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Sample records for factors affecting seed

  1. Factors Affecting Tausch’s Goatgrass (Aegilops tauschii Coss. Seed Germination and Seedling Emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Fang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tausch’s goatgrass, Aegilops tauschii (Coss. is one of the most troublesome weeds in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. producing areas of Yellow River valley of China. The effects of environmental factors affecting seed germination and seedling emergence were evaluated in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. The germination of Tausch’s goatgrass seeds occurred at temperatures ranging from 0 to 40oC, with optimum germination attained between 15 and 25oC. Tausch’s goatgrass seed is rather tolerant to low water potential and high salinity stress as germination was 70% and 65% at osmotic potentials of -1.7 MPa and salinity level of 400 mM, respectively. Medium pH and light have no significant effect on seed germination. Highest emergence (>80% occurred from depths of 1 to 3cm, but no seedlings emerged when burial depth reached 8cm. Knowledge of germination biology of Tausch’s goatgrass obtained in this study will be useful in predicting the potential distribution area and developing effective management strategies for this species.

  2. Seed Size, the Only Factor Positively Affecting Direct Seeding Success in an Abandoned Field in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick St-Denis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Direct tree seeding is potentially an economical technique for restoring forests on abandoned fields. However, the success of tree establishment depends on many factors related to species and seed characteristics, environmental conditions, competition and predation. We compared seedling emergence, survival and growth of six tree species of different seed sizes in a forest restoration project of abandoned fields. Species were seeded in plots with and without herbaceous vegetation and with and without protection from bird and mammal predation. Yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis did not emerge in all treatments, paper birch (Betula papyrifera and tamarack (Larix laricina had a seedling emergence rate lower than 1%, and sugar maple (Acer saccharum had a low overall emergence rate of 6%. Seedling emergence reached 57% for northern red oak (Quercus rubra and 34% for red pine (Pinus resinosa, but survival of oak after one year was much higher (92% than pine seedlings (16%. Overall, protection from birds and mammals and elimination of the herbaceous vegetation cover had no detectable effects on seedling emergence, survival and height. Nonetheless, red oak seedlings growing in the presence of vegetation had a smaller diameter and shoot biomass and a larger specific leaf area. We conclude that only large seeded species, such as oak, should be used for forest restoration of abandoned fields by direct seeding in our region.

  3. Nutritional composition, antinutritional factors, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of guava seeds (Psidium Myrtaceae) as affected by roasting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Anany, Ayman Mohammed

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the influences of roasting process on the nutritional composition and nutritive value, antinutritional factors, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of guava seeds. Roasting process caused significant (P???0.05) decreases in moisture content, crude protein, crude fiber, ash and mineral contents, isoleucine, arginine, glutamic and total aromatic and sulfur amino acids, antinutritional factors (tannins and phytic acid) and flavonoids, while oil content increased. Subjecting guava seeds to 150 °C for 10, 15 and 20 min increased the total essential amino acids from 35.19 g/100 g protein in the raw sample to 36.96, 37.30 and 37.47 g/100 g protein in roasted samples, respectively. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) of guava seeds roasted at 150 °C for 10, 15 and 20 min were about 1.08, 1.14 and 1.18 times as high as that in unroasted seeds. Lysine was the first limiting amino acid, while leucine was the second limiting amino acid in raw and roasted guava seeds. Total phenolic contents was significantly (P???0.05) increased by roasting at 150 °C for 10 min. However, roasting at 150 °C for 15 and 20 min caused significant decrease in the phenolic content of guava seeds. Guava seeds subjected to roasting process showed higher DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities. PMID:25829598

  4. Factors Affecting the Optimum Seeding Level of Coal or Char-Fired, Open-Cycle MHD Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the optimum seed level with ash-containing, seeded fuels was made using a mathematical model to determine the composition and amounts of the combustion products which included a slag phase and condensed seed compounds. The results indicate that: the mechanism of seed condensation is the formation of liquid alkali sulphate; the contamination of the liquid seed with silica occurs because silica condenses over approximately the same temperature range as the alkali sulphate; and the level of seed contamination with silica plays a major role in deciding the system seed level. This contamination is unavoidable due to the difficulty of separating the alkali from the glass-like slag by ordinary chemical or physical means. Therefore the silica remaining in the gas phase when the bulk of the slag is separated from the combustion products must be recycled to the system with the co-condensed seed. This increased silica lowers the combustion temperature because of the energy required for its volatilization. The important factors in establishing the steady-state silica level in the system are: (1) The air/fuel level. Lowering this parameter below stoichiometric requirements decreases the silica contamination and increases the electrical conductivity of the combustion products; (2) The nature of the fuel. Silica levels are in general higher for a char than for a coal fuel. This is compensated for to a degree,by the higher electrical conductivity of the combustion products from char; (3) The sulphur level of the fuel. The higher the sulphur level the higher the temperature at which seed condensation (as the sulphate) initiates hence the greater the fraction of silica remaining in the gas phase; (4) The silica content of the fuel: (5) The seeding level. The greater the seed/coal ratio, the higher the initiation temperature of seed condensation; (6) The type of seed. A non-sulphur-containing seed results in a lower initiation temperature of seed condensation; (7) The separation temperature of the bulk of the liquid slag from the combustion products. This temperature should be just above the seed condensation initiation temperature for minimum silica recycle with minimum seed loss. Data are presented which illustrate the above factors for a bituminous coal at sulphur levels of 0.5 and 4 wt% sulphur and a bituminous coal char. Seeding materials, considered are potassium carbonate and potassium sulphate. A combustor pressure of 5 atm is assumed with the air-preheat temperature used as a parameter. The results show an increase in electrical conductivity of the combustion products when the sulphur level of the system is reduced. One way of effecting this reduction is to remove the sulphur from the spent seed-silica mixture before its return to the combustor. In addition to increased conductivity, this reduced sulphur mode of operation also allows an MHD/steam power plant to be operated free of sulphur oxide effluent gases. (author)

  5. Preimplant factors affecting postimplant CT-determined prostate volume and the CT/TRUS volume ratio after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds

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    Asakura Hirotaka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to identify preimplant factors affecting postimplant prostate volume and the increase in prostate volume after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds. Methods We reviewed the records of 180 patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds for clinical T1/T2 prostate cancer. Eighty-one (45% of the 180 patients underwent neoadjuvant hormonal therapy. No patient received supplemental external beam radiotherapy. Postimplant computed tomography was undertaken, and postimplant dosimetric analysis was performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify preimplant factors affecting postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography and the increase in prostate volume after implantation. Results Preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound, serum prostate-specific antigen, number of needles, and number of seeds implanted were significantly correlated with postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography. The increase in prostate volume after implantation was significantly higher in patients with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy than in those without. Preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound, number of needles, and number of seeds implanted were significantly correlated with the increase in prostate volume after implantation. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound and neoadjuvant hormonal therapy were significant independent factors affecting both postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography and the increase in prostate volume after implantation. Conclusions The results of the present study show that preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound and neoadjuvant hormonal therapy are significant preimplant factors affecting both postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography and the increase in prostate volume after implantation.

  6. Changes in chemical composition and anti nutritional factors in sesame seeds as affected by gamma and microwave radiations during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma radiation, microwave radiation, interaction between them and storage of sesame seeds were investigated to find out the best treatment which cause the maximum reduction of anti nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities) without exerting significant effect on the chemical constituents. The gamma rays was used at doses of 2.5, 5.0 and 8.0 KGy, microwave radiation was at 70 level power for 2 and 4 min and the storage of seeds was at room temperature and Rh 50-55% for six months. The obtained results on the effect of gamma radiation and storage showed slight decrease in crude protein contents, significant decrease in total free amino acids, total lipids had either slightly or non-significantly changed, decreased total carbohydrates and slight changes in total soluble sugars content. Reduction of trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities were increased as the irradiation dose levels and storage time increased. Slightly decreases in tannin and phenol contents and significant decrease in phytic acid content were observed. The obtained results on the effect of microwave radiation and storage indicated non-significant effect on protein and total lipids contents, decrease in total free amino acids, slight changes in total carbohydrate content and non-significant changes in total soluble and reducing sugars. Trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities were significantly reduced by microwave, while increasing the storage period deve, while increasing the storage period decreased lipoxygenase activity. Significant changes were observed in tannin and phenol contents, while phytic acid was decreased

  7. Factors affecting in vitro seed germination and shoot multiplication of a pitcher plant (Nepenthes mirabilis (Lour. Druce

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    Tokhao, W

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Mature seeds of a pitcher plant (Nepenthes mirabilis (Lour. Druce were cultured in liquid and solid MS medium (Murashige and Skoog, 1962 supplemented with BA (6-benzyladenine at 1, 3 or 5 mg/l or withcoconut water (20% v/v. The cultures were incubated under light and dark conditions. Seeds germinated only under light incubation and BA supplemented to both types of media, and solid medium with 3 mg/l BAresulted the highest seed germination (26% with good development of seedlings. On the contrary, the addition of coconut water to the basal medium produced poor seed germination and seedling growth. Moreover,all cultures in liquid medium terminated their growth after 6 weeks of culture. Young seedlings were subsequently transferred to fresh media of the same treatments after 15 weeks of seed culture. Multipleshoots were proliferated in all levels of BA after 6 weeks of transferring and more shoots were produced as BA level was increased. However, at high BA level of 5 mg/l, rosetting of shoots occurred while lowering BA level to 3 mg/l, fewer shoots were produced but they were vigorous, larger shoots with complete leaves. Rootdevelopment finally occurred in all BA treatments except the addition of coconut water.To evaluate the potential of shoot multiplication in different strengths of MS macromutrient, two types of explants, viz. shoot explants and stem explants (both approx. 1.5 cm long from in vitro seedlings,were cultured on full-strength MS macronutrient medium, 1/2 MS, 1/4 MS and 1/8 MS medium. Following 16 weeks of culture, shoot production (number/ explant increased in both explant types as the macronutrientstrength decreased. However, when lowering to 1/8 MS, the fewest shoots were produced and exhibited nutrient deficiency of leaf chlorosis. The optimum strength of MS macronutrient for the maximumproduction of normal shoots with complete leaves was 1/2 MS medium while 1/4 MS medium produced the highest shoot number from stem explants but shoots were small with abnormal narrow leaf blade. In vitro pitcher development occurred spontaneously in all levels of MS macronutrient .

  8. Preimplant factors affecting postimplant CT-determined prostate volume and the CT/TRUS volume ratio after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Asakura Hirotaka; Nagata Hirohiko; Kunieda Etsuo; Nakashima Jun; Sugawara Akitomo; Oya Mototsugu; Shigematsu Naoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim was to identify preimplant factors affecting postimplant prostate volume and the increase in prostate volume after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds. Methods We reviewed the records of 180 patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds for clinical T1/T2 prostate cancer. Eighty-one (45%) of the 180 patients underwent neoadjuvant hormonal therapy. No patient received supplemental external beam radiotherapy. Po...

  9. Factors affecting Cyperus difformis seed germination and seedling emergence / Fatores que afetam a germinação de sementes e a emergência de plântulas de Cyperus difformis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Derakhshan; J., Gherekhloo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento específico sobre os padrões de dormência, germinação e emergência de espécies de plantas daninhas auxilia o desenvolvimento de estratégias integradas de gestão. Foram realizados estudos de laboratório para determinar o efeito de vários fatores ambientais na germinação de sementes e em [...] ergência de plântulas de Cyperus difformis. A germinação das sementes recém-colhidas foi inibida pela escuridão; no entanto, quando as sementes foram transferidas posteriormente para a luz total, germinaram prontamente. Nossos resultados mostraram que duas semanas de estratificação fria superam o requisito de luz para a germinação. As sementes de C. difformis conseguiram germinar numa ampla gama de temperaturas (25/15, 30/20, 35/25, e 40/30 ºC dia/noite). A resposta da taxa de germinação à temperatura foi descrito como uma função não-linear. Com base em resultados do modelo, as temperaturas de base, ótima e e teto foram estimadas em 14,81, 37,72 e 45 ºC, respectivamente. Foi preciso uma temperatura de 120 ºC por mais 5 minutos para inibir 50% da germinação máxima. O potencial osmótico e a salinidade necessários para uma inibição de 50% da máxima germinação foram -0,47 MPa e 135,57 mM, respectivamente. Foi observada uma alta percentagem de germinação das sementes (89%) com pH=6, a qual diminuiu para 12% em meio alcalino (pH 9) de pH. As sementes semeadas na superfície do solo resultaram na maior porcentagem de emergência de plântulas, e nenhuma plântula emergiu a partir de sementes enterradas no solo a uma profundidade de 1 cm. Abstract in english Specific knowledge about the dormancy, germination, and emergence patterns of weed species aids the development of integrated management strategies. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effect of several environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of Cyperus diffor [...] mis. Germination of freshly harvested seeds was inhibited by darkness; however, when seeds were subsequently transferred to complete light they germinated readily. Our results showed that 2 wk of cold stratification overcome the light requirement for germination. Seeds of C. difformis were able to germinate over a broad range of temperatures (25/15, 30/20, 35/25, and 40/30 ºC day/night). The response of germination rate to temperature was described as a non-linear function. Based on model outputs, the base, the optimum and the ceiling temperatures were estimated as 14.81, 37.72 and 45 ºC, respectively. A temperature of 120 ºC for a 5 min was required to inhibit 50% of maximum germination. The osmotic potential and salinity required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.47 MPa and 135.57 mM, respectively. High percentage of seed germination (89%) was observed at pH=6 and decreased to 12% at alkaline medium (pH 9) pH. Seeds sown on the soil surface gave the greatest percentage of seedling emergence, and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried in soil at depths of 1 cm.

  10. Endocarp thickness affects seed removal speed by small rodents in a warm-temperate broad-leafed deciduous forest, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmao; Zhang, Zhibin

    2008-11-01

    Seed traits are important factors affecting seed predation by rodents and thereby the success of recruitment. Seeds of many tree species have hard hulls. These are thought to confer mechanical protection, but the effect of endocarp thickness on seed predation by rodents has not been well investigated. Wild apricot ( Prunus armeniaca), wild peach ( Amygdalus davidiana), cultivated walnut ( Juglans regia), wild walnut ( Juglans mandshurica Maxim) and Liaodong oak ( Quercus liaotungensis) are very common tree species in northwestern Beijing city, China. Their seeds vary greatly in size, endocarp thickness, caloric value and tannin content. This paper aims to study the effects of seed traits on seed removal speed of these five tree species by small rodents in a temperate deciduous forest, with emphasis on the effect of endocarp thickness. The results indicated that speed of removal of seeds released at stations in the field decreased significantly with increasing endocarp thickness. We found no significant correlations between seed removal speed and other seed traits such as seed size, caloric value and tannin content. In seed selection experiments in small cages, Père David's rock squirrel ( Sciurotamias davidianus), a large-bodied, strong-jawed rodent, selected all of the five seed species, and the selection order among the five seed species was determined by endocarp thickness and the ratio of endocarp mass/seed mass. In contrast, the Korean field mouse ( Apodemus peninsulae) and Chinese white-bellied rat ( Niviventer confucianus), with relatively small bodies and weak jaws, preferred to select small seeds like acorns of Q. liaotungensis and seeds of P. armeniaca, indicating that rodent body size is also an important factor affecting food selection based on seed size. These results suggest endocarp thickness significantly reduces seed removal speed by rodents and then negatively affects dispersal fitness of seeds before seed removal of tree species in the study region. However, effect of endocarp thickness on final dispersal fitness needs further investigation because it may increase seed caching and survival after seed removal.

  11. Factors Affecting Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    M.Mathiyazhagan; A.Ganapathi

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable alternate fuel to diesel engines that could be partially orfully replace or reduce the use of petroleum diesel fuel. Biodiesel can be produced fromplant and animal fats through transesterification reaction. The transesterification reaction isaffected by molar ratio of alcohol, presence of water and Free Fatty Acid content, reactiontemperature, catalyst concentration and agitation speed. This review paper discuss aboutthe factors involved in transesterification reaction.

  12. Berry heterogeneity as a possible factor affecting the potential of seed mechanical properties to classify wine grape varieties and estimate flavanol release in wine-like solution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Torchio; S., Giacosa; S., Río Segade; V., Gerbi; L., Rolle.

    Full Text Available Seed mechanical properties were instrumentally measured by compression testing in thirty white and red wine grape varieties at harvest. The effect of berry heterogeneity in a vineyard on these seed texture parameters was also evaluated to improve the understanding of intra-sample variability. Furthe [...] rmore, the mechanical properties of the seeds were assessed as possible predictors of their phenolic extractability. The results show that the texture parameters of the seeds are independent of the location of the berry in the vineyard and the soluble solid content at harvest. Densimetric flotation of the berries permits the reduction of the intra-sample variability that could hinder the differentiation and/or classification of wine grape varieties according to seed mechanical attributes. Cluster analysis classified the wine grape varieties studied into three groups according to seed hardness (low: 32.51 to 40.80 N, intermediate: 42.84 to 44.99 N, high: 46.71 to 57.78 N). The relationships between the seed mechanical properties and the extractable content of phenolic compounds, determined by spectrophotometric and chromatographic reference chemical methods, were evaluated by means of correlation analysis. Linear regression calibration models were developed for each cluster. The statistical parameters highlighted that total flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and flavanols reactive to vanillin can be predicted successfully from the seed mechanical properties for the varieties having low and intermediate seed hardness (SEC% ca. 20, RPIQ > 1.6). For varieties with harder seeds, a satisfactory predictive accuracy seems to require the construction of separate calibration models for each cultivar (Nebbiolo, SEC% ca. 20, RPIQ > 2.2).

  13. Arabidopsis thaliana bZIP44: a transcription factor affecting seed germination and expression of the mannanase-encoding gene AtMAN7.

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Fernandez, Raquel; Barrero Sicilia, Cristina; Carrillo Barral, Nestor; Oñate Sanchez, Luis; Carbonero Zalduegui, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Endo-?-mannanases (MAN; EC. 3.2.1.78) catalyze the cleavage of ?1[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]4 bonds in mannan polymers and have been associated with the process of weakening the tissues surrounding the embryo during seed germination. In germinating Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, the most highly expressed MAN gene is AtMAN7 and its transcripts are restricted to the micropylar endosperm and to the radicle tip just before radicle emergence. Mutants with a T-DNA insertion in AtMAN7 have a slower germinatio...

  14. Factors affecting dystocia in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborski, D; Grzesiak, W; Szatkowska, I; Dybus, A; Muszynska, M; Jedrzejczak, M

    2009-06-01

    The paper reviews the various factors affecting dystocia in cattle. It is based mainly on the recent studies found in the literature of the subject but refers occasionally to some older papers as well. The factors are grouped into four main categories: direct factors, phenotypic factors related to calf and cow, non-genetic and genetic factors. The first group includes malpresentations and uterine torsion. The second one includes: calf birth weight, multiple calvings, perinatal mortality, cow pelvic area, cow body weight and body condition at calving, gestation length. The non-genetic factors are: cow age and parity, year and season of calving, place of calving, maintenance practises, disorders, calf sex and nutrition. Other non-genetic factors are the level of hormones in the periparturient period, in vitro production of embryos and embryo cloning. Finally, the genotypes of cow, bull and calf, inbreeding, muscular hypertrophy, selection and quantitative trait loci form the fourth group of genetic factors. PMID:19055561

  15. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

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    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  16. Sugarbeet seed’s yield and quality as affected by irrigation

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    Paola Rossi Pisa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation to the sugar-beet seed crop is a common practice since many years in Emilia Romagna region, even though information on the most suitable ways to irrigate is very limited. The aim of this three-year long experimentation was to evaluate the influence of timing and number of irrigation treatments on seed yield and quality. Treatments at the onset, at full, and at the end of flowering, wit all their possible combinations were compared among themselves and with the non-irrigated control. During the second and third years the water content of the soil was monitored weekly, starting from just before the first treatment to harvest. These measurements indicate that the upper layers (0-20 cm, which are more subjected to evapotranspiration, are more affected by irrigations than the deeper layers (20-40. The effectiveness of irrigation treatments on seed yield was tightly dependent in the distribution of precipitations. The treatments applied in full or late flowering, both separately or together, determined significant increases in yield and in the percentage of seed balls with a diameter higher than 4.0 mm, whereas those at the beginning of flowering did not produced any improvements. No significant effects of the different treatments on 1000-seed weight and germinability were observed, except for a slightly negative influence of irrigations applied at the end of flowering.When all the traits were considered, an overall moderate correlation was detected between seed yield and quality.

  17. Seed dimorphism, nutrients and salinity differentially affect seed traits of the desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica via multiple maternal effects

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    Wang Lei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects may influence a range of seed traits simultaneously and are likely to be context-dependent. Disentangling the interactions of plant phenotype and growth environment on various seed traits is important for understanding regeneration and establishment of species in natural environments. Here, we used the seed-dimorphic plant Suaeda aralocaspica to test the hypothesis that seed traits are regulated by multiple maternal effects. Results Plants grown from brown seeds had a higher brown:black seed ratio than plants from black seeds, and germination percentage of brown seeds was higher than that of black seeds under all conditions tested. However, the coefficient of variation (CV for size of black seeds was higher than that of brown seeds. Seeds had the smallest CV at low nutrient and high salinity for plants from brown seeds and at low nutrient and low salinity for plants from black seeds. Low levels of nutrients increased size and germinability of black seeds but did not change the seed morph ratio or size and germinability of brown seeds. High levels of salinity decreased seed size but did not change the seed morph ratio. Seeds from high-salinity maternal plants had a higher germination percentage regardless of level of germination salinity. Conclusions Our study supports the multiple maternal effects hypothesis. Seed dimorphism, nutrient and salinity interacted in determining a range of seed traits of S. aralocaspica via bet-hedging and anticipatory maternal effects. This study highlights the importance of examining different maternal factors and various offspring traits in studies that estimate maternal effects on regeneration.

  18. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

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    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  19. The Arabidopsis MYB96 transcription factor plays a role in seed dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Gil; Lee, Kyounghee; Seo, Pil Joon

    2015-03-01

    Seed dormancy facilitates to endure environmental disadvantages by confining embryonic growth until the seeds encounter favorable environmental conditions for germination. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) play a pivotal role in the determination of the seed dormancy state. ABA establishes seed dormancy, while GA triggers seed germination. Here, we demonstrate that MYB96 contributes to the fine-tuning of seed dormancy regulation through the coordination of ABA and GA metabolism. The MYB96-deficient myb96-1 seeds germinated earlier than wild-type seeds, whereas delayed germination was observed in the activation-tagging myb96-1D seeds. The differences in germination rate disappeared after stratification or after-ripening. The MYB96 transcription factor positively regulates ABA biosynthesis genes 9-CIS-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE 2 (NCED2), NCED5, NCED6, and NCED9, and also affects GA biosynthetic genes GA3ox1 and GA20ox1. Notably, MYB96 directly binds to the promoters of NCED2 and NCED6, primarily modulating ABA biosynthesis, which subsequently influences GA metabolism. In agreement with this, hyperdormancy of myb96-1D seeds was recovered by an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone, while hypodormancy of myb96-1 seeds was suppressed by a GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC). Taken together, the metabolic balance of ABA and GA underlies MYB96 control of primary seed dormancy. PMID:25616734

  20. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SORGHUM SEEDS AS AFFECTED BY SIDEDRESSED NITROGEN FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA ZAMPAR TOLEDO

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum has been used as promising specie in dry winter regions at crop rotation systems. Among the factors that interfere on its seed production, the action of the soil environment, due to its management, associated to plant nutrition mainly by nitrogen, can produce seeds of high quality. The present research had the objective to evaluate the effects of side-dressed nitrogen doses on physiological quality of sorghum seeds. The experimental design was the completely randomized block, with five treatments of side-dressed nitrogen, applied at the doses 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1, in the urea form, with four replications. The sorghum seeds were evaluated by protein, germination and vigor tests. The results were submitted to analysis of variance, regression and correlation test. By the results it can be concluded that the physiological quality of sorghum seeds is affected by side-dressed nitrogen application and that the dose of 100 kg ha-1 resulted in higher seed quality.

  1. Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    K. Abu-Alruz; I.A. Afaneh; J.M. Quasem; M.A. Hmidat; J. Abbady; A.S. Mazahreh

    2011-01-01

    The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol) contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ...

  2. Soil Moisture and Fungi Affect Seed Survival in California Grassland Annual Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Mordecai, Erin A.

    2012-01-01

    Survival of seeds in the seed bank is important for the population dynamics of many plant species, yet the environmental factors that control seed survival at a landscape level remain poorly understood. These factors may include soil moisture, vegetation cover, soil type, and soil pathogens. Because many soil fungi respond to moisture and host species, fungi may mediate environmental drivers of seed survival. Here, I measure patterns of seed survival in California annual grassland plants acro...

  3. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout

    OpenAIRE

    Fethi Ahmet INAN; Erman YUKSELTURK

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention ...

  4. Endozoochorus dispersal of aquatic plants: does seed gut passage affect plant perfomance?

    OpenAIRE

    Figuerola, Jordi; Santamaría, Luis; Green, Andy J.; Luque, Isabel; Alvarez, Raquel; Charalambidou, Iris

    2005-01-01

    The ingestion of seeds by vertebrates can affect the germinability and/or germination rate of seeds. It is, however, unclear if an earlier germination as a result of ingestion affects later plant performance. For sago pondweed, Potamogeton pectinatus, the effects of seed ingestion by ducks on both germinability and germination rate have been previously reported from laboratory experiments. We performed an experiment to determine the effects of seed ingestion by ducks on germination, seedling ...

  5. Radish (Raphanus sativus) seed size affects germination response to coumarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. Studies reporting these results used a large number of plant species that varied in seed size, which might have introduced differences in germination characteristics or various parameter...

  6. Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abu-Alruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ended in July 2008. The following 11 factors were taken into consideration during sample collection: olive fly infection, topography, olive storage before pressing, geographical area, effect of olive seeds during oil extraction, effect of pressing temperature, presence of olive leaves during oil extraction, soil type, maturity index of the olive fruit, olive variety and oil preservation and storage in terms of storage container types. The results show that soil type, region, maturity index and olive fly infection are the main factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol. Pressing temperature, olive storage before pressing, olive variety and oil storage showed a moderate effect. Olive seeds, topography and presence of olive leaves had a negligible effect on D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil.

  7. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING PARTNERSHIP ON SEED POTATO SUPPLY CHAIN IN WEST JAVA

    OpenAIRE

    Takdir Mulyad, M.; Daryanto, Heny K.; Bustanul Arifin; Arif Iman Suroso

    2014-01-01

    The low productivity of certified seed potatoes is a national problem needs to be solved hrough a partnership system. This study aimed to determine the dominant factors that affect the partnership and to analyze critical issues of the partnership's life cycle through an optimization approach of the success of the supply chain partnership. Data were collected through interviews and distribution of questionnaires to 175 respondents involved in the seed potato partnership within the peri...

  8. Differential seed handling by two African primates affects seed fate and establishment of large-seeded trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Camp, Nicole D.; Kaplin, Beth A.

    2011-11-01

    We examined the influence of seed handling by two semi-terrestrial African forest primates, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) and l'Hoest's monkeys ( Cercopithecus lhoesti), on the fate of large-seeded tree species in an afromontane forest. Chimpanzees and l'Hoest's monkeys dispersed eleven seed species over one year, with quantity and quality of dispersal varying through time. Primates differed in their seed handling behaviors with chimpanzees defecating large seeds (>0.5 cm) significantly more than l'Hoest's. Furthermore, they exhibited different oral-processing techniques with chimpanzees discarding wadges containing many seeds and l'Hoest's monkeys spitting single seeds. A PCA examined the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and the site where primates deposited seeds. The first two components explained almost half of the observed variation. Microhabitat characteristics associated with sites where seeds were defecated had little overlap with those characteristics describing where spit seeds arrived, suggesting that seed handling in part determines the location where seeds are deposited. We monitored a total of 552 seed depositions through time, recording seed persistence, germination, and establishment. Defecations were deposited significantly farther from an adult conspecific than orally-discarded seeds where they experienced the greatest persistence but poorest establishment. In contrast, spit seeds were deposited closest to an adult conspecific but experienced the highest seed establishment rates. We used experimental plots to examine the relationship between seed handling, deposition site, and seed fate. We found a significant difference in seed handling and fate, with undispersed seeds in whole fruits experiencing the lowest establishment rates. Seed germination differed by habitat type with open forest experiencing the highest rates of germination. Our results highlight the relationship between primate seed handling and deposition site and seed fate, and may be helpful in developing models to predict seed shadows and recruitment patterns of large-seeded trees.

  9. FACTORES ANTINUTRICIONALES EN SEMILLAS ANTINUTRITIONAL FACTORS IN EATABLE SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA DE DIOS ELIZALDE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo proporciona una revisión de los conocimientos relacionados con los factores antinutricionales, más comunes, presentes en algunos alimentos, especialmente en semillas comestibles. Además se incluyen datos relacionados con su naturaleza química, efectos sobre los procesos digestivos y aprovechamiento de nutrientes, posibles formas de inactivación, y algunos efectos benéficos para la salud o propiedades terapéuticas.The present article gives a review of knowledge on several aspects, inherent in the factors antinutritionals. There is included the information about biochemical nature, its presence in some foods, especially in eatable seeds. There are analyzed aspects related with its nutritional meaning, as effects over the digestive process and the utilization of nutrients; possible forms of inactivation and some beneficial effects for the health and the therapeutics properties.

  10. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  11. Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Bagher Kamali; Farideh Azimi

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural developmentin Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have abetter insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as alearning forum for bringing about changes for all participants,they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciativeinquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting thefacilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors andpr...

  12. Factors Affecting Calves Suckling Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Ionel Neamt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of paper was to assess effects of environmental and physiological related factors on suckling behavior patterns. The study was carried out on 120 Romanian Spotted calves. Two behavioral traits were considered: total daily required interval and required interval for each meal. Traits were studied according to: calves viability, calving season, type of calving, calving ease and meal sequence. Significant differences were recorded for calves viability (viable vs morbid, p?0.001, type of calving (single vs twinning, p?0.001, and calving ease (eutocya vs dystocia, p?0.001, being a proof of welfare, conferred by adaptability to new environment. No significant effect was recorded for season of calving (summer vs winter, p?0.05. Significant differences concerning required suckling interval, were recorded between meals, both seasons. for viable (p?0.001, morbid (p?0.05, singles (p?0.05 and calves born from eutocya births (p?0.001. No significant differences (p?0.05 recorded for twins and calves born from dystocia. Multifactorial regression model used, reveals that main effects on studied traits had viability (p?0.001, type of calving (p?0.01 and calving ease (p?0.05. It is reasonable to assume that the knowledge of suckling behavior contributes to optimal management of calves. Knowledge of these factors helps to develop adequately systems to improve calves suckling response.

  13. Factors affecting road crash modeling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Malaya, Mohanty; Ankit, Gupta.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Road accident fatalities have been on an increasing trend for the last decade or so in India. Hence traffic safety management has emerged as a topic of discussion for researchers all over the world. Hence accident modelling on different factors causing them has to be conducted. Accident mod [...] elling helps us to know the real causative agents behind an accident to occur. The effect of one cause can be greater than the other. And those causes can only be known from accident modelling. In this paper we have tried to divide this accident modelling techniques into two different categories based on the location of road i.e. accidents on urban roads and on rural roads. In both urban and rural road accident studies it was seen that mainly regression techniques like linear, multi-linear, logit and poisons regression have been used for modelling the road crashes. It was also marked that mostly authors have tried to research on one cause and go deep into it rather considering all factors at a time. From the studies it was found that speed and age along with gender has been the area of study for accident causes in urban areas whereas in rural roads mostly all authors have limited their studies to speed on roads and has been noted as the major cause of accidents in rural areas. This paper has tried to review as much papers as possible and various gaps in research along with future scope of study in this area has been indicated. Starting from the basic models like negative binomial/Poisson's model to the logistic and linear regressions to the new modeling techniques involving genetic mining and fuzzy logics have been discussed explicitly in the paper.

  14. Conditions Affecting Shelf-Life of Inoculated Legume Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Gemell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial inoculants are becoming more available as sustainable alternatives to fertilizers and other agrichemicals in broad-acre cropping. However, with the exception of legume inoculants little is understood about effective delivery and survival of the inoculum. Legume inoculants are applied to both seed and soil but seed inoculation is the most economical technique. Large quantities of pasture seed in Australia are inoculated by commercial seed coating companies, but the long-term survival of seed-applied inoculum is variable and monitoring of viability requires specialist microbiology skills and facilities. The aim of our research was to define optimum storage conditions for survival of rhizobia on legume seed and evaluate water activity as a means of monitoring shelf-life. The relationship between survival and water activity varied according to seed species, inoculum preparation, coating ingredients, initial water activity and time suggesting that storage conditions would need to be defined for each different combination. Although drying seeds after coating significantly reduced viable numbers of rhizobia, survival of rhizobia on dried commercially coated lucerne seed after 11 weeks was less variable than seeds that had not been dried. The highest numbers were maintained when seeds remained dry with water activities of between 0.47 and 0.38. The quality of inoculated seed could be improved by reducing the death rate of inoculum during preparation and providing optimum storage conditions for long-term survival.

  15. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethi Ahmet INAN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention is finding sufficient time to study. Having personal problems and affordability of the program took second and third place.

  16. Loss-of-function mutations affecting a specific Glycine max R2R3 MYB transcription factor result in brown hilum and brown seed coats

    OpenAIRE

    Gillman Jason D; Tetlow Ashley; Lee Jeong-Deong; Shannon J; Bilyeu Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although modern soybean cultivars feature yellow seed coats, with the only color variation found at the hila, the ancestral condition is black seed coats. Both seed coat and hila coloration are due to the presence of phenylpropanoid pathway derivatives, principally anthocyanins. The genetics of soybean seed coat and hilum coloration were first investigated during the resurgence of genetics during the 1920s, following the rediscovery of Mendel's work. Despite the inclusion ...

  17. Factors affecting calculation of L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotola, Mark P.

    2001-08-01

    A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient, radio signals from billions of stars. SETI could succeed tomorrow, or it may be an endeavor for multiple generations. We are a very young technology in a very old galaxy. While our own leakage radiation continues to outshine the Sun at many frequencies, we remain detectable to others. When our use of the spectrum becomes more efficient, it will be time to consider deliberate transmissions and the really tough questions: Who will speak for Earth? What will they say?

  18. Factors Affecting Employment of Welfare Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrissinger, Marlene Sonju

    1980-01-01

    Examined the relationship between the length of time worked by mothers receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children and three categories of variables. Only economic factors appeared to significantly affect the mothers' decision whether to work. (Author)

  19. The factors affecting women's contraceptive choices

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtog?lu, Emel; Arpaci, Haldun

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting women’s contraceptive choices. In this study, we included 507 subjects, of whom 108 were nulliparous and 399 of whom were multiparous. All were married women who were between 15-49 years old and had applied to the Ministry of Health Konya Eregli Hospital Obstetric and Gynaecology Polyclinic. An inquiry form was filled in during a face-to-face conversation which included their contraceptive choices, the factors affecting them,...

  20. Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

  1. MYB56 encoding a R2R3 MYB transcription factor regulates seed size in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Liang, Wanqi; Shi, Jianxin; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Dabing

    2013-11-01

    Plant seed size is tightly regulated by the development of seed coat, embryo, and endosperm; however, currently, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we revealed a regulatory role of an R2R3 MYB transcription factor MYB56 in controlling seed size specifically in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Loss-of-function or knock-down of MYB56 yielded smaller seeds as compared with the wild type. Conversely, overexpression of MYB56 produced larger seeds. Further observation using semi-thin sections showed that myb56 developed smaller contracted endothelial cells and reduced cell number in the outer integument layer of the seed coat during the seed development; by contrast, MYB56 overexpressing lines had expanded endothelial cells and increased cell number in the outer integument layer of the seed coat, suggesting the essential role of MYB56 in regulating seed development. In addition, reciprocal cross-analysis showed that MYB56 affected the seed development maternally. MYB56 was shown to be dominantly expressed in developing seeds, consistently with its function in seed development. Moreover, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that MYB56 regulates the expression of genes involved in cell wall metabolism such as cell division and expansion. Altogether, our results demonstrated that MYB56 represents an unknown pathway for positively controlling the seed size. PMID:23911125

  2. Factors Affecting Swedish Forest Property Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Carlsson; Lars Lönnstedt; Torbjörn Sundelin

    2014-01-01

    Historically the price of a forest estate has, at least in Sweden, been closely related to the financial return from the estate, but this connection no longer seems to be that strong, other factors that previously had limited influence on prices now add to the price. Factors like site productivity and age distribution affect the financial return of a forest estate but is it obvious that these factors still influence prices as they once did? Over the last 20 years, the p...

  3. Global analysis of gene activity during Arabidopsis seed development and identification of seed-specific transcription factors

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Brandon H.; Cheng, Chen; Bui, Anhthu Q.; Wagmaister, Javier A.; Henry, Kelli F.; Pelletier, Julie; Kwong, Linda; Belmonte, Mark; Kirkbride, Ryan; Horvath, Steve; Drews, Gary N.; Fischer, Robert L.; Okamuro, Jack K.; Harada, John J.; Goldberg, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Most of the transcription factors (TFs) responsible for controlling seed development are not yet known. To identify TF genes expressed at specific stages of seed development, including those unique to seeds, we used Affymetrix GeneChips to profile Arabidopsis genes active in seeds from fertilization through maturation and at other times of the plant life cycle. Seed gene sets were compared with those expressed in prefertilization ovules, germinating seedlings, and leaves, roots, stems, and fl...

  4. Fluorescein. Physiochemical factors affecting its fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, K G

    1982-01-01

    Fluorescein's property of fluorescence is reviewed. Of the many factors which affect its fluorescence, concentration is probably the most important and it best explains why leaking aqueous turns fluorescein bright green during Seidel's test. The intensity and pattern of fluorescein staining of corneal lesions is probably due to the concentration and distribution of fluorescein in the cornea. The concentration of fluorescein achieved in the retinal blood vessels during fluorescein angiography affects its fluorescence. PMID:7046118

  5. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  6. Factors affecting Internet development: An Asian survey

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoming, Hao; Kay, Chow

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the Internet development and various social, economic and political factors that are hypothesized to affect the Internet growth. Using secondary data for 28 sampled Asian countries, this study tested seven hypotheses about the impact of various factors on Internet growth. The findings show that the Internet penetration is related to a country’s wealth, telecommunication infrastructure, urbanization and stability of the government, but not related...

  7. The factors affecting the recarburization process indicators

    OpenAIRE

    K. Janerka; J. Szajnar; J. Jezierski; D. Bartocha

    2011-01-01

    The article presents the factors affecting the carburizing rates obtained (rate and efficiency) during the process of melting cast iron. The analysis includes the recarburizer type (anthracite, natural and synthetic graphite, petroleum coke) and particle size. Further factors considered in work are the methods of recarburization (recarburizer introduction to a solid charge and on the surface of the metal bath) and the parameters of the melt (temperature and chemical composition). The analysis...

  8. Factors Affecting Decisions on Practice Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, June E.; Miller, Deborah A.

    1986-01-01

    Questionnaires to determine the factors affecting the choice of practice were mailed to graduates of the University of Oklahoma Tulsa Medical College and their spouses. The results showed that graduates reared in large communities chose similar-sized communities as practice sites and placed high priority on their spouses' desires (Author/MLW)

  9. Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

  10. Plant factors influencing enzyme retting of fiber and seed flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, D E; Morrison, W H; Rigsby, L L; Dodd, R B

    2001-12-01

    Retting, which is the microbial activity through which bast fibers are released from nonfiber tissues, is the limiting factor in flax processing. The objective of this work is to identify chemical and structural characteristics in a variety of fiber and seed flax types that influence enzyme retting in a recently developed method. Analyses of flax retted in a series of tests, including two enzyme rettings in some cases, indicated that lignin did not limit the separation of fibers from shive and showed that pectinases in enzyme-retting mixtures could ret fiber and seed flax. However, mature stems, such as that in flax produced for seed, had greater amounts of cutin and wax in the cleaned fiber product, suggesting that the cuticle could be a greater antiquality factor in seed versus fiber flax. With seed flax, the fraction of finer fibers produced during retting was significantly lower than with fiber flax. Results indicated that enzyme retting could be used to obtain flax fibers from seed flax stem residues and add value to this agricultural material. PMID:11743763

  11. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING LABOR PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Prashant Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many problems arises in the construction based projects. The complex factors like cost, time duration, quality, safety and satisfaction may affect the quality of the building construction projects. In this paper, we will study the factors that affect the labor productivity in the field of building construction projects. The survey was distributed to Project Manager, Project Engineer, Architecture, and Others (Scheduler, and Estimator. It was concluded, final cost of the projects were higher than estimated cost. It’s recommended to develop human resources through proper and continuous training programs frame a well-built jobs, vision and a planned approach to overcome the disturbances on the performance of the construction projects. The conversed factors are estimated to support in carrying out construction projects productively.

  12. Optimization of chitosan treatments for managing microflora in lettuce seeds without affecting germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, M G; Moreira, M R; Viacava, G E; Roura, S I

    2013-01-30

    Many studies have focused on seed decontamination but no one has been capable of eliminating all pathogenic bacteria. Two objectives were followed. First, to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of chitosan against: (a) Escherichia coli O157:H7, (b) native microflora of lettuce and (c) native microflora of lettuce seeds. Second, to evaluate the efficiency of chitosan on reducing microflora on lettuce seeds. The overall goal was to find a combination of contact time and chitosan concentration that reduces the microflora of lettuce seeds, without affecting germination. After treatment lettuce seeds presented no detectable microbial counts (seeds) for all populations. Moreover, chitosan eliminated E. coli. Regardless of the reduction in the microbial load, a 90% reduction on germination makes imbibition with chitosan, uneconomical. Subsequent treatments identified the optimal treatment as 10 min contact with a 10 g/L chitosan solution, which maintained the highest germination percentage. PMID:23218371

  13. Seed coating with a neonicotinoid insecticide negatively affects wild bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundlöf, Maj; Andersson, Georg K S; Bommarco, Riccardo; Fries, Ingemar; Hederström, Veronica; Herbertsson, Lina; Jonsson, Ove; Klatt, Björn K; Pedersen, Thorsten R; Yourstone, Johanna; Smith, Henrik G

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on bees is vital because of reported declines in bee diversity and distribution and the crucial role bees have as pollinators in ecosystems and agriculture. Neonicotinoids are suspected to pose an unacceptable risk to bees, partly because of their systemic uptake in plants, and the European Union has therefore introduced a moratorium on three neonicotinoids as seed coatings in flowering crops that attract bees. The moratorium has been criticized for being based on weak evidence, particularly because effects have mostly been measured on bees that have been artificially fed neonicotinoids. Thus, the key question is how neonicotinoids influence bees, and wild bees in particular, in real-world agricultural landscapes. Here we show that a commonly used insecticide seed coating in a flowering crop can have serious consequences for wild bees. In a study with replicated and matched landscapes, we found that seed coating with Elado, an insecticide containing a combination of the neonicotinoid clothianidin and the non-systemic pyrethroid ?-cyfluthrin, applied to oilseed rape seeds, reduced wild bee density, solitary bee nesting, and bumblebee colony growth and reproduction under field conditions. Hence, such insecticidal use can pose a substantial risk to wild bees in agricultural landscapes, and the contribution of pesticides to the global decline of wild bees may have been underestimated. The lack of a significant response in honeybee colonies suggests that reported pesticide effects on honeybees cannot always be extrapolated to wild bees. PMID:25901681

  14. How various plasma sources may affect seed gemination and growth.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena; Gajdová, Iveta; ?ermák, M.; Gavril, B.; Hnatiuc, E.; Ková?ik, D.; K?íha, V.; Sláma, J.; Šerý, M.; Špatenka, P.

    Brasov : Universitatea Transilvania din Brasov, 2012 - (Clotea, L.; Cernat, M.), s. 1365-1370 ISBN 978-1-4673-1650-7. [Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM), 2012 13th International Conference. Brasov (RO), 24.05.2012-26.05.2012] Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : non thermal plasma * atmospheric pressure * biotechnology * systems biology * seed germination * early growth Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  15. How various plasma sources may affect seed germination and growth.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena; Gajdová, Iveta; ?ermák, M.; Gavril, B.; Hnatiuc, E.; Ková?ik, D.; K?íha, V.; Sláma, J.; Šerý, M.; Špatenka, P.

    Brasov : Universitatea Transilvania din Brasov, 2012 - (Clotea, L.; Cernat, M.). s. 250-250 ISBN 978-1-4673-1650-7. [International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment /13./ OPTIM 2012. 24.05.-26.05.2012, Brasov] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : seed germination * bio-plasma * nonthermal plasma * biotechnology Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  16. Tillage and residue burning affects weed populations and seed banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, S; Sindel, B M; Jessop, R S

    2006-01-01

    An integrated weed management approach requires alternative management practices to herbicide use such as tillage, crop rotations and cultural controls to reduce soil weed seed banks. The objective of this study was to examine the value of different tillage practices and stubble burning to exhaust the seed bank of common weeds from the northern grain region of Australia. Five tillage and burning treatments were incorporated in a field experiment, at Armidale (30 degrees 30'S, 151 degrees 40'E), New South Wales, Australia in July 2004 in a randomized block design replicated four times. The trial was continued and treatments repeated in July 2005 with all the mature plants from the first year being allowed to shed seed in their respective treatment plots. The treatments were (i) no tillage (NT), (ii) chisel ploughing (CP), (iii) mould board ploughing (MBP), (iv) wheat straw burning with no tillage (SBNT) and (v) wheat straw burning with chisel ploughing (SBC). Soil samples were collected before applying treatments and before the weeds flowered to establish the seed bank status of the various weeds in the soil. Wheat was sown after the tillage treatments. Burning treatments were only initiated in the second year, one month prior to tillage treatments. The major weeds present in the seed bank before initiating the trial were Polygonum aviculare, Sonchus oleraceus and Avena fatua. Tillage promoted the germination of other weeds like Hibiscus trionum, Medicago sativa, Vicia sp. and Phalaris paradoxa later in the season in 2004 and Convolvulus erubescens emerged as a new weed in 2005. The MBP treatment in 2004 reduced the weed biomass to a significantly lower level of 55 g/m2 than the other treatments of CP (118 g/m2) and NT plots (196 g/m2) (P < 0.05). However, in 2005 SBC and MBP treatments were similar in reducing the weed biomass. In 2004, the grain yield trend of wheat was significantly different between CP and NT, and MBP and NT (P < 0.05) with maximum yield of 5898 kg/ha in CP and 5731 kg/ha in MBP. Rainfall before the start of the second trial season promoted the germination of a large numbers of weeds. SBC and MBP treatments reduced the numbers of most of the individual weed species compared with CP, SBNT and NT. SBC was able to destroy a large proportion of seeds most likely through burning and burying some in the soil and was found to be the best treatment in exhausting the seed bank followed closely by MBP which probably buried large number of seeds deep in the soil and promoted others to germinate. CP might have buried some of the seeds in the top 5-10 cm but also promoted parts of the seed bank to germinate. SBNT and NT provided an ideal medium for weeds to germinate and resulted in heavy infestations of weeds. PMID:17390813

  17. Milling Performance and Other Quality Traits Affected by Seed Shape in Isogenic Lines of Desi Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Wood

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Milling of pulses generally involves removal of the seed coat and splitting of the cotyledons to produce splits or ‘dhal’. The aim of this research was to investigate whether seed shape affected seed quality using two sets of near-isogenic lines differing by a single allele at the seed shape locus (Rd/rd. Seed shape had a profound effect on milling quality: rounded seeds produced 7% more dhal than their angular counterparts. There were also significant effects on other quality parameters attributable to seed shape: rounded seeds had less seed coat content because it was thinner, a more intense seed coat colour, faster water absorption but lower hydration capacity and a slightly longer dhal cooking time. This study shows that seed shape is more important than seed coat thickness from a milling perspective and suggests that breeding programs should select for rounder shaped desi chickpeas to maximise dhal yields and profitability for the splitting industry.

  18. The factors affecting the recarburization process indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janerka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the factors affecting the carburizing rates obtained (rate and efficiency during the process of melting cast iron. The analysis includes the recarburizer type (anthracite, natural and synthetic graphite, petroleum coke and particle size. Further factors considered in work are the methods of recarburization (recarburizer introduction to a solid charge and on the surface of the metal bath and the parameters of the melt (temperature and chemical composition. The analysis was based on experiments performed, the calculation results of computer simulations and literature data.

  19. Factors that affect toilet training in children

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar Önen; ?lknur Aksoy; Ays?in Tas?ar, M.; Y?ld?z Dallar Bilge

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify age of initiation of toilet training and affecting factors for children. Material and Methods: 861 children were included in this study. "Chi square test", "Mann-Whitney U Test" and "Kruskall-Wallis Variance Analysis" statistical analysis methods have been applied. Ethical permission has been provided by local ethical committee. Results: 861 children under age of five were evaluated in this study (average age was 4±0.9); 433 children were boy (50.3%), 428 children were...

  20. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having th...

  1. Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sertac Gonenc; Harun Tanrivermis

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It h...

  2. Gallbladder polyps: Factors affecting surgical decision

    OpenAIRE

    Pinar Sarkut; Sadik Kilicturgay; Ali Ozer; Ersin Ozturk; Tuncay Yilmazlar

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the factors affecting the decision to perform surgery, and the efficiency of ultrasonography (USG) in detecting gallbladder polyps (GP). METHODS: Data for 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1996 and 2012 in our clinic with a diagnosis of GP were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were evaluated. Patients were evaluated in individual groups according to the age ...

  3. Which Factors Affect Adolescent Food Preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hunger, extreme desire to eat a certain food, taste, price, and convenience are among the main There are various factors that affect food preferences. Hunger, extreme desire to eat a certain food, taste, price, and convenience are among the main factors affecting food preferences. Additionally, general nutritional habits, family, friends, commercials, and availability of the food are also important for food preferences. Also, past experiences with foods are related to preferring or rejecting some foods. Socializing more with increasing age causes change in the food preferences of adolescents. Unhealthy nutrition habits form as a result of the adolescents consuming fast foods, spending time with their friends outside the house, and consuming more ready-made foods. Current developments in the food industry result in an increase in variety and consumption of snacks such as cookies, chocolate, chips, and crackers in adolescents. Considering all these, in this rewiev article, environmental and personal factors affecting food preferences have been investigated. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2013; 11: 121-7

  4. Factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F Y; Tsao, P H; Wang, D C; Lin, S; Wu, J S; Cheng, Y K

    2006-06-01

    Growth factors that are present in goat milk may be responsible for its beneficial effects on the digestive system as described in ancient Chinese medical texts. To develop a nutraceutical product rich in growth factors for promoting gastrointestinal health, it is essential to collect milk with consistently high growth factor activity. Therefore, we investigated the factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk. Among the 5 breeds of dairy goats tested, milk from Nubian goats had the highest growth factor activity. Tight-junction leakage induced by a 24-h milking interval did not increase growth factor activity in the milk. Milk collected from pregnant does had a significantly higher growth factor activity than milk collected postpartum. Growth factor activity decreased during the first 8 wk of lactation, fluctuated thereafter, and then increased dramatically after natural mating. During wk 1 to 8, growth factor activity was inversely correlated with milk yield and week of lactation. No correlation was observed during wk 9 to 29. After natural mating of the goats, the growth factor activity in the milk correlated significantly with somatic cell count and conductivity (a measure of membrane permeability), and correlated inversely with milk yield. Based on the above data, goat milk with higher growth factor activity could be selectively collected from Nubian pregnant does. PMID:16702258

  5. Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in highith retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

  6. Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Kamali

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural developmentin Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have abetter insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as alearning forum for bringing about changes for all participants,they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciativeinquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting thefacilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors andpreventing factors. The former are: two-way communication,election of rural eligible facilitators, participation, sense ofresponsibility, and the latter are: cultural and tribal fanaticism,lack of permanent female extension workers and frequentmanagement changes. Appreciative inquiry as a positive modeof action research could facilitate the process of education andcommunication for all stakeholders. We suggested that thereshould be a shift from the extension as a knowledge transfer tofacilitation as people’s own knowledge creation. This studyshowed that appreciative inquiry could facilitate the process ofchange and gender-awareness. This research method couldalso facilitate mutual communication between the rural facilitatorsand extension workers.

  7. Interaction of factors modifying the radiosensitivity of dormant seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented on modification of radiation-induced effects in dormant plant seeds. Possible sources of discrepancy of data in the earlier literature are analysed. Approaches to the correct experimental study of mechanisms of interaction of environmental factors (water content, temperature, storage conditions) in the modification of radiobiological reactions are discussed. Progress in the radiation biology of plant seeds, achieved by precise control of experimental conditions, is considered. Plant genera used were barley, rice, maize, wheat, lupins, cotton, oats, pine, pea, crepis, brassica, lactuca, lycopersicon, trifohum, festuca, hibiscus. (author)

  8. Factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tadeu Silva de, Oliveira; Fernando de Paula, Leonel; Cássio José da, Silva; Danielle Ferreira, Baffa; José Carlos, Pereira; Joanis Tilemahos, Zervoudakis.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to present some factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats. To develop our work, individual and average data from performance experiments with lactating goats were used. The following variables were evaluated: gross feed efficiency, adjusted feed efficiency, dry [...] matter intake, milk-yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter digestibility, dietary neutral detergent fiber content, different roughage-to-concentrate ratios and body weight. The statistical analyses involved the application of descriptive and dispersion measures besides Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis. The analyzed variables were highly correlated with feed efficiency. The feed efficiency of lactating goats was affected by the milk fat correction, dry matter digestibility, dietary fiber content, proportion of roughage in the diet and body weight. Among these factors, standardization of the milk fat appeared to be the most efficient in correcting the feed efficiency in lactating goats. Correction of some of these factors implies greater precision in the measurement of feed efficiency.

  9. Global analysis of gene activity during Arabidopsis seed development and identification of seed-specific transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Brandon H; Cheng, Chen; Bui, Anhthu Q; Wagmaister, Javier A; Henry, Kelli F; Pelletier, Julie; Kwong, Linda; Belmonte, Mark; Kirkbride, Ryan; Horvath, Steve; Drews, Gary N; Fischer, Robert L; Okamuro, Jack K; Harada, John J; Goldberg, Robert B

    2010-05-01

    Most of the transcription factors (TFs) responsible for controlling seed development are not yet known. To identify TF genes expressed at specific stages of seed development, including those unique to seeds, we used Affymetrix GeneChips to profile Arabidopsis genes active in seeds from fertilization through maturation and at other times of the plant life cycle. Seed gene sets were compared with those expressed in prefertilization ovules, germinating seedlings, and leaves, roots, stems, and floral buds of the mature plant. Most genes active in seeds are shared by all stages of seed development, although significant quantitative changes in gene activity occur. Each stage of seed development has a small gene set that is either specific at the level of the GeneChip or up-regulated with respect to genes active at other stages, including those that encode TFs. We identified 289 seed-specific genes, including 48 that encode TFs. Seven of the seed-specific TF genes are known regulators of seed development and include the LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC) genes LEC1, LEC1-LIKE, LEC2, and FUS3. The rest represent different classes of TFs with unknown roles in seed development. Promoter-beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion experiments and seed mRNA localization GeneChip datasets showed that the seed-specific TF genes are active in different compartments and tissues of the seed at unique times of development. Collectively, these seed-specific TF genes should facilitate the identification of regulatory networks that are important for programming seed development. PMID:20385809

  10. Maternal environment affects the genetic basis of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Froukje M; Ågren, Jon

    2015-02-01

    The genetic basis of seed dormancy, a key life history trait important for adaptive evolution in plant populations, has yet been studied only using seeds produced under controlled conditions in greenhouse environments. However, dormancy is strongly affected by maternal environmental conditions, and interactions between seed genotype and maternal environment have been reported. Consequently, the genetic basis of dormancy of seeds produced under natural field conditions remains unclear. We examined the effect of maternal environment on the genetic architecture of seed dormancy using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between two locally adapted populations of Arabidopsis thaliana from Italy and Sweden. We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for dormancy of seeds produced in the greenhouse and at the native field sites of the parental genotypes. The Italian genotype produced seeds with stronger dormancy at fruit maturation than did the Swedish genotype in all three environments, and the maternal field environments induced higher dormancy levels compared to the greenhouse environment in both genotypes. Across the three maternal environments, a total of nine dormancy QTL were detected, three of which were only detected among seeds matured in the field, and six of which showed significant QTL × maternal environment interactions. One QTL had a large effect on dormancy across all three environments and colocalized with the candidate gene DOG1. Our results demonstrate the importance of studying the genetic basis of putatively adaptive traits under relevant conditions. PMID:25640699

  11. Distance to seed sources and land-use history affect forest development over a long-termheathland to forest succession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepfer Rojas, Sebastian; Schmidt, Inger Kappel

    2014-01-01

    Questions Is there a spatial pattern in the community structure (stem densities, species richness and species composition) of trees and shrubs during more than 100 yr of heathland to forest succession? To what extent is community structure influenced by land-use history and distance to seed sources? Do these effects change in time? Location A 350-ha heathland (Nørholm) in southwest Denmark was abandoned in 1895 and left for free succession. Prior to abandonment the heathland was under traditional management for centuries. Method Trees and shrubs were recorded and measured in ten surveys spanning 91 yr (1921–2012). In the first nine surveys, complete censuses were used, whereas 116 randomly placed plots (10-m radius) were used in the most recent survey. We used mixed models and different multivariate techniques (non-metric multidimensional scaling and permutational multivariate ANOVA) to analyse spatio-temporal patterns in stem densities, species richness and species composition and the effects of land-use history and distance to seed sources. Results Tree and shrub densities increased exponentially over time and were consistently lower at longer distance from seed sources. Land-use history affected the rate of increase in tree densities, with lower encroachment rates at previously cultivated soils. Initially, species richness increased rapidly but leveled off in later successional stages. Richness was marginally higher at areas closer to seed sources, whereas it was not affected by land-use history. The succession showed a shift from early to mid-successional species over time; but distance to seed source determined which species were colonizing at early stages. Conclusion Distance to seed source and land-use history can differentially affect the structure and spatial patterns of developing forest communities. Although both factors had long-lasting effects on rates of colonization, the spatial patterns of colonization and species composition were mainly determined by distance to seed sources. The importance of distance to seed sources became less over time, suggesting that dispersal is a stronger driver at early stages. After more than a century since abandonment, forest covers <30% of the area, indicating that lack of heathland management did not strongly promote tree colonization at this site.

  12. AN OVERVIEW ON FACTORS AFFECTING GLOBAL HRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Gondane

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mounting economic interdependence of countries globally through rising volume and multiplicity of cross border transactions in goods and services and international capital flows, and also through the more rapid and prevalent diffusion of technology had influences organizations that compete for customers with high expectations for performance, quality, and cost. The globe trade and industry order is changing speedily. Evolutionary transformations are taking place at revolutionary speed, principally pressed by strong external forces, arising out of a desire to rising competitiveness and competence. The organizations of world are no longer defined by national boundaries. Globalization also put forth stress on the Human Resource Management (HRM function to adjust to changing organizational needs, add greater value and hence, HRM is especially involved with those employees who are working across national boundaries in multinational or global enterprises. Functioning on an international level entails that the assumption of a universality of HR policies and practices and the faith in to administer in one best way has become indefensible. Aglobal organization wishes a worldwide HRM system that features decision making from a global point of view, managers from across national boundaries, and thoughts contributed by people from a diversity of cultures. The participants from different countries and cultures contribute ideas from a position of equality, rather than the home country's culture dominating. Organizations that function in more than one country must be acquainted with the countries that are not identical and differ in terms of many factors. This present research paper is an attempt to reviews major factors affecting HRM. The intention of this study is to examine the challenges/factors affecting the role of HRM.

  13. Factors Affecting Electricity Demand in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Awad Momani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 1 The paper examines the relationship between electricity demand and climate/non-climate related factors using statistical regression analysis. 2 It focuses on the environmental, demographic, policy (energy pricing and technological factors as the main factors affecting the consumption pattern in Jordan. 3 The paper also presents the variations occurred in the electricity demand over the period 1994-2008. The variations that are observed during the period of study are: Shifting of the peak load occurrence from evening to morning period, Modification in the annual daily load curve especially in winter season, Variation in relationship between space temperature and demand especially in winter, and dramatic increase in electric generation after year 2003. The shift in peak load from evening to morning period is mainly due to technological factor as a result of wide use of the air conditions in houses, services and government offices for cooling in summer instead of ordinary air fans. The variations in consumption pattern between 2000 and 2007 are mainly associated with economic, social and demographic factors. The high demand at lower space temperature is governed by introducing new appliances for heating in winter as a result of low electricity pricing comparing with gasoline price. The dramatic increase in electric generation after 2003 is probably due to demographic factors as a result of high growth of population after the Gulf war II. 4 The correlation between the daily maximum loads in morning and evening periods with the differential temperature (?T above 20?C threshold in summer and below 15?C threshold in winter, shows pronounced changes in 2007 compared with year 2000. The regression tests show that a decrease of 1?C below 15?C threshold in winter 1 increases the morning demand by only 2 MW/?C in 2000 and 16.7 MW/?C in 2007, 2 decreases the evening peak by ?2.6 MW/1?C in 2000 and increases the evening peak by 22.9 MW/1?C in 2007. Results show that the demographic, technological, environmental and national energy pricing factors play a vital rule in consumption pattern in Jordan. Moreover, the paper reveals that planners and decision makers should be careful when applying new tariff in the developing countries such as Jordan.

  14. Genome-wide association mapping and biochemical markers reveal that seed ageing and longevity are intricately affected by genetic background and developmental and environmental conditions in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Manuela; Kranner, Ilse; Neumann, Kerstin; Rolletschek, Hardy; Seal, Charlotte E; Colville, Louise; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Börner, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Globally, over 7.4 million accessions of crop seeds are stored in gene banks, and conservation of genotypic variation is pivotal for breeding. We combined genetic and biochemical approaches to obtain a broad overview of factors that influence seed storability and ageing in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Seeds from a germplasm collection of 175 genotypes from four continents grown in field plots with different nutrient supply were subjected to two artificial ageing regimes. Genome-wide association mapping revealed 107 marker trait associations, and hence, genotypic effects on seed ageing. Abiotic and biotic stresses were found to affect seed longevity. To address aspects of abiotic, including oxidative, stress, two major antioxidant groups were analysed. No correlation was found between seed deterioration and the lipid-soluble tocochromanols, nor with oil, starch and protein contents. Conversely, the water-soluble glutathione and related thiols were converted to disulphides, indicating a strong shift towards more oxidizing intracellular conditions, in seeds subjected to long-term dry storage at two temperatures or to two artificial ageing treatments. The data suggest that intracellular pH and (bio)chemical processes leading to seed deterioration were influenced by the type of ageing or storage. Moreover, seed response to ageing or storage treatment appears to be significantly influenced by both maternal environment and genetic background. PMID:25328120

  15. Factors Affecting Profitability of Layer Hens Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebraheem Altahat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Layer hen enterprises suffer from low profitability or losses in many of developing countries all over the world. Jordan is not an acceptance. Approach: This study aimed at investigating the influence of ten main factors affecting the profitability of layer hen producers. The investigated factors include price of purchased pullet, feed price, cost of labor, cost of veterinary service and medicine, building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance and miscellaneous costs, length of production cycle, feed conversion ratio, mortality rate, egg sale price and laying percentage. Results: The study used a multiple regression profit model to estimate the effect of the above mentioned factors on profit per kg egg produced. The direction and quantity of relationship between profit per kg egg and variables affecting profit were investigated. Data from 40 operating and randomly selected egg production enterprises in the country was collected. Data was obtained directly from the producers during April to mid August 2010. Semi structured interviews were conducted with a pre-tested questionnaire. The data obtained via interview surveys were processed to calculate profit per kg egg and other relevant information for inclusion in a profit function model. Fifteen eggs are registered to be 1 kg in the study. Cost and income items used to calculate profit in the study. The results of the study revealed that the feed price was found to be the factor which has the highest negative impact on the profitability showing the coefficient-3.01. The egg sale price was with high positive impact on profitability showing the coefficient 2.633. Conclusion/Recommendations: From the results of the study it could be concluded that higher prices of purchased or breeding pullet, higher feed price, higher cost of labor, higher cost of veterinary service and medicine, higher other costs including building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance and miscellaneous costs, higher feed quantity to be converted to eggs and higher mortality rate are associated with lower profitability of laying hen enterprises, while higher length of production cycle, higher egg sale price and higher laying percentage are associated with higher profitability. Critical limits indicated for various cost components should be used as a guideline to adjust budget in commercial egg operation thereby, ensuring higher net profit per bird.

  16. Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

  17. Factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sanaa Abd El Azim

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses. The study was carried out at Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, on 207 student nurses from four different grades. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, consisted of 30 items, was used to measure the students' assertiveness level and a 12-item scale developed by Spreitzer was used to measure students' psychological empowerment. The study results showed that 60.4% of the students were assertive, while about half of the students were empowered. A positive relation between student assertiveness and psychological empowerment was detected. Moreover, positive relations regarding family income and students' assertiveness and psychological empowerment were determined. The study recommended introduction of specific courses aiming at enhancing the acquisition of assertiveness skills, in addition, nurse educators must motivate their students to express their opinion and personal rights and also they must pay attention for students' empowerment and enhance students' autonomy. PMID:20696504

  18. Factors affecting success of agricultural producers groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Chlebicka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor organisation of agricultural markets in Poland remains one of the biggest problems for agricultural sector. There are about 510 agricultural producer groups, but only 2% of Polish farmers selling for market are members. Knowledge on cooperation determinants and different aspects of producer groups performance is crucial to build references for policy makers and producer groups’ managers. The aim of the article was to discuss factors affecting success of producers groups understood as a level of members’ satisfaction. Data for 2006 and 2011 from 30 producers groups in fruit and vegetable sector were analysed using logit model. Three determinants occurred to be statistically important: scope of a group functions, informal cooperation with farmers before starting a formal cooperation and homogeneity of farms.

  19. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

  20. Maturity dates affect soybean seed constituents protein, oil ash and moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shad K. Khalil

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of soybean seed at harvest is dependent on the field production environment during development and maturation on the plant. These investigations were conducted to evaluate the effect of planting dates on soybean protein, oil, ash and moisture content. Soybean seeds were planted in the spring (January 13, January 16, February 19 and March 1 and in the Fall (July 10, July 20, July 26 and August 25, 1991 at Agriculture Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan. Planting dates were manipulated in such a way that seed developed and matured at high temperature for spring planted crops, while seed development and maturation occurred at low temperature for all planted crops. Mature seeds that developed under these conditions were analyzed for differences in composition. Protein, oil and ash contents were strongly affected by planting date (different temperature at pod fill. Seed that matured at high temperature (spring planting resulted in higher protein, oil and ash content than the seed that matured at low temperature (fall planting. A positive correlation was found between protein and oil content and protein and ash content. The effect of temperature during pod filling storage was much greater than the temperature during early growth. Protein, oil and ash contents were positively correlated with temperature during pod filling stage and increased with each increment of temperature. Moisture content was unaffected by planting date.

  1. Factors Affecting E-Service Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mufaddy Al-Kasasbeh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available User satisfaction is an important predictor of online consumer behavior and the success of a web-based system. If customers are satisfied with the services received through the online system, it is likely they will keep using the system. To examine factors affecting user satisfaction with e-services, a questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of (615 students out of (5918 at Petra University in Jordan to explore their perceptions. Regression analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses. The results indicated that website design, navigation, and personalization were found to be predictors of e-service satisfaction. The results of this study provide a comprehensive set of implications for practitioners and researchers. This study shows how the website design, navigation, and personalization play a crucial role in the overall evaluation of e-service satisfaction. Management of universities need to be aware that a bad experience with website design, navigation, and personalization can affect satisfaction, if a student has a bad experience regarding interactivity, customization, or website design, then a student might make an overall e-service judgment even before a transaction can take place. If customers believe that an organization’s website is hard to use, poorly designed, and doesn’t take into consideration distinguished services for each user, then customers are likely to move to other organizations’ websites.

  2. FACTORS AFFECTING PHARMACOKINETIC DISPOSITION OF DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Hiren R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Absorption of drugs from the gastrointestinal tract is a complex process the variability of which is influenced by many physicochemical and physiologic factors. The two most important physicochemical factors that affect both the extent and the rate of absorption are lipophilicity and solubility. The rate and extent of absorption are governed by the solubility, permeability and stability of the drug, with solubility being a pH-dependent parameter for weak acids and bases. The gastrointestinal tract can be viewed as discrete sections with a variety of differential local pH environments ranging from the acidic stomach to the more basic small intestine. The multiple peaking, double peaking or secondary peaking phenomena can occur in the disposition of a variety of xenobiotics during drug development (the pre-clinical phase and in subsequent clinical studies and use. The physicochemical and physiological mechanisms underlying the occurrence of this phenomenon are often multi factorial and include but are not limited to solubility-limited absorption, modified-release formulations, complexation, enterohepatic recirculation, gastric emptying and the intestinal transit time, site-specific absorption, gastric secretion-enteral reabsorption. Double peak absorption has been described with several orally administered drugs such as cimetidine furosemide, piroxicam, ranitidine, talinolol, alprazolam and phenazopyridine.

  3. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Liutvinavi?ius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars. Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios. The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors. The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless. Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient  attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  4. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilijus Sakalauskas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  5. Proximate Composition, Antinutritional Factors and Protein Fractions of Guar Gum Seeds as Influenced by Processing Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Majed B. Ahmed; Rashed A. Hamid; Mohamed E. Ali; Amro B. Hassan; Elfadil E. Babiker

    2006-01-01

    The proximate composition, antinutritional factors and protein fractions of guar seeds were studied before and after autoclaving, soaking followed by dehulling and germination treatments. Chemical composition was varied between the treatments. Soaking of seeds followed by dehulling significantly increase protein content to 67.8%. Germination of seeds increased tannin and phytic acid content of the seeds. Polyphenols were fluctuating during processing. Albumin fraction of the seeds was ...

  6. Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül P?nar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150 who applied to the delivery service of the Ba?kent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7% and were multipara (66.0%. It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05.Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05.

  7. Factors affecting liver uptake of gallium-67

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From our clinical experience, we have suggested that the absence of liver uptake during Ga-67 scintigraphy was mainly due to markedly decreased unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC). We have succeeded in producing a rat model of absent liver uptake by administration of iron and vincristine to markedly decrease UIBC. However, the possibility of decreased liver uptake of Ga-67 due to liver dysfunction caused by these drugs can not be denied, so we performed further experiments. The changes of uptake by liver and other tissues, and UIBC induced by administration of apotransferrin (ATF) and deferoxamine (DEF) before the second scan were determined. The abscess uptake of Ga-67 during the absence of liver uptake was also determined. The administration of ATF one day before the second scan made liver uptake recover to almost normal levels and UIBC recover considerably. No recovery was produced by administration of DEF. The mechanism of Ga-67 uptake in various tissues is not completely clear. The theory that the amount of strage iron in the liver affects liver uptake has been proposed. The possibility is also suggested that antineoplastic agents may damage the synthesis of transferrin (TF) and intracellular Ga-67 carrier molecules, and/or block TF receptors in the hepatocyte to decrease liver uptake. The fact that liver uptake recovered rapidly after administration of ATF refutes these hypotheses, at least in vivo, and serum UIBC level is the decisive factor in liver uptakevel is the decisive factor in liver uptake of Ga-67. The lack of significant decrease in abscess uptake of Ga-67 during the absence of liver uptake may suggest that the pathway to the abscesses is different from that to the liver. (author)

  8. Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Te-chato

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. were investigated. Types of explants, strains and densities of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and co-culture methods were examined to optimize gene transformation. The results showed that among strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tested, LBA 4404 containing pBI 121 gave the calli with the highest resistance to kanamycin. Kanamycin at the concentration of 50-100 mg/l was the best range for selection of transformants. Higher density of agrobacteria tended to promote higher frequency of transformation. The best co-culture method was dipping the explant in a solution of agrobacteria for 10 minutes, followed by culturing onto co-culture medium without antibiotic for 48 hours. Among the explants used to co- culture with bacteria, half leaf treatment gave the best result for transformation; however, callus proliferation and plantlet regeneration were inferior to whole leaf treatment. Activity of ?-Glucuronidase (GUS could not be detected, thus resistance to kanamycin was used for detecting transformability. Shoot primordia could be induced from kanamycin-resistant calli grown in regeneration medium. After maintenance by subculturing to the same medium 2 to 3 times in 2-3 months, the developed shoots turned brown and finally died. Hence, the transformed plant of mangosteen was not obtained from this experiment.

  9. Gallbladder polyps: Factors affecting surgical decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkut, Pinar; Kilicturgay, Sadik; Ozer, Ali; Ozturk, Ersin; Yilmazlar, Tuncay

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the factors affecting the decision to perform surgery, and the efficiency of ultrasonography (USG) in detecting gallbladder polyps (GP). METHODS: Data for 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1996 and 2012 in our clinic with a diagnosis of GP were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were evaluated. Patients were evaluated in individual groups according to the age of the patients (older or younger than 50 years old) and polyp size (bigger or smaller than 10 mm) and characteristics of the polyps (pseudopolyp or real polyps). ?2 tests were used for the statistical evaluation of the data. RESULTS: The median age was 50 (26-85) years and 91 of patients were female. Of 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy with GP diagnosis, only 99 had a histopathologically defined polyp; 77 of them had pseudopolyps and 22 had true polyps. Twenty-one patients had adenocarcinoma. Of these 21 patients, 11 were male, their median age was 61 (40-85) years and all malignant polyps had diameters > 10 mm (P 10 mm, 22 had true polyps. The sensitivity of USG was 84.6% for polyps with diameters > 10 mm (P 10 mm. PMID:23901228

  10. Gallbladder polyps: Factors affecting surgical decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Sarkut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the factors affecting the decision to perform surgery, and the efficiency of ultrasonography (USG in detecting gallbladder polyps (GP. METHODS: Data for 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1996 and 2012 in our clinic with a diagnosis of GP were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were evaluated. Patients were evaluated in individual groups according to the age of the patients (older or younger than 50 years old and polyp size (bigger or smaller than 10 mm and characteristics of the polyps (pseudopolyp or real polyps. ?2 tests were used for the statistical evaluation of the data. RESULTS: The median age was 50 (26-85 years and 91 of patients were female. Of 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy with GP diagnosis, only 99 had a histopathologically defined polyp; 77 of them had pseudopolyps and 22 had true polyps. Twenty-one patients had adenocarcinoma. Of these 21 patients, 11 were male, their median age was 61 (40-85 years and all malignant polyps had diameters > 10 mm (P 10 mm, 22 had true polyps. The sensitivity of USG was 84.6% for polyps with diameters > 10 mm (P 10 mm.

  11. Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien T. Supangco

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and demographic variables.The results showed that the different measures of career progress had distinct determinants implying different dynamics. It appeared that measures of career progress that are sensitive to the value employers attach to the individual (Whitely, Dougherty, & Dreher, 1991 such as total compensation, total number of promotion and years per promotion were related with human capital factors such as work experience and number of companies worked for. On the other hand, measures that relate to centrality if the position, in which market forces have less impact, were associated with organizational variables such as organization size and the demographic variable gender.While gender did not explain variation in total compensation, number of promotions and number of uears between promotions, these null results are important for two reasons. First, it implies that the female MBA students were at par with their male counterparts as fas as these measures of career progress are concerned. Second, it challenges the generalizability of the finding of gender segregation at the organizational level-where men receive significantly higher wages that women-which is a common finding among studies done in the United States. The results using the MBA students as sample show that income and promotion parity may indeed be achievable and this brings hope to women in general.However, the statistical significance of gender in explaining career progress as centrality of position does not augur well for women. This result implies that despite the fact that the women in the sample were intelligent (that is, they passed the stringent MBA screening, motivated and obviously were able to manage their time well-being able to balance work, school and in some cases, family responsibilities-they were still far removed from the top. These women still faced some hostile environment that prevented them from fully contributing to making decisions that matter.

  12. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    Poland joined the EU in 2004 and still has one of the Europe’s least developed information societies. Broadband penetration in Poland is still amongst the lowest in the EU and significantly below the EU average. Considering the present state of information technology, the key challenge for Poland is to reduce the gap between Poland and other EU Member Countries in the area of the development and implementation of information and communication technologies. However, Poland’s accession to the European Union and the implementation of EU regulation mechanisms accelerate the integration of Poland’s telecommunications market with the European market. The market reflects all the global trends, a gradually growing significance of mobile telecommunications services, broadband Internet access, construction of offers directed towards clients’ needs, and a strong trend towards market consolidation, which will gradually change the previous balance of power. The specific problem of the Polish market is its very poor infrastructure development and the lack of competitors on the fixed market. This translates into limited access to services for end users particularly in the rural areas. A much lower level of telecommunications network development in Poland than other countries in the European Union is the reason that the circumstances and also the effects of the implementation of some solutions of the EU regulation model are different in Poland than in the most developed EU countries. The aim of the paper is to examine and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level/distribution in the country and the infrastructural point of departure. The paper, therefore, analyses the implications of the policy initiatives in light of these basic conditions and the broader context of factors influencing broadband development. In the paper, different kinds of policy initiatives are examined – with the ‘lightest’forms of intervention first and the ‘strongest’at the end. Furthermore, empirical evidence on the developments in access technologies and the policy initiatives taken by the Polish government are presented. Finally, there is a conclusion regarding the importance of the different types of public policy initiatives for broadband take-up in Poland.

  13. Factors affecting newborn care practices in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Md; Ahmed, M Ranzu; Rahman, M Mokhlesur; Afroz, Afsana

    2012-01-01

    Newborn care is of immense importance for the proper development and healthy life of a baby. Although child and infant mortality in South Asia has reduced substantially, the rate of neonatal mortality is still high, although these deaths can be prevented by adopting simple interventions at the community level. The aim of the study was to identify the associated factors which affect newborn care practices. Data for the study were drawn from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007, in which 6150 mothers were considered. The mean age of the mothers was 18 (±3.2) years. A little over 62% of the pregnant women received at least one antenatal check-up during the entire period of their pregnancy. About 70% of deliveries were conducted at home either by unskilled family members or by relatives. A clean instrument was used for cutting the cord of 87% of the newborn babies, while about 34% of them were reported to have had their first bath immediately after delivery. Initiation of breast feeding immediately after birth was practised in only about 19% of the cases. Compared with mothers with no education, those with secondary or higher levels were associated with clean cord care [odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0, 1.9] and early breast feeding [OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2, 2.2]. The study revealed an urgent need to educate mothers, and train traditional birth attendants and health workers on clean delivery practices and early neonatal care. Increasing the number of skilled birth attendants can be an effective strategy to increase safe delivery practices, and to reduce delivery complications. PMID:22150703

  14. External factors affecting investment decisions of companies

    OpenAIRE

    Bialowolski, Piotr; Weziak-bialowolska, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to investigate the importance of certain external factors on the investment decisions made by Polish companies. With the use of data from the tailor-made Survey on Receivables, we (1) examine factors influencing investment decisions of companies in Poland; (2) assess the relation between branch, company size and investment factors; (3) evaluate the importance of the investment factors; and (4) determine the relative influence of these factors on the company-level inv...

  15. Factors limiting seed production of Taxus brevifolia (Taxaceae) in Western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difazio, S; Wilson, M; Vance, N

    1998-07-01

    Seed production of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia), an understory conifer, was studied at four sites in western Oregon over 2 yr. The effects of pollen supplementation, overstory canopy, and predator exclusion on ovule attrition were examined. Supplemental hand-pollination of ten trees at two sites resulted in significantly increased rates of ovule development and a doubling of seed efficiency (ratio of seeds to ovules). However, seed efficiency still averaged <15% on branches receiving supplemental pollen, so pollination was not a primary factor limiting seed production. The number of developing ovules was positively associated with overstory openness, but seed production was not. Seed efficiency was negatively associated with overstory openness. Branches bagged to exclude vertebrate seed predators had higher seed production than unbagged branches at three of four sites for 2 yr. In contrast to unbagged branches, seed production on bagged branches was positively associated with overstory openness, as was the effectiveness of bagging. Therefore, both vertebrate predation and overstory were important in limiting seed production, and these factors interacted. Factors limiting seed production varied in importance among the four sites and between years, illustrating the importance of examining multiple limiting factors over several sites and years. PMID:21684973

  16. Rapid and Quantitative Assay of Amyloid-Seeding Activity in Human Brains Affected with Prion Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuki, Hanae; Satoh, Katsuya; Sano, Kazunori; Fuse, Takayuki; Nakagaki, Takehiro; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Ishibashi, Daisuke; Mihara, Ban; Takao, Masaki; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshida, Mari; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    The infectious agents of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are composed of amyloidogenic prion protein, PrPSc. Real-time quaking-induced conversion can amplify very small amounts of PrPSc seeds in tissues/body fluids of patients or animals. Using this in vitro PrP-amyloid amplification assay, we quantitated the seeding activity of affected human brains. End-point assay using serially diluted brain homogenates of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease patients demonstrated that 50% seeding dose (SD50) is reached approximately 1010/g brain (values varies 108.79–10.63/g). A genetic case (GSS-P102L) yielded a similar level of seeding activity in an autopsy brain sample. The range of PrPSc concentrations in the samples, determined by dot-blot assay, was 0.6–5.4 ?g/g brain; therefore, we estimated that 1 SD50 unit was equivalent to 0.06–0.27 fg of PrPSc. The SD50 values of the affected brains dropped more than three orders of magnitude after autoclaving at 121°C. This new method for quantitation of human prion activity provides a new way to reduce the risk of iatrogenic prion transmission. PMID:26070208

  17. Arabidopsis WRKY2 transcription factor mediates seed germination and postgermination arrest of development by abscisic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Diqiu; Jiang Wenbo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Plant WRKY DNA-binding transcription factors are key regulators in certain developmental programs. A number of studies have suggested that WRKY genes may mediate seed germination and postgermination growth. However, it is unclear whether WRKY genes mediate ABA-dependent seed germination and postgermination growth arrest. Results To determine directly the role of Arabidopsis WRKY2 transcription factor during ABA-dependent seed germination and postgermination growth arrest, ...

  18. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING PARTNERSHIP ON SEED POTATO SUPPLY CHAIN IN WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Takdir Mulyad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The low productivity of certified seed potatoes is a national problem needs to be solved hrough a partnership system. This study aimed to determine the dominant factors that affect the partnership and to analyze critical issues of the partnership's life cycle through an optimization approach of the success of the supply chain partnership. Data were collected through interviews and distribution of questionnaires to 175 respondents involved in the seed potato partnership within the period of June to December 2013. Results of the study indicated that the dominant factors affecting the level of partnership were commitment, trust, mutual dependence on knowledge and process, and knowledge of the partners. Management of critical issues in the implementation phase of the partnership needed to be done through the development of expertise and reliability, open-mindedness, core competence, provision of capital based on the price policy, and easiness for access to banking, and designing standard procedures. In the shakedown phase, it needed to be done through strong leadership to change mindset of the members, building equality and avoiding group dominances, conducting formal trainings and apprenticeships, fairness in implementation of reward and punishment policy, increase in communication intensities, as well as routine monitoring and evaluation.

  19. Factors affecting laboratory test use and prices

    OpenAIRE

    Danzon, Patricia Munch; Manning, Willard G.; Marquis, M. Susan

    1984-01-01

    The use of clinical laboratory tests has more than doubled during the past decade. Some observers of the health system feel that this growth is excessive and is a result of current payment systems. This article examines the effects of current reimbursement policies with regard to the use of laboratory tests and prices charged for tests. The results suggest the following: The method of financing medical care, including cost sharing and prepaid group practice arrangements, affects the volume...

  20. Examining Factors Affecting Classroom Attendance and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tze-Ming Chou; Ya-Hui Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This study examined the relationship between four class attitudinal variables and how it affects class attendance and performance. A questionnaire was administered to 134 undergraduate students at medium sized college in Taiwan. The data included questions about the participant’s rating of the level of difficulty of the course (Difficulty), the topics covered in the course (Topics), their motivation towards attending the course (Motivation), and whether or not t...

  1. Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating positio...

  2. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  3. Econometrics Analysis on Factors Affecting Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueyi Sun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to identify school-level variables that influence academic outcomes, and to determine the extent of their influence. Using state-level panel data, this study estimates a simple achievement function to explore the nexus between three identified factors (percentage of students eligible for reduced/free lunch program, school enrolment and per-pupil expenditure and student achievement (percentage of satisfactory of 4th grade math and read in the United States. Method: Based on literature reference and rational hypotheses, the effects of the percentage of student eligible for reduced or free lunch, school enrolment and per-pupil expenditure on the percentage of 4th grade student satisfactory in math and read were tested for a certain group of students separately. Ordinary Least Squares regression model was used to determine the validity and strength of each relationship. Result: The data set consisted of 1823 observations located in different districts. Final test result shows that: 1       Significant negative effect on student achievement is found under the factor of percentage of students eligible for reduced or free lunch. 2       Slight negative effect on student achievement is found under the factor of school enrollment. 3       Slight positive effect on student achievement is found under the factor of per-pupil expenditure. Students in school with lower percentage of students eligible for reduced or free lunch program, lower enrolment record, and more per-pupil expenditure will have better academic performance.

  4. Apyap1 affects aflatoxin biosynthesis during Aspergillus parasiticus growth in maize seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Reverberi, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In previous work a correlation among Apyap1, antioxidant defence system and aflatoxin biosynthesis in synthetic media has been demonstrated. In this research a relationship between oxidative stress and aflatoxin biosynthesis in maize seeds is suggested. To verify the role played by oxidative stress related transcription factor Apyap1 in aflatoxin formation we used DApyap1, a strain in which the gene Apyap1 was disrupted. In potato dextrose broth the amount of hydroperoxide...

  5. Factors affecting the maintenance dose of warfarin.

    OpenAIRE

    James, A. H.; Britt, R. P.; Raskino, C. L.; Thompson, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    AIM: To identify the possible factors determining the dose of warfarin prescribed in patients receiving anticoagulant treatment. METHODS: The computerised records of 2305 patients maintained on the drug in seven hospitals were amalgamated and classified into one of seven diagnostic groups. The associations with the dose of warfarin prescribed were investigated by univariate and multiple regression analysis. Differences between hospitals were studied with regard to the coagulometric method and...

  6. Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelm Jordaan; Margie Sutherland

    2004-01-01

    One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do n...

  7. Risk factors that affect recurrence in strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Bayba?

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent stroke is defined as a new cerebrovascular event which occurs after the stabilization of the previous stroke. Recurrence of stroke increases likelihood of disability-mortality associated with stroke. Systematic evaluation of stroke cases can help to reduce the risk of recurrence. Objective: In order to predict strokes which carry the risk of recurrence, we aimed to compare data related to risk factors, stroke type, etiology and disability-mortality rates associated with stroke. Material And Method: Patients with stroke who referred to Bak?rkoy Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases Training and Research State Hospital between June 1, 2002 and February 28, 2003 were recorded into the stroke database in a consecutive and prospective manner. Strokes were classified as ischemic/hemorrhagic and first/recurrent. For recurrent strokes, information about previous strokes was also recorded. Risk factors were classified as hypertension (HT, diabetes mellitus (DM, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation (AF, coronary artery disease (CAD, migraine, transient ischemic accident (TIA, family history of cerebrovascular accident (CVA, oral contraceptive use, PAD, congestive heart failure (CHF, other heart diseases, smoking cigarette and alcohol consumption. Disability-mortality rates associated with stroke were evaluated. All data were compared for first and recurrent strokes. Results: In our study, 631 patients were evaluated, 52.3% of whom were female and 47.7% male. Frequency of stroke was statistically high (p<0.001 in females over 70 years old. Recurrent strokes were of the same type. For the first and recurrent strokes, HT was the highest risk factor. AF frequency increased with age (p<0.001. The rate of disability-mortality was found high in strokes of undetermined and cardioembolic origin. Conclusion: Knowledge of etiologic group can help to predict recurrence of stroke and prevent death. We think that effective treatment of modifiable risk factors identified in stroke groups where recurrence is the highest, and prioritising the investigation of cardioembolic risk factors in elderly women are significant in terms of primary and secondary stroke prevention.

  8. Factors affecting the microstructure of porous ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUSAN TRIPKOVIC

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, porous ceramics were produced by using two methods: the polymeric sponge and foam method. Astudy of the effect of viscosity on the characteristics of the final product produced using the polymeric sponge method revealed that the microstructure of porous ceramics is highly affected by the viscosity of the slurry. The optimal ratio between porosity and the strength of the porous material was achieved by subsequently repeating the immersing and drying processes. Astudy of the porous material obtained using the foam method revealed that the pore size and foam volume can be controlled by varying the amounts of anhydride and thermal blowing agent. The problem related to foam collapsing was solved by using a thermal blowing agent. The microstructure of the samples was characterized by SEM.

  9. Electronic invoicing in SMEs: Assessing the factors affecting the adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Seppa?, Marja

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to find out what factors affect the adoption of electronic invoicing. In addition, the opportunities and drawbacks of adopting e-invoicing are examined. The framework for the study is based on earlier research and literature covering the topic of electronic invoicing and different factors affecting the decision to adopt. The factors presented in the framework are perceived benefits, organizational readiness, and external pressure. Especially external pressure will be under car...

  10. Critical Factors that Affecting Efficiency of Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furkan Dincer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device which generates electricity directly from visible light. However, their efficiency is fairly low. So, the solar cell costs expensive according to other energy resources products. Several factors affect solar cell efficiency. This paper presents the most important factors that affecting efficiency of solar cells. These effects are cell temperature, MPPT (maximum power point tracking and energy conversion efficiency. The changing of these factors improves solar cell efficiency for more reliable applications.

  11. Critical Factors that Affecting Efficiency of Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Furkan Dincer; Mehmet Emin Meral

    2010-01-01

    A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device which generates electricity directly from visible light. However, their efficiency is fairly low. So, the solar cell costs expensive according to other energy resources products. Several factors affect solar cell efficiency. This paper presents the most important factors that affecting efficiency of solar cells. These effects are cell temperature, MPPT (maximum power point tracking) and energy conversion efficiency. The changing of these factors i...

  12. Examining Factors Affecting Classroom Attendance and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tze-Ming Chou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This study examined the relationship between four class attitudinal variables and how it affects class attendance and performance. A questionnaire was administered to 134 undergraduate students at medium sized college in Taiwan. The data included questions about the participant’s rating of the level of difficulty of the course (Difficulty, the topics covered in the course (Topics, their motivation towards attending the course (Motivation, and whether or not the participants felt that the course is practical and useful to their future (Practicality. The results of the Pearson correlation coefficients showed that 4 out of the 15 correlations were statistically significant. The negative correlation found between motivation and topics; and practicality and topics suggest the attitude that when choosing courses, students tend to choose courses that they think would easy to pass. The finding that none of the variables were significantly correlated to course attendance and course performance suggests that the strongest predictor of success of a course is based on the student’s level of attendance. This lead to the discussion in the conclusion about pedagogical implications for what teachers can do in their classrooms.

  13. Factors affecting membership in specialty nursing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary Joe; Olson, Rhonda S

    2004-01-01

    A discouraging trend in many specialty nursing organizations is the stagnant or declining membership. The research committee of the Southeast Texas Chapter of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN) collected data and studied this trend to determine what changes would be necessary to increase membership. Using Herzberg's motivational theory as a framework, a review of the literature was initiated. There were few current studies on this issue, but relevant information was found about nursing's emerging workforce, as well as implications of the growth of magnet hospitals, which affect whether nurses join specialty nursing organizations. A multifaceted data-collection approach using convenience samples was designed. First, relevant literature was reviewed. Second, a survey was sent by e-mail to other ARN chapters. Third, a telephone survey on other specialty organizations in the geographic region was completed. Finally, members of the local ARN chapter and four other specialty organizations, as well staff nurses in the geographic area, were given questionnaires to complete. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to determine why nurses do and do not join specialty organizations (N = 81). The most frequent reasons for joining an organization were to increase knowledge, benefit professionally, network, and earn continuing education units. Reasons for choosing not to participate were family responsibilities, lack of information about these organizations, and lack of time. Ways to reverse the decline in membership are discussed. PMID:15222095

  14. Factors affecting virus plaque confirmation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahling, D R; Sullivan, G; Freyberg, R W; Safferman, R S

    1989-01-01

    Direct plaque counts obtained by using the monolayer cell culture assay technique reliably confirmed the number of viruses isolated. Analysis revealed some significant differences in the false-positive rate, depending on the test method used or virus samples evaluated. Plaques from laboratory stock viruses showed a higher confirmation rate than sewage plaque isolates. Test results with laboratory stock viruses suggested that confirmation rates may be affected by virus types present in the sample. Plaques picked by the stab and scrape method and immediately passed into cell culture tubes produced the most reliable counts as compared to those picked by the stab only method or those stored at -70 degrees C in Earle's balanced salt solution with or without fetal calf serum. Plaque confirmation using this method was 90% or better. Although the term 'false positive plaque' has been applied to a particular plaque that was not confirmed, five of ten plaques picked by the stab and scrape method in one series of experiments were confirmed when repicked by the same method from original plaque bottles, indicating that a substantial number of unconfirmed plaques may be caused by plaque transfer techniques. PMID:2547809

  15. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdun Kuyucu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

  16. Treatment Compliance Affecting Factors in Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Hacihasanoglu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is to be responsible for death which accounts for 6% of adult deaths all over the world. It is the third ranks among causes of death. These ranks are similar both in developed and developing countries. Hypertension has important role causes of death. But, hypertension can be prevented to great extent. On the other hand, a lot of countries in the world hypertension control rates are reported to be inadequate in sample communities representing the general society and in patients treated under health service conditions. Patient no adherence to treatment is one of the significant factors in failing to raise blood pressure (BP control over 25% around the world and in our country. No adherence reason of hypertension treatment was examined in this review article. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(2.000: 167-172

  17. Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Jordaan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do not predict knowledge workers’ proposed future length of service.Factor analysis revealed seven underlying dimensions of retention cognitions. Cluster analysis revealed nine distinct clusters of knowledge workers with regard to their retention cognitions. High levels of individualism, need for challenge and focus on personal development were demonstrated. The implications of these findings are discussed. Opsomming
    Een van die eienskappe van kenniswerkers is hulle hoë vlak van mobiliteit. Die koste van arbeidsomset van hierdie sleutelbronne is hoog in beide finansiële en nie-finansiële terme. Daar bestaan dus ’n behoefte om die faktore wat onderliggend is aan die retensiekognisies van kenniswerkers te verstaan. Data is ingesamel van 306 kenniswerkers in voltydse diens wat ’n wye reeks demografiese groeperings verteenwoordig. Die resultate dui daarop dat werktevredenheid en organisasieverbondenheid nie die kenniswerkers se verwagte lengte van diens voorspel nie. Faktorontleding het sewe onderliggende dimensies van retensiekognisies blootgelê. ’n Bondelontleding het nege duidelike bondels van kenniswerkers ten opsigte van hulle retensiekognisies onderskei. Hoë vlakke van individualisme, behoefte aan uitdaging en fokus op persoonlike ontwikkeling is aangedui. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

  18. Economic Factors Affecting Diversified Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Bowman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to a shift toward specialization and mechanization during the 20th century, there has been momentum on the part of a vocal contingent of consumers, producers, researchers, and policy makers who call for a transition toward a new model of agriculture. This model employs fewer synthetic inputs, incorporates practices which enhance biodiversity and environmental services at local, regional, and global scales, and takes into account the social implications of production practices, market dynamics, and product mixes. Within this vision, diversified farming systems (DFS have emerged as a model that incorporates functional biodiversity at multiple temporal and spatial scales to maintain ecosystem services critical to agricultural production. Our aim is to provide an economists' perspective on the factors which make diversified farming systems (DFS economically attractive, or not-so-attractive, to farmers, and to discuss the potential for and roadblocks to widespread adoption. We focus on how a range of existing and emerging factors drive profitability and adoption of DFS. We believe that, in order for DFS to thrive, a number of structural changes are needed. These include: 1 public and private investment in the development of low-cost, practical technologies that reduce the costs of production in DFS, 2 support for and coordination of evolving markets for ecosystem services and products from DFS and 3 the elimination of subsidies and crop insurance programs that perpetuate the unsustainable production of staple crops. We suggest that subsidies and funding be directed, instead, toward points 1 and 2, as well as toward incentives for consumption of nutritious food.

  19. Factors Defining Field Germination of Oilseed Radish Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Dorofeev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Influence of temperature, depth of crops and granulometric of soil structure on germination speed, laboratory and field germination of oilseed radish seeds were studied. It was established that the period of seed-germination is defined both by temperature and granulometric structure of soil. The highest field germination was marked on sandy loam at depth of crops' seeds at 3 cm and 20°?.

  20. Factors Affecting Penetrating Captive Bolt Gun Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

    2015-01-01

    Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session. PMID:25415241

  1. Trust Factors Affecting Cooperation in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; HaugbØlle, Kim

    2013-01-01

    With all the advances in professionalism, methods, technology, and human resource training, we should have seen an increase in productivity. However, this has not happened and the construction industry is losing the battle to be competitive and has instead become a high-cost, low-productivity sector. By applying the theory that insufficient cooperation is the result of low trust the aim was to investigate how conditions for formation of positive and lasting trustful relationships can be created. A questionnaire survey including clients, contractors, architects, engineers and client design advisor was carried out. The analysis showed that the ability to be trustful can be developed through the experience of different factors (e.g. control mechanisms, mutual respect, repeated cooperation, shared understanding and communication). Furthermore, the ability to trust other parties depends on knowledge of others' skillsets. Interdisciplinary collaboration through education would limit the formation of negative stereotypes and the overall trust level increases, due to more and better knowledge of other disciplines.

  2. Factors affecting chromatin stability of bovine spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, T A A; Rekkas, C A; Lymberopoulos, A G; Sioga, A; Dimitriadis, I; Papanikolaou, Th

    2008-03-01

    The structural stability of transcriptionally inert paternal chromatin is of vital importance for the fertilization process and early embryonic development. Accordingly, a series of eight experiments were conducted during a 7-month period to investigate: (1) effects of bull breed, individuality, successive ejaculations, semen quality characteristics (SQC), semen dilution rates and hypothermic storage of semen in a Tris-egg yolk extender on incidence of sperm nuclear chromatin instability (NCI), and (2) effects of the interaction between variation of NCI within a frozen ejaculate and variation of oocytes quality due to maturation time and/or season on the efficiency of in vitro embryo production (IVEP). Semen samples were collected once a week from six bulls using an AV and only ejaculates (n=220) of >0.30x10(9) sperm/ml and >or=60% motility were used. NCI was measured by: (1) detection of lysine-rich histones in sperm chromatin using aniline blue staining, (2) sperm susceptibility to acid-induced nuclear DNA denaturation in situ using acridine orange test, and (3) sperm susceptibility to nuclear chromatin decondensation (NCD). Bovine oocytes (n=695) were matured in vitro for 18 or 24 h, fertilized after sperm selection through a swim-up procedure and cultured for 72 h. The results showed that the 2nd ejaculates were superior to the 1st ones with respect to chromatin stability. Dilution of semen to 49.67+/-8.56x10(6) sperm/ml (1:19) decreased resistance of sperm to NCD. Cooling of semen had no significant effect on chromatin stability. Cryopreservation of semen augmented sperm vulnerability to DNA denaturation. Improvement of SQC (semen volume, sperm motility, velocity, viability and morphological normalcy) was generally concomitant with increase of sperm resistance to NCI. While Blonde d'Aquitaine bulls had a resistance to NCD higher than Limousine bulls in fresh semen, the former showed a greater susceptibility to DNA denaturation than the latter in cooled semen. Individuality significantly influenced NCI. The variability of NCI within a frozen ejaculate affected efficiency of IVEP. Significant negative correlations were observed between incidence of NCI and both fertilization rate and developmental capacity of embryos after maturation of oocytes for 18 h. The significant variation in IVEP traits due to season was independent of the effect of sperm chromatin instability. PMID:17398042

  3. Seed Physiological Quality of Three Capsicum Species as Affected by Seed Density and Hydropriming Treatment Durations

    OpenAIRE

    Esuruoso, O. A.; Abdul-rafiu, M. A.; Kehinde, T. O.; Adebisi, M. A.; Oni, O. D.; Ativie, O.

    2013-01-01

    Seeds uniformity and seedling establishment are major problem in pepper production in developing countries and have great impact on production quality and performance. Seed enhancement technology like hydropriming can be done to address this gap. A study was initiated to determine the physiological quality of three Capsicum species (Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens and Capsicum chinense) in relation to seed density and hydropriming treatment durations. In the first experiment, fresh ungra...

  4. Factors affecting proximal tubular reabsorption during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies performed in several animal species have demonstrated that glomerulotubular balance is maintained throughout development despite the many changes that occur in the factors known to control it. In an attempt to understand the nature of this phenomenon the authors quantified the magnitude and described the profile of these changes in guinea pigs. The changes in physical forces were assessed from measurements of hydrostatic and oncotic pressures, whereas those in the permeability characteristics of the proximal tubule epithelium were estimated from permanence to radioactivity-labelled macromolecules of graded radii, histologic measurements of the intercellular channels, and measurements of end-proximal ratio of tubular fluid-to-plasma osmolality (TF/P/sub osm/). Between 1 and 50 days of age the net pressure for reabsorption increased from 15.0 to 30.9 mmHg with the major change occurring during the first 2-3 wk of postnatal life. The urinary recovery of [3H]inulin, [14C]sucrose, and [14C]creatinine, injected in the early segment of proximal tubules did not vary with age. The urinary recovery of [14C]mannitol increased from 92% at birth to 100% at 49 days of age. The length of the zonulae occludens and the width of the intercellular channels did not change during this period. The findings support the hypothesis that during early postnatal life glomerulotubular balance is made possible by a high permeability of the proximsible by a high permeability of the proximal tubule, which compensates for the low net reabsorptive pressure. As the animal matures and the proximal tubule epithelium becomes tighter, for glomerulotubular balance to be maintained, an increase in the number of intercellular channels and in the active transport of sodium need to be postulated

  5. Differential control of seed primary dormancy in Arabidopsis ecotypes by the transcription factor SPATULA

    OpenAIRE

    Vaistij, Fabia?n E.; Gan, Yinbo; Penfield, Steven; Gilday, Alison D.; Dave, Anuja; He, Zhesi; Josse, Eve-marie; Choi, Giltsu; Halliday, Karen J.; Graham, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Freshly matured seeds exhibit primary dormancy, which prevents germination until environmental conditions are favorable. The establishment of dormancy occurs during seed development and involves both genetic and environmental factors that impact on the ratio of two antagonistic phytohormones: abscisic acid (ABA), which promotes dormancy, and gibberellic acid, which promotes germination. Although our understanding of dormancy breakage in mature seeds is well advanced, relatively little is know...

  6. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript ...

  7. Factors affecting the prognosis of meniscectomy in soccer players.

    OpenAIRE

    Muckle, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    Meniscectomy is a frequent surgical procedure in young soccer players but the results are unpredictable. A long-term survey was carried out to assess certain fundamental features and to establish the predictive factors which affect the prognosis after meniscectomy.

  8. Factors Affecting Brand Identification and Loyalty in Online Community

    OpenAIRE

    Chieh-Min Chou

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the factors of online community characteristics which affect customer loyalty through the mediate effects of brand identification. By employing online questionnaire survey, hundreds of observations were collected from online brand communities in Taiwan for hypothetical model test. Research results show that brand loyalty is positively affected by stronger online brand identification which is enhanced by online community interactivity, satisfied custo...

  9. Preslaughter factors affecting poultry meat quality chapter 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry meat quality is affected by numerous antemortem factors, in particular those occurring during the last 24 hours that the bird is alive. These short term factors influence carcass yield (live shrink), carcass defects (bruising, broken/dislocated bones), carcass microbiological contamination, ...

  10. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  11. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, rchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  12. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  13. Does Cold Plasma Affect Breaking Dormancy and Seed Germination? A Study on Seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-pressure discharge is applied for stimulation of germination of two seed lots of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) with different starting germinations (17%, 8%) and in different stages of dormancy. Different exposition durations with cold plasma treatment were applied. The variable of the ratio cumulative germination was calculated. The Richards' equation was used for curve-fitting and simulation of the growth curves. Population parameters, namely Vi - viability, Me - time, Qu - dispersion, and Sk - skewness, counted from the curves described the germination rate well. Significant differences among Qu confirmed the erratic dormancy and gradual germination of Lamb's Quarters. No difference in the Me parameter was found between two tested seed lots, and no interspecies characteristics were changed using low-pressure discharge. The results suggested that plasma treatment changed seed germination in Lamb's Quarters seeds.

  14. Factors Affecting Acceptance of Smartphone Application for Management of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The factors affecting the acceptance of mobile obesity-management applications (apps) by the public were analyzed using a mobile healthcare system (MHS) technology acceptance model (TAM). Methods The subjects who participated in this study were Android smartphone users who had an intent to manage their weight. They used the obesity-management app for two weeks, and then completed an 18-item survey designed to determine the factors influencing the acceptance of the app. Three questions were asked pertaining to each of the following six factors: compatibility, self-efficacy, technical support and training, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavior regarding intention to use. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the reliability of the scales. Pathway analysis was also performed to evaluate the MHS acceptance model. Results A total of 94 subjects participated in this study. The results indicate that compatibility, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use significantly affected the behavioral intention to use the mobile obesity-management app. Technical support and training also significantly affected the perceived ease of use; however, the hypotheses that self-efficacy affects perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use were not supported in this study. Conclusions This is the first attempt to analyze the factors influencing mobile obesity-management app acceptance using a TAM. Further studies should cover not only obesity but also other chronic diseases and should analyze the factors affecting the acceptance of apps among healthcare consumers in general. PMID:25995959

  15. Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3 (-)) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3 (-) addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3 (-) and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time. PMID:25177207

  16. Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzke Susan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response and environmental (physical environment, social environment, situation factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management. Low-income African American and white mothers were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in three counties in Michigan. In Phase one, 45 mothers completed individual cognitive interviews. Content analyses were performed. In Phase two, items modified from the cognitive interviews were administered to 216 mothers. Factor analysis and multiple indicators/multiple causes were performed. Results Results of cognitive interviews were used to revise items for the instrument that was tested in Phase two. The factor solution revealed 19 dimensions to measure personal and environmental factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior (three dimensions, physical activity (eight dimensions, and stress management (eight dimensions. Results of multiple indicators/multiple causes model showed scale invariance. Of 19 dimensions, 15 had Cronbach alpha between 0.76 and 0.94 and four were between 0.66 and 0.69. All dimensions had composite construct reliability scores between 0.74 to 0.97 and satisfactory construct and discriminant validities. Conclusion The theory-based FADESM scales have documented good validity and reliability for measuring factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income women. Results of this study support the use of these scales with low-income African American and white mothers in community settings.

  17. Crucial Factors Affecting Stress: A Study among Undergraduates in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Kashif Ud Din Khan; Shazia Gulzar; Farzan Yahya

    2013-01-01

    Stress is normally unavoidable part of everyone’s life living in this world. It portrays a negative notion that can have an impact on one’s mental and physical well-being. The core intention of this study was to detect the most influencing factors of stress affecting undergraduates. The four factors that had taken under consideration were Family stress, Emotional stress, Financial Stress and Social Stress. To accomplish this research stress inventory has developed using scientific methods. Re...

  18. Variability in wheat: factors affecting its nutritional value

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.; Verstegen, M W A; Hartog, L.A.; Villamide, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Wheat is a common raw material used to provide energy in broiler diets. Its apparent metabolisable energy and its influence on broiler performance varies between wheat samples. Reasons for that variability can be classified as intrinsic (variety, chemical composition) and extrinsic factors (growing conditions, storage, etc.), both of which affect nutrient digestibility and availability. However, these factors are not always considered when formulating the diets for broiler chickens. Moreover,...

  19. Factors Affecting Milk Production in Buffaloes: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maqsood Hussain, Abdul Ghafoor And Abdul Saboor

    2010-01-01

    This study quantified the effect of major factors affecting the milk production in buffaloes. The important factors considered for the estimation of milk production included the value of dry fodder, the value of green fodder, the value of concentrate, number of lactations and the value of labour hours. A production function for milk was estimated by employing Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression. In the estimated model among all the relevant variables, green fodder, lactation number and lab...

  20. Factors affecting the diffusion of online end user literature searching.

    OpenAIRE

    Ash, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect diffusion of usage of online end user literature searching. Fifteen factors clustered into three attribute sets (innovation attributes, organizational attributes, and marketing attributes) were measured to study their effect on the diffusion of online searching within institutions. METHODS: A random sample of sixty-seven academic health sciences centers was selected and then 1,335 library and informatics staff members at th...

  1. Factors Affecting The Profitability Rate of Leading Firms in Makassar

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhman, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to investigate the factors which affecting firms’ profitability in Makassar. The factors are amount of capital, growth of sales, net working capital, leverage ratio, and current ratio. The sample involved in the survey 45 companies which identified as leading companies in Makassar. The result outlined that the leading businesses tended to consider financial ratio in implementing financial policy. The findings indicated that growth of sales, current ratio a...

  2. Analysis and Measurement of Buildability Factors Affecting Edge Formwork

    OpenAIRE

    Jarkas, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Labour productivity is affected by several factors, but buildability is among the most important. Nevertheless, a thoroughexamination of the literature revealed a dearth of research into the influence of buildability factors on labour productivityof in situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the formwork trade level. Although edge formwork is an importantlabour intensive activity, most often, its labour cost is either crudely estimated or lumped within the formwork cost of othera...

  3. Methods to assess factors that influence grass seed yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louhaichi, Mounir

    A greater than 10-fold increase in Canada goose (Branta canadensis ) populations over the past several years has resulted in concerns over grazing impacts on grass seed production in the mid-Willamette Valley, Oregon. This study was designed to develop methods to quantify and statistically analyze goose-grazing impacts on seed yields of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Yield-mapping-system equipped combines, incorporating global positioning system (GPS) technology, were used to measure and map yields. Image processing of ground-level photography to estimate crop cover and other relevant observations were spatially located via GPS to establish spatial-temporal goose grazing patterns. We sampled each field semi-monthly from mid-winter through spring. Spatially located yield data, soils information, exclosure locations, and grazing patterns were integrated via geographical information system (GIS) technology. To avoid concerns about autocorrelation, a bootstrapping procedure for subsampling spatially contiguous seed yield data was used to organize the data for appropriate use of analysis of variance. The procedure was used to evaluate grazing impacts on seed yield for areas of fields with different soils and with differential timing and intensity of goose grazing activity. We also used a standard paired-plot procedure, involving exclosures and associated plots available for grazing. The combination of spatially explicit photography and yield mapping, integrated with GIS, proved effective in establishing cause-and-effect relationships between goose grazing and seed yield differences. Exclosures were essential for providing nongrazed controls. Both statistical approaches were effective in documenting goose-grazing impacts. Paired-plots were restricted by small size and few numbers and did not capture grazing impacts as effectively as comparison of larger areas to exclosures. Bootstrapping to subsample larger areas of yield for comparison was an effective method of avoiding autocorrelation of data while better representing impacts within a field. Occasional yield increases, ranging from 1 to 5 percent, were recorded following goose grazing. Goose grazing generally resulted in seed yield reductions, ranging up to 20 percent. Later and more intensive grazing tended to increase yield reductions. Newly seeded tall fescue tended to be the most sensitive to grazing. Established perennial ryegrass tended to be more resilient.

  4. Factors Affecting Employment and Job Satisfaction of Vietnamese Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Nguyen T.; Healy, Charles C.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed 210 Vietnamese refugees to determine factors affecting employment and job satisfaction. Results showed Vietnamese subjects reporting job satisfaction had been in the U.S. longer. They were more proficient in speaking English than dissatisfied refugees but not more positive about job-seeking resources. (Author/BH)

  5. Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçüközer, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A).…

  6. Institutional and Managerial Factors Affecting International Student Recruitment Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Mitchell; Heaney, Joo-Gim; Cooper, Maxine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate international student recruitment from an institutional perspective and to consider institutional factors that may affect recruitment. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study is undertaken in which education marketing practitioners are interviewed regarding aspects of international…

  7. Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Eugene E.

    2005-01-01

    A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

  8. Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nergis, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…

  9. Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwenda, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

  10. Motivational Factors Affecting Online Learning by Japanese MBA Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hisayo

    2006-01-01

    In Japan, Internet based learning is still at an early stage. However, adult learners in Japanese society expect the development of flexible e-learning programs. This case study examines motivational factors affecting online learning in a Japanese and Australian MBA program, using observations, interviews and a questionnaire survey. The data were…

  11. Students' Views on Factors Affecting Empathy in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…

  12. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  13. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  14. Male Seminal Fluid Substances Affect Sperm Competition Success and Female Reproductive Behavior in a Seed Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Takashi; Goenaga, Julieta; Rönn, Johanna Liljestrand; Arnqvist, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Male seminal fluid proteins are known to affect female reproductive behavior and physiology by reducing mating receptivity and by increasing egg production rates. Such substances are also though to increase the competitive fertilization success of males, but the empirical foundation for this tenet is restricted. Here, we examined the effects of injections of size-fractioned protein extracts from male reproductive organs on both male competitive fertilization success (i.e., P2 in double mating experiments) and female reproduction in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We found that extracts of male seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 1 day after the females’ initial mating, while extracts from accessory glands and testes increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 2 days after the females’ initial mating. Moreover, different size fractions of seminal fluid proteins had distinct and partly antagonistic effects on male competitive fertilization success. Collectively, our experiments show that several different seminal fluid proteins, deriving from different parts in the male reproductive tract and of different molecular weight, affect male competitive fertilization success in C. maculatus. Our results highlight the diverse effects of seminal fluid proteins and show that the function of such proteins can be contingent upon female mating status. We also document effects of different size fractions on female mating receptivity and egg laying rates, which can serve as a basis for future efforts to identify the molecular identity of seminal fluid proteins and their function in this model species. PMID:25893888

  15. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)

  16. MODELING POLLINATION FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ALFALFA SEED YIELD IN NORTH-CENTRAL NEVADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don BREAZEALE

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The relative importance of both environmental and management factors on alfalfa seed yield was investigated on North–Central Nevada farms. Multiple linear regression models using 2002-2003 data revealed that cumulative tripped fl owers increased seed yield in both years. Field location does not appear to make a difference in the observed variation in tripped fl ower production. The results suggest that seed yield can be increased by (a by placing bee shelters closer and (b cultural practices that increase total fl ower production. Both these factors increased tripped fl owers and thus had a positive effect on yield. In addition, warmer temperatures during the growing season, particularly in the early stages of plant growth is shown to not only increase tripped fl owers but also reduce the time when the maximum tripped fl owers occur. The latter appears to have a signifi cant infl uence on cumulative tripped fl owers and thus the total seed yield.

  17. Factors affecting farm diversification in rice-wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk in agriculture sector is due to various factors like weather and market conditions, particularly the demand of the commodities. This uncertainty can result in variable returns (farm income) to the decisions that farmers make in a particular season. Diversification is a frequently used risk management strategy that involves participation in more than one activity. It has the added advantage of mitigating price risk as well as fluctuations in outputs. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the factors affecting crop diversification. For determining the effect of different factors on diversification a multiple regression model was used. The values of Entropy index computed for measuring horizontal diversification were taken as dependent variable and different factors affecting diversification were taken as independent variables. The results showed that the main factors affecting diversification were size of land holding, age of respondent, education level of respondent, farming experience of respondent, off farm income of respondent, distance of farm from main road, distance of farm from main market and farm machinery. (author)

  18. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Magdalene H., Awases; Marthie C., Bezuidenhout; Janetta H., Roos.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors inf [...] luencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. METHOD: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia. RESULTS: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  19. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalene H. Awases

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  20. Effects of prolonged exposure to space flight factors for 175 days on lettuce seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of prolonged (up to 175 days) exposure of Lactuca sativa seeds to space flight factors, including primary cosmic radiation heavy ions have been studied. The data obtained evidence a significant fourfold increase of spontaneous mutagenesis in seeds both with regard to the total number of aberrant cells as well as the formation of single cells with multiple aberrations. Comparison of the present experiment with earlier works shows that the frequency of such aberrations increases with the duration of the flight

  1. Effects of prolonged exposure to space flight factors for 175 days on lettuce seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevzgodina, L. V.; Maximova, E. N.; Akatov, Yu. A.

    We have studied the effects of prolonged (up to 175 days) exposure of Lactuca sativa seeds to space flight factors, including primary cosmic radiation heavy ions. The data obtained evidence a significant fourfold increase ofs pontaneous mutagenesis in seeds both with regard to the total number of aberrant cells as well as the formation of single cells with multiple aberrations. Comparison of the present experiment with earlier works shows that the frequency of such aberrations increases with the duration of the flight.

  2. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses.

  3. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Juan; Lozano-Baena, María Dolores; Rubiales, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (?t) and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic) on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seeds germinated between 5 and 30°C during both periods, with a maximum around 20°C. Germination increased with increasing ?t from ?1.2 to 0 MPa during conditioning and incubation periods. Likewise, seed germination increased logarithmically with length of conditioning period until 40 days. The impact of the type of water stress on seed germination was similar, although the radicle growth of seeds under osmotic stress was lower than under matric stress, what could explain the lowest infestation of Orobanche sp. in regions characterized by saline soil. The data in this study will be useful to forecast infection of host roots by O. crenata.

  4. Relationship between Factors of Construction Resources Affecting Project Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Abdul Rahman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of any construction project highly depends on how proper and effective the management of construction resources flow. Studies show that various resources factors affected cost management and have resulted to significant amount of cost overrun worldwide. However, a few investigations had been carried out in Malaysia regarding the effect of resources in construction industry. Hence, this study focuses on identifying significant resource factors causing construction cost overrun and also assessing the relationship between these factors. Data collection was carried out through a structured questionnaire survey consisting of 20 factors identified through a comprehensive literature review. Data was analyzed using statistical software package SPSS. The Cronbach’s alpha of the data was 0.910 which means that the collected data was highly reliable. The factors were ranked through mean rank approach and it was found that 3 most significant factors are “fluctuation of prices of materials”, “cash flow and financial difficulties faced by contractors” and “shortages of materials”. While the least significant factors in causing cost overrun are “insufficient numbers of equipment”, “relationship between management and labour”, and “labour absenteeism”. The result of Spearman test indicates that “cash flow and financial difficulties faced by contractors” with “financial difficulties of owner” correlate strongly at a significant level of 0.752. This identification of factors and relationships will help construction community in controlling resopurce factors for achieving project completion within the budget.

  5. Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahieh Moradi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5% such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

  6. Factors Affecting Hoteliers’ Decision to Advertise in Travel Magazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Faiz Hilmi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is a paid, mass-mediated attempt to persuade. That mean Advertising is paid communication by a company or organization that wants its information disseminated through a communication medium designed to reach more than one person, typically a large number or mass of people and advertising includes an attempt to persuade consumer to like the brand and because of that liking to eventually buy the brand. Advertising in travel magazine is one of the promotional methods to promote hoteliers products or services to the market place. By advertising in travel magazine, it can reach the target audience, educate them about the products or services, and move them closer to make a purchase. The purpose of the research is to recognize and rank the factors affecting hotelier’s decision to advertise in travel magazine. The respondents for the research are those hoteliers operating in Malaysia. The factors for this research are reached target readers, cost of advertising, contents of the magazine, frequency of advertising and media of advertising. The result of the research shows two of the factors significantly affecting hoteliers advertising decision. Furthermore, cost of advertising ranks the first follow by reach target readers, contents of magazine, media of advertising and frequency of advertising ranks the last. This research will help the publisher of travel magazine to understand and recognize the ranking of factors affecting hoteliers’ decision to advertise in travel magazine.

  7. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  8. Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Quran Firas A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

  9. The Germination of European Type Olive Seed as Affected by Different Sowing Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Azmat Ali Awan; Aqib Iqbal; Ghulam Idris

    2003-01-01

    Effect of different cultivation methods on germination percentage, seedling height and number of leaves per seedling of European type Olive was investigated. The results revealed that sowing of seeds on raised bed resulted maximum germination percentage, seedling height and number of leaves per seedling. Minimum germination percentage, seedling height and number of leaves per seedling was recorded when sow the seeds on flat land. Sowing of cultivated Olive seeds on raised bees is therefore re...

  10. Processing Effects on Some Antinutritional Factors and In vitro Multienzyme Protein Digestibility (IVPD) of Three Tropical Seeds: Breadnut (Artocarpus altilis), Cashewnut (Anacardium occidentale) and Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis)

    OpenAIRE

    T.N. Fagbemi; A.A. Oshodi; K.O. Ipinmoroti

    2005-01-01

    Mature seeds of breadnut, cashewnut and fluted pumpkin were processed in the laboratory into the raw dried, boiled, fermented, germinated and roasted seeds. Differently processed seeds were dried at 50°C, ground and sieved through 500?m sieves. The seed flours were evaluated for trypsin inhibitor activity, tannin, phosphorus compounds and in vitro multienzyme protein digestibility (IVPD). The results show that processing significantly (P = 0.05) affected the antinutritional factors in ...

  11. Factors Affecting the Ethical Judgment of Business Ethics’ Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaiza Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine the factors that affect the ethical judgment of Business Ethics students. The factors are year of study, gender, academic major, overall academic performance and Business Ethics result. A questionnaire survey was administered to 209 students taking Business Ethics course in a higher learning institution in Malaysia. Ethical vignettes obtained from Emerson and Conroy (2004 were used to capture how students evaluate the ethical behavior depicted in the vignettes. A multiple regression analysis revealed that Business Ethics result and year of study are factors that have a significant effect on the ethical judgment of students. The study reveals that Business Ethics result and year of study are significant factors that affect the ethical judgment of the students. The findings of this study may assist accounting practitioners and future employers in recruiting prospective employees. Employers may want to emphasis the significant factors in the hiring process future employees to ensure that the employees they employ have an appropriate level of ethical behavior.

  12. Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bauer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.

  13. Factors affecting the noise from small propeller driven aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglieri, D. J.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    The factors affecting noise from small propeller driven airplanes are reviewed to quantify their affects where possible, and to indicate the potential for noise reduction. The main sources of external noise are noted to be the propellers and engines; the airframe being of less importance for both aural detection and community annoyance. Propeller noise is a strong function of tip speed and is affected adversely by nonuniform inflows. Reciprocating engine exhausts are noisier than those of comparably rated turboshaft engines, but their noise can be reduced by the use of flight certified exhaust mufflers. Presently, there are no generally accepted engineering methods for development of optimized propellers and exhaust muffler designs from weight and performance penalty standpoints. Flight demonstration results, however, suggest that required noise reductions for future certification should be possible with potentially small penalties.

  14. Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations are made for future work to enhance the effectiveness of water jetting as a nuclear decontamination technique and the importance of containment and effluent treatment is outlined. (author)

  15. Factors affecting uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J.; Taylor, B.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study factors affecting uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation. DESIGN--Cohort study using data from computerised child health systems. SETTING--10 health districts in North East Thames and North West Thames regions. SUBJECTS--7841 children born in January to March 1990 and resident in the districts up till the end of October 1991. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Overall uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation, variation of uptake among groups of children, and odds...

  16. Factors Affecting Internet Banking Usage in India: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shariq Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for Internet banking usage by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The study was conducted on the private, public and foreign banks which included ICICI Bank Ltd., HDFC Bank Ltd. and AXIS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and Yes Bank. Among public sector banks the respondents were from Bank of Baroda, Punjab Nati...

  17. Factors affecting adolescents’ choice of branded vs. fashionable clothing

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Mo?nica Sofia Ramos

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project is to analyse the importance of branded and fashionable clothing, and which of them is the most important for adolescents when choosing their clothes, according with gender and age. The research analysed how three factors (peers’ influence, materialistic behaviour and self-esteem) affected adolescents’ clothing choices in the Portuguese market. 148 adolescents (12 and 16 years old) participated in the research, by answering a questionnaire. Results show th...

  18. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Rawan Al-Fouzan; Sarah Al-Ajlan; Yousef Marwan; Mervat Al-Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression wer...

  19. Statistical Analysis of the Different Factors Affecting the Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, Qamruz; Khan, Imtiaz

    2011-01-01

    Diarrhea is a worldwide problem facing both developing countries and developed countries, especially in pediatric population. Because of shortage of health facilities and lack of good food in developing countries, it is known fact that developing countries are facing this death taking problem more. The main purpose of this study was to examine the various factors which affect the recovery time of diarrhea. A multiple linear regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a model. The...

  20. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and maintenance; existence of fund for operation and maintenance; willingness to contribute money; existence of a user’s committee; participation in the initial planning and design of the water scheme; and coordination between the local leaders and user’s committee. The main factors which made the schemes unsustainable were: long fetching time; non-involvement in decision making; lack of willingness to contribute funds; absence of users committee; and lack of cooperation between local leaders and the users committee. Water service providers should address the technical, social, financial and institutional factors identified affecting sustainability in their planning and implementation of rural water schemes.

  1. Particle size affects Brassica seed meal-induced pathogen suppression of Rhizoctonia solani AG-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. solani AG-5 is a component of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease, and is suppressed via multiple mechanisms in response to B. juncea seed meal (SM) amendment. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) functions in suppression of this pathogen during the initial 24 h period post-seed meal a...

  2. Nitrogen Fertilizer Affecting Growth, Seed Yield and Active Substances of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Omidbaigi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The ripe fruit of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaerth contain flavonoids that are used to prepare anti - hepatotoxic drugs. This plant is important to pharmaceutical industries. The main aim of this investigation was to study the influence of nitrogen fertilizer on growth, seed yield and active substances (silymarin and silybin content of milk thistle. The results showed that nitrogen fertilizer had significant effect on growth (plant height, number of capitula per plant, capitula diameter, seed yield, silymarin and silybin content. The highest seed yield (2.35 kg/plot was obtained from the plots, receiving 200kg / ha N as top dressing after seed germination. But the highest silymarin (9.25% and silybin (33. 58% content was accumulated in the seeds of control treatment plants.

  3. Irradiation inactivation of some antinutritional factors in plant seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of gamma-irradiation (1.0-10 kGy) on trypsin, chymotrypsin, and alpha-amylase inhibitors of soybean and Moringa peregrina seeds on tannin of sorghum, gossypol of cottonseed, and in vitro digestibility of soybean were investigated. A dose of 10.0 kGy caused decreases in trypsin (by 34.9%) and chymotrypsin (by 71.4%) inhibitor activities in soybean defatted flour, whereas its in vitro digestibility increased from 79.8 to 84.2%. The alpha-amylase inhibitor activity of Al-Yassar (M. peregrina) was decreased by 43.6 and 47.8% upon treatment of 7.0 and 10.0 kGy, respectively. Doses of 10.0 and 7.0 kGy significantly reduced the tannin content in Shahlla sorghum but not in Hemaira sorghum. Total and free gossypol contents were slightly reduced by irradiation

  4. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.

    2002-01-01

    Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were used to divide the metabolites into the following three groups: 1) correlated to growth, 2) correlated to color formation, and 3) formed at high pH. Subsequently, a full factorial experiment with factors P, Mg and Cu, showed that low P concentrations (2000 mg/kg) induced yellow color formation. Among the factors contributing to yellow color formation, pH and salt concentration are easy to control for the cheesemaker, while the third factor, P-concentration, is not. Naturally occurring variations in the P-concentration in milk delivered to Blue Cheese plants, could be responsible for the yellow discoloration phenomenon observed in the dairy industry.

  5. Seed dormancy and germination in Jeffersonia dubia (Berberidaceae) as affected by temperature and gibberellic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, Y H; Lee, S Y; Kim, K S

    2015-03-01

    The genus Jeffersonia, which contains only two species, has a trans-Atlantic disjunct distribution. The aims of this study were to determine the requirements for breaking dormancy and germination of J. dubia seeds and to compare its dormancy characteristics with those of the congener in eastern North America. Ripe seeds of J. dubia contain an underdeveloped embryo and were permeable to water. In nature, seeds were dispersed in May, while embryos began to grow in September, and were fully elongated by late November. Germination started in March of the next year, and seeds emerged as seedlings soon after germination. In laboratory experiments, incubation at high temperatures (25 °C, 25/15 °C) for at least 8 weeks was required to initiate embryo growth, while a transfer to moderate temperatures (20/10 °C, 15/6 °C) was needed for the completion of embryo growth. At least 8 weeks at 5 °C was effective in overcoming physiological dormancy and for germination in seeds after the embryos had fully elongated. Thus, both high and low temperatures were essential to break dormancy. Gibberellic acid (GA3 ) treatment could substitute for the high temperature requirement, but not for the low temperature requirement. Based on the dormancy-breaking requirements, it is confirmed that the seeds have deep simple morphophysiological dormancy. This dormancy type is similar to that of seeds of the eastern North American species J. diphylla. Although seeds require 10-11 months from seed dispersal to germination in nature, under controlled conditions they required only 3 months after treatment with 1000 mg·l(-1) GA3 , followed by incubation at 15/6 °C. This represents practical knowledge for propagation of these plants from seed. PMID:25319374

  6. Arabidopsis WRKY2 transcription factor mediates seed germination and postgermination arrest of development by abscisic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Diqiu; Jiang Wenbo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Plant WRKY DNA-binding transcription factors are key regulators in certain developmental programs. A number of studies have suggested that WRKY genes may mediate seed germination and postgermination growth. However, it is unclear whether WRKY genes mediate ABA-dependent seed germination and postgermination growth arrest. Results To determine directly the role of Arabidopsis WRKY2 transcription factor during ABA-dependent seed germination and postgermination growth arrest, ...

  7. A systematic study on factors affecting patient dose, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study of possible reduction in irradiation dose to patients during medical treatments, the following two methods can be considered: (1) To obtain absorbed doses for each part of a body in diagnostic X-ray examinations. (2) To obtain data on factors such as the tube voltage which may affect patient dose. There are a number of reports both at home and abroad concerning the above (1), but very few reports are available concerning the above (2). Moreover, most of them are on fragmentary aspects of each factor and no systematic reports have been made. For this reason, we have taken up, as factors affecting the patient dose, the field size, the tube voltage, and by checking them again, we wanted to obtain some systematic data. Our aim has been fully attained by conducting an experiment. In the ICRP's Publ. 26 issued last year, the idea of the critical organ which had not been fully elucidated in the Publ. 9 was abandoned. As a result, assessment of the irradiation doses has become more rational and the total risk for an individual was obtained. In Japan, the idea proposed in the Publ. 9 is adopted. Therefore, in this paper, we will raise some questions regarding the assessment of the irradiation doses, pointing out at the same time the rationality of the idea put forward in Publ. 26. (author)

  8. Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Avis J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect FENO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting FENO in a well characterised adult population. Methods Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at age 32. The effects of sex, height, weight, lung function indices, smoking, atopy, asthma and rhinitis on FENO were explored by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analyses. Results The effect of sex on FENO was both statistically and clinically significant, with FENO levels approximately 25% less in females. Overall, current smoking reduced FENO up to 50%, but this effect occurred predominantly in those who smoked on the day of the FENO measurement. Atopy increased FENO by 60%. The sex-related differences in FENO remained significant (p ENO. Conclusion Even after adjustment, FENO values are significantly different in males and females. The derivation of reference values and the interpretation of FENO in the clinical setting should be stratified by sex. Other common factors such as current smoking and atopy also require to be taken into account.

  9. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured questionnaire; study reveals that service innovativeness, service reli- ability, service competitiveness and service consistency have significant influence on making customer satisfied and the operator’s network/signal coverage, pricing, offering, fulfillment of customer demand, value added service, brand value and op - erators contribution for society have insignificant influences on making customer satisfied at five percent level of significant at multiple regression analysis. On the basis of these findings; study concludes that in promoting customer satisfaction mobile service providers should be concerned for factors responsible for insignifi- cant influence on customer satisfaction and care of those factors have significant influence on promoting customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh.

  10. Factors Affecting The Entrepreneurial Behavior Of TUMS Research Centers Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Khayatan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background and Aim: Entrepreneurial roles can be performed by managers at different levels. In fact, entrepreneurship can be interpreted as a tendency adopted by managers towards their environment in which they should have the ability to discover new opportunities for their innovative activities. This study aims to identify factors affecting entrepreneurial behavior of research centers managers at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS.  Materials and Methods: Considering the sample size determined through Cochran’s formula, 90 questionnaires were distributed among TUMS research centers managers. The data were analyzed based on structural equation modeling applying partial least squares approach through Smartpls.2 software.  Results: Of the 90 questionnaires distributed, 67 were acceptable for study. The model created for effective factors enjoyed an acceptable goodness of fit index (GOF=0.49. Factors loading for the observed variables were above 0.4 and the constructs had an acceptable level of reliability and validity.  Conclusion : The results show that contextual and behavioral factors have a positive effect on entrepreneurial behavior and that structural factors have a negative effect on it. 

  11. Analysis and Measurement of Buildability Factors Affecting Edge Formwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Jarkas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Labour productivity is affected by several factors, but buildability is among the most important. Nevertheless, a thoroughexamination of the literature revealed a dearth of research into the influence of buildability factors on labour productivityof in situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the formwork trade level. Although edge formwork is an importantlabour intensive activity, most often, its labour cost is either crudely estimated or lumped within the formwork cost of otheractivities. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate and quantify the effects and relative influence of the followingbuildability factors on its labour productivity: (a depth of slab being edge-formed; (b slab geometric factor; and (ctype of formwork material used. To achieve this objective, a sufficiently large volume of productivity data was collected andanalyzed using the multiple categorical-regression method. As a result, the effects and relative influence of the buildabilityfactors investigated are determined. The findings show significant effects of these factors on edge formwork labour productivity,which can be used to provide designers feedback on how well their designs consider the requirements of buildabilityprinciples, and the consequences of their decisions on labour efficiency. On the other hand, the depicted patterns of resultsmay provide guidance to construction managers for effective activity planning and efficient labour utilization.

  12. Factors affecting surface and release properties of thin PDMS films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Junker, Michael Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) elastomers are commonly used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP). DEAP films are used in making actuators, generators and sensors. In the large scale manufacture of DEAP films, release of films from the substrate (carrier web) induces some defects and pre-strain in the films which affect the overall performance of the films. The current research is directed towards investigating factors affecting the peel force and release of thin, corrugated polydimethylsiloxane films used in DEAP films. It has been shown that doping the PDMS films with small quantities of perfluoroether allylamide (PFE) lowered the surface energy which could ease the release. This is further investigated together with an evaluation of the resulting change in actuator performance. The relationship between the adhesive energy, surface energy, Young’s modulus and peel force of the films is analyzed.

  13. Yield and Yield Components of Wheat as Affected by Different Planting Dates, Seed Rate and Nitrogen Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Ejaz Hameed; Wajid Ali Shah; A.A. Shad; Fazal Hayat Taj; Jehan Bakht

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the yield and yield components of wheat as affected by different planting dates, seed rate and nitrogen levels, an experiment was carried out at Malakandhar Research Farms, NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan during 2000. Mean value of the data indicated that different sowing dates and nitrogen levels had a significant effect on productive tillers m -2 spike length, spiklets spike -1, grain yield, biological yield and...

  14. Soil seed banks and their germination responses to cadmium and salinity stresses in coastal wetlands affected by reclamation and urbanization based on indoor and outdoor experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Gao, Zhaoqin; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing; Zhao, Qingqing

    2014-09-15

    Indoor and outdoor seedling emergence experiments were conducted to thoroughly investigate germination patterns as affected by reclamation and urbanization, the ecological characteristics of soil seed banks, and their relationships with environmental factors in both urbanized and reclaimed regions of the Pearl River Delta in coastal wetlands. The germination rate of the soil seed bank was higher in the indoor experiment compared with that in the outdoor experiment, whereas the number and destiny of the germinated seedlings were greater in the outdoor experiment. The species diversity and number, as well as the richness and evenness indices, were higher in the urbanized region compared with the reclaimed region. However, the dominance and Sørensen similarity indices were greater in the reclaimed region compared with those indices in the urbanized region. Higher salinity and Cadmium (Cd) levels could inhibit seed germination; however, their suitable ranges (i.e. [0-2,000 mg kg(-1)] for salinity and [0-4.0 mg kg(-1)] for available Cd) can activate seedling emergence, and more seedlings germinated under the intersectional levels at 0.34 mg kg(-1) available Cd and 778.6 mg kg(-1) salinity. Seawater intrusion caused by the sea level rise will possibly result in the salt-tolerant community in this area due to increasing salinity. PMID:25173982

  15. Chinese multinationals: how do institutional factors affect their location patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Quer Ramón

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of various host country institutional factors on the location patterns of 29 large Chinese multinationals. From a sample of 127 outward foreign direct investment (FDI decisions made in 52 countries, our findings suggest that a greater difficulty in doing business and a high political risk in the host country do not discourage Chinese multinationals. However, the presence of overseas Chinese in the host country, a larger absolute host market size and a higher volume of Chinese exports to that country affect positively.

  16. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  17. SOME ENVIRONMENTEAL FACTORS AFFECTING BROILER HOUSING IN WINTER SEASON

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek FOUDA; Assad DERBALA; Mohamed GHONAME

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to study some environmental factors affecting broiler housing in winter season. The results showed that, temperature fluctuations between house ceiling and floor ranged between 0.4 to 5.93 ºC during the first two days of age. The average house temperature reduced gradually from 29.7 to 21.3 ºC. The indoor relative humidity ranged between 43.6 to 74.3 %. Specific heating power, specific fuel consumption and heating energy requirements ranged between 3850....

  18. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  19. Some factors affecting the abundance of mycorrhizas in grassland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly one quarter of the world's land surface is occupied by permanent grassland, and possible ways of increasing the productivity of grassland deserve attention. Since permanent grasslands rarely receive phosphorus fertilizer, mycorrhizas could be important. Research in Britain has shown that mycorrhizal abundance is related to grazing intensity and to the percentage of ground area covered by vegetation. Infection levels in a plant are also influenced by what other species are growing nearby. Knowledge of factors affecting mycorrhizal abundance could allow grasslands to be managed for greater abundance of indigenous mycorrhizas. (author)

  20. Seed pathology progress in academia and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkvold, Gary P

    2009-01-01

    Seed pathology involves the study and management of diseases affecting seed production and utilization, as well as disease management practices applied to seeds. In this paper, three aspects of seed pathology are discussed: research innovations in detection of seedborne pathogens and elucidation of their epidemiology; advances in development and use of seed treatments; and progress toward standardization of phytosanitary regulations and seed health testing methods. The application of nucleic-acid based detection methods in seed health testing has been facilitated by integrating conventional or real-time PCR with other technologies (e.g., BIO-PCR, IMS-PCR, MCH-PCR). PCR-based methods and pathogen marker technologies are being applied to epidemiological research on seedborne pathogens, e.g., seed transmission mechanisms, the influence of external biotic and abiotic factors on seed transmission, and tracking progress of seed-transmitted pathogens. Seed treatment use is discussed in terms of the revolutionary expansion in seed-applied insecticide use, impacts of new fungicide active ingredients, and the effects of some seed treatments on crop physiology. International seed trade has been affected significantly by changing phytosanitary regulations, not always based on science. Efforts are underway to revise phytosanitary regulations to reflect pest risk analysis outcomes and to develop standards for seed health testing methods that facilitate safe and efficient international trade in seeds. PMID:19400648

  1. Common factors affecting psychotherapy outcomes: some implications for teaching psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert; Heiman, Noa; Yager, Joel

    2015-05-01

    The number of psychotherapies classified as "empirically supported treatments" has increased significantly. As the number and scope of empirically supported treatments multiply, it has become impossible to train therapists in all of these specific modalities. Although the current Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements for psychiatric residents follow an approach based on specific schools of psychotherapy (emphasizing competency in cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, and supportive treatments), evidence suggests that we are failing even in these efforts. In developing a specialized Psychotherapy Scholars Track in the residency program at the University of Colorado School of Medicine, we opted to focus initially on teaching the common factors in psychotherapy that positively affect psychotherapy outcomes. This article reviews 6 such broad common factors. PMID:25955260

  2. Factors affecting individual injury experience among petroleum drilling workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, B A; Mohr, D L; Rice, J C; Clemmer, D I

    1987-02-01

    To identify factors affecting the number of injuries experienced by petroleum drilling workers, we carried out a 44-month incidence density study on a cohort employed in January 1979 on mobile drilling units in the Gulf of Mexico. To control for job-related hazards, we computed a standardized ratio of observed to expected injuries for each worker based on his job history. The effect of personal and work history factors was then examined using analysis of variance. Age, rate of job changes, and rate of rig transfers had independent effects on injury rates. Length of service had little effect when age was controlled. The findings suggest that younger workers under stress such as job change may be more susceptible to injury than older workers, regardless of job. If so, targeted changes in procedures and environment which protect workers of all ages are important alternatives to reliance on supervision and experience in injury reduction. PMID:3819892

  3. A Study on Factors Affecting Turnover Intention of Hotel Empolyees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chang Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available his study used linear structural modeling to explore the factors affecting the turnover intention of hotel employees in Taiwan. A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed to hotel employees. Among these, 350 were valid samples, a valid return rate of 87.50%. The empirical results showed that (1 more harmonious coworker relationships between hotel employees and a higher level of satisfaction regarding their work environment have a significantly positive effect on job satisfaction; (2 a higher level of organizational commitment among hotel employees has a significantly negative effect on turnover intention; (3 the direct effect of employee job satisfaction and salary level on turnover intention has not reached a significant level. Nevertheless, the two factors have indirect negative effects on turnover intention.

  4. Factors affecting the prevalence of obesity among primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Kürtüncü

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate the risk factors affecting obesity in students in the 6-15 years old age group. There were 868 students registered at Bahçelievler Elementary School in Zonguldak and were present for face-to-face meetings on the days the research data was collected. Data was collected using demographic questionary forms and weight-length measurements from March to April in 2010. Results: Difference is found to be statistically meaningful with respect to the relationship between obesity of children and their age, gender, number of siblings, fathers’ jobs, education level of their mothers, fast food consumption and family history of obesity (p<0.05. Conclusions: The study concludes that there are certain ciriteria related to the development of obesity during a specific period of childhood and that taking certain precautions are effective in preventing the development of obesity. Keywords: Body Mass Index; Children; Obesity; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Turkey.

  5. Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Youngmo, Kang; Mingook, Lee; Sungjoo, Lee.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service syste [...] m such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT) and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - 'wireless internet' and 'mobile applications' - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.

  6. Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmo Kang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service system such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - ‘wireless internet’ and ‘mobile applications’ - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.

  7. Studies on the dormancy of cereal seeds as affected by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of gamma radiation (10 kR) was studied on the germination of freshly harvested seeds of several varieties of barley, wheat and triticale. On the basis of the germination in irradiated seeds in comparison to controls, barley varieties may be categorized into three groups: (i) those showing reduction in germination, (ii) those showing stimulation in germination and (iii) those remaining unaffected. The mean germination percentage of the controls was 50.7, 19.4 and 2.1 in group i, ii and iii varieties, respectively. After 6 weeks, varieties in group iii lost seed dormancy. The response of these varieties to irradiation then became similar to group i or ii. Wheat and triticale varieties also could be grouped in similar way. It has been suggested that germination response of seeds of these cereal varieties to relatively 'low doses' of gamma radiation depends on their innate dormancy status and germination could be stimulated by gamma radiation (10 kR) in seeds having low germination due to seed dormancy. (author)

  8. Factors affecting fin damage of farmed rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Cvetkovikj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the influence of the factors affecting fin damage under different rainbow trout production systems and to compare the findings with the known experimental reports. The study was based on a questionnaire that included information about the main factors i.e. oxygen level in exit water, water temperature, stocking density, daily feed ration, number of meals and grading frequency on seven rainbow trout farms. Standard multiple regression analysis, based on a previously published fi n damage dataset, was used to assess the relationship between the level of fin damage per fin and the factors. Daily feed ration received the strongest weight in the model for the caudal, anal and both pectoral fins, whereas number of meals received the strongest weight in the model for both pelvic fins. Grading frequency received the strongest weight only in the dorsal fin model. Lower levels of daily feed ration and number of meals combined with higher water temperature increased the level of fin damage, whereas stocking density had no effect. The results conform to the experimental research on fin damage in rainbow trout. The research model contributes to the overall assessment of fish welfare and the regression analysis used in this study could be used on rainbow trout farms to evaluate the effect of the main factors on the level of fin damage.

  9. Factor Affecting the Sustainable Management of Agricultural Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the sustainable management of agricultural water in Hamedan. The study population included all wheat farmers possessing irrigated farms in Hamedan city (N=1800. Of these farmers a sample of 317 people has been selected by using randomized multi-stage sampling method. The data were collected through a questionnaire's tool with help of the interview technique. Accuracy of the questions in the questionnaire was face validated by a panel of specialists. To test the reliability of the questionnaires, the questionnaires were first given to 30 farmers and Cronbach's Alpha was calculated (Alpha=0.92 then the questionnaire was finalized. Data analyzing methods such as Multiple Regression and the coefficient of variation (CV= standard deviation /mean were used in this study. To determine the level of sustainability of the farms Bossel method proposed for classification and grading the fields was used. The results showed that variables agronomic factors, policy factors and institutional factors were able to explain 34 percent of the dependent variable's changes (sustainable management of agricultural water. According to the results, 95.3 percent of the farmers were categorized into unsustainable group, 4.1 percent into semi-sustainable and only 0.6 percent in sustainable group.

  10. A review of factors affecting vaccine preventable disease in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Ching, Michael S L

    2014-12-01

    Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded "routine" (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay "voluntary" groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion. PMID:25628969

  11. Determination of Minerals and Anti-Nutritional Factors of Some Lesser-Known Crop Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Ilelaboye, N. O. A.; Pikuda, O. O.

    2009-01-01

    The cost of raw material needed for the production of animal feed has led to the evaluation and ascertaining the adequacy of some lesser known crop seeds for minerals composition and the possible effects of anti nutritional factors on the availability of the required nutrients. The mineral elements and anti nutritional factors Jatropha curcas, Trichosanthes cucumerina, Citrillius vulgaris, were determined using standard analytical methods. The concentration of copper (16.00 mg/kg-43.00 mg/kg)...

  12. Regulation of the seed to seedling developmental phase transition by the LAFL and VAL transcription factor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Haiyan; Suzuki, Masaharu; McCarty, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    In the seed, a fundamental transition between embryo and vegetative phases of plant development is coordinated by the interaction between the AFL and VAL sub-clades of the plant specific B3 domain transcription factor family. The AFL B3 factors together with LEC1-type HAP3 transcription factors promote embryo maturation; whereas the VAL B3 factors repress the LEC1/AFL (LAFL) network during seed germination. Recent advances reveal that genes in key developmental programs and hormone signaling ...

  13. Factors Affecting Success and Complication of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yalç?nkaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL is the first choice renal stones especially larger than 2 cm, and high success rates can be achieved after PNL. But several severe complications may be occurred. In this study, factors which affect the success rate and complications were investigated. Material and Method: Between July 2004 and August 2007, 176 patients (102 men/74 women underwent PNL operation. Because of the bilateral renal stones PNL was performed in two separate sessions of 9 patients. Percutaneous access was doing in prone position. Factors affecting the success and complication data were collected. Results: Mean age was 47.610,7 (17%uFFFD76 year, median=47. Complete success rate was detected 77.8% with the direct X-rays taken in the first postoperative day. The success rate was up to 87% after the additional post-treatment therapy. Success rates were 83.1% for complex stones and 89.4% for simple stones (p

  14. 11-Year Experience with Gastroschisis: Factors Affecting Mortality and Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Erdo?an

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was the evaluation of patients treated with a diagnosis of gastroschisis and to establish the factors which affected the morbidity and mortality.Methods: Twenty-nine patients, managed for gastroschisis during 2000-2010 were reviewed retrospectively.Patients were analysed in respect to gestational age, birth weight, associated anomalies, type of delivery,operative procedures, postoperative complications, total parenteral nutrition (TPN related complications.The factors affecting mortality and morbidity were determined.Findings: Associated abnormalities were present in 24% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent elective reduction in the incubator (Bianchi procedure without anesthesia. Eight patients had delayed reduction with silo and ten patients had primary closure. Although the type of delivery had an effect on morbidity but notmortality, gestational age, birth weight, and the operative procedure performed had no effect on morbidity or mortality. Duration until tolerance of oral intake, and of TPN and hospitalization were found to be statistically significantly shorter in the group of babies delivered by cesarean section.Conclusion: In our study the most important cause of mortality was the abdominal compartment syndrome and multi-organ failure in the early years. Long hospitalization periods and sepsis were the main causes of mortality in recent years.

  15. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail. PMID:22530712

  16. Factors Affecting Longevity of Tunneled Central Venous Cathe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Won; Lee, Jong Min [Dept. of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate factors which affect the longevity of tunneled central venous catheters (T-CVCs). A retrospective study was conducted on 363 T-CVCs. We evaluated the relevant factors affecting the longevity of the T-CVCs, such as age, gender, indication for catheterization, site of entry vessel, diameter and type of T-CVC, catheter tip position, and underlying diseases. Of the 363 T-CVCs which had been inserted, 331 (91%) were placed through the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The catheter tip position was the strongest predictor for the longevity of the T-CVC. The short limb of the catheter tip placed either at the cavoatrial junction (CA junction) or below the lower margin of the right main bronchus had a good prognosis. The vessel through which the T-CVC was placed significantly influenced the longevity of the T-CVC; the RIJV was associated with better results than the left internal jugular vein. Also, a split-type catheter was significantly associated with a better result. A two distinct and separate type T-CVC placed through the RIJV in which the short limb catheter tip position was at the level of the CA junction, significantly increased the longevity of T-CVCs.

  17. Factors Affecting Longevity of Tunneled Central Venous Cathe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate factors which affect the longevity of tunneled central venous catheters (T-CVCs). A retrospective study was conducted on 363 T-CVCs. We evaluated the relevant factors affecting the longevity of the T-CVCs, such as age, gender, indication for catheterization, site of entry vessel, diameter and type of T-CVC, catheter tip position, and underlying diseases. Of the 363 T-CVCs which had been inserted, 331 (91%) were placed through the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The catheter tip position was the strongest predictor for the longevity of the T-CVC. The short limb of the catheter tip placed either at the cavoatrial junction (CA junction) or below the lower margin of the right main bronchus had a good prognosis. The vessel through which the T-CVC was placed significantly influenced the longevity of the T-CVC; the RIJV was associated with better results than the left internal jugular vein. Also, a split-type catheter was significantly associated with a better result. A two distinct and separate type T-CVC placed through the RIJV in which the short limb catheter tip position was at the level of the CA junction, significantly increased the longevity of T-CVCs.

  18. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  19. Factors affecting the reproductive potential of dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various factors that affect fertility were examined in high yielding dairy cows. In cows treated for the synchronization of oestrous cycles, manifestation of oestrus following synchronization treatment was affected by the body condition score in the winter; 74% of the cows had a low score. Primiparous cows that were thin or fat had a low conception rate. The conception rate of multiparous cows with different body condition scores did not differ in the winter. However, in the summer, thin, medium-low, medium-high and fat cows had a conception rate of 15, 36, 48 and 27%, respectively (P4) levels five days before the first post-partum AI affected conception rates. Primiparous cows with low (?2 ng/mL), medium (2.1-4.0 ng/mL) and high (?4.1 ng/mL) P4 levels had a conception rate of 28, 17 and 61%, respectively (P4 had a conception rate of 25, 46 and 52%, respectively (P<0.02). Cows in their fifth or later lactation that were fed straw as their sole roughage had a conception rate of 23% and a 120 day pregnancy rate of 23%. Cows of the same parities that were fed hay had a conception rate of 50% (P<0.05) and a pregnancy rate of 80% (P<0.005). (author). 15 refs, 5 tabs

  20. Study of the factors affecting radon diffusion through building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following - decay of 226Ra in underground soil and building materials used, in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. The diffusion of radon in dwellings is a process determined by the radon concentration gradient across the building material structure and can be a significant contributor to indoor radon inflow. Radon can originate from the deeply buried deposit beneath homes and can migrate to the surface of earth. Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process and is affected by several factors. It is well known that for building construction materials the porosity, permeability and the diffusion coefficient are the parameters, which can quantify the materials capability to hinder the flow of radon soil gas. An increase in porosity will provide more air space within the material for radon to travel, thus reducing its resistance to radon transport. The permeability of material describes its ability to act as a barrier to gas movement when a pressure gradient exists across it and is closely related to the porosity of material. The radon diffusion coefficient of a material quantifies the ability of radon gas to move through it when a concentration gradient is the driving force. This parameter depends upon the porosity and permeability of the medium. As diffusion process is the major contributor to indoor levels, therefore, the factors affecting the diff therefore, the factors affecting the diffusion process need to be kept in consideration. Keeping this in mind the experimental arrangements have been made for control study of radon diffusion through some building materials to observe the effects of different factors viz.; compaction, grain size, temperature, humidity and the mixing of these materials etc. For the present study alpha sensitive LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) have been used for the recording of alpha tracks caused by radon gas after its diffusion through the material. After exposure, the detectors were subjected to a chemical etching process. The detectors were washed, dried and after that, the tracks caused by alpha particle were counted using an optical Olympus microscope at magnification 600X. Using the track density produced the parameters like radon diffusion coefficients and diffusion lengths through these building construction materials have been calculated in each case under study. The results of present investigations provide better insight into the selection of building construction materials capable of controlling the indoor radon levels. (author)

  1. A proteomic analysis of rice seed germination as affected by high temperature and ABA treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Shu-Jun; Xu, Heng-Heng

    2015-01-01

    Seed germination is a critical phase in the plant life cycle, but the specific events associated with seed germination are still not fully understood. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry to investigate the changes in the proteome during imbibition of Oryza sativa seeds at optimal temperature with or without abscisic acid (ABA) and high temperature (germination thermoinhibition) to further identify and quantify key proteins required for seed germination. A total of 121 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance (1.5-fold increase/decrease) during germination under all conditions. Among these proteins, we found seven proteins specifically associated with seed germination including glycosyl hydrolases family 38 protein, granule-bound starch synthase 1, Os03g0842900 (putative steroleosin-B), N-carbamoylputrescine amidase, spermidine synthase 1, tubulin ?-1 chain and glutelin type-A; and a total of 20 imbibition response proteins involved in energy metabolism, cell growth, cell defense and storage proteins. High temperature inhibited seed germination by decreasing the abundance of proteins involved in methionine metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, energy metabolism, reserve degradation, protein folding and stress responses. ABA treatment inhibited germination and decreased the abundance of proteins associated with methionine metabolism, energy production and cell division. Our results show that changes in many biological processes including energy metabolism, protein synthesis and cell defense and rescue occurred as a result of all treatments, while enzymes involved in methionine metabolism and weakening of cell wall specifically accumulated when the seeds germinated at the optimal temperature.

  2. A proteomic analysis of rice seed germination as affected by high temperature and ABA treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Jun; Xu, Heng-Heng; Wang, Wei-Qing; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Ping; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-05-01

    Seed germination is a critical phase in the plant life cycle, but the specific events associated with seed germination are still not fully understood. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry to investigate the changes in the proteome during imbibition of Oryza sativa seeds at optimal temperature with or without abscisic acid (ABA) and high temperature (germination thermoinhibition) to further identify and quantify key proteins required for seed germination. A total of 121 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance (1.5-fold increase/decrease) during germination under all conditions. Among these proteins, we found seven proteins specifically associated with seed germination including glycosyl hydrolases family 38 protein, granule-bound starch synthase 1, Os03g0842900 (putative steroleosin-B), N-carbamoylputrescine amidase, spermidine synthase 1, tubulin ?-1 chain and glutelin type-A; and a total of 20 imbibition response proteins involved in energy metabolism, cell growth, cell defense and storage proteins. High temperature inhibited seed germination by decreasing the abundance of proteins involved in methionine metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, energy metabolism, reserve degradation, protein folding and stress responses. ABA treatment inhibited germination and decreased the abundance of proteins associated with methionine metabolism, energy production and cell division. Our results show that changes in many biological processes including energy metabolism, protein synthesis and cell defense and rescue occurred as a result of all treatments, while enzymes involved in methionine metabolism and weakening of cell wall specifically accumulated when the seeds germinated at the optimal temperature. PMID:25270993

  3. Postoperative [125I] seed brachytherapy in the treatment of acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland. With associated risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This retrospective study was undertaken to analyze data from patients receiving iodine-125 ([125I]) seed brachytherapy postoperatively for the treatment of acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) of the parotid gland along with the following risk factors: residual tumor, recurrent tumor, facial nerve invasion, positive resection margins, advanced tumor stage, or tumor spillage. Twenty-nine patients with ACC (17 females, 12 males; age range, 13-73 years; median age, 37.3 years) were included. Median follow-up was 58.2 months (range, 14-122 months). Patients received [125I] seed brachytherapy (median actuarial D90, 177 Gy) 3-41 days (median, 14 days) following surgery. Radioactivity was 18.5-33.3 MBq per seed, and the prescription dose was 80-120 Gy. The 3-, 5-, and 10-year rates of local control were 93.1, 88.7, and 88.7 %, respectively; overall survival was 96.6, 92, and 92 %; disease-free survival was 93.1, 88.4, and 88.4 %; and freedom from distant metastasis was 96.6, 91.2, and 91.2 %. Lymph node metastases were absent in all patients, although two patients died with distant metastases. Facial nerve recovery was quick, and no severe radiotherapy-related complications were noted. Recurrence history, local recurrence, and distant metastasis significantly affected overall survival. Postoperative [125I] seed brachytherapy is effective in treating ACC and has minor complications. Patients with a history of recurrence showed poor prognosis and were more likely to experience disease recurrence and develop metastases. (orig.)

  4. Systematic factors that affect ostrich egg incubation traits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Z., Brand; S.W.P., Cloete; C.R., Brown; I.A., Malecki.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock maintained at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate environmental and genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), water loss of incubated eggs up to 21 days (WL21), water loss up to 35 days (WL35), pipping time (PT) and weight of day-old chicks (C [...] WT). Between 13806 and 19913 artificially incubated ostrich eggs during the 2003 to 2006 production years were used. Systematic factors affecting these traits such as production year, breeding season, female age, incubator type, storage time and ostrich breed, were initially assessed in single-trait-analyses, using ASREML. Eggs and chicks produced by Zimbabwean Blue (ZB) females were 5 and 7% heavier, respectively, than those produced by South African Black (SAB) females. WL21 and WL35 were not significantly different between ZB and SAB birds. There were trends for within-season effects on EWT and CWT, but no general, robust trend applicable to all years could be discerned. Season had a significant effect on WL21, WL35 and PT. An increase was apparent in EWT, CWT and PT with an increase in female age. There was a linear increase in pipping time as egg storage time prior to incubation increased. Incubator type had an effect on WL21 and WL35. Systematic factors affect traits such as WL21, WL35 and PT and should be accounted for before the estimation of genetic parameters. These factors should be considered when planning commercial ostrich husbandry and artificial incubation operations.

  5. Geolocation by light: accuracy and precision affected by environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisovski, Simeon; Hewson, Chris M.

    2012-01-01

    1. Geolocation by light allows for tracking animal movements, based on measurements of light intensity over time by a data-logging device (‘geolocator’). Recent developments of ultra-light devices (<2 g) broadened the range of target species and boosted the number of studies using geolocators. However, an inherent problem of geolocators is that any factor or process that changes the natural light intensity pattern also affects the positions calculated from these light patterns. Although the most important factors have been identified, estimation of their effect on the accuracy and precision of positions estimated has been lacking but is very important for the analyses and interpretation of geolocator data. 2. The ‘threshold method’ is mainly used to derive positions by defining sunrise and sunset times from the light intensity pattern for each recorded day. This method requires calibration: a predefined sun elevation angle for estimating latitude by fitting the recorded day / night lengthsto theoretical values across latitudes. Therewith, almost constant shading can be corrected for by finding the appropriate sun elevation angle. 3. Weather, topography and vegetation are the most important factors that influence light intensities. We demonstrated their effect on the measurement of day /night length, time of solar midnight /noon and the resulting position estimates using light measurements from stationary geolocators at known places and from geolocators mounted on birds. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of different calibration methods on the accuracy of the latitudinal positions. 4. All three environmental factors can influence the light intensity pattern significantly. Weather and an animal’s behaviour result in increased noise in positioning, whereas topography and vegetation result in systematic shading and biased positions. Calibration can significantly shift the estimated latitudes and potentially increase the accuracy, but detailed knowledge about the particular confounding factors and the behaviour of the studied animal is crucial for the choice of the most appropriate calibration method.

  6. Crucial Factors Affecting Stress: A Study among Undergraduates in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Ud Din Khan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Stress is normally unavoidable part of everyone’s life living in this world. It portrays a negative notion that can have an impact on one’s mental and physical well-being. The core intention of this study was to detect the most influencing factors of stress affecting undergraduates. The four factors that had taken under consideration were Family stress, Emotional stress, Financial Stress and Social Stress. To accomplish this research stress inventory has developed using scientific methods. Respondents were undergraduate students of university with different demographics. Results has presented graphically, descriptively and inferentially using SPSS and Excel. Pearson’s chi-square and correlation has applied to verify the relationship between stress factors and demographics. Results show that living persuasively under strict rules and regulations can be a family stressor. Unavailability of best choices and paramount match to live with as a partner can be an emotional stress. Less income students find difficulty to spend money on buying and enjoying which is a predictor of financial stress. Pressurized life and squat admiration from people has lied under Social stress. Other verdicts are also deemed according to Pakistani cultural context.

  7. Demotivating Factors Affecting EFL Learning of Iranian Seminary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Tabatabaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the demotives affecting EFL learning of Iranian Islamic seminary students and also to distinguish the motivated and demotivated EFL learners in terms of their EFL learning as the major focus of this study. Fifty Iranian EFL seminary students were investigated using two validated questionnaires. First a modified version of The Attitude/Motivation Test Battery Questionnaire (AMTB originally developed by Gardner (2004 was used to determine the degree of learners’ motivation. Second a modified version of Warrington's (2005 questionnaire was administered to determine the demotivating factors from the students' point of view. Then, the IOPT (Interchange Objective Placement Test was administered to measure the general proficiency of the subjects under study. The comparison of the IOPT score means of the two groups revealed a significant difference in the results of IOPT of students with higher scores in the AMTB and those with lower scores. That is, the more motivated the students were, the higher their IOPT scores were. Furthermore, factors such as the improper method of English teaching, frequency of classes in a week, problems in understanding listening materials and lack of use of English in students’ real life were found to be the essential demotivating factors among Iranian seminary students. Having known the barriers of learning, the teachers and Islamic Propagation Office materials developers can organize their activities so that they would lead to better understanding of the lessons and improvement of teaching programs.

  8. Factors Affecting Software Cost Estimation in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Javed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cost is the main driving factor for all projects. When it is done correctly, it helps in the successful completion of the project. In this research we have discussed various factors that affect the estimation procedure. These include team structure, team culture, managerial style, project type (Core application or integrated application, client’s working environment. Accurate estimation is far difficult in developing countries where most of the organizations follow local standards. These inaccurate estimations lead to late delivery, less profit or in worst case complete failure. Software requirement gathering, development, maintenance, quality assurance and cost of poor quality are major groups responsible for overall cost in software production process. The exact proportion among them varies significantly in consecutive software releases, which is caused by many factors. The ever increasing need for the reliability of the software systems, especially mission critical applications in the public safety domain, raises the bar for the accuracy of prediction and estimation techniques. The accuracy of estimations in many areas brings about more concerns regarding techniques already used in the software industry. Widely deployed techniques, such as Wideband Delphi method, stress the engineering and technical aspects of the process of how estimates are prepared.

  9. Weed Infestation in Direct Seeded and Transplanted Aus Rice as Affected by Method of Planting and Weeding Regime

    OpenAIRE

    M.Y. Sarker; M. Mosaddeque Hossain; Hasan, M K; M. A. H. Khan; Amin, M. R.; Begum, F.

    2002-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the weed vegetation due to the effect of planting methods and weeding regime. Two factors included in the experiment were: methods of planting and weeding regime. The results revealed that weed vegetation in the two methods of planting varied remarkable. Fifty-five weed species belonging to 17 families infested the crop. Among the weed species, Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl was the principal weed in direct seeded aus rice and Panicum repens L. in th...

  10. FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that salary, efficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The overall job satisfaction of the employees in pharmaceutical sector is at the positive level. The nature of business operation, the work culture and the level of job satisfaction have undergone sea change for the pharmaceutical companies. As a business proposition initiated huge investment whereas majority of their stocks is going down bringing a high level of apprehension related to job security among its employees. This research paper highlights some of these problems and presents a picture of level of job satisfaction among employees of pharmaceutical companies. It also identifies unique issues of job satisfaction in the companies. Pharmaceuticals Companies are selected for the research because they are currently undergoing continued expansion. In order to gain competitive advantage and adapt to the dramatic changing environment, it is important for them to achieve management efficiency by increasing employee satisfaction in the organisation. Hence this research was mainly undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting the job satisfaction. This paper presents a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of pharmaceutical business, the factors causing the dissatisfaction & suggestions to improve them.

  11. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawan Al-Fouzan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results: Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7% decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2% students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%, 17 (11.8%, and 16 (11.1% students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4% of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8% and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3% were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065 more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002. Conclusion : A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

  12. DOF transcription factors in developing peanut (Arachis hypogaea seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Yan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA binding with one finger (DOF transcription factors play important roles in storage material accumulation and morphogenesis of developing seeds. Oil and protein contents varied in different cultivars in important oil crop peanut. DOF proteins have not been studied in this crop. In this paper, we analyzed all the DOF genes expressed in developing seeds from a cDNA library with 20,000 transcripts, cloned and compared similar genes of GW391729 from eight peanut cultivars, and analyzed similar genes expressed in root and leave with control and inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum. The results indicate that total eight types of DOF genes were expressed in developing seeds of cultivar 063103. Most of DOF transcription factors expressed involved in developmental process in a complicated way. Among them, GW391729 is possible related to the seed number in fruit, and also is possible related to leafspot resistance. Detailed function of these DOF proteins need to be further studied.

  13. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  14. SOME ENVIRONMENTEAL FACTORS AFFECTING BROILER HOUSING IN WINTER SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to study some environmental factors affecting broiler housing in winter season. The results showed that, temperature fluctuations between house ceiling and floor ranged between 0.4 to 5.93 ºC during the first two days of age. The average house temperature reduced gradually from 29.7 to 21.3 ºC. The indoor relative humidity ranged between 43.6 to 74.3 %. Specific heating power, specific fuel consumption and heating energy requirements ranged between 3850.2 W/ºC , 0.34 kg /h. ºC and 308.9 kJ/h. kg at the first week of age to 6213.4 W/ºC , 0.36 kg /h. ºC and 19.3 kJ/h. kg at the end of the life respectively

  15. Investigation of factors affecting RNA-seq gene expression calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harati, Sahar; Phan, John H; Wang, May D

    2014-08-01

    RNA-seq enables quantification of the human transcriptome. Estimation of gene expression is a fundamental issue in the analysis of RNA-seq data. However, there is an inherent ambiguity in distinguishing between genes with very low expression and experimental or transcriptional noise. We conducted an exploratory investigation of some factors that may affect gene expression calls. We observed that the distribution of reads that map to exonic, intronic, and intergenic regions are distinct. These distributions may provide useful insights into the behavior of gene expression noise. Moreover, we observed that these distributions are qualitatively similar between two sequence mapping algorithms. Finally, we examined the relationship between gene length and gene expression calls, and observed that they are correlated. This preliminary investigation is important for RNA-seq gene expression analysis because it may lead to more effective algorithms for distinguishing between true gene expression and experimental or transcriptional noise. PMID:25571173

  16. Five Factors Affecting Stability and Security in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Alshammari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are five factors that affect security and stability in the Middle East. The first of these is the ticking bomb of sectarianism between the Sunni and Shiite strands of Islam, which have become more widespread in recent years due to the politisation of sectarian tensions and their transformation among some actors to a means to achieve political demands. Secondly, the impact of the Arab revolutions and the accompanying rise of Islamist groups through the new democratic tendencies encouraged by those revolutions. Thirdly, Iran’s behaviour through the use of both direct and indirect threats to several countries in the region. Fourthly, the existence of a fertile environment for terrorist groups in Yemen. Finally, the struggle between Arabs and Israelis over the existence of the State of Israel and the plight of the Palestinians. This article provides a clear set of linkages between these and investigates them with the intention of enhancing understanding and encouraging debate.

  17. Developing worksheet based on science process skills: Factors affecting solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethiye KARSLI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS. The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at Giresun University, Turkey. Action research methodology was used in this study. Thoughts from experts were received during the development of the worksheet. The study had some limitations in providing concrete evidence as to how the WS based on SPS effects the PST SPS, since the paper is a suggestion. For this reason, to investigate its effectiveness in a comparative manner, further research should be undertaken.

  18. Factors affecting CFC end-user conversion to substitute products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the issues facing CFC end-users as they convert to non-CFC systems. The various end use applications for CFCs are quite diverse (e.g., refrigerants, blowing agents foam plastics, aerosol propellant, solvent cleaning); each of the applications will likely have different substitute solutions. For most applications there appears to be both a short-term and long-term solution to the problem, whereas in other applications no suitable replacement for CFCs are apparent. Other fluorocarbons, (i.e., HCFCs and HCFs) are under consideration for many applications. Some of the factors to be addressed that affect the conversion time include: substitute performance in end use application, equipment conversions required to use the substitutes, as well as commercial availability of substitutes

  19. Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire

    CERN Document Server

    Sohail, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as...

  20. Major factors affecting severity of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Boo-Young; Han, Jung Ju; Hwang, Jae Hyung; Jung, Kihwan; Kim, Min; Kim, Soo Whan

    2015-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become a common method for evaluating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between CT parameters and clinical parameters in OSA patients to determine major factors affecting the severity of OSA. The records of 128 consecutive snoring patients (98 males, 30 females) diagnosed with OSA were retrospectively reviewed. Polysomnography was performed for each patient. On CT scans, airway areas were measured at the level of the hard palate, the soft palate, and the base of the tongue. Polysomnographic parameters were compared by gender and age using the Mann-Whitney U test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to analyze relationships between variables and the AHI in each age group. The women were significantly older than the men (p epidemiological characteristics and anatomical structures. PMID:25621265

  1. Factors Affecting Treatment Seeking Behaviour of Individuals with Locomotor Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhyegurjar Mansi S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among the different types of disabilities, the prevalence of locomotor disability is highest in the country. Quality of life and disability limitation is affected by the availability and utility of rehabilitative services. Thus knowledge of the treatment seeking behaviour will help in implementing successful intervention programmes. Materials and Methods: A community based cross-sectional observation study was conducted in an urban slum of Mumbai. Total sample of 3665 individuals were screened. 205 were identified with loco motor disabilities who were subjected to a structured questionnaire. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months. The data was analysed using SPSS software (Version 17. 95 % confidence limits for prevalence was calculated to estimate the prevalence in the general population and Chi-square test was applied to identify the association between two variables. Results: The prevalence of loco motor disabilities is found to be 5.59 %. Females were more affected than the males.75% of the sample was unemployed and 49.3 % was illiterate. Utility of rehabilitative services was found to be poor (35.6%. 50.7 % of these were treated by General practitioners. Very few approached speciality rehabilitative services. Low literacy levels and poor awareness of rehabilitation facilities were the major factors affecting treatment seeking pattern of individuals with locomotor disability (p<0.001 Conclusion: Improving literacy rates, developing community based rehabilitation services and training medical under-graduates, creating awareness regarding the available facilities, will lead to greater utilization of rehabilitative services and thus early diagnosis and disability limitation. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(2.000: 145-148

  2. Widespread seed limitation affects plant density but not population trajectory in the invasive plant Centaurea solstitialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In some plant populations, the availability of seeds strongly regulates recruitment. However, a scarcity of germination microsites, granivory or density dependent mortality can reduce the number of plants that germinate or survive to flowering. The relative strength of these controls is unknown for ...

  3. The exogenous factors affecting the cost efficiency of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper employs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to examine cost efficiency and scale economies in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) by using the panel data covering the period of 1995-2006. In most previous studies, the efficiency estimated by the Panel Data without testing the endogeneity may bring about a biased estimator resulting from the correlation between input and individual effect. A Hausman test is conducted in this paper to examine the endogeneity of input variables and thus an appropriate model is selected based on the test result. This study finds that the power generation executes an increasing return to scale across all the power plants based on the pooled data. We also use installed capacity, service years of the power plant, and type of fuel as explanatory variable for accounting for the estimated cost efficiency of each plant by a logistic regression model to examine the factor affecting the individual efficiency estimates. The results demonstrate that the variable of installed capacity keeps a positive relationship with cost efficiency while the factor of working years has a negative relationship.

  4. Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the futuors involving job satisfaction in the future

  5. Evaluation of hydraulic factors affecting flow accelerated corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) is known as a complex phenomena of hydraulics and electro-chemicals. Essential mechanism of the hydraulic factors affecting FAC is the mass transfer of ferrous ions dissolved from the pipe surface. To predict the FAC rate in susceptible pipe elements, evaluation of the mass transfer in those geometry with eccentric flow is required. For this purpose, new model of mass transfer coefficient was proposed by combining knowledges of previous studies and consideration of local turbulent velocity. In this process, Chilton-Colburn analogy of heat and mass transfer and Blasius' friction factor were referred to. To validate the model, FAC experiment and flow numerical calculation were conducted. In the experiment, carbon steel test specimens were set in the downstream of a flow contraction in small rectangular flow ducts, and FAC rate profiles on the specimens were observed in PWR condensate condition. In the calculation, flow field for the experiment was calculated with the in-house code 'MATIS-I' utilizing LES turbulence model, and mean and turbulent velocity profiles on the specimen's surface were evaluated. By comparing these results, the new mass transfer coefficient showed good correlation with the local FAC rate, and the effect of introducing the turbulent velocity to the model was confirmed. (author)

  6. Disentangling factors controlling fruit and seed removal by rodents in temperate forests

    OpenAIRE

    Perea Garci?a-calvo, Ramo?n; San Miguel Ayanz, Alfonso; Gil Sanchez, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Fleshy fruits fall on to the ground together with cleaned seeds previously ingested by primary dispersers, offering a wide range of fruits and seeds to the ground foragers. Although nutritional properties strongly differ between fruits and seeds, this different seed presentation (cleaned seeds versus seeds within the pulp) has not been addressed in seed removal studies. This study reports on the removal of fruits versus their seeds in five fleshy-fruited species in a temperate forest. We foun...

  7. Studies and Research on Friction, Friction Factor and Affecting Factors : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil J. Kulkarni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The friction and friction factors are very significant factors in flow through pipes, channels, heat exchangers . From the pumping cost point of view, minimum friction is desirable as it will decrease the energy loss. In the rotating components like axle-shaft arrangements, the friction and slip are important factors. In case of heat exchanger, the friction factor is important as the heat transfer depends on it. The research was also reported on effect of submerged vegetation on friction for river. The friction coefficient was a function of flow depth and velocity. Also various models were suggested by investigators to predict friction coefficient based on their research related to factors affecting the friction coefficient and the nature and gravity of their effect on friction.

  8. Factors affecting on the particle deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the respiratory tracts is affected by anatomical structure of the respiratory tracts and respiratory pattern of animals, which are modified by many factors as animal species, physiological and psychological conditions, age, sex, smoking drug, lung diseases, etc. In human, studies have been focused on the initial lung deposition of particles and have made it clear that the respiratory pattern, gender, and diseases may have influence on the deposition pattern. On the other hand, there was little knowledge on the initial lung deposition of particles in laboratory animals. Recently, Raabe et al. have reported the initial lung deposition of 169Yb-aluminosilicate particles in mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits. The authors have also investigated the lung deposition of latex particles with different sizes and 198Au-colloid in rats whose respiratory volumes during the inhalation were monitored by body plethysmography. These experiments indicated that the deposition of inhaled particles in distal lung e.g. small bronchiolar and alveolar region, was much lower in laboratory animals than that of human. This species difference may be due to smaller diameter of respiratory tract and/or shallower breathing and higher respiratory rate of laboratory animals. The experimental animals in which respiratory diseases were induced artificially have been used to investigate the modification factors on the deposiate the modification factors on the deposition pattern of inhaled particles. As respiratory diseases, emphysema was induced in rats, hamsters, beagle dogs in some laboratories and pulmonary delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats was in our laboratory. The initial lung deposition of particles in these animals was consistently decreased in comparison with normals, regardless of the animal species and the type of disease. (author)

  9. Clinical factors affecting the timing of delivery in twin pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chae Min; Yang, Sun Hye; Lee, Sun Pyo; Hwang, Byung Chul

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical factors affecting the timing of delivery in twin pregnancies in order to minimize perinatal complications. Methods A retrospective study involved 163 twin pregnancies delivered from January 2006 to September 2011 at Gachon University Gil Medical Center. These cases were divided into three groups based on the delivery timing: less than 32 weeks' gestation (group A), between 32 and 35+6 weeks' gestation (group B), and over 36 weeks' gestation (group C). Clinical factors including maternal age, parity, presence of premature uterine contraction, presence of premature rupture of membrane, white blood cell, high sensitive C-reactive protein level, cervical dilatation, maternal complication, chorionicity, twin specific complication, and perinatal complication were analyzed for each group. Results In group B, the timing of delivery was postponed for 14 days or more from the time of admission, and there were fewer numbers of babies with low Apgar score at birth compared with other groups. The frequency of uterine contraction (P<0.001), presence of premature rupture of membranes (P=0.017), dilatation of cervix (P<0.001), increased white blood cell and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels (P=0.002, P<0.001) were important clinical factors during decision making process of delivery timing in twin pregnancies. Twin specific fetal conditions, such as twin-twin transfusion syndrome and discordant growth (over 25% or more) were shown more frequently in group A. However, there were no significant statistical differences among three groups (P=0.06, P=0.14). Conclusion Proper management for preventing premature contraction and inflammation can be essential in twin pregnancies until 32 weeks' gestation, and may decrease maternal and perinatal complications. PMID:25469330

  10. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku are definedtogether withshowing the optimal ways of development.

  11. Geographical factors affecting variability of precipitation regime in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabziparvar, A. A.; Movahedi, S.; Asakereh, H.; Maryanaji, Z.; Masoodian, S. A.

    2015-04-01

    This study compares the precipitation regimes by using harmonic analysis during the last four decades (1965-2004). We used the measured precipitation data from 428 rain-gauge sites and weather stations distributed across Iran by applying 15 × 15 km spatial grids to generate the interpolated data. Data validations were carried out by statistical tests. In this study, first three harmonics of precipitation variances were evaluated. Variability of precipitation regime was explored by using three harmonic analysis methods. In addition, the effect of geographical factors (GF) (site elevation, latitude, and longitude) affecting the precipitation regime (P) was verified by multivariate regression method. The resulted regression equation between P and GF for spring showed the highest correlation coefficient ( r = 0.79). For other seasons, r was lower than for spring and varied between 0.26 (summer) to 0.58 (autumn). Analysis of the first harmonic proved that the main precipitation regime in Iran tends to concentrate in one specific season (winter) as a result of large-scale Mediterranean systems passing over the country. In other words, the first harmonic is able to explain most of the precipitation variations which are caused by large-scale atmospheric circulation. For all the three harmonics, variances of precipitation were mainly a function of the geographical factors. This effect was more evident in the third harmonic; in such a way that increasing the latitudes caused higher precipitation variance. This means that the precipitation regime in northern sites is more sensitive to the local factors than those of southern sites. The results of this research can be used for reliable estimation of precipitation in ungauged sites.

  12. 29 CFR 784.118 - The exemption is intended for work affected by natural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...work affected by natural factors. 784.118 Section...INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS PROVISIONS...OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions Provisions...Fishing and Aquatic Products General Character...affected by natural factors. As...

  13. ANTI-NUTRIENT FACTORS, PERFORMANCE AND SERUM BIOCHEMISTRY OF BROILER CHICKS FED RAW AND FERMENTED ALCHORNEA CORDIFOLIA SEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    O.O. EMENALOM

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine some anti-nutrient factors in differently processed Christmas bush (Alchornea cordifolia) seeds and the effect of the processed seed meals on the performance and blood chemistry of broiler chicks fed from 1 to 35 day of age. Ground and fermented, and dehulled Christmas bush (CB) seed meals were analyzed for their anti-nutrient contents whereas ground and sieved (GS), ground-sieved and fermented (GSF) and non-sieved and fermented (NSF) seed meals were i...

  14. Emission factor of single pellet cake seed Jatropha curcas in a fix bed reactor

    OpenAIRE

    N. Agung Pambudi; Shuichi Torii; M. Syamsiro; Harwin Saptoadi; Indra Mamad Gandidi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the emission factor of oil cake seed Jatropha curcas that was formed into pellets with three parameters: pyrolisis, densification and air flow rate. The effect of pyrolisis was investigated using four samples of pellet: nonpyrolysis pellet, 90 minutes pyrolysis pellet, 120 minutes pyrolysis pellet, 150 minutes pyrolysis pellet. The effect of densification was provided by three samples: 11 mm, 13 mm, and 16 mm diameter. Furthermore, the parameter of a...

  15. Climatic factors control rodent seed predation in Pinus pinea L. stands in Central Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Manso, Rubén; Pardos, Marta; Calama, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    - Context: Pinus pinea L. presents serious problems of natural regeneration in managed forest of Central Spain. The species exhibits specific traits linked to frugivore activity. Therefore, information on plant–animal interactions may be crucial to understand regeneration failure. - Aims: Determining the spatio-temporal pattern of P. pinea seed predation by Apodemus sylvaticus L. and the factors involved. Exploring the importance of A. sylvaticus L. as a disperser of P. pinea. I...

  16. Study on Growth and Control of Weeds as Affected by Weeding Methods in Upland Direct Seeded Aus Rice

    OpenAIRE

    M. Robiul Alam; M.S.H.Molla; Shahjahan, M.; M. O. Hoque; M. Akhtar Hossain; Islam, F.

    2003-01-01

    The research work was conducted to observe weed vegetation and to ascertain the comparative control efficiency of weeding methods in upland direct seeded Aus rice. Weed density was affected significantly by weeding methods at 60 days after sowing. The highest weed density (149.14 m?2) was observed in control plot. The lowest weed density (77.64 m?2) was recorded in T6 (ronstar @ 2.5 L ha?1) treatment and the second lowest density of weed was attained from T5 (ronstar @ 2.0 L ha?1) and...

  17. Analysis of Factors Affecting the Quality of an E-commerce Website Using Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Mishra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify factors which affect the quality and effectiveness of an e commerce website which also majorly affect customer satisfaction and ultimately customer retention and loyalty. This research paper examines a set of 23 variables and integrates them into 4 factors which affect the quality of a website. An online questionnaire survey was conducted to generate statistics regarding the preferences of the e-commerce website users.The 23 variables taken from customer survey are generalized into 4 major factors using exploratory factor analysis which are content, navigation, services and interface design. The research majorly consists of the responses of students between the age group of 18-25 years and considers different B2C commercial websites. Identified variables are important with respect to the current competition in the market as service of an e-commerce website also play a major role in ensuring customer satisfaction. Further research in this domain can be done for websites’ version for mobile devices.

  18. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Katrina A.

    2011-07-01

    A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

  19. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Ayatollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols.

  20. Tri-trophic interactions affect density dependence of seed fate in a tropical forest palm

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, M. D.; Muller-landau, H. C.; Wright, J.; Rutten, G.; Jansen, P. A.

    2011-01-01

    Natural enemies, especially host-specific enemies, are hypothesised to facilitate the coexistence of plant species by disproportionately inflicting more damage at increasing host abundance. However, few studies have assessed such Janzen–Connell mechanisms on a scale relevant for coexistence and no study has evaluated potential top-down influences on the specialized pests. We quantified seed predation by specialist invertebrates and generalist vertebrates, as well as larval predation on thes...

  1. Crop management, genotypes, and environmental factors affect soyasaponin B concentration in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Philippe; Chennupati, Pratyusha; Tremblay, Gilles; Liu, Wucheng

    2014-07-23

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seeds contain soyasaponin B, which has putative health benefits. Studies were conducted in multiple environments in Quebec, Canada to determine the effects of genotypes, environments, and seeding dates on soyasaponin B concentration in mature seeds. A growth chamber study was also conducted to determine the impact of high air temperature imposed at specific growth development stages on soyasaponin B in soybeans. Concentrations of individual and total soyasaponin B were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Genotype and environment main effects were the main determinants of soyasaponin B concentration in soybean, genotype × environment interactions accounting for less than 5% of the variation for all soyasaponin. Ranking of 20 early maturing soybean genotypes was thus relatively consistent across four environments, total concentration varying between 2.31 and 6.59 ?mol g(-1). Seeding date consistently impacted soyasaponin B concentrations, early seeding date resulting in the highest concentrations. There was an 11% difference in total soyasaponin B concentration of soybeans seeded in mid-May compared to that in late-June. The response to high air temperature was complex and cultivar specific. High temperature stress restricted to the seed filling stages increased total soyasaponin B concentration in one cultivar by 28% when compared to that in control nonstressed plants; however, in another cultivar high temperature applied during all growth stages reduced total concentration by 27%. Results from the present study thus demonstrate that environmental factors and crop management both impact soyasaponin B concentration in soybeans. PMID:25003841

  2. Elimination of error factors, affecting EM and seismic inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct identification from the surface measurements.

  3. Dinâmica do banco de sementes de arroz-vermelho afetado pelo pisoteio bovino e tempo de pousio da área Red rice seed bank dynamics affected by cattle trampling and fallow duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marchezan

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a influência do pisoteio bovino e do tempo de pousio na dinâmica do banco de sementes de arroz-vermelho foi conduzido um experimento em lavoura comercial de arroz irrigado, que adota o sistema de cultivo mínimo, seguido de dois anos de pousio, manejada, nesse período, pelo pastejo de bovinos. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições no esquema bifatorial. O fator A constou dos manejos pós-colheita da cultura de arroz: [M1] - pousio com pisoteio animal e [M2] - pousio sem pisoteio animal. O fator B constou dos anos de amostragem: [A1] - 1999, [A2] - 2000 e [A3] - 2001. O banco de sementes de arroz-vermelho foi estimado através de 12 amostras de solo por parcela, em abril de 1999, abril de 2000 e abril de 2001, com trado cilíndrico de 10 cm de diâmetro. As profundidades de coleta das amostras de solo foram de 0-1 cm, 1-5 cm, 5-10 cm e 10-15 cm. Após a coleta, os grãos de arroz-vermelho foram separados do solo, contados e submetidos ao teste de tetrazólio, para estimativa da viabilidade. O pisoteio bovino não afetou a distribuição das sementes no perfil do solo, bem como a dinâmica do banco de sementes. Houve efeito do tempo de pousio sobre o banco de sementes de arroz-vermelho; a equação que melhor explica a correlação entre número de sementes viáveis e tempo de pousio, em meses, foi a equação exponencial y = 1382,15 exp (-0,1988*x pAn experiment was conducted in a commercial lowland rice-producing area, adopting the minimum tillage system of rice production, followed by two years of fallow, managed, during this time, by cattle production, in order to evaluate the influence on red rice seed bank dynamics. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with three replications, in a bifactorial design. Factor A consisted of rice post-harvest management of the area: [T1] - fallow with cattle trampling and [T2] - fallow without cattle trampling. Factor B was the sampling time: [A1] - 1999, [A2] 2000 and [A3] - 2001. The red rice seed bank estimation was made using 12 soil samples by plot, in April 1999, April 2000 and April 2001, using a 10 cm diameter cylinder soil sampler. The sampling depths were 0-1 cm, 1-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm. After being extracted from the soil, the grains of red rice were counted and submitted to a tetrazolium test to estimate seed viability. Cattle trampling did not affect seed distribution in the soil profile and the dynamics of the red rice seed bank. Fallow duration affected the seed bank of red rice; the regression equation fit that best explains the correlation between number of viable seeds and fallow duration in months was the exponential equation: y = 1382.15 exp (-0.1988*x p<0.05, showing a decrease in the number of seeds within 12 months, from 1,448 to 151 (90% reduction, and 38 (98% reduction viable seeds per square meter in 24 months of fallow. Regarding the red rice seed burial depths, seed bank reduction was greater on the soil surface in 2000, with no difference between the depths in 2001. The seeds located on the soil surface lost their viability rapidly, with an average of 99% within one year fallow with or without cattle trampling. It can be concluded that cattle trampling does not affect red rice seed bank dynamics in fallow areas. Soil fallow, with or without cattle trampling, reduces in the red rice seed bank.

  4. Factores grupales que inciden en la productividad / Group factors affecting productivity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cequea, Mirza Marvel; Miguel, Núñez Bottini; Carlos, Rodríguez-Monroy.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las organizaciones en la actualidad están sometidas permanentemente a cambios acelerados, obligándolas a incrementar su flexibilidad y adaptabilidad para mantener su posición competitiva, sobrevivir a estas presiones lograr sus objetivos y ser más productivas. Por estas razones, la productividad del [...] factor humano es fundamental, ya que son las personas las que realizan los procesos creativos que generan resultados en las organizaciones. Cuando las personas interactúan en la organización se generan unos procesos de carácter psicosocial que incide en el desempeño de individuos, grupos y organización y se denominan Factores grupales, porque son producto de la actuación de las personas en grupos de trabajo. Dichos factores tienen impacto en la productividad, por lo que resulta de interés el estudio de estas relaciones. Con el fin de analizar este impacto, se presenta relaciones Factores Grupales-Productividad, mediante un Modelo de Ecuaciones Estructurales (SEM), donde los Factores Grupales y la Productividad son constructos o variables latentes explicadas por variables observables o indicadores. El modelo planteado, es aceptado de acuerdo con los índices globales de ajuste y a las cargas factoriales de las variables del modelo resultante. Se corroboró que los factores grupales, tales como Cohesión, Conflicto, Consenso y Moral, inciden en la productividad. Abstract in english Organizations today are undergoing rapid change permanently, forcing them to increase their flexibility and adaptability to stay competitive, to survive these pressures, achieve their goals and be more productive. For these reasons, the productivity of the human factor is critical because it is the [...] people doing the creative processes those results in organizations. When people interact in the organization are a generated psychosocial process that affects the performance of individuals, groups and organization and are called group factors, because they are the product of individual behavior in work groups. These factors have an impact on productivity, so it is interesting to study these relationships. To analyze this impact is presented group factors-productivity relationships through a Structural Equation Model (SEM), where the group factors and productivity are constructs or latent variables explained by observable variables or indicators. The proposed model is accepted in accordance with the global fit indices and factor loadings of the variables of the resulting model. It was confirmed that the group factors, such as Cohesion, Conflict, Consensus and Moral affect productivity.

  5. Factors affecting hospital mortality in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mohammed

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective analysis studied the records of 564 consecutive patients admitted to Gastrointestinal Bleeding Unit of Riyadh Medical Complex with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding over a 2-year period (May 1996-April 1998. The purpose of the study was to analyze the mortality with an aim to identify the risk factors affecting mortality in these patients. Majority of patients were men (82% and Saudis (54%. Their mean age was 52.46 + 17.8 years. Esophageal varices (45% were the main causes of bleeding followed by duodenal ulcers (24%. Overall mortality in this series was 15.8% (89 patients. Comorbid diseases were responsible for death in 68 (76% patients, whereas, bleeding was considered to be directly responsible for death in 21 (24% patients. On analysis of data from this study, old age (>60 years, systolic pressure < 90 mm Hg on admission, comorbid disease, variceal bleeding and Child?s grade C in patients with chronic liver disease were associated with adverse outcome.

  6. Potential factors affecting accumulation of unsupported 210Pb in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne 210Pb, daughter of 222Rn, is frequently used as a tracer in different studies concerning atmospheric transport, sedimentation, soil erosion, dating, etc. Concentration of 210Pb was measured in 40 soil samples collected in urban and industrial areas in order to get evidence of possible influence of some factors on accumulation of airborne 210Pb in soil. Different soil properties such as the content of organic matter, free CaCO3, and available phosphorus (P2O5) were measured to explore their possible correlation with the amount of 210Pb. Special attention was given to the correlation between 210Pb and stable lead accumulated in the soil. Several samples were taken near a battery manufacturer to check if extremely high concentrations of lead can affect the uptake of the airborne 210Pb in soil. Soil samples were also taken at different depths to investigate the penetration of lead through the soil. - Highlights: • 210Pb and 137Cs were measured in samples of urban soil. • Organic matter, free CaCO3 content, available phosphorus, and lead were measured in soil samples. • There is no statistically significant correlation between 210Pb and lead, CaCO3 and phosphorus. • A strong positive correlation between 210Pb and organic matter was observed

  7. Hydrologic and geologic factors affecting land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, V.J.

    1987-01-01

    At an extensometer site near Eloy, Arizona, 1.09 m of land subsidence caused by groundwater withdrawal were measured by leveling in 1965-83. The extensometer, which partially penetrates the compressible sediments, recorded 0.82 m of compaction during the same period. By use of a one-dimensional model, cumulative daily compaction values were simulated to within an average of 0.0038 m of the actual values. Land subsidence was simulated to within an average of 0.011 m using the same model in conjunction with geohydrologic data of the sediments below the extensometer. A highly compressible clay layer that is 24.38 m thick was partially penetrated by the extensometer. The simulation indicated that the layer was driving compaction and land subsidence linearly with respect to time, despite the presence of other compacting layers. Because of its thickness and compressibility, this layer can be expected to continue to compact after applied vertical stresses have stopped increasing and other layers have stopped compacting. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the compressibility of fine-grained sediments (expressed as specific storage) is one of the factors to which compact is most sensitive. Preconsolidation stress and hydraulic conductivity also affect land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona. (Author 's abstract)

  8. Factors Affecting Mandatory Audit Rotation: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munther Al-Nimer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to examine the effect of specific contingency variables upon mandatory audit rotation represented by external auditor rotation, namely; audit independence, financial interests, audit Fees, and litigation from the perception of external auditors. The study contribution based on tackling debatable subject and its importance as most the studies examined the external auditor rotation as independent variable and attempted to find out its effect on audit quality through audit independence. In addition, by examine the effect from the external auditor’s perception. In order to attain the study objectives the study utilized a questionnaire. The study population consists from the Jordanian audit firms including big four audit firms and the sample will be selected randomly with taking into account comprising the big four. The study distributed 80 questionnaires, the returned and accepted for analyzing questionnaires were 52 questionnaires which gives 65% respond rate. The study indicated that the following variables audit independence, financial interests, litigation have a significant impact on the external auditor rotation in the Jordanian audit firms. In addition, the study indicated that there is insignificant impact of audit fees variable upon external auditor rotation. As accumulated impact of all the examined variables the study revealed that there is significant impact between on factors influence of the audit and external auditor rotation. Finally, the study suggested carrying out more studies on this subject by tackling more variables which might affect audit rotation.

  9. Non-auditory factors affecting urban soundscape evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Lee, Pyoung Jik; Hong, Joo Young; Cabrera, Densil

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize urban spaces, which combine landscape, acoustics, and lighting, and to investigate people's perceptions of urban soundscapes through quantitative and qualitative analyses. A general questionnaire survey and soundwalk were performed to investigate soundscape perception in urban spaces. Non-auditory factors (visual image, day lighting, and olfactory perceptions), as well as acoustic comfort, were selected as the main contexts that affect soundscape perception, and context preferences and overall impressions were evaluated using an 11-point numerical scale. For qualitative analysis, a semantic differential test was performed in the form of a social survey, and subjects were also asked to describe their impressions during a soundwalk. The results showed that urban soundscapes can be characterized by soundmarks, and soundscape perceptions are dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and day lighting, whereas reverberance in urban spaces does not yield consistent preference judgments. It is posited that the subjective evaluation of reverberance can be replaced by physical measurements. The categories extracted from the qualitative analysis revealed that spatial impressions such as openness and density emerged as some of the contexts of soundscape perception. PMID:22225033

  10. Factors affecting the motivation of smokers to quit smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis K.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available smoking. Success of smoking cessation depends mainly on the balance between motivation and the degree of nicotine dependence. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting the motivation of smokers to stop smoking. Method: Data were collected from 139 smokers, aged 18-69 divided in two groups. Questionnaires were completed about the demographic data, smoking history, anthropometric characteristics, degree of nicotine dependence, motivation degree and alcohol consumption. Results: Body Mass Index was positively correlated with the dependence degree and heavy smoking, while those who were overweight in adolescence showed a lower degree of motivation for smoking cessation. Individuals with moderate or heavy alcohol consumption, those who smoked in their working environment and were heavier smokers needed greater motivation. The low degree of dependence was associated with a lower degree of motivation, while those who showed medium dependence were moderately motivated. Conclusions: Health care professionals should take into account all the above components with the aim of motivating smokers to stop smoking.

  11. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of starch in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, P; O'Dea, K

    1981-12-01

    After accurate determination of the content of available carbohydrate in a wide variety of cereals, as in vitro method was used to study factors that influence hydrolysis rates of starch in foods. Fiber, physical form, cooking, and the possible presence of a natural amylase inhibitor were all shown to affect hydrolysis rates of starch. Fiber only exerted an inhibiting effect on the rate of hydrolysis when it formed a physical barrier to limit access of the hydrolytic enzymes to the starch (as in whole brown rice, for example). Particle size played an important role in determining the rate of hydrolysis. Cooking made the starch much more readily available for enzymic hydrolysis presumably by gelatinizing it. Stoneground wholemeal flour was hydrolyzed more slowly than white flour. This is consistent with the presence of a natural amylase inhibitor that has been isolated from wheat germ in the whole grain. Our results suggest that such amylase inhibitor activity is destroyed by passage through the roller mill, since the starch in wheat germ and standard wholemeal flour (i.e., not stoneground but reconstituted after passage through the roller mill) was hydrolyzed at a rate identical to white flour. PMID:6172034

  12. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  13. Factors affecting return to driving post-stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, K M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect a person\\'s ability to drive, an important means of transportation in the developed world. AIMS: To determine percentage of patients and factors associated with return to driving post-stroke in a service with emphasis on driver assessment. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients discharged from the Stroke Service of our 470-bed teaching hospital from 1998 to 2002. RESULTS: Of 72 drivers pre-stroke, 54% recalled a driving assessment and 68% returned to driving. Younger patients (58.6 +\\/- 12.0 vs. 66.5 +\\/- 10.5, p = 0.008) with lower Modified Rankin Score (median 1 vs. 2, p = 0.0001) and normal cognition (55 vs. 43%, p = 0.45) were more likely to resume driving. More patients who were assessed returned to driving than those who were not (74 vs. 61%, p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high level of return to driving can be achieved post-stroke with a pro-active approach to driver assessment and rehabilitation. A structured assessment and referral programme should be offered where appropriate.

  14. [Aerodynamic parameters and their affecting factors over Panjin reed wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qi-Jin; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yun-Long

    2008-03-01

    Based on the observation data from eddy covariance tower and meteorological gradient tower in Panjin reed wetland observation plot, and by the method combined eddy covariance with microclimate gradient observation, two fundamental aerodynamic parameters, i. e., zero-plane displacement (d) and roughness length (z0), were evaluated, with their affecting factors analyzed. The results showed that the method adopted was suitable for estimating the aerodynamic parameters. There existed obvious seasonal variations in d and z0, with the maximum (1.85 and 0.24 m) in September and the minimum (0.02 and 0.03 m) in December, respectively. The seasonal variations were closely related to vegetation characteristics, plant height (h) and leaf area index (LAI). There was a close linear relationship between d and h, and a conic relationship between z0 and h. Both d/h and d/z0 had power relationships with LAI, and the R2 values were 0.99 and 0.78, respectively. PMID:18533513

  15. Factors affecting development of a motion imagery quality metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, John M.; Fenimore, Charles; Cannon, David; Roberts, John; Israel, Steven A.; Simon, Larry; Watts, Charles; Miller, James D.; Aviles, Ana I.; Tighe, Paul F.; Behrens, Richard J.; Haverkamp, Donna

    2005-05-01

    The motion imagery community would benefit from the availability of standard measures for assessing image interpretability. The National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS) has served as a community standard for still imagery, but no comparable scale exists for motion imagery. Several considerations unique to motion imagery indicate that the standard methodology employed in the past for NIIRS development may not be applicable or, at a minimum, require modifications. Traditional methods for NIIRS development rely on a close linkage between perceived image quality, as captured by specific image interpretation tasks, and the sensor parameters associated with image acquisition. The dynamic nature of motion imagery suggests that this type of linkage may not exist or may be modulated by other factors. An initial study was conducted to understand the effects target motion, camera motion, and scene complexity have on perceived image interpretability for motion imagery. This paper summarizes the findings from this evaluation. In addition, several issues emerged that require further investigation: - The effect of frame rate on the perceived interpretability of motion imagery - Interactions between color and target motion which could affect perceived interpretability - The relationships among resolution, viewing geometry, and image interpretability - The ability of an analyst to satisfy specific image exploitation tasks relative to different types of motion imagery clips Plans are being developed to address each of these issues through direct evaluations. This paper discusses each of these concerns, presents the plans for evaluations, and explores the implications for development of a motion imagery quality metric.

  16. Factors Affecting the Habitability of Earth-like Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Victoria; NAI-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team

    2014-03-01

    Habitability is a measure of an environment's potential to support life. For exoplanets, the concept of habitability can be used broadly - to inform our calculations of the possibility and distribution of life elsewhere - or as a practical tool to inform mission designs and to prioritize specific targets in the search for extrasolar life. Although a planet's habitability does depend critically on the effect of stellar type and planetary semi-major axis on climate balance, work in the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology has identified many additional factors that can affect a planet's environment and its potential ability to support life. Life requires material for metabolism and structures, a liquid medium for chemical transport, and an energy source to drive metabolism and other life processes. Whether a planet's surface or sub-surface can provide these requirements is the result of numerous planetary and astrophysical processes that affect the planet's formation and evolution. Many of these factors are interdependent, and fall into three main categories: stellar effects, planetary effects and planetary system effects. Key abiotic processes affecting the resultant planetary environment include photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2003; 2005), stellar effects on climate balance (e.g. Joshii et al., 2012; Shields et al., 2013), atmospheric loss (e.g. Lopez and Fortney, 2013), and gravitational interactions with the star (e.g. Barnes et al., 2013). In many cases, the effect of these processes is strongly dependent on a specific planet's existing environmental properties. Examples include the resultant UV flux at a planetary surface as a product of stellar activity and the strength of a planet's atmospheric UV shield (Segura et al., 2010); and the amount of tidal energy available to a planet to drive plate tectonics and heat the surface (Barnes et al., 2009), which is in turn due to a combination of stellar mass, planetary mass and composition, planetary orbital parameters and the gravitational influence of other planets in the system. A thorough assessment of a planet's environment and its potential habitability is a necessary first step in the search for biosignatures. Targeted environmental characteristics include surface temperature and pressure (e.g. Misra et al., 2013), a census of bulk and trace atmospheric gases, and whether there are signs of liquid water on the planetary surface (e.g. Robinson et al., 2010). The robustness of a planetary biosignature is dependent on being able to characterize the environment sufficiently well, and to understand likely star-planet interactions, to preclude formation of a biosignature gas via abiotic processes such as photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2007; Domagal-Goldman et al., 2011; Grenfell et al., 2012). Here we also discuss potential false positives for O2 and O3, which, in large quantities, are often considered robust biosignatures for oxygenic photosynthesis. There is clearly significant future work required to better identify and understand the key environmental processes and interactions that allow a planet to support life, and to distinguish life's global impact on an environment from the environment itself.

  17. Critical Factors Affecting Cell Encapsulation in Superporous Hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Esha S.; Tang, Mary Y.; Ross, Amy E.; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    We recently showed that superporous hydrogel scaffolds promote long-term stem cell viability and cell driven mineralization when cells were seeded within the pores of pre-fabricated SPH scaffolds. The possibility of cell encapsulation within SPH hydrogel matrix during its fabrication was further explored in this study. The impact of each chemical component used in the SPH fabrication and each step of the fabrication process on cell viability was systematically examined. Ammonium persulfate, a...

  18. Factors affecting Myrica faya Aiton demography in the Azores

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Lui?s; Tavares, Joa?o

    1997-01-01

    Myrica faya (Myricaceae) is a small tree considered as an ibero-macaronesian endemic, a relic of the tethiano-tertiary flora. In the Azores M. faya stands are submitted to deforestation and to invasion by alien plants. In many stands density of Pittosporum undulatum, introduced from Australia, is higher than that of M. faya. In others, Hedychium gardneranum covers space between shrubs, impairing regeneration. Fruit production reaches 15x1000000 fruits/ha/year, and seed bank is ...

  19. Seed yield, N- uptake and oil quality in Helianthus annuus as affected by N- fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted to study the impact of different nitrogen fertilizer rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N/ha as urea) on dry matter yield, N uptake, seed yield, grain oil content and properties of sunflower Helianthus annuus using the 15N labeling technique. Sunflower plants responded strongly to increasing N supply with respect to growth performance. Dry matter yield and total N uptake were significantly increased with increasing N-supply. Partitioning of N yield in different plant parts showed that capitulum was the principle sink of N (60%) followed by leaves (30%) and stem (10%) regardless of N-fertilizer rates. Seed yield of sunflower was significantly increased at higher N-supply. However, oil concentration was significantly reduced in the N-fertilized treatments. Decreasing of grain oil content due to N addition was overcompensated by the seed yield increase. Consequently, no significant effect of N supply on oil yield was observed. The effect of N supply on iodine number was small, and only a small trend towards lower iodine value in the N100 was observed. No clear trend of the effect of N supply on other oil quality parameters was observed. Nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff) was significantly increased with increasing N-supply. Recovery of fertilizer 15N was of 64% regardless of N-rates. This efficiency was less pronounced in stem and leaves than that in capitulum which had a greater value at higher N-supply. (author)ter value at higher N-supply. (author)

  20. Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

    2013-01-01

    In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas. PMID:23625129

  1. Factors influencing the fruit crops and seed fates of Pistacia chinensis: the results of structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongling Guo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed production and quality are important factors influencing population regeneration in many seed plants. We used structural equation modeling to investigate how plant and fruit traits interact with each other to influence the fruit crops and seed fates of Pistacia chinensis. From May to September 2009, we sampled 45 fruiting female trees and measured plant traits (height, DBH and crown area, fruit traits (infructescence size, fruit size and the fruit crop of each sampled tree in Jiyuan City of Henan Province, Central China. The fruit crops of P. chinensis were positively correlated with tree height, crown area and infructescence size but not significantly correlated with DBH or fruit size. The fruit crop of an individual tree had no negative direct effect on the infestation of seeds by wasps (Eurytoma plotnikovi. Such a direct effect would be predicted by the predator satiation hypothesis. Tree height and fruit size had a positive direct effect on the seed predation rate, but a significant negative correlation was found between the seed predation rate and the rate of seedlessness. Our results indicate that seedless fruits may serve as a defensive mechanism against insect seed predators. In addition, both seedless and insect-infested fruits had a negative direct effect on seed survival, and DBH, infructescence size and fruit crop had a positive indirect effect on seed survival. However, tree height and fruit size had negative indirect effects on seed survival. In conclusion, we have shown that both plant and fruit traits can strongly influence fruit crops and insect seed predation and subsequently determine the seed quality and population regeneration of P. chinensis.

  2. Factors affecting the next generation of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For both financial, environmental and health reasons, and because of external and internal factors affecting this nation's energy supply, nuclear power will likely play a part in supplying this nation's energy in the coming decades. I believe this to be true for some other parts of the world as well. Even some severe critics of the nuclear power industry and the NRC might agree with me on this point. Increasing concern with the environmental consequences of the burning of fossil fuels has led some former opponents of the use of nuclear power to balance anew the risks and benefits of nuclear power and to modify to some degree their former opposition. A related concern with the adequacy of the energy supply is leading others to modify their positions. According to analyses done by the U.S. Department of Energy, after 1994 the United States will no longer be able to assure all its citizens a reliable supply of electricity. Already, many areas of the country are in need of additional electric capacity. In both Sweden and Switzerland, similar concerns have led to the adoption by many of more compromising positions. Some critics of nuclear power may in the end still reject it as an alternative, but, with the increased pressures on the environment and on our energy supply, nuclear power is an alternative which cannot be rejected without the most serious consideration. This should be, I believe, a point of consensus among us. In sum, there is a future for nuclear power in the sense that there is a use for it

  3. Factors potentially affecting fertility of lactating dairy cow recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, J L M; Demétrio, D G B; Santos, R M; Chiari, J R; Rodrigues, C A; Sá Filho, O G

    2006-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to evaluate factors that could affect pregnancy rate after embryo transfer (ET) in lactating dairy cow recipients. The trial was conducted at a dairy farm located in Descalvado, SP, Brazil from October 2003 to September 2004. From 1037 cows with CL that were treated with an injection of PGF2alpha, 43.3% were detected in heat; 263 were previously assigned at day of PGF2alpha injection for AI and 186 for ET. Ovulation rate was 85.7% (385/449). Pregnancy rate for cows with CL for AI and embryo transfer recipients were 36.5% (84/230) and 58.7% (91/155) at day 25 and 33.0% (76/230) and 45.8% (71/155) at day 46, respectively. Embryonic loss were 9.5% (8/84) for the AI group and 21.9% (20/91) for the ET group. Average milk production was 31.4 L/day/cow. Average daily milk production from 7 days before PGF2alpha injection to 7 days after ET tended (P milk production from the day of embryo transfer to 7 days after influenced embryonic loss (P milk production had lower probability of pregnancy and higher probability of embryonic loss. Cows with higher days in milk had higher probability of pregnancy. Cows with higher rectal body temperature had lower probability of pregnancy and higher probability of embryonic loss. The influence of high milk yield and body temperature on fertility in lactating dairy cow recipients suggests that these effects can occur also after embryo reaches the blastocyst stage. PMID:16290259

  4. Environmental Factors Affecting Performance Traits of Sahiwal Cattle in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Rehman*§ and M. S. Khan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Data on 23925 lactations of 5897 Sahiwal cows in five Government herds of Punjab (Pakistan viz. Livestock Experiment Station (LES Allahdad, LES Bahadurnagar, LES Fazalpur, LES Jahangirabad and LES Khizerabad (1964-2004 were collected to document the behavior of various productive and reproductive traits of Sahiwal cows with respect to herd, year and season of calving and parity. A linear model was used to determine the effects of various environmental factors on performance traits. The 305-day milk yield, total milk yield, lactation length, dry period, calving interval and service period averaged 1530.5±12.36 kg, 1552.1±12.15 kg, 235±1.4 days, 218±2.1 days, 438±2.7 days and 151±2.8 days, respectively. All the productive and reproductive traits were affected (P<0.01 by herd, year, season of calving and parity. Lactation length was important covariable for yield traits while yield was important for dry period, service period and calving interval. Maximum yield was recorded for 5th parity cows. Calving interval differed by two months among herds. Cows calving in most frequent calving season (winter produced more milk than summer calvers (1608.6±12.91 kg vs 1474.1±13.63 kg. The phenotypic trends for 305-day milk yield, total milk yield, lactation length, dry period, calving interval and service period were -1.33 kg, -0.21 kg, -1.27 days, +1.52 days, +0.32 days and +0.59 days, respectively. Lactation length (244.5 days was used as covariable. Improvement in feeding and breeding management and culling on productivity may improve the performance of Sahiwal cows.

  5. Factors affecting lactate and malate utilization by Selenomonas ruminantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J D; Martin, S A

    1997-12-01

    Lactate utilization by Selenomonas ruminantium is stimulated in the presence of malate. Because little information is available describing lactate-plus-malate utilization by this organism, the objective of this study was to evaluate factors affecting utilization of these two organic acids by two strains of S. ruminantium. When S. ruminantium HD4 and H18 were grown in batch culture on DL-lactate and DL-malate, both strains coutilized both organic acids for the initial 20 to 24 h of incubation and acetate, propionate, and succinate accumulated. However, when malate and succinate concentrations reached 7 mM, malate utilization ceased, and with strain H18, there was a complete cessation of DL-lactate utilization. Malate utilization by both strains was also inhibited in the presence of glucose. S. ruminantium HD4 was unable to grow on 6 mM DL-lactate at extracellular pH 5.5 in continuous culture (dilution rate, 0.05 h-1) and washed out of the culture vessel. Addition of 8 mM DL-malate to the medium prevented washout on 6 mM DL-lactate at pH 5.5 and resulted in succinate accumulation. Addition of malate also increased bacterial protein, acetate, and propionate concentrations in continuous culture. These results suggest that 8 mM DL-malate enhances the ability of strain HD4 to grow on 6 mM DL-lactate at extracellular pH 5.5. PMID:9471965

  6. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers. PMID:16425649

  7. Some Analytical Characteristics of Moringa Oleifera Leaves and Seeds Affected by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moringa oleifera is an important multipurpose tropical tree under-recognized for its nutritional and medicinal properties. Antioxidants play an important role in inhibiting and scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to human against infections and degenerative diseases. Leaves and seeds of M. oleifera were subjected to different gamma rays dose levels (0, 5, 10 and 15 kGy) and the content of phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidants activity and the profile of phenolics and flavonoids by HPLC were evaluated. The obtained data indicated that the phenolics and flavonoids content increased gradually by increasing irradiation doses in the seeds and leaves extract. Scavenging activity was increased gradually by increasing irradiation dose levels. Regarding to HPLC analysis of phenolic and flavonoid compounds it was shown that irradiation stimulated the biosynthesis of some phenolic compounds such as, chlorogenic, caffeic, salicycic, ellagic and p-OH-benzoic, as well as rosmarinic, naringin and hyper oside for flavonoids. This study showed that gamma irradiation is an effective tool for enhancing the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of M. oleifera.

  8. Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C; Cayea, Erin J; Austin, Melanie D; Henson, Dru A; McAnulty, Steven R; Jin, Fuxia

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L) in promoting weight loss and altering disease risk factors in overweight adults. The hypothesis was that the high dietary fiber and alpha-linolenic (ALA) contents of chia seed would induce a small but significant decrease in body weight and fat and improve disease risk factors. Subjects were randomized to chia seed (CS) and placebo (P) groups, and under single-blinded procedures, ingested 25 g CS or P supplements mixed in 0.25 L water twice daily before the first and last meal for 12 weeks. Ninety nondiseased, overweight/obese men and women between the ages of 20 and 70 years were recruited into the study, with 76 subjects (n = 39 CS, n = 37 P) completing all phases of the study. Pre- and poststudy measures included body mass and composition (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), inflammation markers from fasting blood samples (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), oxidative stress markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and plasma nitrite), blood pressure, and a serum lipid profile. Plasma ALA increased 24.4% compared to a 2.8% decrease in CS and P, respectively (interaction effect, P = .012). No group differences were measured for changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (interaction effects, P = .420 and .980, respectively). Pre-to-post measures of body composition, inflammation, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and lipoproteins did not differ between CS and P for both sexes. In conclusion, ingestion of 50 g/d CS vs P for 12 weeks by overweight/obese men and women had no influence on body mass or composition, or various disease risk factor measures. PMID:19628108

  9. Critical factors affecting cell encapsulation in superporous hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recently showed that superporous hydrogel (SPH) scaffolds promote long-term stem cell viability and cell driven mineralization when cells were seeded within the pores of pre-fabricated SPH scaffolds. The possibility of cell encapsulation within the SPH matrix during its fabrication was further explored in this study. The impact of each chemical component used in SPH fabrication and each step of the fabrication process on cell viability was systematically examined. Ammonium persulfate, an initiator, and sodium bicarbonate, the gas-generating compound, were the two components having significant toxicity toward encapsulated cells at the concentrations necessary for SPH fabrication. Cell survival rates were 55.7% ± 19.3% and 88.8% ± 9.4% after 10 min exposure to ammonium persulfate and sodium bicarbonate solutions, respectively. In addition, solution pH change via the addition of sodium bicarbonate had significant toxicity toward encapsulated cells with cell survival of only 50.3% ± 2.5%. Despite toxicity of chemical components and the SPH fabrication method, cells still exhibited significant overall survival rates within SPHs of 81.2% ± 6.8% and 67.0% ± 0.9%, respectively, 48 and 72 h after encapsulation. This method of cell encapsulation holds promise for use in vitro and in vivo as a scaffold material for both hydrogel matrix encapsulation and cell seeding within the pores. (paper)

  10. Selenium uptake and its antioxidant role in ryegrass cultivars as affected by selenite seed pelletization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P, Cartes; L, Gianfreda; C, Paredes; M.L, Mora.

    Full Text Available A greenhouse study was carried out to evaluate the effect of seed pelletization with increasing selenite doses (from 0 to 60 g Se ha-1) on the yield, Se uptake and the antioxidant responses of three ryegrass cultivars (Aries, Nui and Quartet) cultivated on an Andisol during two consecutive growth pe [...] riods. In addition, a second assay was conducted to determine the residual effect of Se in the shoots during four consecutive plant cuts. Results showed that selenite-pelleted seeds at rates up to 60 g Se ha-1 did not influence the yield of shoots and roots of the three ryegrass cultivars. Selenium concentration in shoots and roots steadily increased as a consequence of increased Se supply, and it was accumulated mainly in the roots. Plants of the different cultivars accumulated similar amounts of Se in their shoots, but Quartet roots built up greater Se concentration than those of Aries or Nui at rates of application above 35 g Se ha-1. Whereas Se doses above 10 g ha-1 increased the shoot Se concentration in the two yields of the three ryegrass cultivars to suitable levels according to the minimum dietary requirement of beef and dairy cattle, the residual effect of Se was maintained through four cuts at Se supply of 30 and 60 g ha-1. Likewise, the different cultivars displayed differential patterns of lipid peroxidation in response to the added Se. During the growth period, reductions of the oxidative damage of membranes were accompanied by inhibition of SOD in Aries and Nui and by the activation of GSH-Px antioxidant enzymes in the three ryegrass cultivars. Thus, in our study the benefits of Se on the plant health were closely related to an enhancement of the antioxidant system in the ryegrass cultivars. In summary, our results indicate that selenite-pelleted ryegrass seeds seem to be a promissory tool to increase both the Se content and the antioxidant ability of pastures. Its potential use requires, however, to be evaluated under field conditions in Se deficient soils.

  11. Selenium uptake and its antioxidant role in ryegrass cultivars as affected by selenite seed pelletization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Cartes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse study was carried out to evaluate the effect of seed pelletization with increasing selenite doses (from 0 to 60 g Se ha-1 on the yield, Se uptake and the antioxidant responses of three ryegrass cultivars (Aries, Nui and Quartet cultivated on an Andisol during two consecutive growth periods. In addition, a second assay was conducted to determine the residual effect of Se in the shoots during four consecutive plant cuts. Results showed that selenite-pelleted seeds at rates up to 60 g Se ha-1 did not influence the yield of shoots and roots of the three ryegrass cultivars. Selenium concentration in shoots and roots steadily increased as a consequence of increased Se supply, and it was accumulated mainly in the roots. Plants of the different cultivars accumulated similar amounts of Se in their shoots, but Quartet roots built up greater Se concentration than those of Aries or Nui at rates of application above 35 g Se ha-1. Whereas Se doses above 10 g ha-1 increased the shoot Se concentration in the two yields of the three ryegrass cultivars to suitable levels according to the minimum dietary requirement of beef and dairy cattle, the residual effect of Se was maintained through four cuts at Se supply of 30 and 60 g ha-1. Likewise, the different cultivars displayed differential patterns of lipid peroxidation in response to the added Se. During the growth period, reductions of the oxidative damage of membranes were accompanied by inhibition of SOD in Aries and Nui and by the activation of GSH-Px antioxidant enzymes in the three ryegrass cultivars. Thus, in our study the benefits of Se on the plant health were closely related to an enhancement of the antioxidant system in the ryegrass cultivars. In summary, our results indicate that selenite-pelleted ryegrass seeds seem to be a promissory tool to increase both the Se content and the antioxidant ability of pastures. Its potential use requires, however, to be evaluated under field conditions in Se deficient soils.

  12. The Affectional Component of Sexual Permissiveness: A Factor-Analytic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kathleen M.; Houlihan, John

    1978-01-01

    The Reiss Premarital Sexual Permissiveness Scale was administered to 51 male and 54 female undergraduates. Factor analysis revealed three major factors: intercourse with affection, kissing with affection, and nonaffectional sexual activity. It is suggested that permissiveness be defined as lack of affection. (Author)

  13. Factors affecting the absorption of hydrogen by zircaloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proton model has been employed to calculate how the elements Sn, Fe, Cr and Ni in Zircaloy affect the absorption of hydrogen compared with in zirconium. It is found that Fe, Cr and Ni reduce the absorption of hydrogen by almost equal amounts per atom added, whereas Sn has little or no affect on the absorption. (orig.)

  14. Chemical composition of tomato seeds affected by conventional and organic production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomato is amongst the most consumed vegetables in the world, not only for its culinary versatility but also for its high nutritional value. In the last years, consumers have shown an increased concern regarding food origin and safety. The organic tomato production has been a promising alternative for the consumer offering a safer food in relation to environmental, social and nutritional aspects. This study assessed the chemical composition of tomato seeds produced in both conventional and organic systems by INAA. The results showed significant differences (p?0.05) in the mass fractions of Br, Cs, Eu, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb and Sm between both systems, indicating influence of the crop management adopted in the different tomato production systems. (author)

  15. To Invest Or Not Invest? : Factors affecting IT investment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Tarabay, Raymond; Eigbire, Raphael

    2009-01-01

      Introduction Many studies indicate that there are numerous factors that promote or hamper the adoption of IT applications and are a prime concern for many researchers and practitioners (Abrahamson, 1991). Two main factors which need to be examined closely when making decisions about IT investments are the internal and external factors. Since these factors play a great role in decision making of IT investments, it is imperative to study their impact on the strategic planning because this fo...

  16. Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Anders; Nielsen, Henrik B; Hansen, Christian M; Andreasen, Christian; Carlsgart, Josefine; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Roepstorff, Allan

    2013-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. A surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). In the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survival of seeds of seven species of weeds and non-embryonated eggs of the large roundworm of pigs, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still maintained low levels (~1%) of germination ability after 1 week. Chenopodium album was the only weed species which survived 1 week at substantial levels (7%) although after 11 d germination ability was totally lost. Similarly, at 55°C, no Ascaris eggs survived more than 3h of incubation. Incubation at 37°C did not affect egg survival during the first 48 h and it took up to 10 days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites and weeds so that the digestates can be applied without risking spread of these pests. PMID:23266071

  17. Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; BangsØ Nielsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. A surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). In the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survival of seeds of seven species of weeds and non-embryonated eggs of the large roundworm of pigs, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still maintained low levels (?1%) of germination ability after 1 week. Chenopodium album was the only weed species which survived 1 week at substantial levels (7%) although after 11d germination ability was totally lost. Similarly, at 55°C, no Ascaris eggs survived more than 3h of incubation. Incubation at 37°C did not affect egg survival during the first 48h and it took up to 10days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites and weeds so that the digestates can be applied without risking spread of these pests.

  18. The importance of heat against antinutritional factors from Chenopodium quinoa seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Antonio da, Silva; Dávia Guimarães, Pompeu; Olavo Flores da, Costa; Daniel Bonoto, Gonçalves; Carlos Roberto, Spehar; Sérgio, Marangoni; Paulo Afonso, Granjeiro.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa seeds have high protein content. The nutritional value of quinoa is superior compared with traditional cereals. Its essential amino acid composition is considered next to the ideal, and its quality matches that of milk proteins. In this study, the seed storage proteins from Chenop [...] odium quinoa were extracted, fractionated, partially purified, and characterized. The structural characterization was performed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis, and it confirmed the presence of proteins of molecular weight of 30 and 7kDa, probably corresponding to lectins and trypsin inhibitors, respectively. The functional characterization of these proteins evidenced their activity as antinutritional factors due to their in vitro digestibility. Quinoa proteins have an excellent amino acid composition with many essential amino acids. In vitro digestibility evaluation indicated that heat-treated samples showed a more complete digestion than the native state samples. Quinoa seeds can be an important cereal in human diet after adequate heat treatment.

  19. Beef customer satisfaction: factors affecting consumer evaluations of clod steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, K J; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Courington, S M; Wise, J W; Savell, J W

    2002-02-01

    An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of clod steaks (n = 1,264) as influenced by USDA quality grade (Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select), city (Chicago and Philadelphia), consumer segment (Beef Loyals, who are heavy consumers of beef; Budget Rotators, who are cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and Variety Rotators, who have higher incomes and education and split their meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, and cooking method. Consumers evaluated each steak for Overall Like, Tenderness, Juiciness, Flavor Like, and Flavor Amount using 10-point scales. Grilling was the predominant cooking method used, and steaks were cooked to medium-well and greater degrees of doneness. Interactions existed involving the consumer-controlled factors of degree of doneness and(or) cooking method for all consumer-evaluated traits for the clod steak (P 0.05). One significant main effect, segment (P = 0.006), and one significant interaction, cooking method x city (P = 0.0407), existed for Overall Like ratings. Consumers in the Beef Loyals segment rated clod steaks higher in Overall Like than the other segments. Consumers in Chicago tended to give more uniform Overall Like ratings to clod steaks cooked by various methods; however, consumers in Philadelphia gave among the highest ratings to clod steaks that were fried and among the lowest to those that were grilled. Additionally, although clod steaks that were fried were given generally high ratings by consumers in Philadelphia, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks cooked in this manner significantly lower than those in Philadelphia. Conversely, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks that were grilled significantly higher than consumers in Philadelphia. Correlation and stepwise regression analyses indicated that Flavor Like was driving customer satisfaction of the clod steak. Flavor Like was the sensory trait most highly correlated to Overall Like, followed by Tenderness, Flavor Amount, and Juiciness. Flavor Like was the first variable to enter into the stepwise regression equation for predicting Overall Like, followed by Tenderness and Flavor Amount. For the clod steak, it is likely that preparation techniques that improve flavor without reducing tenderness positively affect customer satisfaction. PMID:11881929

  20. Emission factor of single pellet cake seed Jatropha curcas in a fix bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Agung Pambudi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the emission factor of oil cake seed Jatropha curcas that was formed into pellets with three parameters: pyrolisis, densification and air flow rate. The effect of pyrolisis was investigated using four samples of pellet: nonpyrolysis pellet, 90 minutes pyrolysis pellet, 120 minutes pyrolysis pellet, 150 minutes pyrolysis pellet. The effect of densification was provided by three samples: 11 mm, 13 mm, and 16 mm diameter. Furthermore, the parameter of air flow rate was varied from 0.1 m/s to 0.4 m/s. The results show that the lowest emission factor occurs in the non-pyrolysis pellet containing 14.3 gram carbon monoxide per kilogram pellet. Meanwhile the best densification was obtained by 13-mm diameter pellet containing 14.8 gram carbon monoxide. Air flow rate of 2.0 m/s was the suitable air flow rate to achieve lowest emission factor.

  1. Study on Growth and Control of Weeds as Affected by Weeding Methods in Upland Direct Seeded Aus Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Robiul Alam

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The research work was conducted to observe weed vegetation and to ascertain the comparative control efficiency of weeding methods in upland direct seeded Aus rice. Weed density was affected significantly by weeding methods at 60 days after sowing. The highest weed density (149.14 m?2 was observed in control plot. The lowest weed density (77.64 m?2 was recorded in T6 (ronstar @ 2.5 L ha?1 treatment and the second lowest density of weed was attained from T5 (ronstar @ 2.0 L ha?1 and T2 (Two hand weeding treatment. Most of the weed species infested in experimental plots were graded as good control in T6 (ronstar @ 2.5 L ha?1, T5 (2.0 L ha?1 and T2 treatment. But the application of ronstar @ 2.5 L ha?1 resulted in phytotoxic effect and rice plants were short statured and flowering was delayed. Moreover conventional two hand weeding method was observed very much laborious, time consuming and less cost effective for controlling the weeds. It was evident that the application of ronstar @ 2.0 L ha?1 was found the easiest and economically viable method for controlling different weed species grown in upland direct seeded Aus rice.

  2. Prioritization of the Factors Affecting Sport Tourism Development

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjadi, S. N.; Arefeh Jamshidi; Akbar Heidary

    2012-01-01

    Today, tourism and sport enjoy a complementary interrelationship directly affecting the nations` economy. Also sport tourism is, nowadays, considered as the most lucrative industry worldwide. In addition, it may affect all the social strata economically and politically. Thus, needless to say that much more attention should be directed to the industry through clear-cut policies, visions and constructive plans in this regard. To this end, in this paper, the authors investigated and offered the ...

  3. Chemical properties and oxidative stability of perilla oils obtained from roasted perilla seeds as affected by extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dong Min; Yoon, Suk Hoo; Jung, Mun Yhung

    2012-12-01

    The chemical properties and oxidative stability of perilla oils obtained from roasted perilla seeds as affected by extraction methods (supercritical carbon dioxide [SC-CO(2)], mechanical press, and solvent extraction) were studied. The SC-CO(2) extraction at 420 bar and 50 °C and hexane extraction showed significantly higher oil yield than mechanical press extraction (P oils were virtually identical regardless of the extraction methods. The contents of tocopherol, sterol, policosanol, and phosphorus in the perilla oils greatly varied with the extraction methods. The SC-CO(2) -extracted perilla oils contained significantly higher contents of tocopherols, sterols, and policosanols than the mechanical press-extracted and hexane-extracted oils (P extracted oil showed the greatly lower oxidative stability than press-extracted and hexane-extracted oils during the storage in the oven under dark at 60 °C. However, the photooxidative stabilities of the oils were not considerably different with extraction methods. PMID:23106331

  4. FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHERS’ USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Mojgan Afshari; Kamariah Abu Bakar; Wong Su Luan; Bahaman Abu Samah; Foo Say Fooi

    2009-01-01

    Research studies in the past decade have shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. Studies reveal a number of factors influencing teachers’ decisions to use ICT in the classroom: non-manipulative and manipulative school and teacher factors. These factors are interrelated. The success of the implementation of ICT is no...

  5. Factors Affecting Malaysian Mobile Banking Adoption: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Boon In Tan; Kam Hoe Oon; Aik Chuan Teo; Jia Jia Sim; Ching Mun Cheah

    2011-01-01

    This empirical study aims to investigate the factors that influence Malaysians’ intention to adopt mobile banking by extending the renowned framework of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A self-administrated questionnaire had been developed and distributed in Malaysia. Out of the 400 questionnaires, only 175 usable questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 43.75 percent. Results were subsequently analyzed by using multiple regression and factor analysis. Factors such as per...

  6. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Boutin, Sébastien; Mercier, Pierre-Luc; Loublier, Yves; Chagnon, Madeleine; Derome, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp) on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV) and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads. PMID:25993642

  7. Factors affecting the flowability of fertilizers through orifices

    OpenAIRE

    Hofstee J.W.; Kara M.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of some significant factors on the flow of fertilizers through orifices, such as orifice diameter, orifice shape, particle diameter, fertilizer type, air temperature, and air relative humidity were investigated. The effect of air temperature on the flow rate was small as the effects of the other factors were significant.

  8. A systematic study on factors affecting patient dose, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the grid is employed in radiography, the exposure and the patient dose naturally increase. The rate of increase of the exposure resulting from the use of the grid is usually expressed by the Bucky factor. The Bucky factor is commonly known to change depending on the grid ratio and the tube voltage, but its change due to other factor has been hardly reported. Therefore, authors have measured changes in the Bucky factor due to the thickness of a patient and the irradiation field size, and added a few comments on the patient dose. (Conclusion) (1) The Bucky factor is not constant because it is greatly influenced by the tube voltage, grid ratio, thickness of the patient and the field size. (2) The Bucky factor increases if the tube voltage is low and the grid ratio is high, and also if the patient thickness is great and the field size is large. (3) If the field size is enlarged, the Bucky factor increases, but the surface dose usually decreases, resulting in a conflicting phenomenon. This fact must be born in mind in using the Bucky factor as an indicator of the exposure or the patient dose. (author)

  9. Factors Affecting the Use of Instructional Television in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, E. Joseph

    A study of 36 factors which could possibly limit the use of instructional television (ITV) in elementary schools consisted of an analysis of the responses to a questionnaire administered to 318 teachers who taught in kindergarten through grade six. Chi-square tests were computed for each factor in relationship to the average frequency of classroom…

  10. Examining Factors That Affect Students' Knowledge Sharing within Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinxia; Gunter, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that might impact student knowledge sharing within virtual teams through online discussion boards. These factors include: trust, mutual influence, conflict, leadership, and cohesion. A path model was developed to determine whether relationships exist among knowledge sharing from asynchronous group…

  11. Concentración de carbohidratos y peso fresco durante la germinación de Chamaedorea elegans Mart. y factores que la afectan / Carbohydrate concentration and fresh weight during the germination of Chamaedorea elegans Mart. and factors that affect it

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Alatorre-Cobos; D. A., Rodríguez-Trejo.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La información sobre los cambios en la concentración de carbohidratos y peso fresco durante la germinación es escasa y las interacciones de factores que inciden en la germinación de Chamaedorea elegans Mart. han sido poco estudiadas. Se condujeron dos experimentos en cámaras de ambiente controlado, [...] uno para determinar el mejor régimen de temperaturas y otro para analizar el efecto del tiempo de almacenamiento (0 y 1 año), nivel de sombra (0%=124 µmol·m-2·s-1, 70%=32 µmol·m-2·s-1 y 100%=2 µmol·m-2·s-1) y tamaño de semilla (pequeña 5.75 mm) en la germinación. Se usó un diseño experimental en bloques completamente al azar y un procedimiento mixto para el análisis de varianza. Con 25/22 °C se logró 100 % de germinación, pero hubo diferencias entre lotes para germinar en tal régimen. En el segundo experimento, a 25/22 °C, los tres factores, la interacción doble tamaño de semilla y almacenamiento, además de la interacción triple tamaño, almacenamiento y nivel de sombra, resultaron significativas. En la triple interacción, con la semilla no almacenada recién colectada, los tres tamaños mostraron diferentes respuestas a los niveles de luz y la mayor germinación (59.3 %) con semilla mediana y sombra al 100 %. El consumo de almidones fue igual a 12 mg·g-1·mes-1. Abstract in english The information about changes in carbohydrate concentration and fresh weight during seed germination is scarce and the interactions of factors that affect germination of Chamaedorea elegans Mart. have been scarcely studied. Two experiments were conducted in controlled environment chambers, one to de [...] termine the best temperature regime and another to analyze the effect of factors: storage (0 and 1 y), shade level (0 %=124 µmol·m-2·s-1, 70%=32 µmol·m-2·s-1 y 100 %=2 µmol·m-2·s-1) and seed size (small 5.75 mm) on seed germination. A completely randomized blocks experimental design was employed, as well as a mixed procedure for the ANOVA. The temperature regime 25/22 °C yielded 100 % germination; however, there were differences among seed lots to germinate in such regime. In the second experiment (25/22 °C), the three factors and the interaction seed size and storage, and the triple interaction seed size, storage and shade were significant. In the triple interaction, with non storage seed just collected, the three seed sizes showed different responses to light, with the highest germination for medium size seed and 100 % shade (59.3 % germination). The rate of starch use was 12 mg·g-1·month-1.

  12. Factors affecting absorption, transport, and form of plutonium in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption of Pu by plants was related primarily to differences in soil properties and to the presence of natural and synthetic organic ligands that partially stabilized Pu against hydrolysis in soil. Plant/soil concentration ratios (CR) were also affected by a series of secondary processes related to plant growth rate and production of biomass. The valence state of Pu added to soil did not affect CR values due to reduction of Pu(VI) to Pu(IV). The Pu was transported in plant xylem fluid to aerial leaf tissue as Pu(IV) organic acid complexes. Variables affecting the chemical form of Pu in plants after uptake included plant age, plant species, and the presence of nutrient elements (especially Fe, Zn, and Cu) that competed for reaction sites on plant organic ligands. Test plants used were alfalfa, peas, soybeans, squash, and bushbeans

  13. Flying vs. climbing: Factors controlling arboreal seed removal in oak-beech forests

    OpenAIRE

    Perea Garci?a-calvo, Ramo?n; San Miguel Ayanz, Alfonso; Gil Sanchez, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Nuts are heavy and nutritious seeds that need animals to be successfully dispersed. Most studies address nut removal by a single animal species once seeds fall onto the ground. However, nuts are also accessible before the seed drop and usually to a wide guild of seed foragers. This study examines the factorscontrollingarborealseedremoval in oak–beechforests within the whole guild of nut foragers. We found that seed-dispersing rodents (Apodemus sylvaticus) were the main acorn removers in the...

  14. Factores que afectan la germinación de Justicia squarrosa Griseb, forrajera nativa de la región chaqueña de la Argentina / Factors affecting germination in Justicia squarrosa Griseb, a native forage species of the Chaco region of Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Zalazar; G., Funes; M.P., Venier.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Justicia squarrosa es una especie forrajera presente en diferentes comunidades naturales del Chaco Árido argentino en donde constituye un importante componente en la dieta del ganado en épocas de escasez de agua. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar los factores que afectan la germinación d [...] e J. squarrosa. Se tuvieron en cuenta diferentes regímenes de temperatura, calidades de luz y potenciales hídricos; además, se evaluó la capacidad de germinación de sus semillas en el tiempo. La germinación de las semillas de J. squarrosa estuvo condicionada por factores como la temperatura y el estrés hídrico. Los mayores porcentajes de germinación se obtuvieron a 25/15 ºC tanto en luz como en oscuridad permanente. Por debajo de -0,2 MPa la germinación disminuyó significativamente. Las semillas de J. squarrosa fueron indiferentes a los tratamientos de luz. Luego de 48 meses se observó un alto porcentaje de germinación de las semillas de la especie. Los resultados obtenidos proporcionan información valiosa que ayudará a establecer estrategias de domesticación y propagación de la especie. Abstract in english Justicia squarrosa is a forage species that lives in different natural communities in Chaco Arido, where it is an important component of cattle diet in unfavourable drought periods. The aim of this work was to study the factors affecting seed germination in J. squarrosa. Different temperature regime [...] s, light quality and water potential were considered. Seed germination capacity along time was also evaluated. Justicia squarrosa seed germination was conditioned by factors such as temperature and water potential. The highest germination percent was found at 25/15 ºC, both in light and dark. Seed germination decreased significantly below -0.2 MPa. Justicia squarrosa seeds did not respond to light treatments. After 48 months the percentage of seed germination was high. The results found in this article provide valuable information that will help to establish proper strategies for the species domestication and propagation.

  15. Effects of Some Environmental Factors on Seed Germination and Spreading Potentials of Silybum marianum Gaertner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Silybum marianum Gaertner is spreading in many crops of Southern Italy, particularly in durum wheat, sugar beet and some vegetable crops. Information about its biology are useful to set up effective control strategies. Four experiments were carried out at the Crop Science Department of the University of Bari (Southern Italy. Two trials were conducted in Petri dishes and evaluated the effects of different light, temperature and osmotic stress conditions on the seed germination. Another trial evaluated the ability of seedlings to emerge from different depths. The effects of eight different sowing periods on the plant growth were assessed in the fourth experiment. The highest germination rate was found with constant temperatures of 25 °C or 30 °C and with alternating temperatures of 25- 15 °C for 8 and 16 hours respectively. Germination was affected by the light and was significantly decreased at 0.2 Mpa and completely inhibited at -0.8 Mpa. Plant emergence was strongly reduced from a depth of more than 3 cm. The plant size at the first bloom was reduced by postponing the sowing period from October to February. The same decreasing trend was observed in the number of flower heads and in the number of days required for the first bloom. Results can suggest some important strategies to manage this species. False sowing, followed by irrigation, can be recommended in summer, in order to obtain the highest seed germination. Since the emergence of this plant is very scarce from a depth of more than 3 cm, ploughing can be effective to bury seeds in case of strong disseminations in order to reduce the infestation in the following crop.

  16. Effects of Some Environmental Factors on Seed Germination and Spreading Potentials of Silybum marianum Gaertner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Silybum marianum Gaertner is spreading in many crops of Southern Italy, particularly in durum wheat, sugar beet and some vegetable crops. Information about its biology are useful to set up effective control strategies. Four experiments were carried out at the Crop Science Department of the University of Bari (Southern Italy. Two trials were conducted in Petri dishes and evaluated the effects of different light, temperature and osmotic stress conditions on the seed germination. Another trial evaluated the ability of seedlings to emerge from different depths. The effects of eight different sowing periods on the plant growth were assessed in the fourth experiment. The highest germination rate was found with constant temperatures of 25 °C or 30 °C and with alternating temperatures of 25- 15 °C for 8 and 16 hours respectively. Germination was affected by the light and was significantly decreased at 0.2 Mpa and completely inhibited at -0.8 Mpa. Plant emergence was strongly reduced from a depth of more than 3 cm. The plant size at the first bloom was reduced by postponing the sowing period from October to February. The same decreasing trend was observed in the number of flower heads and in the number of days required for the first bloom. Results can suggest some important strategies to manage this species. False sowing, followed by irrigation, can be recommended in summer, in order to obtain the highest seed germination. Since the emergence of this plant is very scarce from a depth of more than 3 cm, ploughing can be effective to bury seeds in case of strong disseminations in order to reduce the infestation in the following crop.

  17. Analysis on the Main Factors Affecting the Reliability of Test Papers

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Zhu; Lemeng Han

    2011-01-01

    Reliability is an important factor to evaluate test papers. This paper analyzes the factors which affect the reliability of test papers and discusses the methods to increase the reliability of test papers.

  18. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene risk factors for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... many of these same gene variants are known risk factors for diseases that occur later in life, including ...

  19. Factors Affecting Students' Self-Efficacy in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien

    2011-01-01

    Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…

  20. Cognitive and Affective Factors of TV Advertising's Influence on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartella, Ellen

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the research on children's understanding of the intent of advertising, the persuasive impact of television commercials, and children's cognitive defenses and resistance to such persuasion. Concludes that any model which tries to account for advertising's influence on children must incorporate affective as well as cognitive components. (PD)

  1. Factors and pharmaceuticals that affect the radiopharmaceuticals bio distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals may be affected by various agents and therapeutical procedures, chemotherapy agents, thyroid hormones, metals, radiotherapy, surgery, anesthetic agents, dialysis other radiopharmaceutical interactions. Recommendations for the detection of altered biodistribution in patients by causes not directly related with the pathology itself was given. pathology itself was given

  2. Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

  3. Organizational factors affecting safety implementation in food companies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinda, Thanwadee

    2014-01-01

    Thai food industry employs a massive number of skilled and unskilled workers. This may result in an industry with high incidences and accident rates. To improve safety and reduce the accident figures, this paper investigates factors influencing safety implementation in small, medium, and large food companies in Thailand. Five factors, i.e., management commitment, stakeholders' role, safety information and communication, supportive environment, and risk, are found important in helping to improve safety implementation. The statistical analyses also reveal that small, medium, and large food companies hold similar opinions on the risk factor, but bear different perceptions on the other 4 factors. It is also found that to improve safety implementation, the perceptions of safety goals, communication, feedback, safety resources, and supervision should be aligned in small, medium, and large companies. PMID:24934418

  4. Physiology of seed germination and seedling growth in Coccinia indica L. as affected by morphactin and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the seed germination and seeding growth in Coccinia indica L. in relation to morphactin and gamma radiation. Morphactin had inhibitory effect on seed germination. Gamma radiation promoted the seed germination. The promotive effective of gamma radiation was suppressed by the inhibitory effect of morphactin on radicle and hypocotyl growth in all treatments of the interaction of gamma radiation and morphactin. (author)

  5. Turn on the Lights: Macroeconomic Factors Affecting Renewable in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Ihtisham Abdul; Siyal, Ghamz-e-ali; Abdullah, Alias Bin; Alam, Arif; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Baloch, Siraj Ullah; Shams, Tauqeer

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between macroeconomic factors (i.e., population growth; urbanization, industrialization, exchange rate, price level, food production index and live stock production index) and renewable energy in Pakistan over a period of 1975-2012. In addition, this study uses oil rent as an intervening variable to overcome the biasness of the single equation model. The results indicate that macroeconomic factors positively contributed to renewable en...

  6. Factors Affecting Business Success of Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chuthamas Chittithaworn; Md Aminul Islam; Thiyada Keawchana; Dayang Hasliza Muhd Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    This study attempted to identify factors that are affecting business success of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. The intention of this study is to provide the understanding on how people should start their business by looking at all the factors affecting business success hence help to reduce the risk of failure and increase chances of success. The study examined eight factors that influence the SMEs business success. These factors are: SMEs characteristic, management and know-...

  7. Postoperative [{sup 125}I] seed brachytherapy in the treatment of acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland. With associated risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Ming-hui; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Lei; Liu, Shu-ming; Huang, Ming-wei; Shi, Yan [Peking Univ. School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

    2014-11-15

    This retrospective study was undertaken to analyze data from patients receiving iodine-125 ([{sup 125}I]) seed brachytherapy postoperatively for the treatment of acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) of the parotid gland along with the following risk factors: residual tumor, recurrent tumor, facial nerve invasion, positive resection margins, advanced tumor stage, or tumor spillage. Twenty-nine patients with ACC (17 females, 12 males; age range, 13-73 years; median age, 37.3 years) were included. Median follow-up was 58.2 months (range, 14-122 months). Patients received [{sup 125}I] seed brachytherapy (median actuarial D90, 177 Gy) 3-41 days (median, 14 days) following surgery. Radioactivity was 18.5-33.3 MBq per seed, and the prescription dose was 80-120 Gy. The 3-, 5-, and 10-year rates of local control were 93.1, 88.7, and 88.7 %, respectively; overall survival was 96.6, 92, and 92 %; disease-free survival was 93.1, 88.4, and 88.4 %; and freedom from distant metastasis was 96.6, 91.2, and 91.2 %. Lymph node metastases were absent in all patients, although two patients died with distant metastases. Facial nerve recovery was quick, and no severe radiotherapy-related complications were noted. Recurrence history, local recurrence, and distant metastasis significantly affected overall survival. Postoperative [{sup 125}I] seed brachytherapy is effective in treating ACC and has minor complications. Patients with a history of recurrence showed poor prognosis and were more likely to experience disease recurrence and develop metastases. (orig.) [German] Diese retrospektive Studie wurde durchgefuehrt, um die Daten von Patienten zu analysieren, die postoperativ eine Seed-Brachytherapie mit Iod-125 ([{sup 125}I]) zur Behandlung von Azinuszellkarzinomen der Ohrspeicheldruese mit begleitenden Risikofaktoren, wie Residualtumor, Rezidivtumor, Invasion in den N. facialis, positive (= nicht tumorfreie) Resektionsraender, fortgeschrittenes Tumorstadium oder lokale Verbreitung von Tumorzellen waehrend der Resektion aufwiesen. In die Studie wurden 29 Patienten mit Azinuszellkarzinom der Ohrspeicheldruese (17 weiblich, 12 maennlich; Altersbereich 13-73 Jahre; medianes Alter 37,3 Jahre) eingeschlossen. Die mediane Nachbeobachtungszeit betrug 58,2 Monate (Spanne14-122 Monate). Die Patienten erhielten eine [{sup 125}I]-Seed-Brachytherapie an den Tagen 3-41 (Median 14 Tage) nach der Operation. Die Radioaktivitaet betrug 18,5-33,3 MBq/Seed, die Dosis lag bei 80-120 Gy. Die Brachytherapie mit [{sup 125}I]-Seeds ist eine effektive Behandlung der Azinuszellkarzinome der Ohrspeicheldruese mit geringer Komplikationsrate. Patienten, die in der Vergangenheit schon ein Rezidiv gehabt hatten, hatten eine schlechte Prognose und entwickelten mit groesserer Wahrscheinlichkeit erneut oder zum ersten Mal Metastasen. (orig.)

  8. Larval and adult seed consumption affected by the degree of food specialization in Amara (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Petr; Saska, P.

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 134, ?. 8 (2010), s. 659-666. ISSN 0931-2048 Grant ostatní: GA ?R(CZ) GA526/09/1436 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : diet * feeding habits * ground beetles Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.276, year: 2010

  9. Factors affecting interstate use of inpatient care by Medicare beneficiaries.

    OpenAIRE

    Buczko, W.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which interstate inflow and outflow of patients affects their observed use of Medicare Part A inpatient care. Interstate patient flow can bias utilization rates and may be due to seasonal migration, interstate inpatient care market areas, or purposive seeking of specialized/high-quality care. Examination of state level patient flow data drawn from 1987 Medicare discharge indicate that most interstate patient flow occurs between adjacent states probably as a...

  10. Factors affecting the cerebral network in brain tumor patients

    OpenAIRE

    Heimans, J. J.; Reijneveld, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Brain functions, including cognitive functions, are frequently disturbed in brain tumor patients. These disturbances may result from the tumor itself, but also from the treatment directed against the tumor. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy all may affect cerebral functioning, both in a positive as well as in a negative way. Apart from the anti-tumor treatment, glioma patients often receive glucocorticoids and anti-epileptic drugs, which both also have influence on brain functioning. The...

  11. Demotivating Factors Affecting EFL Learning of Iranian Seminary Students

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Tabatabaei; Ahmad Molavi

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the demotives affecting EFL learning of Iranian Islamic seminary students and also to distinguish the motivated and demotivated EFL learners in terms of their EFL learning as the major focus of this study. Fifty Iranian EFL seminary students were investigated using two validated questionnaires. First a modified version of The Attitude/Motivation Test Battery Questionnaire (AMTB) originally developed by Gardner (2004) was used to dete...

  12. Relation between growth stages and synthesis of flavonoids and essential oils affected by irradiation in Ruta graveolens seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruta graveolens plants are radio-adaptive up to 8 Krad gamma radiation. Flavonoids and essential oils were remarkably increased as function of irradiation doses from 2 up to 8 Krad. Doses of 4 and 8 Krad were the most effective ones. Concerning flavonoids, 4 and 8 Krad treatments exerted the following percent increase over control plants: 76, 77% (leaves), 137, 100% (stems), 153, 80% (flowers) and 77, 61% (fruits). The distribution pattern of flavonoids was in the following order: Leaves > flowers > fruits > stems. Treated plants with 4 or 8 Krad resulted in an increase in essential oil yield by 65-67% over control plants. Chemical constitution of oil: ketones and esters did not seem to be affected by seed irradiation (0-8 Krad). Similarly, physical properties ''refractive index, solubility and specific gravity'' did not materially affect. However, chemical properties ''acid value, ester value and saponification value'' were increased by 24% over control treatment as a function of 4 Krad. Yet higher doses had the capacity of increasing the acid value but not of both ester or saponification value

  13. Discriminant Analysis of Factors Affecting Telecoms Customer Churn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Oghojafor

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge facing telecoms business providers in Nigeria today is the continuous growing competition and customers’ expectation of service quality and as such customers are able to choose among multiple service providers based on the level of satisfaction, affordability, and service quality of service providers. Customer demand and competition are forcing firms to cut loose from the traditional customer satisfaction paradigm, to adopt proactive strategies which will assist them to take the lead in the market-place. This study aims at identifying factors that discriminate among subscribers exhibiting willingness to drop their current service provider and those willing to stay. The study also examines the effect of socio-economic and demographic factors associated with the identified discriminants. The major factors identified are high call rate, poor service facilities, off-beam advertisement medium, availability of superior service provider and unattractive service plan.

  14. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at appropriate scales. Our results reiterate the need for conflict management programs to be multipronged. PMID:25039397

  15. Factors affecting the spontaneous mutational spectra in somatic mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.?. ?????????

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available  In our survey of references we are discussed the influence of factors biological origin on the spontaneous mutation specters in mammalian. Seasonal and age components influence on the frequence of cytogenetic anomalies. The immune and endocrinous systems are take part in control of the alteration of the spontaneous mutation specters. Genetical difference of sensibility in animal and human at the alteration of factors enviroment as and  genetical differences of repair systems activity are may influence on individual variation of spontaneous destabilization characters of chromosomal apparatus.

  16. Factors affecting outcome in proximal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, P V; Shepard, A D; Pipinos, I I; Nypaver, T J; Cho, J S; Reddy, D J

    2001-09-01

    Sixty-five consecutive patients undergoing nonemergent repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) originating above the visceral and/or renal arteries were studied to determine operative results and identify factors influencing outcome of proximal AAA repair. Factors associated with postoperative morbidity were analyzed using multivariate analysis. There were no postoperative deaths, paraplegia/paraparesis, or symptomatic visceral ischemia. Proximal AAA repair can be accomplished with acceptable mortality. If renal artery bypass or reimplantation is anticipated, cold renal perfusion may protect against renal dysfunction. Postoperative pulmonary dysfunction can be reduced by avoiding radial division of the diaphragm. PMID:11665433

  17. Factors Affecting the Misperception of Friendliness Cues in Initial Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnish, Richard J.; And Others

    Some researchers have found men to attribute more sexual meaning to heterosexual interactions than do women. This study was conducted to examine factors which may enhance or diminish this gender difference on perceptions of sexual intent by considering the three variables of physical attractiveness of target, similarity of target's personality to…

  18. Factors affecting sleep/vigilance behaviour in incubating mallards.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jav?rková, V.; Ho?ák, D.; Kreisinger, J.; Klva?a, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 117, ?. 4 (2011), s. 345-355. ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KJB601110803; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mallard * vigilance * antipredation behaviour * incubation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.008, year: 2011

  19. Factors Affecting Location Decisions of Food Processing Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Sule; Canan Ozbag, Basak; Cetin, Bahattin

    The main aim of this study is to examine the determinants of location choices for food processing plants using the results of 59 personal surveys. The 61.3% of the food processing plants that were interviewed are small scale plants, 9.1% are large scale plants and 29.6% are medium scale plants. Sixteen of the firms process vegetables, 12 process poultry, 12 process dairy and 9 process seafood products. Business climate factors are divided into six categories (market, infrastructure, raw material, labor, personal and environmental) and 17 specific location factors are considered. The survey responses are analyzed by types of raw materials processed and by plant size. 43.7, 55.3 and 42.2% of the respondents cited categories of Market, Raw Material and Infrastructure respectively as important, while 44.3, 50.7 and 74.4% of the respondents cited, labor, personal and environmental regulation categories of as not important. Thus survey findings indicate that plant location choices are mainly driven by market, raw material and infra structural factors. Environmental factors such as environmental regulations and permissions are relatively insignificant.

  20. Factors Affecting University Teaching Team Effectiveness in Detached Working Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…

  1. A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Atilgan-Inan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspectives of management in the related periods. The results indicated that organizational factors have always been important for new product development process, which is in line with the nature of the innovation process. But the emphasis on internal factors has increased in the 21st century which is congruent with the change in management perspective foregrounding resource based view. The study differs from the similar literature review studies on the point that it deals with the topic from international marketing perspective. Therefore, R&D and other marketing studies are not included in the review and the study proposes the important factors from international firms’ point of view.

  2. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

    2009-01-01

    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

  3. Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors

  4. Factors affecting attitudes towards medical abortion in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Nielsen, Stine

    2006-01-01

    Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal.

  5. An Analysis of Factors That Affect the Educational Performance of Agricultural Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to student achievement. This study focuses on three areas: how students learn, how student personality type affects performance, and how course format affects performance outcomes. The analysis sought to improve understanding of the direction and magnitude with which each of these factors impacts student success. Improved…

  6. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout in an Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukselturk, Erman; Inan, Fethi Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students…

  7. Affecting factors analysis of major equipment erection key path in PWR NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The affecting factors of major equipment erection in PWR NPP exist impersonally, especially the design and equipment supply has produced some effects on major equipment erection of PWR nuclear power plant. Through the analysis of key path and affecting factors on major equipment erection of PWR NPP, the paper puts forward some countermeasures. (authors)

  8. Attitudes to and Factors Affecting Unauthorized Copying of Computer Software in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siponen, M.T.; Vartiainen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Several quantitative studies have sought to determine the factors affecting the unauthorized copying of software, particularly in North America. However, we find no statistically reliable studies on the situation in Europe. In order to address this gap in the literature, we explored the attitudes to and factors affecting the unauthorized copying…

  9. Factors Affecting Perceived Stigma in Leprosy Affected Persons in Western Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Bipin; Kaehler, Nils; Robert S. Chapman; Raut, Shristi; Roche, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A total of 135 leprosy affected persons were interviewed with a questionnaire containing EMIC questions designed to assess the level of perceived stigma and the questionnaire containing variables for socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about leprosy and the clinical presentations of the participants. Clinical presentation as disability was graded according to WHO guidelines, where grade 0 means no disability found, grade I means loss of sensation has been noted in the hand or foot wh...

  10. Conservação de sementes de Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh seed storability as affected by temperature and seed moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Felipe de Oliveira Gentil

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de Myrciaria dubia apresentam baixa longevidade e demandam a ampliação do conhecimento sobre fatores interferentes na sua conservação. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar as influências do grau de umidade e da temperatura do ambiente na manutenção da qualidade dessas sementes. Para tanto, sementes com 48%, 43%, 40%, 34%, 30%, 24%, 18% e 14% de água, acondicionadas em sacos de polietileno, foram armazenadas sob temperaturas controladas de 10 ºC, 20 ºC e 30 ºC, durante 280 dias, e submetidas, periodicamente, à avaliação do grau de umidade, da germinação, do vigor e da sanidade. Constatou-se que as sementes têm a conservação favorecida pela associação do grau de umidade de 43% com a temperatura de armazenamento de 10 °C.Myrciaria dubia seeds have a short life span and few informations are available about the factors that determine their storability. The main aim of this research work was to check the effects of three temperatures (10 ºC, 20 ºC and 30 ºC and eight seed moisture contents (48%, 43%, 40%, 34%, 30%, 24%, 18% and 14% on seed storability, during a time period of 280 days. Periodic evaluations of seed moisture content, germination, vigor and healthness were carried out throughout the experimental time. The best seed storability conditions were observed at 10 °C and 43% of seed moisture content.

  11. Factors that affect social workers' job satisfaction, stress and burnout

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Taetske, Calitz; Adrie, Roux; Herman, Strydom.

    Full Text Available Social work was classified as a scare skill and the retention of social workers is an important aspect that needs urgent attention. The research goal of this study was to determine what degree of work engagement and job satisfaction South African social workers experience in their current positions [...] and how this influences job turnover, burnout and the intention to leave the profession. The purpose was to determine the needs social workers experience that will affect turnover in the profession. The needs/problems social workers experienced were stress, burnout, lower job satisfaction and work engagement.

  12. Environmental factors that can affect sleep and breathing: allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, David T; Soose, Ryan J

    2014-09-01

    Allergic rhinitis and associated symptomatic nasal obstruction negatively affect sleep through a variety of mechanisms and may contribute to persistent symptoms and poor adherence with medical device therapy for sleep apnea. A history of sinonasal symptoms, particularly those that occur at night or in the supine position, is the cornerstone of the medical evaluation. Further research into the relationship between allergic rhinitis and sleep disturbance would benefit from improved anatomic and pathophysiologic phenotyping as well as more advanced outcome measures such as spectral electroencephalogram analysis or other polysomnography variables beyond the apnea-hypopnea index. PMID:25156773

  13. Chemical and biological factors affecting bioavailability of contaminants in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the influence that salinity has on the bioavailability of the two largest classes of contaminants, trace metals and organic compounds will be discussed. Although data on contaminant toxicity will be used to draw inferences about chemical availability, this discussion will focus on the properties that contaminants are likely to exhibit in waters of varying salinities. In addition, information on physiological changes that are affected by salinity will be used to illustrate how biological effects can alter the apparent availability of contaminants

  14. Factores que pueden afectar la seguridad del paciente / Factors that may affect patient's safety

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José A, Betancourt Betancourt; Raúl J, Cepero Morales; Clara Mirella, Gallo Borrero.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la seguridad del paciente es la garantía de las personas de estar libres de sufrir cualquier tipo de daño cuando interactúan con alguno de los servicios de salud. Objetivo: determinar factores que podrían afectar la seguridad del paciente a través de una investigación realizada en el Hos [...] pital Provincial y en el Hospital Pediátrico. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, mediante la búsqueda de información bibliográfica sobre la temática de la seguridad del paciente, en las bases de datos disponibles en INFOMED. Para la primera etapa se diseña e implementa una encuesta de 49 preguntas que se les realiza en el año 2009 a trabajadores vinculados a la atención de salud. Para la segunda etapa se implementa una encuesta de 23 preguntas derivadas de las preguntas más relevantes de la primera etapa que se implementó en el Hospital Pediátrico y se va a realizar en el Hospital Provincial Univerrsitario Manuel Ascunce Domenech. El método analítico utilizado para ambas encuestas fue la técnica de componentes principales que permitió valorar la coincidencia de cada pregunta en relación a las posibles afectaciones a la seguridad del paciente. Resultados: la encuesta aplicada, para evaluar factores que afectan la seguridad del paciente fue adecuada. La técnica de componentes principales permitió valorar la importancia de cada pregunta en relación a las posibles afectaciones a la seguridad del paciente, las variables de respuesta se agruparon en seis constructos con un 62,1 % de varianza explicada. Las encuestas arrojaron que las afectaciones del ambiente laboral, el nivel general de interconexión y comunicación, el nivel de gestión del conocimiento, la capacidad de enfrentar imprevistos, la capacidad técnica, el cansancio y la pérdida de concentración podrían afectar la seguridad del paciente. Conclusiones: es posible obtener información in situ a partir del instrumento final obtenido en la última etapa que permita corregir de forma precoz algunas fallas que pudieran afectar la seguridad del paciente y corregirlas. La técnica de componentes principales resultó adecuada para evaluar estas respuestas en conjunto. Abstract in english ABSTRACT Background: patient's safety is the guarantee of people to be free of suffering any kind of damage when interacting any of the health services. Objective: to determine factors that may affect patient's safety. Method: a descriptive study through a bibliographic review on patient's safety wa [...] s conducted. The study was divided into two stages, in which surveys according to the technique of main components were implemented; this allowed value the coincidence of each question in relation to the possible impact to the patient´s safety. Results: the applied survey was appraised of adequate; response variables were grouped into six, with a 62.1 % of explained variance. The survey showed that affectations on labor atmosphere, general level of interconnection and communication, level on knowledge management, the capacity to face accidental facts, technical capacity, fatigue and loss of concentration could affect patient's safety. Conclusions: the information was obtained from the final instrument in the last stage. Some failures that could affect patient´s safety may be corrected early. The technique of main components was adequate to evaluate the answers as a whole.

  15. Prioritization of the Factors Affecting Sport Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Sajjadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, tourism and sport enjoy a complementary interrelationship directly affecting the nations` economy. Also sport tourism is, nowadays, considered as the most lucrative industry worldwide. In addition, it may affect all the social strata economically and politically. Thus, needless to say that much more attention should be directed to the industry through clear-cut policies, visions and constructive plans in this regard. To this end, in this paper, the authors investigated and offered the guidelines for sport tourism development in Zanjan from economic, social and cultural perspectives. This was an applied research carried out as a field study. The statistical sample was divided into 2 groups: 1 Experts including physical education teachers, cultural heritage and physical education department employees and, 2 Customers including different sportsmen and sportswomen traveling to Zanjan. The research tool was a 43 item researcher-made questionnaire in Likert scale whose reliability and validity were confirmed by the board of university professors. We applied descriptive to describe the demography and T-test and Friedman to determine the differences and prioritize both groups` viewpoints regarding sport tourism development in Zanjan.

  16. Factors affecting the solubility of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Cornelius; Hobley, Timothy John

    2008-01-01

    A detailed study of the solubility of recombinant Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase has been conducted. A semi-purified preparation from a bulk crystallisation was chos en that contained six isoforms with pI-values of between 5.5 and 6.1. The solubility was strongly affected by pH and could be reduced approximately 200-fold at pH 6 as compared to pH 10, leaving only 0.1 mg/mL in solution. Solubility could also be dramatically manipulated using salts. The choice of anions was found to be more important than of the cations, and the lowest solubility was found using sodium sulphate. For the anions, solubility followed the order expected from the Hofmeister series, however, a more complex behaviour was seen for the cations. With the exception of lithium, their efficiency to influence the solubility was reversed to what was expected. The polydispersity of the solution was reduced by salt addition and zeta potential measurements indicated a shift in pI caused by lithium. Possible explanations for the observations are discussed, extending our present understanding of how salts affect the solubility of proteins, one that to date is primarily based on experiments with lysozyme. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Importance of Affective Factors in Self-Access Language Learning courses

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Valdivia; David McLoughlin; Jo Mynard

    2011-01-01

    In this short summary, we investigate the importance of learners’ emotional involvement in self-directed learning. We begin by briefly examining the literature related to affective factors in self-access language learning. We then describe two examples of institutions with self-access centres that place particular importance on affective factors in courses of self-directed study. The first example is in a university in Japan, where affective strategies are introduced through self-directed l...

  18. Formulation and Sun Protection Factor Estimation of Squash Cucurbita maxima Seeds Sunblock Lotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane G. Barluado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The fact that the sun's ultraviolet (UVA and UVB radiation reaches the earth's surface associates sun exposure with many skin problems such as sunburn, photoaging, hyperpigmentation, and skin cancers. Because sunlight is unavoidable, sunscreen/sunblock application is essential to protect the skin from the mentioned problems. Zinc, in the form of zinc oxide, is an active ingredient in sunblocks as it deflects away UVA and UVB. Zinc is an immunologically important mineral that helps in wound healing, antiinflammation, and cell protection. One natural and rich source of zinc is squash seeds, which many consider as trash. This study features the formulation of a sunblock lotion using squash seeds as the active ingredient. Squash seeds extract and powder were first subjected to Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS to quantitate zinc content, and enough were used to formulate a sunblock lotion to a final zinc concentration of 5%. Various physical tests on the finished product showed that it is stable and gentle, having high melting point of 440C, and being easily spreadable, water insoluble, and weakly basic at pH 7.5. Patch tests gave negative results in all subjects, indicating the product's hypoallergenicity. UV spectrophotometry revealed substantially low UV absorbance (<0.03 from 290nm - 320nm wavelengths, which is consistent with the action of zinc oxide as UV deflector, not absorber. The Sun Protection Factor (SPF was determined using a modified formula set by the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 based on the ratio of minimal erythema (skin redness due to dilated dermal capillaries on protected skin to that on unprotected skin, and was calculated to be SPF20. Further, costing and pricing analysis showed the production cost to be P0.80/mL, and recommended selling price (at 100% markup of P1.60/mL, which is up to 13 times cheaper than popular commercial brands of similar effectiveness. Thus, the study successfully formulated a gentle, effective, and affordable sunblock lotion using squash seeds as organic active ingredient

  19. Factors affecting visualization of posterior rib fractures in abused infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rib fractures in abused infants commonly occur in the posterior rib arcs. Fractures occurring near the costovertebral articulations are usually identified radiographically only once callus has formed. To assess the factors influencing the visibility of fractures near the costovertical articulations, the authors studied 103 posterior rib fractures occurring in 16 abused infants. Radiologic findings were correlated with CT findings and pathologic material from nine ribs in four patients. The limited visibility of fractures relates to (1) the frequent superimposition of the transverse process over the rib fracture site, (2) a fracture line that crosses at an obliquity to the x-ray beam, and (3) nondisplacement of rib fragments due to preservation of the posterior periosteum. Fresh rib fractures invisible on a frontal projection may be clearly defined on axial CT scans, or on postmortem radiographs. A knowledge of the factors influencing the visibility of these important injuries is useful in planning an appropriate diagnostic evaluation of suspected infant abuse

  20. Pareto analysis of critical factors affecting technical institution evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gambhir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With the change of education policy in 1991, more and more technical institutions are being set up in India. Some of these institutions provide quality education, but others are merely concentrating on quantity. These stakeholders are in a state of confusion about decision to select the best institute for their higher educational studies. Although various agencies including print media provide ranking of these institutions every year, but their results are controversial and biased. In this paper, the authors have made an endeavor to find the critical factors for technical institution evaluation from literature survey. A Pareto analysis has also been performed to find the intensity of these critical factors in evaluation. This will not only help the stake holders in taking right decisions but will also help the management of institutions in benchmarking for identifying the most important critical areas to improve the existing system. This will in turn help Indian economy.

  1. Tautomerism in porphycenes: analysis of rate-affecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci??ka, Piotr; Fita, Piotr; Listkowski, Arkadiusz; Kijak, Micha?; Nonell, Santi; Kuzuhara, Daiki; Yamada, Hiroko; Radzewicz, Czes?aw; Waluk, Jacek

    2015-02-12

    Double hydrogen transfer occurring in both ground and the lowest electronically excited singlet states was studied for a series of 19 differently substituted porphycenes. The rates of tautomerization have been determined using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy with polarized light. The values vary by over 3 orders of magnitude, suggesting the importance of tunneling. Good correlation exists between the values of the rates and the parameters characterizing the strength of two intramolecular hydrogen bonds: proton NMR shift, distance between the hydrogen-bonded nitrogen atoms, and the NH stretching frequency. While hydrogen-bond strength is the main factor determining the rate of double hydrogen transfer, other factors, such as static and dynamic symmetry breaking and the population of low-frequency vibrations also have to be taken into account. PMID:25105931

  2. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelham, J.

    1991-12-31

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  3. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelham, J.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  4. Factors Affecting the Real Estate Prices in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmood khan kakar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines the effect of factors influencing the prices of real estate inQuetta city. Hypothetically, this study is based upon five observed factors(urbanization, refugees’ influx, monetary, lack of investment alternatives and inflow offoreign remittances in relation to the prices of real estate. Questionnaire developed onthe basis of above variables were administered to a heterogeneous sample of 50property dealers and Quetta Development Authority. Descriptive statistics (percentage,percentile and frequency distribution were used to identify the level of influence andthe relation of above mentioned attributes towards the prices of real estate. The resultsrevealed that the prices of real estate in the region have been on an increasing trendand strong influence of all variables especially of government’s monetary and fiscalpolices and urbanization was found significant on the prices of real estate in Quetta.

  5. Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Abdel Aziem A; Okud Amira

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don’t use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. Methods A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan between 1st May and 31st July 2012....

  6. Factors affecting the growth of bifidobacteria in human milk.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ro?ková, Š.; Nevoral, J.; Rada, V.; Maršík, Petr; Sklená?, Jan; Hlinková, A.; Vlková, E.; Marounek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 21, ?. 7 (2011), s. 504-508. ISSN 0958-6946 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA523/07/0572; GA ?R GD525/08/H060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : OLIGOSACCHARIDES * INFANTS * PREBIOTICS Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.401, year: 2011

  7. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

    2014-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

  8. Factors Affecting Hemodialysis Patients' Satisfaction with Their Dialysis Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Al Eissa, M.; Al Sulaiman, M.; Jondeby, M.; Karkar, A.; Barahmein, M.; F. A. M. Shaheen; Al Sayyari, A

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To assess the degree of satisfaction among hemodialysis patients and the factors influencing this satisfaction. Methods. Patients were recruited from 3 Saudi dialysis centers. Demographic data was collected. Using 1 to 10 Likert scale, the patients were asked to rate the overall satisfaction with, and the overall impact of, their dialysis therapy on their lives and to rate the effect of the dialysis therapy on 15 qualities of life domains. Results. 322 patients were recruited (72...

  9. A human soluble suppressor factor affecting lymphocyte responses in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Shou, L; Schwartz, S.A.; Good, R A; PENG, R; C. L. Chen

    1980-01-01

    A soluble suppressor factor (SSF) has been demonstrated in the supernatant of normal human peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures that exhibits suppressive activity toward the proliferative response of normal lymphocytes to concanavalin A or alloantigens in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) or toward pokeweed mitogen-stimulated immunoglobulin synthesis and secretion in vitro. Suppression of the proliferative response in MLC reached maximal levels when added SSF-containing supernatant approximated ...

  10. Factors affecting statistical power in the detection of genetic association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Derek; Finch, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    The mapping of disease genes to specific loci has received a great deal of attention in the last decade, and many advances in therapeutics have resulted. Here we review family-based and population-based methods for association analysis. We define the factors that determine statistical power and show how study design and analysis should be designed to maximize the probability of localizing disease genes. PMID:15931375

  11. Factors Affecting Blood Glucose Monitoring: Sources of Errors in Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsberg, Barry H

    2009-01-01

    Glucose monitoring has become an integral part of diabetes care but has some limitations in accuracy. Accuracy may be limited due to strip manufacturing variances, strip storage, and aging. They may also be due to limitations on the environment such as temperature or altitude or to patient factors such as improper coding, incorrect hand washing, altered hematocrit, or naturally occurring interfering substances. Finally, exogenous interfering substances may contribute errors to the system eval...

  12. Spatial and Temporal Factors Affecting Human Visual Recognition Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The current thesis investigated the effects of a variety of spatial and temporal factors on visual recognition memory in human adults. Continuous recognition experiments investigated the effect of lag (the number of items intervening between study and test) on recognition of a variety of stimulus sets (common objects, face-like stimuli, fractals, trigrams), and determined that recognition of common objects was superior to that of other stimulus types. This advantage was largely eradicated whe...

  13. Environmental Factors Affecting Performance Traits of Sahiwal Cattle in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Rehman*§ and M. S. Khan

    2012-01-01

    Data on 23925 lactations of 5897 Sahiwal cows in five Government herds of Punjab (Pakistan) viz. Livestock Experiment Station (LES) Allahdad, LES Bahadurnagar, LES Fazalpur, LES Jahangirabad and LES Khizerabad (1964-2004) were collected to document the behavior of various productive and reproductive traits of Sahiwal cows with respect to herd, year and season of calving and parity. A linear model was used to determine the effects of various environmental factors on performance traits. The 305...

  14. FACTORS AFFECTING PREVALENCE OF BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN NILI RAVI BUFFALOES

    OpenAIRE

    IMTIAZ A. KHAN, A. KHAN1, A. MUBARAK AND S. ALI

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to find out the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in Nili Ravi buffaloes at a livestock experimental station in the Punjab, Pakistan. On the basis of the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT), prevalence of BTB was found to be 10.06%. Epidemiological factors including old age, high milk production and parity played a significant role in the prevalence of the disease. Significantly (P

  15. Factors affecting mothers' choice of infant feeding method / S. Schoonwinkel.

    OpenAIRE

    Schoonwinkel, Susanna

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of breastfeeding are well known. It has been shown that HIV is transmitted through breast milk. The HIV epidemic is threatening exclusive breastfeeding in South Africa. It is important that mothers make the right infant feeding choice. There are three basic infant feeding methods available for HIV infected mothers namely; breastfeeding, replacement feeding or formula feeding and heat treatment of breast milk. There are many risk factors for the transmission of HIV through breast ...

  16. Factors Affecting Consumers for Purchasing Electricity inSweden

    OpenAIRE

    Anis, Waqas; Kalair, Akmal

    2010-01-01

    Purpose As Sweden is one of the countries who pays a lot of attention towards the sustainability ofthe society, eco green businesses and also promotes environmental friendly products. So thepurpose of this study is to analyze the factors which influence consumers before choosingany electricity supplier, whether it is low price, better services, environmental friendly oravailability. And in this way we can check finally that how much people concern aboutenvironment and environmental friendly p...

  17. Specialty Preference Among Medical Students and Factors Affecting It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Gour

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical education is one of the core part of educational system of any country. Medical education requires undergraduate students to study a wide range of medical specialties. It is often assumed that students do not make their career preferences until after they have graduated from medical school. So the reasons and factors responsible for preferences need to be found out among medical students. Material and Methods: It was a Cross sectional study on 180 medical students to assess preference for specialty and factors responsible. Results: Out of total 190 medical students more or less everyone (97.89% wanted to pursue specialization and majority of them (96.84% wanted to pursue the same in Medical Field(p>0.05. majority of male students were interested to pursue their specialization in the field of medicine (37.63%, surgery (23.65% and pediatrics (13.97%. On the other hand female students were more interested in medicine (24.17%, pediatrics (32.96% and obstetrics & gynecology (24.17%(p<0.05. Interest, by far was found to be most common factor (76.63% responsible for the preference of particular medical specialty among all four groups of students (1st professional-25.27%, 2nd professional-75.92%, final professional-89.47%, interns-68.42%.Conclusion: It is thus concluded there are many factors playing role in the specialty selection and preference among the medical students and should be equally justified and addressed.

  18. Factors affecting early unplanned readmission of elderly patients to hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, E. I.; Fitton, F.

    1988-01-01

    A random sample of 133 elderly patients who had an unplanned readmission to a district general hospital within 28 days of discharge from hospital was studied and compared with a matched control sample of patients who were not readmitted. The total group was drawn from all specialties in the hospital, and by interviewing the patients, their carers, the ward sisters, and the patients' general practitioners the factors causing early unplanned readmission for each patient were identified. Seven p...

  19. Examination of Factors Affecting Success of Singapore Education System

    OpenAIRE

    Levent, Faruk; Yazici, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Singapore is a country which attracts attention with the success it gains at the internationalstudent assessment tests like PISA, TIMSS and PIRLS in recent years. Success of Singaporeeducation system at the international student assessment tests which give information about theresults of educational policy and implementation, has aroused curiosity all over the world. Thesuccess factors of Singapore education system are important for many countries like Turkey whichimplements reform initiative...

  20. International study of factors affecting human chromosome translocations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sigurdson, A.J.; Ha, M.; Hauptmann, M.; Bhatti, P.; Šrám, Radim; Beskid, Olena; Tawn, E.J.; Whitehouse, C.A.; Lindholm, C.; Nakano, M.; Kodama, Y.; Nakamura, N.; Vorobtsova, I.; Oestreicher, U.; Stephan, G.; Yong, L.C.; Bauchinger, M.; Schmid, E.; Chung, H.W.; Darroudi, F.; Roy, L.; Voisin, P.; Barquinero, J.F.; Livingston, G.; Blakey, D.; Hayata, I.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Ch.; Benett, L.M.; Littlefield, L.G.; Edwards, A.A.; Kleinerman, R.A.; Tucker, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 652, ?. 2 (2008), s. 112-121. ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA MŽP SI/340/2/00; GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Chromosome translocations * FISH * Background frequency Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.363, year: 2008

  1. SOCIOECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND BEHAVIORAL FACTORS AFFECTING HISPANIC HEALTH OUTCOMES

    OpenAIRE

    MORALES, LEO S.; Lara, Marielena; KINGTON, RAYNARD S.; VALDEZ, ROBERT O.; Escarce, José J.

    2002-01-01

    Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of t...

  2. Factors affecting haematological indices in free-living fish populations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lusková, V?ra

    1998-01-01

    Ro?. 67, ?. 4 (1998), s. 249-255. ISSN 0001-7213. [International ichthyohaematology conference /5./. Protivín, 30.11.1998-03.12.1998] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA514/95/0203; GA AV ?R IAA6087704 Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.288, year: 1998 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol67/249-98.htm

  3. Factors That Affect Body Mass Index of Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Esma Asil; Metin Saip Surucuoglu; Funda Pinar Cakiroglu; Asli Ucar; Ayse Ozfer Ozcelik; Mustafa Volkan Yilmaz; Lale Sariye Akan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the factors that contribute to the body mass index (BMI) of adults and evaluate the eating habits of the individuals. The study was conducted on 498 adults whose ages were ranging from 20 to 85 (39.1±14.9 year). The data were collected using a questionnaire form that consisted of questions concerning general characteristics of individuals, frequency of food consumption and eating habits. Food types in the food consumption ...

  4. FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin; Nurul Kabir, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that sal...

  5. A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process

    OpenAIRE

    Eda Atilgan-Inan; Aslihan Buyukkupcu; Serkan Akinci

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspec...

  6. Trends Analyses for Several Factors Affected by Tropical Cyclones

    OpenAIRE

    Md. T. Islam; Md. Z. Hossain; Masaaki Ishida

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: This study presents an analytical investigation for the trends of several factors such as number of death of peoples, damages of wealth, flood surge heights, wind speed and radius of the severe storm due to tropical cyclones in Bangladesh. Approach: The study is performed by conducting the field visits to cyclone site, collected data and information on damages and deaths of peoples during field visits, necessary data related to tropical cyclones obtained...

  7. Factors affecting the retention of nurses. A survival analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alonazi, Noufa A.; Omar, Maye A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and explore factors that mostly influence nurses’ turnover and retention, and to estimate the length of employment for nurses in the hospital. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study examining the standard Exit Questionnaires completed by all the female pediatric nurses who joined and left the hospital during the period between January 2006 and October 2010. The Developed Questionnaires where completed by nurses who were still employees in October 2010. The nur...

  8. Factors Affecting Investment Decision Making of Equity Fund Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Salman Ali; Rehman, Kashif Ur; Hunjra, Ahmed Imran

    2012-01-01

    Traditional theories of finance assume that investors use all available information and make rational investment decision but in reality the scenario is different. Based upon the growing importance of behavioral finance the present study is an attempt to investigate the effect of behavioral factors such as heuristics, risk aversion, use of financial tools and firm level corporate governance on the decision making of equity fund managers of Pakistan. The study collected response from 327 eq...

  9. Dietary strawberry seed oil affects metabolite formation in the distal intestine and ameliorates lipid metabolism in rats fed an obesogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jurgo?ski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To answer the question whether dietary strawberry seed oil rich in ?-linolenic acid and linoleic acid (29.3 and 47.2% of total fatty acids, respectively can beneficially affect disorders induced by the consumption of an obesogenic diet. Design: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and fed with a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fiber diet that contained either strawberry seed oil or an edible rapeseed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. Results: After 8 weeks of feeding, the obesogenic diet increased the body weight and the liver mass and fat content, whereas decreased the cecal acetate and butyrate concentration. This diet also altered the plasma lipid profile and decreased the liver sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c content. However, the lowest liver SREBP-1c content was observed in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Moreover, dietary strawberry seed oil decreased the cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations (acetate, propionate, and butyrate regardless of the diet type, whereas the cecal ?-glucuronidase activity was considerably increased only in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Dietary strawberry seed oil also lowered the liver fat content, the plasma triglyceride level and the atherogenic index of plasma. Conclusions: Strawberry seed oil has a potent lipid-lowering activity but can unfavorably affect microbial metabolism in the distal intestine. The observed effects are partly due to the synergistic action of the oil and the obesogenic diet.

  10. A new protein inhibitor of trypsin and activated Hageman factor from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, R; Gong, Y X; Richardson, M

    1990-10-29

    A protein inhibitor (CMTI-V; Mr 7106) of trypsin and activated Hageman factor (Factor XIIa), a serine protease involved in blood coagulation, has been isolated for the first time from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds by means of trypsin-affinity chromatography and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The dissociation constants of the inhibitor complexes with trypsin and Factor XIIa have been determined to be 1.6 x 10(-8) and 4.1 x 10(-8) M, respectively. The primary structure of CMTI-V is reported. The protein has 68 amino acid residues and one disulfide bridge and shows a high level of sequence homology to the Potato I inhibitor family. Furthermore, its amino terminus consists of an N-acetylates Ser. The reactive site has been established to be the peptide bond between Lys44-Asp45. The modified inhibitor which has the reactive site peptide bond hydrolyzed inhibits trypsin but not the Hageman factor. PMID:2226848

  11. Hydrostatic factors affect the gravity responses of algae and roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staves, Mark P.; Wayne, Randy; Leopold, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis of Wayne et al. (1990) that plant cells perceive gravity by sensing a pressure differential between the top and the bottom of the cell was tested by subjecting rice roots and cells of Caracean algae to external solutions of various densities. It was found that increasing the density of the external medium had a profound effect on the polar ratio (PR, the ratio between velocities of the downwardly and upwardly streaming cytoplasm) of the Caracean algae cells. When these cells were placed in solutions of denser compound, the PR decreased to less than 1, as the density of the external medium became higher than that of the cell; thus, the normal gravity-induced polarity was reversed, indicating that the osmotic pressure of the medium affects the cell's ability to respond to gravity. In rice roots, an increase of the density of the solution inhibited the rate of gravitropism. These results agree with predictions of a hydrostatic model for graviperception.

  12. Statistical Study on Principal Factors Affecting Employment of Chinese Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Meng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the heavy employment pressure in china, the employment of the undergraduates attracts much attention in recent years. Accordingly, this study proposes a SPSS-based statistical method to study the employment issue, where thirteen parameters are carefully chosen to construct the employment database. The proposed method first performs the quantitative and the standardized operations and then calculates the correlated matrix of parameters. Moreover, after proving that the correlated matrix satisfies Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO condition, we perform eigenvalue decomposition and compute the variance contribution rate through Principal Component Analysis (PCA techniques. Both the eigenvalue and the variance contribution rate are used to study the importance of each parameter and finally lead to an importance sort. Therefore, we can quantificationally study the influence of each parameter thrown on the undergraduate employment and find three most important parameters affecting undergraduate employment: university, major and family location.

  13. Feasibility Analysis of Critical Factors Affecting Cloud Computing in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eustace Manayi Dogo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an evolving and new way of delivering computing services and resources over the internet which are managed by third parties at remote sites. Cloud computing is based on existing technologies like web services, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA, web3.0, grid computing and virtualization, etc. Computing services includes data storage, processing and software. Cloud computing is enjoying a lot of buzz in Nigeria due to its perceived economic and operational benefits and stakeholders believe that it will transform the IT industry in Nigeria. Despite all its promises there still exist so many challenges before Cloud computing see the light of the day in Nigeria. This paper delivers an overview of Cloud computing together with its advantages and disadvantages. Thereafter, the challenges and drivers affecting the adoption of Cloud computing in Nigeria are outlined. Finally, recommendations for the adoption of Cloud computing is discussed with Nigeria as a case study.

  14. Factors affecting the morphology of benzoyl peroxide microsponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokhodchi, Ali; Jelvehgari, Mitra; Siahi, M Reza; Mozafari, M Reza

    2007-01-01

    Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is primarily used in the treatment of mild to moderate acne. However, its application is associated with skin irritation. It has been shown that encapsulation and controlled release of BPO could reduce the side effect while also reducing percutaneous absorption when administered to the skin. The aim of the present investigation was to design and formulate an appropriate encapsulated form of BPO, using microsponge technology, and explore the parameters affecting the morphology and other characteristics of the resultant products employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Benzoyl peroxide particles were prepared using an emulsion solvent diffusion method by adding an organic internal phase containing benzoyl peroxide, ethyl cellulose and dichloromethane into a stirred aqueous phase containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Different concentrations of BPO microsponges were incorporated in lotion formulations and the drug release from these formulations were studied. The SEM micrographs of the BPO microsponges enabled measurement of their size and showed that they were spherical and porous. Results showed that the morphology and particle size of microsponges were affected by drug:polymer ratio, stirring rate and the amount of emulsifier used. The results obtained also showed that an increase in the ratio of drug:polymer resulted in a reduction in the release rate of BPO from the microsponges. The release data showed that the highest and the lowest release rates were obtained from lotions containing plain BPO particles and BPO microsponges with the drug:polymer ratio of 13:1, respectively. The kinetics of release study showed that the release data followed Peppas model and the main mechanism of drug release from BPO microsponges was diffusion. PMID:17692528

  15. Factors affecting potential market penetration of laser fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mini-model has been constructed to estimate the optimal size of laser fusion power plants and to estimate the allowable cost of the first such plant in relation to the next best alternative. In estimating the costs of laser fusion, the mini-model incorporates such factors as market penetration, learning, economies of scale, system size, transmission costs, reserve requirements, development and licensing costs and site costs. The results of the mini-model simulations indicate that the optimal laser fusion plant size is approximately 3 GWe; risk considerations unincorporated in the mini-model suggest an optimal size closer to 2.5 GWe

  16. Factors affecting recombinant frequency in protoplast fusion of Streptomyces coelicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimum concentration of polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG) for the production of recombinants through protoplast fusion in Streptomyces coelicolor was about 50% (w/v). The addition of 14% (v/v) dimethyl sulphoxide to the fusion mixture enhanced recombination frequencies, but only a sub-optimal PEG concentrations. After treatment of protoplasts with 50% PEG for 1 min, the frequency of recombinants in a multi-factor 'cross' sometimes exceeded 20% of the total progeny. The frequency of recombinants in the progeny could be significantly enhanced by ultraviolet irradiation of the parental protoplast suspensions immediately before fusion. (author)

  17. Factors Affecting Location Decisions of Food Processing Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sule Turhan; Basak Canan Ozbag; Bahattin Cetin

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to examine the determinants of location choices for food processing plants using the results of 59 personal surveys. The 61.3% of the food processing plants that were interviewed are small scale plants, 9.1% are large scale plants and 29.6% are medium scale plants. Sixteen of the firms process vegetables, 12 process poultry, 12 process dairy and 9 process seafood products. Business climate factors are divided into six categories (market, infrastructure, raw mater...

  18. GENDER DIFFERENTIALS IN FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN LAGOS STATE – NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuff Olabisi Sherifat

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of empirical data segregation on factors affecting gender as the variable of interest. However, previous research had indicated several factors that affect business performances among small-scale enterprise owners. Using feminist theory and a descriptive survey research design, data were collected from fifty (50) small-scale enterprise owners that were purposively chosen across the study area. The findings show that the factors that were significant for female were significant...

  19. Factors affecting Succession Planning in Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Florence Mutunga; Hazel Gachunga

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya. Specific objects of the study included establishing how nurturing and development is a factor influencing Succession Planning in Small and Medium EnterprisesThe study will be significant to the Small and Medium-scale Enterprises, and the government who will appreciate and understand the factors affecting Succession Planning of Small and Medium Enterprises. This will enable policy make...

  20. Chromatin factors affecting DNA repair in mammalian cell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are investigating chromatin factors that participate in the incision step of DNA repair in eukaryotic cells. Localization of repair activity within nuclei, the stability and extractability of activity, the specificity for recognizing damage in chromatin or purified DNA as substrates are of interest in this investigation of human cells, CHO cells, and their radiation sensitive mutants. We have developed procedures that provide nuclei in which their DNA behaves as a collection of circular molecules. The integrity of the DNA in human nuclei can be maintained during incubation in appropriate buffers for as long as 60 minutes. When cells or nuclei are exposed to uv light prior to incubation, incisions presumably associated with DNA repair can be demonstrated. Incision activity is stable to prior extraction of nuclei with 0.6 M NaCl, which removes many nonhistone proteins. Our studies are consistent with an hypothesis that factors responsible for initiating DNA repair are localized in the nuclear matrix. 18 references, 3 figures

  1. Factors affecting the selection of tour destination in Bangladesh:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shah Azam

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Although multifaceted problems are causing the frustrating scenario of the country’s tourism sector, Bangladesh has the potentials to develop its tourism sector and earn huge foreign currency and generate employment opportunities like the neighboring countries, such as India, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Nepal who attract substantial number of tourists every year and thus generates huge amount of foreign currencies. The paper looks at different preferences of the tourist and examines the tour intention in selecting different tour destination. The study utilizes both exploratory and empirical research approach. The study collects data through interview with a structured self-administered questionnaire from 146 tourists, in utilizing convenient sampling technique. A multiple regression model was estimated to examine the effects of different factors on the tourists tour intention where nine factors related to different aspects of tourism such as service quality, natural beauty, known destination, convenient lodging, adventure, security, effective and efficient transportation, safe and quality food and shopping facility were used as indigenous variables where tour intention was used as exogenous variable of the model.  The regression result shows that Service quality, Natural Beauty, Security and Shopping Facility are statistically significant indicating 24.6% of the variation in explaining the intention to select a tour destination in Bangladesh. The study outlines some policy implications.

  2. Factors Affecting Detection Probability of Acoustic Tags in Coral Reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Bermudez, Edgar F.

    2012-05-01

    Acoustic telemetry is an important tool for studying the movement patterns, behaviour, and site fidelity of marine organisms; however, its application is challenged in coral reef environments where complex topography and intense environmental noise interferes with acoustic signals, and there has been less study. Therefore, it is particularly critical in coral reef telemetry studies to first conduct a long-term range test, a tool that provides informa- tion on the variability and periodicity of the transmitter detection range and the detection probability. A one-month range test of a coded telemetric system was conducted prior to a large-scale tagging project investigating the movement of approximately 400 fishes from 30 species on offshore coral reefs in the central Red Sea. During this range test we determined the effect of the following factors on transmitter detection efficiency: distance from receiver, time of day, depth, wind, current, moon-phase and temperature. The experiment showed that biological noise is likely to be responsible for a diel pattern of -on average- twice as many detections during the day as during the night. Biological noise appears to be the most important noise source in coral reefs overwhelming the effect of wind-driven noise, which is important in other studies. Detection probability is also heavily influenced by the location of the acoustic sensor within the reef structure. Understanding the effect of environmental factors on transmitter detection probability allowed us to design a more effective receiver array for the large-scale tagging study.

  3. The factors affecting mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Demirci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH occurs usually from the rupture of vessels into the brain parenchyma and accounts for approximately 10% of all strokes. ICH occurs more commonly in Turkey than in other western countries and carries a significantly high mortality than ischemic strokeMaterials and methods: We evaluated 86 consecutive patients with ICH who were admitted to Neurology Clinics of SDU University Medical Faculty. The factors studied were age, gender, risk factors, electrocardiography results, blood pressure, fever, blood cells, biochemistry, hematoma volume and localization, clinical findings, and demographic characteristics.Results: ICH is a 30-day mortality rate between approximately 50%, with half of the deaths occurring within 48 hour from the onset.Conclusion: It was found that age, site and volume of hematoma, initial level of consciousness and drainage of hematoma into the ventricular cavity have significant effects on the prognosis. The prognosis of ICH remains frequently poor despite the best medical management, control of vital functions and infections. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 404-407

  4. Risk factors affecting somatosensory function after sagittal split osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Torben Henrik; Jensen, Allan Bardow

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate potential individual and intraoperative risk factors associated with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) and to correlate the findings with postoperative changes in somatosensory function. Patients and Methods A total of 18 men and 29 women (mean age, 31 ± 10 years) scheduled for BSSO participated in 1 session before BSSO and 5 sessions after BSSO (at 2 and 14 days and 3, 6, and 12 months). At each session, subjective oral sensation was scored and quantitative sensory tests were performed. Results The results showed that complete exposure and free dissection of the inferior alveolar nerve during BSSO increased self-reported changes in lower lip sensation and lower lip tactile threshold after BSSO (P < .01). Long surgical movements reduced self-perceived jaw-opening function and impaired 2-point discrimination (P < .05). Significant correlations were noted between preoperative values for somatosensory function and changes in these variables after BSSO. Patients with low sensory thresholds before BSSO experienced more impairment than those patients with higher preoperative sensory thresholds. Conclusion These findings imply that somatosensory function after BSSO is dependent on both intraoperative risk factors and preoperative sensation levels.

  5. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intention among UniSZA Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharah Ghazali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Graduates contributions to entrepreneurship would stimulate the country’s economic growth. The aim of this study is to determine and investigate factors influence on students’ perception of the entrepreneurial intention, in order to present the most contemporary future generation of entrepreneurs that can shape the future of the economy and the country. The area of this study covers demographic profiles, attitudinal and behavioral factors, and how these influence the intentions of students to become entrepreneurs. The finding suggests that the female students had significantly higher attitude and social skill and desire to succeed as compared to the male students. There was no significant difference with regards to race, age, parental working background, family and relative engaged in business, and heard about entrepreneurship ensuring that entrepreneurs are not clustered in any of these variables. Another major finding indicates that those who attended entrepreneurship course/training had significantly higher attitude and social skill. Most importantly, marketing skill, desire to success, leadership skill, and innovation and creativity inspire graduates in choosing entrepreneurship. Thus, examining the selected key unemployment of graduates’ issues from an entrepreneurship perspective can help to establish harmony and meaningful cooperation between entrepreneurs and learning institutions.

  6. Intangible Factors Affecting the Success of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Hee Song Ng

    2012-01-01

    Since SMEs play a vital role in the development of a nation, it is important to gain a better understanding of the success factors involved. Authors have categorized the factors that influence enterprises success into tangible and intangible factors. Quite a number of studies have therefore investigated the tangible factors and how they affect enterprises success. However, intangible factors have not been given considerable attention despite their importance in determining enterprise success....

  7. Factors Affecting the Adoption of the Organic Dried Fig Agriculture System in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ferruh Isin; Tayfun Cukur; Goksel Armagan

    2007-01-01

    In this study the factors affecting the adoption of organic dried fig agriculture in Turkey were investigated. These factors were divided into three groups, these being social, structural and intellectual factors. The effect of these factors was established using the probit analysis method. It was found that, of the social factors, the education status, age and fig-growing experience of producers were important parameters in the adoption of organic dried fig agriculture. Meanwhile, amon...

  8. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy after vitrectomy early factors affect IOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bo Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To explore possible causes of early postoperative elevated intraocular pressure caused by proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDRvitrectomy. METHODS:Totally 72 cases(100 eyeswhich have performed vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy were retrospectively analyzed to observe the incidence of postoperative ocular hypertension, and the relevant factors that caused postoperative high intraocular pressure were statistically analyzed. Early postoperative ocular hypertension diagnostic criteria: any time after 2 weeks of non-contact tonometer measured IOP> 25mmHg(1mmHg=0.133kPa. RESULTS:High intraocular pressure after vitrectomy occurred in 27 eyes(27%, the incidence of male and female were 27.27%, 26.79%, the difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05. Eyes filled with balanced liquid filling incidence rate of 30.95%, 6.25%, and the difference was statistically significant(P0.05. Incidences of intraoperative panretinal photocoagulation and additional retinal photocoagulation group were 41%, 20%, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Preoperative retinopathy of four, five, six groups of incidence were 9.52%, 23.81%, 40.56%, and the groups were statistically significant(P<0.05. Unconsolidated preoperative retinal detachment and retinal detachment incidence rate of 19%, 41%, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Surgery in the united lens resection with intraoperative unfederated lens the resection group's incidence rate of 34%, 15%, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Logistic regression analysis showed that retinal detachment preoperative and intraoperative intraocular filling were independent risk factors that caused early postoperative ocular hypertension after vitrectomy. CONCLUSION:Post-operative ocular hypertension after PDR vitrectomy is related to preoperative retinal detachment, intraoperative lensectomy, intraoperative intraocular filling, and intraoperative panretinal photocoagulation. Retinal detachment preoperative and intraoperative intraocular filling are independent risk factors that caused early postoperative ocular hypertension after vitrectomy. Incidence of postoperative ocular hypertension after PDR vitrectomy is high, harmful. Early detection and individualized treatment can improve the success rate of vitrectomy and the patient's vision.

  9. Sexual Dimorphism of Staminate- and Pistillate-Phase Flowers of Saponaria officinalis (Bouncing Bet) Affects Pollinator Behavior and Seed Set

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Sandra L.; Dudle, Dana A.; Nawrocki, Jenna R.; Freestone, Leah M.; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B.; Britton, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-ph...

  10. A Psychological Factor Affecting a Cardiac Condition in a Psychotherapist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Waxman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that intense emotions can affect the development and course of cardiac arrhythmias. This study sought to convey that a lack of expression of emotion can also have an effect on arrhythmias. A psychotherapist with Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation and an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator measured his rate of Premature Ventricular Contractions using a Holter monitor during three separate six-week periods and in three domains: A work days vs. off days, B a 27 hour work week vs. 22 hour work week, and C in 5 different modalities including 1 Meeting with department head 2 Individual psychotherapy with patients 3 Group therapy with patients 4 Supervision of residents 5 Personal psychoanalysis. The results showed more than a 3-fold increase of arrhythmogenic activity during the 27-hour work week vs. 22 and a 5-fold increase in arrhythmogenic activity on work days compared to days off. Department Head meetings were found to be most arrhythmogenic and personal psychoanalysis was least. The data suggest that the psychiatrist’s lack of emotional expression in his clinical work has been demonstrated to markedly worsen his arrhythmia. The results also point to the potential ameliorating effects of the therapist’s own psychotherapy.

  11. Factors affecting aromatic VOC removal by electron beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been conducted to investigate the effects of dose, humidity, and temperature on the decomposition of representative volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by electron beam irradiation. For this study, toluene--a commonly used VOC in the various industrial coating processes, was selected as a representative VOC. The degradation characteristics under different concentrations and irradiation doses were extensively investigated to determine and improve VOC removal efficiencies. In general, this study illustrates that the removal efficiencies of aromatic VOCs increase as their concentrations decrease and the irradiation doses increase. Addition of water vapor and/or aerosol moisture into the reactor of a flow system results in 10-20% increase in VOC removal efficiencies compared to the experiments run without moisture added, presumably due to OH radical formation leading to additional degradation pathways. The level of decomposition was higher with the addition of water vapor compared to those observed with added aerosol moisture. The temperature variations from 30 deg. C to 130 deg. C did not significantly affect the decomposition rates of the toluene compound at 160 ppm C. However, there was a significant decrease in toluene decomposition rate at a higher temperature of 170 deg. C

  12. Importance Degree Evaluation of the Affecting Factors on Exhibition Security Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wei-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of exhibition security accidents is the result of the mutual coupling factors of "man-machine-environment-management". This study is going to elaborate 11 influencing factors of exhibition security accidents from four aspects, i.e., man, mechanical equipment, environment and management. With the help of grey relational analysis, this study evaluates the importance degree of the affecting factors in exhibitions. The result shows that affecting factors of facilities and equipments failure is of the greatest importance degree and site maintenance personnel, site design, building material quality are the secondary important factors; another important factors are safety management body, social environment, activity organization management, safety management system, natural environment and event participant behavior which are considered as the third important ones. Evaluation of the importance degree of affecting factors on exhibition security incidents will provide a theoretical basis for exhibition security control.

  13. Factors affecting pregnancy rates in infertile women performed abdominal myomectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali irfan Guzel

    2014-08-01

    Patients and Methods:This retrospective study included 76 infertile women underwent abdominal myomectomy. The cases were divided into two groups according to postoperative pregnancy (Group 1, n=22, and cases with no postoperative pregnancy (Group 2, n=54. Risk factors recorded were; age, parity, size of the fibroids, body mass index (BMI, tumor markers and serum blood values. Results:A total of 76 infertile women underwent abdominal myomectomy during the study period. Of all cases 22 (28.94 % became pregnant. There was statically significant difference between the groups in terms of age, BMI, diameter of the fibroids (p5 cm the treatment modality should be abdominal myomectomy to increase the chance of postoperative pregnancy. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 801-806

  14. ??????????????? The Research of Factors Affecting Consumer Channel Migration Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ??

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????PPM???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The advent of network economy, make the consumer formed a trend of movement from offline to online channels. This paper uses PPM model in the theory of migration and analyzes the factors influencing consumers from offline to online from the characteristic of consumers and channel characteristics, the study found that there are the positive correlation between the push effects of offline, pull effects of online and the migration intention and effect of pulling more obvious, there are the negative relationship between mooring effects of channels and migration intentions, indicating that the mooring effects will impede movement be-tween the consumer channel. Accordingly, the paper brings up multi-channel enterprise’s marketing enlighten-ment and limitations of the study and the future research direction.

  15. A systematic study on factors affecting patient dose, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the preceding report, we dealt with the field size and the tube voltage. This paper covers the differences in patient dose due to the focus to film distance (FFD), the patient thickness and whether the grid is used or not. Regarding the FFD, 100 cm is most commonly employed except in X-ray examinations of the chest, but from the viewpoint of the patient dose, this requires special consideration as to whether there is any theoretical basis for it. The patient thickness has a great bearing on the patient dose, but there is an individual difference, and it is almost impossible to change it artificially. However, there has been no detailed report on the relation between the patient thickness and the patient dose, therefore, this report treats of such relationship as well. Concerning the grid, consideration is given to the exposure times (Bucky factor). (author)

  16. Factors that affect voluntary vaccination of children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide

    2015-03-10

    Some important vaccinations are not included in the routine childhood immunization schedule in Japan. Voluntary vaccinations are usually paid as an out-of-pocket expense. Low voluntary vaccination coverage rates and high target disease incidence are assumed to be a consequence of voluntary vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to explore factors associated with voluntary vaccination patterns in children. We conducted an online survey of 1243 mothers from a registered survey panel who had at least one child 2 months to Financial support, especially for low income households and households with more than one child, may motivate parents to vaccinate their children. Communication is also an important issue. More opportunities for education and information about voluntary vaccinations should be provided to mothers without distinguishing between voluntary and routine vaccination. PMID:25529291

  17. Factors Affecting Learning of Mexican Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan B. Anderson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los factores que afectan la tasa de repetición del año escolar en escuelas primarias en México, y sus resultados en la educación, medidos a través de las calificaciones de un examen estandarizado de gramática y matemáticas. Estimamos una función de producción econométrica para la educación primaria, donde las variables endógenas son los logros en gramática y matemáticas de un niño, y la probabilidad de que repitiera el año. Los resultados indican que el sexo del niño, su nivel socio-económico, el grado de educación de los padres, y reiteradas repeticiones de un año escolar, son determinantes significativas de las variables endógenas. Este trabajo también muestra que un aumento en el número de horas de enseñanza, y en la interacción entre maestra y alumno, junto con mejores bibliotecas e infraestructura elevan las calificaciones en gramática y matemáticas de los niños. Se discuten brevemente las implicaciones de este trabajo para la política educativa

  18. An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Huck’s Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Sang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Huckleberry Finn is one of Mark Twain’s outstanding masterpieces. Superficially, it tells a story about a 13 or 14 year old boy’s adventures with Negro Jim on the Mississippi river. In fact, it reflects the growth process of Huck through adventures. His growth is embodied by his choice on independence, his change of attitude towards Jim, his moral growth, and the different social roles he plays. Huck’s growth is influenced by the inner and outer factors. On the one hand, friendship, nature and society make up the outer environment for Huck’s growth. They have great effect on the development of his growth. On the other hand, his own instinct and his sound heart finally decide the direction of his growth.

  19. Factors affecting the academic progression of associate degree graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkvold, Julia; Tanner, Christine A; Herinckx, Heidi

    2012-04-01

    The Oregon Consortium for Nursing Education (OCNE) is a coalition of community colleges and the campuses of the Oregon Health & Sciences University (OHSU), created to share a competency-based curriculum by which associate degree graduates from an OCNE campus are eligible to complete requirements for the bachelor's degree after 1 year of additional full-time study. Since 2006, three graduating classes from consortium community college programs have graduated 760 students eligible for direct transfer to OHSU; however, only 228 (30%) have actually transferred. This study aimed to explore the factors that influenced the 208 graduates in the class of 2010 not to transfer. The primary reasons for discontinuing their nursing education, in ranked order, were financial concerns, conflict with time and energy for work, and conflict with time and energy for family. This study has implications for achieving the academic progression goals recommended in the Institute of Medicine's The Future of Nursing report. PMID:22356360

  20. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

    2014-01-15

    Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 ?g/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention. PMID:24080418

  1. Emission factor of single pellet cake seed Jatropha curcas in a fix bed reactor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N. Agung, Pambudi; Shuichi, Torii; M., Syamsiro; Harwin, Saptoadi; Indra Mamad, Gandidi.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the emission factor of oil cake seed Jatropha curcas that was formed into pellets with three parameters: pyrolisis, densification and air flow rate. The effect of pyrolisis was investigated using four samples of pellet: nonpyrolysis pellet, 90 minutes pyrol [...] ysis pellet, 120 minutes pyrolysis pellet, 150 minutes pyrolysis pellet. The effect of densification was provided by three samples: 11 mm, 13 mm, and 16 mm diameter. Furthermore, the parameter of air flow rate was varied from 0.1 m/s to 0.4 m/s. The results show that the lowest emission factor occurs in the non-pyrolysis pellet containing 14.3 gram carbon monoxide per kilogram pellet. Meanwhile the best densification was obtained by 13-mm diameter pellet containing 14.8 gram carbon monoxide. Air flow rate of 2.0 m/s was the suitable air flow rate to achieve lowest emission factor.

  2. Case Study of Factors Affecting Chinese Students’ English Communication Performance

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    Ping LIU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available For ESL teaching in China’s universities, not enough emphasis is put on verbal communication as a yardstick of language mastery and methodological success. Developing student’s communication competence is not only concerned with the nature of language learning from linguistic perspectives, but also could be influenced by such exogenous factors as learning environment, learning psychology, and learning strategies. It is necessary to investigate whether these factors have an impact on Chinese university students’ English communication performance. This paper tries to examine the relationships among social needs, system inefficiencies, learning objectives, learning strategies, and effort, according to a constructed model. The model’s hypotheses are drawn from theories as diverse as person-environment (PE fit (Caplan, 1987, intrinsic motivation (Ryan and Deci, 2000, conceptions about learning approach (Entwistle, 1990, and “learning strategy” (Biggs, Kember, & Leung, 2001. The sample was collected from one of the Chinese universities in Southeast for a case study to shed light on how to improve English teaching and learning in TESL of China. The quantitative research method is used with SPSS system in this essay to report the statistical analyses of the model. Among the eight hypotheses tested, six were confirmed to be true, and two could not be validated.
    Key words: communication performance; 5-factor model; person-environment (PE fit; intrinsic motivation; learning strategies

    Résumé: Dans les universités chinoises où l’anglais est enseigné comme la deuxième langue, l'accent n'est pas suffisamment mis sur la communication verbale en tant qu’un critère de maîtrise de la langue et du succès méthodologique. Le développement de la compétence communicative des élèves n'est pas seulement concerné par la nature de l'apprentissage des langues du point de vue linguistique, mais pourrait aussi être influencé par des facteurs exogènes comme l'environnement d'apprentissage, la psychologie de l'apprentissage et les stratégies d'apprentissage. Il est nécessaire d'examiner si ces facteurs ont une influence sur la performance de communication en anglais des étudiants chinois. Le présent document tente d'étudier les relations entre les besoins sociaux, l'inefficacité du système, les objectifs d'apprentissage, les stratégies d'apprentissage et des efforts, selon un modèle construit. L’hypothèse du modèle vient de diverses théories, telles que la théorie de l’adaptation peronne-environnement-(PE (Caplan, 1987, la motivation intrinsèque (Ryan et Deci, 2000, les conceptions sur l''approche de l’apprentissage ( Entwistle, 1990, et les stratégies d'apprentissage (Biggs, Kember, & Leung, 2001. Les sujets d’études viennent de l'une des universités chinoises situées dans le Sud-est pour montrer la façon d'améliorer l'enseignement et l'apprentissage de l'anglais en tant que la deuxième langue en Chine. La méthode de recherche quantitative est utilisée avec le système de SPSS dans cet essai pour montrer des analyses statistiques du modèle. Parmi les huit hypothèses testées, six ont été confirmées d’être vraies et deux n'ont pas pu être validées.
    Mots-Clés: performance de communication; modèle de 5-facteurs; le modèle de l’adaptation personne-environment(PE; motivation intrinsèque; stratégies d’apprentissage

  3. Toxic Compound, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Protein Isolated from Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapot Suntornsuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The objective of this work was to detoxify J. curcas seed cake and study the toxin, anti-nutritional factors and also functional properties of the protein isolated from the detoxified seed cake. The yield of protein isolate was approximately 70.9%. The protein isolate was obtained without a detectable level of phorbol esters. The solubility of the protein isolate was maximal at pH 12.0 and minimal at pH 4.0. The water and oil binding capacities of the protein isolate were 1.76 g water/g protein and 1.07 mL oil/g protein, respectively. The foam capacity and stability, including emulsion activity and stability of protein isolate, had higher values in a range of basic pHs, while foam and emulsion stabilities decreased with increasing time. The results suggest that the detoxified J. curcas seed cake has potential to be exploited as a novel source of functional protein for food applications.

  4. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzillo, Anita T.; Mertig, Angela G.; Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-06-01

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

  5. Environmental factors affecting starch encapsulated herbicide rates of release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starch-encapsulation (SE) is an experimental control release technology designed to extend the period of time over which a herbicide is released into the soil environment. The objectives of controlled release are to improve efficacy and reduce negative environmental impacts. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to evaluate how environmental factors influence the release rate of SE-atrazine and SE-alachlor. Decreasing water availability, significantly reduced swelling and subsequent rates-of-release for both herbicides. As starch granules imbibe water they swell, allowing the herbicide to diffuse more readily out of the granule. Decreasing temperature also resulted in decreased rates of herbicide release. Soil microbial activity increased rates-of-release for both herbicides, likely the result of enzymatic breakdown of the starch matrix. The enhanced release of alachlor relative to atrazine under varied environmental conditions was attributed to alachlor's greater solubility in water. Although the SE-formulations are experimental, modification of herbicide behavior was observed that could reduce negative environmental impacts. 20 refs, 9 figs

  6. Substrate stiffness together with soluble factors affects chondrocyte mechanoresponses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Xie, Jing; Deng, Linhong; Yang, Liu

    2014-09-24

    Tissue cells sense and respond to differences in substrate stiffness. In chondrocytes, it has been shown that substrate stiffness regulates cell spreading, proliferation, chondrogenic gene expression, and TGF-? signaling. But how the substrate stiffness together with soluble factors influences the mechanical properties of chondrocyte is still unclear. In this study, we cultured goat articular chondrocytes on polyacrylamide gels of 1, 11, and 90 kPa (Young's modulus), and measured cellular stiffness, traction force, and response to stretch in the presence of TGF-?1 or IL-1?. We found that TGF-?1 increased cellular stiffness and traction force and enhanced the response to stretch, while IL-1? increased cellular stiffness, but lowered traction force and weakened the response to stretch. Importantly, the effects of TGF-?1 on chondrocyte mechanics were potent in cells cultured on 90 kPa substrates, while the effects of IL-1? were potent on 1 kPa substrates. We also demonstrated that such changes of chondrocyte mechanoresponse were due to not only the changes of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion, but also the alteration of chondrocyte extracellular matrix synthesis. Taken together, these results provide insights into how chondrocytes integrate physical and biochemical cues to regulate their biomechanical behavior, and thus have implications for the design of optimized mechanical and biochemical microenvironments for engineered cartilage. PMID:25162787

  7. FACTORS AFFECTING PREVALENCE OF BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN NILI RAVI BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMTIAZ A. KHAN, A. KHAN1, A. MUBARAK AND S. ALI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to find out the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB in Nili Ravi buffaloes at a livestock experimental station in the Punjab, Pakistan. On the basis of the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT, prevalence of BTB was found to be 10.06%. Epidemiological factors including old age, high milk production and parity played a significant role in the prevalence of the disease. Significantly (P7 litres per day (75.00%. A total of nine out of 16 (56.25% animals were found positive by mycobacteriological studies. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from four (44.44% milk samples, M. tuberculosis from one faecal and two milk samples (33.33%, while atypical mycobacteria were isolated from two (22.22% milk samples. It can be concluded from the present study that BTB is present in indigenous buffaloes; old age and high milk yield greatly influence its prevalence. M. bovis was the principal cause of tuberculosis in buffaloes. Furthermore, atypical mycobacteria also contribute to BTB to a considerable proportion.

  8. Factors Affecting the Outcome of Bronchiectasis in Pediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat Bilan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bronchiectasis is a common problem in children and early diagnosis can lead to early treatment and prevent of its complications. This study was aimed to evaluate factors effective on outcome of bronchiectasis in children. Methods: In an analytical cross-sectional study, 347 children with bronchiectasis Underwent the study. the patients were diagnosed based on chronic suppurative cough and CT scan findings. . Results: Disease etiology was asthma in 55.6%, Gastroesophagial reflux (GERD in 7.8%, Cystic fibrosis (CF in 4.8%, other causes in 11.2% and idiopathic in 20.6%. All cases complained of chronic cough. The most common sign was daily sputum production (79.1% and common symptoms were ral/crackle in 47.1% and wheezing in 25.4%. Mean treatment period was 32.82±11.56 months. At the end of follow-up, complete improvement occurred in 35.6%, partial improvement in 40.9% and no improvement in 23.5%. Conclusion: In children with chronic cough and crackle in physical examination, consideration of bronchiectasis could be helpful in early diagnosis and complementary evaluations and treatment initiation. Treating the underlying disease could prevent the occurrence and increase the response to treatment of bronchiectasis.

  9. Factors affecting urinary calculi treatment by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarawneh Emad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL is still the treatment of choice for most renal and upper ureteric stones; however the outcome depends on multiple factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stone density, as measured by Hounsfield Units (H.U by non-contrast Computerized Tomography (CT, stone size and stone location on ESWL treatment outcome of urinary calculi in Jordanian patients. 65 patients underwent clinical, biochemical and radiological assessments followed by ESWL treatment. Statistical analyses including chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA, correlation, regression were performed for statistical significance between ESWL treatment, stone fragmentation and stone density, size and location in the renal pelvis. ESWL success rate was high (94% for low density stones (< 500 Hounsfield units. In general CT densities of 750 Hounsfield units or less were almost always successfully treated by ESWL. An inverse association between ESWL treatment outcome and stone size was also documented. CT stone density and stone size combined account for nearly 73% of the variation in the number of shock waves required to attain fragmentation. Stones located in lower calyceal area had less success rates. In conclusion, stones with higher density, large size and lower location may better be managed by percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

  10. Factors affecting the cost and competitiveness of nuclear electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general context in which are carried out the investment choices of the electric sector has evolved in a significant way during these last years and the changes are to a certain extent irreversible. Economic globalization, deregulation of the electricity market, privatisation of electricity producers, and increasing awareness of environmental issues are modifying the policy-making landscape and the criteria and priorities of decision-makers in the power sector. Competitiveness remains a cornerstone for evaluating and choosing alternative technologies in the process of planning and decision-making for electricity system expansion or power plant replacement. Nevertheless, the production costs analysis inserts factors which were not taking before into account as for instance social impacts, health and environmental effects. These new approaches better reveal the total costs of the different production means. They will certainly lead to different choices than those based on the whole comparison of direct costs supported by producers. The economic studies carried out by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (NEA) cover all the preceding aspects and give objective information on the competitiveness of nuclear electricity. The nuclear industry has today the necessary means to take up the challenges of the electricity new markets. (O.M.)

  11. Factors affecting nuclear research reactor utilization across countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the worldwide declining trend of research reactor utilization and the fact that many reactors in developing countries are under-utilised, a question naturally arises as to whether the investment in a research reactor is justifiable. Statistical analyses were applied to reveal relationships between the status of reactor utilization and socio-economic conditions among countries, that may provide a guidance for reactor planning and cost benefit assessment. The reactor power has significant regression relationships with size indicators such as GNP, electricity consumption and R and D expenditure. Concerning the effectiveness of investment in research reactors, the number of reactor operation days per year only weakly correlates with electricity consumption and R and D expenditure, implying that there are controlling factors specific of each group of countries. In the case of less developed countries, the low customer demands on reactor operation may be associated with the failure in achieving quality assurance for the reactor products and services, inadequate investment in the infrastructure for reactor exploitation, the shortage of R and D funding and well trained manpower and the lack of measures to get the scientific community involved in the application of nuclear techniques. (author)

  12. Risk factors affecting the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-neoplasia sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Craig S; Ujiki, Michael B

    2015-05-16

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma has the fastest growing incidence rate of any cancer in the United States, and currently carries a very poor prognosis with 5 years relative survival rates of less than 15%. Current curative treatment options are limited to esophagectomy, a procedure that suffers from high complication rates and high mortality rates. Metaplasia of the esophageal epithelium, a condition known as Barrett's esophagus (BE), is widely accepted as the precursor lesion for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Recently, radio-frequency ablation has been shown to be an effective method to treat BE, although there is disagreement as to whether radio-frequency ablation should be used to treat all patients with BE or whether treatment should be reserved for those at high risk for progressing to esophageal adenocarcinoma while continuing to endoscopically survey those with low risk. Recent research has been targeted towards identifying those at greater risk for progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma so that radio-frequency ablation therapy can be used in a more targeted manner, decreasing the total health care cost as well as improving patient outcomes. This review discusses the current state of the literature regarding risk factors for progression from BE through dysplasia to esophageal adenocarcinoma, as well as the current need for an integrated scoring tool or risk stratification system capable of differentiating those patients at highest risk of progression in order to target these endoluminal therapies. PMID:25992184

  13. Trends Analyses for Several Factors Affected by Tropical Cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. T. Islam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presents an analytical investigation for the trends of several factors such as number of death of peoples, damages of wealth, flood surge heights, wind speed and radius of the severe storm due to tropical cyclones in Bangladesh. Approach: The study is performed by conducting the field visits to cyclone site, collected data and information on damages and deaths of peoples during field visits, necessary data related to tropical cyclones obtained from available publications and news-study. The data since the period of the independence of Bangladesh (nearly 40 years are analyzed. Results: The analyses showed that the 17 major cyclones have been occurred since 1970. Among these 17 major cyclones, the 5 cyclones were tragically severe that killed over 400 thousand peoples. It is observed that the coast of the Bay of Bengal is particularly vulnerable to tropical cyclones. It is revealed that Bangladesh is more vulnerable to devastating cyclones in the recent years because the frequency of the severe cyclones has increased remarkably. Conclusion/Recommendation: The return period of the major cyclones was decreased drastically in recent years and the country, especially, the Bengal Bay is predominantly helpless during the cyclone seasons.

  14. Factors affecting the regulation of pacing: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauger AR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexis R Mauger Endurance Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Kent, Chatham, UK Abstract: During prolonged dynamic and rhythmic exercise, muscular pain and discomfort arises as a result of an increased concentration of deleterious metabolites. Sensed by peripheral nociceptors and transmitted via afferent feedback to the brain, this provides important information regarding the physiological state of the muscle. These sensations ultimately contribute to what is termed "exercise-induced pain". Despite being well recognized by athletes and coaches, and suggested to be integral to exercise performance, this construct has largely escaped attention in experimental work. This perspective article highlights the current understanding of pacing in endurance performance, and the causes of exercise-induced pain. A new perspective is described, which proposes how exercise-induced pain may be a contributing factor in helping individuals to regulate their work rate during exercise and thus provides an important construct in pacing. Keywords: pain, exercise-induced pain, discomfort, exercise performance, self-paced

  15. Decontamination method using heat and relative humidity for radish seeds achieves a 7-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 without affecting product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y B; Kim, H W; Song, M K; Rhee, M S

    2015-05-18

    We developed a novel decontamination method to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without adversely affecting seed germination or product quality. The use of heat (55, 60, and 65 °C) combined with relative humidity (RH; 25, 45, 65, 85, and 100%) for 24h was evaluated for effective microbial reduction and preservation of seed germination rates. A significant two-way interaction of heat and RH was observed for both microbial reduction and germination rate (P0.05) or product quality. The method uses only heat and relative humidity without chemicals, and is thus applicable as a general decontamination procedure in spout producing plants where the use of growth chambers is the norm. PMID:25732001

  16. Phenotypic factors affecting coagulation properties of milk from Sarda ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzola, M; Dettori, M L; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G; Vacca, G M

    2014-11-01

    In this study, milk-coagulation properties (MCP) were characterized in the Sarda sheep breed. Milk composition and MCP [rennet-coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time [time to reach a curd firmness of 20mm (k20)], and curd firmness (a30), (a45), and (a60)] were obtained extending the lactodynamographic analysis from 30 to 60 min from a population of 1,121 ewes from 23 different farms. Managerial characteristics of farms and parity, individual daily milk yields and stage of lactation of ewes were recorded. Data were analyzed using a mixed-model procedure with fixed effects of days in milk, parity, daily milk yield, and flock size and the random effect of the flock/test day nested within flock size. Sampled farms were classified as small (600 ewes), often operated through hired workers. Daily milk yield was, on average, 1.58 ± 0.79 L/d and variability for this trait was very high. The average content of fat, protein, and casein was respectively 6.41, 5.39, and 4.20%. The class of flock size had a significant effect only on curd firmness, whereas days in milk affected RCT and k20. The flock test day, parity, and daily milk yield were important sources of variation for all MCP. The mean value of RCT (8.6 min) and the low occurrence of noncoagulating samples (0.44%) confirmed the excellent coagulation ability of sheep milk compared with cattle milk. A more rapid coagulation was observed in mid-lactating, primiparous, and high-yielding ewes. The k20 was usually reached in less than 2 min after gelation, with the most favorable values at mid lactation. The mean value of curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition (a30) was, on average, 50mm and decreased to 46 and 42 mm respectively after 45 (a45) and 60 min (a60). The decreasing value of curd-firmness traits was likely to be caused by curd syneresis and whey expulsion. The correlation between RCT and a30 was much lower than in dairy cows and about null for a45 and a60. This means that curd firmness in dairy ewes is almost independent of gelation time and this can provide specific information for this species. In conclusion, this study showed that milk from Sarda sheep is characterized by an earlier gelation, a faster increase in curd firmness with time, and greater curd firmness after 30 min compared with dairy cows. Furthermore, correlations between MCP in sheep are much lower than in bovines and some of the assumptions and interpretations related to cows cannot be applied to sheep. PMID:25151884

  17. Identification of Chromosome Locations of Genes Affecting pre-Harvest Sprouting and Seed Dormancy using Chromosome Substitution Lines in Tetraploid Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed dormancy, the main factor contributing to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) resistance, is a complex trait and strongly influenced by environmental growth conditions. In this study, three sets of single chromosome substitution lines, including 37 genotypes, in a durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. du...

  18. A cross-sectional study of factors affecting seasonality in bipolar disorder

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P K, Mittal; S, Mehta; R K, Solanki; M K, Swami; P S, Meena.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Researchers have evinced interest in the effect of seasonal variations on mood and behavioural patterns in affective disorders. OBJECTIVE: To study seasonality in bipolar disorder (BD) patients and also the factors affecting this seasonality. METHOD: Forty-nine patients with BD in euthym [...] ic phase were recruited and analysed using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire and Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. RESULTS: Most of the patients were morning types but chronotype had no influence on seasonality. Age of patient and number of episodes were the most important factors affecting seasonality in BD. CONCLUSION: Seasonality and its influencing factors must be considered while managing bipolar disorder.

  19. Factors affecting the levels of hydrogen peroxide in rainwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and several meteorological and chemical parameters were made for 34 rain events which occurred in Miami, Florida between April, 1995 and October, 1996. The measured H2O2 concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 38.6 ?M with an average concentration of 6.9 ?M. A strong seasonal dependence for H2O2 concentrations was observed during this period, with highest concentrations in the summer and lower levels in the winter, which corresponds to the stronger solar radiation and higher vaporization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the summer and fall, and the weaker sunlight and lower vaporization in the winter and spring. Measurements also showed a significant increase trend of H2O2 with increasing ambient rainwater temperature. Rains that were out from lower latitude were exposed to higher solar irradiation and contained relatively higher levels of H2O2 than those from the north. All these observations indicate that photochemical reactions that involved volatile organic compounds are the predominant source of H2O2 observed in rainwater. During several individual rainstorms, H2O2 concentration was found to increase as a function of time due to electrical storm activities. This finding suggests that lightning could be an important factor that determines the level of H2 during thunderstorms. Statistical data showed that the highest concentrations of H2O2 were observed only in rains containing low levels of nonsea-salt sulfate (NSS), nitrate and hydrogen ion. H2O2 concentrations in continental originated rains were much lower than marine originated ones, indicating that air pollutants in continental rains could significantly deplete the H2O2 concentration in atmospheric gas-phase, clouds and rainwater. (author)

  20. Factors affecting insulin adherence to type I glass bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some physicochemical factors that could account for insulin adherence to type I glass bottles from admixtures of insulin with 5% dextrose (D5W) and 0.9% sodium chloride (NS) injections were studied. Samples of three volumes of NS or D5W containing insulin 125I were mixed in three sizes of bottles to test the effect of surface area and volume. Appropriate volumes of insulin were combined with insulin 125I and D5W or NS to yield solutions containing nine concentrations of insulin to test the effect of insulin concentration. Appropriate volumes of KCl injection to yield six concentrations were combined with insulin 125I and NS or D5W to test the effect of KCl concentration. All samples were assayed by gamma scintillation. In general, there was a direct relationship between the percentage of insulin adhering and the container surface area. In D5W admixtures, as the fill volume at constant insulin 125I concentration was doubled and quadrupled, the adherence of insulin decreased in all three bottle sizes (200, 250, and 500 ml). In NS admixtures, however, this effect was seen only with the 250-ml bottle. Increasing insulin concentrations over the range of 50-300 units/liter in D5W and 0-50 units/liter in NS resulted in decreased adherence. The addition of 1-60 meq/liter of KCl resulted in a significant decrease of insulin adhering from D5W and an insignificant decrease from NS admixtures. The percentage of insulin adhering to type he percentage of insulin adhering to type I glass surfaces may be reduced to 25% or less by preparing i.v. admixtures in full bottles of D5W or NS at insulin concentrations of 25 to 300 units/liter. The addition of KCl, when therapeutically appropriate, will further decrease the extent of insulin adherence

  1. Some factors affecting the cost of irradiation services in thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future of food irradiation in developing countries depends to a large extent on cost considerations. Although food irradiation technology itself is widely known and appears to offer many advantages, concrete evidence on the economic viability of a multi-product irradiation plant is presently not readily available to the private sector in developing countries. It is doubtful whether such evidence exists in a form which is comprehensible to industrialists outside the radiation technology circle. With respect to the economic aspects of food irradiation, information available from the literature appears to be based largely on a summing-up of studies of single products on a case-by-case basis. In an agricultural country, the main inputs to an irradiation service facility are likely to be agricultural produce which vary in kind and quantity with cropping seasons. Moreover, in most developing countries, uncontrollable factors play an important role in the production of annual crops and their transportation. Thus, it is hardly possible to make a credible long term forecast on the throughput required for the multi-product service plant, let alone determine with confidence the return on investment. Accordingly, as far as the private sector is concerned, investment decisions regarding the establishment of a commercial food irradiation service plant have to be considered as 'decision making under risk'. This paper attempts to raise questions to which the author cannot yet finestions to which the author cannot yet find clear and practical answers from the available literature. It is intended to stimulate a more thorough and objective discussion on the subject of economic viability of a multi-product food irradiation plant under the prevailing environment in ASEAN

  2. Antisense-inhibition of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in developing seeds of Vicia narbonensis moderately decreases starch but increases protein content and affects seed maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, H; Rolletschek, H; Heim, U; Golombek, S; Gubatz, S; Wobus, U

    2000-10-01

    The small subunit of a Vicia faba ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) cDNA was expressed in antisense orientation in Vicia narbonensis under the control of the seed-specific legumin B4 promoter. From several independent transgenic lines both ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase AGP-mRNA and AGP enzyme activity were reduced by up to 95% in the cotyledons during the mid- to late-maturation phase. Starch was moderately decreased and sucrose was increased. In two of three lines, transcripts encoding the large subunit of AGP and the storage protein vicilin were increased, whereas legumin B-mRNA was decreased. Transcripts of other storage-associated genes were not altered. The cotyledons contained more protein and total nitrogen. Despite the reduction in starch, total carbon was not decreased and dry weight was unchanged. Compared to the wild type, transgenic seeds contained more water and accumulated dry weight during a longer period, and therefore had a prolonged seed-filling period. Transgenic cotyledon cells of comparable age to the wild type were more highly vacuolated and contained smaller starch grains, indicating a delay in cellular differentiation. We conclude that a specific alteration in carbon metabolism can have pleiotropic effects on water and nitrogen content and induces temporal changes in seed development. PMID:11029702

  3. Mrpho-physical Factors Affecting Consumption and Coefficient of Utilization of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashfaq

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The selected plants in order of preference on the basis of consumption were Sorghum > Maize > Bermuda grass > Tomato > Cotton (NIAB-98 > Alfalfa > Rice >Castor oil > Okra > Cattail > Cotton (CIM-446 > Horse purslane > Rape seed > Winter cherry> Calotrope. The order of the preference on the basis of Coefficient of Utilization (CU was Sorghum > Bermuda grass > Maize > Cotton (NIAB-98 > Tomato > Winter cherry > Castor oil > Alfalfa > Okra > Rice > Cotton (CIM-446 > Horse purslane > Calotrope > Rape seed > Cattail. None of the plants was found completely resistant to H. armigera. The correlation between food consumption and CU was significantly positive. Moisture content showed positive while thickness of leaf lamina played negative role both for consumption and CU. Moisture percentage alone contributed 50.8% and 40.5% role towards resistance in term of consumption and CU, respectively. The cumulative effect of all the morpho-physical plant factors was 80.1% for consumption and 57.8% for CU.

  4. Alpha radiolysis and other factors affecting hydrolysis of tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify the principal degradation products produced by Pu(IV) loading in 30% tributyl phosphate/dodecane (TBP-DD) solutions and to determine the formation rates of these species as a function of temperature. Experiments were also conducted to evaluate HNO3 hydrolysis of TBP as a function of temperature and to compare the effects resulting from plutonium solvent loading with effects due to loading with uranium and zirconium. The results indicate that four factors are of particular significance: (1) dibutyl phosphate (DBP) is the principal plutonium-complexing species formed at temperatures of 500C or lower, while significant concentrations of monobutyl phosphate (MBP) are also formed at higher temperatures; (2) the TBP degradation rate due to alpha radiolysis or chemical hydrolysis is strongly dependent on temperature; (3) plutonium promotes TBP hydrolysis by two mechanisms, alpha radiolysis and metal-ion-induced hydrolysis, and, of these, metal-ion-induced hydrolysis can be the major effect; and (4) small amounts of an unidentified plutonium-complexing species are formed in experiments using plutonium of high specific activity [about 4 x 108 counts per minute per milligram (c/min dot mg)]. This species cannot be removed from 30% TBP-DD by Na2CO3 washing or other solvent cleanup procedures. The TBP degradation rates (determined as grams of plutonium complexed by degradation products) increased from 0.125 mg Pu/L dot h at 250C to 47.9 mg Pu/L dot h at 800C in 30% TBP-DD solutions that contained only 0.68 M HNO3. In solutions that additionally contained approx.20 g/L of plutonium (specific activity = 9 x 107 c/min dot mg) TBP degradation rates increased from 2.46 mg Pu/L dot h at 250C to 127.1 mg Pu/L dot h at 800C. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Case Factors Affecting Hearing Aid Recommendations by Hearing Care Professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gioia, Carmine; Ben-Akiva, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Professional recommendations to patients concerning hearing instrument (HI) technology levels are not currently evidence-based. Pre-fitting parameters have not been proven to be the primary indicators for optimal patient outcome with different HI technology levels. This results in subjective decision-making as regards the technology level recommendation made by professionals. Purpose: The objective of this study is to gain insight into the decision-making criteria utilized by professionals when recommending HI technology levels to hearing-impaired patients. Research design: A set of patient variables (and their respective levels) was identified by professionals as determinant for their recommendation of HIs. An experimental design was developed and 21 representative patient cases were generated. The design was based on a contrastive vignette technique according to which different types of vignettes (patient cases) were randomly presented to respondents in an online survey. Based on these patientcases, professionals were asked in the survey to make a treatment recommendation. Study sample: The online survey was sent to approximately 3,500 professionals from the US, Germany, France, and Italy. The professionals were randomly selected from the databases of Oticon sales companies. The manufacturer sponsoring the survey remained anonymous and was only revealed after completing the survey, if requested by the respondent. The response rate was 20.5%. Data collection and analysis: Data comprised of respondent descriptions and patient case recommendations that were collected from the online survey. A binary logit modeling approach was used to identify the variables that discriminate between the respondents' recommendations of HI technology levels. RESULTS: The results show that HI technology levels are recommended by professionals based on their perception of the patient's activity level in life, the level of HI usage for experienced users, their age, and their speech discrimination score. Surprisingly, the patient's lifestyle as perceived by the hearing care professional, followed by speech discrimination, were the strongest factors in explaining treatment recommendation. An active patient with poor speech discrimination had a 17% chance of being recommended the highest technology level HI. For a very active patient with good speech discrimination, the probability increases to 68%. Conclusions: The discrepancies in HI technology level recommendations are not justified by academic research or evidence of optimal patient outcome with a different HI technology level. The paradigm of lifestyle as the significant variable identified in this study is apparently deeply anchored in the mindset of the professional despite the lack of supporting evidence. These results call for a shift in the professional's technology level recommendation practice, from nonevidence-based to a proven practice that can maximize patient outcome.

  6. Factors affecting calcium oxalate dihydrate fragmented calculi regrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchis P

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL to treat calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD renal calculi gives excellent fragmentation results. However, the retention of post-ESWL fragments within the kidney remains an important health problem. This study examined the effect of various urinary conditions and crystallization inhibitors on the regrowth of spontaneously-passed post-ESWL COD calculi fragments. Methods Post-ESWL COD calculi fragments were incubated in chambers containing synthetic urine varying in pH and calcium concentration: pH = 5.5 normocalciuria (3.75 mM, pH = 5.5 hypercalciuria (6.25 mM, pH = 6.5 normocalciuria (3.75 mM or pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria (6.25 mM. Fragment growth was evaluated by measuring increases in weight. Fragment growth was standardized by calculating the relative mass increase. Results Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM crystals formed on COD renal calculi fragments under all conditions. Under pH = 5.5 normocalciuria conditions, only COM crystals formed (growth rate = 0.22 ± 0.04 ?g/mg·h. Under pH = 5.5 hypercalciuria and under pH = 6.5 normocalciuria conditions, COM crystals and a small number of new COD crystals formed (growth rate = 0.32 ± 0.03 ?g/mg·h and 0.35 ± 0.05 ?g/mg·h, respectively. Under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions, large amounts of COD, COM, hydroxyapatite and brushite crystals formed (growth rate = 3.87 ± 0. 34 ?g/mg·h. A study of three crystallization inhibitors demonstrated that phytate completely inhibited fragment growth (2.27 ?M at pH = 5.5 and 4.55 ?M at pH = 6.5, both under hypercalciuria conditions, while 69.0 ?M pyrophosphate caused an 87% reduction in mass under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions. In contrast, 5.29 mM citrate did not inhibit fragment mass increase under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions. Conclusion The growth rate of COD calculi fragments under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions was approximately ten times that observed under the other three conditions. This observation suggests COD calculi residual fragments in the kidneys together with hypercalciuria and high urinary pH values may be a risk factor for stone growth. The study also showed the effectiveness of specific crystallization inhibitors in slowing calculi fragment growth.

  7. Toxic Compound, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Protein Isolated from Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Worapot Suntornsuk; Donlaporn Saetae

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The ob...

  8. Factors Affecting Alternate Rice-Fish Production of Mymensingh District in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbani M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobb-Douglas production function has been used to measure the effect of various factors on alternate rice-fish production. The chosen factors were of fingerlings cost, cost of cow dung, cost of rice bran, cost of oil cake, cost of lime, cost of urea cost of human labour and cost of netting for fish production and for rice production the factors were human labour, animal labour. Cow dung, urea, TSP, MP, seed and irrigation cost. It was found that except cost of rice bran and lime for fish production all the factors were statistically significant and for the rice production animal labour, TSP and irrigation cost were the insignificant.

  9. Affecting Factors and Security System of Food Production - A Case Study of Mingshan County

    OpenAIRE

    Lin zheng; Wenxiu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The Grey Relational Analysis of food production has been established based on the data of grain production in Mingshan County, Sichuan province, collected from 2003 to 2008. According to the Relational Grade, factors that affect the County’s input on grain production and the degree of their influence have been analyzed. The conclusion is that unit grain yield, sown area of grain, and rural labor force is important factors affecting the county’s food production. Thus many advices were prop...

  10. Factors affecting Small-Scale Coffee Production in Githunguri District, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Njeri Gathura

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the factors affecting small scale coffee production in Kenya. The establishments under study were small-scale coffee farms in Githunguri District.It was to determine whether marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources affect coffee production in Githunguri District. Primary sources included use of questionnaires, observation and interviews. Secondary sources included desk research, library research on journals, text...

  11. Chemical Composition of Artocarpus communis (Breadfruit) Seed flour as Affected by Processing (Boiling and Roasting)

    OpenAIRE

    S.U. Okorie

    2010-01-01

    Artocarpus communis (Breadfruit) seed flour was subjected to boiling and roasting to determine their effects on the chemical composition. Proximate composition showed a significant difference (p>0.05) in the raw and processed flour samples. The moisture content was lowest (14.77%) in the roasted A. communis seed flour and highest (24.08%) in the boiled seed flour. Percentage ash, fat and protein were highest (3.66, 3.74 and 4.67%) in the raw while ash and fibre contents were least (2.75 and 1...

  12. Studies and Research on Friction, Friction Factor and Affecting Factors : A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil J. Kulkarni; Ajaygiri K. Goswami

    2014-01-01

    The friction and friction factors are very significant factors in flow through pipes, channels, heat exchangers . From the pumping cost point of view, minimum friction is desirable as it will decrease the energy loss. In the rotating components like axle-shaft arrangements, the friction and slip are important factors. In case of heat exchanger, the friction factor is important as the heat transfer depends on it. The research was also reported on effect of submerged vegetation ...

  13. Growth factor gene expression profiles of bone morphogenetic protein-2-treated human adipose stem cells seeded on calcium phosphate scaffolds in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, J R; Helder, M N; ten Bruggenkate, C M; Schulten, E A J M; Klein-Nulend, J; Bakker, A D

    2013-12-01

    The secretome of stem cells strongly determines the outcome of tissue engineering strategies. We investigated how the secretome of human adipose stem cells (hASCs) can be affected by substrate, BMP-2 treatment, and degree of differentiation. We hypothesized that as differentiation progresses, hASCs produce increasingly more gene products associated with processes such as angiogenesis and bone remodeling. Human ASCs were treated for 15 min with BMP-2 (10 ng/ml) to enhance osteogenic differentiation, or with vehicle. Subsequently, hASCs were seeded on plastic or on biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) consisting of 60% hydroxyapatite and 40% ?-tricalcium phosphate. A PCR array for ~150 trophic factors and differentiation-related genes was performed at day 21 of culture. A limited set of factors was quantified by qPCR at days 0, 4, 14 and 21, and/or ELISA at day 21. Compared to plastic, BCP-cultured hASCs showed ?2-fold higher expression of ~20 factors, e.g. cytokines such as IL-6, growth factors such as FGF7 and adhesion molecules such as VCAM1. Expression of another ~50 genes was decreased ?2-fold on BCP vs. plastic, even though hASCs differentiate better on BCP than on plastic. BMP-2-treatment increased the expression of ~30 factors by hASCs seeded on BCP, while it decreased the expression of only PGF, PPARG and PTN. Substrate affected hASC secretion of Activin A and seemed to affect P1NP release. No clear association between hASC osteogenic differentiation and growth factor expression pattern was observed. Considering our observed lack of association between the degree of differentiation and the expression of factors associated with angiogenesis and bone remodeling by hASCs, future bone regeneration studies should focus more on systematically orchestrating the secretome of stem cells, rather than on inducing osteogenic differentiation of stem cells only. Short incubation with BMP-2 may be a promising treatment to enhance both osteogenic differentiation and environmental modulation. PMID:24028822

  14. Rural-Urban Differences in Factors Affecting Fertility: A Case Study of Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-O W.

    The study examined whether significant rural-urban differences still persisted in selected factors affecting a community's fertility level. The factors selected were education, occupational class, income, and the participation of women in the labor force. Tested was the hypothesis that the educational development, occupational class, economic…

  15. Factors Affecting Service Provision to Parents with Intellectual Disability: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Brigden, Diane

    1995-01-01

    This article examines factors affecting the provision of mainstream family support services to parents with intellectual disability in Australia. Qualitative procedures resulted in identification of common issues and a conceptual matrix. The three key factors were: client characteristics, resources available, and the involvement of other agencies.…

  16. Factors Affecting the Full Use of Library and Information Management Systems by Library Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skretas, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a general list of factors that affects and determines the full use of library information management systems (LIMS) by library staff. Design/methodology/approach: The factors, which were identified mainly during participation in the implementation of automation projects in Greece, are listed and briefly analysed in categories…

  17. 77 FR 18862 - Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected Third...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ...TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-524] Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian...the Committee in investigation No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors In Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural...

  18. Sowing date: The factor of yield and quality of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum graecum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleti? Radojka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of a two-year investigation (2005 and 2006 for the yield and quality of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum graecum L obtained on the location in South Banat (around Pan?evo on marsh dark soil are presented in the paper. Fenugreek seed used in this investigation was produced in the collection of the Institute of Medicinal Plant Research "Dr Josif Pan?i?" in Pan?evo. The effect of sowing date on yield (kg/ha and quality of fenugreek seed (germination energy and total germination were investigated. Sowing was carried out on seven dates, 10 days between dates of each sowing. Yield of fenugreek seed sowed on different dates differed in both years. Sowing carried out in the first two weeks in April resulted in considerably higher yield compared to sowing at the end of April and during May. The highest yield was produced in the second sowing date from April 10, then in the first (April 1 and the third sowing period (April 20. The lowest yield of fenugreek seed was recorded in sowing carried out at the end of May. Yield of fenugreek seed wasn't significantly different in study years. Earlier dates of sowing resulted in seed of better quality (better germination energy and total germination. In the second sowing date fenugreek seed obtained was of best germination energy and total germination (approx. 99%. Later sowing dates gave seed of lower quality. So, sowing carried out at the end of May resulted in seed with the lowest value of germination energy and total germination (approx. 91%.

  19. Factors Affecting the Flow of Knowledge-based Talents: an Empirical Analysis on Chinese Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge-based talents with advanced knowledge, experience and skills are major creators of enterprise value. A study on the various factors affecting the flow of knowledge-based talents is of great theoretical and practical significance. The article begins with a review of research literature and then analysis on behavioral characteristics and influencing factors of knowledge-based talents’ flow; through empirical study found that organizational factors and environmental factors, including salary satisfaction, fairness in organizations, leadership support and harmony between colleagues, working conditions and employment opportunities are the critical factors of the flow in Chinese enterprise.

  20. Factors Affecting the Flow of Knowledge-based Talents: an Empirical Analysis on Chinese Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Lin; Xiangqian Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge-based talents with advanced knowledge, experience and skills are major creators of enterprise value. A study on the various factors affecting the flow of knowledge-based talents is of great theoretical and practical significance. The article begins with a review of research literature and then analysis on behavioral characteristics and influencing factors of knowledge-based talents’ flow; through empirical study found that organizational factors...

  1. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC in Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  2. Factors affecting the decision making of out-sourcing in textile in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Osman, Ms Amber

    2010-01-01

    This research provided the study of importance of factors affecting the decision making of out-sourcing & supplier performance in Textiles domain. The textile market of USA is the scope of this research. The basis of this study allowed comprehending the importance / weight of factors of out-sourcing (including Delivery, Flexibility, Cost, Quality & Reliability) varied according to the buyers needs. Buyer’s needs some factors were high weight / importance for one buyer and at the same time t...

  3. Identifying the Factors that Affect the Financial Sustainability in Balochistan Province of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq, Waseem

    2013-01-01

    This study defines the factors affecting the financial sustainability in province of Balochistan. This research also describes that the financial sustainability in Balochistan is influenced by multiple diverse macro and micro level factors those create barriers and obstacles for development of province. These factors include political instability, poor infrastructure, poor quality of education, poor governance practices, law & order situation and corruption. This research was conducted to fin...

  4. Applying total interpretive structural modeling to study factors affecting construction labour productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Sayali Shrikrishna Sandbhor; Rohan P. Botre

    2014-01-01

    Construction sector has always been dependent on manpower. Most of the activities carried out on any construction site are labour intensive. Since productivity of any project depends directly on productivity of labour, it is a prime responsibility of the employer to enhance labour productivity. Measures to improve the same depend on analysis of positive and negative factors affecting productivity. Major attention should be given to factors that decrease the productivity of labour. Factor anal...

  5. Factors Affecting the Provision of Quality Service in Real Estate Agency in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Funmilayo Moyinola Araloyin; OJO Olatoye

    2011-01-01

    Real estate firms attempting to increase and retain their customers need to know the factors contributing to customers’ satisfaction and retention. This study investigate into real estate agency market with the purposes of identifying factors that affect quality in service provision and possible factors contributing to customers’ satisfaction and retention in real estate agency. This study uses survey questionnaires to obtain information from real estate consumers. This sample siz...

  6. An Analysis of Factors Affecting on Online Shopping Behavior of Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hossein Moshrefjavadi; Hossein Rezaie Dolatabadi; Mojtaba Nourbakhsh; Amir Poursaeedi; Ahmadreza Asadollahi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze factors affecting on online shopping behavior of consumers that might be one of the most important issues of e-commerce and marketing field. However, there is very limited knowledge about online consumer behavior because it is a complicated socio-technical phenomenon and involves too many factors. One of the objectives of this study is covering the shortcomings of previous studies that didn't examine main factors that influence on online shopping behavi...

  7. A proposed instrument to measure organisational-based factors affecting corporate entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Oosthuizen, J. H.; Merwe, Stephanus Petrus

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an instrument to measure the organisational-based factors affecting corporate entrepreneurship. Structured questionnaires were administered to managers and 561 fully completed questionnaires were gathered at 20 large organisations. Construct validity of the measuring instrument was assessed by means of a principal component exploratory factor analysis and by calculating Cronbach alpha coefficients. In this study six factors describing the theoretica...

  8. Factors Affecting Business Success of Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuthamas Chittithaworn

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to identify factors that are affecting business success of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in Thailand. The intention of this study is to provide the understanding on how people should start their business by looking at all the factors affecting business success hence help to reduce the risk of failure and increase chances of success. The study examined eight factors that influence the SMEs business success. These factors are: SMEs characteristic, management and know-how, products and services, Customer and Market, the way of doing business and cooperation, resources and finance, Strategy, and external environment. The theoretical framework has been drawn out and questionnaire was designed based on the factors chosen. Eight hypotheses were developed to find out factors that are affecting Business Success of SMEs in Thailand. The entire hypotheses were successfully tested with SPSS and five hypotheses were accepted. The regression analysis result shown that the most significant factors affecting business success of SMEs in Thailand were SMEs characteristics, customer and market, the way of doing business, resources and finance, and external environment.

  9. THE TYPE OF PACKAGING MATERIAL AND STORAGE CONDITIONS AS FACTORS FOR WHEAT SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Šimeni?

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed of cereal is normally grown on 5-8% of the overall plots under cereals in the Republic of Croatia. The produced seed meets the needs for high quality seed of wheat, barley, oat and other cereals. Certain quantities of seed remain unsold every year and are kept at various storage conditions and in various packaging material. The objective of this paper was to find out which storage conditions and what sort of packaging material would provide for the best viability of wheat seed. The investigation was carried out at storage simulation and by using various packaging material. In addition to well-known packaging material, such as paper 2 and 4-layer bags, jute bags, and PPR bags, the seed was also packed in the PVC transparent and PVC black bags, as well as in bags made of Aluminium foil. The investigation lasted for two years and was carried out in three various storage conditions, such as in the "New Warehouse" - a warehouse of a new type with thermal isolation in the roof and with uncontrolled conditions, ii the "Old Warehouse" made of filled-in brick and with a roof made of asbestos board, and iii under the "Eaves". The results have shown that the best seed was obtained when packed in 2 and 4-layer paper bags, PVC transparent bags and those made of Aluminium foil. Poorer results were obtained with bags of jute, polypropeline bags and PVC black bags. The storage of seed at "Eaves" has attained the best results in both years of the investigation, as compared to all three types of storage and it can in our circumstances meet the needs for wheat seed storage during one year.

  10. Factors affecting vegetable stand establishment / Fatores que afetam o estabelecimento do estande em hortaliças

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E. M., Grassbaugh; M. A., Bennett.

    Full Text Available Diversos fatores podem afetar o estabelecimento das plântulas de hortaliças. Condições de ambiente, tais como as características físicas do solo, temperatura e disponibilidade de água, práticas culturais e doenças podem ser limitantes para a obtenção de estandes adequados e máximo rendimento. Proced [...] imentos destinados a beneficiar o estabelecimento das plântulas incluem o preparo do solo, a técnica cultural adequada e o tratamento químico e biológico das sementes. Para a produção de hortaliças de alta qualidade, a associação do tratamento das sementes com práticas culturais adequadas minimiza os efeitos adversos do ambiente e permite alcançar máximo estande e rendimento. Abstract in english Several factors can influence stand establishment in vegetable crop production. Environmental conditions such as soil physical characteristics, temperature and moisture, various cultural practices, and diseases may all be limiting factors in establishing maximum stands and achieving the highest poss [...] ible yields. Measures taken to increase stands include soil improvements, implementing cultural practices, and use of chemical and biological seed treatments. Combining seed treatments and cultural/tillage practices to minimize environmental constraints can lead to maximum stands and yields in the production of high quality vegetable crops.

  11. A conceptual model for factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Ghafari Ashtiani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain is a widely used concept around the world. Nowadays, companies need to integrate their production processes, from the raw materials to the end-user. Supply chain management is a phenomenon that achieves this in a way that ensures customers get reliable and fast service and high quality products at the lowest possible cost. There is very limited and sporadic research on supply chain integration and how it affects supply chain performance. Therefore there is no real understanding of the concept of supply chain integration and how it affects supply chain performance nor is there a holistic model. This paper thus aims to present a model that identifies factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance. After analyzing the collected data on supply chain integration and customer delivery performance, the preliminary model was proposed and completed, and using expert opinion in the Imam Khomeini Oil Refinery the final model and for factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance were presented. To determine how these factors interrelate with each other, the DEMATEL method was then used. The statistical population included the staff at Imam Khomeini Oil Refinery in Shazand. The data, collected through the standard DEMATEL questionnaire, were analyzed using the DEMATEL method and a MATLAB program. The DEMATEL results indicate that intra-organizational factors, institutional norms, technological certainties are causal factors which influence other factors that affect the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance. Intra-organizational factor have a greater influence also among effect factors, substructures have the greatest influence.

  12. Low Soil Phosphorus Availability Increases Acid Phosphatases Activities and Affects P Partitioning in Nodules, Seeds and Rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Drevon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of phosphorus (P deficiency on phosphatases activities in N2-fixing legumes has been widely studied in hydroponic culture. However, the response of acid phosphatase (APase and phytase in rhizosphere, nodules and seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris to low soil’s P-availability is not yet fully understood. In this study, six genotypes of N2-fixing P. vulgaris were grown under contrasting soil P-availabilities; i.e., low  (4.3 mg P kg?1 and sufficient (16.7 mg P kg?1 in the Haouz region of Morocco. At flowering and maturity stages, plants were harvested and analyzed for their phosphatases activities, growth and P content. Results show that, low P decreased nodulation, growth, P uptake and N accumulation in all the genotypes, but to a greater extent in the sensitive recombinant inbreed line 147. In addition, while seed P content was slightly reduced under low P soil; a higher P was noticed in the Flamingo and Contender large seeded-beans (6.15 to 7.11 mg g?1. In these latter genotypes, high APase and phytase activities in seeds and nodules were associated with a significant decline in rhizosphere’s available P. APase activity was mainly stimulated in nodules, whereas phytase activity was highly induced in seeds (77%. In conclusion, the variations of APase and phytase activities in nodules and seeds depend on genotype and can greatly influence the internal utilization of P, which might result in low P soil tolerance in N2-fixing legumes.

  13. Dispositional factors affecting motivation during learning in adult basic and secondary education programs

    OpenAIRE

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students’ goals, goal-directed thinking and action based on hope theory and attendance behaviors, and self-perceptions of competency based on affective domain attributions about external and internal ...

  14. Factors Affecting Business Students’ Performance in Arab Open University: The Case of Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah AL-Mutairi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate factors affecting student performance in Arab Open University- Kuwaitbranch. To achieve this objective, all graduate students during the academic year 2009-2010 were examined. Thegraduates were 566 students, consisting of 353 female and 213 male students. The data were analyzed by usingOrdinary Least Square (OLS) multiple regressions. The outcome of the analysis revealed that the Grade PointAverage (GPA) of the student is affected by age, score of t...

  15. Assessing Factors Affecting M&As versus Greenfield FDI in Emerging Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Byun, Hyung-Suk; Lee, Hyun-Hoon; Park, Cyn-Young

    2012-01-01

    A host of external (global and regional) and internal (country-specific) factors affect Multinational Enterprises' Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) decisions. Differentiating the two entry modes of FDI (mergers and acquisitions [M&A] and Greenfield investment), this paper aims to empirically assess whether or not being a part of global emerging market economies or any specific emerging regions affects investors' decisions of FDI flows to an emerging country in addition to various country-speci...

  16. Environmental and Individual Factors Affecting Menu Labeling Utilization: A Qualitative Research Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Jennifer; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Islam, Nadia; Elbel, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health concern that disproportionally affects low-income and minority populations. Recent policies mandating the posting of calories on menus in fast food chain restaurants have not proven to uniformly influence food choice. This qualitative research study uses focus groups to study individual and environmental factors affecting the usage of these menu labels among low-income, minority populations. Ten focus groups targeting low-income residents (n=105) were co...

  17. Factors affecting the choice of a cosmetic brand : a case study of Skinfood Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jingxuan

    2014-01-01

    Consumers are becoming more and more careful in selecting the cosmetic brands they use today. Women are fond of a cosmetic brand and trust it, because they believe in its superiority. How a brand is perceived affects customers’ choices and the success of the brand. Companies attempting to enter cosmetic markets should be aware of what the key factors affecting the consumer’s choice of a cosmetic brand are, and then develop a corresponding brand strategy, which can create brand equity for ...

  18. Factors affecting industrial wood, material production yield in Turkey’s natural beech forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Atik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are to determine the most important factors affecting industrial wood material production yield in natural oriental beech forests in Turkey using a multifaceted approach and to help entrepreneurs consider these factors to develop more sensitive and realistic production plans. In Günye Forest Management in Bart?n province of the West Black Sea Region of Turkey, 41 production units were chosen as the study area. The 1277 ha study area was included in the 2007 and 2010 production management plan. The general state of the stand, natural stand structure, and production methods and tools are the factors thought most strongly affect industrial wood material production yield; 26 variables representing these factors were evaluated in the study. Through multidimensional statistical analyses, including main components, factor and regression  analysis, we found that the most important factors affecting production yield were fertility, aspect of land, skidding method, stand structure, skidding distance, growing stock, transportation and harmful abiotic factors. Production units were divided into three groups based on yield rates and the 26 variables, using discriminate analysis. From the results of the study, a sample model can be developed to help forest managers predict and plan annual industrial wood production more sensitively and realistically.

  19. Factors affecting satisfaction of Thai senior citizens living with their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanakitsakul, M

    1999-07-01

    Globalization has greatly affected both socioeconomic and cultural changes. It has affected family structures, faiths, values, and living arrangements of the people in Thailand, especially senior citizens that are familiar with the old ways. In this article, a study analyzing living arrangements, living satisfaction, and factors affecting satisfaction for senior citizens living with their children is presented. Using descriptive and inferential statistics, data from the 1994 Survey of the Elderly in Thailand were analyzed. Findings of the analysis showed that a large majority of Thai senior citizens lived with their children (73%), indicating that co-residence between senior citizens and their children is a prominent phenomenon in Thai society. Indicators of high living satisfaction included obedience of the children and happiness, while neglect and child complaints were negative indicators. In addition, presence of a spouse could affect the satisfaction of senior citizens. Factors affecting living satisfaction included support from children, income sufficiency, marital status of senior citizen, health status, need to be cared for by children, and education. Sustained filial duty of children, social participation of senior citizens, and further studies on the factors affecting satisfaction are recommended. PMID:12349406

  20. Psychological factors affecting medical condition: a new proposal for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Giovanni A; Fabbri, Stefania; Sirri, Laura; Wise, Thomas N

    2007-01-01

    The DSM category of "psychological factors affecting medical condition" had virtually no impact on clinical practice. However, several clinically relevant psychosomatic syndromes have been described in the literature: disease phobia, persistent somatization, conversion symptoms, illness denial, demoralization, and irritable mood. These syndromes, in addition to the DSM definition of hypochondriasis, can yield clinical specification in the category of "psychological factors affecting medical condition" and eliminate the need for the highly criticized DSM classification of somatoform disorders. This new classification is supported by a growing body of research evidence and is in line with psychosomatic medicine as a recognized subspecialty. PMID:17329602

  1. Factors that affect reliability of nondestructive detection of flaws in structural ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, S. J.; Baaklini, G. Y.; Roth, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The factors that affect reliability of nondestructive detection of flaws in structural ceramics by microfocus radiography and scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) were investigated. Reliability of void detection in silicon nitride and silicon carbide by microfocus X-rays was affected by photon energy level, material chemistry in the immediate vicinity of the void, and the presence of loose powder aggregates inside the void cavity. The sensitivity of SLAM to voids was affected by material microstructure, the level of porosity, and the condition of the specimen surfaces. Statistical results are presented in the form of probability of detection as a function of void diameter for green compacts and sintered materials.

  2. Ozone and density affect the response of biomass and seed yield to elevated CO2 in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropospheric O3 reduces growth and yield of many crop species, whereas CO2 ameliorates the negative effects of O3. Thus in a combined elevated CO2 and O3 atmosphere, seed yield is at least restored to that of charcoal-filtered (CF) air at ambient CO2. The CO2-induced yield increase in CF air is hi...

  3. SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING EARLY GROWTH OF TWO NATIVE VARIETIES OF SLENDER WHEATGRASS AS AFFECTED BY SOIL HUMIC ACIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ERDC-CRREL research program for developing methods for more rapid establishment of native plants on western and eastern US military lands to avoid possible competition by invasive weeds during the initial year after seeding. One aspect is whether the presence of humic acids (HAs) may make native...

  4. Analyzing the Factors Affecting the Success in University Entrance Examination through the use of Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agdelen, Zafer; Haydar, Ali; Kanani, Andisheh

    2007-01-01

    There are many factors that affect the success of students in university entrance examination. These factors can be mainly categorized as follows; social factors, environmental factors, economical factors etc. The main aim of this study is to find whether there is a relation between these factors and the success in the university entrance…

  5. Ten Factors that Affect the Severity of Environmental Impacts of Visitors in Protected Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2010-01-01

    Protected areas represent the major method for conserving biodiversity. However, visitor use can threaten their conservation value. Based on a review of recent research, I have categorized factors that affect the severity of environmental impacts of visitor use. These factors need to be considered or evaluated when assessing visitor use of sites in protected areas. They are: (i) the conservation value of the site, (ii) its resistance to use, (iii) its recovery from use, (iv) its susceptibilit...

  6. Organizational Factors that Affect the University-Industry Technology Transfer Processes of a Private University

    OpenAIRE

    Lisiane Closs; Gabriela Ferreira; Alessandra Soria; Claudio Sampaio; Marcelo Perin

    2012-01-01

    This case study researched organizational factors that affect the university-industry technology transfer (UITT) processes of a private university, chosen by its success and uniqueness in the Brazilian context. Stood out as factors: innovation among pillars of management; valuing of research and intellectual property; qualified students, teachers and managers; multidisciplinary research groups; stability of governing body; performance of the TTO, Technology Management Agency and Technology Pa...

  7. Study on Factors Affecting Performance of Non-profit Organizations in the Participatory Working Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Haixia Zhang; Tianhui Zhuang

    2010-01-01

    Under the background of many non-profit organizations to investigate a study via participatory working methohd,and taking anti-poverty practice of Sichuan rural development organization, a non-profit organization with nearly15-year-old history, as an example, main factors affecting the performance of their participatory workingmethods were analyzed by factor analysis method. The results showed that the participation of projectbeneficiary groups and types of projects as well as effective parti...

  8. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Eller, Fred J.; Palmquist, Debra E.

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-?-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about...

  9. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in After-Sales Service of Malaysian Electronic Business Market

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsul Jamel Elias; Suhardi Wan Mansor; Mohd Rizaimy Shaharudin; Khaizir Muzani Md. Yusof

    2009-01-01

    This study is about the discoveries on the factors affecting customer satisfaction in after-sales service. It helps to extend the understanding on the factors that may exist and its influence towards customers’ satisfaction, an important element in retaining a profitable business relationship with the customer. After-sales service which is a part of customer relationship management (CRM) helps to enhance a customer’s loyalty. To date, there have been very minimum studies t...

  10. Factors affecting research productivity of production and operations management groups: An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas C. Soteriou; George C. Hadjinicola

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies factors that promote research productivity of production and operations management (POM) groups of researchers in US business schools. In this study, research productivity of a POM group is defined as the number of articles published per POM professor in a specific period of time. The paper also examines factors that affect research quality, as measured by the number of articles published per POM professor in journals, which have been recognized in the POM literature as ...

  11. Environmental and State-Level Regulatory Factors Affect the Incidence of Autism and Intellectual Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Rzhetsky, Andrey; Bagley, Steven C.; Wang, Kanix; Lyttle, Christopher S.; Cook, Edwin H.; Altman, Russ B.; Gibbons, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Many factors affect the risks for neurodevelopmental maladies such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID). To compare environmental, phenotypic, socioeconomic and state-policy factors in a unified geospatial framework, we analyzed the spatial incidence patterns of ASD and ID using an insurance claims dataset covering nearly one third of the US population. Following epidemiologic evidence, we used the rate of congenital malformations of the reproductive system as a...

  12. Factors Affecting Employees’ Job Satisfaction in Telecommunication Industry: a case study of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aamir; Muhammad Salman; Mohammad Asif; Gul Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Employees’ satisfaction is crucial to any organization. There are numerous factors affecting the employees’ job satisfaction but 5 factors, namely working conditions, pay & promotion, job security, fairness and relations with co-workers. Organizations have to invest on its employees to satisfy its employees. Target audience is in Telecommunication sector Zong and Mobilink in Pakistan and took data through ques-tionnaire and analyzes data through SPSS. The research included 5 independent v...

  13. Factors Affecting the Online Shopping Behavior: An Empirical Investigation in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo Tan Vu Khanh; Gwangyong Gim

    2014-01-01

    Online shopping has become new type of retail shopping. It has now been adopted all over the world including Vietnam. This shopping method is still not as well known or accepted as in many other countries, and though the knowledge of online shopping in Vietnam is now beginning to increase rapidly, to know the factors influencing online shopping behavior of Vietnam consumers there are several articles written. The main objective of this study is to analyze factors affecting on ...

  14. TGA Analysis of Rubber Seed Kernel

    OpenAIRE

    Noorfidza Yub Harun; M.T. Afzal; Mohd Tazli Azizan

    2010-01-01

    This project investigated the possibility of converting biomass wastes into solidfuels by undergoing torrefaction process. Rubber seed kernel was used toproduce torrefied material and the factors affecting torrefaction were investigated.Samples of rubber seed kernel were dried, ground, sieved, heated and cooled toobtain the torrefied material. It was found that minimum 30% of the moisturecontent was removed from its original value during torrefaction process. Almost100% of the calorific value...

  15. Animal factors affecting fatty acid composition of cow milk fat: a review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Samková; J., Spicka; M., Pesek; T., Pelikánová; O., Hanus.

    Full Text Available The review summarizes literature dealing with the effects of animal factors (breed, cow individuality, parity and stage of lactation) on fatty acid (FA) composition of milk fat. Genetic parameters affecting the composition of the FAs in milk are reviewed and the possibilities for altering milk fat c [...] omposition are discussed. Cow individuality and the stage of lactation appear to be the main animal factors affecting milk fat composition. Breed and parity affect the variability in FA composition to a limited extent. Some of these factors can be used effectively to alter milk fat composition. Polymorphism of the enzymes, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and acyl-CoA-diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) can explain to some extent the variability among cows. The great individual differences, probably given by varying SCD activities, may be used in breeding programmes, supported by the heritability estimates determined for individual FAs. Effective results can also be achieved through the combined effect of several factors. For instance, the level of conjugated linoleic acid could be increased not only by feed factors, but also through thorough knowledge of rumen biohydrogenation or by cow selection using information on SCD and DGAT polymorphism. The animal factors that are discussed are closely related to milk yield, particularly fat content. Both parameters can change FA composition. Thus, it is necessary in breeding programmes to take these relationships into consideration, along with known genetic correlations.

  16. Important factors affecting fault detection coverage in probabilistic safety assessment of digital instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems are gradually introduced into nuclear power plants (NPPs), concerns about the I and C systems’ reliability and safety are growing. Fault detection coverage is one of the most critical factors in the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of digital I and C systems. To correctly estimate the fault detection coverage, it is first necessary to identify important factors affecting it. From experimental results found in the literature and the authors’ experience in fault injection experiments on digital systems, four system-related factors and four fault-related factors are identified as important factors affecting the fault detection coverage. A fault injection experiment is performed to demonstrate the dependency of fault detection coverage on some of the identified important factors. The implications of the experimental results on the estimation of fault detection coverage for the PSA of digital I and C systems are also explained. The set of four system-related factors and four fault-related factors is expected to provide a framework for systematically comparing and analyzing various fault injection experiments and the resultant estimations on fault detection coverage of digital I and C systems in NPPs. (author)

  17. Identification of the Most Affecting Factor and the Most Income Range of the Affected Middle Class Family by Using Fuzzy Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ramkumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays so many middle class families are affected by many different factors like misunderstanding between husband and wife, poor economic status, mental stress, cost of living index, property sharing, unequal educational status between husband and wife, more number of family members, inadequate of family number, joint family, poor health, immoral social relationship, unnecessary expenditure, relations interfere and so on. Here we identify the factor which affecting the middle class family mostly, also we identify the most income range to which the factor is most affected. To study the passenger transportation problem, the matrix theory was developed in the year 1998 by Dr. W.B. Vasantha and V. Indira. Now we use this model to identify the factor which most affected the middle class family and also we identify the income range of the affected families.

  18. Human factors with nonhumans - Factors that affect computer-task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two general strategies that may be employed for 'doing human factors research with nonhuman animals'. First, one may use the methods of traditional human factors investigations to examine the nonhuman animal-to-machine interface. Alternatively, one might use performance by nonhuman animals as a surrogate for or model of performance by a human operator. Each of these approaches is illustrated with data in the present review. Chronic ambient noise was found to have a significant but inconsequential effect on computer-task performance by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Additional data supported the generality of findings such as these to humans, showing that rhesus monkeys are appropriate models of human psychomotor performance. It is argued that ultimately the interface between comparative psychology and technology will depend on the coordinated use of both strategies of investigation.

  19. The Arabidopsis MYB96 Transcription Factor Is a Positive Regulator of ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE4 in the Control of Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyounghee; Lee, Hong Gil; Yoon, Seongmun; Kim, Hyun Uk; Seo, Pil Joon

    2015-06-01

    Seed germination is a key developmental transition that initiates the plant life cycle. The timing of germination is determined by the coordinated action of two phytohormones, gibberellin and abscisic acid (ABA). In particular, ABA plays a key role in integrating environmental information and inhibiting the germination process. The utilization of embryonic lipid reserves contributes to seed germination by acting as an energy source, and ABA suppresses lipid degradation to modulate the germination process. Here, we report that the ABA-responsive R2R3-type MYB transcription factor MYB96, which is highly expressed in embryo, regulates seed germination by controlling the expression of ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In the presence of ABA, germination was accelerated in MYB96-deficient myb96-1 seeds, whereas the process was significantly delayed in MYB96-overexpressing activation-tagging myb96-ox seeds. Consistently, myb96-1 seeds degraded a larger extent of lipid reserves even in the presence of ABA, while reduced lipid mobilization was observed in myb96-ox seeds. MYB96 directly regulates ABI4, which acts as a repressor of lipid breakdown, to define its spatial and temporal expression. Genetic analysis further demonstrated that ABI4 is epistatic to MYB96 in the control of seed germination. Taken together, the MYB96-ABI4 module regulates lipid mobilization specifically in the embryo to ensure proper seed germination under suboptimal conditions. PMID:25869652

  20. Predictive factors for pregnancy after intrauterine insemination: A prospective study of factors affecting outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Kamath Mohan; Bhave Priya; Aleyamma T; Nair Raju; Chandy A; Mangalaraj Ann; Muthukumar K; George Korula

    2010-01-01

    Objective : To determine the predictive factors for pregnancy after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH)/intrauterine insemination (IUI). Design : Prospective observational study. Setting : University-level tertiary care center. Patients and Methods : 366 patients undergoing 480 stimulated IUI cycles between November 2007 and December 2008. Interventions : Ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophins was initiated and a single IUI was performed 36 h after triggering ovulation. Main Outcome Me...