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1

Impact of Weed Seed Mixture in Seed Health of Aus Rice and Factors Affecting it  

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Full Text Available A socio-agronomical survey and a laboratory experiment on weed seed mixture with rice seed were carried out at the three different villages of Mymensingh district and in the laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh respectively during the period from January to June 2002 to know the farmer’s knowledge and idea about the impact of weed seed mixture on the quality of rice seeds, and to know the status of seed purity in rice collected from different locations of Bangladesh. In the socio-agronomical survey, 100 farmers from six villages e.g. Kazirshimla, Dewanibari, Seedstore, Bharadoba, Churkhai and Rampur under three Upazilas namely Trishal, Bhaluka and Sadar were randomly selected for interview. Pre-prepared questionnaire were used to ask questions on different aspects of weed contamination with rice seeds. Results revealed that 90% farmers of the area cultivated IR50 and only 3% farmers grew BR2 rice variety. They got higher average yields from IR50 (1.96 t ha-1 than other varieties e.g. BR2 (1.65 t ha-1 and BR3 (1.75 t ha-1. Farmers found five noxious weed seeds e.g. Echinochloa crusglli, E. colonum, Cyperus iria, Scirpus spp. and C. difformis in the rice seeds. E. crusgalli was appeared as the notorious weed to rice farmers. Forty percent of the interviewed farmers were educated up to class five and literate farmers used higher seed rate, which led to less weed infestation in the field. Eighty nine percent farmers used their own seed, which were produced and processed with care, and there was less possibility of weed seed contamination. Eight percent farmers used seeds from market, which contained more weed seeds in rice seeds. Laboratory analysis of seed samples collected from different locations of the country revealed that location has an impact on the weed seed mixture in rice seeds. Samples collected from the village more away from Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh contained more weed seeds. The purity percentage of farmers saved seed was about 95% and it contained 0.08% weed seed. The weed seeds found in the farmers saved seed samples were E. crusgalli, E.colonum, Scirpus spp. and Cyperus difformis.

Md. Fazlul Islam

2003-01-01

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Culinary and nutritional quality of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds as affected by environmental factors  

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Full Text Available Efficient selection for specific culinary and nutritional quality traits needs a better understanding of the genetic and environmental control of quality traits at the structural, physiological and biochemical levels. Field experiments indicate great variability in the Phaseolus gene pool regarding the content of antinutritional compounds, as well as in cooking characteristics of the seeds. These seed attributes are strongly affected by geographic location, edaphic and climatic conditions at site of cultivation. However, information on the influence of specific environmental factors (such as temperature, water availability, edaphic conditions, etc. on seed quality traits, as well as on their stability is very scarce. This lack of knowledge impairs a faster progress in the improvement of Phaseolus seed quality.

Kigel J.

1999-01-01

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Seed Size, the Only Factor Positively Affecting Direct Seeding Success in an Abandoned Field in Quebec, Canada  

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Full Text Available Direct tree seeding is potentially an economical technique for restoring forests on abandoned fields. However, the success of tree establishment depends on many factors related to species and seed characteristics, environmental conditions, competition and predation. We compared seedling emergence, survival and growth of six tree species of different seed sizes in a forest restoration project of abandoned fields. Species were seeded in plots with and without herbaceous vegetation and with and without protection from bird and mammal predation. Yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis did not emerge in all treatments, paper birch (Betula papyrifera and tamarack (Larix laricina had a seedling emergence rate lower than 1%, and sugar maple (Acer saccharum had a low overall emergence rate of 6%. Seedling emergence reached 57% for northern red oak (Quercus rubra and 34% for red pine (Pinus resinosa, but survival of oak after one year was much higher (92% than pine seedlings (16%. Overall, protection from birds and mammals and elimination of the herbaceous vegetation cover had no detectable effects on seedling emergence, survival and height. Nonetheless, red oak seedlings growing in the presence of vegetation had a smaller diameter and shoot biomass and a larger specific leaf area. We conclude that only large seeded species, such as oak, should be used for forest restoration of abandoned fields by direct seeding in our region.

Annick St-Denis

2013-06-01

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Factors Affecting the Optimum Seeding Level of Coal or Char-Fired, Open-Cycle MHD Power Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of the optimum seed level with ash-containing, seeded fuels was made using a mathematical model to determine the composition and amounts of the combustion products which included a slag phase and condensed seed compounds. The results indicate that: the mechanism of seed condensation is the formation of liquid alkali sulphate; the contamination of the liquid seed with silica occurs because silica condenses over approximately the same temperature range as the alkali sulphate; and the level of seed contamination with silica plays a major role in deciding the system seed level. This contamination is unavoidable due to the difficulty of separating the alkali from the glass-like slag by ordinary chemical or physical means. Therefore the silica remaining in the gas phase when the bulk of the slag is separated from the combustion products must be recycled to the system with the co-condensed seed. This increased silica lowers the combustion temperature because of the energy required for its volatilization. The important factors in establishing the steady-state silica level in the system are: (1) The air/fuel level. Lowering this parameter below stoichiometric requirements decreases the silica contamination and increases the electrical conductivity of the combustion products; (2) The nature of the fuel. Silica levels are in general higher for a char than for a coal fuel. This is compensated for to a degree,by the higher electrical conductivity of the combustion products from char; (3) The sulphur level of the fuel. The higher the sulphur level the higher the temperature at which seed condensation (as the sulphate) initiates hence the greater the fraction of silica remaining in the gas phase; (4) The silica content of the fuel: (5) The seeding level. The greater the seed/coal ratio, the higher the initiation temperature of seed condensation; (6) The type of seed. A non-sulphur-containing seed results in a lower initiation temperature of seed condensation; (7) The separation temperature of the bulk of the liquid slag from the combustion products. This temperature should be just above the seed condensation initiation temperature for minimum silica recycle with minimum seed loss. Data are presented which illustrate the above factors for a bituminous coal at sulphur levels of 0.5 and 4 wt% sulphur and a bituminous coal char. Seeding materials, considered are potassium carbonate and potassium sulphate. A combustor pressure of 5 atm is assumed with the air-preheat temperature used as a parameter. The results show an increase in electrical conductivity of the combustion products when the sulphur level of the system is reduced. One way of effecting this reduction is to remove the sulphur from the spent seed-silica mixture before its return to the combustor. In addition to increased conductivity, this reduced sulphur mode of operation also allows an MHD/steam power plant to be operated free of sulphur oxide effluent gases. (author)

1968-11-01

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Soybean Seed Matured on Different Dates Affect Seed Quality  

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Production of quality seed is one of the major problem in soybean (Glycine max. (L) Mell.,) in tropical countries including Pakistan. Seed quality in soybean, as determined by germination, seed weight and infection by seed pathogens is affected by date of maturity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality of soybean seed matured at different temperature. Soybean was planted on January 13, January 16, February 19, March 1, July 10, July 20, July 26 and August 25, 1991 at Agri...

Khalil, Shad K.; Mexal, John G.; Murray, Leigh W.

2001-01-01

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Soybean Seed Matured on Different Dates Affect Seed Quality  

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Full Text Available Production of quality seed is one of the major problem in soybean (Glycine max. (L Mell., in tropical countries including Pakistan. Seed quality in soybean, as determined by germination, seed weight and infection by seed pathogens is affected by date of maturity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality of soybean seed matured at different temperature. Soybean was planted on January 13, January 16, February 19, March 1, July 10, July 20, July 26 and August 25, 1991 at Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan. Seeds planted in January, February, and March matured during hot weather conditions (June, July, produced heavier seeds, but had lower germination, and higher infection with seed borne pathogens. Seed planted in July and August reached maturity after hot weather conditions in October and November had ended and exhibited higher germination, little infection with seed borne pathogen, but produced smaller seeds. Seed size was inversely related to germination. Conditions that favor production of large seeds also favor infection with seed borne pathogens and lower germination.

Shad K. Khalil

2001-01-01

7

Loss-of-function mutations affecting a specific Glycine max R2R3 MYB transcription factor result in brown hilum and brown seed coats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although modern soybean cultivars feature yellow seed coats, with the only color variation found at the hila, the ancestral condition is black seed coats. Both seed coat and hila coloration are due to the presence of phenylpropanoid pathway derivatives, principally anthocyanins. The genetics of soybean seed coat and hilum coloration were first investigated during the resurgence of genetics during the 1920s, following the rediscovery of Mendel's work. Despite the inclusion of this phenotypic marker into the extensive genetic maps developed for soybean over the last twenty years, the genetic basis behind the phenomenon of brown seed coats (the R locus has remained undetermined until now. Results In order to identify the gene responsible for the r gene effect (brown hilum or seed coat color, we utilized bulk segregant analysis and identified recombinant lines derived from a population segregating for two phenotypically distinct alleles of the R locus. Fine mapping was accelerated through use of a novel, bioinformatically determined set of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR markers which allowed us to delimit the genomic region containing the r gene to less than 200 kbp, despite the use of a mapping population of only 100 F6 lines. Candidate gene analysis identified a loss of function mutation affecting a seed coat-specific expressed R2R3 MYB transcription factor gene (Glyma09g36990 as a strong candidate for the brown hilum phenotype. We observed a near perfect correlation between the mRNA expression levels of the functional R gene candidate and an UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UF3GT gene, which is responsible for the final step in anthocyanin biosynthesis. In contrast, when a null allele of Glyma09g36990 is expressed no upregulation of the UF3GT gene was found. Conclusions We discovered an allelic series of four loss of function mutations affecting our R locus gene candidate. The presence of any one of these mutations was perfectly correlated with the brown seed coat/hilum phenotype in a broadly distributed survey of soybean cultivars, barring the presence of the epistatic dominant I allele or gray pubescence, both of which can mask the effect of the r allele, resulting in yellow or buff hila. These findings strongly suggest that loss of function for one particular seed coat-expressed R2R3 MYB gene is responsible for the brown seed coat/hilum phenotype in soybean.

Gillman Jason D

2011-11-01

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Changes in chemical composition and anti nutritional factors in sesame seeds as affected by gamma and microwave radiations during storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of gamma radiation, microwave radiation, interaction between them and storage of sesame seeds were investigated to find out the best treatment which cause the maximum reduction of anti nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities) without exerting significant effect on the chemical constituents. The gamma rays was used at doses of 2.5, 5.0 and 8.0 KGy, microwave radiation was at 70 level power for 2 and 4 min and the storage of seeds was at room temperature and Rh 50-55% for six months. The obtained results on the effect of gamma radiation and storage showed slight decrease in crude protein contents, significant decrease in total free amino acids, total lipids had either slightly or non-significantly changed, decreased total carbohydrates and slight changes in total soluble sugars content. Reduction of trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities were increased as the irradiation dose levels and storage time increased. Slightly decreases in tannin and phenol contents and significant decrease in phytic acid content were observed. The obtained results on the effect of microwave radiation and storage indicated non-significant effect on protein and total lipids contents, decrease in total free amino acids, slight changes in total carbohydrate content and non-significant changes in total soluble and reducing sugars. Trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities were significantly reduced by microwave, while increasing the storage period decreased lipoxygenase activity. Significant changes were observed in tannin and phenol contents, while phytic acid was decreased

2005-01-01

9

How nanoscale seed particles affect vapor-liquid nucleation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we used constrained lattice density functional theory to investigate how nanoscale seed particles affect heterogeneous vapor-liquid nucleation. The effects of the physical properties of nanoscale seed particles, including the seed size, the strength of seed-fluid attraction, and the shape of the seeds, on the structure of critical nuclei and nucleation barrier were systemically investigated. PMID:22088072

Liu, Yawei; Men, Yumei; Zhang, Xianren

2011-11-14

10

Factors affecting forage stand establishment  

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Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should be expanded in the industry to enable matching seed lot performance to specific environmental conditions where performance can be maximized. Seed treatment and seed coating are used in the forage seed industry, and studies have shown they are of benefit in some environments. There is an increase in no-tillage seeding of forage crops, but improvements in the no-tillage planting equipment are needed to make them better suited to small seeds. Other recent developments in seeding techniques include broadcasting seed with dry granular and fluid fertilizers, which improves the efficiency of the seeding operation.

Sulc R.M.

1998-01-01

11

Factors Affecting Wound Healing  

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Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

Guo, S.; Dipietro, L. A.

2010-01-01

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Factors affecting Cyperus difformis seed germination and seedling emergence / Fatores que afetam a germinação de sementes e a emergência de plântulas de Cyperus difformis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O conhecimento específico sobre os padrões de dormência, germinação e emergência de espécies de plantas daninhas auxilia o desenvolvimento de estratégias integradas de gestão. Foram realizados estudos de laboratório para determinar o efeito de vários fatores ambientais na germinação de sementes e em [...] ergência de plântulas de Cyperus difformis. A germinação das sementes recém-colhidas foi inibida pela escuridão; no entanto, quando as sementes foram transferidas posteriormente para a luz total, germinaram prontamente. Nossos resultados mostraram que duas semanas de estratificação fria superam o requisito de luz para a germinação. As sementes de C. difformis conseguiram germinar numa ampla gama de temperaturas (25/15, 30/20, 35/25, e 40/30 ºC dia/noite). A resposta da taxa de germinação à temperatura foi descrito como uma função não-linear. Com base em resultados do modelo, as temperaturas de base, ótima e e teto foram estimadas em 14,81, 37,72 e 45 ºC, respectivamente. Foi preciso uma temperatura de 120 ºC por mais 5 minutos para inibir 50% da germinação máxima. O potencial osmótico e a salinidade necessários para uma inibição de 50% da máxima germinação foram -0,47 MPa e 135,57 mM, respectivamente. Foi observada uma alta percentagem de germinação das sementes (89%) com pH=6, a qual diminuiu para 12% em meio alcalino (pH 9) de pH. As sementes semeadas na superfície do solo resultaram na maior porcentagem de emergência de plântulas, e nenhuma plântula emergiu a partir de sementes enterradas no solo a uma profundidade de 1 cm. Abstract in english Specific knowledge about the dormancy, germination, and emergence patterns of weed species aids the development of integrated management strategies. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effect of several environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of Cyperus diffor [...] mis. Germination of freshly harvested seeds was inhibited by darkness; however, when seeds were subsequently transferred to complete light they germinated readily. Our results showed that 2 wk of cold stratification overcome the light requirement for germination. Seeds of C. difformis were able to germinate over a broad range of temperatures (25/15, 30/20, 35/25, and 40/30 ºC day/night). The response of germination rate to temperature was described as a non-linear function. Based on model outputs, the base, the optimum and the ceiling temperatures were estimated as 14.81, 37.72 and 45 ºC, respectively. A temperature of 120 ºC for a 5 min was required to inhibit 50% of maximum germination. The osmotic potential and salinity required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.47 MPa and 135.57 mM, respectively. High percentage of seed germination (89%) was observed at pH=6 and decreased to 12% at alkaline medium (pH 9) pH. Seeds sown on the soil surface gave the greatest percentage of seedling emergence, and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried in soil at depths of 1 cm.

A., Derakhshan; J., Gherekhloo.

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Endocarp thickness affects seed removal speed by small rodents in a warm-temperate broad-leafed deciduous forest, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed traits are important factors affecting seed predation by rodents and thereby the success of recruitment. Seeds of many tree species have hard hulls. These are thought to confer mechanical protection, but the effect of endocarp thickness on seed predation by rodents has not been well investigated. Wild apricot ( Prunus armeniaca), wild peach ( Amygdalus davidiana), cultivated walnut ( Juglans regia), wild walnut ( Juglans mandshurica Maxim) and Liaodong oak ( Quercus liaotungensis) are very common tree species in northwestern Beijing city, China. Their seeds vary greatly in size, endocarp thickness, caloric value and tannin content. This paper aims to study the effects of seed traits on seed removal speed of these five tree species by small rodents in a temperate deciduous forest, with emphasis on the effect of endocarp thickness. The results indicated that speed of removal of seeds released at stations in the field decreased significantly with increasing endocarp thickness. We found no significant correlations between seed removal speed and other seed traits such as seed size, caloric value and tannin content. In seed selection experiments in small cages, Père David's rock squirrel ( Sciurotamias davidianus), a large-bodied, strong-jawed rodent, selected all of the five seed species, and the selection order among the five seed species was determined by endocarp thickness and the ratio of endocarp mass/seed mass. In contrast, the Korean field mouse ( Apodemus peninsulae) and Chinese white-bellied rat ( Niviventer confucianus), with relatively small bodies and weak jaws, preferred to select small seeds like acorns of Q. liaotungensis and seeds of P. armeniaca, indicating that rodent body size is also an important factor affecting food selection based on seed size. These results suggest endocarp thickness significantly reduces seed removal speed by rodents and then negatively affects dispersal fitness of seeds before seed removal of tree species in the study region. However, effect of endocarp thickness on final dispersal fitness needs further investigation because it may increase seed caching and survival after seed removal.

Zhang, Hongmao; Zhang, Zhibin

2008-11-01

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The seed's protein and oil content, fatty acid composition, and growing cycle length of a single genotype of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as affected by environmental factors.  

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As a botanical source, variability in chia seed composition could be expected between growing locations, and between years within a location, due to genotype and environment effects as well genetic x environment's interactions. The objective of the present study was to determine the location effect on the growing cycle length, and seed's protein content, lipid content, and fatty acid profiles, of a single chia genotype. Seeds of chia genotype Tzotzol grown on eight sites in five different ecosystems were tested. One site was in Argentina, in the Semi-Arid Chaco ecosystem (T(5)); one was in Bolivia, in the Sub-Humid Chaco ecosystem (T(4)); and six in Ecuador, one in the Coastal Desert (T(3)), two on the Tropical Rain Forest (T(2)), and three in the Inter-Andean Dry Valley ecosystem (T(1)). Seeds from plants grown in T(4) and in T(3) contained significantly (P <0.05) more protein percentage than did seeds from the other three ecosystems. No significant (P <0.05) differences in protein content were found between T(3) and T(4), and between T(1), T(2), and T(5). Seeds from T(1) and T(5) ecosystems, with 33.5 and 32.2%, respectively, were the numerically highest oil content producers, but their results were only significantly (P <0.05) higher when compared with the T(2) seeds. Significant (P <0.05) differences in palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic fatty acids between oils from seeds grown in different ecosystems were detected, however. Oil of seeds grown in the T(3) ecosystem had the palmitic, stearic and oleic fatty acids' highest contents. Palmitic and oleic fatty acid levels were significantly (P <0.05) higher when were compared to that of seeds grown in the T(1) ecosystem, and stearic when was compared to that of seeds grown in the T(5) ecosystem; omega-6 linoleic fatty acid content was significantly (P <0.05) lower in oils of seeds produced in T(1), and T(2) than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5) ecosystems; omega-3 alpha-linolenic fatty acid content was significantly (P <0.05) higher in seeds produced in T(1), than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5), but not in those produced in T(2). PMID:19491529

Ayerza, Ricardo

2009-01-01

15

Factors affecting injectivity decline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reservoir pressure support for a large portion of a giant field is maintained by peripheral seawater injection. The temperature of the injected seawater is significantly lower than the reservoir temperature and also lower than the previously injected water obtained from aquifers. Therefore, a decline in injectivity is expected as a result of higher water viscosity due to lower injection water temperature. This paper presents actual data collected form power water injection wells in two areas of the field, both before and after the start of seawater injection. This data has shown a significant decline in injectivity after conversion to seawater in only one area. The quality of the injected water and other related factors will be reviewed to determine the reasons for this behavior that apparently contradicts what wa expected. The paper also discusses the actual effects that cold seawater injection has on pressure falloff behavior.

Al-Hamadah, A.M.

1995-10-01

16

Growth and Yield of Rice (Oryza sativa L. as affected by Cultivars, Seeding Depth and Water Deficits at Vegetative Stage  

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Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of different seeding depths and water stress on growth and yield of direct-seeded rice. The experiment was a 3x2x2 factorial in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The main factors (03 were seeding depths (0, 1 and 5 cm, water level (well watered and water stress at 30 days after seeding (DAS and rice cultivars (Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 1. Above-ground biomass and root length density were significantly affected by rice cultivars, seeding depths and water stress. The Suphan Buri 1 had a higher above ground biomass and root length density than the Pathum Thani 1. At the first 7 days of water stress, maximum above-ground biomass was obtained at 1 cm seeding depth. But at a later stage, the highest above ground biomass was observed with a seeding depth of 5 cm at both 60 and 90 days after seeding. The greatest root length density was obtained at a seeding depth of 5 cm. Grain yield was significantly affected by seeding depths and water stress. The highest grain yield was obtained in 5 cm seeding depths compared with other low depth under water stress at vegetative stage (30 DAS. It was concluded that yield loss under water stress at vegetative stage may be compensated for by increasing seeding depth above shallow depth levels.

S. Sanusan

2010-01-01

17

Psychological Factors Affecting Infertile Women  

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AIM: This study was performed to determine the psychological factors affecting infertile women presenting at the infertility outpatients department. METHOD: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 344 women who presented at the IVF center of a special branch hospital or a university hospital, March 2008 through September 2008, as determined by the non-random sampling method. All participating women gave their informed consent. The data were collected using the Data Form that con...

2010-01-01

18

Psychological factors affecting equine performance  

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Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the ...

McBride Sebastian D; Mills Daniel S

2012-01-01

19

Seed dimorphism, nutrients and salinity differentially affect seed traits of the desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica via multiple maternal effects  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Maternal effects may influence a range of seed traits simultaneously and are likely to be context-dependent. Disentangling the interactions of plant phenotype and growth environment on various seed traits is important for understanding regeneration and establishment of species in natural environments. Here, we used the seed-dimorphic plant Suaeda aralocaspica to test the hypothesis that seed traits are regulated by multiple maternal effects. Results Plants grown from brown seeds had a higher brown:black seed ratio than plants from black seeds, and germination percentage of brown seeds was higher than that of black seeds under all conditions tested. However, the coefficient of variation (CV) for size of black seeds was higher than that of brown seeds. Seeds had the smallest CV at low nutrient and high salinity for plants from brown seeds and at low nutrient and low salinity for plants from black seeds. Low levels of nutrients increased size and germinability of black seeds but did not change the seed morph ratio or size and germinability of brown seeds. High levels of salinity decreased seed size but did not change the seed morph ratio. Seeds from high-salinity maternal plants had a higher germination percentage regardless of level of germination salinity. Conclusions Our study supports the multiple maternal effects hypothesis. Seed dimorphism, nutrient and salinity interacted in determining a range of seed traits of S. aralocaspica via bet-hedging and anticipatory maternal effects. This study highlights the importance of examining different maternal factors and various offspring traits in studies that estimate maternal effects on regeneration.

2012-01-01

20

Factors affecting rotator cuff healing.  

Science.gov (United States)

? Several studies have noted that increasing age is a significant factor for diminished rotator cuff healing, while biomechanical studies have suggested the reason for this may be an inferior healing environment in older patients.? Larger tears and fatty infiltration or atrophy negatively affect rotator cuff healing.? Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, double-row repairs, performing a concomitant acromioplasty, and the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) do not demonstrate an improvement in structural healing over mini-open rotator cuff repairs, single-row repairs, not performing an acromioplasty, or not using PRP.? There is conflicting evidence to support postoperative rehabilitation protocols using early motion over immobilization following rotator cuff repair. PMID:24806015

Mall, Nathan A; Tanaka, Miho J; Choi, Luke S; Paletta, George A

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
21

Factors affecting tactile spatial acuity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tactile spatial acuity on the fingerpad was measured using a grating orientation task. In this task, subjects are required to identify the orientation of square-wave gratings placed on the skin. Previous studies have shown that performance varies as a function of the width of the grooves in the gratings. In the present study, both groove width and the overall size and configuration of the contactors were varied. Sensitivity improved with wider grooves and with larger contactors. Additional measurements showed that the improved sensitivity is not the result of the increase in total area contacted, but rather is due to two other factors associated with larger contactors. One is the greater linear extent of the larger contactors. The other appears to be due to the reduction in the interference produced by the outer edge of the contactor. Specifically, as the contactor increases in size, the distance between the outer edge and the center portion of the grooves also increases. It was also shown that subjects are more sensitive to a single, continuous groove as compared with two grooves of the same total length but spatially discontinuous. Similarly, subjects are more sensitive to a contactor with a continuous groove than to a contactor in which just the end points of the groove are presented. The results are generally consistent with the results of peripheral, neurophysiological recordings. The results are discussed in terms of the way in which both spatial and intensive factors may affect sensitivity to grating orientation. PMID:9583575

Craig, J C; Kisner, J M

1998-01-01

22

Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan  

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Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

Adnan Nazir

2013-05-01

23

Alterations in Seed Development Gene Expression Affect Size and Oil Content of Arabidopsis Seeds1[C][W][OPEN  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds.

Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dormann, Peter

2013-01-01

24

Conditions Affecting Shelf-Life of Inoculated Legume Seed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microbial inoculants are becoming more available as sustainable alternatives to fertilizers and other agrichemicals in broad-acre cropping. However, with the exception of legume inoculants little is understood about effective delivery and survival of the inoculum. Legume inoculants are applied to both seed and soil but seed inoculation is the most economical technique. Large quantities of pasture seed in Australia are inoculated by commercial seed coating companies, but the long-term survival of seed-applied inoculum is variable and monitoring of viability requires specialist microbiology skills and facilities. The aim of our research was to define optimum storage conditions for survival of rhizobia on legume seed and evaluate water activity as a means of monitoring shelf-life. The relationship between survival and water activity varied according to seed species, inoculum preparation, coating ingredients, initial water activity and time suggesting that storage conditions would need to be defined for each different combination. Although drying seeds after coating significantly reduced viable numbers of rhizobia, survival of rhizobia on dried commercially coated lucerne seed after 11 weeks was less variable than seeds that had not been dried. The highest numbers were maintained when seeds remained dry with water activities of between 0.47 and 0.38. The quality of inoculated seed could be improved by reducing the death rate of inoculum during preparation and providing optimum storage conditions for long-term survival.

Greg Gemell

2012-02-01

25

Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol) contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ...

Abu-alruz, K.; Afaneh, I. A.; Quasem, J. M.; Hmidat, M. A.; Abbady, J.; Mazahreh, A. S.

2011-01-01

26

Harvest time of Cryptomeria japonica seeds depending on climate factors  

Science.gov (United States)

Sound seeds should have good germination rates and seed germination can be influenced by several factors. Seed picking time is regarded as one of the necessary elements to obtain sound seeds. From a clonal seed orchard of Cryptomeria japonica located in southern part of Korean peninsular, cones were picked about every 10 days from 30th of July 2005 to 30th of October in both 2005 and 2006. We have also analyzed the effects of climatic factors about two consecutive years on seed productivity. From the picked cones, seeds were collected and these germination ability, seed size and embryo shapes were investigated according to cone picking time. The 1,000-seed weight picked on 18th of August was 3.3 g and 5.3 g on 30th of September 2005and 2006. The size of seeds picked from 18th of August to 30th of September increased from 19.3 mm to 21.3 mm in length and from 15.8 mm to 18.5 mm in width. Depending on picking time, various shapes of embryos, including embryos with liquid material, jellied material and fully matured ones were observed. Germination aspects also varied throughout the test days. About two weeks after seeding in a glass petri-dish, germinal apparatuses appeared from each test seed sets which had been picked from after 10 August 2005 and 10 August 2006. The germination rates started from 10.7% from seeds picked 20 August 2006. Average germination rate in 2005 was 18.3 and 19.6 in 2006. In 2005, the highest germination rate was 34.3% from seeds picked on the 30th of September. In 2006, the highest germination rate was 31.7% for seeds picked at the same date as the 2005 seeds. After September, the highest germination rate for picked seeds decreased in both 2005 and 2006. Among the climatic factors, monthly sum of temperature and of precipitation were the main factors for maturation of C. japonica seeds. The results implied that the best cone picking time for the Korean C. japonica seed orchard to be around the end of September.

Son, Seog-Gu; Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Chang-Soo; Byun, Kwang-Ok

2010-05-01

27

Factors Affecting Outflow Facility Calculations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Outflow facility (C), a ratio of outflow rate (F) to relevant pressure, is an important indication of outflow resistance in the ocular drainage pathway. The higher the C, the lower the outflow resistance. According to the classic Goldmann equation, C=F/(IOP-Pe)(IOP, intraocular pressure; Pe, episcleral venous pressure). Since anterior chamber (AC) perfusions directly measure outflow and are less affected by scleral creep and rigidity or changes in uveal blood content than repeated tonography ...

Tian, Baohe; Hu, Yujie; Gabelt, B’ann T.; Kaufman, Paul L.

2006-01-01

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FACTORES ANTINUTRICIONALES EN SEMILLAS / ANTINUTRITIONAL FACTORS IN EATABLE SEEDS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente artículo proporciona una revisión de los conocimientos relacionados con los factores antinutricionales, más comunes, presentes en algunos alimentos, especialmente en semillas comestibles. Además se incluyen datos relacionados con su naturaleza química, efectos sobre los procesos digestiv [...] os y aprovechamiento de nutrientes, posibles formas de inactivación, y algunos efectos benéficos para la salud o propiedades terapéuticas. Abstract in english The present article gives a review of knowledge on several aspects, inherent in the factors antinutritionals. There is included the information about biochemical nature, its presence in some foods, especially in eatable seeds. There are analyzed aspects related with its nutritional meaning, as effec [...] ts over the digestive process and the utilization of nutrients; possible forms of inactivation and some beneficial effects for the health and the therapeutics properties.

ANA DE DIOS, ELIZALDE; YAMID, PISMAG PORTILLA; DIANA CAROLINA, CHAPARRO.

29

Factors Affecting Nontraditional Vocational Enrollments.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study identifies the internal and external factors which differentiate women who enter male-traditional vocational training programs from those who enter female-traditional programs. Data were collected from 470 women enrolled in California vocational training programs. The sample was stratified on both social class and type of vocational…

Houser, Betsy Bosak; Garvey, Chris

30

Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ended in July 2008. The following 11 factors were taken into consideration during sample collection: olive fly infection, topography, olive storage before pressing, geographical area, effect of olive seeds during oil extraction, effect of pressing temperature, presence of olive leaves during oil extraction, soil type, maturity index of the olive fruit, olive variety and oil preservation and storage in terms of storage container types. The results show that soil type, region, maturity index and olive fly infection are the main factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol. Pressing temperature, olive storage before pressing, olive variety and oil storage showed a moderate effect. Olive seeds, topography and presence of olive leaves had a negligible effect on D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil.

K. Abu-Alruz

2011-01-01

31

Factors Affecting Performance of AODV  

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In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) it is hard for a route to sustain for a longer period of time due to the mobility of nodes. High mobility of nodes results in active route failure and re-route discoveries. Such frequent route discoveries result in decreased network performance. In this study we have analyzed in detail the affect of different node mobility parameters on the performance of AODV (Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector) Routing Protocol. Simulation results are provided at the end.

Hussain, S. A.; Mahmood, K.; Garcia, E.

2007-01-01

32

Affecting factors in language learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In my thesis I intend to deal with personality and individual differences, language aptitude, family background, self-motivation and motivation, anxiety and creativity, and the difference between learning our mother language and the second language. An analysis will be taken through a questionnaire answered by language learners in my writing. These factors I think can lead us to the better understanding of language learning and that way help to become more successful in language t...

Orsza?gh, Vikto?ria

2009-01-01

33

Herbivore and fungal pathogen exclusion affects the seed production of four common grassland species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insect herbivores and fungal pathogens can independently affect plant fitness, and may have interactive effects. However, few studies have experimentally quantified the joint effects of insects and fungal pathogens on seed production in non-agricultural populations. We examined the factorial effects of insect herbivore exclusion (via insecticide) and fungal pathogen exclusion (via fungicide) on the population-level seed production of four common graminoid species (Andropogon gerardii, Schizachyrium scoparium, Poa pratensis, and Carex siccata) over two growing seasons in Minnesota, USA. We detected no interactive effects of herbivores and pathogens on seed production. However, the seed production of all four species was affected by either insecticide or fungicide in at least one year of the study. Insecticide consistently doubled the seed production of the historically most common species in the North American tallgrass prairie, A. gerardii (big bluestem). This is the first report of insect removal increasing seed production in this species. Insecticide increased A. gerardii number of seeds per seed head in one year, and mass per seed in both years, suggesting that consumption of flowers and seed embryos contributed to the effect on seed production. One of the primary insect species consuming A. gerardii flowers and seed embryos was likely the Cecidomyiid midge, Contarinia wattsi. Effects on all other plant species varied among years. Herbivores and pathogens likely reduce the dispersal and colonization ability of plants when they reduce seed output. Therefore, impacts on seed production of competitive dominant species may help to explain their relatively poor colonization abilities. Reduced seed output by dominant graminoids may thereby promote coexistence with subdominant species through competition-colonization tradeoffs. PMID:20711408

Dickson, Timothy L; Mitchell, Charles E

2010-01-01

34

Seed Physiological Quality of Three Capsicum Species as Affected by Seed Density and Hydropriming Treatment Durations  

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Full Text Available Seeds uniformity and seedling establishment are major problem in pepper production in developing countries and have great impact on production quality and performance. Seed enhancement technology like hydropriming can be done to address this gap. A study was initiated to determine the physiological quality of three Capsicum species (Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens and Capsicum chinense in relation to seed density and hydropriming treatment durations. In the first experiment, fresh ungraded seeds were subjected to different hours of hydropriming durations with second experiment light and heavy density seed lots were subjected to the same hydropriming durations. Seedling emergence, energy of emergence, seedling vigour index and emergence rate were evaluated in the experiments. The result revealed that among the ungraded, light and heavy density seed lots, Capsicum chinense had superior seedling emergence, energy of emergence, seedling vigour index and emergence index. Hydropriming for 0 to 12 h resulted in lower days to emergence. Hydropriming of light density seeds gave high seedling emergence in the three Capsicum species compared to hydropriming of heavy density seeds. An increase in hydropriming durations of the light density seeds resulted in an increase in the seedling emergence, energy of emergence, seedling vigour and emergence index. Positive and significant relationships were obtained between seedling emergence or energy of emergence and seedling vigour index in each of the three Capsicum species over the hydropriming durations. Therefore, the study suggests the use of hydropriming as a simple and cost-effective strategy in pepper production especially in developing countries.

O.A. Esuruoso

2013-01-01

35

Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Productivity and Profitability as Affected by Method of Sowing and Seeding Rate Under Qena Environment  

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Full Text Available Sowing methods and seeding rate play an important role in the placement of seed at proper depth and stand establishment of the growing crop which ultimately affects crop growth and productivity. This study was conducted for 2 seasons to establish optimal sowing method and seeding rate for bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in sandy-loam soil. The study aimed at achieving high yield and profit. A field experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block in split plot design with three planting techniques (hilling in ridges, drilling in rows and broadcasting and four seeding rates (100, 125, 150 and 175 kg ha-1 as the main plot and split plot, respectively. Results revealed that all yield and yield parameters were significantly affected by the sowing method and seed rate, while grain protein content was non-significant by these factors. The interaction of sowing method and seed rate significantly affected the number of effective tillers m-2, weight of grains spike-1, grain and straw yields ha-1 and harvest index. Wheat sown by drilling method at the seed rate 150 kg ha-1 gave the highest values of grain and straw yields ha-1 and harvest index and this treatment was found to be most economical. Based on these results, it is recommended to sow 150 kg ha-1 seeds by using drill method for planting bread wheat Giza 168 cv under similar soil and climatic conditions. Correlation coefficients analyses revealed positive significant relationships between grain yield and plant height, effective tillers m-2, grain number spike-1, straw yield and harvest index.

E.A. Abd El-Lattief

2011-01-01

36

Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout  

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Full Text Available This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention is finding sufficient time to study. Having personal problems and affordability of the program took second and third place.

Fethi Ahmet INAN

2006-07-01

37

Milling Performance and Other Quality Traits Affected by Seed Shape in Isogenic Lines of Desi Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Milling of pulses generally involves removal of the seed coat and splitting of the cotyledons to produce splits or ‘dhal’. The aim of this research was to investigate whether seed shape affected seed quality using two sets of near-isogenic lines differing by a single allele at the seed shape locus (Rd/rd). Seed shape had a profound effect on milling quality: rounded seeds produced 7% more dhal than their angular counterparts. There were also significant eff...

Wood, Jennifer A.; Knights, Edmund J.; Steven Harden; Mingan Choct

2012-01-01

38

Tillage and residue burning affects weed populations and seed banks.  

Science.gov (United States)

An integrated weed management approach requires alternative management practices to herbicide use such as tillage, crop rotations and cultural controls to reduce soil weed seed banks. The objective of this study was to examine the value of different tillage practices and stubble burning to exhaust the seed bank of common weeds from the northern grain region of Australia. Five tillage and burning treatments were incorporated in a field experiment, at Armidale (30 degrees 30'S, 151 degrees 40'E), New South Wales, Australia in July 2004 in a randomized block design replicated four times. The trial was continued and treatments repeated in July 2005 with all the mature plants from the first year being allowed to shed seed in their respective treatment plots. The treatments were (i) no tillage (NT), (ii) chisel ploughing (CP), (iii) mould board ploughing (MBP), (iv) wheat straw burning with no tillage (SBNT) and (v) wheat straw burning with chisel ploughing (SBC). Soil samples were collected before applying treatments and before the weeds flowered to establish the seed bank status of the various weeds in the soil. Wheat was sown after the tillage treatments. Burning treatments were only initiated in the second year, one month prior to tillage treatments. The major weeds present in the seed bank before initiating the trial were Polygonum aviculare, Sonchus oleraceus and Avena fatua. Tillage promoted the germination of other weeds like Hibiscus trionum, Medicago sativa, Vicia sp. and Phalaris paradoxa later in the season in 2004 and Convolvulus erubescens emerged as a new weed in 2005. The MBP treatment in 2004 reduced the weed biomass to a significantly lower level of 55 g/m2 than the other treatments of CP (118 g/m2) and NT plots (196 g/m2) (P < 0.05). However, in 2005 SBC and MBP treatments were similar in reducing the weed biomass. In 2004, the grain yield trend of wheat was significantly different between CP and NT, and MBP and NT (P < 0.05) with maximum yield of 5898 kg/ha in CP and 5731 kg/ha in MBP. Rainfall before the start of the second trial season promoted the germination of a large numbers of weeds. SBC and MBP treatments reduced the numbers of most of the individual weed species compared with CP, SBNT and NT. SBC was able to destroy a large proportion of seeds most likely through burning and burying some in the soil and was found to be the best treatment in exhausting the seed bank followed closely by MBP which probably buried large number of seeds deep in the soil and promoted others to germinate. CP might have buried some of the seeds in the top 5-10 cm but also promoted parts of the seed bank to germinate. SBNT and NT provided an ideal medium for weeds to germinate and resulted in heavy infestations of weeds. PMID:17390813

Narwal, S; Sindel, B M; Jessop, R S

2006-01-01

39

Path Coefficient Analysis of Fescue Seed Yield and its Components Affected by Fungal Endophyte  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fescues (Festuca spp are widely distributed in the temperate regions and are used for turf, forage and soil conservation. Though seed traits are important measures of the effects of endophytic fungi on their host, little information is available in this respect for Festuca. In this study, endophyte-infected (E+ and endophyte-free (E- clones of the six fescue genotypes were used to investigate the effects of endophyte on seed production. The relationships between seed traits plus direct and indirect effects of components on seed yield were also studied. Endophyte infection resulted in 38.1% to 249% more seed yields in some genotypes, though some were not affected by this symbiotic relationship. Correlations between traits and also results of stepwise regression were influenced by the presence of the symbiotic fungi. Path analysis showed that endophytic fungi changed direct and indirect effects of components on seed yield. In endophyte containing clones, panicle fertility had the most direct effects and number of panicle per plant and seed per panicle the most indirect effects on seed yield. In E- clones, panicle fertility had the highest indirect effects and other components had direct effects on seed yield. The results suggested that breeding strategies for increasing seed yield in fescue should consider the presence or absence of endophyte in germplasm.

M.R. Sabzalian

2007-10-01

40

Milling Performance and Other Quality Traits Affected by Seed Shape in Isogenic Lines of Desi Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milling of pulses generally involves removal of the seed coat and splitting of the cotyledons to produce splits or ‘dhal’. The aim of this research was to investigate whether seed shape affected seed quality using two sets of near-isogenic lines differing by a single allele at the seed shape locus (Rd/rd. Seed shape had a profound effect on milling quality: rounded seeds produced 7% more dhal than their angular counterparts. There were also significant effects on other quality parameters attributable to seed shape: rounded seeds had less seed coat content because it was thinner, a more intense seed coat colour, faster water absorption but lower hydration capacity and a slightly longer dhal cooking time. This study shows that seed shape is more important than seed coat thickness from a milling perspective and suggests that breeding programs should select for rounder shaped desi chickpeas to maximise dhal yields and profitability for the splitting industry.

Jennifer A. Wood

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
41

Fluorescein. Physiochemical factors affecting its fluorescence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescein's property of fluorescence is reviewed. Of the many factors which affect its fluorescence, concentration is probably the most important and it best explains why leaking aqueous turns fluorescein bright green during Seidel's test. The intensity and pattern of fluorescein staining of corneal lesions is probably due to the concentration and distribution of fluorescein in the cornea. The concentration of fluorescein achieved in the retinal blood vessels during fluorescein angiography affects its fluorescence. PMID:7046118

Romanchuk, K G

1982-01-01

42

Common QTL Affect the Rate of Tomato Seed Germination under Different Stress and Nonstress Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the rates of tomato seed germination under different stress and nonstress conditions were under common genetic controls by examining quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting such traits. Seeds of BC1 progeny of a cross between a slow-germinating tomato breeding line and a rapid-germinating tomato wild accession were evaluated for germination under nonstress as well as cold, salt, and drought stress conditions. In each treatment, the most rapidly-germinating seeds were selected, grown to maturity, and subjected to molecular marker analysis. A selective genotyping approach detected between 6 and 9 QTL affecting germination rate under each of the four conditions, with a total of 14 QTL identified. Ten QTL affected germination rate under 2 or 3 conditions, which were considered germination-related common QTL. Four QTL affected germination rate only in one treatment, which were considered germination-related, condition-specific QTL . The results indicated that mostly the same QTL affected seed germination under different stress and nonstress conditions, supporting a previous suggestion that similar physiological mechanisms contribute to rapid seed germination under different conditions. Marker-assisted selection for the common QTL may result in progeny with rapid seed germinability under different conditions.

Liping Zhang

2008-02-01

43

Sugarbeet seed’s yield and quality as affected by irrigation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Irrigation to the sugar-beet seed crop is a common practice since many years in Emilia Romagna region, even though information on the most suitable ways to irrigate is very limited. The aim of this three-year long experimentation was to evaluate the influence of timing and number of irrigation treatments on seed yield and quality. Treatments at the onset, at full, and at the end of flowering, wit all their possible combinations were compared among themselves and with the non-irrigated control...

Enrico Noli; Mauro Montanari; Paola Rossi Pisa

2011-01-01

44

Sugarbeet seed’s yield and quality as affected by irrigation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Irrigation to the sugar-beet seed crop is a common practice since many years in Emilia Romagna region, even though information on the most suitable ways to irrigate is very limited. The aim of this three-year long experimentation was to evaluate the influence of timing and number of irrigation treatments on seed yield and quality. Treatments at the onset, at full, and at the end of flowering, wit all their possible combinations were compared among themselves and with the non-irrigated control...

Enrico Noli; Mauro Montanari; Paola Rossi Pisa

2007-01-01

45

Weed Infestation in Direct Seeded and Transplanted Aus Rice as Affected by Method of Planting and Weeding Regime  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the weed vegetation due to the effect of planting methods and weeding regime. Two factors included in the experiment were: methods of planting and weeding regime. The results revealed that weed vegetation in the two methods of planting varied remarkable. Fifty-five weed species belonging to 17 families infested the crop. Among the weed species, Fimbristylis miliacea (L. Vahl was the principal weed in direct seeded aus rice and Panicum repens L. in the transplanted aus rice. Twenty-four weed species were found to grow only in the direct seeded crop and only eight in the transplanted crop. Weed density and weed dry weight was significantly affected by the method of planting and weeding regime. Weed density and dry weight was significantly higher in direct seeded than in transplanted crop.

M.Y. Sarker

2002-01-01

46

Factors Affecting Profitability of Layer Hens Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Layer hen enterprises suffer from low profitability or losses in many of developing countries all over the world. Jordan is not an acceptance. Approach: This study aimed at investigating the influence of ten main factors affecting the profitability of layer hen producers. The investigated factors include price of purchased pullet, feed price, cost of labor, cost of veterinary service and medicine, building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance an...

Ebraheem Altahat; Ali AL-Sharafat; Mohammad Altarawneh

2012-01-01

47

Primary Factors Affecting Safety of Control System  

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Full Text Available Aim of the paper is to point out some of the factors that affect safety of control system. Already in initial stages of the control system life-cycle it is necessary to analyze the effect of each of these factors on safety of a designed control system. Following this analysis, it is possible to propose appropriate measures for achieving specified safety goals.

Michal Foltan

2006-01-01

48

Affecting Factors in Second Language Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the influence of sex, handedness, level in second language (L2) and Faculty choice on the performance of phonological, syntactical and semantic tasks in L2. Level in L2 and sex were the most affecting factors. Subjects who achieved higher scores on L2 tasks had strong second language aptitude skills since they were…

Andreou, G.; Vlachos, F.; Andreou, E.

2005-01-01

49

Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability  

Science.gov (United States)

The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

2011-01-01

50

Factors Affecting Thickening in Liquid Solids Separation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The general objective of the research program was to investigate the factors affecting the thickening of various types of liquid-solids suspensions by gravity sedimentation of interest in sewage treatment. The more specific aims of the program were as fol...

G. J. Schroepfer N. R. Ziemke

1964-01-01

51

Productivity of Egyptian Clover as Affected by Seeding Rates and Cutting Schedules II-Chemical Dry Matter Analysis  

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Full Text Available Two field experiments were conducted at the Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University during the two successive seasons of 2000/2001 and 2001/2002. A split-plot design in four replications was used. This investigation aimed to study the effect of seeding rates and cutting schedules parameters on chemical dry matter analysis of Egyptian clover variety Miskawi Giza 6. Crude protein and fiber, ash content, ether extract and nitrogen free-extract percentages in blades and stems and its yields/fed were significantly affected due to cuttings. Highest percentages of CP and ash in blades and stems were produced from the second cut. While highest percentages of CF and EE in blades and stems were produced from the third cut. The fifth cut achieved the highest percentages of NFE in both blades and stems. Moreover, highest crude protein and ash yields per feddan were produced at the second cut. The third cut produced highest averages of CF, EE and NFE yields per feddan. Seeding rates caused significant differences on Crude protein (CP, Crude fiber (CF, ash content, EE and NFE percentages in blades and stems and its yields/fed were significantly affected due to seeding rates. Highest percentages of CP and EE in stems were resulted from sown with 30 kg seed/fed. While, using 45 kg seed/fed was accompanied with the highest percentages of CF and ash content in both blades and stems as well as NFE % in blades only. Moreover, the highest yields of CP, CF, ash, EE and NFE yields per feddan were produced from the medium seeding rate of 30 kg seed/fed. Percentages of CP, CF, ash content, EE and NFE in blades and stems as well as CP, CF, ash content, EE and NFE yields/fed significantly responded as a result of cutting schedules under study. Highest CP % produced from cutting plants at 30 cm height and after 25 days intervals in both blades and stems, respectively. While, highest percentages of CF, ash content and EE in both blades and stems were produced from cutting at 50 cm height. Cutting Egyptian clover plants at 55 days intervals produced highest NFE %. Moreover, highest of CP, CF, ash content, EE and NFE yields/fed were produced from cutting at 30 cm height. There was non significant interactions between seeding rates and cutting schedules treatments on chemical dry matter analysis, this mean that each factor acted separately. It could be summarized that for maximizing forage quality of Egyptian clover Giza 6 cultivar with sowing at seeding rate of 30 kg seed/fed and cutting plants at 30 cm height under the environmental conditions of Dakahlia Governorate.

A.A. Kandil

2005-01-01

52

Factors controlling the hormesis response in irradiated seed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation at very low doses frequently has a stimulating or hormetic effect on the growth of organisms. Irradiation of seed before planting can stimulate early plant growth, leading to advanced maturity and increased yield. The unreliability of this response has limited its application. However, the technique has been extensively studied and now is practiced on a large scale on some farms in certain countries. Our research has addressed various factors that may determine the stimulation response with the goal of developing an ability to predict the occurrence of increased economic yield. In this paper, we discuss several of these factors in light of our data and data from other field studies in Canada. A hormesis response was observed for most species studied, but varied among cultivars and among seed lots within a cultivar. Seed condition may be the underlying factor in these effects. The response was most frequently evident at very early stages of growth and was often masked in subsequent growth. This suggests that the hormesis phenomenon in seeds may be quite common and is not reliably manifest in advanced maturity or yield increases because of environmental effects. Storage time after irradiation must be minimized to gain the greatest response. There is little evidence to suggest that the photon energy or dose rate of the radiation source is an important factor

1987-01-01

53

Herbivore and Fungal Pathogen Exclusion Affects the Seed Production of Four Common Grassland Species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Insect herbivores and fungal pathogens can independently affect plant fitness, and may have interactive effects. However, few studies have experimentally quantified the joint effects of insects and fungal pathogens on seed production in non-agricultural populations. We examined the factorial effects of insect herbivore exclusion (via insecticide) and fungal pathogen exclusion (via fungicide) on the population-level seed production of four common graminoid species (Andropogon gerardii, Schizac...

Dickson, Timothy L.; Mitchell, Charles E.

2010-01-01

54

Seed Quality as Affected by Nitrogen and Potassium During True Potato Seed Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three levels of nitrogen (0, 225 and 300 kg N ha-1) and 4 levels of potassium (0, 125, 175 and 225 kg K ha-1) fertilizers were applied to potato mother plants (MF-II) for the production of high quality True Potato Seed (TPS). The effect of N and K application on the quality of TPS was evaluated by nutritional analysis, germination tests in Petri dishes and growth performance in nursery beds. Increase in N application significantly increased N, P, Ca...

Tuhin Suvra Roy; Takashi Nishizawa; Mohammed Hazrat Ali

2007-01-01

55

Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

2006-05-01

56

Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It h...

Sertac Gonenc; Harun Tanrivermis

2007-01-01

57

EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having th...

Yu-Jia Hu

2012-01-01

58

Gallbladder polyps: Factors affecting surgical decision  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: To determine the factors affecting the decision to perform surgery, and the efficiency of ultrasonography (USG) in detecting gallbladder polyps (GP). METHODS: Data for 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1996 and 2012 in our clinic with a diagnosis of GP were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were evaluated. Patients were evaluated in individual groups according to the age ...

Pinar Sarkut; Sadik Kilicturgay; Ali Ozer; Ersin Ozturk; Tuncay Yilmazlar

2013-01-01

59

Insecticide use in hybrid onion seed production affects pre- and postpollination processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on threats to pollination service in agro-ecosystems has focused primarily on the negative impacts of land use change and agricultural practices such as insecticide use on pollinator populations. Insecticide use could also affect the pollination process, through nonlethal impacts on pollinator attraction and postpollination processes such as pollen viability or pollen tube growth. Hybrid onion seed (Allium cepa L., Alliaceae) is an important pollinator-dependent crop that has suffered yield declines in California, concurrent with increased insecticide use. Field studies suggest that insecticide use reduces pollination service in this system. We conducted a field experiment manipulating insecticide use to examine the impacts of insecticides on 1) pollinator attraction, 2) pollen/stigma interactions, and 3) seed set and seed quality. Select insecticides had negative impacts on pollinator attraction and pollen/stigma interactions, with certain products dramatically reducing pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Decreased pollen germination was not associated with reduced seed set; however, reduced pollinator attraction was associated with lower seed set and seed quality, for one of the two female lines examined. Our results highlight the importance of pesticide effects on the pollination process. Overuse may lead to yield reductions through impacts on pollinator behavior and postpollination processes. Overall, in hybrid onion seed production, moderation in insecticide use is advised when controlling onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, on commercial fields. PMID:24665681

Gillespie, Sandra; Long, Rachael; Seitz, Nicola; Williams, Neal

2014-02-01

60

From Perceptions to Practice: Factors Affecting Recast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review study was motivated by a debate about the role of recast in L2 learning. Recast is the most frequent type of feedback but probably the least effective one. While some researchers have criticized it as inefficient, others have supported it as an unobtrusive type of feedback especially useful during interactive activities. This review of studies on recast helps pinpoint the factors contributing to the effectiveness of recast. In this regard, two factors were found to have a determining role; saliency and learners’ proficiency level. Saliency concerns the noticeability of recast by learners. Different factors affect saliency including shortness of recast, added-stress on the erroneous part, number of corrections, and the focus of recast. On the other hand, the results of studies confirm the role of proficiency. In other words, proficient learners are more likely to notice their errors using recast even when it is insalient.

Sajjad Sepehrinia

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
61

Factors affecting microencapsulation of drugs in liposomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Liposomes have been used as carriers for drugs, toxins, enzymes, proteins/peptides and other bioactive materials there are several liposomal formulations that are being investigated in preclinical and clinical trials. Achieving high encapsulation as well as retention of the encapsulated drug is very important in developing liposomes as drug carriers. A high drug-to-lipid ratio is likely to reduce the cost of formulations and also the risk of lipid-induced toxicity following their injection. Comparison of the encapsulation efficiency of the drug in liposomes with the therapeutic dose indicates whether, in principle, liposomes can be used as a delivery system for that drug. The optimization of the liposomal encapsulation of a drug is usually based on trial and error, rather than on a thorough investigation of the factors affecting it. To obtain optimum encapsulation of a drug into a liposomal preparation, parameters influencing both the liposome and the drug need to be carefully considered during the early stages of development. In this review, factors that affect encapsulation of drugs in liposomes such as liposome size and type, charge on the liposome surface, bilayer rigidity, method of preparation, remote loading, addition of ion pairing, and complexing agents and characteristics of the drug to be encapsulated are discussed. PMID:7650588

Kulkarni, S B; Betageri, G V; Singh, M

1995-01-01

62

Proximate Composition, Antinutritional Factors and Protein Fractions of Guar Gum Seeds as Influenced by Processing Treatments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The proximate composition, antinutritional factors and protein fractions of guar seeds were studied before and after autoclaving, soaking followed by dehulling and germination treatments. Chemical composition was varied between the treatments. Soaking of seeds followed by dehulling significantly increase protein content to 67.8%. Germination of seeds increased tannin and phytic acid content of the seeds. Polyphenols were fluctuating during processing. Albumin fraction of the seeds was ...

Ahmed, Majed B.; Hamid, Rashed A.; Ali, Mohamed E.; Hassan, Amro B.; Babiker, Elfadil E.

2006-01-01

63

Factors Affecting Electricity Demand in Jordan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 1 The paper examines the relationship between electricity demand and climate/non-climate related factors using statistical regression analysis. 2 It focuses on the environmental, demographic, policy (energy pricing and technological factors as the main factors affecting the consumption pattern in Jordan. 3 The paper also presents the variations occurred in the electricity demand over the period 1994-2008. The variations that are observed during the period of study are: Shifting of the peak load occurrence from evening to morning period, Modification in the annual daily load curve especially in winter season, Variation in relationship between space temperature and demand especially in winter, and dramatic increase in electric generation after year 2003. The shift in peak load from evening to morning period is mainly due to technological factor as a result of wide use of the air conditions in houses, services and government offices for cooling in summer instead of ordinary air fans. The variations in consumption pattern between 2000 and 2007 are mainly associated with economic, social and demographic factors. The high demand at lower space temperature is governed by introducing new appliances for heating in winter as a result of low electricity pricing comparing with gasoline price. The dramatic increase in electric generation after 2003 is probably due to demographic factors as a result of high growth of population after the Gulf war II. 4 The correlation between the daily maximum loads in morning and evening periods with the differential temperature (?T above 20?C threshold in summer and below 15?C threshold in winter, shows pronounced changes in 2007 compared with year 2000. The regression tests show that a decrease of 1?C below 15?C threshold in winter 1 increases the morning demand by only 2 MW/?C in 2000 and 16.7 MW/?C in 2007, 2 decreases the evening peak by ?2.6 MW/1?C in 2000 and increases the evening peak by 22.9 MW/1?C in 2007. Results show that the demographic, technological, environmental and national energy pricing factors play a vital rule in consumption pattern in Jordan. Moreover, the paper reveals that planners and decision makers should be careful when applying new tariff in the developing countries such as Jordan.

Mohammad Awad Momani

2013-01-01

64

Factors Affecting Profitability of Layer Hens Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Layer hen enterprises suffer from low profitability or losses in many of developing countries all over the world. Jordan is not an acceptance. Approach: This study aimed at investigating the influence of ten main factors affecting the profitability of layer hen producers. The investigated factors include price of purchased pullet, feed price, cost of labor, cost of veterinary service and medicine, building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance and miscellaneous costs, length of production cycle, feed conversion ratio, mortality rate, egg sale price and laying percentage. Results: The study used a multiple regression profit model to estimate the effect of the above mentioned factors on profit per kg egg produced. The direction and quantity of relationship between profit per kg egg and variables affecting profit were investigated. Data from 40 operating and randomly selected egg production enterprises in the country was collected. Data was obtained directly from the producers during April to mid August 2010. Semi structured interviews were conducted with a pre-tested questionnaire. The data obtained via interview surveys were processed to calculate profit per kg egg and other relevant information for inclusion in a profit function model. Fifteen eggs are registered to be 1 kg in the study. Cost and income items used to calculate profit in the study. The results of the study revealed that the feed price was found to be the factor which has the highest negative impact on the profitability showing the coefficient-3.01. The egg sale price was with high positive impact on profitability showing the coefficient 2.633. Conclusion/Recommendations: From the results of the study it could be concluded that higher prices of purchased or breeding pullet, higher feed price, higher cost of labor, higher cost of veterinary service and medicine, higher other costs including building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance and miscellaneous costs, higher feed quantity to be converted to eggs and higher mortality rate are associated with lower profitability of laying hen enterprises, while higher length of production cycle, higher egg sale price and higher laying percentage are associated with higher profitability. Critical limits indicated for various cost components should be used as a guideline to adjust budget in commercial egg operation thereby, ensuring higher net profit per bird.

Ebraheem Altahat

2012-01-01

65

Fungicide Seed Treatments Minimally Affect Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Fungal (AMF Colonization of Selected Vegetable Crops  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fungicides applied as soil drenches have been shown to adversely affect beneficial Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Fungal (AMF colonization of plant roots. We tested the effects of four common fungicides applied as seed treatments, mefenoxam, thiram, tebuconazole+metalaxyl and captan, on colonization of muskmelon (Cucumis melo, squash (Cucurbita pepo and C. moschata, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum and corn (Zea mays roots by the AMF Glomus intraradices. All inoculated seedlings were colonized with AMF, with treatment averages ranging from 6 to 99% root length containing hyphae and 0 to 68% containing vesicles. Overall, fungicidal seed treatment effects on AMF colonization were relatively minor and where significant effects were noted, they were inconsistent across species and/or sampling times. This study provides evidence that fungicidal seed treatments can be compatible with AMF inoculation and colonization.

Rhoda L. Burrows

2007-01-01

66

EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

Yu-Jia Hu

2012-01-01

67

Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

1989-01-01

68

Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It has been found that milk has the largest share of animal produce values consumed by the household, while particularly processed milk products are sold informally and that the consumption and sales values of animal produce processed in the households are required to be added to the unrecorded value calculation. Consumption of crops varies depending on the type of product. The own consumption ratio of crops is affected by the size of the enterprise, the number of individuals in the households and particularly the access to the markets of the enterprises in each region. An average informal value of 6,400.04 USD has been calculated per household, which is higher than the farm income, accounting for 4/5 of total household income. This can be attributed to the fact that the farms are generally small family enterprises with limited market-access opportunities.

Sertac Gonenc

2007-01-01

69

Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

Virgilijus Sakalauskas

2011-12-01

70

Antinutrient Factors of Vegetable Cowpea (Sesquipedalis) Seeds During Thermal Processing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of boiling, roasting and autoclaving on the levels of some antinutrient factors present in the seeds of vegetable cowpea (sesquipedalis) were studied. The reduction of trypsin inhibitor was found to be highest (100%) with autoclaving at 60 min. Boiling was more effective in reducing phytic acid (68.34%) and haemagglutinin (75.98%) respectively at 60 min than the other processing treatments at the same time. The hydrogen cyanide was markedly reduced up to 81.25% at 15 min by autocla...

2007-01-01

71

Fungicide Seed Treatments Minimally Affect Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Fungal (AMF) Colonization of Selected Vegetable Crops  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fungicides applied as soil drenches have been shown to adversely affect beneficial Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Fungal (AMF) colonization of plant roots. We tested the effects of four common fungicides applied as seed treatments, mefenoxam, thiram, tebuconazole+metalaxyl and captan, on colonization of muskmelon (Cucumis melo), squash (Cucurbita pepo and C. moschata), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and corn (Zea mays) roots by th...

Burrows, Rhoda L.; Ismail Ahmed

2007-01-01

72

Stand, tree and crown variables affecting cone crop and seed yield of Aleppo pine forests in different bio climatic regions of Tunisia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Tunisia, the Aleppo pine seed has a great importance, since in the last decades human consumption has risen considerable. Thus its regeneration and seed production capacities are important factors to take into account to reach the necessities of the country. To study the production of cones and seeds of Aleppo pine, Tunisias native Aleppo pine forests were surveyed in summer 2006, using 79 plots (40 × 25 m: 1,000 m²) spread over four bioclimatic zones. Stand and tree characteristics, crown dimensions and cone/seed variables were measured from an average tree of each plot (i.e. a total of 79 trees). Recorded data were submitted to simple and multiple regression analyses for explaining the variability in crown volume and crown surface, cone number and seed yield per average tree. Results showed a negative correlation between the stand density, crown characteristics and number of cones and seeds harvested from the average tree. For crown volume and surface, age, stand density, tree height, diameter at breast height, crown diameter and crown height were important explanatory variables under multiple regression analyses. For cone number per tree, only the age, stand density and total height were the most determinant variables. Matures cone number per tree and cone mass per tree were the most informative parameters for the total seed yields per tree. Finally, forest managers should know that crown size affects cone and seed crop of the Aleppo pine individual tree grown in Tunisia, but has no effects on seed number per cone and seed mass per cone. (Author) 50 refs.

Ayari, A.; Zubizarreta-Gerendiain, A.; Tome, M.; Gaqrchi, S.; Henchi, B.

2012-11-01

73

Some Environmental Factors Affecting on Growth Characteristics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Live weights, weight gains and some body measurements at different ages of Eastern Anatolian Red Cattle (EAR were determined and some environmental factors affecting on these traits were investigated. The effect of dam’s age on the birth weight was highly significant (P<0.01. Although the lowest birth weight was obtained from calves of dams at the 3 years of age, the highest birth weight was obtained from calves given birth by cows at the 5 years of age. The males had heavier live weights and weight gains at different ages than the females. The effect of the sex on the live weights except for 9 and 12 months weights was found as highly significant (P<0.01. Feeding of the calves with different amount of milk had significant (P<0.01 influence on the 3, 6 and 9 months weights as well as weight gains. The effect of the years on the daily weight gains in EAR was also highly significant (P<0.01. The results shows the importance of the environmental effects on the traits studied and revealed that there is need for them to be corrected prior to the improvement studies.

N. Tuzemen

2007-01-01

74

Factors affecting lactose quantity in raw milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize factors affecting lactose quantities in raw cow's milk. This study combined the survey design with laboratory analysis. Selected farm members of Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives, from Ban Pong and Photharam Districts, Ratchaburi Province, were sampled. From the selected farms, data collected included lactose quantities in the raw milk and dairy farming information. The raw milk of selected farms was sampled at the delivery site of Nong Poh dairy cooperatives in the morning during December 2003 till February 2004. Lactose in the raw milk was then quantified by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using the MilkoScan FT6000 at the Department of Livestock Development. The farm owners or managers of selected farms were in-depth interviewed on dairy farming information including cowsí health and cows' diet. The data revealed that all cows from the selected farms were fed with concentrate diet purchased from Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives and grass as high fiber diets. Sample of eighteen farms also fed their cows with one of supplements: corn stem, soybean meal, or rice straw. All cows from these farms were Holstein-Friesian Hybrid. As supplemented high fiber diets, corn stem significantly increased the lactose quantities over soybean meal and rice straw (planned comparison, pvalue = 0.044. The study concluded that some high fiber diets, specifically corn stem, significantly contributed to the lactose quantities in raw milk.

Rubporn Kittivachra

2007-07-01

75

Factors affecting protoplast formation by Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

Novozym 234 was the most frequently used enzyme for production of Rhizoctonia solani protoplasts. Since manufacture of this enzyme was discontinued in the late 1990s, a new procedure was developed by testing lytic enzymes from Sigma and by examining factors affecting protoplast formation. The combination of 20 mg/mL Driselase and 10mg/mL lysing enzyme was effective in releasing protoplasts from R. solani. The optimal condition for enzyme treatment of mycelium was incubation at 37 degrees C for 15 min followed by 34 degrees C for 105 min. The amount of protoplasts produced was positively correlated with growth rate and negatively correlated with mycelial density. Under favorable conditions, R. solani mycelia released 1.68 x 10(6) protoplasts/mL that is comparable with that produced with Novozym 234. Among various media tested, the best solid medium for protoplast regeneration was 1% V-8 juice agar, while the best liquid medium was 10% potato dextrose broth. PMID:19715779

Liu, Tung-Hsen; Lin, Mei-Ju; Ko, Wen-Hsiung

2010-02-28

76

Factors affecting the wear of sonic files.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate factors affecting the wear and cutting ability of sonic files. A model system was used and the following variables evaluated, file type; Heliosonic, Rispisonic or Shaper, load; 25, 50 or 100 grams and length of time in use; new, 30 or 60 seconds. A 3(3) full factorial analysis with two replications into the effect of the above variables on the cutting ability of the Heliosonic, Rispisonic and Shaper files powered by the MM1500 sonic instrument was performed. A new file size 25 (Heliosonic and Shaper) or No 3 (Rispisonic) was used for each cut together with water irrigation and the substrate used was 1 mm thick sections of bovine bone. All variables had a significant effect on cutting (ANOVA. p 0.05). The Rispisonic file was most susceptible to wear during use especially at higher loads and the Heliosonic file cut least. It is suggested that the Shaper file is the better design of the three with respect to cutting ability and wear with use. PMID:9028184

Lumley, P J

1996-08-01

77

Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and demographic variables.The results showed that the different measures of career progress had distinct determinants implying different dynamics. It appeared that measures of career progress that are sensitive to the value employers attach to the individual (Whitely, Dougherty, & Dreher, 1991 such as total compensation, total number of promotion and years per promotion were related with human capital factors such as work experience and number of companies worked for. On the other hand, measures that relate to centrality if the position, in which market forces have less impact, were associated with organizational variables such as organization size and the demographic variable gender.While gender did not explain variation in total compensation, number of promotions and number of uears between promotions, these null results are important for two reasons. First, it implies that the female MBA students were at par with their male counterparts as fas as these measures of career progress are concerned. Second, it challenges the generalizability of the finding of gender segregation at the organizational level-where men receive significantly higher wages that women-which is a common finding among studies done in the United States. The results using the MBA students as sample show that income and promotion parity may indeed be achievable and this brings hope to women in general.However, the statistical significance of gender in explaining career progress as centrality of position does not augur well for women. This result implies that despite the fact that the women in the sample were intelligent (that is, they passed the stringent MBA screening, motivated and obviously were able to manage their time well-being able to balance work, school and in some cases, family responsibilities-they were still far removed from the top. These women still faced some hostile environment that prevented them from fully contributing to making decisions that matter.

Vivien T. Supangco

2001-06-01

78

How fragmentation and corridors affect wind dynamics and seed dispersal in open habitats  

Science.gov (United States)

Determining how widespread human-induced changes such as habitat loss, landscape fragmentation, and climate instability affect populations, communities, and ecosystems is one of the most pressing environmental challenges. Critical to this challenge is understanding how these changes are affecting the movement abilities and dispersal trajectories of organisms and what role conservation planning can play in promoting movement among remaining fragments of suitable habitat. Whereas evidence is mounting for how conservation strategies such as corridors impact animal movement, virtually nothing is known for species dispersed by wind, which are often mistakenly assumed to not be limited by dispersal. Here, we combine mechanistic dispersal models, wind measurements, and seed releases in a large-scale experimental landscape to show that habitat corridors affect wind dynamics and seed dispersal by redirecting and bellowing airflow and by increasing the likelihood of seed uplift. Wind direction interacts with landscape orientation to determine when corridors provide connectivity. Our results predict positive impacts of connectivity and patch shape on species richness of wind-dispersed plants, which we empirically illustrate using 12 y of data from our experimental landscapes. We conclude that habitat fragmentation and corridors strongly impact the movement of wind-dispersed species, which has community-level consequences.

Damschen, Ellen I.; Baker, Dirk V.; Bohrer, Gil; Nathan, Ran; Orrock, John L.; Turner, Jay R.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Haddad, Nick M.; Levey, Douglas J.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.

2014-01-01

79

Seed germination of a newly discovered hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. affected by illumination and seed-soaking reagent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solanum nigrum is a newly found Cd-hyperaccumulator which showed very high remediation efficiency in polluted soil. Seed germination experiments with different illumination and seed-soaking reagents were conducted in constant temperature box and greenhouse with soil as burgeon base. The results showed that the germination rate with alternating light/dark photoperiod was about twice of that without lighting (p < 0.05), suggesting that illumination is one of the important conditions for seed germination of S. nigrum. All treatments with seed-soaking reagents significantly increased the seed germination rate of S. nigrum (p < 0.05). Treatment with H2O2 (0.1%) had the shortest germination time. The germination rate of seeds that were not washed in water following soaking was 2-3 times higher than that of seeds that were washed after soaking. PMID:19497664

Wei, Shuhe; Hu, Yahu; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Zhou, Qixing; Niu, Rongcheng; Li, Yunmeng; Wu, Zhijie; Sun, Tieheng

2009-10-30

80

Fenugreek seed affects intestinal microbiota and immunological variables in piglets after weaning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fenugreek seed has been shown to affect the intestinal microbiota and immunological responses in animals. A feeding trial with male castrated piglets was performed over 28 d without or with the addition of 1·5 g fenugreek seeds/kg complete diet in ten and eleven piglets, weaned at 21 d. In the intestinal tract, pH, lactate and SCFA were measured as major bacterial metabolites. Immune cell phenotypes, phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferation after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen, concanavalin A and phytohaemagglutinin M were measured by flow cytometry. Health status and performance of the piglets were not affected by fenugreek. The pH in the caecum and colon were reduced compared with the control (Pfenugreek diet had higher Lactobacillus and clostridium cluster I concentrations and lower Escherichia, Hafnia and Shigella concentrations in the small intestine. The addition of fenugreek increased the relative concentration of the ?? T-cell population (TCR1+CD8?-) in the blood with a simultaneous reduction of antigen-presenting cells (MHCII+CD5-) (Pfenugreek seeds might be interesting as a feed ingredient for young piglets due to their effects on the intestinal microbiota and immunological variables. The impact on performance and animal health has to be further evaluated. PMID:22874597

Zentek, Jürgen; Gärtner, Stefanie; Tedin, Lydia; Männer, Klaus; Mader, Anneluise; Vahjen, Wilfried

2013-03-14

 
 
 
 
81

Stability in and Correlation between Factors Influencing Genetic Quality of Seed Lots in Seed Orchard of Pinus tabuliformis Carr. over a 12-Year Span  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coniferous seed orchards require a long period from initial seed harvest to stable seed production. Differential reproductive success and asynchrony are among the main factors for orchard crops year-to-year variation in terms of parental gametic contribution and ultimately the genetic gain. It is fundamental in both making predictions about the genetic composition of the seed crop and decisions about orchard roguing and improved seed orchard establishment. In this paper, a primary Chinese pin...

Li, Wei; Wang, Xiaoru; Li, Yue

2011-01-01

82

Ionome of soybean seed affected by previous cropping with mycorrhizal plant and manure application.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of previous cultivation of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) host plant and manure application on the concentration of 19 mineral elements in soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr. cv. Tsurumusume) seeds. Each experiment ran for two years (experiment 1 took place in 2007-2008, and experiment 2 took place in 2008-2009) with a split plot design. Soybeans were cultivated after growing either an AM host plant (maize, Zea mays L. cv. New dental) or a non-AM host plant (buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. cv. Kitawase-soba) in the first year in the main plots, with manure application (0 and 20 t/ha) during the soybean season in split plots from both main plots. On the basis of the two experiments, manure application significantly increased the available potassium (K) and decreased the available iron (Fe) and cesium (Cs) in the soil. However, higher concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba) and lower concentrations of Cs in the seed were induced by the application of manure. Cd levels in the seed were decreased by prior cultivation with the AM host plant. The present study showed that the identity of the prior crop and manure application changed the mineral contents of the soybean seed and suggests a connection between environmental factors and food safety. PMID:22950648

Sha, Zhimin; Oka, Norikuni; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Tampubolon, Biatna Dulbert; Okazaki, Keiki; Osaki, Mitsuru; Shinano, Takuro

2012-09-26

83

External factors affecting investment decisions of companies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we attempt to investigate the importance of certain external factors on the investment decision among Polish companies. With the use of data from the tailored made Survey on Receivables we examine factors influencing investment decisions of companies in Poland, assess the relation between the branch and company size and importance of the factors and finally we determine the relative influence of these factors on the actual investment reductions. The results showed that first, al...

Bialowolski, Piotr; Weziak-bialowolska, Dorota

2013-01-01

84

Factors Affecting Transfer of Training in Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

To begin the validation process for the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) in Thailand, research replicating Holton, Bates, and Ruona's study (2000) was conducted in Thailand. The LTSI was administered to 1,029 employees. Exploratory factor analysis and MANOVA were used to identify factors. A factor structure almost identical to that of…

Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.

2005-01-01

85

Factors Affecting Degradation of Aldicarb and Ethoprop  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chemical and microbial degradation of the nematicides-insecticides aldicarb and ethoprop has been studied extensively in both laboratory and field studies. These studies show that temperature is the most important variable affecting the degradation rate of aldicarb and its carbamate metabolites in surface soils. Temperature and organic matter appear to be the most important variables affecting degradation rates of ethoprop in soils under normal agricultural conditions, with organic matter bei...

Jones, Russell L.; Norris, Frank A.

1998-01-01

86

Antinutrient Factors of Vegetable Cowpea (Sesquipedalis Seeds During Thermal Processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of boiling, roasting and autoclaving on the levels of some antinutrient factors present in the seeds of vegetable cowpea (sesquipedalis were studied. The reduction of trypsin inhibitor was found to be highest (100% with autoclaving at 60 min. Boiling was more effective in reducing phytic acid (68.34% and haemagglutinin (75.98% respectively at 60 min than the other processing treatments at the same time. The hydrogen cyanide was markedly reduced up to 81.25% at 15 min by autoclaving method while boiling at 60min resulted in (81.25% reduction. Tannin content was reduced by boiling and roasting up to 75.00% at 60 min and 75.00% at 120 min respectively. Boiling and autoclaving at 60 min significantly reduced stachyose (60.52% - 84.21% and raffinose (67.97 - 83.66%.

E.A. Udensi

2007-01-01

87

Seed Physiological Quality of Three Capsicum Species as Affected by Seed Density and Hydropriming Treatment Durations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seeds uniformity and seedling establishment are major problem in pepper production in developing countries and have great impact on production quality and performance. Seed enhancement technology like hydropriming can be done to address this gap. A study was initiated to determine the physiological quality of three Capsicum species (Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens and Capsicum chinense) in relation to seed density and hydropriming treatment durations. In the f...

Adebisi, M. A.; Kehinde, T. O.; Abdul-rafiu, M. A.; Esuruoso, O. A.; Oni, O. D.; Ativie, O.

2013-01-01

88

How Student Satisfaction Factors Affect Perceived Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from students in two sections of a general education course offered at a research university in spring 2009 were used to explore whether student satisfaction factors are associated with perceived learning as rated by students. A list of 22 elements in the learning environment was explored. The 22 were used in creating 3 satisfaction factors

Lo, Celia C.

2010-01-01

89

Proximate Composition, Antinutritional Factors and Protein Fractions of Guar Gum Seeds as Influenced by Processing Treatments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The proximate composition, antinutritional factors and protein fractions of guar seeds were studied before and after autoclaving, soaking followed by dehulling and germination treatments. Chemical composition was varied between the treatments. Soaking of seeds followed by dehulling significantly increase protein content to 67.8%. Germination of seeds increased tannin and phytic acid content of the seeds. Polyphenols were fluctuating during processing. Albumin fraction of the seeds was decreased; prolamin and globulin were fluctuated during processing while glutelin was greatly increased.

Majed B. Ahmed

2006-01-01

90

Factsheet 2: Factors affecting waste generation  

Oct 1, 2008 ... Factors which influence Household Waste Generation. Dr. Alan ... Most other \\categories of waste were generated by a far smaller number of households. In .... \\degree of random variability in the amounts of miscellaneous ...

91

ANALYSIS OF FACTORS THAT AFFECTED WAR PHOTOGRAPHY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

War photography is a field which experienced changes that were influenced by many factors. Some of the most important factors were course of development of photographic equipment, course of development of printing press, possibility of reproducing photographs in print media and consequently possibility of mediating war photographs to public, social and cultural background and level of censorship and control over publishing war photographs and their content at the time when certain war photogr...

2011-01-01

92

From Perceptions to Practice: Factors Affecting Recast  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review study was motivated by a debate about the role of recast in L2 learning. Recast is the most frequent type of feedback but probably the least effective one. While some researchers have criticized it as inefficient, others have supported it as an unobtrusive type of feedback especially useful during interactive activities. This review of studies on recast helps pinpoint the factors contributing to the effectiveness of recast. In this regard, two factors were found to have a...

Sajjad Sepehrinia; Alireza Zarea; Majid Soltani Moghaddam; Morteza Nasiri

2011-01-01

93

Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating positio...

2012-01-01

94

Factors affecting levodopa effects in Parkinson's disease.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Levodopa is the gold standard for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD because of its outstanding clinical efficacy. However, the majority of patients experience various adverse reactions, including the wearing-off phenomenon, the on-off phenomenon, dyskinesia and psychiatric symptoms. The response to levodopa depends not only on the intrinsic responsiveness of the patients, but also on various other important factors including the type of levodopa preparation, its absorption/metabolism, the blood-brain barrier, age at onset of disease and concomitant use of anti-parkinsonian drugs. This review summarizes factors which influence the effects of levodopa in PD. To minimize levodopa-induced adverse reactions and to relieve long-term parkinsonian symptoms, levodopa therapy should be conducted by taking these factors into consideration.

Ogawa N

2000-06-01

95

Factors Defining Field Germination of Oilseed Radish Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influence of temperature, depth of crops and granulometric of soil structure on germination speed, laboratory and field germination of oilseed radish seeds were studied. It was established that the period of seed-germination is defined both by temperature and granulometric structure of soil. The highest field germination was marked on sandy loam at depth of crops' seeds at 3 cm and 20°?.

N.V. Dorofeev

2013-08-01

96

Factors affecting alum-protein interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alum (or aluminum-containing) adjuvants are key components of many vaccines currently on the market. The immuno-potentiation effect of alum adjuvants is presumably due to their interaction with antigens, leading to adsorption on the alum particle surface. Understanding the mechanism of antigen adsorption/desorption and its influencing factors could provide guidance on formulation design and ensure proper in-vivo immuno-potentiation effect. In this paper, surface adsorption of several model proteins on two types of aluminum adjuvants (Alhydrogel(®) and Adjuphos(®)) are investigated to understand the underlying adsorption mechanisms, capacities, and potential influencing factors. It was found that electrostatic interactions are the major driving force for surface adsorption of all the model proteins except ovalbumin. Alhydrogel has a significantly higher adsorption capacity than Adjuphos. Several factors significantly change the adsorption capacity of both Alhydrogel and Adjuphos, including molecular weight of protein antigens, sodium chloride, phosphate buffer, denaturing agents, and size of aluminum particles. These important factors need to be carefully considered in the design of an effective protein antigen-based vaccine. PMID:24607202

Huang, Min; Wang, Wei

2014-05-15

97

Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

Ivan FERENCZ

2008-01-01

98

Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

2008-01-01

99

Internal factors affecting the jury members verdict  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of socio-demographic and individual psychological characteristics that influence the verdict of jury. The study involved 38 men and women aged 25 to 64 years. With the help of a questionnaire, developed on the basis of legal development model by J. Tapp and F. Levine, we revealed levels of jury members’ legal conscience, which, together with socio-demographic characteristics and personality characteristics of the subjects, identified by R. Cattell 16PF Questionnaire, were related to the responses on the Questionnaire while returning verdict on specially selected criminal cases with implicit guilt of the defendant. According to the study, it was determined that the socio-demographic characteristics of the jurors did not significantly affect their verdict, and among the psychological characteristics of the jurors the greatest impact on their verdict has the level of legal development. Thus, depending on the nature of the crime (violent, non-violent or committed through negligence, the same level of legal conscience differently affect the decision of jurors.

Kalashnikova A.S.

2013-09-01

100

Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf) follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted til...

Yurdun Kuyucu; Ozgul Tap

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Risk factors that affect recurrence in strokes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Recurrent stroke is defined as a new cerebrovascular event which occurs after the stabilization of the previous stroke. Recurrence of stroke increases likelihood of disability-mortality associated with stroke. Systematic evaluation of stroke cases can help to reduce the risk of recurrence. Objective: In order to predict strokes which carry the risk of recurrence, we aimed to compare data related to risk factors, stroke type, etiology and disability-mortality rates associated wit...

Sema Demirci; Yalc??ner, Betu?l Z.; Göksel Bakaç; Cengiz Dayan; Fikret Aysal; Sevim Bayba?

2010-01-01

102

Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do n...

2004-01-01

103

Factors affecting peri-implant tissue reactions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Screw- shaped titanium implants are today routinely used m the substitution of lost teeth. In this thesis some of the biological factors related to the long-term survival and maintenance of dental implants were studied. The first arm of these studies was to evaluate the neutrophil activation around teeth and dental implants (Papers I & II). Secondly we wanted to evaluate the clinical radiographic and microbiological status of implants after long-term. function m partly e...

Hultin, Margareta

2001-01-01

104

Factors affecting levodopa effects in Parkinson's disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Levodopa is the gold standard for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) because of its outstanding clinical efficacy. However, the majority of patients experience various adverse reactions, including the wearing-off phenomenon, the on-off phenomenon, dyskinesia and psychiatric symptoms. The response to levodopa depends not only on the intrinsic responsiveness of the patients, but also on various other important factors including the type of levodopa preparation, its absorption/metabolism,...

2000-01-01

105

Factors affecting boiler efficiency: a literature study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Literature on the subject of coal-fired boilers was studied with the objective of establishing criteria whereby the efficiency could be improved. Methods of determining boiler efficiency are also given. Improving the standards of boiler control, i.e. by ensuring optimum combustion and following a regular and thorough maintenance program, are the most important single factors by which the efficiency of a boiler can be improved.

Venter, J.S.M.

1980-11-01

106

Risk factors affecting pancreatic fistulas after pancreaticoduodenectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the risk factors of pancreatic leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 172 consecutive patients who had undergone pancreatico-duodenectomy at Inha University Hospital between April 1996 and March 2006. We analyzed the pancreatic fistula rate according to the clinical characteristics, the pathologic and laboratory findings, and the anastomotic methods.RESULTS: The incidence of developing pancreatic fistulas in patients older than 60 years of age was 21.7% (25/115, while the incidence was 8.8% (5/57 for younger patients; the difference was significant (P = 0.03. Patients with a dilated pancreatic duct had a lower rate of post-operative pancreatic fistulas than patients with a non-dilated duct (P = 0.001. Other factors, including clinical features, anastomotic methods, and pathologic diagnosis, did not show any statistical difference.CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that pancreatic fistulas are related to age and a dilated pancreatic duct. The surgeon must take these risk factors into consideration when performing a pancre-aticoduodenectomy.

Yun-Mee Choe, Keon-Young Lee, Cheong-Ah Oh, Joung-Bum Lee, Sun Keun Choi, Yoon-Seok Hur, Sei-Joong Kim, Young Up Cho, Seung-Ik Ahn, Kee-Chun Hong, Seok-Hwan Shin, Kyung-Rae Kim

2008-12-01

107

Risk factors that affect recurrence in strokes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent stroke is defined as a new cerebrovascular event which occurs after the stabilization of the previous stroke. Recurrence of stroke increases likelihood of disability-mortality associated with stroke. Systematic evaluation of stroke cases can help to reduce the risk of recurrence. Objective: In order to predict strokes which carry the risk of recurrence, we aimed to compare data related to risk factors, stroke type, etiology and disability-mortality rates associated with stroke. Material And Method: Patients with stroke who referred to Bak?rkoy Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases Training and Research State Hospital between June 1, 2002 and February 28, 2003 were recorded into the stroke database in a consecutive and prospective manner. Strokes were classified as ischemic/hemorrhagic and first/recurrent. For recurrent strokes, information about previous strokes was also recorded. Risk factors were classified as hypertension (HT, diabetes mellitus (DM, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation (AF, coronary artery disease (CAD, migraine, transient ischemic accident (TIA, family history of cerebrovascular accident (CVA, oral contraceptive use, PAD, congestive heart failure (CHF, other heart diseases, smoking cigarette and alcohol consumption. Disability-mortality rates associated with stroke were evaluated. All data were compared for first and recurrent strokes. Results: In our study, 631 patients were evaluated, 52.3% of whom were female and 47.7% male. Frequency of stroke was statistically high (p<0.001 in females over 70 years old. Recurrent strokes were of the same type. For the first and recurrent strokes, HT was the highest risk factor. AF frequency increased with age (p<0.001. The rate of disability-mortality was found high in strokes of undetermined and cardioembolic origin. Conclusion: Knowledge of etiologic group can help to predict recurrence of stroke and prevent death. We think that effective treatment of modifiable risk factors identified in stroke groups where recurrence is the highest, and prioritising the investigation of cardioembolic risk factors in elderly women are significant in terms of primary and secondary stroke prevention.

Sevim Bayba?

2010-01-01

108

Determination of Minerals and Anti-Nutritional Factors of Some Lesser-Known Crop Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cost of raw material needed for the production of animal feed has led to the evaluation and ascertaining the adequacy of some lesser known crop seeds for minerals composition and the possible effects of anti nutritional factors on the availability of the required nutrients. The mineral elements and anti nutritional factors Jatropha curcas, Trichosanthes cucumerina, Citrillius vulgaris, were determined using standard analytical methods. The concentration of copper (16.00 mg/kg-43.00 mg/kg, Zinc [33.00 mg/kg-45.00 mg/kg], Manganese [51.70 mg/kg-63.00 mg/kg], Potassium [8704.15 mg/kg-9246.33 mg/kg], Sodium [170v mg/kg-206. mg/kg], Phosphorus [322.20 mg/kg-411.60 mg/kg], Iron [133 mg/kg-187 mg/kg], Magnesium [1896.00 mg/kg-2394 mg/kg] and Calcium [1534.00 mg/kg-1826.00 mg/kg], varied significantly in the seeds respectively. The content of the minerals in metabolize state were greatly affected by the anti-nutritional factors, tannin [7.50 mg/100 g-25.30 mg/100 g], saponin [1100.00 mg/100 g-2097 mg/100 g], oxalate [17.40 mg/100 g-40.65 mg/100 g], nitrite [50.30 mg/100 g-57.30 mg/100 g], nitrate [9.00 mg/100 g-24.60 mg/100 g] and phytic acid [480.03 mg/100 g-2012.02 mg/100 g]. Concentration of mineral elements in all lesser known crop seeds are below the dietary requirements for animal.

N.O.A. Ilelaboye

2009-01-01

109

Factors affecting the microstructure of porous ceramics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, porous ceramics were produced by using two methods: the polymeric sponge and foam method. Astudy of the effect of viscosity on the characteristics of the final product produced using the polymeric sponge method revealed that the microstructure of porous ceramics is highly affected by the viscosity of the slurry. The optimal ratio between porosity and the strength of the porous material was achieved by subsequently repeating the immersing and drying processes. Astudy of the porous material obtained using the foam method revealed that the pore size and foam volume can be controlled by varying the amounts of anhydride and thermal blowing agent. The problem related to foam collapsing was solved by using a thermal blowing agent. The microstructure of the samples was characterized by SEM.

DUSAN TRIPKOVIC

2006-03-01

110

Factors Affecting Quality of Life Following Stroke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stroke is a chronic and important health problem affecting all aspects of an individual’s life. Neurological impairment resulting from stroke leads to functional disability in patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of age, gender, duration of stroke and side of hemiplegia on the quality of life and the correlation between disability indices and the quality of life. Sixty-eight patients followed by the Stroke Policlinic of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department were included in the study. Functional status was evaluated with Brunnstrom Assessment, Functional Independence Measurement (FIMand Rivermaed Mobility Index (RMI. Nothingham Health Profile (NHP was used for the evaluation of quality of life. We did not determine any statistically significant difference in the subdivisions of quality of life between male and female patients and right or left hemiplegia patients. We also found that there was no correlation between the duration of stroke and subdivisions of quality of life whereas there was a positive correlation between age and only sleep subdivision of quality of life. A significant negative correlation was observed between Functional Independence Measurement and following subdivisions of Nothingham Health Profile: physical mobility (r= -0.609, p=0.000, social isolation (r= -0.403, p=0.009 and emotional reaction (r= -0.330, p=0.035. There was also a significant negative correlation between Rivermaed Mobility Index and such subdivisions of Nothingham Health Profile as physical mobility (r= -0.509, p=0.001, energy(r=-0.365, p=0.019, and social isolation (r=-0.319, p=0.042 As a result, disability ruins the quality of life in stroke patients. Improving the functional independence of these patients will affect their quality of life positively.

Ozlen PEKER

2008-09-01

111

Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex  

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Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect FENO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting FENO in a well characterised adult population. Methods Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidiscipl...

2007-01-01

112

Factors affecting U-bend cracking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stress corrosion cracking of alloy 600 in pure water is assumed to be the damaging process of a large number of small radius U-bends of PWR steam generators. The possible influencing parameters are reviewed. The determining factor is a too high level of stress arising from two main origins: residual stresses; and overstresses induced by the inner pressure in deformed cross sections. The latter have been assessed by two dimensional finite elements computation and by strain gages measurements. Stress corrosion tests in boiling MgCl_2 sustain the previous results for outer surface overstresses. Geometrical characterizations were performed on: in service SG tubes by internal spherical gages; and laboratory samples by internal spherical gages, LVDT and ultrasonic measurements, cross sectioning

1981-06-01

113

Factors affecting the biotransformation of TNT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were performed investigating several of the factors the effect the biotransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in soils and groundwater. Three different electron acceptor conditions (nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and fermentative) were tested, as were several other variables in the reactor medium. All three anaerobic conditions were found favorable for TNT transformation, though nitrate-reducing conditions appeared to be fastest. Under nitrate-reducing conditions, TNT transformation rates were directly proportionally to primary substrate (acetate) concentrations. In the presence of bisulfide, TNT reacted rapidly in an abiotic reaction. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in the fermentative reactors were inhibited by TNT concentrations above 100 mg/L. The pattern on nitro-group reduction was reasonably predictable, with the more reduced products degrading fastest under nitrate-reducing conditions.

Wilber, G.G.; Li, J.; Clarkson, W.W.

1999-07-01

114

Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

Yurdun Kuyucu

2009-08-01

115

Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do not predict knowledge workers’ proposed future length of service.Factor analysis revealed seven underlying dimensions of retention cognitions. Cluster analysis revealed nine distinct clusters of knowledge workers with regard to their retention cognitions. High levels of individualism, need for challenge and focus on personal development were demonstrated. The implications of these findings are discussed. Opsomming
Een van die eienskappe van kenniswerkers is hulle hoë vlak van mobiliteit. Die koste van arbeidsomset van hierdie sleutelbronne is hoog in beide finansiële en nie-finansiële terme. Daar bestaan dus ’n behoefte om die faktore wat onderliggend is aan die retensiekognisies van kenniswerkers te verstaan. Data is ingesamel van 306 kenniswerkers in voltydse diens wat ’n wye reeks demografiese groeperings verteenwoordig. Die resultate dui daarop dat werktevredenheid en organisasieverbondenheid nie die kenniswerkers se verwagte lengte van diens voorspel nie. Faktorontleding het sewe onderliggende dimensies van retensiekognisies blootgelê. ’n Bondelontleding het nege duidelike bondels van kenniswerkers ten opsigte van hulle retensiekognisies onderskei. Hoë vlakke van individualisme, behoefte aan uitdaging en fokus op persoonlike ontwikkeling is aangedui. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

Wilhelm Jordaan

2004-11-01

116

Evaluation of factors affecting heat flux sensors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A program to evaluate heat-flux sensors employed in thermal measurements of passive solar structures has been performed. A guarded hot box was designed and built in accordance with ASTM Standard C236-80 to generate known heat fluxes through a variety of structural materials. These fluxes were compared with those measured by a heat flux transducer calibrated by both by the manufacturer and an independent laboratory. The guarded hot plate method, ASTM C117-76, was used in the latter case. The three sets of values were often in substantial disagreement, the extent of which varied with the substrate to which the transducer was attached. An analysis of the data indicates that the cause of disagreement lies in a local distortion of the heat flux through the substrate caused by the presence of the transducer. Disturbance of the air flow over the transducer and mismatch of surface thermal emissivities of the transducer and substrate are contributing factors. This work has demonstrated a need for a standardized procedure for heat flux sensor calibration, and the ASTM guarded hot plate method is recommended for this purpose. An approximate method for correcting the heat flux indicated by a transducer calibrated in this manner to bring it in agreement with the measured by the guarded hot box is presented.

Darnell, A.J.; McCoy, L.R.; Ingle, W.B.

1983-01-01

117

Factors affecting the performance of ultrasonic flowmeters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A programme of work is currently underway at NEL to investigate and characterise the performance of liquid ultrasonic meters over a wide range of conditions. This paper presents the results of laboratory evaluations in addition to the initial results of combined flow and flowmeter modelling. Two-phase, oil/gas performance tests were conducted on commercially available meters of 4-inch nominal bore. Specific results have been selected to illustrate performance variations related to factors in meter design and operation. Two-phase, oil/water performance tests with water-cuts of up to 15 % were also conducted on the above meters. These results are presented in their entirety. The results show deviations from single-phase performance which vary for each meter design. Baseline calibration results for four commercially available clamp-on meters are presented. The results were obtained in good installation conditions on stainless steel pipes of 4-inch and 8-inch nominal bore. The results show different levels of accuracy associated with each meter and a general conformation with predicted behaviour. The final section of the paper presents results obtained by a systematic numerical method of determining the flow profile sensitivity of various meter configurations. The results provide quantitative confirmation of the reduced sensitivity of multipath designs to variations in the velocity profile. (author)

Brown, G.J.

1997-07-01

118

FACTORS AFFECTING VASECTOMY ACCEPTABILITY IN ETHIOPIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vasectomy is one of the most effective but less utilized types of contraception method which could addresses the involvement of males to the family planning. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate the awareness about and practice of men towards vasectomy among workers in Dashen brewery, Ethiopia. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted using pre tested self-administered questioner to assess the Knowledge, attitude and factors associated with low utilization of vasectomy. A total of 187 study participants were included to this study using single population proportion formula and random sampling technique. Majority of the participants 155 (82.9% never heard about vasectomy as a contraception method. Their knowledge about vasectomy is generally very poor as large proportion of respondents didn’t know how it works, its effectiveness and its effect on their sexual performance. None of the respondents have ever used vasectomy as a modern male contraception method. Misleading information towards its impact on sexual performance/desire was reported as a main reason not to use this method. Among others need of more children, unavailability of services, lack of information, spouse refusal and religious concerns were mentioned as a potential reasons for their negative perception towards vasectomy. Lack of awareness, myths and rumors, limited access to services, and indifference and bias on the part of providers about vasectomy limit its popularity in Ethiopia. Therefore, it is vital to introduce appropriate educational plan to increase awareness and usage of vasectomy in Ethiopia.

E. Admasu , Negalign chekol , Temesegen Chekol , Z. Shewamene*, Zelalem Eteffa

2013-04-01

119

Factors Affecting Patient Satisfaction During Endoscopic Procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the quality and patient satisfaction in Endoscopy Unit of Shifa International Hospital. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Division of Gastroenterology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from July 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Quality and patient satisfaction after the endoscopic procedure was assessed using a modified GHAA-9 questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 1028 patients were included with a mean age of 45 A+- 14.21 years. Out of all the procedures, 670 (65.17%) were gastroscopies, 181 (17.60%) were flexible sigmoidoscopies and 177 (17.21%) were colonoscopies. The maximum unsatisfactory responses were on the waiting time before the procedure (13.13 %), followed by unsatisfactory explanation of the procedure and answers to questions (7.58%). Overall, unsatisfied impression was 4.86%. The problem rate was 6.22%. Conclusion: The quality of procedures and level of satisfaction of patients undergoing a gastroscopy or colonoscopy was generally good. The factors that influence the satisfaction of these patients are related to communication between doctor and patient, doctor's manner and waiting time for the procedure. Feedback information in an endoscopy unit may be useful in improving standards, including the performance of endoscopists. (author)

2013-11-01

120

[The psychological factors affecting athletic performance].  

Science.gov (United States)

The physical and mental health complex is claimed as achievement of the XXI. century, whereby also among the sportsmen and sportswomen, beside the somatic medicine, growing attention is devoted to the psyche as well. The sports psychiatry was dragged in and put into service to enhance performance after all biological weapons run out of ammunition, and the long-awaited results still failed to come about. Moreover, despite the energy increasingly invested it was going from bad to worse. Among athletes many psychiatric disorders call attention, either by the high prevalence or by the development of a specific syndrome. Symptoms of depression (depression after the competition, depression following the failure at the competition), chronic stress, anxiety, fatigue syndrome of overtraining, enervation, sleep disturbances, eating problems, burnout, eating disorders (anorexia athletics, athlete triad), personality factors and the chemical addiction are all extremely important. The present study is the first to summarize the most crucial psychiatric disorders that may have great significance in the athlete population, in varying degrees according to the individual sports. PMID:20442052

Resch, Mária

2010-05-16

 
 
 
 
121

Factors affecting proximal tubular reabsorption during development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies performed in several animal species have demonstrated that glomerulotubular balance is maintained throughout development despite the many changes that occur in the factors known to control it. In an attempt to understand the nature of this phenomenon the authors quantified the magnitude and described the profile of these changes in guinea pigs. The changes in physical forces were assessed from measurements of hydrostatic and oncotic pressures, whereas those in the permeability characteristics of the proximal tubule epithelium were estimated from permanence to radioactivity-labelled macromolecules of graded radii, histologic measurements of the intercellular channels, and measurements of end-proximal ratio of tubular fluid-to-plasma osmolality (TF/P/sub osm/). Between 1 and 50 days of age the net pressure for reabsorption increased from 15.0 to 30.9 mmHg with the major change occurring during the first 2-3 wk of postnatal life. The urinary recovery of [3H]inulin, [14C]sucrose, and [14C]creatinine, injected in the early segment of proximal tubules did not vary with age. The urinary recovery of [14C]mannitol increased from 92% at birth to 100% at 49 days of age. The length of the zonulae occludens and the width of the intercellular channels did not change during this period. The findings support the hypothesis that during early postnatal life glomerulotubular balance is made possible by a high permeability of the proximal tubule, which compensates for the low net reabsorptive pressure. As the animal matures and the proximal tubule epithelium becomes tighter, for glomerulotubular balance to be maintained, an increase in the number of intercellular channels and in the active transport of sodium need to be postulated

1987-01-01

122

Black cabbage seed extract affects rat Cyp-mediated biotransformation: organ and sex related differences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brassicaceae are widely consumed in many parts of the world and their dietary intake has been associated with cancer risk reduction. Extracts and metabolites derived from cruciferous vegetables have thus gained popularity as potential cancer chemopreventive agents. We have previously found, unexpectly, that glucoraphanin, the most extensively present glucosinolate in these vegetables, is a potent mutagen bioactivating Phase-I enzyme inducer. In the present study, the influence of black cabbage seed extract, rich in glucoraphanin, was investigated on Phase-I enzymes in different organs of male or female rats. Oral seed extract injection at 120 or 240 mg/kg b.w. for one or four consecutive days, significantly affected various cytochrome P450 (CYP) -linked monooxygenases in a complex way being the lung the most responsive organ (in males, up to ?2600% increase for CYP2B1/2 isoform and ?96% loss for CYP1A1, CYP3A1/2). These findings indicate that the extract may strongly enhance and/or suppress rat xenobiotic biotransformation pathways and that caution should be paid to the possible influence on human metabolism. These data suggest an overall evaluation of the balance between beneficial vs. possible adverse effects for each agent, even if of natural origin, prior to routinely, preventive mass use. PMID:22634264

Canistro, Donatella; Barillari, Jessica; Melega, Simone; Sapone, Andrea; Iori, Renato; Speroni, Ester; Paolini, Moreno

2012-08-01

123

Influence of Nitrogenous Fertilizers, Gypsum and Seed Priming on Wheat Yield under Salt Affected Soil Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field experiment, to evaluate the effect of nitrogenous fertilizers i.e. urea, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate with and without gypsum and seed priming on productivity of wheat, was performed.The field was surveyed by EM-38 at 2x2m grid to identify areas of uniform salinity. The experimental design was factorial randomized, having ECe values of 3.5 to 5.5, 4.0 to 6.9, 5.0 to 9.1 and 6.1 to 10.1 dSm-1 in R1, R2, R3 and R4 respectively. There was no significant effect of fertilizer type, gypsum and seed priming on any yield parameters. However, ammonium nitrate was better over the other two fertilizers in terms of yield. Similar to yield, soil and plant K+, Na+ concentrations and K/Na ratio were not affected significantly with various treatments. Leaf K+ and K/Na ratio was positively correlated with grain yield and Na+ concentration was negatively correlated.

Muhammad Jamal Khan

2001-01-01

124

Electronic invoicing in SMEs: Assessing the factors affecting the adoption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to find out what factors affect the adoption of electronic invoicing. In addition, the opportunities and drawbacks of adopting e-invoicing are examined. The framework for the study is based on earlier research and literature covering the topic of electronic invoicing and different factors affecting the decision to adopt. The factors presented in the framework are perceived benefits, organizational readiness, and external pressure. Especially external pressure will be under car...

2011-01-01

125

Factors affecting forage stand establishment Fatores que afetam o estabelecimento do estande em plantas forrageiras  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should b...

Sulc, R. M.

1998-01-01

126

The Quality of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas) Seeds Affected by Water Activity and Duration of Storage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The quality of physic nut (Jatropha curcas) seeds should be maintained during storage, either as seeds for seedlings or oil production to be used for biodiesel. The effects of water activity and duration of storage on the quality, i.e. fungal population, lipid, fatty acid and free fatty acid contents, and viability of physic nut seeds were investigated. The results showed that the moisture content of seeds and total fungal population decreased at low water activities, and increased at high wa...

2009-01-01

127

The Direct and Indirect Factors on Affecting Organizational Sustainability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Successful firms pursue organizational sustainability. The aim of this study is to explore the direct and indirect factors affecting on organizational sustainability. Indirect factors being those that first influence competitive advantage, and then affecting organizational sustainability. This study analyzes 145 articles retrieved from the SDOL (Science Driect Online database that were published between 2009 and January 2013. Papers were retrieved using ‘organizational sustainability’ and ‘competitive advantage’ as keywords, searching on ‘Abstract, Title, Keywords’, and subject headings of ‘Business, Management and Accounting’. The results identify that 13 indirect factors and 3 direct factors can have an impact on organizational sustainability.

Meng-Shan Tsai

2013-11-01

128

Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

1984-05-01

129

Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

1984-05-01

130

What makes listening difficult. Factors affecting second language listening comprehension.  

Science.gov (United States)

To establish what is currently known about factors that affect foreign language listening comprehension, with a focus on characteristics of the listener, passage, and testing conditions. Research on second language (L2) listening comprehension strongly su...

A. Blodgett A. Bloomfield E. Rhoades J. Linck S. C. Wayland

2010-01-01

131

Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players  

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This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs). A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers) and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action) that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One...

Cusimano, Michael D.; Ahmed Faress; Luong, Wilson P.; Khizer Amin; Joanne Eid; Tamer Abdelshaheed; Kelly Russell

2013-01-01

132

Can salvage logging affect seed dispersal by birds into burned forests?  

Science.gov (United States)

The recovery of vegetation in Mediterranean ecosystems after wildfire is mostly a result of direct regeneration, since the same species existing before the fire regenerate on-site by seeding or resprouting. However, the possibility of plant colonization by dispersal of seeds from unburned areas remains poorly studied. We addressed the role of the frugivorous, bird-dependent seed dispersal (seed rain) of fleshy-fruited plants in a burned and managed forest in the second winter after a fire, before on-site fruit production had begun. We also assessed the effect on seed rain of different microhabitats resulting from salvage logging (erosion barriers, standing snags, open areas), as well as the microhabitats of unlogged patches and an unburned control forest, taking account of the importance of perches as seed rain sites. We found considerable seed rain by birds in the burned area. Seeds, mostly from Olive trees Olea europaea and Evergreen pistaches Pistacia lentiscus, belonged to plants fruiting only in surrounding unburned areas. Seed rain was heterogeneous, and depended on microhabitat, with the highest seed density in the unburned control forest but closely followed by the wood piles of erosion barriers. In contrast, very low densities were found under perches of standing snags. Furthermore, frugivorous bird richness seemed to be higher in the erosion barriers than elsewhere. Our results highlight the importance of this specific post-fire management in bird-dependent seed rain and also may suggest a consequent heterogeneous distribution of fleshy-fruited plants in burned and managed areas. However, there needs to be more study of the establishment success of dispersed seeds before an accurate assessment can be made of the role of bird-mediated seed dispersal in post-fire regeneration.

Rost, J.; Pons, P.; Bas, J. M.

2009-09-01

133

Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

2013-01-01

134

Factors affecting labelling yield of 111 In-DTPA-BSA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiolabelling of antibodies depends on a number of factors including the chemical characteristics of the nuclide and the techniques employed for its incorporation into protein. For preliminary research we used model system and investigate the influence of different factors affecting labelling. Obtained results were successfully used for further radiolabelling of antibodies with different trivalent metals. (author)

2006-09-01

135

Factors affecting receipt of chemotherapy in women with breast cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Libby Morimoto1, Jenna Coalson1, Fionna Mowat1, Cynthia O’Malley21Exponent Health Sciences, Menlo Park, CA, USA; 2Amgen Global Epidemiology, Thousand Oaks, CA, USAAims: To review literature describing factors associated with receipt of chemotherapy for breast cancer, to better understand what factors are most relevant to women’s health and whether health disparities are apparent, and to assess how these factors might affect observational studies and outcomes research. Patterns of ...

Libby Morimoto; Jenna Coalson; Fionna Mowat; et al

2010-01-01

136

Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

2013-06-06

137

The Germination of European Type Olive Seed as Affected by Different Sowing Methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of different cultivation methods on germination percentage, seedling height and number of leaves per seedling of European type Olive was investigated. The results revealed that sowing of seeds on raised bed resulted maximum germination percentage, seedling height and number of leaves per seedling. Minimum germination percentage, seedling height and number of leaves per seedling was recorded when sow the seeds on flat land. Sowing of cultivated Olive seeds on raised bees is therefore recommended for obtaining higher germination percentage.

Azmat Ali Awan

2003-01-01

138

Soil seed bank, factors controlling germination and establishment of a Mediterranean shrub: Pistacia lentiscus L.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recruitment strategy of Pistacia lentiscus, an evergreen sclerophyllous shrub inhabiting the Mediterranean region, was studied in order to identify the key factors controlling seedling establishment and survival. The capacity to develop a seed bank, the loss of seed viability with time, the presence of dormancy mechanisms, the conditions to promote seed germination and the seedling dynamics were investigated. The results show that P. lentiscus has a transient seed bank with rapid seed germination occurring within the year. Dormancy was not present as seeds germinated successfully without light or temperature pretreatments. Only pulp removal and a long and abundant rain event (? 7 days; ? 100 L·m -2) appeared to be necessary for germination. Seed viability decreased drastically after 1 year. More seedlings emerged under shrub canopy than in open sites, as expected by the seed dispersal pattern and canopy effects on plant establishment. The high mortality observed in the few weeks after establishment indicates that seedling survival is a bottleneck in the recruitment process of P. lentiscus in dense shrublands. Some seedlings survived in a latent mode for at least 4 years.

García-Fayos, Patricio; Verdú, Miguel

1998-08-01

139

Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1 aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 25°C and germination percentage at 17°C. An interaction effect on germination performance between vigor and priming was observed, especially at low temperature. Priming increased germination performance in seeds of low vigor, and the response was cultivar dependent.

Nascimento Warley Marcos

2004-01-01

140

Differential control of seed primary dormancy in Arabidopsis ecotypes by the transcription factor SPATULA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Freshly matured seeds exhibit primary dormancy, which prevents germination until environmental conditions are favorable. The establishment of dormancy occurs during seed development and involves both genetic and environmental factors that impact on the ratio of two antagonistic phytohormones: abscisic acid (ABA), which promotes dormancy, and gibberellic acid, which promotes germination. Although our understanding of dormancy breakage in mature seeds is well advanced, relatively little is known about the mechanisms involved in establishing dormancy during seed maturation. We previously showed that the SPATULA (SPT) transcription factor plays a key role in regulating seed germination. Here we investigate its role during seed development and find that, surprisingly, it has opposite roles in setting dormancy in Landsberg erecta and Columbia Arabidopsis ecotypes. We also find that SPT regulates expression of five transcription factor encoding genes: ABA-INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) and ABI5, which mediate ABA signaling; REPRESSOR-OF-GA (RGA) and RGA-LIKE3 involved in gibberellic acid signaling; and MOTHER-OF-FT-AND-TFL1 (MFT) that we show here promotes Arabidopsis seed dormancy. Although ABI4, RGA, and MFT are repressed by SPT, ABI5 and RGL3 are induced. Furthermore, we show that RGA, MFT, and ABI5 are direct targets of SPT in vivo. We present a model in which SPT drives two antagonistic "dormancy-repressing" and "dormancy-promoting" routes that operate simultaneously in freshly matured seeds. Each of these routes has different impacts and this in turn explains the opposite effect of SPT on seed dormancy of the two ecotypes analyzed here. PMID:23754415

Vaistij, Fabián E; Gan, Yinbo; Penfield, Steven; Gilday, Alison D; Dave, Anuja; He, Zhesi; Josse, Eve-Marie; Choi, Giltsu; Halliday, Karen J; Graham, Ian A

2013-06-25

 
 
 
 
141

Differential control of seed primary dormancy in Arabidopsis ecotypes by the transcription factor SPATULA  

Science.gov (United States)

Freshly matured seeds exhibit primary dormancy, which prevents germination until environmental conditions are favorable. The establishment of dormancy occurs during seed development and involves both genetic and environmental factors that impact on the ratio of two antagonistic phytohormones: abscisic acid (ABA), which promotes dormancy, and gibberellic acid, which promotes germination. Although our understanding of dormancy breakage in mature seeds is well advanced, relatively little is known about the mechanisms involved in establishing dormancy during seed maturation. We previously showed that the SPATULA (SPT) transcription factor plays a key role in regulating seed germination. Here we investigate its role during seed development and find that, surprisingly, it has opposite roles in setting dormancy in Landsberg erecta and Columbia Arabidopsis ecotypes. We also find that SPT regulates expression of five transcription factor encoding genes: ABA-INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) and ABI5, which mediate ABA signaling; REPRESSOR-OF-GA (RGA) and RGA-LIKE3 involved in gibberellic acid signaling; and MOTHER-OF-FT-AND-TFL1 (MFT) that we show here promotes Arabidopsis seed dormancy. Although ABI4, RGA, and MFT are repressed by SPT, ABI5 and RGL3 are induced. Furthermore, we show that RGA, MFT, and ABI5 are direct targets of SPT in vivo. We present a model in which SPT drives two antagonistic “dormancy-repressing” and “dormancy-promoting” routes that operate simultaneously in freshly matured seeds. Each of these routes has different impacts and this in turn explains the opposite effect of SPT on seed dormancy of the two ecotypes analyzed here.

Vaistij, Fabian E.; Gan, Yinbo; Penfield, Steven; Gilday, Alison D.; Dave, Anuja; He, Zhesi; Josse, Eve-Marie; Choi, Giltsu; Halliday, Karen J.; Graham, Ian A.

2013-01-01

142

Processing Effects on Some Antinutritional Factors and In vitro Multienzyme Protein Digestibility (IVPD of Three Tropical Seeds: Breadnut (Artocarpus altilis, Cashewnut (Anacardium occidentale and Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mature seeds of breadnut, cashewnut and fluted pumpkin were processed in the laboratory into the raw dried, boiled, fermented, germinated and roasted seeds. Differently processed seeds were dried at 50°C, ground and sieved through 500?m sieves. The seed flours were evaluated for trypsin inhibitor activity, tannin, phosphorus compounds and in vitro multienzyme protein digestibility (IVPD. The results show that processing significantly (P = 0.05 affected the antinutritional factors in the seed flours. Breadnut flours contain 2.8-5.3g/kg phytic acid, 5.8-9.2g/kg tannin and 0.9-8.1mg/g flour of trypsin inhibitor activity. Cashewnut flours contain 6.0-9.9g/kg phytic acid, 5.1-13.3g/kg tannin and 0.8-2.5mg/g flour of trypsin inhibitor activity. Fluted pumpkin seed flours contain 2.8-13.8g/kg phytic acid, 7.5-19.1g/kg tannin and 0.0-11.0mg/g flour of trypsin inhibitor activity. Fermentation is the most effective processing method to reduce phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor activity while boiling is most effective in reducing the tannin content. The result of IVPD of the seeds generally show that the boiled samples are the most digestible followed by the fermented samples while the raw dried/germinated samples are the least. The order of digestibility of the three seeds is fluted pumpkin (72.0 - 86.0% > cashewnut (74.3 - 82.9% > Breadnut flour (71.3 - 78.3%. Processing techniques used reduced the antinutritional factors in the seeds and improve its IVPD when compared with the raw dried seed flours.

T.N. Fagbemi

2005-01-01

143

Common gas phase molecules from fungi affect seed germination and plant health in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important ecophysiological roles in mediating inter-kingdom signaling with arthropods but less is known about their interactions with plants. In this study, Arabidopsis thaliana was used as a model in order to test the physiological effects of 23 common vapor-phase fungal VOCs that included alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and other chemical classes. After exposure to a shared atmosphere with the 23 individual VOCs for 72 hrs, seeds were assayed for rate of germination and seedling formation; vegetative plants were assayed for fresh weight and chlorophyll concentration. All but five of the VOCs tested (1-decene, 2-n-heptylfuran, nonanal, geosmin and -limonene) had a significant effect in inhibiting either germination, seedling formation or both. Seedling formation was entirely inhibited by exposure to 1-octen-3-one, 2-ethylhexanal, 3-methylbutanal, and butanal. As assayed by a combination of fresh weight and chlorophyll concentration, 2-ethylhexanal had a negative impact on two-week-old vegetative plants. Three other compounds (1-octen-3-ol, 2-ethylhexanal, and 2-heptylfuran) decreased fresh weight alone. Most of the VOCs tested did not change the fresh weight or chlorophyll concentration of vegetative plants. In summary, when tested as single compounds, fungal VOCs affected A. thaliana in positive, negative or neutral ways.

2014-01-01

144

Yield component and seed yield of wheat as affected by seed size under the rain-fed condition of Dera Ismail Khan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field experiments on the seed sizes conducted during 1994-95 and 1995-96 to determine its effect on yield component and seed yield of wheat CV. Pirsabak-85. T he treatments consisted of Large and small seed sizes. The data indicated that crop seeded with large seed size significantly produced maximum seed yield by increased number of plant stand/m2 and generally provide the greater seed weight both the years, respectively.

Rahmat Ullah Khan

2000-01-01

145

Yield component and seed yield of wheat as affected by seed size under the rain-fed condition of Dera Ismail Khan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Field experiments on the seed sizes conducted during 1994-95 and 1995-96 to determine its effect on yield component and seed yield of wheat CV. Pirsabak-85. T he treatments consisted of Large and small seed sizes. The data indicated that crop seeded with large seed size significantly produced maximum seed yield by increased number of plant stand/m2 and generally provide the greater seed weight both the years, respectively.

Rahmat Ullah Khan; Abdur Rashid; Ahmad Khan; Noor Alam Khan

2000-01-01

146

Factors affecting vegetable stand establishment Fatores que afetam o estabelecimento do estande em hortaliças  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several factors can influence stand establishment in vegetable crop production. Environmental conditions such as soil physical characteristics, temperature and moisture, various cultural practices, and diseases may all be limiting factors in establishing maximum stands and achieving the highest possible yields. Measures taken to increase stands include soil improvements, implementing cultural practices, and use of chemical and biological seed treatments. Combining seed treatments and cultural...

Grassbaugh, E. M.; Bennett, M. A.

1998-01-01

147

The Quality of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas Seeds Affected by Water Activity and Duration of Storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The quality of physic nut (Jatropha curcas seeds should be maintained during storage, either as seeds for seedlings or oil production to be used for biodiesel. The effects of water activity and duration of storage on the quality, i.e. fungal population, lipid, fatty acid and free fatty acid contents, and viability of physic nut seeds were investigated. The results showed that the moisture content of seeds and total fungal population decreased at low water activities, and increased at high water activities (aw. At aw 0.64, at the beginning of storage and after 20 weeks of storage, total fungal populations were 5.4 x 103 and 1.8 x 102 cfu g-1 dry basis (db,respectively. At aw 0.93, at the beginning of storage and after 20 weeks of storage, total fungal populations were 5.0 x 103 and 3.3 x 106 cfu g-1 db, respectively. At the beginning of storage fungi infecting seeds were field fungi, i.e. Cladosporium sp., Colletotrichum sp., Fusarium semitectum, and F. verticillioides. The population of field fungi decreased with the increase of storage duration. They were replaced by postharvest fungi, i.e. Aspergillus restrictus, A. penicillioides, Eurotium chevalieri, E. rubrum, Penicillium citrinum, P. implicatum and P. oxalicum. Lipid content and viability of seeds decreased with the increase of water activities and seed moisture contents, while free fatty acid contents increased with the increase of water activities and seed moisture contents during storage. Fatty acids of lipid were dominated by unsaturated fatty acids, i.e. oleic and linoleic acids. Physic nut seeds could be stored at aw 0.64-0.75 up to eight weeks when the seeds will be used for seedling, or up to 16 weeks when they will be used for producing oil.

OKKY SETYAWATI DHARMAPUTRA

2009-12-01

148

Factors Affecting Forest Area Changes in Cambodia: An Econometric Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clarifying factors affecting forest area changes is critical to implementing REDD+ scheme properly. We analyzed some socio-economic factors and clarified their relationships with deforestation in Cambodia for the period of 2002 to 2010. A panel data analysis was conducted for 18 provinces, while six other provinces were deleted from the list because only a small amount of their land was forested. Time effects, cross-sectional dependence, serial correlation in idiosyncratic errors, and heteros...

Tetsuya Michinaka; Motoe Miyamoto; Yasuhiro Yokota; Heng Sokh; Sethaphal Lao; Vuthy Ma

2013-01-01

149

Factors affecting the diffusion of online end user literature searching.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect diffusion of usage of online end user literature searching. Fifteen factors clustered into three attribute sets (innovation attributes, organizational attributes, and marketing attributes) were measured to study their effect on the diffusion of online searching within institutions. METHODS: A random sample of sixty-seven academic health sciences centers was selected and then 1,335 library and informatics staff members at th...

Ash, J. S.

1999-01-01

150

Factors affecting partitioning of private forest holdings in Finland.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Questions of the small size of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) holdings in Finland are considered and factors affecting their partitioning are analyzed. This work arises out of Finnish forest policy statements in which the small average size of holdings has been seen to have a negative influence on the economics of forestry. A survey of the literature indicates that the size of holdings is an important factor determining the costs of logging and silvicultural operations, while its influe...

Ripatti, Pekka

1996-01-01

151

Removal of antinutritional factors from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phytohemagglutinin and the lectin-related proteins present in bean seeds are toxic to monogastric animals and lower the nutritional value of beans. Since these antimetabolites are present in substantial amounts, a breeding program aimed to the removal ofphytohemagglutinin was developed. The character ""absence of phytohemagglutinin"" was transferred into a bean cultivar by backcrossing. The lines obtained maintained the agronomic performance of the recurrent parent. Preliminary results show that removal of phytohemagglutinin results in a higher true protein digestibility. Further modification in the composition of the lectin-related protein family is now under way.

Bollini R.

1999-01-01

152

Male inbreeding status affects female fitness in a seed-feeding beetle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inbreeding generally reduces male mating activity such that inbred males are less successful in male-male competition. Inbred males can also have smaller accessory glands, transfer less sperm and produce sperm that are less motile, less viable or have a greater frequency of abnormalities, all of which can reduce the fertilization success and fitness of inbred males relative to outbred males. However, few studies have examined how male inbreeding status affects the fitness of females with whom they mate. In this study, we examine the effect of male inbreeding status (inbreeding coefficient f = 0.25 vs. f = 0) on the fecundity, adult longevity and the fate of eggs produced by outbred females in the seed-feeding beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Females mated to inbred males were less likely to lay eggs. Of those that laid eggs, females mated to inbred males laid 6-12% fewer eggs. Females mated to inbred males lived on average 5.4% longer than did females mated to outbred males, but this effect disappeared when lifetime fecundity was used as a covariate in the analysis. There was no effect of male inbreeding status on the proportion of a female's eggs that developed or hatched, and no evidence that inbred males produced smaller nuptial gifts. However, ejaculates of inbred males contained 17-33% fewer sperm, on average, than did ejaculates of outbred males. Our study demonstrates that mating with inbred males has significant direct consequences for the fitness of female C. maculatus, likely mediated by effects of inbreeding status on the number of sperm in male ejaculates. Direct effects of male inbreeding status on female fitness should be more widely considered in theoretical models and empirical studies of mate choice. PMID:21995954

Fox, Charles W; Xu, J; Wallin, W G; Curtis, C L

2012-01-01

153

Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

Kwenda, Maxwell

2011-01-01

154

Factors affecting the internal brain drain of Saudi healthcare professionals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To investigate factors affecting the internal brain drain of healthcare professionals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an anonymous self-administered online questionnaire sent to all Saudi students enrolled in healthcare profession programs in North America. The data was collected between January and March 2008 at the University of Illinois at Chica...

2012-01-01

155

Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

2010-01-01

156

Factors affecting Iran`s future. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the factors affecting Iran`s future by focusing on the demographic, economic, and military trends in Iran and their impact on the country`s national security objectives in the next decade. The paper also assesses the implications of an economic embargo on Iran and potential Iranian threats to regional and United States national interests.

Sinai, J.

1993-05-28

157

Factors Affecting the Technology Readiness of Health Professionals  

Science.gov (United States)

Federal government policies are promoting diffusion of technologies into the healthcare system. If health professionals reject the new technologies planned for the healthcare system, it could result in costly failures, delays, and workforce problems. There is a lack of knowledge about factors that affect technology readiness (TR), defined as the…

Myers, Stephanie E.

2010-01-01

158

Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…

Nergis, Aysegul

2013-01-01

159

Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

2011-01-01

160

Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Postimplant dosimetry for 125I prostate implants: definitions and factors affecting outcome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: An analysis of CT-based dosimetry was performed to assess the efficacy of the real time method of prostate implantation, explore the relationship of various dose descriptions and determine implant factors affecting outcome. Methods and Materials: Between 7/95 and 8/99, 297 patients underwent 125I implants for T1-T2 prostate cancer and had CT-based dosimetry performed (TG43 formalism). Dosimetry was performed 1 month postimplant. Using a dose-volume histogram, doses delivered to 100%, 95%, 90%, and 80% of the prostate (D100, D95, D90, D80, respectively) as well as percentages of the gland receiving 240 Gy, 160 Gy, 140 Gy (V240, V160, V140, respectively) were reported. Correlations between the various dose parameters and D90 were generated. The effect of the number of seeds implanted, seeds/volume, prostate volume, experience as assessed by time (8/01/99--date of implant), ultrasound probe (mechanical sector vs. dual phased electronic), and the ratio of the CT dosimetry prostate volume/ultrasound implant volume (CT/US vol) were analyzed. Results: The median D100, D95, D90, and D80 values were 10,200 cGy, 15,655 cGy, 17,578 cGy, and 19,873 cGy, respectively. The median V240, V160, and V140 were 56%, 94%, and 98%, respectively. Correlations of dose descriptions found a close relationship of D95, D80, V240, V160, and V140 with D90 with r values of 0.928, 0.973, 0.911, 0.816, and 0.733, respectively. D100 correlated poorly with D90 (r = 0.099). Using a stepwise regression analysis, CT/US vol ratio, prostate volume, and seed number were the only significant factors affecting D90 with CT/US vol ratio having the greatest effect. The dual-phased electronic probe was associated with fewer D90 values of less than 140 Gy (2%) compared to the mechanical sector probe (14%) (p = 0.02). Conclusion: CT-based dosimetry results reveal the real-time implant technique to be an effective method of prostate implantation. Factors associated with more precise implantation, such as decreased postimplant edema, new technology, and increased number of seeds will lead to higher D90 values

2000-10-01

162

Maturity dates affect soybean seed constituents protein, oil ash and moisture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The quality of soybean seed at harvest is dependent on the field production environment during development and maturation on the plant. These investigations were conducted to evaluate the effect of planting dates on soybean protein, oil, ash and moisture content. Soybean seeds were planted in the spring (January 13, January 16, February 19 and March 1) and in the Fall (July 10, July 20, July 26 and August 25, 1991) at Agriculture Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan. Planting ...

Khalil, Shad K.; Mexal, John G.; Murray, Leigh W.

2000-01-01

163

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors inf [...] luencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. METHOD: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia. RESULTS: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

Magdalene H., Awases; Marthie C., Bezuidenhout; Janetta H., Roos.

164

Factors affecting farm diversification in rice-wheat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The risk in agriculture sector is due to various factors like weather and market conditions, particularly the demand of the commodities. This uncertainty can result in variable returns (farm income) to the decisions that farmers make in a particular season. Diversification is a frequently used risk management strategy that involves participation in more than one activity. It has the added advantage of mitigating price risk as well as fluctuations in outputs. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the factors affecting crop diversification. For determining the effect of different factors on diversification a multiple regression model was used. The values of Entropy index computed for measuring horizontal diversification were taken as dependent variable and different factors affecting diversification were taken as independent variables. The results showed that the main factors affecting diversification were size of land holding, age of respondent, education level of respondent, farming experience of respondent, off farm income of respondent, distance of farm from main road, distance of farm from main market and farm machinery. (author)

2008-01-01

165

Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health.

Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

166

Environmental factors affecting mechanical properties of facial prosthetic elastomers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the degradation of elastomers for facial prostheses exposed to environmental factors normally present in a service environment. Two silicone elastomers and a polyurethane were evaluated. Samples were exposed to ultraviolet radiation, simulated sebum, ozone, chlorine, and nitrogen dioxide, and tested for tear propagation and resistance. Test results revealed significant differences in the tear characteristics between silicones and polyurethane. Differences in tear patterns were observed between the control and the specimens exposed to environmental factors. The environmental factors affected the polyurethane Epithane-3 the most and silicone MDX 4-4210 the least. When exposed to chlorine and nitrogen dioxide, Cosmesil and Epithane-3 were degraded to a point where sample testing was not possible. When exposed to ultraviolet radiation, Epithane-3 was degraded and could not be tested. Simulated sebum and ozone affected Cosmesil and Epithane-3, but no clear trends were observed. PMID:7802918

Mohite, U H; Sandrik, J L; Land, M F; Byrne, G

1994-01-01

167

An experiment on the factors affecting simple reaction time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reaction time is considered as an important measure that affects performance of an individual both in business and private life. Especially, reaction time, which can be defined as a period of time being required for giving appropriate responses to the perceived stimuli, is an important factor in terms of efficiency of organization and also health and safety at work. Moreover, reaction time is regarded as an important factor in product design. In this study, an experiment is designed to reveal the factors that affect simple reaction time and the effects of (discrete / continuous variables such as age, height, weight, gender, sight defects, smoking and alcohol use, regular habits of sports and academic achievement on reaction time of individuals are investigated, and the findings are interpreted.

Hale Akkocao?lu

2013-10-01

168

A study of factors affecting indoor radon properties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The factors affecting indoor radon properties in Hong Kong have been studied, including the radon concentration, the total potential alpha energy concentration of radon progeny, the equilibrium factor, and the fraction of unattached radon progeny. These factors fall into three categories, namely, (1) the building characteristics, including cooling method, age of the buildings, wall coverings and floor coverings; (2) the location of sites, including nearby environments, geological materials of the area, and the elevation of the sites; and (3) the meteorological parameters, including rainfall, relative humidity, pressure, temperature, and wind speeds. For category (1), only the ventilation is found to affect the indoor radon properties. For category (2), only the nearby environments have effects. For category (3), the rainfall and temperature are found to have significant effects. 15 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

1996-08-01

169

Studies on the dormancy of cereal seeds as affected by gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of gamma radiation (10 kR) was studied on the germination of freshly harvested seeds of several varieties of barley, wheat and triticale. On the basis of the germination in irradiated seeds in comparison to controls, barley varieties may be categorized into three groups: (i) those showing reduction in germination, (ii) those showing stimulation in germination and (iii) those remaining unaffected. The mean germination percentage of the controls was 50.7, 19.4 and 2.1 in group i, ii and iii varieties, respectively. After 6 weeks, varieties in group iii lost seed dormancy. The response of these varieties to irradiation then became similar to group i or ii. Wheat and triticale varieties also could be grouped in similar way. It has been suggested that germination response of seeds of these cereal varieties to relatively 'low doses' of gamma radiation depends on their innate dormancy status and germination could be stimulated by gamma radiation (10 kR) in seeds having low germination due to seed dormancy. (author)

1982-12-01

170

FACTORS AFFECTING INTENT TO PURCHASE VIRTUAL GOODS IN ONLINE GAMES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Online games increasingly sell virtual goods to generate real income. As a result, it isincreasingly important to identify factors and theory of consumption values that affect intent topurchase virtual goods in online games. However, very little research has been devoted to thetopic. This study is an empirical investigation of the factors and theory of consumption valuesthat affect intent to purchase virtual goods in online games. The study determines the effects ofgame type, satisfaction with the game, identification with the character, and theory ofconsumption values on intent to purchase virtual goods. The study used a survey to collectinformation from 523 virtual game users. Study results showed that game type is a moderatingvariable that affects intent to purchase virtual goods. And it demonstrated that role-playing gameusers are affected by theory of consumption values: functional quality, playfulness, and socialrelationship support. Moreover, war-strategy game users are affected by satisfaction with thegame, identification with the character, and theory of consumption values: price, utility, andplayfulness. The study also presents conclusions, proposes applications, and describesopportunities for further research.

Cheng-Hsun Ho

2012-10-01

171

Factors affecting receipt of chemotherapy in women with breast cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Libby Morimoto1, Jenna Coalson1, Fionna Mowat1, Cynthia O’Malley21Exponent Health Sciences, Menlo Park, CA, USA; 2Amgen Global Epidemiology, Thousand Oaks, CA, USAAims: To review literature describing factors associated with receipt of chemotherapy for breast cancer, to better understand what factors are most relevant to women’s health and whether health disparities are apparent, and to assess how these factors might affect observational studies and outcomes research. Patterns of care for metastatic breast cancer, for which no standard-of-care exists, were of particular interest.Methods: Relevant studies written in English, Italian, French, or Spanish, published in 2000 or later, were identified through MEDLINE and reviewed. Review articles and clinical trials were excluded; all observational studies and surveys were considered. Articles were reviewed for any discussion of patient characteristics, hospital/physician/insurance characteristics, psychosocial characteristics, and clinical characteristics affecting receipt of chemotherapy by breast cancer patients.Results: In general, factors associated with increased likelihood of receiving chemotherapy included younger age, being Caucasian, having good general health and few co-morbidities, having more severe clinical disease, having responded well to previous treatment, and having breast cancer that is estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-negative. Many of the clinical factors found to increase the likelihood of receiving chemotherapy were consistent with current oncology guidelines. Of the relevant 19 studies identified, only six (32% reported data specific to metastatic cancer; most studies aggregated women with stage I–IV for purposes of analysis.Conclusion: Studies of patterns of care in breast cancer treatment can help identify challenges in health care provided to particular subgroups of women and can aid researchers in designing studies that account for such factors in clinical and outcomes research. Although scarce, studies evaluating only women with metastatic breast cancer indicate that factors affecting decisions related to receipt of chemotherapy are similar across stage for this disease.Keywords: breast cancer, chemotherapy, metastatic, treatment decisions, health disparities

Libby Morimoto

2010-05-01

172

Factors Affecting Hoteliers’ Decision to Advertise in Travel Magazine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advertising is a paid, mass-mediated attempt to persuade. That mean Advertising is paid communication by a company or organization that wants its information disseminated through a communication medium designed to reach more than one person, typically a large number or mass of people and advertising includes an attempt to persuade consumer to like the brand and because of that liking to eventually buy the brand. Advertising in travel magazine is one of the promotional methods to promote hoteliers products or services to the market place. By advertising in travel magazine, it can reach the target audience, educate them about the products or services, and move them closer to make a purchase. The purpose of the research is to recognize and rank the factors affecting hotelier’s decision to advertise in travel magazine. The respondents for the research are those hoteliers operating in Malaysia. The factors for this research are reached target readers, cost of advertising, contents of the magazine, frequency of advertising and media of advertising. The result of the research shows two of the factors significantly affecting hoteliers advertising decision. Furthermore, cost of advertising ranks the first follow by reach target readers, contents of magazine, media of advertising and frequency of advertising ranks the last. This research will help the publisher of travel magazine to understand and recognize the ranking of factors affecting hoteliers’ decision to advertise in travel magazine.

Mohd Faiz Hilmi

2011-09-01

173

Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5% such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

Bahieh Moradi

2011-12-01

174

Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Productivity and Profitability as Affected by Method of Sowing and Seeding Rate Under Qena Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sowing methods and seeding rate play an important role in the placement of seed at proper depth and stand establishment of the growing crop which ultimately affects crop growth and productivity. This study was conducted for 2 seasons to establish optimal sowing method and seeding rate for bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in sandy-loam soil. The study aimed at achieving high yield and profit. A field experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block in split plot design with ...

Abd El-lattief, E. A.

2011-01-01

175

Arabidopsis WRKY2 transcription factor mediates seed germination and postgermination arrest of development by abscisic acid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Plant WRKY DNA-binding transcription factors are key regulators in certain developmental programs. A number of studies have suggested that WRKY genes may mediate seed germination and postgermination growth. However, it is unclear whether WRKY genes mediate ABA-dependent seed germination and postgermination growth arrest. Results To determine directly the role of Arabidopsis WRKY2 transcription factor during ABA-dependent seed germina...

Jiang Wenbo; Yu Diqiu

2009-01-01

176

Affective Factors Associated with Computational Estimation of Seventh Graders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined affective factors associated with the seventh grade students’ computational estimation ability. Data was collected from five high achievers via two interview sessions. During the interviews, students were required to solve numerical computational estimation questions and share their perspectives about computational estimation. Additionally, teacher interviews and observations were conducted for triangulation purposes about students’ performance in mathematics and attitude toward mathematics. A theme oriented matrix was used to analyze the data. The results of the study found that students’ confidence in ability to do mathematics, perceptions of mathematics, confidence in ability to do estimation, perceptions of estimation and tolerance for error were identified as affective factors related with students’ computational estimation ability.

Burçak BOZ,

2012-12-01

177

Factors affecting the accuracy of the integrated particle sizing system  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to investigate factors affecting instrument accuracy of a nonintrusive optical system known as the Integrated Particle Sizing System (IPSS). Studies of soot formation and growth in laboratory combustors were conducted at the Air Force Engineering and Services Center, Environics Division, using the IPSS. However, the behavior of this instrument and the factors affecting its accuracy were not completely understood, causing the proper operation of the instrument and the interpretation of results to be questioned. This report focused on the theory governing the instrument's design. A list of limitations imposed by theory was derived and measurements were made to verify the relationship between incoming signal, theory, and actual particle size.

Proctor, Charles L.; Isager, Barbara D.; Touati, Abderrahama

1988-08-01

178

Factors affecting the dermal bioavailability of hydrocarbons in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The science of risk assessment has advanced significantly in recent years, in a continuing effort to more accurately represent potential human health effects from exposure to chemicals in the environment. This paper describes some environmental factors that affect the behavior of chemicals in soil and the relationship of this chemical behavior to the prediction of dermal exposures relating to soil contamination. The information presented in this paper suggests that the mass transfer of chemicals from the soil to the skin is as much an issue in dermal exposures to soil-sorbed chemicals as the actual absorption of the chemical through the skin. Relevant factor affecting the sorption, desorption, and mass transfer of hydrocarbon chemicals in soil are discussed. A summary of the scientific literature related to research on chemicals sorbed to soil is also presented

1990-09-24

179

Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author

2011-09-01

180

Operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses,which comprised rotor speed (RS, louver inclination (LI, grain moisture content (MC, feed rate (FR, and grain to materialother than grain ratio (GM. Seventeen Thai corn-shelling threshers were random-sampled during the late rainy season cropof 2008 and ten threshers were sampled in the early rainy season crop of 2009 in Loei province, Northeast of Thailand.The results of this study indicated that LI and MC affected shelling losses whereas RS, FR and GM did not affect losses.Increased LI or decreased MC tended to reduce shelling losses. In operating the Thai threshers for corn shelling, if shellinglosses have to be kept lower that 0.5%, the moisture content should not exceed 20%wb and the louver inclination should notbe less than 85 degrees.

Somchai Chuan-udom

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Factors Affecting Credibility of e-Shops in Poland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents main problems concerning e-commerce development in Poland and in other countries of Eastern Europe, in particular, links between a consumer’s trust and the cultural background in the region. The first results of a pilot study being a part of the author’s research project are presented in the paper. As they show, factors affecting credibility of e-shops are strictly related to usability, reliability, functionality and efficiency of the websites – the crucial issues of...

Garnik, Igor

2006-01-01

182

Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations are made for future work to enhance the effectiveness of water jetting as a nuclear decontamination technique and the importance of containment and effluent treatment is outlined. (author)

1990-01-01

183

Factors Affecting Rates of Change in Soil Bacterial Communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The soil bacterial community is under the constant influence of its environment. Changing any of the factors affecting the bacterial community will induce a selection pressure which, with time, will change the community. In this work the effect of changing the temperature or pH on the soil bacterial community was studied. Measurements using the 3H-thymidine incorporation technique showed that the soil bacterial community had an optimum temperature for growth and activity between 25 and 30°C....

Pettersson, Marie

2004-01-01

184

Statistical Analysis of the Different Factors Affecting the Diarrhea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diarrhea is a worldwide problem facing both developing countries and developed countries, especially in pediatric population. Because of shortage of health facilities and lack of good food in developing countries, it is known fact that developing countries are facing this death taking problem more. The main purpose of this study was to examine the various factors which affect the recovery time of diarrhea. A multiple linear regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a model. The...

Zaman, Qamruz; Khan, Imtiaz

2011-01-01

185

Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression wer...

Rawan Al-Fouzan; Sarah Al-Ajlan; Yousef Marwan; Mervat Al-Saleh

2012-01-01

186

Contributing factors affecting the prognosis surgical outcome for thoracic OLF  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thoracic ossification of ligamentum flavum (OLF) is a disease that produces spastic paraparesis, and there are various factors that may affect the surgical outcome of thoracic OLF patients. The authors of this study treated 19 of these thoracic OLF patients from 1998 to 2002, and retrospectively reviewed the patients? age, sex, symptom duration, involved disease level, preoperative clinical features, neurological findings, radiological findings, the other combined spinal diseases and ...

Kuh, Sung Uk; Kim, Young Soo; Cho, Yong Eun; Jin, Byung Ho; Kim, Keun Su; Yoon, Young Sul; Chin, Dong Kyu

2006-01-01

187

Factors Affecting Internet Banking Usage in India: An Empirical Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for Internet banking usage by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The study was conducted on the private, public and foreign banks which included ICICI Bank Ltd., HDFC Bank Ltd. and AXIS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and Yes Bank. Among public sector banks the respondents were from Bank of Baroda, Punjab Nati...

2013-01-01

188

Heidelberg retinal flowmetry: factors affecting blood flow measurement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIMS—To evaluate factors affecting Heidelberg retinal flowmeter (HRF) measurements of retinal and optic nerve head blood flow in human subjects.?METHODS—The angle of incidence between laser beam and fundus, and camera distance from the eye, were evaluated for their effect upon measures of blood volume, velocity, and flow in a single 100 × 100 × 400 µm volume of temporal peripapillary retinal tissue in normal volunteers. Both intra and intersession reproducibility of these me...

1998-01-01

189

Factors affecting hospital mortality in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This retrospective analysis studied the records of 564 consecutive patients admitted to Gastrointestinal Bleeding Unit of Riyadh Medical Complex with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding over a 2-year period (May 1996-April 1998). The purpose of the study was to analyze the mortality with an aim to identify the risk factors affecting mortality in these patients. Majority of patients were men (82%) and Saudis (54%). Their mean age was 52.46 + 17.8 years. Esophage...

Alam Mohammed

2000-01-01

190

Predictive factors affecting cecal intubation failure in colonoscopy trainees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful cecal intubation (SCI is not only a quality indicator but also an important marker in a colonoscopy trainee’s progress. We conducted this study to determine factors predicting SCI in colonoscopy trainees, and to compare these factors before and after trainees achieve technical competence. Methods Design of this study was a cross-sectional studies of two time series design for one year at a single center. From March 2011 to February 2012, a total 2,050 subjects who underwent colonoscopy by four first-year gastrointestinal fellows were enrolled at Christian hospital, Wonju, Republic of Korea. Four gastrointestinal fellows have filled out the colonoscopic documentation. Main outcome measurement was predictive factors affecting cecal intubation failure and learning curves. Results Colonoscopy was successfully completed to the cecum in 1,720 patients (83.9%. Success rates gradually increased as trainees performed more colonoscopies: the rate of SCI was 62% in the first 50 cases, and grew to 93% by the 250th case. Logistic regression analysis of factors affecting cecal intubation failure showed that female gender, low BMI (BMI Conclusion Several patient characteristics were identified that may predict difficulty of cecal intubation in colonoscopy trainees. Particularly, low BMI, inadequate bowel cleansing, and previous stomach operation were predictors of cecal intubation failure before the trainees have reached technical competency. The results could be informative so that trainees enhance the success rate regarding better colonoscopy training programs.

Park Hong-Jun

2013-01-01

191

EXPLORING THE FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEES’ ADOPTION AND USE OF INNOVATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores the factors affecting innovation adoption by individual employees within an organization in Australia. Following a qualitative research approach, this paper uses a series of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions involving academic and administrative employees at a tertiary educational institution in Australia. The qualitative approach is adopted to have a deeper insight into the complexities and dynamism associated with the factors influencing innovation adoption process in organizational settings. The findings of this research highlight the need for broadening an understanding of the key factors affecting employee’s decisions to uptake the adoption of innovation. The results provide important clues for comprehending the factors influencing and determining the employee’s adoption and continued use of innovation in the work environment. In the face of the current trend towards end-user applications of technological innovation, the results suggest some guidelines for management toward effective and efficient adoption and use of innovation in organizational settings. This paper has highlighted the above findings and their implications for management practices related to innovation management in an Australian organizational setting. This paper also identifies possible limitations and future research potential in the relevant field.

Majharul Talukder

2010-01-01

192

Tri-trophic interactions affect density dependence of seed fate in a tropical forest palm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural enemies, especially host-specific enemies, are hypothesised to facilitate the coexistence of plant species by disproportionately inflicting more damage at increasing host abundance. However, few studies have assessed such Janzen-Connell mechanisms on a scale relevant for coexistence and no study has evaluated potential top-down influences on the specialized pests. We quantified seed predation by specialist invertebrates and generalist vertebrates, as well as larval predation on these invertebrates, for the Neotropical palm Attalea butyracea across ten 4-ha plots spanning 20-fold variation in palm density. As palm density increased, seed attack by bruchid beetles increased, whereas seed predation by rodents held constant. But because rodent predation on bruchid larvae increased disproportionately with increasing palm density, bruchid emergence rates and total seed predation by rodents and bruchids combined were both density-independent. Our results demonstrate that top-down effects can limit the potential of host-specific insects to induce negative-density dependence in plant populations. PMID:21899693

Visser, Marco D; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Wright, S Joseph; Rutten, Gemma; Jansen, Patrick A

2011-11-01

193

Agronomic Traits of Mungbean and Subsequent Rice Crop as Affected by Seed Inoculation and Different Fertilizer Level  

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Full Text Available Effect of seed inoculation and different fertilizer levels on the yield and yield components of mungbean and subsequent rice crop was studied. Results showed that seed inoculation and different fertilizer levels significantly affected yield and yield components of mungbean and rice crops. Treatment (T6 exhibited superior performance for exploiting maximum potential of mungbean crop (954.8 kg ha-1 grains, which was 50% more than that of control. Whereas T7 gave maximum residual effect (4075 kg ha-1 paddy yield, however statistically it was at par with T3, T4, T5 and T6. In conclusion, T6 proved better for getting maximum mungbean yield while T7 produced highest paddy yield.

Aasrar Mahboob

2003-01-01

194

Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation by Rhizobium  

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Full Text Available Recent reports pointed to a decline in agricultural dependence on symbiotic nitrogen fixation, and in the use of rhizobial inoculants. The aim of the present review was to study the environmental factors that affect the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium in soil. These factors included pH, salinity, moisture, temperature, microorganisms, organic matter and soil texture. The overall conclusion is that symbiotic nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium is a critical biological process. Environmental stresses are generally the limiting factors of the symbiotic nitrogen fixation. With the selection of the appropriate legume and rhizobial inoculant, nitrogen fixation can be increased and concomitantly food production can be improved even under environmentally stressed conditions.

Abdullah M. K. Al-Falih

2002-01-01

195

Pretreatment of clover seeds with nod factors improves growth and nodulation of Trifolium pratense.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increase in legume production in sustainable agriculture depends not only on the effectiveness of the selected nitrogen-fixing inoculants but also on their competitiveness in a soil environment containing an indigenous rhizobial population. In this study, we investigated the effect of pretreatment of red clover seeds with specific Nod factor (LCOs) on germination, growth, and nodulation of clover growing under sterile conditions and in the soil. We demonstrated that, although the symbiotic ability and competitiveness of the inoculant strain RtKO17 was not improved under competitive soil conditions, LCOs treatment of clover seeds significantly enhanced clover nodulation and growth of plants. PMID:19370375

Maj, Dominika; Wielbo, Jerzy; Marek-Kozaczuk, Monika; Martyniuk, Stefan; Skorupska, Anna

2009-04-01

196

Factors affecting ?-ODAP content in Lathyrus sativus and their possible physiological mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

A neuroexcitatory non-protein amino acid, ?-N-oxalyl-L-?,?-diaminopropionic acid (?-ODAP), present in the seeds of the hardy legume crop grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), was considered responsible for human lathyrism. The levels of ?-ODAP were reported to vary in different tissues during plant development, and to be affected by a wide range of environmental stresses. In this paper, dynamic changes in ?-ODAP level at specific stages of plant development as well as the influences of various environmental factors, including nutrient deficiency, drought, salinity, toxic heavy metals, and Rhizobium symbiosis on ?-ODAP levels were analyzed, highlighting the relationship between changes in ?-ODAP concentrations and Rhizobium growth. Possible mechanisms underlying ?-ODAP accumulation are proposed and future research is suggested. PMID:20510335

Jiao, C-J; Jiang, J-L; Ke, L-M; Cheng, W; Li, F-M; Li, Z-X; Wang, C-Y

2011-03-01

197

Determination of Minerals and Anti-Nutritional Factors of Some Lesser-Known Crop Seeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cost of raw material needed for the production of animal feed has led to the evaluation and ascertaining the adequacy of some lesser known crop seeds for minerals composition and the possible effects of anti nutritional factors on the availability of the required nutrients. The mineral elements and anti nutritional factors Jatropha curcas, Trichosanthes cucumerina, Citrillius vulgaris, were determined using standard analytical methods. The concentration of copper (16.00 mg/kg-43.00...

2009-01-01

198

An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors  

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Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs, problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL. Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

Takashi Kuremoto

2013-07-01

199

Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect FENO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting FENO in a well characterised adult population. Methods Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at age 32. The effects of sex, height, weight, lung function indices, smoking, atopy, asthma and rhinitis on FENO were explored by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analyses. Results The effect of sex on FENO was both statistically and clinically significant, with FENO levels approximately 25% less in females. Overall, current smoking reduced FENO up to 50%, but this effect occurred predominantly in those who smoked on the day of the FENO measurement. Atopy increased FENO by 60%. The sex-related differences in FENO remained significant (p ENO. Conclusion Even after adjustment, FENO values are significantly different in males and females. The derivation of reference values and the interpretation of FENO in the clinical setting should be stratified by sex. Other common factors such as current smoking and atopy also require to be taken into account.

Williamson Avis J

2007-11-01

200

Effect of chemical and physical factors to improve the germination rate of Echinacea angustifolia seeds.  

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Seeds of Echinacea angustifolia are known for their deep dormancy. In this paper, we studied the responses of E. angustifolia seeds to some chemical and physical factors, such as scarification, chilling (5 degrees C) period, light and applied BA (6-benzylaminopurine), GA3 (gibberellic acid) and sound stimulation. When the seed coat layers were removed, the germination rate grew up from 6 to 20% (incubated in light) and the mean time germination (MTG) was reduced from 18 to 6.6 days. On the basis of layers-removed, chilling and continuous light gave significantly higher germination rate (up to 70%). Compare the data of seeds chilled by 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 days, the maximum germination rate (up to 70%) achieved at 18-days chilling treatment. Further increases in the chilling period could slightly improve germination. Exogenous application of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 mg/L GA3 or BA in the previous pretreatment increased germination to 78, 90 and 84% or 76, 86 and 84%, respectively. Obviously, the best concentration of GA or BA is 0.3 mg/L. And the GA3 or BA treatment shortened the MTG to about 4 days. The influence of sound stimulation was also tested in the experiment. The result showed that one 100 dB and 1000 Hz sound wave (sine-wave) was beneficial to the germination of E. angustifolia seeds. PMID:15342019

Chuanren, Duan; Bochu, Wang; Wanqian, Liu; Jing, Chen; Jie, Lian; Huan, Zhao

2004-09-01

 
 
 
 
201

Recruitment and retention: factors that affect pericyte migration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pericytes are critical for vascular morphogenesis and contribute to several pathologies, including cancer development and progression. The mechanisms governing pericyte migration and differentiation are complex and have not been fully established. Current literature suggests that platelet-derived growth factor/platelet-derived growth factor receptor-?, sphingosine 1-phosphate/endothelial differentiation gene-1, angiopoietin-1/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, angiopoietin-2/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, transforming growth factor ?/activin receptor-like kinase 1, transforming growth factor ?/activin receptor-like kinase 5, Semaphorin-3A/Neuropilin, and matrix metalloproteinase activity regulate the recruitment of pericytes to nascent vessels. Interestingly, many of these pathways are directly affected by secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC). Here, we summarize the function of these factors in pericyte migration and discuss if and how SPARC might influence these activities and thus provide an additional layer of control for the recruitment of vascular support cells. Additionally, the consequences of targeted inhibition of pericytes in tumors and the current understanding of pericyte recruitment in pathological environments are discussed. PMID:23912898

Aguilera, Kristina Y; Brekken, Rolf A

2014-01-01

202

Factors affecting surface and release properties of thin PDMS films  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) elastomers are commonly used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP). DEAP films are used in making actuators, generators and sensors. In the large scale manufacture of DEAP films, release of films from the substrate (carrier web) induces some defects and pre-strain in the films which affect the overall performance of the films. The current research is directed towards investigating factors affecting the peel force and release of thin, corrugated polydimethylsiloxane films used in DEAP films. It has been shown that doping the PDMS films with small quantities of perfluoroether allylamide (PFE) lowered the surface energy which could ease the release. This is further investigated together with an evaluation of the resulting change in actuator performance. The relationship between the adhesive energy, surface energy, Youngâ??s modulus and peel force of the films is analyzed.

Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

2013-01-01

203

Protein digestibility (in vitro) of chickpea and blackgram seeds as affected by domestic processing and cooking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein digestibility (in vitro) of grains of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and blackgram (Vigna mungo) cultivars varied from 48 to 53% and 52 to 58%, respectively. Soaking, cooking (both of unsoaked and soaked seeds), autoclaving and sprouting improved significantly the protein digestibility of all the cultivars of chickpea and blackgram. Autoclaving was found to be most effective followed by cooking and sprouting; cooking of sprouts had only marginal effect. Protein digestibility was higher when soaked instead of unsoaked grains were cooked. PMID:2762243

Jood, S; Chauhan, B M; Kapoor, A C

1989-06-01

204

Germination Characteristics of Korean and Southeast Asian Redrice (Oryza sativa L. Seeds as Affected by Temperature  

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Full Text Available Red rice (Oryza sativa L. is considered an important weed in many paddy fields. We performed a laboratory investigation to evaluate the germination percent, germination speed and days to 50% germination (T50 of red rice seed three groups were selected: (1 four Southeast Asian varieties/germplasms, (2 six Korean varieties/germplasms with enhanced yield and (3 four Korean varieties/germplasms which are problem in direct-sown paddy fields. The selected varieties/germplasms were incubated at four different day/night temperature settings: 15/10, 20/15, 25/20 and 30/25°C. This study has been carried out at phytotron and glass house between 2007 through 2009 to find out the characteristics of Asian redrice germ plasms. According to results, the germination percent and germination speed of red rice seed generally increased with increasing temperature. At low temperature (20/15°C, red rice seeds, selected or imported red rice from cold areas, resulted in lowest germination percent (9% and germination speed (12.3, however, T50 was the lowest (7.2 at 15/10°C compared to all the Southeast Asia red rice varieties/germplasms. Germination characteristics of Korean red rice seeds showed similar responses to temperature conditions depending on where they came from and local temperature: southern part of Korea (Hapcheon or northern part (Suwon. However, Yeongcheon red rice showed high germination percent (96-100% and low T50 (9.0-2.7 which was very similar to group 2 which were already selected as cultivars/germplasms for high vigor and high yield. The critical temperature for red rice germination related characteristics was 25/20°C and activity (germination speed and T50 did not increase much at 30/25°C. In conclusion, red rice varieties/germplasms selected from a local area would represent the temperature of the area partially.

Young-Son Cho

2010-01-01

205

How do amino acid substitutions affect the amyloidogenic properties and seeding efficiency of prion peptides.  

Science.gov (United States)

The amino acid sequences in the amyloidogenic region (amino acids 108-144) of several mammalian prion proteins were compared and variations were found to occur at residues 109 (M or L), 112 (M or V), 129 (M, V, or L), 135 (N or S), 138 (M, L, or I), 139 (M or I), and 143 (N or S). Using the bovine PrP peptide (residues 108-144 based on the numbering of the human prion protein sequence) as a control peptide, several peptides with one amino acid differing from that of the bovine PrP peptide at residues 109, 112, 135, 138, 139, or 143 and several mammalian PrP peptides were synthesized, and the effects of these amino acid substitutions on the amyloidogenic properties of these peptides were compared and discussed on the basis of the chemical and structural properties of amino acids. Our results showed that the V112M substitution accelerated nucleation of amyloidogenesis, while the N143S and I139M substitutions retarded nucleation. These effects tended to cancel each other out when two substitutions with opposite effects were present on the same peptide. Moreover, acceleration or inhibition of nucleation was not necessarily correlated with effect on seeding efficiency. Using amyloid fibrils prepared from the bovine PrP peptide as seeds, the seeding efficiency for the monomer peptides with the M129L, S135N, N143S, or I139M substitution was decreased compared to that for bPrP peptide. Of all the mammalian peptides used in this study, the dog, mule deer, and pig PrP peptides had the lowest seeding efficiencies. PMID:23736988

Chuang, Chi-Chen; Liao, Tai-Yan; Chen, Eric H-L; Chen, Rita P-Y

2013-10-01

206

Factors Affecting Palm Oil Price Based on Extremes Value Approach  

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This study examines the dependence structure of extreme realization of growth rate between palm oil prices and factors affecting, which are soybean oil and crude oil prices. We employ the Bivariate Extreme Value methods for daily palm oil, soybean oil and crude oil prices ranging from July 1988 to January 2012. The results provide that the growth rate of palm oil and soybean oil prices has some dependence in extremes, but the growth rate of palm oil and crude oil prices has fairly we...

Kantaporn Chuangchid; Aree Wiboonpongse; Songsak Sriboonchitta; Chukiat Chaiboonsri

2012-01-01

207

Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

Lemontt, J F

1979-01-01

208

Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

Lemontt, J F

1979-01-01

209

Chinese multinationals: how do institutional factors affect their location patterns?  

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Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of various host country institutional factors on the location patterns of 29 large Chinese multinationals. From a sample of 127 outward foreign direct investment (FDI decisions made in 52 countries, our findings suggest that a greater difficulty in doing business and a high political risk in the host country do not discourage Chinese multinationals. However, the presence of overseas Chinese in the host country, a larger absolute host market size and a higher volume of Chinese exports to that country affect positively.

Diego Quer Ramón

2011-11-01

210

Human Factors Affecting the Patient's Acceptance of Wireless Biomedical Sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

In monitoring arrhythmia, the quality of medical data from the ECG sensors may be enhanced by being based on everyday life situations. Hence, the development of wireless biomedical sensors is of growing interest, both to diagnose the heart patient, as well as to adjust the regimen. However, human factors such as emotional barriers and stigmatization, may affect the patient's behavior while wearing the equipment, which in turn may influence quality of data. The study of human factors and patient acceptance is important both in relation to the development of such equipment, as well as in evaluating the quality of data gathered from the individual patient. In this paper, we highlight some important aspects in patient acceptance by comparing results from a preliminary clinical trial with patients using a wireless ECG sensor for three days out-of-hospital service, to available published results from telehomecare projects, and discuss important aspects to be taken into account in future investigations.

Fensli, Rune; Boisen, Egil

211

Factors affecting the level of success of community information systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The factors that influence the ultimate level of success or failure of systems development projects have received considerable attention in the academic literature. However, previous research has rarely targeted different instances of a common type of system within a homogeneous organisational sector. This paper presents the results of a survey of IM&T managers within Community Trusts to gain insights into the factors affecting the success of Community Information Systems. The results demonstrate that the most successful operational systems were thoroughly tested prior to implementation and enjoyed high levels of user and senior management commitment. Furthermore, it has been shown that there is a relationship between the level of organisational impact and systems success, with the most successful systems engendering changes to the host organisation's culture, level of empowerment and clinical working practices. In addition to being of academic interest, this research provides many important insights for practising IM&T managers. PMID:10747445

Coombs, C R; Doherty, N F; Loan-Clarke, J

1999-01-01

212

Factors Affecting the Adoption and use of NERICA Varieties among Rice Producing Households in Ghana  

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Full Text Available This paper uses cross sectional data which were collected from 200 smallholder rice producers in Ghana, to examine the factors influencing the adoption and extent of use of NERICA rice varieties in Ghana. About 57.93 per cent of the sampled rice producers allocated 35.77 per cent of their land to NERICA accounting for about 33.13 per cent of seeds planted. The Tobit regression model suggests fertilizer use, existence of other complementary projects in the area, proportion of active persons in household, access to alternative income sources, distance to seed source and education as key factors influencing the quantity of seeds planted as well as the proportion of land allocated to the NERICA varieties. With the exception of distance to seed source, all the other factors positively influenced the extents of adoption. The findings suggest the need to ensure availability of NERICA seeds within acceptable distances to farming communities. This could be achieved through identification of certified rice seed growers in strategic locations throughout the country and supported with necessary logistics to produce NERICA seeds at reasonable proximities to rice producing communities. This could also be enhanced through establishment of linkages with existing institutions and projects to compliment promotional efforts.

Asante Bright Owusu

2013-10-01

213

Comparative effects of sandalwood seed oil on fatty acid profiles and inflammatory factors in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sandalwood seed oil on fatty acid (FA) profiles and inflammatory factors in rats. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five different dietary groups: 10 % soybean oil (SO), 10 % olive oil (OO), 10 % safflower oil (SFO), 10 % linseed oil (LSO) and 8 % sandalwood seed oil blended with 2 % SO (SWSO) for 8 weeks. The SWSO group had a higher total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) levels but lower n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios in both adipose tissue and liver than those in the SO, OO and SFO groups (p sandalwood seed oil, was found to be highly incorporated into adipose tissue (13.73 %), but relatively lower in liver (0.51 %) in the SWSO group. The levels of prostaglandin F(2?), prostaglandin E?, thromboxane B?, leukotriene B?, tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? in both liver and plasma were positively correlated with the n-6:n-3 ratios, suggesting that increased n-6 PUFA appear to increase the formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas n-3 PUFA exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. The present results suggest that sandalwood seed oil could increase tissue levels of n-3 PUFA, DHA and reduce the n-6:n-3 ratio, and may increase the anti-inflammatory activity in rats. PMID:23275078

Li, Guipu; Singh, Anish; Liu, Yandi; Sunderland, Bruce; Li, Duo

2013-02-01

214

Factors Affecting Success and Complication of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy  

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Full Text Available Aim: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL is the first choice renal stones especially larger than 2 cm, and high success rates can be achieved after PNL. But several severe complications may be occurred. In this study, factors which affect the success rate and complications were investigated. Material and Method: Between July 2004 and August 2007, 176 patients (102 men/74 women underwent PNL operation. Because of the bilateral renal stones PNL was performed in two separate sessions of 9 patients. Percutaneous access was doing in prone position. Factors affecting the success and complication data were collected. Results: Mean age was 47.610,7 (17%uFFFD76 year, median=47. Complete success rate was detected 77.8% with the direct X-rays taken in the first postoperative day. The success rate was up to 87% after the additional post-treatment therapy. Success rates were 83.1% for complex stones and 89.4% for simple stones (p

Soner Yalç?nkaya

2012-04-01

215

Factors affecting productive efficiency in primary care clinics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines factors affecting the productive efficiency of primary care clinics. The empirical analysis uses a single-stage stochastic frontier regression model, in which factors affecting productive efficiency are specified as part of the inefficiency error component and estimated simultaneously with the production function. The study population includes primary care clinics in the US Military Health System from 1999 through 2003; the analytical data set is an unbalanced panel of 442 observations. The study's main results were that primary care clinics not associated with medical centres had significantly higher levels of productive efficiency than those associated with medical centres and that having proportionately more civilian staff (and thus less turnover) had a positive impact on productive efficiency. Due to their nature, these findings would be expected to also be applicable to the production of primary care in other settings. A key implication of the results is that improvements in productive efficiency should be a top priority, given the possibility for providing more primary care visits without increases in cost. PMID:18275665

Schmacker, Eric R; McKay, Niccie L

2008-02-01

216

Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors  

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Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

Naile Bilgili

2009-12-01

217

Factors affecting final facial nerve outcome following vestibular schwannoma surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To determine factors affecting facial nerve outcome of vestibular schwannoma surgery. Methods: This retrospective cohort study comprised 652 patients. The outcome measure was House-Brackmann classification at two years post-operatively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to determine the factors affecting facial nerve outcome. The incidence rates of hemifacial spasm, metallic taste and crocodile tear syndrome were recorded. Results: For tumours less than 1.5 cm, 95 per cent of outcomes were normal, 100 per cent were satisfactory (House-Brackmann grades I-III) and 0 per cent were unsatisfactory (grades IV-VI). For tumours 1.5-2.4 cm, 83 per cent of outcomes were normal, 99 per cent were satisfactory and 1 per cent were unsatisfactory. For tumours 2.5-3.4 cm, 68 per cent of outcomes were normal, 96 per cent were satisfactory and 4 per cent were unsatisfactory. For tumours 3.5-4.4 cm, 52 per cent of outcomes were normal, 80 per cent were satisfactory and 20 per cent were unsatisfactory. For tumours larger than 4.4 cm, 50 per cent of outcomes were normal, 72 per cent were satisfactory and 28 per cent were unsatisfactory. Conclusion: Tumour size and operation year were significant predictors of facial nerve outcome. The surgical learning curve was steepest for the first 50 patients. PMID:24685071

Moffat, D A; Parker, R A; Hardy, D G; Macfarlane, R

2014-05-01

218

Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players  

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Full Text Available This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs. A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM. The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36, as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37. Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players’ willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs.

Michael D. Cusimano

2013-05-01

219

Factors affecting the reproductive potential of dairy cows  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various factors that affect fertility were examined in high yielding dairy cows. In cows treated for the synchronization of oestrous cycles, manifestation of oestrus following synchronization treatment was affected by the body condition score in the winter; 74% of the cows had a low score. Primiparous cows that were thin or fat had a low conception rate. The conception rate of multiparous cows with different body condition scores did not differ in the winter. However, in the summer, thin, medium-low, medium-high and fat cows had a conception rate of 15, 36, 48 and 27%, respectively (P4) levels five days before the first post-partum AI affected conception rates. Primiparous cows with low (?2 ng/mL), medium (2.1-4.0 ng/mL) and high (?4.1 ng/mL) P4 levels had a conception rate of 28, 17 and 61%, respectively (P4 had a conception rate of 25, 46 and 52%, respectively (P<0.02). Cows in their fifth or later lactation that were fed straw as their sole roughage had a conception rate of 23% and a 120 day pregnancy rate of 23%. Cows of the same parities that were fed hay had a conception rate of 50% (P<0.05) and a pregnancy rate of 80% (P<0.005). (author). 15 refs, 5 tabs

1990-08-01

220

ANTI-NUTRIENT FACTORS, PERFORMANCE AND SERUM BIOCHEMISTRY OF BROILER CHICKS FED RAW AND FERMENTED ALCHORNEA CORDIFOLIA SEEDS  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine some anti-nutrient factors in differently processed Christmas bush (Alchornea cordifolia seeds and the effect of the processed seed meals on the performance and blood chemistry of broiler chicks fed from 1 to 35 day of age. Ground and fermented, and dehulled Christmas bush (CB seed meals were analyzed for their anti-nutrient contents whereas ground and sieved (GS, ground-sieved and fermented (GSF and non-sieved and fermented (NSF seed meals were incorporated into starter broiler diets to replace 10% of maize, respectively. Fermented and dehulled CB seed meals contain 574.4 and 21.3mg/100g phytic acid, respectively. Cyanide was not identified in any of the meals. Dehulling eliminated the anthraquinone and tannin contents whereas fermentation only eliminated the tannin content. None of the methods completely eliminated the saponin, cardiac glycoside, flavonoid and alkaloid contents of the seed meals. With GS seed meal, broilers had lower average daily weight gain (P<0.05 than the control group. Feed intake decreased (P<0.05 but feed conversion ratio was not different when compared with control. Inclusion of GSF seed meal improved growth and feed intake when compared with the NSF seed meal and by day 35, growth and feed intake were comparable to those of the control birds. Blood plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphates and aspartate aminotransferase increased with GS CB seed meal diet, while serum calcium decreased. Neither raw nor fermented seed meals altered other measures of the blood chemistry. It is concluded that CB seeds contain toxic anti-nutrient compounds and that sieving out the hulls in the ground raw seed meal before fermentation improved the feeding value of the seeds for broilers at 10% replacement for maize.

O.O. EMENALOM

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
221

Influence of Nitrogenous Fertilizers, Gypsum and Seed Priming on Wheat Yield under Salt Affected Soil Conditions  

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Field experiment, to evaluate the effect of nitrogenous fertilizers i.e. urea, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate with and without gypsum and seed priming on productivity of wheat, was performed.The field was surveyed by EM-38 at 2x2m grid to identify areas of uniform salinity. The experimental design was factorial randomized, having ECe values of 3.5 to 5.5, 4.0 to 6.9, 5.0 to 9.1 and 6.1 to 10.1 dSm-1 in R1, R2, R3 and R4 respectively. There was no significant effect of ...

Muhammad Jamal Khan; Mazhar Ali Khan Tanoli; Khattak, Riaz A.

2001-01-01

222

Study of factors affecting the appearance of colors under microscopes  

Science.gov (United States)

The variation of colors in microscopy systems can be quite critical for some users. To address this problem, a study is conducted to analyze how different factors such as size of the sample, intensity of the microscope's light source and the characteristics of the material like chroma and saturation can affect the color appearance through the eyepiece of the microscope. To study the changes in colors considering these factors, the spectral reflectance of 24 colors of GretagMacbeth Classic ColorChecker® and Mini ColorChecker® which are placed under a Nikon ECLIPSE MA200 microscope®2 using dark filed and bright field illuminations which result in different intensity levels, is measured using a spectroradiometer®3 which was placed in front of the eyepiece of the microscope. The results are compared with the original data from N. Ohta1. The evaluation is done by observing the shift in colors in the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram and the CIELAB space, also by applying a wide set of color-difference formulas, namely: CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, DIN99d and DIN99b. Furthermore, to emphasize on the color regions in which the highest difference is observed, the authors have obtained the results from another microscope; Olympus SZX10®4, which in this case the measurement is done by mounting the spectroradiometer to the camera port of the microscope. The experiment leads to some interesting results, among which is the consistency in the highest difference observed considering different factors or how the change in saturation of the samples of the same hue can affect the results.

Zakizadeh, Roshanak; Martinez-Garcia, Juan; Raja, Kiran B.; Siakidis, Christos

2013-11-01

223

Factors affecting inulin crystallization after its complete dissolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we analyzed inulin crystallization during one year after its complete dissolution and an effect of inulin crystal seeds concentration on rheological and textural properties of inulin gels. 20% and 25% solutions of three different inulins, one native and two high performance (crystal and amorphous), were prepared by heating at 100°C for 5min. During one year of storage at 20°C, inulin did not form a gel structure, but only precipitates and a crystal layer on the walls of the containers. Addition of crystal seeds (0.02-2%) caused formation of gel structure. Minimal concentration of the crystal seeds necessary to form a strong inulin gel was 0.4%. Crystallographic structure of inulin powder did not have an influence on the formed gels. The obtained results allow inulin gelation to control which can be crucial in novel foods, the structure of which is based on inulin. PMID:24906735

Glibowski, Pawel; Pikus, Stanislaw; Jurek, Justyna; Kotowoda, Marcin

2014-09-22

224

Crucial Factors Affecting Stress: A Study among Undergraduates in Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Stress is normally unavoidable part of everyone’s life living in this world. It portrays a negative notion that can have an impact on one’s mental and physical well-being. The core intention of this study was to detect the most influencing factors of stress affecting undergraduates. The four factors that had taken under consideration were Family stress, Emotional stress, Financial Stress and Social Stress. To accomplish this research stress inventory has developed using scientific methods. Respondents were undergraduate students of university with different demographics. Results has presented graphically, descriptively and inferentially using SPSS and Excel. Pearson’s chi-square and correlation has applied to verify the relationship between stress factors and demographics. Results show that living persuasively under strict rules and regulations can be a family stressor. Unavailability of best choices and paramount match to live with as a partner can be an emotional stress. Less income students find difficulty to spend money on buying and enjoying which is a predictor of financial stress. Pressurized life and squat admiration from people has lied under Social stress. Other verdicts are also deemed according to Pakistani cultural context.

Kashif Ud Din Khan

2013-02-01

225

Physiological Responses of West African Dwarf Buck as Affected by Datura Stramonium Linn Seed Extract  

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Full Text Available To evaluate the action of aqueous extract of Datura stramonium seeds on the physiological status of West African Dwarf (WAD -bucks, the effects of aqueous extract of the seed of Datura stramonium Linn was investigated for some physiological parameters in twenty (20 West African Dwarf bucks aged 12- 18 months and averaged 8.76±1.23kg for a period of 2months. The bucks were grouped into five treatments consisting four bucks and using Completely Randomized Design (CRD. The bucks were subcutaneously administered with the plant extract at a dose of 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08ml/kg bodyweight respectively. The results of the study revealed that the treated bucks had higher (p>0.05 body weight than the control but treated had lower rectal temperature than the control (p>0.05. However, the extract produced significant effect (p<0.05 on the pulse and heart rate and this may be as a result of the active principles present in the extract used for the study. Based on the findings of the present study, the aqueous extract of Datura stramonium could serve as a stimulatory agent and if properly screened using additional solvents, pharmacologically active drugs could be obtained. The significant effect produced by the aqueous extract on the animals has provided scientific justification for the ethno medicinal uses of the plant in India and South Africa.

Fatoba, T. A.

2012-12-01

226

BROCCOLI Spears Yield Affected By GAMMA Rays Irradiated Seeds And Foliar Application Of Some Growth Regulators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two field experiments were carried out during 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 winter growing seasons at the experimental farm of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt.The experiments were conducted to study the effect of pre-sowing broccoli seeds (cv. F1 175) irradiated with different doses of gamma rays (2, 3 and 4 Gy). The plants were sprayed with GA3 at rate of 50 ml/liter/fed and 20 ml/liter/fed for NAA. Main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spears fresh and dry weight per plant, total spears yield, ascorbic acid, TSS, carbohydrates, total chlorophyll, NPK and total protein content of spears were evaluated. The results showed that broccoli seeds irradiated with gamma rays up to 4 Gy pre-sowing increased the abovementioned parameters with different magnitudes comparing with the non-irradiated control plants except spears N, P and protein contents showed decrease in their values comparing with un-treated plants.It could be concluded that the foliar application of GA3 and NAA on broccoli spears increased all the abovementioned parameters, except spears N, P and protein contents showed decrease in their values.

2010-01-01

227

Dinâmica do banco de sementes de arroz-vermelho afetado pelo pisoteio bovino e tempo de pousio da área Red rice seed bank dynamics affected by cattle trampling and fallow duration  

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Full Text Available Para avaliar a influência do pisoteio bovino e do tempo de pousio na dinâmica do banco de sementes de arroz-vermelho foi conduzido um experimento em lavoura comercial de arroz irrigado, que adota o sistema de cultivo mínimo, seguido de dois anos de pousio, manejada, nesse período, pelo pastejo de bovinos. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições no esquema bifatorial. O fator A constou dos manejos pós-colheita da cultura de arroz: [M1] - pousio com pisoteio animal e [M2] - pousio sem pisoteio animal. O fator B constou dos anos de amostragem: [A1] - 1999, [A2] - 2000 e [A3] - 2001. O banco de sementes de arroz-vermelho foi estimado através de 12 amostras de solo por parcela, em abril de 1999, abril de 2000 e abril de 2001, com trado cilíndrico de 10 cm de diâmetro. As profundidades de coleta das amostras de solo foram de 0-1 cm, 1-5 cm, 5-10 cm e 10-15 cm. Após a coleta, os grãos de arroz-vermelho foram separados do solo, contados e submetidos ao teste de tetrazólio, para estimativa da viabilidade. O pisoteio bovino não afetou a distribuição das sementes no perfil do solo, bem como a dinâmica do banco de sementes. Houve efeito do tempo de pousio sobre o banco de sementes de arroz-vermelho; a equação que melhor explica a correlação entre número de sementes viáveis e tempo de pousio, em meses, foi a equação exponencial y = 1382,15 exp (-0,1988*x pAn experiment was conducted in a commercial lowland rice-producing area, adopting the minimum tillage system of rice production, followed by two years of fallow, managed, during this time, by cattle production, in order to evaluate the influence on red rice seed bank dynamics. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with three replications, in a bifactorial design. Factor A consisted of rice post-harvest management of the area: [T1] - fallow with cattle trampling and [T2] - fallow without cattle trampling. Factor B was the sampling time: [A1] - 1999, [A2] 2000 and [A3] - 2001. The red rice seed bank estimation was made using 12 soil samples by plot, in April 1999, April 2000 and April 2001, using a 10 cm diameter cylinder soil sampler. The sampling depths were 0-1 cm, 1-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm. After being extracted from the soil, the grains of red rice were counted and submitted to a tetrazolium test to estimate seed viability. Cattle trampling did not affect seed distribution in the soil profile and the dynamics of the red rice seed bank. Fallow duration affected the seed bank of red rice; the regression equation fit that best explains the correlation between number of viable seeds and fallow duration in months was the exponential equation: y = 1382.15 exp (-0.1988*x p<0.05, showing a decrease in the number of seeds within 12 months, from 1,448 to 151 (90% reduction, and 38 (98% reduction viable seeds per square meter in 24 months of fallow. Regarding the red rice seed burial depths, seed bank reduction was greater on the soil surface in 2000, with no difference between the depths in 2001. The seeds located on the soil surface lost their viability rapidly, with an average of 99% within one year fallow with or without cattle trampling. It can be concluded that cattle trampling does not affect red rice seed bank dynamics in fallow areas. Soil fallow, with or without cattle trampling, reduces in the red rice seed bank.

E. Marchezan

2003-04-01

228

Molecular insights into how a deficiency of amylose affects carbon allocation – carbohydrate and oil analyses and gene expression profiling in the seeds of a rice waxy mutant  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding carbon partitioning in cereal seeds is of critical importance to develop cereal crops with enhanced starch yields for food security and for producing specified end-products high in amylose, ?-glucan, or fructan, such as functional foods or oils for biofuel applications. Waxy mutants of cereals have a high content of amylopectin and have been well characterized. However, the allocation of carbon to other components, such as ?-glucan and oils, and the regulation of the altered carbon distribution to amylopectin in a waxy mutant are poorly understood. In this study, we used a rice mutant, GM077, with a low content of amylose to gain molecular insight into how a deficiency of amylose affects carbon allocation to other end products and to amylopectin. We used carbohydrate analysis, subtractive cDNA libraries, and qPCR to identify candidate genes potentially responsible for the changes in carbon allocation in GM077 seeds. Results Carbohydrate analysis indicated that the content of amylose in GM077 seeds was significantly reduced, while that of amylopectin significantly rose as compared to the wild type BP034. The content of glucose, sucrose, total starch, cell-wall polysaccharides and oil were only slightly affected in the mutant as compared to the wild type. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH experiments generated 116 unigenes in the mutant on the wild-type background. Among the 116 unigenes, three, AGP, ISA1 and SUSIBA2-like, were found to be directly involved in amylopectin synthesis, indicating their possible roles in redirecting carbon flux from amylose to amylopectin. A bioinformatics analysis of the putative SUSIBA2-like binding elements in the promoter regions of the upregulated genes indicated that the SUSIBA2-like transcription factor may be instrumental in promoting the carbon reallocation from amylose to amylopectin. Conclusion Analyses of carbohydrate and oil fractions and gene expression profiling on a global scale in the rice waxy mutant GM077 revealed several candidate genes implicated in the carbon reallocation response to an amylose deficiency, including genes encoding AGPase and SUSIBA2-like. We believe that AGP and SUSIBA2 are two promising targets for classical breeding and/or transgenic plant improvement to control the carbon flux between starch and other components in cereal seeds.

Zhang Ming-Zhou

2012-12-01

229

Factors affecting population variation in eastern Adriatic isolates (Croatia).  

Science.gov (United States)

Inhabitants of the Croatian islands of Brac, Hvar, Korcula, and the Peljesac Peninsula have been the subject of extensive previous studies of local population differentiation. Most of these studies used biological and ecological variables, but some also considered historical and sociological factors. In this study we use genetic, morphological, kinship, and language distance data, collected for individuals from 26 rural communities on the islands of Brac, Hvar, Korcula, and the Peljesac Peninsula in the Adriatic, to further explore the interaction of historical, sociological, and biological factors in small populations and to test the significance of some of these proposed causes. First, we use matrix correlation methods to evaluate the relationships among different types of distance measures. The specific measures of genetic distance used here do not correlate well with other measures of population distance, and it appears that for the studied genetic systems the populations are not strongly differentiated. As expected, kinship and language distances have a high degree of association. Morphological differences among populations seem to be more closely tied to kinship distances than to genetic distances. This may result from modification of some morphological features by environmental rather than genetic factors, or it may be attributed to extensive, selective, nonrandom emigration of the population during the first decade of the twentieth century. In the second part of our analysis we use matrix correlation methods to evaluate and possibly identify the external factors that have contributed to the population differences. Specifically, we use design matrices to test hypotheses that population differences can be explained by one of the following factors: geographic isolation on the islands and peninsula, distance from the mainland, geographic barriers within the islands and peninsula, and the historical factors that differentially affected the three islands and the peninsula. Most of these design matrices reflect geographic distances; although correlations between morphological variables and simple geographic distance between localities were not significant, correlations between these localities and a design matrix incorporating geographic distance along with geographic barriers, such as bodies of water and mountain ranges, are particularly important for explaining distances among kin. Design matrices provide an important tool for quantifying the relationship between historical and geographic factors, and measures of population distance. PMID:9780515

Waddle, D M; Sokal, R R; Rudan, P

1998-10-01

230

Seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals concentration as affected by foliar K-glyphosate applications in soybean cultivars  

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Full Text Available Previous studies showed that glyphosate (Gly may chelate cation nutrients, including potassium (K, which might affect the nutritional status of soybean seed. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals as influenced by foliar applications of K + Gly. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at Mississippi Valley State University, using two glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivars DK 4968 and Pioneer 95Y70 grown in a randomized complete block design. The treatments were foliar applications of K alone, Gly alone, K + Gly combined, and nontreated control (C. A single application of potassium (1.75% as K2SO4 was applied, and Gly was applied at a rate of 0.75 ae/ha at V5 stage. Leaf samples were harvested one week after treatment (1WAT and 3WAT. Mature seeds were collected at harvest maturity (R8. The results showed that K, nitrogen (N, and phosphorus (P concentrations increased in leaves in K alone and K + Gly treatments at 1WAT, but significantly increased at 3WAT in all treatments. The concentration of iron (Fe and zinc (Zn showed a decrease in leaf concentration in Gly and K + Gly treatments compared to C. Boron (B concentration increased in Gly treatment. Seed protein percentage was higher in all treatments in cultivar DK 4968, and the increase was about 4.0% in K treatment, 6.9% in Gly treatment, and 3.5% in K + Gly treatment compared to C. The opposite trend was observed in oil concentration, especially in Gly treatment where the percentage decrease was 11.2% compared to C. Stearic fatty acid was significantly higher in K + Gly treatment compared to K treatment for DK 4968. A higher percentage increase in linolenic acid was observed in DK 4968 in K treatment (an increase of 24.5% and in K + Gly treatment (an increase of 29.5% compared to C. In Pioneer 95Y70, the decrease in oil was 2.7% in K treatment and 2.3% in K + Gly treatment compared to C. Stearic acid in Pioneer 95Y70 was significantly higher in Gly treatment, an increase of 8.3%, compared to C. Our research demonstrated that foliar application of K and Gly altered mineral concentration in leaves and shifted seed composition towards protein and stearic concentration. Further research under field conditions is needed before final conclusions are made.

Manju Pande

2012-10-01

231

FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR  

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Full Text Available The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that salary, efficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The overall job satisfaction of the employees in pharmaceutical sector is at the positive level. The nature of business operation, the work culture and the level of job satisfaction have undergone sea change for the pharmaceutical companies. As a business proposition initiated huge investment whereas majority of their stocks is going down bringing a high level of apprehension related to job security among its employees. This research paper highlights some of these problems and presents a picture of level of job satisfaction among employees of pharmaceutical companies. It also identifies unique issues of job satisfaction in the companies. Pharmaceuticals Companies are selected for the research because they are currently undergoing continued expansion. In order to gain competitive advantage and adapt to the dramatic changing environment, it is important for them to achieve management efficiency by increasing employee satisfaction in the organisation. Hence this research was mainly undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting the job satisfaction. This paper presents a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of pharmaceutical business, the factors causing the dissatisfaction & suggestions to improve them.

Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin

2011-10-01

232

Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait  

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Full Text Available Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results: Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7% decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2% students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%, 17 (11.8%, and 16 (11.1% students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4% of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8% and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3% were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065 more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002. Conclusion : A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

Rawan Al-Fouzan

2012-12-01

233

Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire  

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In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as...

Sohail, Muhammad

2009-01-01

234

Factors and mechanisms affecting corrosion of steel in concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atomic power plants possess reinforced concrete structures which are exposed to sea water or sea atmosphere. Sea water or its surrounding environment contain very corrosive species which cause corrosion of metal in concrete. It should be mentioned that corrosion of steel in concrete is a complex problem that is not completely understood. Some of the factors which influence the corrosion mechanism and can be related to the pore solution composition is discussed. Chloride ion caused problems are the main source of the corrosion damage seen on the reinforced concrete structures. Corrosion rate in concrete varies and depends on the way chloride ion diffuses into concrete. In addition, the associated cations can influence diffusion of chloride into concrete. The type of portland cement and also the concrete mix design all affect the corrosion behaviour of steel in concrete

1986-01-01

235

FACTORS AFFECTING ATM USAGE IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS  

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Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for ATM services, by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The results indicate that graduated and employed male customers who belong from higher income groups and having a bank account preferably in public sector bank are greatly emphasized to use of the banking services. Significant positive influence of the characterized socio-economic attributes on the use of ATM service was found. The service occupied customers significantly more emphasized to the use of ATM services. Noticeable, the banking attributes such as account type, convenience, number of services offered, and cost of banking services don’t have very attentive influence on the use of advanced IT based banking services.

Shariq Mohammed

2012-06-01

236

studies on some factors affecting oxidative low density lipoprotein  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of occupational radiation exposure on some oxidant antioxidant parameters in addition to other factors affecting oxidative stress such as age, smoking, hypertension, high sedimentation rate for this purpose. a total of 131 individuals were included in this study 81 of them working in the radiation field the age was from 27 to 63 years. the occupational time from five to more than 25 where the control groups was composed of 50 healthy volunteers who had never worked in radiology related job otherwise with the same characteristics . the parameters tested are LDL, HDL, triglycerides, cholesterol, vitamin E, SOD, MDA, hemoglobin, fasting blood sugar, urea, creatinine, and liver enzymes GOT, GPT.our results show that time of exposure to radiation shows remarkable effect beginning with decrease of vitamin E after five years exposure,extending to MDA, triglycerides and LDL which increased while SOD decreased

2004-01-01

237

Investigation of the Factors Affecting Real Exchange Rate in Iran  

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Full Text Available his paper intends to investigate the factors affecting the real exchange rate in Iran in the period of 1978-2008. In this part, the econometric methodology and vector autoregressive model that is known as VAR is used to investigate the effect of proper variables on the real exchange rate. The results of Johansson-Jousilious test confirmed co-integration between variables, and thus long-run equilibrium relationship was confirmed among proper variables. Overall, the impulse and response functions showed that the shocking of variables, oil price and volume of money flows, has a positive impact on the real exchange rate and put it above its permanent level in the whole period of study. The results of variance decomposition showed that the most effects belonged to oil price and then volume of money flow that in fact represents greater relative importance of these variables in comparison with other variables among all model variables.

Komeil Khanarinejad

2012-08-01

238

Factors affecting cellulose hydrolysis based on inactivation of adsorbed enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose reaction is known to decrease significantly as the reaction proceeds. Factors such as reaction temperature, time, and surface area of substrate that affect cellulose conversion were analyzed relative to their role in a mechanistic model based on first order inactivation of adsorbed cellulases. The activation energies for the hydrolytic step and inactivation step were very close in magnitude: 16.3kcalmol(-1) for hydrolysis and 18.0kcalmol(-1) for inactivation, respectively. Therefore, increasing reaction temperature would cause a significant increase in the inactivation rate in addition to the catalytic reaction rate. Vmax,app was only 20% or less of the value at 72h compared to at 2h as a result of inactivation of adsorbed cellulases, suggesting prolonged hydrolysis is not an efficient way to improve cellulose hydrolysis. Hydrolysis rate increased with corresponding increases in available substrate surface binding area. PMID:25027809

Ye, Zhuoliang; Berson, R Eric

2014-09-01

239

Potential factors affecting accumulation of unsupported 210Pb in soil  

Science.gov (United States)

Airborne 210Pb, daughter of 222Rn, is frequently used as a tracer in different studies concerning atmospheric transport, sedimentation, soil erosion, dating, etc. Concentration of 210Pb was measured in 40 soil samples collected in urban and industrial areas in order to get evidence of possible influence of some factors on accumulation of airborne 210Pb in soil. Different soil properties such as the content of organic matter, free CaCO3, and available phosphorus (P2O5) were measured to explore their possible correlation with the amount of 210Pb. Special attention was given to the correlation between 210Pb and stable lead accumulated in the soil. Several samples were taken near a battery manufacturer to check if extremely high concentrations of lead can affect the uptake of the airborne 210Pb in soil. Soil samples were also taken at different depths to investigate the penetration of lead through the soil.

Mihailovi?, Aleksandra; Vu?ini? Vasi?, Milica; Todorovi?, Nataša; Hansman, Jan; Vasin, Jovica; Krmar, Miodrag

2014-06-01

240

Factors affecting adoption in China, 1950-87.  

Science.gov (United States)

Though adoption in China is known to have increased as more girls were abandoned and became available for adoption following the introduction of the country's one-child policy in the 1980s, little is known about Chinese adoption practices. This paper investigates the factors affecting adoption in China in the period 1950-87 using data from the National Two-Per-Thousand Sample Survey on Fertility and Contraception of 1988. The results show that the national adoption rate was 2.3 per cent. Childless women were more likely than women with children to adopt and did not show a sex preference. Women with children by birth used adoption to secure a child of the 'missing' sex. Women who had experienced the death of a child were more likely to adopt than those who had not. Women with children may have used adoption as a strategy to circumvent the strict family planning policies. PMID:15204260

Liu, Jihong; Larsen, Ulla; Wyshak, Grace

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Developing worksheet based on science process skills: Factors affecting solubility  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS. The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at Giresun University, Turkey. Action research methodology was used in this study. Thoughts from experts were received during the development of the worksheet. The study had some limitations in providing concrete evidence as to how the WS based on SPS effects the PST SPS, since the paper is a suggestion. For this reason, to investigate its effectiveness in a comparative manner, further research should be undertaken.

Fethiye KARSLI

2009-06-01

242

Factors Affecting Palm Oil Price Based on Extremes Value Approach  

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Full Text Available This study examines the dependence structure of extreme realization of growth rate between palm oil prices and factors affecting, which are soybean oil and crude oil prices. We employ the Bivariate Extreme Value methods for daily palm oil, soybean oil and crude oil prices ranging from July 1988 to January 2012. The results provide that the growth rate of palm oil and soybean oil prices has some dependence in extremes, but the growth rate of palm oil and crude oil prices has fairly weak dependence or even independence in extremes. Therefore, the authors of this study hoped that these findings not only have made a contribution to our understanding of what drives palm oil price movement of soybean oil and change in crude oil prices, but also for the practitioner who want to devise an updated model to enhance a further comprehension of the prices that drive these article of trade.

Kantaporn Chuangchid

2012-11-01

243

Factors Affecting Linear Type Traits of Valdostana Cattle  

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Full Text Available Four composite and 22 individual linear type traits, measured between 1997 and 2012 on 33,206 Aosta Red Pied (ARP and 19,551 Aosta Black Pied and Aosta Chestnut (ABP-CN strains of Valdostana cattle, were used to investigate the non-genetic factors affecting morphological evaluation. Average values for type traits ranged from 2.81 (teat placement rear view and foot angle to 3.34 (thinness for ARP, and from 2.48 (teat placement side view to 3.67 (udder depth for ABP-CN. Results from the ANOVA showed significant effect of herd-year-classifier on type traits of both ARPand ABP-CN, and of days in milk and age at calving for almost all traits, with few exceptions. The model used in this study is a useful starting point to calculate genetic parameters for Valdostana cattle.

Serena Mazza

2013-09-01

244

SOME ENVIRONMENTEAL FACTORS AFFECTING BROILER HOUSING IN WINTER SEASON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to study some environmental factors affecting broiler housing in winter season. The results showed that, temperature fluctuations between house ceiling and floor ranged between 0.4 to 5.93 ºC during the first two days of age. The average house temperature reduced gradually from 29.7 to 21.3 ºC. The indoor relative humidity ranged between 43.6 to 74.3 %. Specific heating power, specific fuel consumption and heating energy requirements ranged between 3850.2 W/ºC , 0.34 kg /h. ºC and 308.9 kJ/h. kg at the first week of age to 6213.4 W/ºC , 0.36 kg /h. ºC and 19.3 kJ/h. kg at the end of the life respectively

Tarek FOUDA

2013-01-01

245

Physiology of seed germination and seedling growth in Coccinia indica L. as affected by morphactin and gamma radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper deals with the seed germination and seeding growth in Coccinia indica L. in relation to morphactin and gamma radiation. Morphactin had inhibitory effect on seed germination. Gamma radiation promoted the seed germination. The promotive effective of gamma radiation was suppressed by the inhibitory effect of morphactin on radicle and hypocotyl growth in all treatments of the interaction of gamma radiation and morphactin.

Singh, I. (Forest Research Inst., Dehra Dun (India)); Kaushik, M.P.; Raja Ram; Sharma, Y.K. (D.A.V. Coll., Muzaffarnagar (India))

246

Selenium uptake and its antioxidant role in ryegrass cultivars as affected by selenite seed pelletization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english A greenhouse study was carried out to evaluate the effect of seed pelletization with increasing selenite doses (from 0 to 60 g Se ha-1) on the yield, Se uptake and the antioxidant responses of three ryegrass cultivars (Aries, Nui and Quartet) cultivated on an Andisol during two consecutive growth pe [...] riods. In addition, a second assay was conducted to determine the residual effect of Se in the shoots during four consecutive plant cuts. Results showed that selenite-pelleted seeds at rates up to 60 g Se ha-1 did not influence the yield of shoots and roots of the three ryegrass cultivars. Selenium concentration in shoots and roots steadily increased as a consequence of increased Se supply, and it was accumulated mainly in the roots. Plants of the different cultivars accumulated similar amounts of Se in their shoots, but Quartet roots built up greater Se concentration than those of Aries or Nui at rates of application above 35 g Se ha-1. Whereas Se doses above 10 g ha-1 increased the shoot Se concentration in the two yields of the three ryegrass cultivars to suitable levels according to the minimum dietary requirement of beef and dairy cattle, the residual effect of Se was maintained through four cuts at Se supply of 30 and 60 g ha-1. Likewise, the different cultivars displayed differential patterns of lipid peroxidation in response to the added Se. During the growth period, reductions of the oxidative damage of membranes were accompanied by inhibition of SOD in Aries and Nui and by the activation of GSH-Px antioxidant enzymes in the three ryegrass cultivars. Thus, in our study the benefits of Se on the plant health were closely related to an enhancement of the antioxidant system in the ryegrass cultivars. In summary, our results indicate that selenite-pelleted ryegrass seeds seem to be a promissory tool to increase both the Se content and the antioxidant ability of pastures. Its potential use requires, however, to be evaluated under field conditions in Se deficient soils.

P, Cartes; L, Gianfreda; C, Paredes; M.L, Mora.

247

Factors affecting sorption of radiocobalt by river sediments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of the principal factors affecting the interaction of radio cobalt with fresh water sediments and their importance for migration of radio cobalt in surface water streams. The uptake percent (U%) of radio cobalt by Ismailia Cannal bottom sediments (ICUBS) have been studied as a function of contact time, ph, competing ion, carrier concentration and natural ligands such as humic acid using batch technique. Mineralogical analyses of the sediment samples were carried out. The amount sorbed per gram sediment, (X/m), increased as the carrier concentration increased from 10-8 mol. Following a Freundlich type isotherm. The uptake of radio cobalt was found to be affected by changing in the ph of the aqueous phase. Presence of Mg24 ions as competing cation decreases the sorption of 60Co. Presence of humic acid shows a slight effect on the sorption of 60Co. Desorption of the investigated metal ion from the loaded sediment samples was also studied. A mathematical model for the migration of the investigated radioisotope in Ismailia canal water stream was developed to predict the concentrations of cobalt ion at different distances in X-direction

2001-07-01

248

Environmental factors affecting Galaxy Morphology - a study using COSMOS  

Science.gov (United States)

According to our current understanding, galaxy shapes and morphologies should depend on various factors such as the local environment. Realistic image simulations for calibration of weak lensing analysis methods that use training samples from the Hubble Space Telescope can therefore be affected by these trends, due to the limited volume of the universe that has been surveyed by Hubble. I will show how redshift slices in a volume-limited subsample of COSMOS can be classified as overdense or underdense (or neither), and how the statistical properties of various morphological parameters such as ellipticity, Sersic n, bulge-to-total ratio and color differ in these bins. This study requires a careful distinction between environment effects from large-scale structure, which we do not wish to include in simulations, and general trends in the galaxy population with redshift. We conclude with some guidance for how upcoming surveys can use COSMOS data as the basis for weak lensing simulations without having their conclusions overly affected by cosmic variance.

Jayaraman, Arun; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Lackner, Claire

2014-06-01

249

Factors affecting the sintered density of plutonium oxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sintering studies were carried out on PuO2 powders. The major factors affecting their sintered densities were identified. PuO2 prepared from plutonium oxalate was used in this work. Experiments with powders obtained by calcining at temperatures from 350deg C to 800deg C indicated that calcination at 600deg C was best suited for compaction and sintering and densities of 90% TD could be obtained by sintering at 1450deg C in A + 6% H2 atmosphere. Increase in compaction pressures improved the sintered densities of compacts from powders of lower temperature of calcination. There was a decrease in density when the sintering temperature was increased from 1550deg C to 1650deg C and 30 to 40% of cubic PuOsub(1.52) was present in the sintered pellets. Oxidising atmosphere was found to be beneficial in general for getting higher densities. Excess moisture in sintering atmosphere and powder storage for long periods adversely affected sinterability. (auth.)

1979-10-31

250

Factors affecting retention of early pregnancy in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential factors affecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5-9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N = 211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles > or = 5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall pregnancy loss was 11.4%. Cows with two CL did not have greater concentrations of progesterone than cows with one CL and they retained fewer pregnancies (P < 0.01; 73% versus 91%). Pregnancy retention was associated positively with concentrations of progesterone and estradiol during week 5 (P < 0.05). Embryos that were lost apparently died before CL regression. Retention of pregnancy declined in cows with high body condition and as age of the cow increased. Pregnancy retention was lower in cows bred to one of four frequently-used service sires (P < 0.05). Days postpartum, milk production, parity, service number, inseminator, synchronization of estrus, diameter of follicles and size of CL did not affect pregnancy retention. In conclusion, retention of pregnancy during placentation varied with concentrations of progesterone and estradiol, age of cow, body condition and service sire. PMID:15302385

Starbuck, Melanie J; Dailey, Robert A; Inskeep, E Keith

2004-08-01

251

Factors affecting heat affected zone root strains in pipeline girth welds and repairs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A recent study on hydrogen cracking in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of pipeline girth welds and repairs found that large strains in the HAZ transverse to the weld played a major role in causing cracking. The study quantified the effects of base metal composition and strength on the sensitivity to cracking, but the program did not address the factors that influence the degree of strain applied to the weld. It was the objective of the present project to study several of the possible factors that could influence root strains in girth welds including the effects of weld metal strength, pipe thickness and diameter, heat input, and weld length (repair length). The study was of a generic nature aimed at identifying areas of high risk of cracking. The approach included a literature review and simple analysis methods but no experimental work was undertaken. From the results it was concluded that high tensile stresses in the axial direction on the inside surface of the pipe result from the radial contraction of the weld and the consequent bending of the pipe. The largest effect on these stresses is from the welding procedure with the highest tensile stresses occurring with high heat input welds with few weld passes. Multipass welds result in a decrease of the tensile stress which becomes compressive above a certain thickness. The maximum net axial surface stress is independent of the length of the weld around the circumference. Base metal and weld metal strength have a significant effect on strain in the heat affected zone and some recommendations for bend testing are given. 33 refs.

Graville, B.A. [Graville Associates Inc., Georgetown, Ontario (Canada)

1993-11-01

252

Factors that affect the nutritive value of canola meal for poultry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the factors affecting the nutritive value of canola meal (CM), including glucosinolates, sinapine, phytic acid, tannins, dietary fiber, and electrolyte balance. It also addresses the means of improving the nutritive value of CM throughout seed dehulling, development of low-fiber canola, or application of feed enzymes. Over the years, the glucosinolate content of canola has been declining steadily and is now only about one-twelfth of that of the older high-glucosinolate rapeseed (that is, 10 vs. 120 ?mol/g). Therefore, the rations for broilers or laying hens could now contain 20% of CM without producing any adverse effects. Tannins are of lesser importance due to their presence in the hull fraction and thus low water solubility. Sinapine has been implicated with the production of a "fishy" taint in brown-shelled eggs, which results from a genetic defect among the strain of Rhode Island Red laying hens. The White Leghorns have been reported not to be affected. Although lower in protein, CM compares favorably with soybean meal with regard to amino acid content. Because CM contains more methionine and cysteine but less lysine, both meals tend to complement each other when used together in poultry diets. Canola meal is low in arginine (Arg) which could be of importance when introducing CM to broiler diets at high inclusion rates. The Arg content of CM is approximately two-thirds of that of soybean meal. Chickens fail to synthesize Arg and are highly dependent on dietary sources for this amino acid. Supplementation of Arg to CM-based diets has been shown to partly restore the growth performance. Dietary cation-anion difference in CM is also less than optimal due to the high sulfur and low potassium contents. Seed dehulling has not been very successful due to excessive fineness and thus difficulties with percolation of the miscella through the cake. Development of low-fiber, yellow-seeded canola and the use of enzymes have proven to increase the energy utilization and the nutritive value of CM for poultry. PMID:22991543

Khajali, F; Slominski, B A

2012-10-01

253

Factors affecting the measurement of fatigue crack stress intensity factors using photoelastic coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Photoelastic procedures to determine the stress intensity factors at the tip of a fatigue crack during dynamic and cyclic loading are described. To illustrate the techniques, tests were performed on a centered-cracked tensile panel under cyclic load. The measured SIFs were found to agree to within about 5% of an elastic solution. Finally, factors affecting the application of the procedures to more complex structures are considered.

Nurse, A.D. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Patterson, E.A. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Process Engineering

1995-12-31

254

A comparative study of seed yield parameters in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants and transgenics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because seed yield is the major factor determining the commercial success of grain crop cultivars, there is a large interest to obtain more understanding of the genetic factors underlying this trait. Despite many studies, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, have reported transgenes and mutants with effects on seed number and/or seed size, knowledge about seed yield parameters remains fragmented. This study investigated the effect of 46 genes, either in gain- and/or loss-of-function situations, with a total of 64 Arabidopsis lines being examined for seed phenotypes such as seed size, seed number per silique, number of inflorescences, number of branches on the main inflorescence and number of siliques. Sixteen of the 46 genes, examined in 14 Arabidopsis lines, were reported earlier to directly affect in seed size and/or seed number or to indirectly affect seed yield by their involvement in biomass production. Other genes involved in vegetative growth, flower or inflorescence development or cell division were hypothesized to potentially affect the final seed size and seed number. Analysis of this comprehensive data set shows that of the 14 lines previously described to be affected in seed size or seed number, only nine showed a comparable effect. Overall, this study provides the community with a useful resource for identifying genes with effects on seed yield and candidate genes underlying seed QTL. In addition, this study highlights the need for more thorough analysis of genes affecting seed yield. PMID:22332878

Van Daele, Inge; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Vercauteren, Ilse; de Smet, Lien; Inzé, Dirk; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Vuylsteke, Marnik

2012-05-01

255

Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future.

Kim, Chang Ho; Jeong, Won Mee [Inha Hospital, Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Seung Hum; Lee Sun Hee [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Tae Yong [Yuhan College, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

1997-02-01

256

Factors affecting particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we report a range of factors which affect the retention of colloidal particles in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF. These results are observed among different sizes of polystyrene (PS latex particles suspended in both aqueous and nonaqueous liquid carriers and very low density lipoproteins in a phosphate buffer. These factors include particle size and chemical composition, field strength, cold-wall temperature of the channel and the nature of the suspension medium. These results show that ThFFF can be used to fractionate colloidal particles according to size and that for an unknown colloidal sample material, a calibration curve must be obtained using particles of similar composition. This is necessary because the degree of retention of the colloidal material is dependent on chemical composition of sample material as evidenced by the chemical composition study. The potential of using ThFFF for physico-chemical characterization of colloidal material is illustrated through the evaluation of thermal diffusion coefficient of PS particles as a function of size, cold-wall temperature, and carrier solution composition. The tunabiliy of the extent of retention of the colloidal particles in a ThFFF channel is illustrated by results of the influence of field strength on retention.

Paul M. Shiundu

2002-06-01

257

Causative factors affecting peripheral neuropathy in burn patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripheral neuropathy in burn patients may be frequently missed in clinical settings. Although its incidence has been reported, little is known regarding the factors that cause burn-related peripheral neuropathy. A retrospective chart review of the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients admitted to a university hospital based burn center was conducted to explore the characteristics of burn-related neuropathy and factors affecting its types or extent. The variables collected were gender, age, length of hospital stay, site and surface area of burn, type of burn, and electrodiagnostic findings. We found that flame injuries, and third degree injuries were the most common in patients with peripheral neuropathy. Axonotmesis was more common than demyelinating injury and polyneuropathy was more common than mononeuropathy. Higher degree and larger area burns were more frequently associated with axonotmesis than with demyelination. Length of hospital stay was significantly longer in patients with axonotmesis. Overall, more severe burns showed a significant association with axonotmesis and a tendency to be related to polyneuropathy. PMID:18951702

Lee, Michael Y; Liu, Gloria; Kowlowitz, Vicki; Hwang, Jeong Hye; Lee, Jung Hwan; Choi, Kyoung Hyo; Lee, Eun Shin

2009-05-01

258

Environmental factors affecting radon exhalation from a sandy soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The "2"2"2Rn transport from soil into atmosphere was analyzed to elucidate the behavior of radioactive gas including H-3 and C-14 in surface environment. To investigate the effect of various environmental factors on "2"2"2Rn exhalation from a sandy soil, measurements of "2"2"2Rn exhalation rate were continuously carried out with a closed chamber method in Tokai site, JAERI. From the correlation analysis between the "2"2"2Rn exhalation rate and environmental factors, it was indicated that volumetric water content from soil surface to about 20 cm depth affects dominantly the "2"2"2Rn exhalation. The negative correlation relationship between the rate and atmospheric pressure change was also recognized only under drying conditions. The rate increased with increase of temperature difference between atmosphere and soil. Further consideration on transport mechanisms by temperature gradient may be necessary to discuss gas transport at soil-atmosphere interface. The basic information on gas transport in soil and on gas exhalation and deposition behavior at soil-atmosphere interface was provided by this research dealing with radioactive noble gas "2"2"2Rn. (author)

2000-01-01

259

Environmental factors affecting methyl mercury accumulation in zooplankton  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relationship between environmental factors and methyl mercury accumulation in filter-feeding macrozooplankton was investigated in an effort to obtain an integrated measure of the bioavailability of methyl mercury in the water column. Since macrozooplankton are an important food source for fish, the factors that affect their bioaccumulation of mercury are directly relevant to the contamination of fish. Methyl mercury accumulation in zooplankton collected from 24 lakes in south-central Ontario ranged from 19 to 448 ng.g dry mass{sup -}1{sup ,} and was highest in acidic brown-water lakes. Water color and pH were found to be the best predictors of methyl mercury levels, being positively correlated with water color and inversely correlated with pH. There was a positive correlation with drainage ratio and per cent wetland in the catchment. Zooplankton methyl mercury levels were also well correlated with mercury concentrations in smallmouth bass and largemouth bass, confirming that zooplankton is a good indicator of mercury bioavailability at the base of the food chain. 67 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

Westcott, K.; Kaiff, J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1996-10-01

260

Factors Affecting Forest Area Changes in Cambodia: An Econometric Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clarifying factors affecting forest area changes is critical to implementing REDD+ scheme properly. We analyzed some socio-economic factors and clarified their relationships with deforestation in Cambodia for the period of 2002 to 2010. A panel data analysis was conducted for 18 provinces, while six other provinces were deleted from the list because only a small amount of their land was forested. Time effects, cross-sectional dependence, serial correlation in idiosyncratic errors, and heteroskedasticity were tested, and robust variance matrix estimations were obtained to solve the problems of heteroskedasticity and serial correlation. The model estimation results showed that population, gross agricultural production and large-scale plantation development have negative impacts on forest area changes. On the other hand, the impacts of rice cultivation, gross industrial production, household income and house floor area by household were found not to be significant. Overall, however, the results indicated that forests in Cambodia still face pressure from the increases in population, agriculture production, and the enlargement of land development. As the increase in productivity of agriculture gives a better use of current agricultural land and lessens the pressure on forest, intensifying agriculture is important. It is also important to develop industry and other economic ventures to grow national economy while not imposing pressure on forest. This research reminds decision makers to use discretion when developing large-scale plantations.

Tetsuya Michinaka

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

The exogenous factors affecting the cost efficiency of power generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper employs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to examine cost efficiency and scale economies in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) by using the panel data covering the period of 1995-2006. In most previous studies, the efficiency estimated by the Panel Data without testing the endogeneity may bring about a biased estimator resulting from the correlation between input and individual effect. A Hausman test is conducted in this paper to examine the endogeneity of input variables and thus an appropriate model is selected based on the test result. This study finds that the power generation executes an increasing return to scale across all the power plants based on the pooled data. We also use installed capacity, service years of the power plant, and type of fuel as explanatory variable for accounting for the estimated cost efficiency of each plant by a logistic regression model to examine the factor affecting the individual efficiency estimates. The results demonstrate that the variable of installed capacity keeps a positive relationship with cost efficiency while the factor of working years has a negative relationship. (author)

Chang, Dong-Shang; Chen, Yi-Tui [National Central University, Department of Business Administration 300, Jhongda Road, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Den [Professor of Tunghai University, Department of Economics, No. 181, Section 3, Taichung Harbor Road, Taichung 40704, Taiwan (China)

2009-12-15

262

Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period (2005--2009) for a network of permanent sample plots in Pinus radiata plantations in Chile. In 2009, we calculated LAI from ground measurements using LI-COR LAI-2000 and TRAC instruments on each one hectare plot. These values of LAI were regressed against Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR), derived from the TM 2009 data. Linear relationships were strong with R2 values of 0.65 for SR, 0.61 for NDVI and 0.67 for RSR. Using the RSR relationship, LAI values were estimated for the network of permanent sample plots of Pinus radiata plantations over the whole period. For project 3, we examined environmental factors affecting growth rates of Pinus radiata in Chile. Water availability (as affected by precipitation, soil water holding capacity, and potential evapotranspiration) appeared to be the factor most limiting to leaf area and growth. Maximum growing season temperature also negatively affected growth. Sites with highest productivities had the lowest annual water deficits and the most productive sites used water and light more efficiently. Good sites produced 1.6 as compared to 0.49 kg of wood per m3 of evapotranspired water for less productive sites. In addition, productive stands produced 0.5 as compared to 0.31 g of wood per MJ for less productive sites.

Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

263

Geographical factors affecting variability of precipitation regime in Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares the precipitation regimes by using harmonic analysis during the last four decades (1965-2004). We used the measured precipitation data from 428 rain-gauge sites and weather stations distributed across Iran by applying 15 × 15 km spatial grids to generate the interpolated data. Data validations were carried out by statistical tests. In this study, first three harmonics of precipitation variances were evaluated. Variability of precipitation regime was explored by using three harmonic analysis methods. In addition, the effect of geographical factors (GF) (site elevation, latitude, and longitude) affecting the precipitation regime (P) was verified by multivariate regression method. The resulted regression equation between P and GF for spring showed the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.79). For other seasons, r was lower than for spring and varied between 0.26 (summer) to 0.58 (autumn). Analysis of the first harmonic proved that the main precipitation regime in Iran tends to concentrate in one specific season (winter) as a result of large-scale Mediterranean systems passing over the country. In other words, the first harmonic is able to explain most of the precipitation variations which are caused by large-scale atmospheric circulation. For all the three harmonics, variances of precipitation were mainly a function of the geographical factors. This effect was more evident in the third harmonic; in such a way that increasing the latitudes caused higher precipitation variance. This means that the precipitation regime in northern sites is more sensitive to the local factors than those of southern sites. The results of this research can be used for reliable estimation of precipitation in ungauged sites.

Sabziparvar, A. A.; Movahedi, S.; Asakereh, H.; Maryanaji, Z.; Masoodian, S. A.

2014-05-01

264

Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. A surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). In the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survival of seeds of seven species of weeds and non-embryonated eggs of the large roundworm of pigs, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still maintained low levels (~1%) of germination ability after 1 week. Chenopodium album was the only weed species which survived 1 week at substantial levels (7%) although after 11 d germination ability was totally lost. Similarly, at 55°C, no Ascaris eggs survived more than 3h of incubation. Incubation at 37°C did not affect egg survival during the first 48 h and it took up to 10 days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites and weeds so that the digestates can be applied without risking spread of these pests. PMID:23266071

Johansen, Anders; Nielsen, Henrik B; Hansen, Christian M; Andreasen, Christian; Carlsgart, Josefine; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Roepstorff, Allan

2013-04-01

265

Purification of Azadirachta indica seed cake and its impact on nutritional and antinutritional factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Azadirachta indica Juss. (family Meliaceae) is a vital plant with multiple agricultural and medicinal utilities. The seed cake after oil extraction can be a good source of nutrition in animal feed. The limitation to its use is the presence of azadirachtin, salannin, and other bitter constituents. To make it palatable for use as a source of animal nutrition it was detoxified using 50 and 80% methanol and was analyzed for contents of azadirachtin, salannin, and nutritional contents such as total carbohydrates, protein, crude fiber, in vitro protein digestibility, and trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), prior to and after purification. The contents of azadirachtin and salannin were quantified using HPTLC and HPLC. Various validation parameters were also investigated. A highly significant decrease of antinutritional factor (TIA) was recorded after purification of samples, retaining the contents of protein, carbohydrates, crude fiber, and in vitro protein digestibility. The purified seed cake was found to be free of azadirachtin and salannin contents. PMID:20218605

Saxena, Mohanji; Ravikanth, Kotagiri; Kumar, Abhishek; Gupta, Ashish; Singh, Brijpal; Sharma, Anirudh

2010-04-28

266

Main error factors, affecting inversion of EM data  

Science.gov (United States)

Inversions of EM data are complicated by a number of factors that need to be taken into account. These factors might contribute by tens of percents in data values, concealing responses from target objects, which usually contribute at the level of few percents only. We developed the exact analytical solutions of the EM wave equations that properly incorporate the contributions of the following effects: 1) A finite source size effect, where conventional dipole (zero-size) approximation brings 10-40% error compare to a real size source, needed to provide adequate signal-to-noise ratio. 2) Complex topography. A three-parametrical approach allows to keep the data misfits in 0.5% corridor while topography effect might be up to 40%. 3) Grounding shadow effect, caused by return ground currents, when Tx-line vicinity is horizontally non-uniform. By keeping survey setup within some reasonable geometrical ratios, the shadow effect comes to just one frequency-independent coefficient, which can be excluded from processing by using logarithmical derivatives. 4) Layer's wide spectral range effect. This brings to multi-layer spectral overlapping, so each frequency is affected by many layers; that requires wide spectral range processing, making the typical 'few-frequency data acquisition' non-reliable. 5) Horizontal sensitivity effect. The typical view at the target signal, reflected from a Tx-Rx mid-point is valid only for a ray approximation, reliable in a far-field zone. Unlike this, the real EM surveys usually work in near-field zone. Thus Tx-Rx mid-point does not represent the layer, so a sensitivity distribution function must be computed for each layer for the following 3D-unification process. 6) Wide range Rx-directions from mid-line Tx. Survey terrain often prevents placing Rx perpendicular to Tx-line, and even small deviations without proper corrections cause a significant inaccuracy. A radical simplification of the effect's description becomes possible after applying a special Angular Theorem. 7) Apparent conductivity spectral splitting factor. For some of the inversion approaches an averaged Earth's conductivity ?A(?) is the first step for the inversion to stratified Earth. The related spectral response from the loop-source splits such ?A onto two branches: ?A(?High) and ?A(?Low), similar to early and late resistivities in time domain processing. 8) Calibration factor. A manufacturer-based internal calibration often leads to many percents of non-controllable systematic error at low and high frequency ends, as well as temperature changes. A special approach allows an external pre-survey calibration to achieve the required accuracy.

Zuev, M. A.; Magomedov, M.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

2013-12-01

267

Factors Affecting Prostate Volume Estimation in Computed Tomography Images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to investigate how apex-localizing methods and the computed tomography (CT) slice thickness affected the CT-based prostate volume estimation. Twenty-eight volunteers underwent evaluations of prostate volume by CT, where the contour segmentations were performed by three observers. The bottom of ischial tuberosities (ITs) and the bulb of the penis were used as reference positions to locate the apex, and the distances to the apex were recorded as 1.3 and 2.0 cm, respectively. Interobserver variations to locate ITs and the bulb of the penis were, on average, 0.10 cm (range 0.03-0.38 cm) and 0.30 cm (range 0.00-0.98 cm), respectively. The range of CT slice thickness varied from 0.08-0.48 cm and was adopted to examine the influence of the variation on volume estimation. The volume deviation from the reference case (0.08 cm), which increases in tandem with the slice thickness, was within ± 3 cm3, regardless of the adopted apex-locating reference positions. In addition, the maximum error of apex identification was 1.5 times of slice thickness. Finally, based on the precise CT films and the methods of apex identification, there were strong positive correlation coefficients for the estimated prostate volume by CT and the transabdominal ultrasonography, as found in the present study (r > 0.87; p < 0.0001), and this was confirmed by Bland-Altman analysis. These results will help to identify factors that affect prostate volume calculation and to contribute to the improved estimation of the prostate volume based on CT images.

2011-01-01

268

Factors affecting bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis patients  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD). Methods 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years) participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The patient's quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29). Results Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs) pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001), but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL), disease duration and BMD of both site. Conclusion As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols.

Ayatollahi, Azin; Mohajeri-Tehrani, Mohammad Reza

2013-01-01

269

Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols.

Azin Ayatollahi

2013-01-01

270

Some physicochemical and nutritional studies on Karkade (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seed proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seeds of Karkade (Al-Rahad variety) were obtained from western Sudan, and investigated perliminary for their chemical composition, the oil of the seed also was investigated. The factors affecting protein extractability such as PH, salt type and concentrat...

S. A. B. Ahmed

1998-01-01

271

Factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the major factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine (SMT), a typical pharmaceutically active compound, in water were evaluated. The factors tested included two operational parameters (i.e. initial SMT concentration and ultrasonic power), three dissolved gases (i.e. Ar, O2 and N2), five most frequently found anions in water (NO3(-),Cl(-),SO4(2-),HCO3(-)andBr(-)), ferrous ion (Fe(2+)), and four alcohols (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol). Typically, the degradation rate was increased with the increasing initial SMT concentration and power. The degradation rate was accelerated in the presence of argon or oxygen, but inhibited by nitrogen. Effects of anions on the ultrasonic treatment were species-dependent. The SMT degradation rate was slightly inhibited by NO3(-),Cl(-),and,SO4(2-) but significantly improved by HCO3(-)andBr(-). The negative effects of alcohols acted as hydroxyl radicals scavengers with the following order: tert-butyl alcohol>isopropyl alcohol>ethanol>methanol. The synergetic effect of ferrous ion was mainly due to production of additional hydroxyl radicals (·OH) through Fenton chemistry. LC/MS/MS analysis indicated that the degradation of SMT by ultrasonic irradiation is mainly ascribed to ·OH oxidation. Of interest, although the SMT could be rapidly degraded by ultrasonic irradiation, the degradation products were rarely mineralized. For example, ~100% of 180 ?M SMT was decomposed, but only 8.31% TOC was reduced, within 2h at an irradiation frequency of 800 kHz and a power of 100 W. However, the products became much biodegradable (BOD5/COD was increased from 0.04 to 0.45). Therefore, an aerobic biological treatment may be an appropriate post-treatment to further decompose the SMT degradation products. PMID:23711347

Gao, Yu-qiong; Gao, Nai-yun; Deng, Yang; Gu, Jin-shan; Gu, Yu-liang; Zhang, Dong

2013-11-01

272

Analysis of Factors Affecting Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) Image Formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factors affecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojection are investigated: (1) image uniformity (flood) corrections, (2) image sampling (pixel size) and (3) count allocation methods. An analytic expression for uniformity correction is developed that incorporates factors for spatial-dependent detector sensitivity and geometric effects from acceptance angle limits on coincidence events. There is good agreement between experimental floods from a PEM system with a pixellated detector and numerical simulations. The analytic uniformity corrections are successfully applied to image reconstruction of compressed breast phantoms and reduce the necessity for flood scans at different image planes. Experimental and simulated compressed breast phantom studies show that lesion contrast is improved when the image pixel size is half of, rather than equal to, the detector pixel size, though this occurs at the expense of some additional image noise. In PEM reconstruction counts usually are allocated to the pixel in the image plane intersected by the line of response (LOR) between the centers of the detection pixels. An alternate count allocation method is investigated that distributes counts to image pixels in proportion to the area of the tube of response (TOR) connecting the detection pixels that they overlay in the image plane. This TOR method eliminates some image artifacts that occur with the LOR method and increases tumor signal-to-noise ratios at the expense of a slight decrease in tumor contrast. Analysis of image uniformity, image sampling and count allocation methods in PEM image reconstruction points to ways of improving image formation. Further work is required to optimize image reconstruction parameters for particular detection or quantitation tasks

2001-11-05

273

Elimination of error factors, affecting EM and seismic inversions  

Science.gov (United States)

EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct identification from the surface measurements.

Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

2013-12-01

274

Factors affecting on the particle deposition in the respiratory tract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the respiratory tracts is affected by anatomical structure of the respiratory tracts and respiratory pattern of animals, which are modified by many factors as animal species, physiological and psychological conditions, age, sex, smoking drug, lung diseases, etc. In human, studies have been focused on the initial lung deposition of particles and have made it clear that the respiratory pattern, gender, and diseases may have influence on the deposition pattern. On the other hand, there was little knowledge on the initial lung deposition of particles in laboratory animals. Recently, Raabe et al. have reported the initial lung deposition of 169Yb-aluminosilicate particles in mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits. The authors have also investigated the lung deposition of latex particles with different sizes and 198Au-colloid in rats whose respiratory volumes during the inhalation were monitored by body plethysmography. These experiments indicated that the deposition of inhaled particles in distal lung e.g. small bronchiolar and alveolar region, was much lower in laboratory animals than that of human. This species difference may be due to smaller diameter of respiratory tract and/or shallower breathing and higher respiratory rate of laboratory animals. The experimental animals in which respiratory diseases were induced artificially have been used to investigate the modification factors on the deposition pattern of inhaled particles. As respiratory diseases, emphysema was induced in rats, hamsters, beagle dogs in some laboratories and pulmonary delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats was in our laboratory. The initial lung deposition of particles in these animals was consistently decreased in comparison with normals, regardless of the animal species and the type of disease. (author)

1991-03-01

275

Chemical properties and oxidative stability of perilla oils obtained from roasted perilla seeds as affected by extraction methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical properties and oxidative stability of perilla oils obtained from roasted perilla seeds as affected by extraction methods (supercritical carbon dioxide [SC-CO(2)], mechanical press, and solvent extraction) were studied. The SC-CO(2) extraction at 420 bar and 50 °C and hexane extraction showed significantly higher oil yield than mechanical press extraction (P perilla oils greatly varied with the extraction methods. The SC-CO(2) -extracted perilla oils contained significantly higher contents of tocopherols, sterols, and policosanols than the mechanical press-extracted and hexane-extracted oils (P < 0.05). The SC-CO(2) -extracted oil showed the greatly lower oxidative stability than press-extracted and hexane-extracted oils during the storage in the oven under dark at 60 °C. However, the photooxidative stabilities of the oils were not considerably different with extraction methods. PMID:23106331

Jung, Dong Min; Yoon, Suk Hoo; Jung, Mun Yhung

2012-12-01

276

Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L) in promoting weight loss and altering disease risk factors in overweight adults. The hypothesis was that the high dietary fiber and alpha-linolenic (ALA) contents of chia seed would induce a small but significant decrease in body weight and fat and improve disease risk factors. Subjects were randomized to chia seed (CS) and placebo (P) groups, and under single-blinded procedures, ingested 25 g CS or P supplements mixed in 0.25 L water twice daily before the first and last meal for 12 weeks. Ninety nondiseased, overweight/obese men and women between the ages of 20 and 70 years were recruited into the study, with 76 subjects (n = 39 CS, n = 37 P) completing all phases of the study. Pre- and poststudy measures included body mass and composition (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), inflammation markers from fasting blood samples (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), oxidative stress markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and plasma nitrite), blood pressure, and a serum lipid profile. Plasma ALA increased 24.4% compared to a 2.8% decrease in CS and P, respectively (interaction effect, P = .012). No group differences were measured for changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (interaction effects, P = .420 and .980, respectively). Pre-to-post measures of body composition, inflammation, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and lipoproteins did not differ between CS and P for both sexes. In conclusion, ingestion of 50 g/d CS vs P for 12 weeks by overweight/obese men and women had no influence on body mass or composition, or various disease risk factor measures. PMID:19628108

Nieman, David C; Cayea, Erin J; Austin, Melanie D; Henson, Dru A; McAnulty, Steven R; Jin, Fuxia

2009-06-01

277

THEORIES AND FACTORS AFFECTING MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bioadhesion is an interfacial phenomenon in which two materials, at least one of which is biological, are held together by means of interfacial forces. When the associated biological system is mucous, it is called mucoadhesion. This property of certain polymeric systems have got place in the drug delivery research in order to prolong contact time in the various mucosal route of drug administration, as the ability to maintain a delivery system at a particular location for an extended period of time has a great appeal for both local action as well as systemic drug bioavailability. A complete and comprehensive theory that can predict adhesion based on the chemical and/or physical nature of a polymer is not yet available. Several theories have been proposed to explain the fundamental mechanisms of adhesion such as glues, adhesives, and paints, have been adopted to study the mucoadhesion. Mucoadhesion is a complex process and numerous theories have been presented to explain the mechanisms involved. These theories include mechanical-interlocking, electrostatic, diffusion–interpenetration, adsorption and fracture processes. They are Electronic theory, Adsorption theory, Wetting theory, Diffusion theory, Fracture theory. The objective of the study is to explain the different mechanisms involved in mucoadhesion and various factors affecting mucoadhesion.

Alexander Amit

2011-04-01

278

Factors affecting the internal brain drain of Saudi healthcare professionals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate factors affecting the internal brain drain of healthcare professionals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an anonymous self-administered online questionnaire sent to all Saudi students enrolled in healthcare profession programs in North America. The data was collected between January and March 2008 at the University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America. Results were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. Results: A total of 377 completed questionnaires were returned. Results revealed that 71% of respondents intended to return to work within the 2 major urban cities (Riyadh and Jeddah. Respondents who completed their undergraduate studies in a large city were more likely to work in the same city (odds ratio [OR]=3.2; p=0.000; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0-5.2. Furthermore, 51% of the students were willing to work in a rural area for a 50% or more increase in their salary. Finally, men were more willing to work in a rural area for a financial incentive (OR=2.3; p=0.006, 95% CI = 1.3-4.3. Conclusion: This study suggests that realistic financial incentives would probably not suffice to attract Saudi healthcare providers to rural areas. The provision of medical schools in smaller cities and rural areas is predicted to be a more effective method for improving the current maldistribution of healthcare providers. 

Kevin G. Croke

2012-11-01

279

Factors affecting the erosion resistance of weld overlays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research was conducted to study factors affecting the solid particle erosion resistance of weld overlay coatings. Eleven weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process and erosion tested at 400 C. Erosion resistance was evaluated by determining the steady state erosion rate. Ultimet, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings showed the best erosion resistance at 30 and 90{degree} impact angles. Microhardness tests were performed on the eroded samples below the erosion surface to determine the size of the plastically deformed zone and it was found that one group of coatings deformed plastically as a result of the particle impact while the others did not. No correlations were found between average microhardness at 400 C and volumetric erosion rates for plastically deformed weld overlays. For this group of overlays erosion resistance was correlated to the area under the curve of microhardness versus distance from the eroded surface. The physical significance of this parameter is discussed. For coatings that did not deform plastically, an increase in average microhardness at 400 C led to an increase in their volumetric erosion rates. The possible erosion mechanisms for these coating groups are discussed.

Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

1996-12-31

280

Factors that differentially affect daytime and nighttime sleep in Drosophila  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rest in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has key characteristics of mammalian sleep and is thus considered as a fly version of sleep. Drosophila sleep has been studied extensively, with the aim of gaining fundamental insights into the evolutionarily conserved functions of sleep as well as the mechanisms that regulate it. An interesting question that has not yet been addressed is whether fly sleep can be classified into distinct sleep types, each having particular biological roles—like REM and non-REM sleep in birds and mammals. Typically, Drosophila sleep displays a bimodal pattern, consisting of distinct daytime and nighttime components. Notably, daytime and nighttime sleep differ with respect to a number of qualities, such as sleep bout lengths and arousal thresholds. In this short review, we describe several genetic and environmental factors that differentially affect daytime and nighttime sleep, highlighting the observations suggesting the notion that these temporally distinct components of Drosophila sleep may have unique biological functions and be regulated by different homeostatic regulatory mechanisms.

ToshihiroKitamoto

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
281

Factors Affecting the Radii of Close-in Transiting Exoplanets  

CERN Document Server

The radius of an exoplanet may be affected by various factors, including irradiation, planet mass and heavy element content. A significant number of transiting exoplanets have now been discovered for which the mass, radius, semi-major axis, host star metallicity and stellar effective temperature are known. We use multivariate regression models to determine the dependence of planetary radius on planetary equilibrium temperature T_eq, planetary mass M_p, stellar metallicity [Fe/H], orbital semi-major axis a, and tidal heating rate H_tidal, for 119 transiting planets in three distinct mass regimes. We determine that heating leads to larger planet radii, as expected, increasing mass leads to increased or decreased radii of low-mass (2.0R_J) planets, respectively (with no mass effect on Jupiter-mass planets), and increased host-star metallicity leads to smaller planetary radii, indicating a relationship between host-star metallicity and planet heavy element content. For Saturn-mass planets, a good fit to the radii...

Enoch, B; Horne, K

2012-01-01

282

Some factors affecting the in vitro culture of banana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Factors affecting in vitro regeneration of shoots in shoot tip explant cultures of banana cultivar 'Basrai', such as solid and liquid media, growth regulators, vitamins, and antioxidants were studied. Three-quarters strength of MS liquid medium supplemented with 17.75 micro m 6-benzyladenine (BA), 11.42 micro M indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 205 micro M adenine sulphate induced the formation of mean number of 12.3 shoots, with the mean length of 3.0 cm, after three weeks of culture. Maximum shoot multiplication (14.33) occurred in liquid medium containing 22.19 micro M BA. Addition of 2.0% activated charcoal (AC) to the liquid medium improved quality of the regenerated plants with expanded and glossy leaves, though the number of shoots was reduced (13.66). Profuse formation of roots was characteristically induced by AC. Addition of citric acid (CA) to the medium caused decline in morphogenetic expression of the cultures. (author)

2006-01-01

283

Hemoglobin E-beta thalassemia: factors affecting phenotype.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenotype of E-beta-thalassemia is affected by several genetic factors. The aim of this study was to analyze severity of E-beta-thalassemia and correlate with HbE, HbF, E/F ratios, beta-mutation and Xmn I polymorphism. Thirty cases of E-beta-thalassemia (23 with childhood onset) were studied. HbE levels were quantitated by HPLC. Xmn1 polymorphism and beta-mutations were studied by PCR-RFLP and ARMS respectively. Commonest features were pallor (100%), splenomegaly (74%), and hepatomegaly (65%), 43% (10/23) were on regular transfusions at diagnosis. One case presented with paraplegia. Patients heterozygous for Xmn I polymorphism (+/-) had later onset (>3 yrs) compared to homozygous (-/-) absence (0.5-2.8 yrs). Most (69.6%) showed beta-mutation IVS 1-5 (G-->C). Negative correlation was found between age of onset and HbE. Thus, presentation is similar to previously reported Thai cases. Heterozygosity of Xmn I polymorphism also delays disease onset. Early diagnosis facilitates appropriate management and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:15876597

Panigrahi, I; Agarwal, S; Gupta, T; Singhal, P; Pradhan, M

2005-04-01

284

Factors affecting the motivation of smokers to quit smoking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available smoking. Success of smoking cessation depends mainly on the balance between motivation and the degree of nicotine dependence. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting the motivation of smokers to stop smoking. Method: Data were collected from 139 smokers, aged 18-69 divided in two groups. Questionnaires were completed about the demographic data, smoking history, anthropometric characteristics, degree of nicotine dependence, motivation degree and alcohol consumption. Results: Body Mass Index was positively correlated with the dependence degree and heavy smoking, while those who were overweight in adolescence showed a lower degree of motivation for smoking cessation. Individuals with moderate or heavy alcohol consumption, those who smoked in their working environment and were heavier smokers needed greater motivation. The low degree of dependence was associated with a lower degree of motivation, while those who showed medium dependence were moderately motivated. Conclusions: Health care professionals should take into account all the above components with the aim of motivating smokers to stop smoking.

Gourgoulianis K.

2011-07-01

285

Factors affecting hospital mortality in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This retrospective analysis studied the records of 564 consecutive patients admitted to Gastrointestinal Bleeding Unit of Riyadh Medical Complex with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding over a 2-year period (May 1996-April 1998. The purpose of the study was to analyze the mortality with an aim to identify the risk factors affecting mortality in these patients. Majority of patients were men (82% and Saudis (54%. Their mean age was 52.46 + 17.8 years. Esophageal varices (45% were the main causes of bleeding followed by duodenal ulcers (24%. Overall mortality in this series was 15.8% (89 patients. Comorbid diseases were responsible for death in 68 (76% patients, whereas, bleeding was considered to be directly responsible for death in 21 (24% patients. On analysis of data from this study, old age (>60 years, systolic pressure < 90 mm Hg on admission, comorbid disease, variceal bleeding and Child?s grade C in patients with chronic liver disease were associated with adverse outcome.

Alam Mohammed

2000-01-01

286

Factors affecting the biodegradation of PCP by Pseudomonas mendocina NSYSU.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading bacterium was isolated from PCP-contaminated soils and identified as Pseudomonas mendocina NSYSU (P. mendocina NSYSU). The main objectives of this study were to (1) clarify the factors affecting the ability and efficiency of PCP biodegradation by P. mendocina NSYSU, and (2) optimize the use of this bacterium in bioremediation of PCP. Microcosm experiments were conducted to fulfill the objectives. In batch cultures, P. mendocina NSYSU used PCP as its sole source of carbon and energy and was capable of completely degrading this compound. This was confirmed by the stoichiometric release of chloride ion. Moreover, P. mendocina NSYSU was able to mineralize a high concentration of PCP (150 mg/L). Results from the oxygen concentration experiment reveal that the growth of P. mendocina NSYSU was inhibited under low oxygen and anaerobic conditions. Results indicate that the optimal growth conditions for P. mendocina NSYSU include the following: slightly acidic (6

Kao, C M; Liu, J K; Chen, Y L; Chai, C T; Chen, S C

2005-09-30

287

Factors affecting return to driving post-stroke.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect a person\\'s ability to drive, an important means of transportation in the developed world. AIMS: To determine percentage of patients and factors associated with return to driving post-stroke in a service with emphasis on driver assessment. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients discharged from the Stroke Service of our 470-bed teaching hospital from 1998 to 2002. RESULTS: Of 72 drivers pre-stroke, 54% recalled a driving assessment and 68% returned to driving. Younger patients (58.6 +\\/- 12.0 vs. 66.5 +\\/- 10.5, p = 0.008) with lower Modified Rankin Score (median 1 vs. 2, p = 0.0001) and normal cognition (55 vs. 43%, p = 0.45) were more likely to resume driving. More patients who were assessed returned to driving than those who were not (74 vs. 61%, p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high level of return to driving can be achieved post-stroke with a pro-active approach to driver assessment and rehabilitation. A structured assessment and referral programme should be offered where appropriate.

Tan, K M

2012-02-01

288

Chordoma: review of clinico radiological features and factors affecting survival  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study reviews the clinico radiological features of cranial and sacrospinal chordomas and identifies factors affecting survival. Nineteen patients seen between January 1980 and December 2000 with histopathological diagnosis of chordomas were retrospectively reviewed with reference to clinical presentation, imaging features, treatment modalities and post-therapy status. Eight had tumours in the skull base while 11 patients had spinal and sacro-coccygeal lesions. Surgical resection was performed in 16 patients whose subsequent natural history was used to identify clinical indicators that may influence survival. Completeness of resection, age, gender and postoperative irradiation were subjected to analysis using the Cox proportional hazard models. Kaplan-Meir survival curves illustrate the survival distributions. Diplopia and facial pain are prime clinical presentations in cranial lesions, while extremity weakness and a sacrogluteal mass are common complaints in the sacrospinal group. Lesional calcifications are present in 40% while an osteolytic soft tissue mass is detectable by CT in all cases. Heterogeneous signals and internal septations on T2-weighted MRI are predominant features. In sacrospinal tumours, complete excision with adjuvant radiotherapy achieves the best results with a disease-free survival of more than 5 years. The clinical and imaging findings in this study are in accordance with those of other series. Except for complete surgical excision followed by radiotherapy in the subset of patients with sacrospinal tumours, none of the other clinical indicators show a statistical significant influence on survival. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

2001-11-01

289

Factors affecting graded and ungraded memory loss following hippocampal lesions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review evaluates three current theories--Standard Consolidation (Squire & Wixted, 2011), Overshadowing (Sutherland, Sparks, & Lehmann, 2010), and Multiple Trace-Transformation (Winocur, Moscovitch, & Bontempi, 2010)--in terms of their ability to account for the role of the hippocampus in recent and remote memory in animals. Evidence, based on consistent findings from tests of spatial memory and memory for acquired food preferences, favours the transformation account, but this conclusion is undermined by inconsistent results from studies that measured contextual fear memory, probably the most commonly used test of hippocampal involvement in anterograde and retrograde memory. Resolution of this issue may depend on exercising greater control over critical factors (e.g., contextual environment, amount of pre-exposure to the conditioning chamber, the number and distribution of foot-shocks) that can affect the representation of the memory shortly after learning and over the long-term. Research strategies aimed at characterizing the neural basis of long-term consolidation/transformation, as well as other outstanding issues are discussed. PMID:24120426

Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris; Sekeres, Melanie J

2013-11-01

290

Factors Affecting the Disposition Effect in Tehran Stock Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Given the significance and perceived inevitability of disposition effect and its impact on investment decisions, we investigate factors affecting the disposition effect in the Tehran Stock Exchange. Four hypotheses were developed and the data used in the study were collected through availability sampling. One-sample t-test, two-sample t-test and one-way ANOVA were run to analyze the data while Pearson correlation test and multiple regressions were used to assess relationships among variables in question. The results of the analyses indicate that overconfidence and mental accounting were not significantly correlated with disposition effect. Regret aversion had a positive relationship with disposition effect while self control was negatively associated. It was also observed that there was a negative relationship between participants’ level of education and their disposition effect indicating that the higher the level of education, the less the rate of disposition effect. Furthermore, the results of the study show that males enjoy a higher level of overconfidence than females, and 20 to 30 year-old age groups displayed much overconfidence than other age groups.

Reza Tehrani

2012-02-01

291

Factors Affecting Fiber Design and Selection for Advanced Ceramic Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) have the potential for application in the hot sections of a variety of advanced propulsion and power systems. It is therefore necessary to have a general understanding of the key properties of CMC and Reinforcing Fibers. This need is complicated by the wide variety of application conditions and structural requirements for which CMC's will be used, and the proprietary concerns of the design engineers. CMC's, to be successful, must display properties which are competitive with the currently used high temperature structural materials: (i.e., Iron and Nickel based superalloys, tough monolithic ceramics, and carbon/carbon composites.) Structural CMC offers several areas of competition: (1) performance, (i.e., strength and strength retention, creep resistance, and thermal conductivity), (2) reliability (i.e., environmental durability, and damage tolerance) and (3) processing (i.e., capability for varying sizes and shapes, and cost effective fabrication). The presentation further discusses, and illustrates with fiber and CMC data the key fiber properties and processes which strongly affect each CMC area of competition. The presentation further discusses the current knowledge of the important factors which control the key fiber properties. A design guidelines for the optimum fiber characteristics is developed, and the currently available fibers are compared against those guidelines.

DiCarlo, James A.

1998-01-01

292

Chronotype and personality factors of predisposition to seasonal affective disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study aimed to recognize the personality factors of a predisposition to seasonal mood fluctuations in a non-clinical sample. A group of 101 subjects (57 women, 44 men; mean age 26.4?±?6.5 years) completed a battery of tests comprising a Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), Chronotype Questionnaire (ChQ), a NEO-Five Factor Inventory and a Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). A smaller sample (n?=?44) completed a Winter Blues Scale (WBS). Women scored significantly higher than men in seasonality (p?=?0.014), neuroticism (p?=?0.049), agreeableness (p?=?0.010), and avoidance-oriented coping style (p?=?0.041). Subjects with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) (n?=?41) or sub-SAD (n?=?33), as diagnosed with SPAQ, exhibited higher levels of neuroticism (p?=?0.017) and openness (p?=?0.016) in comparison to non-SAD individuals. The latter declared a less frequent avoidance coping style. Both measures of seasonality, i.e. the SPAQ Global Seasonality Score and WBS, correlated significantly (r?=?0.28 and 0.44, respectively) with the subjective amplitude of the circadian rhythm, as described with the "distinctness" scale of ChQ. Female gender, neuroticism and openness were confirmed as factors linked to seasonal mood variability. Additionally, the study revealed an association between susceptibility to mild winter depression and an avoidance-oriented coping style. The avoidance coping style was correlated positively with all the aspects of seasonality described by SPAQ (correlation coefficients from 0.21 to 0.34). Both sub-types of avoidance-oriented style, i.e. distraction and social diversion, were associated with marked subjective seasonal changes in sleep length, mood and the energy level. While the subjective amplitude of circadian rhythm proved to be connected with seasonality, the subjective acrophase of the rhythm (morningness-eveningness preference) did not. It may be hypothesized that sensitivity to natural environmental conditions/synchronizers is a separate individual trait shaping the subject's proneness to energy and mood changes both in diurnal and year scale, i.e. circadian and seasonal mood variations. PMID:24397301

Oginska, Halszka; Oginska-Bruchal, Katarzyna

2014-05-01

293

Fragmentation of Atlantic forest has not affected gene flow of a widespread seed-dispersing bat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Habitat loss and resultant fragmentation are major threats to biodiversity, particularly in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. It is increasingly urgent to understand fragmentation effects, which are often complex and vary across taxa, time and space. We determined whether recent fragmentation of Atlantic forest is causing population subdivision in a widespread and important Neotropical seed disperser: Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). Genetic structure within highly fragmented forest in Paraguay was compared to that in mostly contiguous forest in neighbouring Misiones, Argentina. Further, observed genetic structure across the fragmented landscape was compared with expected levels of structure for similar time spans in realistic simulated landscapes under different degrees of reduction in gene flow. If fragmentation significantly reduced successful dispersal, greater population differentiation and stronger isolation by distance would be expected in the fragmented than in the continuous landscape, and genetic structure in the fragmented landscape should be similar to structure for simulated landscapes where dispersal had been substantially reduced. Instead, little genetic differentiation was observed, and no significant correlation was found between genetic and geographic distance in fragmented or continuous landscapes. Furthermore, comparison of empirical and simulated landscapes indicated empirical results were consistent with regular long-distance dispersal and high migration rates. Our results suggest maintenance of high gene flow for this relatively mobile and generalist species, which could be preventing or significantly delaying reduction in population connectivity in fragmented habitat. Our conclusions apply to A. lituratus in Interior Atlantic Forest, and do not contradict broad evidence that habitat fragmentation is contributing to extinction of populations and species, and poses a threat to biodiversity worldwide. PMID:23909879

McCulloch, Eve S; Tello, J Sebastián; Whitehead, Andrew; Rolón-Mendoza, Claudia M J; Maldonado-Rodríguez, Mario C D; Stevens, Richard D

2013-09-01

294

Physiology of seed germination and seedling growth in Coccinia indica L. as affected by morphactin and gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with the seed germination and seeding growth in Coccinia indica L. in relation to morphactin and gamma radiation. Morphactin had inhibitory effect on seed germination. Gamma radiation promoted the seed germination. The promotive effective of gamma radiation was suppressed by the inhibitory effect of morphactin on radicle and hypocotyl growth in all treatments of the interaction of gamma radiation and morphactin. (author)

1983-01-01

295

Duplicate maize Wrinkled1 transcription factors activate target genes involved in seed oil biosynthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

WRINKLED1 (WRI1), a key regulator of seed oil biosynthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), was duplicated during the genome amplification of the cereal ancestor genome 90 million years ago. Both maize (Zea mays) coorthologs ZmWri1a and ZmWri1b show a strong transcriptional induction during the early filling stage of the embryo and complement the reduced fatty acid content of Arabidopsis wri1-4 seeds, suggesting conservation of molecular function. Overexpression of ZmWri1a not only increases the fatty acid content of the mature maize grain but also the content of certain amino acids, of several compounds involved in amino acid biosynthesis, and of two intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Transcriptomic experiments identified 18 putative target genes of this transcription factor, 12 of which contain in their upstream regions an AW box, the cis-element bound by AtWRI1. In addition to functions related to late glycolysis and fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids, the target genes also have functions related to coenzyme A biosynthesis in mitochondria and the production of glycerol backbones for triacylglycerol biosynthesis in the cytoplasm. Interestingly, the higher seed oil content in ZmWri1a overexpression lines is not accompanied by a reduction in starch, thus opening possibilities for the use of the transgenic maize lines in breeding programs. PMID:21474435

Pouvreau, Benjamin; Baud, Sébastien; Vernoud, Vanessa; Morin, Valérie; Py, Cyrille; Gendrot, Ghislaine; Pichon, Jean-Philippe; Rouster, Jacques; Paul, Wyatt; Rogowsky, Peter M

2011-06-01

296

Factores grupales que inciden en la productividad / Group factors affecting productivity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las organizaciones en la actualidad están sometidas permanentemente a cambios acelerados, obligándolas a incrementar su flexibilidad y adaptabilidad para mantener su posición competitiva, sobrevivir a estas presiones lograr sus objetivos y ser más productivas. Por estas razones, la productividad del [...] factor humano es fundamental, ya que son las personas las que realizan los procesos creativos que generan resultados en las organizaciones. Cuando las personas interactúan en la organización se generan unos procesos de carácter psicosocial que incide en el desempeño de individuos, grupos y organización y se denominan Factores grupales, porque son producto de la actuación de las personas en grupos de trabajo. Dichos factores tienen impacto en la productividad, por lo que resulta de interés el estudio de estas relaciones. Con el fin de analizar este impacto, se presenta relaciones Factores Grupales-Productividad, mediante un Modelo de Ecuaciones Estructurales (SEM), donde los Factores Grupales y la Productividad son constructos o variables latentes explicadas por variables observables o indicadores. El modelo planteado, es aceptado de acuerdo con los índices globales de ajuste y a las cargas factoriales de las variables del modelo resultante. Se corroboró que los factores grupales, tales como Cohesión, Conflicto, Consenso y Moral, inciden en la productividad. Abstract in english Organizations today are undergoing rapid change permanently, forcing them to increase their flexibility and adaptability to stay competitive, to survive these pressures, achieve their goals and be more productive. For these reasons, the productivity of the human factor is critical because it is the [...] people doing the creative processes those results in organizations. When people interact in the organization are a generated psychosocial process that affects the performance of individuals, groups and organization and are called group factors, because they are the product of individual behavior in work groups. These factors have an impact on productivity, so it is interesting to study these relationships. To analyze this impact is presented group factors-productivity relationships through a Structural Equation Model (SEM), where the group factors and productivity are constructs or latent variables explained by observable variables or indicators. The proposed model is accepted in accordance with the global fit indices and factor loadings of the variables of the resulting model. It was confirmed that the group factors, such as Cohesion, Conflict, Consensus and Moral affect productivity.

Cequea, Mirza Marvel; Miguel, Núñez Bottini; Carlos, Rodríguez-Monroy.

297

Factors affecting visibility of a target tissue in histologic sections.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of histologic techniques is to stain the subject with high specificity and high visibility. Visibility depends on the microscope's resolution and contrast and on the microscopist's skill at optimizing the microscope's image. It also depends on histotechnological factors, which include specificity and differentiation of the stain, density of background staining (particularly in silver stains), innate color, and grayscale contrasts of the dyes in the stains and color and density of the counterstain. If contrast is not optimal, the image should be evaluated on the basis of 2 types of contrast-color and grayscale. Complementary colors have maximum color contrast, and the color triangle is useful in the selection of a suitable counterstain. Grayscale contrast is a function of the density of a stain. If dyes capable of staining the target and backgrounds tissue do not have optimal color contrast, the only method of increasing contrast is to change the grayscale value of one of the stains, usually the counterstain. Colors can have a subconscious effect on a viewer. Depending on whether they are aesthetically pleasing, they may influence the rigor of and time spent on the histopathologic examination. Maximizing the specificity of stains such as hematoxylin, eosin, trichrome, and Luxol fast blue (LFB) depends on optimal differentiation. In differentiation of counterstains such as methylene blue in the Ziehl-Neelsen stain, its recommended density is conveniently expressed as a grayscale value. Independent evaluation of color and grayscale contrasts is very helpful in determining the cause of low contrast in an image. This review discusses aspects of the histotechnique affecting the visibility of tissue components. PMID:24395975

McGavin, M D

2014-01-01

298

Family planning attitudes of women and affecting factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: This descriptive research was conducted to determine the attitudes of women towards family planning and the factors affecting these attitudes. Material and Methods: Universe of the study has been composed of women who are married and older than 15 years and living in Ankara Kale district. 300 women were included. Kale district is a low socioeconomical slum area of the capital city of Turkey. Questionnaire and Family Planning Attitude Scale were used to collect data. Results: 38% of the women were in the 30-39 years age group and 66.7% of them were graduates of primary school. 73.3% of the women had information about some contraceptive method and 53% of them had used an effective method. Mean score taken from the Family Planning Attitude Scale was 120.11±13.8. The scores obtained from the scale were significantly higher in the women who were graduates of elementary school, whose husbands were graduates from high school and higher, who had heard about any contraceptive method and had been using some method and who had had 1-3 pregnancies (p0.05. Conclusion: It was found that the attitudes of the women towards family planning were at a good level, nearly half of the women were using an effective method, and the level of education, number of pregnancies, unwillingness to have another child in the future, having information about contraceptive methods and using some contraceptive method had influenced family planning attitudes. In order to turn this attitude into practice with high rate, family planning education programs and consultancy services must be planned and implemented.

Sultan Ayaz

2009-09-01

299

Critical factors affecting cell encapsulation in superporous hydrogels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We recently showed that superporous hydrogel (SPH) scaffolds promote long-term stem cell viability and cell driven mineralization when cells were seeded within the pores of pre-fabricated SPH scaffolds. The possibility of cell encapsulation within the SPH matrix during its fabrication was further explored in this study. The impact of each chemical component used in SPH fabrication and each step of the fabrication process on cell viability was systematically examined. Ammonium persulfate, an initiator, and sodium bicarbonate, the gas-generating compound, were the two components having significant toxicity toward encapsulated cells at the concentrations necessary for SPH fabrication. Cell survival rates were 55.7% ± 19.3% and 88.8% ± 9.4% after 10 min exposure to ammonium persulfate and sodium bicarbonate solutions, respectively. In addition, solution pH change via the addition of sodium bicarbonate had significant toxicity toward encapsulated cells with cell survival of only 50.3% ± 2.5%. Despite toxicity of chemical components and the SPH fabrication method, cells still exhibited significant overall survival rates within SPHs of 81.2% ± 6.8% and 67.0% ± 0.9%, respectively, 48 and 72 h after encapsulation. This method of cell encapsulation holds promise for use in vitro and in vivo as a scaffold material for both hydrogel matrix encapsulation and cell seeding within the pores. (paper)

2012-04-01

300

Emission factor of single pellet cake seed Jatropha curcas in a fix bed reactor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the emission factor of oil cake seed Jatropha curcas that was formed into pellets with three parameters: pyrolisis, densification and air flow rate. The effect of pyrolisis was investigated using four samples of pellet: nonpyrolysis pellet, 90 minutes pyrolysis pellet, 120 minutes pyrolysis pellet, 150 minutes pyrolysis pellet. The effect of densification was provided by three samples: 11 mm, 13 mm, and 16 mm diameter. Furthermore, the parameter of air flow rate was varied from 0.1 m/s to 0.4 m/s. The results show that the lowest emission factor occurs in the non-pyrolysis pellet containing 14.3 gram carbon monoxide per kilogram pellet. Meanwhile the best densification was obtained by 13-mm diameter pellet containing 14.8 gram carbon monoxide. Air flow rate of 2.0 m/s was the suitable air flow rate to achieve lowest emission factor.

N. Agung Pambudi

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

Factors affecting the absorption of hydrogen by zircaloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A proton model has been employed to calculate how the elements Sn, Fe, Cr and Ni in Zircaloy affect the absorption of hydrogen compared with in zirconium. It is found that Fe, Cr and Ni reduce the absorption of hydrogen by almost equal amounts per atom added, whereas Sn has little or no affect on the absorption. (orig.)

1979-03-09

302

Factors affecting transport of bacterial cells in porous media  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study focused on identification of factors associated with the biology, chemistry, and hydrology of the subsurface environment that control bacterial transport through that habitat. We determined that control is a complex interaction of biological factors such as cell size and hydrophobicity, geochemical factors such as ionic strength of the ground water, and hydrological factors including the presence of preferred flow paths in the porous medium.

Mills, A.L.; Herman, J.S.; Hornberger, G.M.

1992-07-01

303

To Invest Or Not Invest? : Factors affecting IT investment decisions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

  Introduction Many studies indicate that there are numerous factors that promote or hamper the adoption of IT applications and are a prime concern for many researchers and practitioners (Abrahamson, 1991). Two main factors which need to be examined closely when making decisions about IT investments are the internal and external factors. Since these factors play a great role in decision making of IT investments, it is imperative to study their impact on the strategic planning because this fo...

Tarabay, Raymond; Eigbire, Raphael

2009-01-01

304

The role of the Arabidopsis FUSCA3 transcription factor during inhibition of seed germination at high temperature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Imbibed seeds integrate environmental and endogenous signals to break dormancy and initiate growth under optimal conditions. Seed maturation plays an important role in determining the survival of germinating seeds, for example one of the roles of dormancy is to stagger germination to prevent mass growth under suboptimal conditions. The B3-domain transcription factor FUSCA3 (FUS3 is a master regulator of seed development and an important node in hormonal interaction networks in Arabidopsis thaliana. Its function has been mainly characterized during embryonic development, where FUS3 is highly expressed to promote seed maturation and dormancy by regulating ABA/GA levels. Results In this study, we present evidence for a role of FUS3 in delaying seed germination at supraoptimal temperatures that would be lethal for the developing seedlings. During seed imbibition at supraoptimal temperature, the FUS3 promoter is reactivated and induces de novo synthesis of FUS3 mRNA, followed by FUS3 protein accumulation. Genetic analysis shows that FUS3 contributes to the delay of seed germination at high temperature. Unlike WT, seeds overexpressing FUS3 (ML1:FUS3-GFP during imbibition are hypersensitive to high temperature and do not germinate, however, they can fully germinate after recovery at control temperature reaching 90% seedling survival. ML1:FUS3-GFP hypersensitivity to high temperature can be partly recovered in the presence of fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, suggesting this hypersensitivity is due in part to higher ABA level in this mutant. Transcriptomic analysis shows that WT seeds imbibed at supraoptimal temperature activate seed-specific genes and ABA biosynthetic and signaling genes, while inhibiting genes that promote germination and growth, such as GA biosynthetic and signaling genes. Conclusion In this study, we have uncovered a novel function for the master regulator of seed maturation, FUS3, in delaying germination at supraoptimal temperature. Physiologically, this is important since delaying germination has a protective role at high temperature. Transcriptomic analysis of seeds imbibed at supraoptimal temperature reveal that a complex program is in place, which involves not only the regulation of heat and dehydration response genes to adjust cellular functions, but also the activation of seed-specific programs and the inhibition of germination-promoting programs to delay germination.

Chiu Rex S

2012-01-01

305

Factors affecting guanine nucleotide binding to rat AMPA receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glutamate receptors are competitively inhibited by guanine nucleotides. Insight into the physiological function of this inhibition would be greatly advanced if nucleotide binding could be eliminated through mutations without altering other aspects of receptor function, or if compounds were discovered that selectively prevent nucleotide binding. It was previously reported that a lysine in the chick kainate binding protein (cKBP) is specifically involved in guanine nucleotide binding. In the present study we mutated the equivalent lysine in the rat AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 flip to alanine (K445A) and assessed changes in nucleotide affinity from the displacement of [(3)H]fluorowillardiine. As in the cKBP, the affinity for nucleotides was greatly reduced while the binding affinity for agonists remained unchanged. The reduction in affinity was largest for GTP (factor of 5.8) and GDP (4.4) and minor for GMP and guanosine. This suggests that K445 is involved in stabilizing the second phosphate of the nucleotide. Given that bulkier analogs like GDP-fucose are also accommodated at this site, it seems likely that nucleotides bind in such a way that their phosphates project out of the cleft. In excised-patch recordings using short pulses of glutamate, the K445A mutation increased the EC(50) for the peak response 1.8-fold and accelerated desensitization and deactivation. This indicates that the effects of this mutation are not as specific as previously suggested. Efforts to selectively eliminate inhibition by nucleotides may therefore depend on mapping out further the docking site. In a first attempt using point mutations we ruled out several amino acids around the cleft as being involved in nucleotide binding. Also, the AMPA receptor modulator PPNDS which competitively inhibits nucleotide binding to purinergic receptors did not affect nucleotide inhibition, suggesting that there are major differences in the topography between purinergic and glutamate receptors. Thus new approaches, including crystallography, may be called for to identify residues uniquely involved in nucleotide binding. PMID:17884024

Montgomery, Kyle; Suzuki, Erika; Kessler, Markus; Arai, Amy C

2007-10-26

306

Factors Affecting the Success of Natural Regeneration in Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky Forests in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The success of natural regeneration using the Uniform Shelterwood Method (USM wasdetermined in an oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. stand, in the Bart?n-Sökü Forest RangeDistrict. Number, height growth and root collar diameter of seedlings were investigated in the10 experimental plots in the 5.0 ha regeneration area for 7 years (2004–2010. According to the resultof factor analyses, it was found that amount of filled seeds, soil cover, growth status of seed trees,stand canopy closure, average crown projection area of seed trees, amount of organic substance in theupper soil layer, soil reaction in the upper soil layer and hillside status were the most effective factorsdetermining the success of natural regeneration.

ÖZEL, Halil Bar??

2010-01-01

307

Factors affecting the flowability of fertilizers through orifices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of some significant factors on the flow of fertilizers through orifices, such as orifice diameter, orifice shape, particle diameter, fertilizer type, air temperature, and air relative humidity were investigated. The effect of air temperature on the flow rate was small as the effects of the other factors were significant.

Kara M.; Hofstee J.W.

2000-01-01

308

Factors affecting the flowability of fertilizers through orifices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of some significant factors on the flow of fertilizers through orifices, such as orifice diameter, orifice shape, particle diameter, fertilizer type, air temperature, and air relative humidity were investigated. The effect of air temperature on the flow rate was small as the effects of the other factors were significant.

Hofstee J.W.

2000-03-01

309

Factors Affecting College Students' Achievement in Science. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated were factors influencing science achievement at the college level of 1,191 students who graduated from 12 midwestern high schools in 1963. Factors investigated included interest, intelligence, high school achievement, and family background. Data sources included secondary school standardized tests, college transcripts, Kuder…

Mallinson, George G.

310

A systematic study on factors affecting patient dose, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If the grid is employed in radiography, the exposure and the patient dose naturally increase. The rate of increase of the exposure resulting from the use of the grid is usually expressed by the Bucky factor. The Bucky factor is commonly known to change depending on the grid ratio and the tube voltage, but its change due to other factor has been hardly reported. Therefore, authors have measured changes in the Bucky factor due to the thickness of a patient and the irradiation field size, and added a few comments on the patient dose. (Conclusion) (1) The Bucky factor is not constant because it is greatly influenced by the tube voltage, grid ratio, thickness of the patient and the field size. (2) The Bucky factor increases if the tube voltage is low and the grid ratio is high, and also if the patient thickness is great and the field size is large. (3) If the field size is enlarged, the Bucky factor increases, but the surface dose usually decreases, resulting in a conflicting phenomenon. This fact must be born in mind in using the Bucky factor as an indicator of the exposure or the patient dose. (author)

1979-01-01

311

Seed germination and seedling development of white oat affected by silicon and phosphorus fertilization Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de aveia-branca em função da adubação com silício e fósforo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Silicon (Si) fertilizers have been increasingly used in agriculture due to several benefits as acidity correction in tropical soils and positive effects on the development of grasses. Nutrient availability and plant nutrition play an important role in seed production and may affect the physiological quality of white oat seeds. The present study had as objective to evaluate seed germination and seedling development of white oat (Avena sativa L.) affected by silicon and phosphorus fertilization...

Mariana Zampar Toledo; Rodrigo Arroyo Garcia; Alexandre Merlin; Dirceu Maximino Fernandes

2011-01-01

312

Factors and pharmaceuticals that affect the radiopharmaceuticals bio distributions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pattern of biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals may be affected by various agents and therapeutical procedures, chemotherapy agents, thyroid hormones, metals, radiotherapy, surgery, anesthetic agents, dialysis other radiopharmaceutical interactions. Recommendations for the detection of altered biodistribution in patients by causes not directly related with the pathology itself was given. pathology itself was given

1994-07-01

313

Factors Affecting Quality Enhancement Procedures for E-Learning Courses  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This paper reports on an empirical study exploring the way in which campus-based higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK apply their internal quality assurance and enhancement (QA/QE) procedures to their e-learning courses. The purpose of this paper is to identify those characteristics of e-learning courses which affected the…

Jara, Magdalena; Mellar, Harvey

2009-01-01

314

[the factors which affect the neurological condition in subarachnoid hemorrhage].  

Science.gov (United States)

The factors which were related to the neurological condition were analyzed in 233 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Bivariate analysis and multiple(binomial)logistic regression analysis were performed as for Hunt & Kosnik grade, modified Rankin Scale at discharge and modified Rankin Scale in the out-patient department to detect the factors which were related to the neurological condition. Hematoma-filled intraventricular hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage with midline shift, acute subdural hematoma and aneurysm of the vertebrobasilar system were the representative factors which caused poor neurological condition. Hunt & Kosnik grade was poor when rebleeding occurred or hematoma was formed in the sylvian fissure. Hunt & Kosnik grade and modified Rankin Scale at discharge tended to be poor in the cases with acute hydrocephalus. The elevation of intracranial pressure was the major factor in neurological deterioration. PMID:24091459

Oyama, Hirofumi; Wada, Kentaro; Kito, Akira; Maki, Hideki; Noda, Tomoyuki

2013-10-01

315

Case Study of Factors Affecting Chinese Students’ English Communication Performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For ESL teaching in China’s universities, not enough emphasis is put on verbal communication as a yardstick of language mastery and methodological success. Developing student’s communication competence is not only concerned with the nature of language learning from linguistic perspectives, but also could be influenced by such exogenous factors as learning environment, learning psychology, and learning strategies. It is necessary to investigate whether these factors have an impact ...

Liu, Ping

2009-01-01

316

Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intention among UniSZA Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Graduates contributions to entrepreneurship would stimulate the country’s economic growth. The aim of this study is to determine and investigate factors influence on students’ perception of the entrepreneurial intention, in order to present the most contemporary future generation of entrepreneurs that can shape the future of the economy and the country. The area of this study covers demographic profiles, attitudinal and behavioral factors, and how these influence the intentions of student...

2012-01-01

317

Factors Affecting the Adoption of Formal Accounting Systems by SMEs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small to medium-sized enterprises’ (SMEs) poor performance is often ascribed to external factors such as burdensome character of the legal framework, limited scope to penetrate the export market and access to finance. However, internal factors such as marketing, operation and in particular accounting services may be equally responsible to such state of affairs. This study therefore attempts to analyse the importance attached to formal accounting systems among the small to medium-sized Mauri...

2012-01-01

318

Factors influencing risk of acute urinary retention after TRUS-guided permanent prostate seed implantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To look for factors predictive of acute urinary retention (AUR) after permanent seed prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: From March 1999 to February 2001, 150 permanent seed prostate implants were performed at Princess Margaret Hospital (Stage T1c, n = 113; T2a, n = 37; mean prostate-specific antigen level 5.9 ng/mL, prescription dose 145 Gy per Task Group No. 43). ?-Blockers were used routinely after implantation. Dosimetry was based on the 1-month postimplant CT scan. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and catheterization were recorded at 1 month and 3 months and then every 3 months. The following variables were examined: age, baseline IPSS, prior androgen ablation, prostate transrectal ultrasound volume, number of seeds, D90, V100, V200, and urethral dose. Results: Twenty patients (13%) experienced AUR. No difference was seen in the mean D90 (149 Gy vs. 152 Gy, p=0.6), V100 (90% vs. 91%, p=0.6), V200 (23% vs. 25% p=0.4), IPSS (6.4 vs. 5.9, p=0.8), or maximal urethral dose (204 Gy vs. 210 Gy, p=0.5). The prostate volume was significantly larger in men with AUR (39.8 cm3 vs. 34.3 cm3, p=0.003), and the mean number of seeds was higher (112 vs. 103, p=0.006). Of the 20 patients experiencing AUR, 11 (55%) had received prior antiandrogen therapy to downsize their prostates vs. 35 (27%) of the 130 who did not have AUR (p=0.02). Multivariate analysis showed prostate volume and prior hormone use to be independent predictors of AUR. Conclusions: Implant quality as determined by D90, V100, V200, and urethral dose did not predict AUR. Prostate size was the major determinant of AUR. For any given prostate size, prior androgen ablation increased the risk of AUR. Men with larger prostates should be aware of the increased risk when contemplating brachytherapy

2002-02-01

319

ACCURACY OF PESTICIDE REFERENCE STANDARD SOLUTIONS. PART I. FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIC SOLVENT EVAPORATION  

Science.gov (United States)

A gravimetric experiment was undertaken to identify the factors affecting solvent evaporation from analytical reference standard solutions and to establish the magnitude of the resultant solvent evaporation. The evaporation of organic solvent from standard solutions is affected b...

320

Factores que afectan la germinación de Justicia squarrosa Griseb, forrajera nativa de la región chaqueña de la Argentina / Factors affecting germination in Justicia squarrosa Griseb, a native forage species of the Chaco region of Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Justicia squarrosa es una especie forrajera presente en diferentes comunidades naturales del Chaco Árido argentino en donde constituye un importante componente en la dieta del ganado en épocas de escasez de agua. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar los factores que afectan la germinación d [...] e J. squarrosa. Se tuvieron en cuenta diferentes regímenes de temperatura, calidades de luz y potenciales hídricos; además, se evaluó la capacidad de germinación de sus semillas en el tiempo. La germinación de las semillas de J. squarrosa estuvo condicionada por factores como la temperatura y el estrés hídrico. Los mayores porcentajes de germinación se obtuvieron a 25/15 ºC tanto en luz como en oscuridad permanente. Por debajo de -0,2 MPa la germinación disminuyó significativamente. Las semillas de J. squarrosa fueron indiferentes a los tratamientos de luz. Luego de 48 meses se observó un alto porcentaje de germinación de las semillas de la especie. Los resultados obtenidos proporcionan información valiosa que ayudará a establecer estrategias de domesticación y propagación de la especie. Abstract in english Justicia squarrosa is a forage species that lives in different natural communities in Chaco Arido, where it is an important component of cattle diet in unfavourable drought periods. The aim of this work was to study the factors affecting seed germination in J. squarrosa. Different temperature regime [...] s, light quality and water potential were considered. Seed germination capacity along time was also evaluated. Justicia squarrosa seed germination was conditioned by factors such as temperature and water potential. The highest germination percent was found at 25/15 ºC, both in light and dark. Seed germination decreased significantly below -0.2 MPa. Justicia squarrosa seeds did not respond to light treatments. After 48 months the percentage of seed germination was high. The results found in this article provide valuable information that will help to establish proper strategies for the species domestication and propagation.

Zalazar, M.; Funes, G.; Venier, M.P..

 
 
 
 
321

Factors affecting the hot-dip zinc coatings structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coating solidification during hot-dip galvanizing is a very complex process due to Al-Fe, Al-Fe-Zn and Fe-Zn intermetallic compounds development . Fe-Zn intermetallics are brittle and detrimental for the coating ductility, while the diffusion towards the surface of a segregated insoluble alloying such as antimonium causes the sheet darkness. Steel of different roughness were hot-dip galvanized under different operation conditions using a laboratory scale simulator. The effect of steel roughness and process parameters upon coating characteristics were analysed. Experimental results showed that the steel roughness affects the coating thickness, zinc grain size and texture as well as the out-bursts development, while the process parameters affects the Fe2Al5 morphology and antimonium segregation. (Author) 11 refs

1997-01-01

322

Factors affecting mortality of shearwaters stranded by light pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Every year and across the world, thousands of fledglings of different petrel species crash into human structures because they are disorientated by artificial lights during their first flights. As this phenomenon is rather predictable, rescue cam- paigns are organized to help birds to reach the ocean, but unfortunately, a low proportion gets hurt or dies. Despite the huge number of affected individuals, and the fact that the problem was detected a long time ago, little is known ...

Rodri?guez, Airam; Rodri?guez, Beneharo; Curbelo, A. J.; Pe?rez, A.; Marrero, S.; Negro, Juan J.

2012-01-01

323

Factors affecting Maillard induced gelation of protein-sugar systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gelation due to the Maillard reaction took place when solutions containing a low level of bovine serum albumin were heated in the presence of carbonyl compounds. The Maillard reaction caused a change in colour, a decrease in the pH and induced gelation. These changes were dependent on the type and concentration of sugars or protein and on the heating conditions used. Reducing sugar and Maillard reaction products (e.g. glyoxal) affected these changes, yet their order of reactivity for browning...

Azhar, Mat Easa

1996-01-01

324

Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, d...

2008-01-01

325

Discriminant Analysis of Factors Affecting Telecoms Customer Churn  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A major challenge facing telecoms business providers in Nigeria today is the continuous growing competition and customers’ expectation of service quality and as such customers are able to choose among multiple service providers based on the level of satisfaction, affordability, and service quality of service providers. Customer demand and competition are forcing firms to cut loose from the traditional customer satisfaction paradigm, to adopt proactive strategies which will assist them to take the lead in the market-place. This study aims at identifying factors that discriminate among subscribers exhibiting willingness to drop their current service provider and those willing to stay. The study also examines the effect of socio-economic and demographic factors associated with the identified discriminants. The major factors identified are high call rate, poor service facilities, off-beam advertisement medium, availability of superior service provider and unattractive service plan.

Benjamin Oghojafor

2012-03-01

326

Factors affecting the energy consumption of two refrigerator-freezers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two refrigerator-freezers, one with a top-mounted freezer and one with side-by-side doors, were tested in the laboratory to determine the sensitivity of their energy consumption to various operational factors. Room temperature, room humidity, door openings, and the setting of the anti-sweat heater switch were the factors examined. The results indicated that the room temperature and door openings had a significantly greater effect on energy consumption than the other two factors. More detailed tests were then performed under different room temperature and door-opening combinations. The relationship of door openings and the equivalent test room temperature was established. Finally, the effect on energy of different temperature settings was studied. Test results are presented and discussed.

Kao, J.Y.; Kelley, G.E. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building and Fire Research Lab.

1996-12-31

327

Effect of soaking, sprouting, fermentation and cooking on nutrient composition and some anti-nutritional factors of sorghum (Guinesia) seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to determine the effect of soaking, sprouting, fermentation and cooking on nutrient composition and some antinutritional factors of sorghum seeds (guinesia). Standard assay procedures were adopted to resolve both the nutrients and the antinutritional factors content of the products. Combination of cooking and fermentation improved the nutrient quality and drastically reduced the antinutritional factors to safe levels much greater than any of the other processing methods tested. PMID:1924184

Obizoba, I C; Atii, J V

1991-07-01

328

???????, ??? ????????? ?? ????????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????? Factors affecting the spontaneous mutational spectra in somatic mammalian cells ???????, ???????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????, ????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????, ????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????. ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ????, ?? ? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????, ?? ?????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????, ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????. In our survey of references we are discussed the influence of factors biological origin on the spontaneous mutation specters in mammalian. Seasonal and age components influence on the frequence of cytogenetic anomalies. The immune and endocrinous systems are take part in control of the alteration of the spontaneous mutation specters. Genetical difference of sensibility in animal and human at the alteration of factors enviroment as and  genetical differences of repair systems activity are may influence on individual variation of spontaneous destabilization characters of chromosomal apparatus. ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????????, ??????? ???????-??? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????-??????? ??????????? ????????. ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??? ??, ??? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ??????, ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????, ????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????.

?.?. ?????????

2006-04-01

329

Effect of Processing Methods on Some Antinutritional Factors in Legume Seeds for Poultry Feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Removal of undesirable components is essential to improve the nutritional quality of legumes and effectively utilize their full potential as poultry feed ingredient. It is widely accepted that simple and inexpensive processing techniques are effective methods of achieving desirable changes in the composition of seeds. Different authors have reported that soaking, cooking, toasting, autoclaving, microwave cooking, pressure cooking, extrusion cooking, germination and chemical treatment improve the quality of legumes because of the removal or inactivation of some anti-nutritional factors. In many instances, usage of only one method may not effect the desired removal of anti-nutritional substances and a combination of two or more methods may be required.

E.F. Fabiyi

2010-01-01

330

Factors affecting attitudes towards medical abortion in Lithuania  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal.

Lazarus, Jeff; Nielsen, Stine

2006-01-01

331

Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

2009-01-01

332

Factors Affecting Teachers' Use of Information and Communication Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Research studies in the past decade have shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. Studies reveal a number of factors influencing teachers' decisions to use ICT in the…

Afshari, Mojgan; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Luan, Wong Su; Samah, Bahaman Abu; Fooi, Foo Say

2009-01-01

333

Factors that Affect Nontraditional Vocational Enrollment among Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vocational training program females (N=470) completed a questionnaire assessing the role of personality and social support factors in nontraditional training enrollment. Results revealed differences in the amount of support and encouragement received from others, with nontraditional students receiving more support from female friends, family…

Houser, Betsy Bosak; Garvey, Chris

1985-01-01

334

Factors Affecting University Teaching Team Effectiveness in Detached Working Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…

Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

2014-01-01

335

Factors affecting the implementation of green specifications in construction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Green specifications constitute one of the important elements in green construction. New sustainability requirements and changing priorities in construction management have spurred the emerging green specifications to a faster pace of development. A cross-sectional survey has been conducted in Hong Kong in 2007 to identify principal factors leading to the success of preparing green specifications. Based on extensive construction management literature, 20 variables concerning sustainable construction were summarized. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, the subtle differences between stakeholders in specifying construction work have been detected even with the high consistency of the responses among the groups. Moreover, five independent factors for successful specification of green construction have been categorized by factor analysis. They are related to (1) green technology and techniques, (2) reliability and quality of specification, (3) leadership and responsibility, (4) stakeholder involvement, and (5) guide and benchmarking systems. Whilst the first and fourth factors are generally more important, different stakeholder groups have different emphases. The results of the survey have been validated against established principles. PMID:19853367

Lam, Patrick T I; Chan, Edwin H W; Poon, C S; Chau, C K; Chun, K P

2010-01-01

336

Factors Affecting Location Decisions of Food Processing Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to examine the determinants of location choices for food processing plants using the results of 59 personal surveys. The 61.3% of the food processing plants that were interviewed are small scale plants, 9.1% are large scale plants and 29.6% are medium scale plants. Sixteen of the firms process vegetables, 12 process poultry, 12 process dairy and 9 process seafood products. Business climate factors are divided into six categories (market, infrastructure, raw material, labor, personal and environmental and 17 specific location factors are considered. The survey responses are analyzed by types of raw materials processed and by plant size. 43.7, 55.3 and 42.2% of the respondents cited categories of Market, Raw Material and Infrastructure respectively as important, while 44.3, 50.7 and 74.4% of the respondents cited, labor, personal and environmental regulation categories of as not important. Thus survey findings indicate that plant location choices are mainly driven by market, raw material and infra structural factors. Environmental factors such as environmental regulations and permissions are relatively insignificant.

Sule Turhan

2007-01-01

337

Factors Affecting Long-Term Abstinence from Substances Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…

Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily

2008-01-01

338

A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspectives of management in the related periods. The results indicated that organizational factors have always been important for new product development process, which is in line with the nature of the innovation process. But the emphasis on internal factors has increased in the 21st century which is congruent with the change in management perspective foregrounding resource based view. The study differs from the similar literature review studies on the point that it deals with the topic from international marketing perspective. Therefore, R&D and other marketing studies are not included in the review and the study proposes the important factors from international firms’ point of view.

Eda Atilgan-Inan

2010-07-01

339

Factors Affecting Alternate Rice-Fish Production of Mymensingh District in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cobb-Douglas production function has been used to measure the effect of various factors on alternate rice-fish production. The chosen factors were of fingerlings cost, cost of cow dung, cost of rice bran, cost of oil cake, cost of lime, cost of urea cost of human labour and cost of netting for fish production and for rice production the factors were human labour, animal labour. Cow dung, urea, TSP, MP, seed and irrigation cost. It was found that except cost of rice bran and lime for fish prod...

Rabbani M.G.; Hossain, M. I.; Islam, M. S.; Hossain, T. M. B.; Mannan, M. A.

2004-01-01

340

Analysis on the Main Factors Affecting the Reliability of Test Papers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reliability is an important factor to evaluate test papers. This paper analyzes the factors which affect the reliability of test papers and discusses the methods to increase the reliability of test papers.

Jiang Zhu

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Factors affecting the solubility of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A detailed study of the solubility of recombinant Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase has been conducted. A semi-purified preparation from a bulk crystallisation was chos en that contained six isoforms with pI-values of between 5.5 and 6.1. The solubility was strongly affected by pH and could be reduced approximately 200-fold at pH 6 as compared to pH 10, leaving only 0.1 mg/mL in solution. Solubility could also be dramatically manipulated using salts. The choice of anions was found to be more important than of the cations, and the lowest solubility was found using sodium sulphate. For the anions, solubility followed the order expected from the Hofmeister series, however, a more complex behaviour was seen for the cations. With the exception of lithium, their efficiency to influence the solubility was reversed to what was expected. The polydispersity of the solution was reduced by salt addition and zeta potential measurements indicated a shift in pI caused by lithium. Possible explanations for the observations are discussed, extending our present understanding of how salts affect the solubility of proteins, one that to date is primarily based on experiments with lysozyme. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Faber, Cornelius; Hobley, Timothy John

2008-01-01

342

Factors affecting influenza vaccination among attendees at a senior center.  

Science.gov (United States)

Influenza is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. We questioned attendees at a Baltimore County senior center that offered influenza vaccination about the factors that influenced their decision to receive vaccination. Of the 43 responders, 37 (86%) stated they already had received vaccination in 1994 or were planning to be vaccinated. Vaccinated seniors were more likely than nonvaccinated seniors to believe that they were susceptible to influenza and they were more likely to have had influenza vaccination recommended to them by their physician. Vaccinated seniors also were more knowledgeable about the influenza vaccine. Physician recommendation appears to be an important factor in the decision by seniors to receive influenza vaccination. PMID:8569457

Gianino, C A; Corazzini, K; Tseng, W T; Richardson, J P

1996-01-01

343

Pareto analysis of critical factors affecting technical institution evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the change of education policy in 1991, more and more technical institutions are being set up in India. Some of these institutions provide quality education, but others are merely concentrating on quantity. These stakeholders are in a state of confusion about decision to select the best institute for their higher educational studies. Although various agencies including print media provide ranking of these institutions every year, but their results are controversial and biased. In this paper, the authors have made an endeavor to find the critical factors for technical institution evaluation from literature survey. A Pareto analysis has also been performed to find the intensity of these critical factors in evaluation. This will not only help the stake holders in taking right decisions but will also help the management of institutions in benchmarking for identifying the most important critical areas to improve the existing system. This will in turn help Indian economy.

Victor Gambhir

2012-08-01

344

Factors Affecting Bank Switching Intentions in E-Banking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to identify and examine the factors that contribute to bank switching intentions of e-banking customers and whether these intentions differ according to demographic characteristics (age, gender, education, marital status and income levels of customers. Regression results suggested that customer dissatisfaction, low service quality, high price, unfavorable bank reputation, limited product variety and involuntary switching factors were positively related to customers’ bank switching intentions in e-banking. On the other hand, promotion efforts were negatively related to customers’ switching intentions. In addition to this, bank switching intentions were revealed to be differing according to education levels. Bank switching intentions of well-educated customers were tend to be higher, while age, gender, marital status and income level didn’t make a difference on intentions. Based on the empirical results of current study, we will provide several theoretical and managerial implications in the area of service industry.

Leyla ÖZER

2012-12-01

345

Factors Affecting Survival in Kidney Recipients at Kermanshah  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: To evaluate patient and graft survivals in kidney recipients and factors impacting on survival rates at Kermanshah.

Rezaei, M.; Kazemnejad, A.; Bardideh, A. R.; Mahmoudi, M.

2004-01-01

346

Factors affecting urinary calculi treatment by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is still the treatment of choice for most renal and upper ureteric stones; however the outcome depends on multiple factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stone density, as measured by Hounsfield Units (H.U) by non-contrast Computerized Tomography (CT), stone size and stone location on ESWL treatment outcome of urinary calculi in Jordanian patients. 65 patients underwent clinical, biochemical and radiological assessme...

Tarawneh Emad; Awad Zeyad; Hani Audy; Haroun Azmi; Hadidy Azmi; Mahafza Waleed; Samarah Osama

2010-01-01

347

Factors affecting Staphylococcus epidermidis growth in peritoneal dialysis solutions.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most frequent cause of peritonitis complicating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. We studied factors that might influence the growth of S. epidermidis in commercially available peritoneal dialysis solution (PDS). Test strains were inoculated into PDS and incubated overnight at 37 degrees C. Samples were removed at appropriate intervals, bacterial counts were performed, and growth curves were constructed. We studied the effects of various osmolarities...

Mcdonald, W. A.; Watts, J.; Bowmer, M. I.

1986-01-01

348

Forest edges in boreal landscapes - factors affecting edge influence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The boreal forest in Fennoscandia has been subjected to major loss and fragmentation of natural forests due to intensive forestry. This has resulted in that forest edges are now abundant and important landscape features. Edges have documented effects on the structure, function and biodiversity in forests. Edge influence on biodiversity is complex and depends on interactions between many local and regional factors. This thesis focuses on sharp forest edges and their potential to influence biod...

Jansson, Ulrika

2009-01-01

349

Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

2014-06-01

350

Analysis on some factors affecting MIMO in tunnel  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the 3D-GBSB (three-dimensional Geometrically Based Single-Bounce) model and MIMO channel capacity function, by geometric analysis, it is analyzed that transceiver antenna arrays, antenna spacing, antenna array angle, SNR and Rician K-factor and so on impact on the frequency-nonselective fading MIMO channel capacity. Monte Carlo method can be applied to stimulate the wireless fading channel and demonstrate Cumulative Distribution Function of above.

Zheng, Hong-Dang; Nie, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Zhao

2009-07-01

351

Factors affecting visual analysis in single-case designs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visual inspection remains the most frequently applied method for detecting treatment effects in single-case designs. The advantages and limitations of visual inference are here discussed in relation to other procedures for assessing intervention effectiveness. The first part of the paper reviews previous research on visual analysis, paying special attention to the validation of visual analysts" decisions, inter-judge agreement, and false alarm and omission rates. The most relevant factors aff...

Ximenes, V. M.; Manolov, Rumen; Solanas Pe?rez, Antonio; Quera, Vicenc?

2009-01-01

352

Affecting the Choice Factors of Fishery Products Consumption in Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines fish consumption behavior patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of choosing factors in determining food pattern of Turkish people. A total of 666 surveys in all around Turkey responded to a self-administered questionnaire about seafood consumption habits, past frequency of seafood consumption, attitude towards and intention to eat seafood. In this research some prompts were used such as health, taste, availability, versatility, the components of a ...

Saygi Hulya; Hekimoglu Muge Aliye

2011-01-01

353

Specialty Preference Among Medical Students and Factors Affecting It  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Medical education is one of the core part of educational system of any country. Medical education requires undergraduate students to study a wide range of medical specialties. It is often assumed that students do not make their career preferences until after they have graduated from medical school. So the reasons and factors responsible for preferences need to be found out among medical students. Material and Methods: It was a Cross sectional study on 180 medical students to assess preference for specialty and factors responsible. Results: Out of total 190 medical students more or less everyone (97.89% wanted to pursue specialization and majority of them (96.84% wanted to pursue the same in Medical Field(p>0.05. majority of male students were interested to pursue their specialization in the field of medicine (37.63%, surgery (23.65% and pediatrics (13.97%. On the other hand female students were more interested in medicine (24.17%, pediatrics (32.96% and obstetrics & gynecology (24.17%(p<0.05. Interest, by far was found to be most common factor (76.63% responsible for the preference of particular medical specialty among all four groups of students (1st professional-25.27%, 2nd professional-75.92%, final professional-89.47%, interns-68.42%.Conclusion: It is thus concluded there are many factors playing role in the specialty selection and preference among the medical students and should be equally justified and addressed.

Neeraj Gour

2011-07-01

354

Risk of Postpartum Depression and Affecting Factors in Konya Center  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: This study is proposed to determine the incidence of postpartum depression and the risk factors that may play role in arising of it in Konya because there is not any constructed study previously. METHODS: This cross-sectional study is constructed among 242 mothers in the postpartum period between 2-6 months who applied two village clinics of Meram County, Konya between 1 December 2005- 31 January 2006. Two forms were used to collect necessary data. First form was ?mother introductio...

Saniye Ozdemir; Kamile Marakoglu; Selma Civi

2008-01-01

355

Biologics formulation factors affecting metal leachables from stainless steel.  

Science.gov (United States)

An area of increasing concern and scientific scrutiny is the potential contamination of drug products by leachables entering the product during manufacturing and storage. These contaminants may either have a direct safety impact on the patients or act indirectly through the alteration of the physicochemical properties of the product. In the case of biotherapeutics, trace amounts of metal contaminants can arise from various sources, but mainly from contact with stainless steel (ss). The effect of the various factors, buffer species, solution fill volume per unit contact surface area, metal chelators, and pH, on metal leachables from contact with ss over time were investigated individually. Three major metal leachables, iron, chromium, and nickel, were monitored by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry because they are the major components of 316L ss. Iron was primarily used to evaluate the effect of each factor since it is the most abundant. It was observed that each studied factor exhibited its own effect on metal leachables from contact with ss. The effect of buffer species and pH exhibited temperature dependence over the studied temperature range. The metal leachables decreased with the increased fill volume (mL) per unit contact ss surface area (cm(2)) but a plateau was achieved at approximately 3 mL/cm(2). Metal chelators produced the strongest effect in facilitating metal leaching. In order to minimize the metal leachables and optimize biological product stability, each formulation factor must be evaluated for its impact, to balance its risk and benefit in achieving the target drug product shelf life. PMID:21360314

Zhou, Shuxia; Schöneich, Christian; Singh, Satish K

2011-03-01

356

Factors affecting the achievements of intellectually gifted children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study - to analyze the main factors of learning achievements of intellectually gifted children. The sample consists of 16 - 18 year old students (N = 54), whose Reasoning Total (RT) scores in Intelligence Structure Test 2000R (I-S-T 2000 R, Amthauer R., Brocke B., Liepmann D, Beauducel, 2001) are 90 percentile or higher. This thesis analyses the peculiarities of intellectual activity of intellectually gifted 16- 18 years old students, their learning achievements and has the obj...

2012-01-01

357

Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don’t use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. Methods A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan be...

Ali Abdel Aziem A; Okud Amira

2013-01-01

358

Emission factor of single pellet cake seed Jatropha curcas in a fix bed reactor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study is to evaluate the emission factor of oil cake seed Jatropha curcas that was formed into pellets with three parameters: pyrolisis, densification and air flow rate. The effect of pyrolisis was investigated using four samples of pellet: nonpyrolysis pellet, 90 minutes pyrol [...] ysis pellet, 120 minutes pyrolysis pellet, 150 minutes pyrolysis pellet. The effect of densification was provided by three samples: 11 mm, 13 mm, and 16 mm diameter. Furthermore, the parameter of air flow rate was varied from 0.1 m/s to 0.4 m/s. The results show that the lowest emission factor occurs in the non-pyrolysis pellet containing 14.3 gram carbon monoxide per kilogram pellet. Meanwhile the best densification was obtained by 13-mm diameter pellet containing 14.8 gram carbon monoxide. Air flow rate of 2.0 m/s was the suitable air flow rate to achieve lowest emission factor.

Pambudi, N. Agung; Torii, Shuichi; Syamsiro, M.; Saptoadi, Harwin; Gandidi, Indra Mamad.

359

Sciatic nerve regeneration by microporous nerve conduits seeded with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor or brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene transfected neural stem cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurotrophic factors such as the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promote nerve cell survival and regeneration, but their efficacy in repairing a longer gap defect of rat sciatic nerve (15 mm) has not been established. In this study, two recombinant mammalian vectors containing either rat GDNF gene or BDNF gene were constructed and each was transfected into neural stem cells (NSCs). It was found that the transfection of GDNF or BDNF gene into NSCs led to significantly enhanced expression of GDNF or BDNF mRNA. The amount of GDNF or BDNF protein secreted from the transfected NSCs showed a 3.3-fold or 2.5-fold increase than that from nontransfected NSCs, respectively. The regeneration capacity of rat sciatic nerve in a poly(D,L-lactide) conduit seeded with GDNF or BDNF-transfected NSCs was evaluated by the histology, functional gait, and electrophysiology after 8 weeks of implantation. It was observed that the degree of myelination and the size of regenerated tissue in the conduits seeded with GDNF- and BDNF-transfected NSCs were higher than those seeded with the nontransfected NSCs. Conduits seeded with GDNF-transfected NSCs had the greatest number of blood vessels. The functional recovery assessed by the functional gait and electrophysiology was significantly improved for conduits seeded with GDNF or BDNF-transfected NSCs. It was concluded that the genetically modified NSCs may have potential applications in promoting nerve regeneration and functional recovery. PMID:21314831

Fu, Keng-Yen; Dai, Lien-Guo; Chiu, Ing-Ming; Chen, Jeng-Rung; Hsu, Shan-hui

2011-04-01

360

Feasibility Analysis of Critical Factors Affecting Cloud Computing in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cloud computing is an evolving and new way of delivering computing services and resources over the internet which are managed by third parties at remote sites. Cloud computing is based on existing technologies like web services, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA, web3.0, grid computing and virtualization, etc. Computing services includes data storage, processing and software. Cloud computing is enjoying a lot of buzz in Nigeria due to its perceived economic and operational benefits and stakeholders believe that it will transform the IT industry in Nigeria. Despite all its promises there still exist so many challenges before Cloud computing see the light of the day in Nigeria. This paper delivers an overview of Cloud computing together with its advantages and disadvantages. Thereafter, the challenges and drivers affecting the adoption of Cloud computing in Nigeria are outlined. Finally, recommendations for the adoption of Cloud computing is discussed with Nigeria as a case study.

Eustace Manayi Dogo

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
361

Factors affecting texture and structure of duplex steel sheets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work deals with the texture and structure development in austenitic-ferritic steels of duplex type subjected to cold rolling within the range up to 90% of reduction of subsequently annealed at the temperatures 850-1050 oC. Performed investigations included X-ray phase analysis, measurements of pole figures, calculations of orientation distribution functions measurements of pole figures, calculations of orientation distribution functions (ODF's) and structure observations by means of optical microscopy. Obtained results indicate that considerable differences in the development of rolling and annealing textures in relation to one-phase steels result from two-phase character of the structure and phase instability of austenitic-ferritic steels. It was found that formation of ferrite-austenite banded structure and deformation induced (???) phase transformation as well as the inverse (???) transformation and sigma (?) phase precipitation occurring upon annealing, affect the appearance and intensity of main texture components of both phases. (author)

2003-09-07

362

Toxic Compound, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Protein Isolated from Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The objective of this work was to detoxify J. curcas seed cake and study the toxin, anti-nutritional factors and also functional properties of the protein isolated from the detoxified seed cake. The yield of protein isolate was approximately 70.9%. The protein isolate was obtained without a detectable level of phorbol esters. The solubility of the protein isolate was maximal at pH 12.0 and minimal at pH 4.0. The water and oil binding capacities of the protein isolate were 1.76 g water/g protein and 1.07 mL oil/g protein, respectively. The foam capacity and stability, including emulsion activity and stability of protein isolate, had higher values in a range of basic pHs, while foam and emulsion stabilities decreased with increasing time. The results suggest that the detoxified J. curcas seed cake has potential to be exploited as a novel source of functional protein for food applications.

Worapot Suntornsuk

2010-12-01

363

Factors affecting the morphology of benzoyl peroxide microsponges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is primarily used in the treatment of mild to moderate acne. However, its application is associated with skin irritation. It has been shown that encapsulation and controlled release of BPO could reduce the side effect while also reducing percutaneous absorption when administered to the skin. The aim of the present investigation was to design and formulate an appropriate encapsulated form of BPO, using microsponge technology, and explore the parameters affecting the morphology and other characteristics of the resultant products employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Benzoyl peroxide particles were prepared using an emulsion solvent diffusion method by adding an organic internal phase containing benzoyl peroxide, ethyl cellulose and dichloromethane into a stirred aqueous phase containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Different concentrations of BPO microsponges were incorporated in lotion formulations and the drug release from these formulations were studied. The SEM micrographs of the BPO microsponges enabled measurement of their size and showed that they were spherical and porous. Results showed that the morphology and particle size of microsponges were affected by drug:polymer ratio, stirring rate and the amount of emulsifier used. The results obtained also showed that an increase in the ratio of drug:polymer resulted in a reduction in the release rate of BPO from the microsponges. The release data showed that the highest and the lowest release rates were obtained from lotions containing plain BPO particles and BPO microsponges with the drug:polymer ratio of 13:1, respectively. The kinetics of release study showed that the release data followed Peppas model and the main mechanism of drug release from BPO microsponges was diffusion. PMID:17692528

Nokhodchi, Ali; Jelvehgari, Mitra; Siahi, M Reza; Mozafari, M Reza

2007-01-01

364

Risk of Postpartum Depression and Affecting Factors in Konya Center  

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Full Text Available AIM: This study is proposed to determine the incidence of postpartum depression and the risk factors that may play role in arising of it in Konya because there is not any constructed study previously. METHODS: This cross-sectional study is constructed among 242 mothers in the postpartum period between 2-6 months who applied two village clinics of Meram County, Konya between 1 December 2005- 31 January 2006. Two forms were used to collect necessary data. First form was ?mother introduction form? that was prepared by us to determine the sociodemographic properties of mothers, and the second form was Edinburgh Posnatal Depression Scale (EPDS to diagnose the risk of postpartum depression. RESULTS: While the cut-off point of EPDS was taken as 13 and over, the probability of experiencing postpartum depression was detected as 19.4%. The probability of experiencing postpartum depression according to EPDS was high in statistical sense among the mothers who had lower monthly income, psychological problems after the preceding pregnancy, 4 and lower prenatal controls, experienced attitude changes among their husbands and/or husbands? families after learning gender of baby, and medical problems during these pregnancies. CONCLUSION: The modifiable risk factors are determined as the number of prenatal controls, changing the preconceptions and obsessions related gender of baby of husbands and families via healthy education, and well-qualified prenatal care. The long-term improvable risk factors are detected as improving monthly incomes of the families. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 391-398

Saniye Ozdemir

2008-10-01

365

Factors affecting the viability of thermoluminescence dating of glass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to achieve a better understanding of some of the factors that limit the thermoluminescence (TL) dating of glass. Using a 'model system' (lithium-disilicate samples having different levels of crystallinity from 0 to 100%), we show, first, that the TL of glass is reproducible only if the glass is not heated above its temperature glass transition and, second, and there is a clear connection between the TL sensitivity and the degree of crystallinity of the sample. We conclude that thermoluminescence is not a general dating method for archaeological glass, but it can be applied to particular glass samples that have specified characteristics. (author)

1993-08-01

366

Factors affecting the viability of thermoluminescence dating of glass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to achieve a better understanding of some of the factors that limit the thermoluminescence (TL) dating of glass. Using a 'model system' (lithium-disilicate samples having different levels of crystallinity from 0 to 100%), we show, first, that the TL of glass is reproducible only if the glass is not heated above its temperature glass transition and, second, that there is a clear connection between the TL sensitivity and the degree of crystallinity of the sample. We conclude that thermoluminescence is not a general dating method for archaeological glass, but it can be applied to particular glass samples that have specified characteristics. (author)

1993-08-01

367

An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Huck’s Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Huckleberry Finn is one of Mark Twain’s outstanding masterpieces. Superficially, it tells a story about a 13 or 14 year old boy’s adventures with Negro Jim on the Mississippi river. In fact, it reflects the growth process of Huck through adventures. His growth is embodied by his choice on independence, his change of attitude towards Jim, his moral growth, and the different social roles he plays. Huck’s growth is influenced by the inner and outer factors. On the one hand, friendship, nat...

Yanxia Sang

2010-01-01

368

Affecting the Choice Factors of Fishery Products Consumption in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines fish consumption behavior patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of choosing factors in determining food pattern of Turkish people. A total of 666 surveys in all around Turkey responded to a self-administered questionnaire about seafood consumption habits, past frequency of seafood consumption, attitude towards and intention to eat seafood. In this research some prompts were used such as health, taste, availability, versatility, the components of a good family meal, value for money and alternatives to red meat.

Hekimoglu Muge Aliye

2011-01-01

369

Factors affecting potential market penetration of laser fusion power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mini-model has been constructed to estimate the optimal size of laser fusion power plants and to estimate the allowable cost of the first such plant in relation to the next best alternative. In estimating the costs of laser fusion, the mini-model incorporates such factors as market penetration, learning, economies of scale, system size, transmission costs, reserve requirements, development and licensing costs and site costs. The results of the mini-model simulations indicate that the optimal laser fusion plant size is approximately 3 GWe; risk considerations unincorporated in the mini-model suggest an optimal size closer to 2.5 GWe

1979-01-01

370

Sexual dimorphism of staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) affects pollinator behavior and seed set.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual dimorphism in plants without the confounding effects of genetic differences between separate male and female individuals. PMID:24690875

Davis, Sandra L; Dudle, Dana A; Nawrocki, Jenna R; Freestone, Leah M; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B; Britton, Michael M

2014-01-01

371

Factors Affecting Detection Probability of Acoustic Tags in Coral Reefs  

Acoustic telemetry is an important tool for studying the movement patterns, behaviour, and site fidelity of marine organisms; however, its application is challenged in coral reef environments where complex topography and intense environmental noise interferes with acoustic signals, and there has been less study. Therefore, it is particularly critical in coral reef telemetry studies to first conduct a long-term range test, a tool that provides informa- tion on the variability and periodicity of the transmitter detection range and the detection probability. A one-month range test of a coded telemetric system was conducted prior to a large-scale tagging project investigating the movement of approximately 400 fishes from 30 species on offshore coral reefs in the central Red Sea. During this range test we determined the effect of the following factors on transmitter detection efficiency: distance from receiver, time of day, depth, wind, current, moon-phase and temperature. The experiment showed that biological noise is likely to be responsible for a diel pattern of -on average- twice as many detections during the day as during the night. Biological noise appears to be the most important noise source in coral reefs overwhelming the effect of wind-driven noise, which is important in other studies. Detection probability is also heavily influenced by the location of the acoustic sensor within the reef structure. Understanding the effect of environmental factors on transmitter detection probability allowed us to design a more effective receiver array for the large-scale tagging study.

Bermudez, Edgar F.

2012-05-01

372

The factors affecting mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage  

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Full Text Available Objectives: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH occurs usually from the rupture of vessels into the brain parenchyma and accounts for approximately 10% of all strokes. ICH occurs more commonly in Turkey than in other western countries and carries a significantly high mortality than ischemic strokeMaterials and methods: We evaluated 86 consecutive patients with ICH who were admitted to Neurology Clinics of SDU University Medical Faculty. The factors studied were age, gender, risk factors, electrocardiography results, blood pressure, fever, blood cells, biochemistry, hematoma volume and localization, clinical findings, and demographic characteristics.Results: ICH is a 30-day mortality rate between approximately 50%, with half of the deaths occurring within 48 hour from the onset.Conclusion: It was found that age, site and volume of hematoma, initial level of consciousness and drainage of hematoma into the ventricular cavity have significant effects on the prognosis. The prognosis of ICH remains frequently poor despite the best medical management, control of vital functions and infections. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 404-407

Serpil Demirci

2011-12-01

373

Factors affecting formation and rupture of intracranial saccular aneurysms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unruptured intracranial aneurysms represent a decisional challenge. Treatment risks have to be balanced against an unknown probability of rupture. A better understanding of the physiopathology is the basis for a better prediction of the natural history of an individual patient. Knowledge about the possible determining factors arises from a careful comparison between ruptured versus unruptured aneurysms and from the prospective observation and analysis of unbiased series with untreated, unruptured aneurysms. The key point is the correct identification of the determining variables for the fate of a specific aneurysm in a given individual. Thus, the increased knowledge of mechanisms of formation and eventual rupture of aneurysms should provide significant clues to the identification of rupture-prone aneurysms. Factors like structural vessel wall defects, local hemodynamic stress determined also by peculiar geometric configurations, and inflammation as trigger of a wall remodeling are crucial. In this sense the study of genetic modifiers of inflammatory responses together with the computational study of the vessel tree might contribute to identify aneurysms prone to rupture. The aim of this article is to underline the value of a unifying hypothesis that merges the role of geometry, with that of hemodynamics and of genetics as concerns vessel wall structure and inflammatory pathways. PMID:24306170

Bacigaluppi, S; Piccinelli, M; Antiga, L; Veneziani, A; Passerini, T; Rampini, P; Zavanone, M; Severi, P; Tredici, G; Zona, G; Krings, T; Boccardi, E; Penco, S; Fontanella, M

2014-01-01

374

Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intention among UniSZA Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Graduates contributions to entrepreneurship would stimulate the country’s economic growth. The aim of this study is to determine and investigate factors influence on students’ perception of the entrepreneurial intention, in order to present the most contemporary future generation of entrepreneurs that can shape the future of the economy and the country. The area of this study covers demographic profiles, attitudinal and behavioral factors, and how these influence the intentions of students to become entrepreneurs. The finding suggests that the female students had significantly higher attitude and social skill and desire to succeed as compared to the male students. There was no significant difference with regards to race, age, parental working background, family and relative engaged in business, and heard about entrepreneurship ensuring that entrepreneurs are not clustered in any of these variables. Another major finding indicates that those who attended entrepreneurship course/training had significantly higher attitude and social skill. Most importantly, marketing skill, desire to success, leadership skill, and innovation and creativity inspire graduates in choosing entrepreneurship. Thus, examining the selected key unemployment of graduates’ issues from an entrepreneurship perspective can help to establish harmony and meaningful cooperation between entrepreneurs and learning institutions.

Zaharah Ghazali

2012-12-01

375

Factors affecting the selection of tour destination in Bangladesh:  

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Full Text Available Although multifaceted problems are causing the frustrating scenario of the country’s tourism sector, Bangladesh has the potentials to develop its tourism sector and earn huge foreign currency and generate employment opportunities like the neighboring countries, such as India, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Nepal who attract substantial number of tourists every year and thus generates huge amount of foreign currencies. The paper looks at different preferences of the tourist and examines the tour intention in selecting different tour destination. The study utilizes both exploratory and empirical research approach. The study collects data through interview with a structured self-administered questionnaire from 146 tourists, in utilizing convenient sampling technique. A multiple regression model was estimated to examine the effects of different factors on the tourists tour intention where nine factors related to different aspects of tourism such as service quality, natural beauty, known destination, convenient lodging, adventure, security, effective and efficient transportation, safe and quality food and shopping facility were used as indigenous variables where tour intention was used as exogenous variable of the model.  The regression result shows that Service quality, Natural Beauty, Security and Shopping Facility are statistically significant indicating 24.6% of the variation in explaining the intention to select a tour destination in Bangladesh. The study outlines some policy implications.

Md. Shah Azam

2010-02-01

376

Factors affecting the immobilization of metals in geopolymerized flyash  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geopolymerization, a fairly new technology based on a very old principle, has emerged during the last few years as a possible solution to some waste stabilization and solidification problems. Some commercial successes have been achieved, although the technique remains fairly unknown as well as seemingly unpopular. It has been shown that most waste materials containing sources of silica and alumina should be capable of taking part in a geopolymerization reaction. In this article, flyash was used as a reactant in creating a geopolymeric matrix for the immobilization of process water containing 25,000 ppm of Cu or Pb cations. By means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), compressive strength, as well as kinetic leaching analyses, the main factors influencing matrix stability, immobilization efficiency, and therefore leaching behavior were investigated and discussed qualitatively. It was found that relatively high strengths could be obtained using low Ca flyash. The environment and coordination number of source aluminum and silica seemed to play a major role in the eventual matrix stability. Other factors influencing matrix stability include the alkali metal cation used as well as the type of metal being immobilized. The kinetics of leaching of immobilized metals from the geopolymerized flyash were qualitatively found to proceed along a combination of pore diffusion and boundary diffusion control mechanisms. It is finally concluded that immobilization of metals in geopolymerized flyash proceeds by a combination of physical encapsulation and chemical bonding, with adsorption also thought to play a role.

Jaarsveld, J.G.S. van; Deventer, J.S.J. van [Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Lorenzen, L. [Univ. of Stellenbosch (South Africa). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-02-01

377

Factors affecting PBSC mobilization and collection in healthy donors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripheral blood stem cells are widely used as stem cell source for allografting. Progenitor cells can be effectively mobilized into peripheral blood in majority of healthy donors with a brief administration of G-CSF. A mobilization course in 111 donors (median age 40years) was retrospectively studied and the factors influencing the efficacy of mobilization were analyzed. The median number of CD34+ cells per kg recipient weight 5.1x10(6) was obtained after a median of two aphereses. The target cell dose (4.0x10(6)/kg) was reached in 69% of donors. Circulating CD34+ count and CD34+ yield were negatively associated with donor's age. Other independent factors associated with superior yield were precollection platelet and WBC counts. In multivariate analysis only CD34+ precount predicted for CD34+ yield. G-CSF had an acceptable short-term safety profile. Our data confirm that apheresis is a safe procedure in healthy including aged donors and suggest that older donors could be poorer mobilizers than younger. PMID:16209935

Lysák, Daniel; Koza, Vladimír; Jindra, Pavel

2005-11-01

378

Factors Affecting Holstein Cattle Fertility Traits in the Slovak Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigated the influence of the factors herd-year, breed-type, sire, and milk production and lactation length on the fertility traits of Holstein cattle (age at first calving, calving interval, days open, non return rate at 56, 72, and 90 day. The data were received from 87 230 Holstein cows first time calved in period 2000 and 2008 with three fullterm lactations. Average age at first calving was 875 days and average milk production on first, second and third lactation was 6816 kg, 7524 kg and 6536 kg, respectively. Coefficient of determination estimated by linear model with factors as join herd-year effect and sire was 0.1164 (P<0,001 and 0.1145 (P<0,001 for variation of calving interval after 1st lactation and 2nd lactation, respectively. When the quadratic effect of milk production and lactation length was included to the linear model, coefficient of determination for calving interval variation increased significantly to 0.7049 (P<0,001 after 1st lactation and to 0.6297 (P<0,001 after 2nd lactation. Basically on these results including milk production and lactation length to the fertility genetic evaluation is needed.

Zuzana Riecka

2010-10-01

379

Factors affecting the determination of ionized calcium in blood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reproducibility with the same electrode on the same day is expressed by the CV. For standard solutions CV = 0.68%, for blood CV = 1.36%, for serum CV = 0.92%. The measure with 2 different Orion electrodes performed on blood samples on the same day gives no more variation between electrodes than within electrode. Results of Ca++ measured with SS-20 Orion and ICA1 Radiometer electrodes on the samples of normal blood or serum are significantly higher with the ICA1 electrode than with the SS-20 Orion. The use of decreasing concentration of NaCl (170 to 110 mmol/l) in calibration solutions shows an apparent increase of Ca++ concentration in normal blood. Sampling conditions may affect Ca++ results. The pH of peripheric venous blood drawn without torniquet in 57 normal people was 7.34 +/- 0.03 and differs from the normal arterial pH values (740 +/- 0.02). By applying the following equation: Ca++ (pH 7.40) = Ca++ [1-0.53 (7.40 - pH)], Ca++ can be adjusted to pH 7.40. The correction in pathologic condition should, however, take in account the real arterial pH of the subject. We tested if sitting versus recumbent position could modify Ca++ results. The difference was non significant. Heparin, necessary for blood and plasma sampling, may affect the electrode membrane and binds calcium ions. We compared in the same blood sampling the same dilutions of 2 kinds of heparin. Heparin Radiometer: 10 microliters in 1 ml blood (8 UI) and heparin Roche: 10 microliters in 1 ml blood (50 UI) and observed significantly higher Ca++ results with the lower concentration of heparin. Storage of serum 24 hours at -20 degrees C does not alter the Ca++ results. After 7 days at -20 degrees C the Ca++ decreases by 3.6% in average, mainly due to pH increase. PMID:6578571

Brauman, J; Delvigne, C; Deconinck, I; Willems, D

1983-01-01

380

Factors Affecting the Production of Vietnamese Tones: A Study of American Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates factors that affect the accuracy of tone production by American students of Vietnamese as a second language (L2). Nine hypotheses are examined, each of which isolates a factor expected to affect production accuracy: (a) task type, (b) the position of a tone in a clause, (c) discourse distance between a model provided by a…

Nguyen, Hanh thi; Macken, Marlys A.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Factors Affecting the Wheel Rutting on Rural Roads  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the wheel ruts frequency and dimensions were investigated according to geographical aspects, longitudinal gradient and surfacing layer of rural roads in Denji Kola village, Mazandaran Province, Iran. Ruts were divided into shallow and deep wheel ruts. Results showed that the ruts length and area were significantly affected by longitudinal gradient of rural roads (p<0.0001. Ruts length in longitudinal gradient class 8-12% was significantly more than other classes (p<0.05. The mean of rut length in this class was 8.19 m. The deep ruts frequency in longitudinal gradient class 0-4% was more than shallow ruts, whereas the number of shallow ruts was more than deep ruts in other classes. The effects of geographical aspect on ruts length (p<0.0001, ruts width (p = 0.0019 and ruts area (p<0.0001 was significant. Although, the ruts width and depth on gravel-grassed surface was more than other surfacing layer, the number of ruts in this surfacing layer was less than bare soil and graveled surfacing layer. Thus, thickness layer of gravel which has been covered by grass is the best mixture for surfacing layer of rural roads.

A. Parsakhoo

2009-01-01

382

Factors affecting growth of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed apples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria innocua increased by more than 2 log(10) units over a 24 h period on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs stored at 25 and 20 degrees C. L. innocua reached the same final population level at 10 degrees C meanwhile E. coli and Salmonella only increased 1.3 log(10) units after 6 days. Only L. innocua was able to grow at 5 degrees C. No significant differences were observed between the growth of foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious', 'Granny Smith' and 'Shampion' apples stored at 25 and 5 degrees C. The treatment of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Granny Smith' apple plugs with the antioxidants, ascorbic acid (2%) and NatureSeal (6%), did not affect pathogen growth. The effect of passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the growth of E. coli, Salmonella and L. innocua on 'Golden Delicious' apple slices was also tested. There were no significant differences in growth of pathogens in MAP conditions compared with air packaging of 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs, but the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms was inhibited. These results highlight the importance of avoiding contamination of fresh-cut fruit with foodborne pathogens and the maintenance of the cold chain during storage until consumption. PMID:19913695

Alegre, Isabel; Abadias, Maribel; Anguera, Marina; Oliveira, Marcia; Viñas, Inmaculada

2010-02-01

383

Factors affecting mechanical properties of biomass pellet from compost.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effectiveness of a densification process to create strong and durable bonding in pellets can be determined by testing the mechanical properties such as compressive strength (CS) and durability. Mechanical properties of pellet from composted municipal solid waste were determined at different raw material and densification conditions. Ground compost samples were compressed with three levels of moisture content (35%, 40% and 45% (wb)), piston compaction speed (2, 6 and 10 mm/s), die length (8, 10 and 12mm) and raw material particle size (0.3, 0.9 and 1.5mm) into cylindrical pellets utilizing opened-end dies under axial stress from a vertical piston applied by a hydraulic press. The effects of independent variables on mechanical properties were determined using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design (BBD). All independent variables affected the durability significantly. However, different piston speed and die length not produce any significant difference on CS of pellets. Also in this research the electron photography method was used to identify the binding mechanism of compost particles. PMID:24600888

Zafari, A; Kianmehr, M H

2014-01-01

384

Study on the factors affecting ?-AP RIA results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the effect of (1) storage time (2) hemolysis (3) excessive lipid content (4) bacterial contamination on the tested serum ?-AP RIA results. Methods: (1) Specimen was stored at 4 degree C and ?-AP contents determined daily for seven consecutive days (9 specimens). (2) specimen was assayed, then the clot forcibly broken to cause hemolysis and the serum re-assayed (8 specimens). (3) Hyperlipemic specimen was assayed, the excess lipid extracted with ether and serum re-assayed (8 specimens). (4) Specimen was assayed and left at room temperature for a few days. The specimen was re-assayed for several times after bacterial growth (10 specimens). Results: serum ?- AP contents were stable up to 4 days under 4 degree C (P > 0.05 ). Serum ? -AP contents increased significantly after hemolysis (P<0.01 ). ?-AP contents in hyperlipemic samples decreased significantly after ether treatment (P<0.01). With bacterial growth, the ?-AP contents could increase or decrease, depending upon the type of bacteria. Conclusion: Serum ?-AP was stable up to 4 days at 4 degree C, but rapid degraded under room temperature. Moreover, hemolysis, hyperlipemia and contamination would all affect the RIA result and should be carefully dealt with in daily work. (authors)

2005-10-01

385

Factors affecting floral herbivory in a limestone grassland  

Science.gov (United States)

The amount of herbivore damage to the petals of 41 species of herbaceous plant was surveyed from April to September in a limestone grassland in central England. Damage was recorded as the percentage of the petal area removed. Most damage was caused by invertebrates, particularly slugs. The amount of invertebrate damage differed significantly between plant species and with time of year. The mean damage across all species was only 2 %, ranging from an average of 0 % in Galium sterneri to 8 % in Primula vulgaris. In most species, less than a quarter of flowers received any damage, so those that were damaged were often severely affected. Species flowering early or late in the season received more damage, possibly because of greater slug activity. Hypotheses to explain the inter-specific variation in the amount of herbivory were examined by testing for correlations with a range of plant variables. No correlations with flower-stem length, flower-stem thickness or the longevity of flowers were apparent. The amount of petal damage correlated strongly with flower size and petal thickness. This appeared to result from the prevalence of large-flowered species early and late in the season rather than from a preference for flower size and petal thickness per se. The evolutionary significance of floral herbivory is discussed.

Breadmore, Karen N.; Kirk, William D. J.

1998-12-01

386

Enzymatic biodiesel synthesis. Key factors affecting efficiency of the process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chemical processes of biodiesel production are energy-consuming and generate undesirable by-products such as soaps and polymeric pigments that retard separation of pure methyl or ethyl esters of fatty acids from glycerol and di- and monoacylglycerols. Enzymatic, lipase-catalyzed biodiesel synthesis has no such drawbacks. Comprehension of the latter process and an appreciable progress in production of robust preparations of lipases may soon result in the replacement of chemical catalysts with enzymes in biodiesel synthesis. Engineering of enzymatic biodiesel synthesis processes requires optimization of such factors as: molar ratio of substrates (triacylglycerols: alcohol), temperature, type of organic solvent (if any) and water activity. All of them are correlated with properties of lipase preparation. This paper reports on the interplay between the crucial parameters of the lipase-catalyzed reactions carried out in non-aqueous systems and the yield of biodiesel synthesis. (author)

Szczesna Antczak, Miroslawa; Kubiak, Aneta; Antczak, Tadeusz; Bielecki, Stanislaw [Institute of Technical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 4/10, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

2009-05-15

387

An important affecting factor in biodiesel production : intensity of mixing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2003, the Worldwide Fuel Charter recommended a blend of 5 per cent biodiesel in petroleum diesel fuel in recognition of biodiesel's significantly lower exhaust emissions. This paper examines physical factors in the mixing of neat canola oil for biodiesel production, concluding that an increased knowledge of the mixing can influence the transesterification process. Mixing is an important element in optimising reaction conditions, process design and kinetics. The effects of stirring speeds in the initial and latter stages of reaction are documented, with results suggesting that the enhancement of mixing intensity in initial stages dramatically accelerate transesterification reaction. Mixing intensity in the latter stages had no effects, indicating that high mixing intensity in initial stages and low mixing in subsequent stages accelerate alkali-catalyzed transesterification lipids. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

Yan, G.; Leung, D.Y.C. [Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2004-08-01

388

An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Huck’s Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Huckleberry Finn is one of Mark Twain’s outstanding masterpieces. Superficially, it tells a story about a 13 or 14 year old boy’s adventures with Negro Jim on the Mississippi river. In fact, it reflects the growth process of Huck through adventures. His growth is embodied by his choice on independence, his change of attitude towards Jim, his moral growth, and the different social roles he plays. Huck’s growth is influenced by the inner and outer factors. On the one hand, friendship, nature and society make up the outer environment for Huck’s growth. They have great effect on the development of his growth. On the other hand, his own instinct and his sound heart finally decide the direction of his growth.

Yanxia Sang

2010-09-01

389

Hyperplastic forming: Process potential and factors affecting formability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aluminum has an outstanding potential for reducing the mass of automobiles. One of the key problems is that it is very difficult to form without tearing. This paper has two distinct goals. First, the authors argue in an extended introduction that high velocity forming, as can be implemented through electromagnetic forming, is a technology that should be developed. As a process used in conjunction with traditional stamping, it may offer dramatically improved formability, reduced wrinkling and active control of springback among other advantages. In the body of the paper they describe the important factors that lead to improved formability at high velocity. In particular, high sample velocity can inhibit neck growth. There is a sample size dependence where larger samples have better ductility than those of smaller dimensions. These aspects are at least partially described by the recent model of Freund and Shenoy. In addition to this, boundary conditions imposed by sample launch and die impact can have important effects on formability.

Daehn, G.S.; Vohnout, V.J.; Datta, S.

2000-07-01

390

A systematic study on factors affecting patient dose, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the preceding report, we dealt with the field size and the tube voltage. This paper covers the differences in patient dose due to the focus to film distance (FFD), the patient thickness and whether the grid is used or not. Regarding the FFD, 100 cm is most commonly employed except in X-ray examinations of the chest, but from the viewpoint of the patient dose, this requires special consideration as to whether there is any theoretical basis for it. The patient thickness has a great bearing on the patient dose, but there is an individual difference, and it is almost impossible to change it artificially. However, there has been no detailed report on the relation between the patient thickness and the patient dose, therefore, this report treats of such relationship as well. Concerning the grid, consideration is given to the exposure times (Bucky factor). (author)

1979-01-01

391

Factors affecting torque for a roller cone bit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several authors have presented theoretical bit torque relationships derived by equating the energy required to rotate a bit to the energy required to remove a unit volume of rock (energy balance concept). This approach has had little quantitative success in predicting bit torque because of difficulties in quantifying both the drilling efficiency and the specific energy of the rock under a given set of conditions. A torque relationship based on a force balance concept is presented to minimize the problems with the energybased relationships. The new torque relationship shows that for a given bit, the torque is determined largely by the applied weight on bit (WOB) and the depth of tooth penetration. The model is insensitive to moderate changes in factors such as bit hydraulics, fluid type, and formation type. Laboratory drilling tests and field data were used to confirm the validity of the new torque model.

Warren, T.M.

1984-09-01

392

Factors affecting umbilical venous perfusion during experimental cord knotting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim was to determine experimentally the factors that increase the risk of venous occlusion by applying a standardised tightening force to isolated perfused umbilical cords tied in a true knot in vitro. Umbilical cords were collected from patients undergoing Caesarean section. Cords were clamped, isolated and studied within 15 min. The umbilical vein was cannulated, the cord tied in a true knot and traction was applied using standard weights. The umbilical vein was perfused with modified Krebs solution at a constant pressure of 40 mmHg and the attached weight increased until perfusion ceased. The cord mass index (weight/length), hydration index/100-[(dry weight/wet weight)x100], and coiling index (coils/length) were determined. Cord morphometric analysis was performed on 193 cords. Intra uterine growth restriction was associated with decreased cord mass index (p=0.002) and increased coiling index (p=0.002). Venous perfusion experiments were performed on 75 cords. Using multivariate regression analysis, cord morphometric factors that increased the risk of cord occlusion were decreased cord mass index (p=0.008), decreased cord hydration index (p=0.004), and low venous flow capacity (p=0.001). During experimental cord knotting with applied traction, the susceptibility to venous occlusion was increased with low cord mass index, low cord hydration index and low venous flow capacity. These cord characteristics were associated with low fetal body weight and intrauterine growth restriction. An increased susceptibility to cord occlusion may contribute to the higher perinatal morbidity and mortality in growth restricted pregnancies. PMID:16226125

Tuxen, A J; Permezel, M; Walker, S P; Georgiou, H M

2005-11-01

393

Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 ?g/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention. PMID:24080418

Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

2014-01-15

394

Factors affecting sperm fertilizing capacity in men infected with HIV.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on the sperm-fertilizing capacity of HIV-seropositive men show conflicting results for reasons that are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and relationships of some factors such as patient age, CD4(+) cells count, fathering offspring, concomitant sexually transmitted diseases (STD), and receipt of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) on sperm fertilizing capacity. Semen samples were collected from 33 HIV-seropositive men. Data on the above factors were acquired from a self-designed questionnaire. Computer-assisted sperm analysis, a hypo-osmotic swelling, and zona-free hamster oocyte penetration tests were performed according to criteria of the World Health Organization. CD4(+) cells in peripheral blood were examined using a flow cytometric (FCM) analyzer. Sperm vitality, sperm motility (grades a?+?b), total sperm motility, and sperm penetration rates were significantly higher in patients whose CD4(+) counts were ?350/µl than in those whose CD4(+) counts were 350/µl (P?

Wang, Dian; Li, Lianbing; Xie, Qingdong; Hou, Zhiwei; Yu, Xiaojun; Ma, Mingfu; Huang, Tianhua

2014-09-01

395

Toxic Compound, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Protein Isolated from Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The ob...

Donlaporn Saetae; Worapot Suntornsuk

2010-01-01