large magnitudes of higher order aberrations. This study was facilitated by a large-stroke adaptive optics vision simulator, enabling us to access the neural factors in the visual system by manipulating the limit imposed by the optics of the eye. Using this instrument, we have performed a series of experiments to establish that habitual exposure to optical blur leads to an alteration in neural processing thereby alleviating the visual impact of degraded retinal image quality, referred to as neural compensation. However, it was also found that

  13. Relation between growth stages and synthesis of flavonoids and essential oils affected by irradiation in Ruta graveolens seeds

    Ruta graveolens plants are radio-adaptive up to 8 Krad gamma radiation. Flavonoids and essential oils were remarkably increased as function of irradiation doses from 2 up to 8 Krad. Doses of 4 and 8 Krad were the most effective ones. Concerning flavonoids, 4 and 8 Krad treatments exerted the following percent increase over control plants: 76, 77% (leaves), 137, 100% (stems), 153, 80% (flowers) and 77, 61% (fruits). The distribution pattern of flavonoids was in the following order: Leaves > flowers > fruits > stems. Treated plants with 4 or 8 Krad resulted in an increase in essential oil yield by 65-67% over control plants. Chemical constitution of oil: ketones and esters did not seem to be affected by seed irradiation (0-8 Krad). Similarly, physical properties ''refractive index, solubility and specific gravity'' did not materially affect. However, chemical properties ''acid value, ester value and saponification value'' were increased by 24% over control treatment as a function of 4 Krad. Yet higher doses had the capacity of increasing the acid value but not of both ester or saponification value

  14. Factors affecting recurrence after surgery for Crohn's disease

    Takayuki Yamamoto

    2005-01-01

    Although in Crohn's disease post-operative recurrence is common, the determinants of disease recurrence remain speculative. The aim of this study was to examine factors affecting post-operative recurrence of Crohn's disease. A Medline-based literature review was carried out. The following factors were investigated: age at onset of disease, sex, family history of Crohn's disease,smoking, duration of Crohn's disease before surgery,prophylactic medical treatment (corticosteroids, 5-amino salicylic acid [5-ASA] and immunosuppressants),anatomical site of involvement, indication for surgery (perforating or non-perforating disease), length of resected bowel, anast-omotic technique, presence of granuloma in the specimen, involvement of disease at the resection margin, blood transfusions and postoperative complications. Smoking significantly increases the risk of recurrence (risk is approximately twice as high), especially in women and heavy smokers. Quitting smoking reduces the post-operative recurrence rate. A number of studies have shown a higher risk when the duration of the disease before surgery was short. There were, however, different definitions of 'short' among the studies. Prophylactic cortic-osteroids therapy is not effective in reducing the post-operative recurrence. A number of randomized controlled trials offered evidence of the efficacy of 5-ASA (mesalazine) in reducing post-operative recurrence. Recently, the thera-peutic efficacy of immunosuppressive drugs (azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine) in the prevention of post-operative recurrence has been investigated and several studies have reported that these drugs might help prevent the recurrence. Further clinical trials would be necessary to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of immunosuppressants.Several studies showed a higher recurrence rate in patients with perforating disease than in those with non-perforating disease. However, evidence for differing recurrence rates in perforating and non

  15. Factors affecting on the particle deposition in the respiratory tract

    The deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the respiratory tracts is affected by anatomical structure of the respiratory tracts and respiratory pattern of animals, which are modified by many factors as animal species, physiological and psychological conditions, age, sex, smoking drug, lung diseases, etc. In human, studies have been focused on the initial lung deposition of particles and have made it clear that the respiratory pattern, gender, and diseases may have influence on the deposition pattern. On the other hand, there was little knowledge on the initial lung deposition of particles in laboratory animals. Recently, Raabe et al. have reported the initial lung deposition of 169Yb-aluminosilicate particles in mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits. The authors have also investigated the lung deposition of latex particles with different sizes and 198Au-colloid in rats whose respiratory volumes during the inhalation were monitored by body plethysmography. These experiments indicated that the deposition of inhaled particles in distal lung e.g. small bronchiolar and alveolar region, was much lower in laboratory animals than that of human. This species difference may be due to smaller diameter of respiratory tract and/or shallower breathing and higher respiratory rate of laboratory animals. The experimental animals in which respiratory diseases were induced artificially have been used to investigate the modification factors on the deposition pattern of inhaled particles. As respiratory diseases, emphysema was induced in rats, hamsters, beagle dogs in some laboratories and pulmonary delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats was in our laboratory. The initial lung deposition of particles in these animals was consistently decreased in comparison with normals, regardless of the animal species and the type of disease. (author)

  16. Factors affecting young children's use of pronouns as referring expressions.

    Campbell, A L; Brooks, P; Tomasello, M

    2000-12-01

    Most studies of children's use of pronouns have focused either on the morphology of personal pronouns or on the anaphoric use of pronouns by older children. The current two studies investigated factors affecting children's choice of pronouns as referring expressions-in contrast with their use of full nouns and null references. In the first study it was found that 2.5- and 3.5-year-old children did not use pronouns differentially whether the adult (a) modeled a pronoun or a noun for the target object or (b) did or did not witness the target event (although there was evidence that they did notice and take account of the adult's witnessing in other ways). In the second study it was found that children of this same age (a) do not use pronouns to avoid unfamiliar or difficult nouns but (b) do use pronouns differently depending on the immediately preceding discourse of the experimenter (whether they were asked a specific question such as "What did X do?" or a general question such as "What happened?"). In the case of specific questions, children prefer to use a null reference but use some pronouns as well (almost never using full nouns); in the case of the generic questions, children use pronouns even more often (and use nouns more as well). This finding was corroborated by some new analyses of children's use of pronouns in specific discourse situations in previously published studies. These findings suggest that children's choice of pronouns as referring expressions in early language development is influenced more by the immediately preceding discourse than other kinds of factors. PMID:11193956

  17. Analysis of Factors Affecting Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) Image Formation

    Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factors affecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojection are investigated: (1) image uniformity (flood) corrections, (2) image sampling (pixel size) and (3) count allocation methods. An analytic expression for uniformity correction is developed that incorporates factors for spatial-dependent detector sensitivity and geometric effects from acceptance angle limits on coincidence events. There is good agreement between experimental floods from a PEM system with a pixellated detector and numerical simulations. The analytic uniformity corrections are successfully applied to image reconstruction of compressed breast phantoms and reduce the necessity for flood scans at different image planes. Experimental and simulated compressed breast phantom studies show that lesion contrast is improved when the image pixel size is half of, rather than equal to, the detector pixel size, though this occurs at the expense of some additional image noise. In PEM reconstruction counts usually are allocated to the pixel in the image plane intersected by the line of response (LOR) between the centers of the detection pixels. An alternate count allocation method is investigated that distributes counts to image pixels in proportion to the area of the tube of response (TOR) connecting the detection pixels that they overlay in the image plane. This TOR method eliminates some image artifacts that occur with the LOR method and increases tumor signal-to-noise ratios at the expense of a slight decrease in tumor contrast. Analysis of image uniformity, image sampling and count allocation methods in PEM image reconstruction points to ways of improving image formation. Further work is required to optimize image reconstruction parameters for particular detection or quantitation tasks

  18. Factors affecting proprioceptive recovery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    ZHOU Mou-wang; GU Li; CHEN Ya-ping; YU Chang-long; AO Ying-fang; HUANG Hong-shi; YANG Yan-yan

    2008-01-01

    Background Proprioception plays an important role in knee movements.Since there are controversies surrounding the overall recovery time of proprioception following surgery,it is necessary to define the factors affecting proprioceptive recovery after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and to investigate the relationship between proprioception and muscle strength.Methods A total of 36 patients who had their ACL reconstructed with a semitendinosus/gracilis graft (reconstructed group:6 months post-surgery) and 13 healthy adults without any knee injury (control group) were included in the study.Knee proprioception was evaluated with a passive reproduction test.Isokinetic strength was measured using the Biodex System.Statistical analysis was used to compare proprioception of the reconstructed group versus the control group,and to define causal factors,including sex,hamstring/quadriceps ratio,and the course of injury before reconstruction.We also investigated the correlation between the passive reproduction error and quadriceps index.Results There was a significant difference in proprioception between the reconstructed and control groups (P <0.05).When the course of injury before reconstruction was less than 4 months,there was a linear correlation with proprioception 6 months after the operation (r=0.713,P <0.05).There was a positive correlation between post-surgery proprioception and the quadriceps index at 6 months post-surgery.Conclusions Impaired knee proprioception is observed 6 months after ACL reconstruction.Within 4 months of injury,early undertaking of reconstruction is associated with better proprioception outcome.Patients with enhanced proprioception have a better quadriceps index.

  19. Analysis of Factors Affecting the Quality of an E-commerce Website Using Factor Analysis

    Saurabh Mishra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify factors which affect the quality and effectiveness of an e commerce website which also majorly affect customer satisfaction and ultimately customer retention and loyalty. This research paper examines a set of 23 variables and integrates them into 4 factors which affect the quality of a website. An online questionnaire survey was conducted to generate statistics regarding the preferences of the e-commerce website users.The 23 variables taken from customer survey are generalized into 4 major factors using exploratory factor analysis which are content, navigation, services and interface design. The research majorly consists of the responses of students between the age group of 18-25 years and considers different B2C commercial websites. Identified variables are important with respect to the current competition in the market as service of an e-commerce website also play a major role in ensuring customer satisfaction. Further research in this domain can be done for websites’ version for mobile devices.

  20. Factors Affecting the Resinification of Liquefied Phenolated Wood

    Zhang Qiu-hui; Zhao Guang-jie1; Hu Shi-yu

    2005-01-01

    Wood of Chinese fir and poplar were liquefied in phenol at 150℃ and atmospheric pressure. The liquefied wood were reacted with formaldehyde to synthesize the liquefied wood-based resin. The factors affecting the resinification and the properties of new resin were investigated. The results show that the formaldehyde/liquefied wood molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and sodium hydroxide/liquefied wood molar ratio have important influence on the resin characteristics. With the increase of formaldehyde/liquefied wood molar ratio, the yield of resin increases, and the free phenol content of resins decreases, showing that the resinification of liquefied wood is more complete at higher formaldehyde/liquefied wood molar ratios. The reaction temperature on the viscosity of the liquefied resin has considerable effect; the viscosity of resin increased with increasing reaction temperature,and the amount of liquefied poplar resin increased more quickly than that of liquefied Chinese fir resin. The resinification time also has obvious influence on the viscosity of resin; the viscosity of liquefied poplar resin is more sensitive to resinification time compared with that of liquefied Chinese fir. The amount of sodium hydroxide can improve the water miscibility of liquefied wood resin.The optimum sodium hydroxide/liquefied wood molar ratio for preparation of liquefied wood-based resins exceeds 0.4.

  1. Non-auditory factors affecting urban soundscape evaluation.

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Lee, Pyoung Jik; Hong, Joo Young; Cabrera, Densil

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize urban spaces, which combine landscape, acoustics, and lighting, and to investigate people's perceptions of urban soundscapes through quantitative and qualitative analyses. A general questionnaire survey and soundwalk were performed to investigate soundscape perception in urban spaces. Non-auditory factors (visual image, day lighting, and olfactory perceptions), as well as acoustic comfort, were selected as the main contexts that affect soundscape perception, and context preferences and overall impressions were evaluated using an 11-point numerical scale. For qualitative analysis, a semantic differential test was performed in the form of a social survey, and subjects were also asked to describe their impressions during a soundwalk. The results showed that urban soundscapes can be characterized by soundmarks, and soundscape perceptions are dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and day lighting, whereas reverberance in urban spaces does not yield consistent preference judgments. It is posited that the subjective evaluation of reverberance can be replaced by physical measurements. The categories extracted from the qualitative analysis revealed that spatial impressions such as openness and density emerged as some of the contexts of soundscape perception. PMID:22225033

  2. Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls

    Martino Cassandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels, artificial insemination stud (4 levels and sire of bull (137 levels. All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

  3. Factors Affecting Hemodialysis Patients' Satisfaction with Their Dialysis Therapy

    M. Al Eissa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the degree of satisfaction among hemodialysis patients and the factors influencing this satisfaction. Methods. Patients were recruited from 3 Saudi dialysis centers. Demographic data was collected. Using 1 to 10 Likert scale, the patients were asked to rate the overall satisfaction with, and the overall impact of, their dialysis therapy on their lives and to rate the effect of the dialysis therapy on 15 qualities of life domains. Results. 322 patients were recruited (72.6% of the total eligible patients. The mean age was 51.7 years (±15.4; 58% have been on dialysis for >3 years. The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index was 3.2 (±2, and Kt/V was 1.3 (±0.44. The mean satisfaction score was (7.41 ± 2.75 and the mean score of the impact of the dialysis on the patients' lives was 5.32 ± 2.55. Male patients reported worse effect of dialysis on family life, social life, energy, and appetite. Longer period since the commencement of dialysis was associated with adverse effect on finances and energy. Lower level of education was associated with worse dialysis effect on stress, overall health, sexual life, hobbies, and exercise ability. Conclusion. The level of satisfaction is affected by gender, duration on dialysis, educational level, and standard of care given.

  4. Factors affecting benthic impacts at Scottish fish farms.

    Mayor, Daniel J; Zuur, Alain F; Solan, Martin; Paton, Graeme I; Killham, Ken

    2010-03-15

    The factors affecting patterns of benthic [seabed] biology and chemistry around 50 Scottish fish farms were investigated using linear mixed-effects models that account for inherent correlations between observations from the same farm. The abundance of benthic macrofauna and sediment concentrations of organic carbon were both influenced by a significant, albeit weak, interaction between farm size, defined as the maximum weight of fish permitted on site at any one time, and current speed. Above a farm size threshold of between 800 and 1000 t, the magnitude of effects at farms located in areas of elevated current speeds were greater than at equivalent farms located in more quiescent waters. Sediment concentrations of total organic matter were influenced by an interaction between distance and depth, indicating that wind-driven resuspension events may help reduce the accumulation of organic waste at farms located in shallow waters. The analyses presented here demonstrate that the production and subsequent fate of organic waste at fish farms is more complex than is often assumed; in isolation, current speed, water depth, and farr size are not necessarily good predictors of benthic impact. PMID:20178333

  5. A STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING HEALING OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT ANASTOMOSIS

    Anjani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available : Aim of this prospective study to identify the factor which affects the morbidity and mortality of gastrointestinal anastomosis. This prospective study was conducted in G.R. Medical College from November 2012 to October 2013. Our study plan was approved by Ethical Committee of our institute 80 patients were included in this study who underwent gastrointestinal anastomosis whether elective or emergency irrespective of age and gender. A detailed history and relevant preoperative investigation like complete blood picture, liver function test, kidney function test, electrolyte were taken and intra-operative information was collected like peritoneal cavity contaminated or non-contamination, technique of anastomosis and indication of gastrointestinal anastomosis as well as post-operative information were also collected like pelvic collection wound dehiscence, burst abdomen, fecal discharge from the wound site. All these data were compared and analyzed with respect to their effect on the healing of wound and gastrointestinal anastomosis. The result revealed that age60 years of age anaemia, hypoprotenemia, hyperbilirubin and malignancy, uremia and peritoneal contamination had impaired the healing of wound and anastomotic leak and there were statistically significant P value 0.04, 0.05, 0.04, 0, 05, 0.05, 0.04, 0.04. 0.003 Respectively.

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING ANXIETY IN ELITE SPORTSMEN

    Cemal GÜNDOĞDU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the anxiety the triathlon sportsmen of national teams experience before competitions and the factors that affect this kind of anxiety. This descriptive study was carried out with the voluntary participation of 104 sportsmen who participated in the Istanbul European Cup, Elazıg Balkan Grand Prix and Alanya World Cup in 2014. The data collection instrument was an interview questionnaire developed by the researchers, and the Cronbach alpha of the questions was 0.77. T he data were analyzed with a statistical program, and independent samples t - test and ANOVA were used. According to the data, the following findings were identified: the sportsmen of the Turkish national team felt pre - competition anxiety more than the sport smen of foreign national teams. The female sportsmen experienced the physical symptoms of anxiety more. The younger sportsmen felt more anxious about the fact that they were not going to perform well in the competition. The anxiety of making mistakes decre ased with age. Those whose sporting age was lower felt more anxious for not performing well and for making mistakes.

  7. [Factors affecting young mothers' social and family relations after pregnancy].

    Maranhão, Thatiana Araújo; Gomes, Keila Rejane Oliveira; Silva, José Mário Nunes da

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to analyze factors affecting social and family relations of young mothers in the two-year postpartum period. This was a cross-sectional study of 464 young mothers in Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, who gave birth during the first four months of 2006 in six maternity hospitals. Data were collected from May to December 2008 after identifying the young women in the maternity hospital records. Multivariate analysis used multinomial logistic regression. Married young women (including those in common-law marriages) were 80% less likely to have negative relations with their partners. Participants 20 to 22 years of age related 2.4 times better with their mothers than those 17 to 19 years of age. Young women not attending school showed 97% higher odds of negative changes in relations with friends, and Catholics were 50% less likely to have worse relations with friends following childbirth. Measures are needed to orient individuals living with young mothers (especially their partners and mothers) concerning the importance of support in this phase of life, particularly encouraging them to stay in school. PMID:24936816

  8. THEORIES AND FACTORS AFFECTING MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A REVIEW

    Alexander Amit

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioadhesion is an interfacial phenomenon in which two materials, at least one of which is biological, are held together by means of interfacial forces. When the associated biological system is mucous, it is called mucoadhesion. This property of certain polymeric systems have got place in the drug delivery research in order to prolong contact time in the various mucosal route of drug administration, as the ability to maintain a delivery system at a particular location for an extended period of time has a great appeal for both local action as well as systemic drug bioavailability. A complete and comprehensive theory that can predict adhesion based on the chemical and/or physical nature of a polymer is not yet available. Several theories have been proposed to explain the fundamental mechanisms of adhesion such as glues, adhesives, and paints, have been adopted to study the mucoadhesion. Mucoadhesion is a complex process and numerous theories have been presented to explain the mechanisms involved. These theories include mechanical-interlocking, electrostatic, diffusion–interpenetration, adsorption and fracture processes. They are Electronic theory, Adsorption theory, Wetting theory, Diffusion theory, Fracture theory. The objective of the study is to explain the different mechanisms involved in mucoadhesion and various factors affecting mucoadhesion.

  9. Statistical factors affecting the success of nuclear operations

    In this article, the authors present a statistical analysis to determine the operational, financial, technical, and managerial factors that most significantly affect the success of nuclear operations. The study analyzes data for over 70 nuclear plants and 40 operating companies over a period of five years in order to draw conclusions that they hope will be of interest to utility companies and public utility commissions as they seek ways to improve rates of success in nuclear operations. Some of these conclusions will not be surprising--for example, that older plants have heavier maintenance requirements--but others are less intuitive. For instance, the observation that operators of fewer plants have lower costs suggests that any experience curve benefits associated with managing multiple nuclear facilities is overshadowed by the logistic problems of multiple facilities. After presenting a brief history of nuclear power in America, the authors outline the motivations of the study and the methodology of their analysis. They end the article with the results of the study and discuss some of the managerial implications of these findings

  10. Factors Affecting Rural Households’ Resilience to Food Insecurity in Niger

    Aboubakr Gambo Boukary

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Niger faces many natural and human constraints explaining the erratic evolution of its agricultural production over time. Unfortunately, this is likely to cause a decline in the food supply. This study attempts to identify factors affecting rural households’ resilience to food insecurity in Niger. For this, we first create a resilience index by using principal component analysis and later apply structural equation modeling to identify its determinants. Data from the 2010 National Survey on Households’ Vulnerability to Food Insecurity done by the National Institute of Statistics is used. The study shows that asset and social safety net indicators are significant and have a positive impact on households’ resilience. Climate change approximated by long-term mean rainfall has a negative and significant effect on households’ resilience. Therefore, to strengthen households’ resilience to food insecurity, there is a need to increase assistance to households through social safety nets and to help them gather more resources in order to acquire more assets. Furthermore, early warning of climatic events could alert households, especially farmers, to be prepared and avoid important losses that they experience anytime an uneven climatic event occurs.

  11. Factors Affecting the Radii of Close-in Transiting Exoplanets

    Enoch, B; Horne, K

    2012-01-01

    The radius of an exoplanet may be affected by various factors, including irradiation, planet mass and heavy element content. A significant number of transiting exoplanets have now been discovered for which the mass, radius, semi-major axis, host star metallicity and stellar effective temperature are known. We use multivariate regression models to determine the dependence of planetary radius on planetary equilibrium temperature T_eq, planetary mass M_p, stellar metallicity [Fe/H], orbital semi-major axis a, and tidal heating rate H_tidal, for 119 transiting planets in three distinct mass regimes. We determine that heating leads to larger planet radii, as expected, increasing mass leads to increased or decreased radii of low-mass (2.0R_J) planets, respectively (with no mass effect on Jupiter-mass planets), and increased host-star metallicity leads to smaller planetary radii, indicating a relationship between host-star metallicity and planet heavy element content. For Saturn-mass planets, a good fit to the radii...

  12. Factors affecting return to driving post-stroke.

    Tan, K M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect a person\\'s ability to drive, an important means of transportation in the developed world. AIMS: To determine percentage of patients and factors associated with return to driving post-stroke in a service with emphasis on driver assessment. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients discharged from the Stroke Service of our 470-bed teaching hospital from 1998 to 2002. RESULTS: Of 72 drivers pre-stroke, 54% recalled a driving assessment and 68% returned to driving. Younger patients (58.6 +\\/- 12.0 vs. 66.5 +\\/- 10.5, p = 0.008) with lower Modified Rankin Score (median 1 vs. 2, p = 0.0001) and normal cognition (55 vs. 43%, p = 0.45) were more likely to resume driving. More patients who were assessed returned to driving than those who were not (74 vs. 61%, p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high level of return to driving can be achieved post-stroke with a pro-active approach to driver assessment and rehabilitation. A structured assessment and referral programme should be offered where appropriate.

  13. Factors affecting hospital mortality in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Alam Mohammed

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective analysis studied the records of 564 consecutive patients admitted to Gastrointestinal Bleeding Unit of Riyadh Medical Complex with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding over a 2-year period (May 1996-April 1998. The purpose of the study was to analyze the mortality with an aim to identify the risk factors affecting mortality in these patients. Majority of patients were men (82% and Saudis (54%. Their mean age was 52.46 + 17.8 years. Esophageal varices (45% were the main causes of bleeding followed by duodenal ulcers (24%. Overall mortality in this series was 15.8% (89 patients. Comorbid diseases were responsible for death in 68 (76% patients, whereas, bleeding was considered to be directly responsible for death in 21 (24% patients. On analysis of data from this study, old age (>60 years, systolic pressure < 90 mm Hg on admission, comorbid disease, variceal bleeding and Child′s grade C in patients with chronic liver disease were associated with adverse outcome.

  14. Factors affecting the ion beam implantation in silicon

    The factors affecting the ion beam implantation in silicon have been studied using boron, phosphorus, oxygen, and argon ions having energy range 0.5 ke V-200 ke V. It was found that the range of the ions in silicon increases with the increase of their energy and decreases with the increase of their masses. The ionization process is found to be the main process for causing damage in the silicon matrix whether it is produced by the accelerated ions or by the recoiled silicon atoms. The magnitude of ionization in silicon is found to be inversely proportional to the mass of ions. Ionization produced by ions or recoils shows different contributions to the damage depending on the mass of ions where the ions energy loss to ionization decreases from 70% to 23% as the mass is increased from 11 for boron (B) to 40 for argon (Ar). Its magnitude, as produced by ions, is found to decrease with the increase of their masses. Its value is observed to increase in a complementary way with the mass increase. Ions energy loss to vacancies and phonons is found to be independent of the mass of ions. Their values decrease sharply to a minimum within the energy range 0.5-5ke V and levels off at further energy increase up to 200 Ke V. Recoils energy loss to vacancy and phonon production is found to increase with the increase of mass and energy of the accelerated ions

  15. Factors Affecting Fiber Design and Selection for Advanced Ceramic Composites

    DiCarlo, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Structural Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) have the potential for application in the hot sections of a variety of advanced propulsion and power systems. It is therefore necessary to have a general understanding of the key properties of CMC and Reinforcing Fibers. This need is complicated by the wide variety of application conditions and structural requirements for which CMC's will be used, and the proprietary concerns of the design engineers. CMC's, to be successful, must display properties which are competitive with the currently used high temperature structural materials: (i.e., Iron and Nickel based superalloys, tough monolithic ceramics, and carbon/carbon composites.) Structural CMC offers several areas of competition: (1) performance, (i.e., strength and strength retention, creep resistance, and thermal conductivity), (2) reliability (i.e., environmental durability, and damage tolerance) and (3) processing (i.e., capability for varying sizes and shapes, and cost effective fabrication). The presentation further discusses, and illustrates with fiber and CMC data the key fiber properties and processes which strongly affect each CMC area of competition. The presentation further discusses the current knowledge of the important factors which control the key fiber properties. A design guidelines for the optimum fiber characteristics is developed, and the currently available fibers are compared against those guidelines.

  16. Investigating factors affecting the efficiency of gas turbine power cycle

    R. Ghaderi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, the use of gas turbines in power generation cycles has been growing. Small size, easy installation, high power-to-mass ratio and the ability to load and unload the cycle quickly are the advantages of such systems. Low efficiency is considered as one of the major disadvantages of such power plants. Thus providing a way to increase cycle efficiency can be very effective in making the cycle more efficient and thus saving fuel consumed in such systems. In this paper the thermal efficiency of the cycle is introduced through describing the mechanism of gas turbine in power generation cycle. Then we will examine the factors affecting the efficiency of the cycle and finally practical solutions such as increasing the inlet temperature, recovery, internal cooling of the compressor and heat recovery for increasing efficiency will be explained. Evaluating the polytropic efficiency of cycles shows that increasing the inlet gas temperature has little effect on turbine efficiency and is limited at high levels of ηpoly. Water or steam injection into the gas turbines will not only lead to increased efficiency of the cycle, but also increases the flexibility of the turbine, too.

  17. Factors affecting medication adherence in patients with hypertension.

    Karakurt, Papatya; Kaşikçi, Mağfiret

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study descriptive study was to evaluate concordance with medication and those factors that affect the use of medicine in patients with hypertension. Data were collected using a questionnaire completed by 750 patients with hypertension between December 25, 2003, and April 30, 2004, in an outpatient hypertension clinic in Erzincan, Turkey. It was found that 57.9% of the patients did not use their medicines as prescribed. Forgetfulness, aloneness, and negligence were ranked as the top three reasons for this non-concordance, accounting for almost half (49.3%) of all patients with hypertension studied; price (expensive medicines) accounted for another quarter (26.5%). A statistically significant relationship with non-concordance was found for age, education level and profession. Patients' lack of knowledge related to the complications of hypertension was also found to have a statistically significant relationship with not taking medicines as prescribed. Gender, location of residence and salary were not found to be statistically related to concordance. These results indicate the need to educate patients with hypertension on how to use their medicine regularly and indicate also the target populations for this. PMID:23127428

  18. Factors Affecting Internet Banking Usage in India: An Empirical Analysis

    Shariq Mohammed

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for Internet banking usage by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The study was conducted on the private, public and foreign banks which included ICICI Bank Ltd., HDFC Bank Ltd. and AXIS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and Yes Bank. Among public sector banks the respondents were from Bank of Baroda, Punjab National Bank and State Bank of India and Canara Bank. The sample size of 450 has been taken from among the urban population of above 18 years of age. The result indicates that the educated respondents use the service of internet banking. Based on occupation we can say that the service class and the business class is the one who use internet banking service to nearly 2 times as other occupation. The high income respondents having more than 1 lack income prefer to use this service. The private sector bank account holders use this service as compared to public sector banks. The banking attributes i.e. convenience and security do have very attentive influence on the use of Internet banking.

  19. Growth of salmonellae on sprouting alfalfa seeds as affected by the inoculum size, native microbial load, and Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79

    The incidence of human illness associated with the consumption of fresh sprouts has increased very sharply during the past decade. The objective of this study was to investigate the growth dynamics of salmonellae on sprouting alfalfa seeds as affected by the inoculum size, native microbial load, an...

  20. Factors Affecting Pathogenicity of Sclerotium rolfsii Isolate SC64 to Broadleaf Weeds under Simulated Dry-seeded Rice Condition%室内模拟旱直播稻田环境下齐整小核菌Sclerotium rolfsii菌株SC64致病力的影响因子及除草效果的研究

    唐伟; 朱云枝; 强胜

    2012-01-01

    The fungus Sclerotium rolfsii is presently under development as a bioherbicide for broadleaf weed species by using fungus-infested solid substrates as application material in this laboratory.We examined the effect of host-plant growth stage,dosage of inoculum,soil moisture condition,temperature,and damp soil duration on plant mortality and fresh weight inhibition of eclipta(Eclipta prostrata) caused by isolate SC64 in pot experiments under greenhouse conditions.Perfect control efficacy was recorded following application before 5 leaf stage,with over 100 g m 2fungus-infested substrates(rice husk/bran substrate,2:1,v/v),and exposure of weeds to 27 33 ℃,soil of 90% water holding capacity and at least 24 h damp soil duration.A simulation experiment of dry-seeded rice was carried out to examine the performance of S.rolfsii SC64 to broadleaf weeds under greenhouse conditions.Results showed that isolate SC64(120 g m 2) caused 81% and 74% plant mortality,83.8% and 82.5% fresh weight reduction for Rotala indica and Monochoria vaginalis,respectively.Plant mortality and fresh weight reduction for Cyperus difformis and Ammannia arenaria were relatively lower,which were approximately 50% and 60% 65%,respectively.It was indicated that this fungus could be a good candidate for further study and a promising biocontrol agent against broadleaf weeds under specific environmental conditions.%本文通过温室盆栽试验,以鳢肠Eclipta prostrata为例,研究杂草叶龄、不同含菌丝体基质接种量以及温度、土壤湿度、保湿期时间等环境因子对菌株SC64侵染鳢肠的影响。在此基础上,温室条件下模拟旱直播水稻田环境下菌株SC64防治节节菜Rotala indica、异型莎草Cyperus difformis、鸭舌草Monochoria vaginalis和耳叶水苋Ammannia arenaria的试验。结果表明,鳢肠幼苗在5叶期以下,接种含菌丝体固体基质剂量在100g m 2以上,温度范围27~33℃,土壤相对饱水90%左右,并

  1. Toxic Compound, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Protein Isolated from Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake

    Worapot Suntornsuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The objective of this work was to detoxify J. curcas seed cake and study the toxin, anti-nutritional factors and also functional properties of the protein isolated from the detoxified seed cake. The yield of protein isolate was approximately 70.9%. The protein isolate was obtained without a detectable level of phorbol esters. The solubility of the protein isolate was maximal at pH 12.0 and minimal at pH 4.0. The water and oil binding capacities of the protein isolate were 1.76 g water/g protein and 1.07 mL oil/g protein, respectively. The foam capacity and stability, including emulsion activity and stability of protein isolate, had higher values in a range of basic pHs, while foam and emulsion stabilities decreased with increasing time. The results suggest that the detoxified J. curcas seed cake has potential to be exploited as a novel source of functional protein for food applications.

  2. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers. PMID:16425649

  3. Factors affecting the next generation of nuclear power

    For both financial, environmental and health reasons, and because of external and internal factors affecting this nation's energy supply, nuclear power will likely play a part in supplying this nation's energy in the coming decades. I believe this to be true for some other parts of the world as well. Even some severe critics of the nuclear power industry and the NRC might agree with me on this point. Increasing concern with the environmental consequences of the burning of fossil fuels has led some former opponents of the use of nuclear power to balance anew the risks and benefits of nuclear power and to modify to some degree their former opposition. A related concern with the adequacy of the energy supply is leading others to modify their positions. According to analyses done by the U.S. Department of Energy, after 1994 the United States will no longer be able to assure all its citizens a reliable supply of electricity. Already, many areas of the country are in need of additional electric capacity. In both Sweden and Switzerland, similar concerns have led to the adoption by many of more compromising positions. Some critics of nuclear power may in the end still reject it as an alternative, but, with the increased pressures on the environment and on our energy supply, nuclear power is an alternative which cannot be rejected without the most serious consideration. This should be, I believe, a point of consensus among us. In sum, there is a future for nuclear power in the sense that there is a use for it

  4. [The prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in schoolchildren and affecting factors].

    Giray, Hatice; Keskinoğlu, Pembe

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine the factors affecting the presence of Enterobius vermicularis in schoolchildren. This investigation was a cross-sectional and analytic study. The dependent variable was the presence of parasites and the independent variables were the characteristics of the children, families, houses, toilets and drinking water. A stool specimen was taken in the morning using the cellophane tape method, and examined the same day by microscopy. Data were evaluated using the Chi square test and logistic regression analysis and p children was 8.6+/-2.0 years. The number of residents in their homes averaged 5.4+/-2.0, the average number of children in the homes was 3.2+/-1.9 and 290 (60.8%) houses were single dwellings. The source for piped water in 404 houses (84.7%) was the city network, and there were modern sanitary facilities (toilets) in 377 (70.6%) houses. Enterobius vermicularis was found in 209 (43.8%) children. According to logistic regression analyses, the rate of Enterobius vermicularis was found to be 3.05 times higher in students from the Sait Guzelcan primary school, if there were more than 6 residents in the home 2.05 times even higher and 2.02 times still higher if there were no sanitary facilities at his/her home. When there was a history of parasites in the family, the risk was significantly decreased. The prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in schoolchildren was higher in slum areas, in crowded homes and in those that lacked modern sanitary facilities. PMID:17124657

  5. Factors affecting a climber's ability to ascend Mont Blanc.

    Tsianos, G; Woolrich-Burt, L; Aitchison, T; Peacock, A; Watt, M; Montgomery, H; Watt, I; Grant, S

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the factors affecting a climber's ability to ascend Mont Blanc using a number of variables collected at the Gouter Hut (3,817 m) before and after an attempted ascent on the Mont Blanc summit. Subjects (n=285) were tested at 3,817 m prior to their ascent of Mont Blanc. Maximum height ascended in the last 14 days was recorded. End tidal CO2, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), heart rate and respiratory rate were measured using a Capnograph (Nellcor Patrick NPB75). Acute mountain sickness (AMS) was assessed using the Lake Louise scoring system. Summit information is available for 216 subjects. None of the subjects who attained 4,000 m in the previous 14 days failed to reach the summit (P=0.04). Previous recent exposure to an altitude of 4,000 m resulted in faster ascent times to the summit than those who had not been above 3,000 m in the previous 14 days (4.02+/-0.6 vs. 4.46+/-0.8 h, P=0.009), higher SaO2 on arrival at the Gouter Hut on day 1 (88.6+/-5 vs. 86.3+/-6%, P=0.004) and lower AMS scores upon arrival at the Gouter Hut after the attempted ascent to the summit 2.5+/-1.8 versus 4.7+/-2.5 U (P=0.001), respectively. It is concluded that recent exposure to 4,000 m confers an advantage to those who wish to ascend a 4,800 m peak. PMID:16235066

  6. Factors Affecting the Sustainability of Groundwater-Source Cooling

    Ferguson, G. A.; Woodbury, A. D.

    2004-12-01

    The use of groundwater in thermal applications has grown in popularity due to increases in environmental awareness and rising energy costs. While this source of energy is generally seen as beneficial to the environment, changes in subsurface temperatures resulting from thermal development and other factors may make this practice unsustainable. An example of such changes in subsurface temperatures has been observed in Winnipeg, Manitoba, where groundwater is extensively used for cooling applications. Temperatures in a regional aquifer beneath the city were found to be as much as ten degrees Celsius greater than those measured in surrounding rural areas. Numerical modeling indicates increases in temperature of up to 5 degrees Celsius can be attributed to downward heat flow originating in buildings in many cases. Areas where increases in temperature were found to be greater corresponded to areas where water is being injected into the aquifer. This water is being produced in the process of using groundwater for cooling applications, such as air conditioning and industrial cooling, and is being injected back into the aquifer to maintain hydraulic head and reduce the demand on Winnipeg's sewer system. In most cases, the heat introduced by injecting this water is significantly affecting temperatures at the production well of the same system and numerical modeling indicates that this is inevitable with the current method of development. The combination of heat loss from buildings and injection of heated water is largely responsible for a reduction in the efficiency of groundwater as a coolant and may eventually make the use of groundwater in cooling applications unsustainable.

  7. 78 FR 46418 - Proposed Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity...

    2013-07-31

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting... dependents, may affect the amount of benefit that he or she receives or affect the right to receive...

  8. Steady shear flow behavior of sage seed gum affected by various salts and sugars: Time-independent properties.

    Yousefi, Ali R; Eivazlou, Razieh; Razavi, Seyed M A

    2016-10-01

    The rheological properties of food hydrocolloids are remarkably influenced by the quality of solvent/cosolutes in a food system. In this work, the steady shear flow behavior of sage seed gum (SSG, 0.5% w/w) at the presence of different levels of salts (KCl & MgCl2, 0-100mM) and sugars (sucrose, lactose & glucose, 0-6% w/w) was studied. It was found that the rheological properties of SSG were affected by the type of sugars and salts and their concentrations as well. Synergistic interaction was observed between SSG and sugars which enhanced the viscosity of gum solutions, while salts addition diminished the viscosity. SSG solutions exhibited a shear thinning behavior at all conditions tested. Various time-independent rheological models were used to fit the shear stress-shear rate data, although the Herschel-Bulkley (R(2)=0.994-0.999) and Sisko (R(2)=0.995-0.999) models showed the best results to describe the flow behavior of SSG. In the presence of salts, the yield stress (τ0), consistency coefficient (k), and flow behavior index (n) values decreased. The k and τ0 values enhanced and the n value lowered in the presence of sugars. Divalent cations of Mg(2+) and sucrose roughly showed more effect on rheological parameters than others. PMID:27316768

  9. Toxic Compound, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Protein Isolated from Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake

    Worapot Suntornsuk; Donlaporn Saetae

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The ob...

  10. Seed germination and emergence of Eragrostis tenuifolia (A. Rich.) Hochst. ex Steud. in response to environmental factors

    Hertwig Bittencourt Henrique von; Silva Bonome Lisandro Tomas da; Bortoli Pagnoncelli Fortunato de; Lana Marcos Alberto; Trezzi Michelangelo Muzell

    2016-01-01

    Eragrostis tenuifolia is a weed species that is gaining ground in Brazil. This weed occurs in pastures, grasslands, crop fields, and roadsides. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of different environmental factors on E. tenuifolia seed germination and seedling emergence. The optimum constant temperature for germination was around 35-30°C. It was also found that 85% of seeds germinated under a 30/20°C alternate temperature regime. Light appears to have a positive effect on ...

  11. Empirical Research on Factors that Influence the Behavior Decision of Repeated Seed Purchase for Farmers – Field investigation based on 519 vegetable farmers in Wuhan City

    Kang Guoguang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article makes an analysis on the factors and impact on decision of repeated seed purchase behavior for farmers by using the field investigation data from 519 vegetable farmers around Wuhan City and the binary Logit model and ordered Logit model. It is found from the research that: repeated seed purchase is a common phenomenon as 84% of sample farmers have this behavior: the factors, such as education degree, risk attitude, Perceived Value, seed quality, seed purchase convenience, relationship trust and obstacle transfer, will influence the behavior or willingness of farmers to repeatedly purchase the seeds. The farmers with higher education degree or risk preference are more willing to try out new varieties; Improving farmer’s Perceived Value for the purchased seeds and the trust in distributors, as well as the relatively high seed quality, will increase farmer’s willingness for repeated seed purchase; While the higher costs for information seeking, costs for technical study and other transfer obstacle factors have a significant prohibitive effect on the farmers to prevent them from purchasing new varieties of seeds, and they tend to make decision of repeated seed purchase.

  12. Antioxidative Activities of Both Oleic Acid and Camellia tenuifolia Seed Oil Are Regulated by the Transcription Factor DAF-16/FOXO in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Chia-Cheng Wei

    Full Text Available Tea seed oil is a high quality edible oil, yet lacking sufficient scientific evidences to support the nutritional and medical purposes. We identified major and minor components in Camellia tenuifolia seed oil and investigated the antioxidative activity and its underlying mechanisms in Caenorhabditis elegans.The results showed that the major constitutes in C. tenuifolia seed oil were unsaturated fatty acids (~78.4%. Moreover, two minor compounds, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol, were identified and their antioxidative activity was examined. We found that oleic acid was the major constitute in C. tenuifolia seed oil and plays a key role in the antioxidative activity of C. tenuifolia seed oil in C. elegans.This study found evidences that the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO was involved in both oleic acid- and C. tenuifolia seed oil-mediated oxidative stress resistance in C. elegans. This study suggests the potential of C. tenuifolia seed oil as nutrient or functional foods.

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING THE IMPORT OF WHEAT IN SAUDI ARABIA

    Al-Goosi, Adbullah I.

    1980-01-01

    The modern economy of Saudi Arabia depends primarily on oil exports. Oil being the source of most of the country's exports, foreign exchange, and government revenues, it follows that the oil sector affects the economy rather than the economy affecting the oil sector. Saudi Arabia lacks natural resources for most of its essential goods and because of sudden high income, it has become necessary to introduce new strategies for producing necessary goods and services. Since Saudi Arabia depends mo...

  14. Factors Affecting Length of Job Search and Job Switching in Davao City, Philippines

    Deluna, Roperto; Berdos, Kleint

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze factors affecting length of job search and job switching in Davao City. Ordinary Least Square (OLS) was used to examine factors affecting length of job search. Factors affecting probability of job switching was examined using logit regression model. Result shows that on the average, length of job search in Davao City is around 5 months. OLS estimation revealed that age of the job seeker and being a household head significantly affects the length of j...

  15. Factors modifying radiation induced stimulation in plants: pre-irradiation seed moisture content

    The effect of moisture content of seeds at the time of irradiation in relation to radiation-induced stimulation was investigated on rice. The optimum moisture content was 8% for stimulation measured as seedling height. It is concluded that seed moisture at the time of irradiation plays an important role in the expression of stimulation and its reproducibility. (orig.)

  16. Factors affecting quality of life in postmenopausal women, Isfahan, 2011

    Norozi, Ensiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Moodi, Mitra; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Context: Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period. Aims: The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 hea...

  17. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote (Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox (Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl (Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye (Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  18. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-07-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat ( Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse ( Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote ( Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl ( Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass ( Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass ( Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye ( Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  19. Risk factors affecting somatosensory function after sagittal split osteotomy

    Thygesen, Torben Henrik; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Helleberg, M; Norholt, SE; Jensen, John; Svensson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate potential individual and intraoperative risk factors associated with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) and to correlate the findings with postoperative changes in somatosensory function. Patients and Methods A total of 18 men and 29 women (mean...... somatosensory function after BSSO is dependent on both intraoperative risk factors and preoperative sensation levels....

  20. Examining Factors That Affect Students' Knowledge Sharing within Virtual Teams

    He, Jinxia; Gunter, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that might impact student knowledge sharing within virtual teams through online discussion boards. These factors include: trust, mutual influence, conflict, leadership, and cohesion. A path model was developed to determine whether relationships exist among knowledge sharing from asynchronous group…

  1. An Empirical Analysis of Factors Affecting Honors Program Completion Rates

    Savage, Hallie; Raehsler, Rod D.; Fiedor, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important issues in any educational environment is identifying factors that promote academic success. A plethora of research on such factors exists across most academic fields, involving a wide range of student demographics, and the definition of student success varies across the range of studies published. The analysis in this…

  2. A new factor affecting free-radical of wood surface

    The authors took Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Sieb.) as sample wood and studied the change of free-radical concentration of the sample wood surface by means of these factors: electromagnetic radiation, water, heat, oxygen, and ozone. The results showed that among above factors, the most important one which degraded the lignin and produced the free-radicals mainly is ultraviolet radiation

  3. FACTORS AFFECTING CITY DESTINATION CHOICE AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE IN SERBIA

    Nemanja Tomić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to explore factors which influence city destination choice among young people in Serbia. In order to achieve this we conducted a survey consisting of 20 different items influencing the choice of city destination. Afterwards the principal component exploratory factor analysis (EFA was carried out in order to extract factors. T-test and ANOVA test were also used to determine if there is a difference between different gender and age groups in terms of which factors influence their choice of a city destination. The results indicate four motivating factors extracted by factor analysis, from which Good hospitality and restaurant service seems to be the major motivating factor. The results also show that respondents belonging to the age group of under 25 give more importance to Information and promotion as well as to Good hospitality and restaurant service than those belonging to older age groups. The same two factors are also more important to females than males.

  4. Dietary factors that affect the bioavailability of carotenoids

    Hof, van het K.H.; West, C.E.; Weststrate, J.A.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. Various dietary factors have an effect on the bioavailability of carotenoids. The type of food matrix in which carotenoids are located is a major factor. The bioavailability of ß-carotene from vegetab

  5. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  6. Factors affecting high resting pulse rate in military pilots

    Minarma Siagian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Pilot terpajan pada keadaan yang memerlukan kewaspadaan yang meningkatkan kegiatan sistem saraf simpatis. Hal ini dapat berdampak pada sistem kardiovaskular manusia, yang antara lain tercermin pada peningkatan frekuensi denyut jantung. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh beberapa faktor yang meningkatkan frekuensi denyut jantung pada pilot. Metode:Penelitian nested case-control yang dilakukan pada pilot militer yang melakukan pemeriksaan fisik tahunan di Lembaga Kesehatan Penerbangan dan Ruang Angkasa (LAKESPRA Saryanto dari tahun 2003 sampai 2008. Data yang diperoleh dari rekam medik berupa umur, pangkat, jumlah jam terbang, rata-rata jam terbang per tahun, dan jenis pesawat. Hasil: Dari 539 pilot, terdapat 155 pilot dengan frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi. Dibandingkan dengan pilot berumur 23-29 tahun, pilot berumur 30-39 tahun mempunyai risiko 66% lebih banyak untuk frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi [rasio odds suaian (ORa = 1,66; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 1,17-2,35, P = 0,004], sedangkan yang berumur 40-49 tahun berisiko 2,4 kali (ORa = 2,40; P = 0,000]. Dibandingkan pilot pesawat transport, pilot pesawat tempur berisiko 59% lebih banyak dengan frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi (ORa = 1,59; P = 0,002. Kesimpulan:Umur pilot yang semakin tua dan jenis pesawat tempur meningkatkan risiko frekuensi nadi istirahat pada pilot. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:51-4Kata kunci:umur, jenis pesawat terbang, frekuensi nadi istirahat, pilotAbstractBackground:Pilots are almost constantly exposed to emergency situations which increase sympathetic activity. This will affect the cardiovascular system, which among others will be reflected by increased resting pulse rate. The aim of this study was to investigate factors that increase resting pulse rate in pilots. Methods:A nested case-control study was conducted on Indonesian Air Force military pilots doing annual medical check-ups at the Saryanto Institute for Medical and Health

  7. Insulin-like growth factor- I and factors affecting it in thalassemia major

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvement of blood transfusion regimens and iron chelation therapy growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis still occur in good number of thalassemic patients. Decreased IGF-1 secretion occurs in the majority of the thalassemic patients particularly those with growth and pubertal delay. Many factors contribute to this decreased synthesis of IGF-I including disturbed growth hormone (GH - insulin-like growth factor - I (IGF-I axis. The possible factors contributing to low IGF-I synthesis in thalassemia and the possible interaction between low IGF-I secretion and the occurrence of these complications is discussed in this mini-review. Improvement of IGF-I secretion in thalassemic patients should be intended to improve linear growth and bone mineral accretion in thalassemic patients. This can be attained through adequate correction of anemia and proper chelation, nutritional supplementation (increasing caloric intake, correction of vitamin D and zinc deficiencies, induction of puberty and correction of hypogonadism at the proper time and treating GH deficiency. This review paper provides a summary of the current state of knowledge regarding IGF-I and factors affecting it in patients with thalassaemia major (TM. Search on PubMed and reference lists of articles with the term ′IGF-I, GH, growth, thalassemia, thyroxine, anemia, vitamin D, and zinc′ was carried out. A hundred and forty-eight articles were found and used in the write up and the data analyzed was included in this report.

  8. Partial isolation and characterisation of a hemagglutinating factor from avocado seed.

    Yaakobovich, Y; Neeman, I

    1983-01-01

    Extracts of ground avocado seeds (Fuerte and Hass varieties), prepared in different buffer solutions (pH 2.0-12.0), show hemagglutinating activity towards A, B, AB, and H (0) human erythrocytes. The extract showing the highest titer of aggulination was extracted at pH 10.5. The crude extract also causes hemolysis of fresh washed erythrocytes. The hemagglutinating factor is not inhibited by most of the simple sugars tested, e.g., D-glucose, D-mannose, D-galactose, and glucose-amine. The only sugars which show some inhibitory effect are N-Acetyl-neuraminic acid, melibiose, and stachiose. Basic amino acids, e.g., lysine and arginine also inhibit its activity. However the most potent inhibitors of the agglutinin are proteins and glycoproteins such as bovine serum albumin, collagen, thyroglobulin, ovalbumin, mucin, and fetuin. The agglutinin is adsorbed on polymer beads such as Sepharose 4B, Sephadex G100, Agarose, and Chitin, and it reacts with hog erythrocyte membranes. It can be partially eluted from those materials with alkaline buffers (pH 9.0-10.5). PMID:6578749

  9. Sexual dimorphism of staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) affects pollinator behavior and seed set.

    Davis, Sandra L; Dudle, Dana A; Nawrocki, Jenna R; Freestone, Leah M; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B; Britton, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual

  10. Factors and pharmaceuticals that affect the radiopharmaceuticals bio distributions

    The pattern of biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals may be affected by various agents and therapeutical procedures, chemotherapy agents, thyroid hormones, metals, radiotherapy, surgery, anesthetic agents, dialysis other radiopharmaceutical interactions. Recommendations for the detection of altered biodistribution in patients by causes not directly related with the pathology itself was given. pathology itself was given

  11. Demotivating Factors Affecting EFL Learning of Iranian Seminary Students

    Tabatabaei, Omid; Molavi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the demotives affecting EFL learning of Iranian Islamic seminary students and also to distinguish the motivated and demotivated EFL learners in terms of their EFL learning as the major focus of this study. Fifty Iranian EFL seminary students were investigated using two validated…

  12. Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities

    Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

  13. CRITICAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE UTILIZATION OF CLOUD COMPUTING

    Alberto Daniel Salinas Montemayor; Jesús Fabián López; Jesús Cruz Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    This research presets the critical factors that influence the use of cloud computing, in case studies of large and medium-sized enterprises in the metropolitan area of Monterrey.  The critical factors are found, according to literature: dependency provider; ignorance of the location, where the information, service knowledge, knowledge of laws, service offered by suppliers, is stored; cost; and information security, describing the research and development, which are significant and demonstrati...

  14. Factors affecting attitudes towards medical abortion in Lithuania

    Lazarus, Jeff; Nielsen, Stine; Jakubcionyte, Rita;

    2006-01-01

    Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal.......Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal....

  15. Factors affecting healing after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair

    Abtahi, Amir M.; Granger, Erin K.; Tashjian, Robert Z.

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff repair has been shown to have good long-term results. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of repairs still fail to heal. Many factors, both patient and surgeon related, can influence healing after repair. Older age, larger tear size, worse muscle quality, greater muscle-tendon unit retraction, smoking, osteoporosis, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia have all shown to negatively influence tendon healing. Surgeon related factors that can influence healing include repair constru...

  16. Factors Affecting Placement of a Child with Intellectual Disability

    Isack Kandel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents of disabled children often face the question whether or not to keep the child at home or to place them. The choice between the two alternatives resides with the parents and various factors influence their decision. Several researchers have identified these factors, which include child-related parameters, family and parental attitudes, the influence of the social environment, and the external assistance provided to the family. In a pilot study, we attempted to isolate the main factors involved in the parental decision either to keep the child at home or place the child by examining a sample comprised of 50 parents of children suffering severe intellectual disability studying in a special education school and 48 parents of adults with intellectual disability working in sheltered workshops. Each parent filled out a questionnaire used in a study in the United States and results of the research indicated parental-related factors as the dominant factors that delayed the placement of their child in residential care; guilt feelings were the main factor.

  17. THE TYPE OF PACKAGING MATERIAL AND STORAGE CONDITIONS AS FACTORS FOR WHEAT SEED QUALITY

    Josip Šimenić

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed of cereal is normally grown on 5-8% of the overall plots under cereals in the Republic of Croatia. The produced seed meets the needs for high quality seed of wheat, barley, oat and other cereals. Certain quantities of seed remain unsold every year and are kept at various storage conditions and in various packaging material. The objective of this paper was to find out which storage conditions and what sort of packaging material would provide for the best viability of wheat seed. The investigation was carried out at storage simulation and by using various packaging material. In addition to well-known packaging material, such as paper 2 and 4-layer bags, jute bags, and PPR bags, the seed was also packed in the PVC transparent and PVC black bags, as well as in bags made of Aluminium foil. The investigation lasted for two years and was carried out in three various storage conditions, such as in the "New Warehouse" - a warehouse of a new type with thermal isolation in the roof and with uncontrolled conditions, ii the "Old Warehouse" made of filled-in brick and with a roof made of asbestos board, and iii under the "Eaves". The results have shown that the best seed was obtained when packed in 2 and 4-layer paper bags, PVC transparent bags and those made of Aluminium foil. Poorer results were obtained with bags of jute, polypropeline bags and PVC black bags. The storage of seed at "Eaves" has attained the best results in both years of the investigation, as compared to all three types of storage and it can in our circumstances meet the needs for wheat seed storage during one year

  18. Factores que afectan al rendimiento en carreras de fondo. [Factors affecting long-distance running performance].

    Ana Ogueta-Alday

    2016-07-01

    and runners are interested on learning about the factors that affect long-distance running performance. Facing this new reality, scientific literature has been concerned about the aforementioned factors, and the amount of studies has considerably grown. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to analyse factors affecting long-distance running performance from different points of view. Literature review was performed through 3 different databases (Medline, SportDiscus and Google Scholar and the factors were classified into 5 main groups, subdivided into different sections: 1- environmental (air/wind, temperature, humidity, altitude and slope of the ground, 2- training-related (endurance, resistance, training in hot environments and in altitude, 3- physiological (VO2max, thersholds, running economy, age, gender, muscle fibre type, fatigue and race, 4- biomechanical (anthropometry, leg-stiffness, flexibility, foot strike pattern, footwear, foot orthoses and spatio-temporal parameters and 5- psychological (intervention strategies, direction of attention and music. Even though the influence of some of these factors on running performance in quite well-known, the influence of some psychological (direction of attention and music and biomechanical factors (foot strike pattern and spatio-temporal parameters is still unclear. There are few studies or the results cannot be generalized. Future studies and the progress of new technologies and measurement tools will provide a better understanding.

  19. Modeling the Arabidopsis seed shape by a cardioid: efficacy of the adjustment with a scale change with factor equal to the Golden Ratio and analysis of seed shape in ethylene mutants.

    Cervantes, Emilio; Javier Martín, José; Ardanuy, Ramón; de Diego, Juana G; Tocino, Angel

    2010-03-15

    A new model for the description of Arabidopsis seed shape based on the comparison of the outline of its longitudinal section with a transformed cardioid is presented. The transformation consists of scaling the horizontal axis by a factor equal to the Golden Ratio. The elongated cardioid approximates the shape of the Arabidopsis seed with more accuracy than other figures. The length to width ratio in wild-type Columbia Arabidopsis dry seeds is close to the Golden Ratio and decreases over the course of imbibition. Dry seeds of etr1-1 mutants presented a reduced length to width ratio. Application of the new model based on the cardioid allows for comparison of shape between wild-type and mutant genotypes, revealing other general alterations in the seeds in ethylene signaling pathway mutants (etr1-1). PMID:19880215

  20. Molecular mechanism of extrinsic factors affecting antiagingof stem cells

    Tzyy Yue Wong; Mairim Alexandra Solis; Ying-Hui Chen; Lynn Ling-Huei Huang

    2015-01-01

    Scientific evidence suggests that stem cells possessthe anti-aging ability to self-renew and maintaindifferentiation potentials, and quiescent state. Theobjective of this review is to discuss the microenvironmentwhere stem cells reside in vivo , thesecreted factors to which stem cells are exposed, thehypoxic environment, and intracellular factors includinggenome stability, mitochondria integrity, epigeneticregulators, calorie restrictions, nutrients, and vitaminD. Secreted tumor growth factor-β and fibroblastgrowth factor-2 are reported to play a role in stem cellquiescence. Extracellular matrices may interact withcaveolin-1, the lipid raft on cell membrane to regulatequiescence. N-cadherin, the adhesive protein on nichecells provides support for stem cells. The hypoxicmicro-environment turns on hypoxia-inducible factor-1to prevent mesenchymal stem cells aging throughp16 and p21 down-regulation. Mitochondria expressglucosephosphate isomerase to undergo glycolysisand prevent cellular aging. Epigenetic regulators suchas p300, protein inhibitors of activated Stats and H19help maintain stem cell quiescence. In addition, calorierestriction may lead to secretion of paracrines cyclicADP-ribose by intestinal niche cells, which help maintainintestinal stem cells. In conclusion, it is crucial tounderstand the anti-aging phenomena of stem cells atthe molecular level so that the key to solving the agingmystery may be unlocked.

  1. Spurious thermoluminescence in archaeological ceramics: a study of affecting factors

    The presence of spurious emission heavily affects thermoluminescence measurements, and attempts were made to identify its causes and to circumvent or eliminate it. Samples showing spurious TL, as well as samples with an excellent thermoluminescent behaviour have been analyzed by means of DTA-TG (Differential Thermal Analysis-Thermogravimetric Analysis) and X-ray diffraction. It has been found that more than one kind of spurious thermoluminescence exists, and that calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, organic matter and moisture cannot be considered as a general source of spurious TL. Where spurious emission is present, the magnetic fraction of the sample is heavily affected, while in the low magnetic susceptibility fraction a reduction of such emission is obtained. (author)

  2. Factors affecting Maillard induced gelation of protein-sugar systems

    Azhar, Mat Easa

    1996-01-01

    Gelation due to the Maillard reaction took place when solutions containing a low level of bovine serum albumin were heated in the presence of carbonyl compounds. The Maillard reaction caused a change in colour, a decrease in the pH and induced gelation. These changes were dependent on the type and concentration of sugars or protein and on the heating conditions used. Reducing sugar and Maillard reaction products (e.g. glyoxal) affected these changes, yet their order of reactivity for browning...

  3. Factors affecting willingness to communicate in a Spanish university context

    Lahuerta Martínez, Ana Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the relationships among the variables believed to affect Spanish undergraduates’ willingness to communicate in English. The participants were 195 students majoring in several degrees at the University of Oviedo. A questionnaire and a standardized English Test were administered to the students in February-March 2013. Regression analysis showed that the Spanish undergraduates’ motivation to learn English had a significant relationship with their willingness to communi...

  4. ASSESSING FACTORS THAT AFFECT COPING STRATEGIES AMONG NURSING PERSONNEL

    Zyga, Sofia; Mitrousi, Stavroula; Alikari, Victoria; Sachlas, Athanasios; Stathoulis, John; Fradelos, Evangelos; Panoutsopoulos, Georgios; Maria, Lavdaniti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The nursing profession is characterized as one of the most stressful professions. A significant number of international surveys prove that nurses experience anxiety that often is accompanied by intense symptoms that negatively affect their work performance and their psychological mood. Aim: To evaluate the ways of coping in stress adopted by the nursing staff and their relationship with sociodemographic and job characteristics. Methodology: A cross-sectional, quantitative study ...

  5. Factors affecting the relationship between trauma and illness behavior

    Chandler, Helena Kate

    2002-01-01

    Associations between the experience of traumatic events and illness behaviors such as health complaints and healthcare use are reported in recent studies. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms and diagnosis have been found to mediate this trauma-illness relationship. Differences in health behaviors have additionally been noted in the literature, with trauma victims engaging in more negative health behaviors, which may subsequently affect illness status. Further, illness behaviors ...

  6. Factors affecting the spontaneous mutational spectra in somatic mammalian cells

    О.А. Ковальова

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available  In our survey of references we are discussed the influence of factors biological origin on the spontaneous mutation specters in mammalian. Seasonal and age components influence on the frequence of cytogenetic anomalies. The immune and endocrinous systems are take part in control of the alteration of the spontaneous mutation specters. Genetical difference of sensibility in animal and human at the alteration of factors enviroment as and  genetical differences of repair systems activity are may influence on individual variation of spontaneous destabilization characters of chromosomal apparatus.

  7. The Factors Affecting Drug Abuse Among Addicted Women

    Mohammad Mehdi Rahmati

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and analyse some background factors that has some effect on the formation and continuity of addictive behavior among a sample of 1500 addicted persons on the 10 provinces of Iran. The article explores the processes under which the addictive behavior occures. Based on the findings of a survey research on a sample of 1500 drug abusers, it is concluded that factors such as addiction to cigarettes, alcohol, drug type, and methods and situations of approaching and access to drugs are effective in beginning of addiction. At last , the article pays special attention to addiction among women as the drug abusers.

  8. The importance of heat against antinutritional factors from Chenopodium quinoa seeds

    José Antonio da Silva; Dávia Guimarães Pompeu; Olavo Flores da Costa; Daniel Bonoto Gonçalves; Carlos Roberto Spehar; Sérgio Marangoni; Paulo Afonso Granjeiro

    2015-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa seeds have high protein content. The nutritional value of quinoa is superior compared with traditional cereals. Its essential amino acid composition is considered next to the ideal, and its quality matches that of milk proteins. In this study, the seed storage proteins from Chenopodium quinoa were extracted, fractionated, partially purified, and characterized. The structural characterization was performed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis, and it confi...

  9. [Effect of outer space factors on lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) flown on "Kosmos" biosatellites].

    Nevzgodina, L V; Maksimova, E N; Akatov, Iu A; Kaminskaia, E V; Marennyĭ, A M

    1990-01-01

    The effect of cosmic radiation on air-dry lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds was investigated. It was attempted to discriminate the effects of cosmic ionizing radiation per se and its combination with solar light radiation. It was found that the number of aberrant cells in the seeds exposed to solar light was smaller than that of cells chielded with 0.0008 to 0.0035 g/cm2 foil which could be attributed to photoreactivity. PMID:2329764

  10. Affective Factors in Vocational College Students’English Learning

    王琼

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the vocational college students’ experiences in English learning, classroom activities, attitudes to their English learning and achievements. It aims to find out how to make use of their positive personal factors to improve their English achievement so that both vocational college teachers and students may gain some enlightenment from the study.

  11. Determinants of Teacher Militancy: Factors Affecting the Decision to Strike.

    Tomkiewicz, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Statistical analysis of factors offered as explanations for teacher militancy demonstrates that they possess little value in differentiating striking from nonstriking school districts. Boards cannot depend on objective measures alone in preparing for negotiations and might better aim their efforts in other directions. (Author/IRT)

  12. Factors Affecting Recreation Preferences and Expectations of Disabled Adult Learners

    Arslan, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    Generalizing recreation services, one of the essential well-being sources of disabled persons who experience deprivation in many dimensions of life and which fulfill their learning needs, is a social responsibility. The present study aims to determine factors effective on recreation preferences and expectations of the disabled individuals who…

  13. Factors Affecting the Success of Hmong College Students in America

    Xiong, Soua; Lam, Sarah K. Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores barriers and success factors of Hmong students in American colleges by interviewing five Hmong graduate students from refugee families in the US. Emerging themes revolve around academic, cultural and financial barriers. Professors, advisors, classmates, academic support programmes, family, financial aid and their own…

  14. Factors affecting sleep/vigilance behaviour in incubating mallards

    Javůrková, V.; Hořák, D.; Kreisinger, J.; Klvaňa, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 4 (2011), s. 345-355. ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB601110803; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mallard * vigilance * antipredation behaviour * incubation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.008, year: 2011

  15. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

    2009-01-01

    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

  16. Historic Factors Affecting Educational Administration in Korean Higher Education.

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    1999-01-01

    An official of the Korean Education Department Institute analyzes the effect of historic factors on current educational administration in Korea. He suggests that Confucianism, Shinto-Confucianism, Christianity, and Western ideas mainly dominate current Korean educational administration's organizational structure, culture, and leadership, while…

  17. Factors Affecting High Child Poverty in the Rural South.

    Rogers, Carolyn C.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, 27 percent of rural children in the South were poor, compared to 17 percent elsewhere; the rural South also had more severe child poverty. Nationally, poor children were more likely to live in mother-only families; be Black; and have younger, less-educated, or unemployed parents. These factors were more prevalent in the rural South than…

  18. Factors Affecting University Teaching Team Effectiveness in Detached Working Environments

    Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…

  19. A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process

    Eda Atilgan-Inan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspectives of management in the related periods. The results indicated that organizational factors have always been important for new product development process, which is in line with the nature of the innovation process. But the emphasis on internal factors has increased in the 21st century which is congruent with the change in management perspective foregrounding resource based view. The study differs from the similar literature review studies on the point that it deals with the topic from international marketing perspective. Therefore, R&D and other marketing studies are not included in the review and the study proposes the important factors from international firms’ point of view.

  20. Individual Differences: Factors Affecting Employee Utilization of Flexible Work Arrangements

    Lambert, Alysa D.; Marler, Janet H.; Gueutal, Hal G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated individual and organizational factors that predict an individual's choice to use flexible work arrangements (FWAs). Survey data was collected from 144 employees in two different organizations. The results revealed several significant predictors of FWAs: tenure, hours worked per week, supervisory responsibilities,…

  1. Evaluation of factors affecting resolution of shallow water bottom features

    Mason, C. C.; Norris, D. R.; Browne, I. D.

    1972-01-01

    To ensure good aerial photography, the effects that factors such as submergence depth, sun angle, film and filter type, exposure, aircraft altitude, and polarization have on the photographic resolution of an underwater object must be determined. Various subjects were photographed, such as the deck of a small submersible, colored and gray scale panels, and natural bottom features. No underwater resolution target was used.

  2. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.; Steenstrup, L.D.;

    2002-01-01

    Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, M...

  3. @toread and Cool : Subjective, Affective and Associative Factors in Tagging

    Kipp, Margaret E.I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of non subject related tags in social bookmarking tools. Previous studies of tagging determined that many common tags are not directly subject related but are in fact affective tags dwelling on a user's emotional response to a document or are time and task related tags related to a users current projects or activities. These tags have been analysed to examine their role in the tagging process. (Paper at http://www.cais-acsi.ca/proceedings/2008/kipp_2008.pdf)

  4. Factors affecting the direct mineralization of CO2 with olivine

    Soonchul Kwon; Maohong Fan; Herbert F. M. DaCosta; Armistead G. Russell

    2011-01-01

    Olivine,one of the most abundant minerals existing in nature,is explored as a CO2 carbonation agent for direct carbonation of CO2 in flue gas.Olivine based CO2 capture is thermodynamically favorable and can form a stable carbonate for long-term storage.Experimental results have shown that water vapor plays an important role in improving CO2 carbonation rate and capacities.Other operation conditions including reaction temperature,initial CO2 concentration,residence time corresponding to the flow rate of CO2 gas stream,and water vapor concentration also considerably affect the performance of the technology.

  5. Chemical and biological factors affecting bioavailability of contaminants in seawater

    This paper discusses the influence that salinity has on the bioavailability of the two largest classes of contaminants, trace metals and organic compounds will be discussed. Although data on contaminant toxicity will be used to draw inferences about chemical availability, this discussion will focus on the properties that contaminants are likely to exhibit in waters of varying salinities. In addition, information on physiological changes that are affected by salinity will be used to illustrate how biological effects can alter the apparent availability of contaminants

  6. Factors affecting relative humidity during wood vacuum drying

    XIAO Hui; CAI Ying-chun

    2009-01-01

    Effects of pressure and temperature in the chamber during vacuum drying on the relative humidity and evaporation of wood surface were investigated by using the vacuum chamber. The setting temperature during vacuum drying included dry-bulb temperature td, the wet-bulb temperature tw and the temperature difference between the air in the vacuum chamber and the cooling water in the condenser. Results indicated that relative humidity during vacuum drying was affected by the dry-bulb temperature td, the wet-bulb temperature tw and the temperature difference between the air in the vacuum chamber and the water in the condenser. Relative humidity of wood decreased with the increase in temperature at the given temperature of the water in the condenser. The relative humidity was affected slightly by pressure in the vacuum chamber pA, and it decreased from 70% to 65% with pA increased from 50 kPa to 101 kPa. Moreover, there was nearly no evaporation under the vacuum without external heating.

  7. CRITICAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE UTILIZATION OF CLOUD COMPUTING

    Alberto Daniel Salinas Montemayor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research presets the critical factors that influence the use of cloud computing, in case studies of large and medium-sized enterprises in the metropolitan area of Monterrey.  The critical factors are found, according to literature: dependency provider; ignorance of the location, where the information, service knowledge, knowledge of laws, service offered by suppliers, is stored; cost; and information security, describing the research and development, which are significant and demonstrative in its impact.We used Cronbach's alpha to check the validity of the measurement instrument and used a linear regression method to measure the significance of the variables.  We also relied on some measuring instruments, such as Beta, R-squared, Standard Deviation, Anova, Tolerance, and Collinearity index to propose a model.

  8. Factors affecting beef consumption in the valley of Mexico

    Ricardo Tellez Delgado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to know the factors that determine the consumption of beef in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico, using logit and probit modeling (nominal variable with 400 surveys. The results showed that significant variables that determine the probability of purchasing beef are schooling, number of members per family, meat preference, family income, and presence of disease in the individual. The largest marginal effects on the purchase decision were provided by the income and the meat preference variables, while the price was not significant. The main factors that determine the consumption of beef are schooling and the number of members in the family, while the meat preference and income are dismissed.

  9. Pareto analysis of critical factors affecting technical institution evaluation

    Victor Gambhir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With the change of education policy in 1991, more and more technical institutions are being set up in India. Some of these institutions provide quality education, but others are merely concentrating on quantity. These stakeholders are in a state of confusion about decision to select the best institute for their higher educational studies. Although various agencies including print media provide ranking of these institutions every year, but their results are controversial and biased. In this paper, the authors have made an endeavor to find the critical factors for technical institution evaluation from literature survey. A Pareto analysis has also been performed to find the intensity of these critical factors in evaluation. This will not only help the stake holders in taking right decisions but will also help the management of institutions in benchmarking for identifying the most important critical areas to improve the existing system. This will in turn help Indian economy.

  10. Somatic cell and factors which affect their count in milk

    Zrinka Čačić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk quality is determined by chemical composition, physical characteristics and hygienic parameters. The main indicators of hygienic quality of milk are total number of microorganisms and somatic cell count (SCC. Environmental factors have the greatest influence on increasing SCC. The most important environmental parameters are status of udder infection, age of cow, stage of lactation, number of lactation, breed, housing, geographicalarea and seasons, herd size, stress, heavy physical activity and, milking. A farmer (milk producer himself can control a great number of environmental factors using good management practise and permanent education. Since SCC participate in creating the price of milk, it is necessary to inform milk producers how to organise their production so that they would produce maximum quantity of good hygienic quality milk.

  11. Factors Affecting Bank Switching Intentions in E-Banking

    Leyla ÖZER

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to identify and examine the factors that contribute to bank switching intentions of e-banking customers and whether these intentions differ according to demographic characteristics (age, gender, education, marital status and income levels of customers. Regression results suggested that customer dissatisfaction, low service quality, high price, unfavorable bank reputation, limited product variety and involuntary switching factors were positively related to customers’ bank switching intentions in e-banking. On the other hand, promotion efforts were negatively related to customers’ switching intentions. In addition to this, bank switching intentions were revealed to be differing according to education levels. Bank switching intentions of well-educated customers were tend to be higher, while age, gender, marital status and income level didn’t make a difference on intentions. Based on the empirical results of current study, we will provide several theoretical and managerial implications in the area of service industry.

  12. Factors affecting visualization of posterior rib fractures in abused infants

    Rib fractures in abused infants commonly occur in the posterior rib arcs. Fractures occurring near the costovertebral articulations are usually identified radiographically only once callus has formed. To assess the factors influencing the visibility of fractures near the costovertical articulations, the authors studied 103 posterior rib fractures occurring in 16 abused infants. Radiologic findings were correlated with CT findings and pathologic material from nine ribs in four patients. The limited visibility of fractures relates to (1) the frequent superimposition of the transverse process over the rib fracture site, (2) a fracture line that crosses at an obliquity to the x-ray beam, and (3) nondisplacement of rib fragments due to preservation of the posterior periosteum. Fresh rib fractures invisible on a frontal projection may be clearly defined on axial CT scans, or on postmortem radiographs. A knowledge of the factors influencing the visibility of these important injuries is useful in planning an appropriate diagnostic evaluation of suspected infant abuse

  13. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    Pelham, J.

    1991-12-31

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  14. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    Pelham, J.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  15. Factors affecting the growth of bifidobacteria in human milk

    Ročková, Š.; Nevoral, J.; Rada, V.; Maršík, Petr; Sklenář, Jan; Hlinková, A.; Vlková, E.; Marounek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2011), s. 504-508. ISSN 0958-6946 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/07/0572; GA ČR GD525/08/H060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : OLIGOSACCHARIDES * INFANTS * PREBIOTICS Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.401, year: 2011

  16. SOCIOECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND BEHAVIORAL FACTORS AFFECTING HISPANIC HEALTH OUTCOMES

    Morales, Leo S.; Lara, Marielena; Raynard S. Kington; VALDEZ, ROBERT O.; Escarce, José J.

    2002-01-01

    Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of t...

  17. Factors Affecting Investment Decision Making of Equity Fund Managers

    Qureshi, Salman Ali; Rehman, Kashif Ur; Hunjra, Ahmed Imran

    2012-01-01

    Traditional theories of finance assume that investors use all available information and make rational investment decision but in reality the scenario is different. Based upon the growing importance of behavioral finance the present study is an attempt to investigate the effect of behavioral factors such as heuristics, risk aversion, use of financial tools and firm level corporate governance on the decision making of equity fund managers of Pakistan. The study collected response from 327 equit...

  18. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Rocío Jiménez-Granado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell count (SCC in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI, and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cow’s milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats, prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births, milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking, seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards.

  19. Analysis of factors affecting the real estate market in Prague

    Kubečková, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The goal is to map the current real estate market in Prague, analyzing the factors that influence the demand for real estate on the basis of data obtained while working in the Prague real estate agency. This information I want to use to improve our work, to facilitate an understanding of the requirements and needs of clients in the real estate market. The result should be greater competitiveness of our real estate agency who will be able to expand and profit in future.

  20. International study of factors affecting human chromosome translocations

    Sigurdson, A.J.; Ha, M.; Hauptmann, M.; Bhatti, P.; Šrám, Radim; Beskid, Olena; Tawn, E.J.; Whitehouse, C.A.; Lindholm, C.; Nakano, M.; Kodama, Y.; Nakamura, N.; Vorobtsova, I.; Oestreicher, U.; Stephan, G.; Yong, L.C.; Bauchinger, M.; Schmid, E.; Chung, H.W.; Darroudi, F.; Roy, L.; Voisin, P.; Barquinero, J.F.; Livingston, G.; Blakey, D.; Hayata, I.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Ch.; Benett, L.M.; Littlefield, L.G.; Edwards, A.A.; Kleinerman, R.A.; Tucker, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 652, č. 2 (2008), s. 112-121. ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA MŽP SI/340/2/00; GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Chromosome translocations * FISH * Background frequency Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.363, year: 2008

  1. Prevalence and factors affecting enuresis amongst primary school children

    De Sousa, Avinash; Kapoor, Hema; Jagtap, Jyoti; Sen, Mercilina

    2007-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to establish the prevalence of enuresis in school children and to determine contributing factors along with treatment methods used in these children. Materials and Methods: The parents of 1473 children aged between 6-10 years completed a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. Socio-demographic profiles, enuresis data, medical and psychiatric disorders and family stressors were collected. The data was analyzed and the results presented. R...

  2. Factors affecting the adoption of healthcare information technology

    Naenna, Thanakorn; Phichitchaisopa, Nisakorn

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the quality and performance of healthcare services, healthcare information technology is among the most important technology in healthcare supply chain management. This study sets out to apply and test the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), to examine the factors influencing healthcare Information Technology (IT) services. A structured questionnaire was developed and distributed to healthcare representatives in each province surveyed in Thailand...

  3. Factors affecting the adoption of healthcare information technology

    Phichitchaisopa, Nisakorn; Naenna, Thanakorn

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the quality and performance of healthcare services, healthcare information technology is among the most important technology in healthcare supply chain management. This study sets out to apply and test the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), to examine the factors influencing healthcare Information Technology (IT) services. A structured questionnaire was developed and distributed to healthcare representatives in each province surveyed in Thailand. D...

  4. Review of factors affecting sustainability in the universities

    Ajilian, Hosna

    Understanding the factors which influence adopting sustainability practices in IHE is an important issue to develop more effective sustainability's methods and policies. The focus of this research is to find out a meaningful relationship between adopting sustainability practices and some of the characteristics of institutions of higher education (IHE). IHE can be considered as the best place to promote sustainability and develop the culture of sustainability in society. Thus, this research is conducted to help developing sustainability in IHE which have significant direct and indirect impact on society and the environment. First, the sustainability letter grades were derived from "Greenreportcard.org" which have been produced based on an evaluation of each school in nine main categories including: Administration, Climate Change & Energy, Food & Recycling, etc. In the next step, the characteristics of IHE as explanatory variables were chosen from "The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System" (IPEDS) and respective database was implemented in STATA Software. Finally, the "ordered-Probit Model" is used through STATA to analyze the impact of some IHE's factor on adopting sustainability practices on campus. The results of this analysis indicate that variables related to "Financial support" category are the most influential factors in determining the sustainability status of the university. "The university features" with two significant variables for "Selectivity" and "Top 50 LA" can be classified as the second influential category in this table, although the "Student influence" is also eligible to be ranked as the second important factor. Finally, the "Location feature" of university was determined with the least influential impact on the sustainability of campuses.

  5. Forest edges in boreal landscapes - factors affecting edge influence

    Jansson, Ulrika

    2009-01-01

    The boreal forest in Fennoscandia has been subjected to major loss and fragmentation of natural forests due to intensive forestry. This has resulted in that forest edges are now abundant and important landscape features. Edges have documented effects on the structure, function and biodiversity in forests. Edge influence on biodiversity is complex and depends on interactions between many local and regional factors. This thesis focuses on sharp forest edges and their potential to influence biod...

  6. Factors Affecting the Germination of Akinetes of Nodularia spumigena (Cyanobacteriaceae)

    Huber, Ann L.

    1985-01-01

    Nutritional and physical factors which influence the germination of akinetes of Nodularia spumigena (Cyanobacteriaceae) were examined. Low concentrations of phosphorus (45 μM, inhibited germination. Salinities of >20‰ were inhibitory to germination. Optimum temperatures were 22°C or greater. Germination did not take place in the dark, but only very low light intensities (0.5 microeinstein m−2 s−1) were necessary to initiate germination. Red light (620 to 665 nm) was required. More than 24 h o...

  7. Factors affecting maternal provisioning to the pre-natal environment

    Coakley, Christina Marie

    2014-01-01

    Maternal effects are important mechanisms by which mothers’ may influence the phenotype of their offspring. Females may vary in the resources they can provide during offspring development and understanding the factors responsible for this variation is key to understanding offspring success- in early life as well as later life. Differential allocation has been reported to occur, however how it impacts on offspring and mother’s future reproduction still remains unclear. This is also true for ma...

  8. Factors Affecting the Disposition of Ivermectin in the Target Species

    Laffont, Céline Marielle

    2003-01-01

    It was the aim of the thesis to contribute to the understanding of the diverse factors involved in the pharmacokinetics of ivermectin, a very potent antiparasitic drug widely used in both human and veterinary medicine. Ivermectin is extensively eliminated in faeces as parent drug and less active metabolites, irrespective of species and route of administration. It is currently believed that biliary secretion is the major route for the elimination of parent ivermectin from blood. However, using...

  9. Social factors affecting ART adherence in rural settings in Zambia

    Nozaki, Ikuma; Dube, Christopher; Kakimoto, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Norio; Simpungwe, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the factors that influence ART adherence arising in rural settings in Zambia. A survey was conducted with face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and written informed consent was obtained at ART sites in Mumbwa District in rural Zambia. The questionnaire included items such as the socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, support for adherence, ways to remember when to take ARVs at scheduled times, and the current status of...

  10. Factors affecting haematological indices in free-living fish populations

    Lusková, Věra

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 4 (1998), s. 249-255. ISSN 0001-7213. [International ichthyohaematology conference /5./. Protivín, 30.11.1998-03.12.1998] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA514/95/0203; GA AV ČR IAA6087704 Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.288, year: 1998 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol67/249-98.htm

  11. Factors Affecting Female Students' Academic Achievement at Bahir Dar University

    Mersha, Yeshimebrat; Bishaw, Alemayehu; Tegegne, Firew

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the on-campus and off-campus factors responsible for female students' low academic performance and consequently high attrition. Based on review of the related literature, basic research questions were formulated. For data gathering, both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed. The quantitative data were obtained through questionnaire. A pilot study was conducted to validate the instrument using 30 second year university st...

  12. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

    2014-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

  13. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Internet Banking in Nigeria

    Peter, Alex Alecheni O.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate customer’s point of view towards internet banking services and to identify some of the factors preventing customers from using internet banking in Nigeria. Fast growing industry of banking and the increased demand for bank services require a reliable infrastructure to meet the needs of customers through providing efficient services. Development of computer technology, especially the internet has made the banking industry offer services to customers in m...

  14. A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process

    Eda Atilgan-Inan; Aslihan Buyukkupcu; Serkan Akinci

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspectives of...

  15. The Negative Factors Affecting Total Quality Applications in Educational Organisations

    ÖZDEMİR, Soner M.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study is to explore the factors, which hinder the “total quality applications” in educational organisations particularly in schools. Throughout the literature, the total quality management has been recognized as an approach to promote customer satisfaction and continuous improvement in work places. By focusing on the problem solving and quality-centered work organisation, this approach has been recognized to enhance the quality of the work through effective collaboration...

  16. Key biogeochemical factors affecting soil carbon storage in Posidonia meadows

    Serrano, Oscar; Ricart, Aurora M.; Lavery, Paul S.; Mateo, Miguel Angel; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Masque, Pere; Rozaimi, Mohammad; Steven, Andy; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-08-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence the accumulation of organic carbon (Corg) in seagrass ecosystems. We surveyed Posidonia sinuosa meadows growing in different water depths to assess the variability in the sources, stocks and accumulation rates of Corg. We show that over the last 500 years, P. sinuosa meadows closer to the upper limit of distribution (at 2-4 m depth) accumulated 3- to 4-fold higher Corg stocks (averaging 6.3 kg Corg m-2) at 3- to 4-fold higher rates (12.8 g Corg m-2 yr-1) compared to meadows closer to the deep limits of distribution (at 6-8 m depth; 1.8 kg Corg m-2 and 3.6 g Corg m-2 yr-1). In shallower meadows, Corg stocks were mostly derived from seagrass detritus (88 % in average) compared to meadows closer to the deep limit of distribution (45 % on average). In addition, soil accumulation rates and fine-grained sediment content (factors within the meadow. We conclude that there is a need to improve global estimates of seagrass carbon storage accounting for biogeochemical factors driving variability within habitats.

  17. Distance to seed sources and land-use history affect forest development over a long-termheathland to forest succession

    Kepfer Rojas, Sebastian; Schmidt, Inger Kappel; Ransijn, Johannes;

    2014-01-01

    Questions Is there a spatial pattern in the community structure (stem densities, species richness and species composition) of trees and shrubs during more than 100 yr of heathland to forest succession? To what extent is community structure influenced by land-use history and distance to seed sources......? Do these effects change in time? Location A 350-ha heathland (Nørholm) in southwest Denmark was abandoned in 1895 and left for free succession. Prior to abandonment the heathland was under traditional management for centuries. Method Trees and shrubs were recorded and measured in ten surveys spanning...... analyse spatio-temporal patterns in stem densities, species richness and species composition and the effects of land-use history and distance to seed sources. Results Tree and shrub densities increased exponentially over time and were consistently lower at longer distance from seed sources. Land...

  18. Dinâmica do banco de sementes de arroz-vermelho afetado pelo pisoteio bovino e tempo de pousio da área Red rice seed bank dynamics affected by cattle trampling and fallow duration

    E. Marchezan

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a influência do pisoteio bovino e do tempo de pousio na dinâmica do banco de sementes de arroz-vermelho foi conduzido um experimento em lavoura comercial de arroz irrigado, que adota o sistema de cultivo mínimo, seguido de dois anos de pousio, manejada, nesse período, pelo pastejo de bovinos. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições no esquema bifatorial. O fator A constou dos manejos pós-colheita da cultura de arroz: [M1] - pousio com pisoteio animal e [M2] - pousio sem pisoteio animal. O fator B constou dos anos de amostragem: [A1] - 1999, [A2] - 2000 e [A3] - 2001. O banco de sementes de arroz-vermelho foi estimado através de 12 amostras de solo por parcela, em abril de 1999, abril de 2000 e abril de 2001, com trado cilíndrico de 10 cm de diâmetro. As profundidades de coleta das amostras de solo foram de 0-1 cm, 1-5 cm, 5-10 cm e 10-15 cm. Após a coleta, os grãos de arroz-vermelho foram separados do solo, contados e submetidos ao teste de tetrazólio, para estimativa da viabilidade. O pisoteio bovino não afetou a distribuição das sementes no perfil do solo, bem como a dinâmica do banco de sementes. Houve efeito do tempo de pousio sobre o banco de sementes de arroz-vermelho; a equação que melhor explica a correlação entre número de sementes viáveis e tempo de pousio, em meses, foi a equação exponencial y = 1382,15 exp (-0,1988*x pAn experiment was conducted in a commercial lowland rice-producing area, adopting the minimum tillage system of rice production, followed by two years of fallow, managed, during this time, by cattle production, in order to evaluate the influence on red rice seed bank dynamics. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with three replications, in a bifactorial design. Factor A consisted of rice post-harvest management of the area: [T1] - fallow with cattle trampling and [T2] - fallow without cattle trampling. Factor B was the sampling

  19. Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species

    He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

  20. Performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of beef affected by lupine seed, rapeseed meal and soybean meal.

    Sami, A S; Schuster, M; Schwarz, F J

    2010-08-01

    To test the effects of different protein sources and levels on performance, carcass characteristics and beef chemical composition, concentrates with three protein sources [Lupine seed (L), Rapeseed meal (R) and Soybean meal (S)] and two protein levels ['normal protein' (NP) or 'high protein' (HP)] were fed to 36 Simmental calves. Calves initially weighed 276 +/- 3.9 kg and averaged 6 months of age and were randomly allocated to the six treatments. Maize silage was offered ad libitum and supplemented with increasing amounts of concentrates (wheat, maize grain, protein sources, vitamin-mineral mix). Normal protein and HP diets were formulated to contain 12.4% and 14.0% crude protein (CP) dry matter (DM) respectively. At the end of the fattening period of 278 days, the final live weight averaged 683 +/- 14.7 kg. Neither level of protein nor its interaction with protein sources had any effects on most of the traits studied. Feeding the R diet significantly increased final weight, average daily gain (ADG), DM intake and CP intake in relation to the L diet; no differences were observed between the L and S diets for these measures. No differences were observed between the R and S groups in final weight or ADG, but the calves fed the R diet consumed more DM and CP than the calves fed the S diet. Bulls fed R diet had higher carcass weight and dressing percentage than the L groups, and no significant differences were detected between the S and L groups. Chemical composition of the Musculus longissimus dorsi was not significantly affected by source of protein. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) did not significantly differ among the three treatments. Samples from R group had significantly higher proportions of C16:1 t9, C18:1 c11, C18:2 c9 t11, C18:3 c9, 12, 15 and SigmaC18:1 t fatty acids in relation to L and S groups. Although polyunsaturated fatty acid/SFA ratio was similar for the three dietary groups, n-6/n-3 ratio and Sigman-3 fatty acids

  1. Low Soil Phosphorus Availability Increases Acid Phosphatases Activities and Affects P Partitioning in Nodules, Seeds and Rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Jean-Jacques Drevon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of phosphorus (P deficiency on phosphatases activities in N2-fixing legumes has been widely studied in hydroponic culture. However, the response of acid phosphatase (APase and phytase in rhizosphere, nodules and seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris to low soil’s P-availability is not yet fully understood. In this study, six genotypes of N2-fixing P. vulgaris were grown under contrasting soil P-availabilities; i.e., low  (4.3 mg P kg−1 and sufficient (16.7 mg P kg−1 in the Haouz region of Morocco. At flowering and maturity stages, plants were harvested and analyzed for their phosphatases activities, growth and P content. Results show that, low P decreased nodulation, growth, P uptake and N accumulation in all the genotypes, but to a greater extent in the sensitive recombinant inbreed line 147. In addition, while seed P content was slightly reduced under low P soil; a higher P was noticed in the Flamingo and Contender large seeded-beans (6.15 to 7.11 mg g−1. In these latter genotypes, high APase and phytase activities in seeds and nodules were associated with a significant decline in rhizosphere’s available P. APase activity was mainly stimulated in nodules, whereas phytase activity was highly induced in seeds (77%. In conclusion, the variations of APase and phytase activities in nodules and seeds depend on genotype and can greatly influence the internal utilization of P, which might result in low P soil tolerance in N2-fixing legumes.

  2. Feasibility Analysis of Critical Factors Affecting Cloud Computing in Nigeria

    Eustace Manayi Dogo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an evolving and new way of delivering computing services and resources over the internet which are managed by third parties at remote sites. Cloud computing is based on existing technologies like web services, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA, web3.0, grid computing and virtualization, etc. Computing services includes data storage, processing and software. Cloud computing is enjoying a lot of buzz in Nigeria due to its perceived economic and operational benefits and stakeholders believe that it will transform the IT industry in Nigeria. Despite all its promises there still exist so many challenges before Cloud computing see the light of the day in Nigeria. This paper delivers an overview of Cloud computing together with its advantages and disadvantages. Thereafter, the challenges and drivers affecting the adoption of Cloud computing in Nigeria are outlined. Finally, recommendations for the adoption of Cloud computing is discussed with Nigeria as a case study.

  3. Evaluation of factors affecting diffusion in compacted bentonite

    The information available from the open literature and studies on exclusion, sorption and diffusion mechanisms of ionic and neutral species in bentonite has been compiled and re-examined in relation to the microstructure of bentonite. The emphasis is placed on a more thorough understanding of the diffusion processes taking place in compacted bentonite. Despite the scarcity of experiments performed with neutral diffusants, these imply that virtually all the pores in compacted bentonite are accessible to neutral species. Anion exclusion, induced by the overlap of electrical double layers, may render the accessible porosity for anions considerably less than the porosity obtained from the water content of the clay. On the basis of the compiled data, it is highly probable that surface diffusion plays a significant role in the transport of cations in bentonite clays. Moreover, easily soluble compounds in bentonite can affect the ionic strength of porewater and, consequently, exclusion, equilibrium between cations, and surface diffusion

  4. Environmental factors affecting pregnancy: endocrine disrupters, nutrients and metabolic pathways.

    Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Gregory A; Wang, Xiaoqiu

    2014-12-01

    Uterine adenogenesis, a unique post-natal event in mammals, is vulnerable to endocrine disruption by estrogens and progestins resulting in infertility or reduced prolificacy. The absence of uterine glands results in insufficient transport of nutrients into the uterine lumen to support conceptus development. Arginine, a component of histotroph, is substrate for production of nitric oxide, polyamines and agmatine and, with secreted phosphoprotein 1, it affects cytoskeletal organization of trophectoderm. Arginine is critical for development of the conceptus, pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation and placentation. Conceptuses of ungulates and cetaceans convert glucose to fructose which is metabolized via multiple pathways to support growth and development. However, high fructose corn syrup in soft drinks and foods may increase risks for metabolic disorders and increase insulin resistance in adults. Understanding endocrine disrupters and dietary substances, and novel pathways for nutrient metabolism during pregnancy can improve survival and growth, and prevent chronic metabolic diseases in offspring. PMID:25224489

  5. Factors affecting the solubility of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase

    Faber, Cornelius; Hobley, Timothy John; Mollerup, Jørgen;

    2008-01-01

    , solubility followed the order expected from the Hofmeister series, however, a more complex behaviour was seen for the cations. With the exception of lithium, their efficiency to influence the solubility was reversed to what was expected. The polydispersity of the solution was reduced by salt addition and...... zeta potential measurements indicated a shift in pI caused by lithium. Possible explanations for the observations are discussed, extending our present understanding of how salts affect the solubility of proteins, one that to date is primarily based on experiments with lysozyme. (C) 2007 Elsevier B...... reduced approximately 200-fold at pH 6 as compared to pH 10, leaving only 0.1 mg/mL in solution. Solubility could also be dramatically manipulated using salts. The choice of anions was found to be more important than of the cations, and the lowest solubility was found using sodium sulphate. For the anions...

  6. Behavioral factors affecting exposure potential for household cleaning products.

    Kovacs, D C; Small, M J; Davidson, C I; Fischhoff, B

    1997-01-01

    Behavioral experiments were performed on 342 subjects to determine whether behavior, which could affect the level of personal exposure, is exhibited in response to odors and labels which are commonly used for household chemicals. Potential for exposure was assessed by having subjects perform cleaning tasks presented as a product preference test, and noting the amount of cleaning product used, the time taken to complete the cleaning task, the product preference, and the exhibition of avoidance behavior. Product odor was found to affect product preference in the study with the pleasant odored product being preferred to the neutral and unpleasant products. Product odor was also found to influence the amount of product used; less of the odored products was used compared to the neutral product. The experiment also found that very few of the subjects in the study read the product labels, precluding analysis of the effect of such labels on product use. A postexperiment questionnaire on household cleaning product purchasing and use was administered to participants. The results indicate that significant gender differences exist. Women in the sample reported more frequent purchase and use of cleaning products resulting in an estimated potential exposure 40% greater than for the men in the sample. This finding is somewhat countered by the fact that women more frequently reported exposure avoidance behavior, such as using gloves. Additional significant gender differences were found in the stated importance of product qualities, such as odor and environmental quality. This study suggests the need for further research, in a more realistic use setting, on the impact of public education, labels, and product odor on preference, use, and exposure for different types of consumer products. PMID:9306234

  7. Factors Affecting Estimated Fetal Weight Measured by Ultrasound

    Hasan Energin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the fac­tors that affect the accuracy of estimated fetal weight in ultrasound. Methods: This study was conducted in 3rd degree hospi­tal antenatal outpatient clinic and perinatology inpatient clinic between June 2011 and January 2012. The data were obtained from 165 pregnant women. Inclusion cri­teria were; no additional diseases, giving birth within 48 hours after ultrasound. The same physician executed all ultrasound process. Age, height, weight, obstetric history and obstetric follow –up findings were recorded. Results: Fetal gender, fetal presentation, presence of meconium in amniotic fluid, maternal parity, did not sig­nificantly affect the accuracy of fetal weight estimation by ultrasound. The mean difference between estimated fetal weight and birth weight was 104.48±84 gr in nullipars and 94.2±81 gr in multipars (p=0.44; mean difference was 98.22±79 gr in male babies and 98.15±86 gr in female babies (p=0.99. Mean difference between estimated fetal weight and birth weight was 96.92±81 gr in babies with cephalic presentation and 110.9±90 gr in babies with breech presentation (p=0.53; this difference was 95.36±79 gr in babies with amniotic fluid with meconium and 98.82± 83 gr in babies with amniotic fluid without me­conium (p=0.83. Conclusion: Fetal weight is estimation is one of key points in the obstetrician’s intrapartum managament. And it is important to make fetal weight estimation accurately. In our study, consistent with literature, we observed that fetal gender; meconium presence in amniotic fluid, fetal presentation, maternal parity does not significantly effect the accuracy of fetal weight estimation by ultrasound.

  8. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    ... factors for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... risk factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  9. Factors affecting engorgement behavior in the salt marsh horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart (Diptera: Tabanidae)

    Female Tabanus nigrovittatus were field collected and used in laboratory experimentation to further elucidate the physiological and behavioral factors that affect engorgement. Previous studies have shown that sulfakinins are feeding satiety factors in invertebrates. This study demonstrates that sulf...

  10. Risk of Postpartum Depression and Affecting Factors in Konya Center

    Saniye Ozdemir

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study is proposed to determine the incidence of postpartum depression and the risk factors that may play role in arising of it in Konya because there is not any constructed study previously. METHODS: This cross-sectional study is constructed among 242 mothers in the postpartum period between 2-6 months who applied two village clinics of Meram County, Konya between 1 December 2005- 31 January 2006. Two forms were used to collect necessary data. First form was ‘mother introduction form’ that was prepared by us to determine the sociodemographic properties of mothers, and the second form was Edinburgh Posnatal Depression Scale (EPDS to diagnose the risk of postpartum depression. RESULTS: While the cut-off point of EPDS was taken as 13 and over, the probability of experiencing postpartum depression was detected as 19.4%. The probability of experiencing postpartum depression according to EPDS was high in statistical sense among the mothers who had lower monthly income, psychological problems after the preceding pregnancy, 4 and lower prenatal controls, experienced attitude changes among their husbands and/or husbands’ families after learning gender of baby, and medical problems during these pregnancies. CONCLUSION: The modifiable risk factors are determined as the number of prenatal controls, changing the preconceptions and obsessions related gender of baby of husbands and families via healthy education, and well-qualified prenatal care. The long-term improvable risk factors are detected as improving monthly incomes of the families. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 391-398

  11. Genetic Factors Affecting Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Susceptibility.

    Rezazadeh, Maryam; Khorrami, Aziz; Yeghaneh, Tarlan; Talebi, Mahnaz; Kiani, Seyed Jalal; Heshmati, Yaser; Gharesouran, Jalal

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease is considered a progressive brain disease in the older population. Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) as a multifactorial dementia has a polygenic inheritance. Age, environment, and lifestyle along with a growing number of genetic factors have been reported as risk factors for LOAD. Our aim was to present results of LOAD association studies that have been done in northwestern Iran, and we also explored possible interactions with apolipoprotein E (APOE) status. We re-evaluated the association of these markers in dominant, recessive, and additive models. In all, 160 LOAD and 163 healthy control subjects of Azeri Turkish ethnicity were studied. The Chi-square test with Yates' correction and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. A Bonferroni-corrected p value, based on the number of statistical tests, was considered significant. Our results confirmed that chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2), estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF α), APOE, bridging integrator 1 (BIN1), and phosphatidylinositol-binding clathrin assembly protein (PICALM) are LOAD susceptibility loci in Azeri Turk ancestry populations. Among them, variants of CCR2, ESR1, TNF α, and APOE revealed associations in three different genetic models. After adjusting for APOE, the association (both allelic and genotypic) with CCR2, BIN1, and ESRα (PvuII) was evident only among subjects without the APOE ε4, whereas the association with CCR5, without Bonferroni correction, was significant only among subjects carrying the APOE ε4 allele. This result is an evidence of a synergistic and antagonistic effect of APOE on variant associations with LOAD. PMID:26553058

  12. Social factors affecting ART adherence in rural settings in Zambia.

    Nozaki, Ikuma; Dube, Christopher; Kakimoto, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Norio; Simpungwe, James B

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the factors that influence ART adherence arising in rural settings in Zambia. A survey was conducted with face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and written informed consent was obtained at ART sites in Mumbwa District in rural Zambia. The questionnaire included items such as the socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, support for adherence, ways to remember when to take ARVs at scheduled times, and the current status of adherence. Valid responses were obtained from 518 research participants. The mean age of the respondents was 38.3 years and the average treatment period was 12.5 months. More than half of the respondents (51%) were farmers, about half (49%) did not own a watch, and 10% of them used the position of the sun to remember when to take ARVs. Sixteen percent of respondents experienced fear of stigma resulting from taking ARVs at work or home, and 10% felt pressured to share ARVs with someone. Eighty-eight percent of the participants reported that they had never missed ARVs in the past four days. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified age (38 years old or less, odds ratio (OR) = 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-4.8, p=0.005), "remembering when to take ARVs based on the position of the sun" (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.3-8.8, p=0.016), and "feeling pressured to share ARVs with someone" (OR = 4.4, 95% CI: 1.6-12.0, p=0.004) as independent factors for low adherence. As ART services expand to rural areas, program implementers should pay more attention to more specific factors arising in rural settings since they may differ from those in urban settings. PMID:21400314

  13. Factors affecting the occurrence of canine parvovirus in dogs.

    Miranda, Carla; Carvalheira, Júlio; Parrish, Colin R; Thompson, Gertrude

    2015-10-22

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the most important enteric virus infecting canids worldwide. The purpose of this study was to detect CPV in naturally infected dogs from several veterinary clinics distributed throughout Portugal between 2012 and 2014 and to identify risk factors associated with CPV infection. From 209 dogs suspected of being infected with CPV, historical data and clinical signs were collected. Fecal samples were screened for CPV by PCR assay and those positive were confirmed by sequencing. The data was analyzed using logistic regression to investigate associations between each of the predisposing factors and CPV status. Of the samples collected, 77.5% tested CPV-positive. Statistical analysis showed that animals in the three age categories (p<0.001) were at list 12 times more likely to be CPV-positive than older animals. The anthelminthic treatment [OR=0.45, p=0.04] and the rectal temperature (hypothermia, [OR=0.12, p=0.004]) contributed to decrease the likelihood of the dogs be infected with CPV. On the other hand, clinical signs such as depression [OR=4.4, p=0.02] and dehydration status [OR=2.38, p=0.001] made dogs more likely to be CPV-infected. The results indicate that although having a high morbidity, only 18% of the Portuguese dog population died in the study. Some of the risk factors identified in this study have not been commonly reported, yet they are easy to obtain and can be used as prognostic indicators in the veterinary practice. PMID:26294318

  14. Factors affecting the viability of thermoluminescence dating of glass

    The aim of this study is to achieve a better understanding of some of the factors that limit the thermoluminescence (TL) dating of glass. Using a 'model system' (lithium-disilicate samples having different levels of crystallinity from 0 to 100%), we show, first, that the TL of glass is reproducible only if the glass is not heated above its temperature glass transition and, second, that there is a clear connection between the TL sensitivity and the degree of crystallinity of the sample. We conclude that thermoluminescence is not a general dating method for archaeological glass, but it can be applied to particular glass samples that have specified characteristics. (author)

  15. Factors affecting the viability of thermoluminescence dating of glass

    The aim of this study is to achieve a better understanding of some of the factors that limit the thermoluminescence (TL) dating of glass. Using a 'model system' (lithium-disilicate samples having different levels of crystallinity from 0 to 100%), we show, first, that the TL of glass is reproducible only if the glass is not heated above its temperature glass transition and, second, and there is a clear connection between the TL sensitivity and the degree of crystallinity of the sample. We conclude that thermoluminescence is not a general dating method for archaeological glass, but it can be applied to particular glass samples that have specified characteristics. (author)

  16. Investigating factors affecting students’ performance to PISA Science items

    V. Hatzinikita; C. Apostolopoulos; Psalidas, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate, on the one hand, the extent to which PISA Science items validly assess the knowledge and skills of 15 year-old Greek students, while, on the other hand, to examine the effect of the following factors: student’s gender, scientific processes and contexts (situations) on the students’ performance in these PISA items. The research used paper-and-pencil test with published PISA Science items, conducted individual semi-structured interviews with 15 year-old st...

  17. Analyzing Factors Affecting U.S. Food Price Inflation.

    Baek, Jungho; Koo, Won W.

    2009-01-01

    Since the summer of 2007, U.S. food price has increased dramatically. Given public anxiety over fast-rising food prices in recent years, this paper attempts to analyze the effects of market factors ─ prices of energy and agricultural commodities and exchange rate ─ on U.S. food prices using a co-integration analysis. Results show that the agricultural commodity price and exchange rate play key roles in determining the short- and long-run movement of U.S. food prices. It is also found that in ...

  18. Risk of Postpartum Depression and Affecting Factors in Konya Center

    Saniye Ozdemir; Kamile Marakoglu; Selma Civi

    2008-01-01

    AIM: This study is proposed to determine the incidence of postpartum depression and the risk factors that may play role in arising of it in Konya because there is not any constructed study previously. METHODS: This cross-sectional study is constructed among 242 mothers in the postpartum period between 2-6 months who applied two village clinics of Meram County, Konya between 1 December 2005- 31 January 2006. Two forms were used to collect necessary data. First form was ‘mother introductio...

  19. Factors affecting participation in external degree completion programs.

    Waring, M B

    1991-02-01

    Although many dental hygienists have considered pursuing a baccalaureate degree, many barriers intervene to prevent accomplishment of this goal. The external degree is one option that could be available to overcome some of the barriers to accessibility. An external program is one that makes education accessible to students in nontraditional ways. A characteristic of these programs is that students can usually pursue academic credit toward a degree without being physically present on the degree-granting campus for the majority of the program. This paper reports the results of a 1988 survey of certificate and associate degree dental hygienists' interest in an external baccalaureate degree completion program. A questionnaire was mailed to 213 certificate and associate degree dental hygienists in Tennessee who had expressed an interest in degree completion. Two hundred six questionnaires were returned for a response rate of 96.7%. In order to determine the potential success of such programs, the following factors were explored: the motivations or reasons for participating; program design factors that might encourage or deter participation; degree of employer support; and individual characteristics relevant to participation, such as personal commitment and demographic information. Geographic location, flexibility in scheduling, and accessibility to course work were the program design factors most important to the likely participants. Likely participants indicated that they wanted to return to complete their baccalaureate degrees for personal satisfaction, for the status of the degree, and to increase their knowledge and skill in dental hygiene. They indicated that they did not want to change the focus of their careers. The area of study rated as most important was advanced clinical dental hygiene. The likely participants were found to resemble other nontraditional students. They averaged 34 years of age, were married with children living at home, and were able to study

  20. Factors affecting the decline of ventilatory function in chronic bronchitis.

    Campbell, A H; Barter, C. E.; O'Connell, J M; Huggins, R

    1985-01-01

    Ninety six middle aged male patients with chronic bronchitis with relatively well preserved ventilatory function who were resident in Queensland, New South Wales, or Victoria took part in a prospective study to determine the relationship of various factors to the rate of decline of the FEV1. Thirty of the subjects withdrew, leaving 66 to be followed for four to six years. The mean rate of decline of the FEV1 was 58.6 (SD 51.4) ml/year. The subjects' ventilatory responses to bronchodilator and...