WorldWideScience
1

Impact of Weed Seed Mixture in Seed Health of Aus Rice and Factors Affecting it  

OpenAIRE

A socio-agronomical survey and a laboratory experiment on weed seed mixture with rice seed were carried out at the three different villages of Mymensingh district and in the laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh respectively during the period from January to June 2002 to know the farmer’s knowledge and idea about the impact of weed seed mixture on the quality of rice seeds, and to know the status of seed purity in rice collected from different locations of Bangladesh....

Md. Fazlul Islam; Rezaul Karim, S. M.; Haque, S. M. A.; Rashid, M. A.; Razzaque, M. A.

2003-01-01

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Culinary and nutritional quality of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds as affected by environmental factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Efficient selection for specific culinary and nutritional quality traits needs a better understanding of the genetic and environmental control of quality traits at the structural, physiological and biochemical levels. Field experiments indicate great variability in the Phaseolus gene pool regarding the content of antinutritional compounds, as well as in cooking characteristics of the seeds. These seed attributes are strongly affected by geographic location, edaphic and climatic conditions at site of cultivation. However, information on the influence of specific environmental factors (such as temperature, water availability, edaphic conditions, etc. on seed quality traits, as well as on their stability is very scarce. This lack of knowledge impairs a faster progress in the improvement of Phaseolus seed quality.

Kigel J.

1999-01-01

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Impact of Weed Seed Mixture in Seed Health of Aus Rice and Factors Affecting it  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A socio-agronomical survey and a laboratory experiment on weed seed mixture with rice seed were carried out at the three different villages of Mymensingh district and in the laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh respectively during the period from January to June 2002 to know the farmer’s knowledge and idea about the impact of weed seed mixture on the quality of rice seeds, and to know the status of seed purity in rice collected from different locations of Bangladesh. In the socio-agronomical survey, 100 farmers from six villages e.g. Kazirshimla, Dewanibari, Seedstore, Bharadoba, Churkhai and Rampur under three Upazilas namely Trishal, Bhaluka and Sadar were randomly selected for interview. Pre-prepared questionnaire were used to ask questions on different aspects of weed contamination with rice seeds. Results revealed that 90% farmers of the area cultivated IR50 and only 3% farmers grew BR2 rice variety. They got higher average yields from IR50 (1.96 t ha-1 than other varieties e.g. BR2 (1.65 t ha-1 and BR3 (1.75 t ha-1. Farmers found five noxious weed seeds e.g. Echinochloa crusglli, E. colonum, Cyperus iria, Scirpus spp. and C. difformis in the rice seeds. E. crusgalli was appeared as the notorious weed to rice farmers. Forty percent of the interviewed farmers were educated up to class five and literate farmers used higher seed rate, which led to less weed infestation in the field. Eighty nine percent farmers used their own seed, which were produced and processed with care, and there was less possibility of weed seed contamination. Eight percent farmers used seeds from market, which contained more weed seeds in rice seeds. Laboratory analysis of seed samples collected from different locations of the country revealed that location has an impact on the weed seed mixture in rice seeds. Samples collected from the village more away from Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh contained more weed seeds. The purity percentage of farmers saved seed was about 95% and it contained 0.08% weed seed. The weed seeds found in the farmers saved seed samples were E. crusgalli, E.colonum, Scirpus spp. and Cyperus difformis.

Md. Fazlul Islam

2003-01-01

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Seed Size, the Only Factor Positively Affecting Direct Seeding Success in an Abandoned Field in Quebec, Canada  

OpenAIRE

Direct tree seeding is potentially an economical technique for restoring forests on abandoned fields. However, the success of tree establishment depends on many factors related to species and seed characteristics, environmental conditions, competition and predation. We compared seedling emergence, survival and growth of six tree species of different seed sizes in a forest restoration project of abandoned fields. Species were seeded in plots with and without herbaceous vegetation and with and ...

Annick St-Denis; Daniel Kneeshaw; Christian Messier

2013-01-01

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Factors Affecting Tausch’s Goatgrass (Aegilops tauschii Coss. Seed Germination and Seedling Emergence  

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Full Text Available Tausch’s goatgrass, Aegilops tauschii (Coss. is one of the most troublesome weeds in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. producing areas of Yellow River valley of China. The effects of environmental factors affecting seed germination and seedling emergence were evaluated in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. The germination of Tausch’s goatgrass seeds occurred at temperatures ranging from 0 to 40oC, with optimum germination attained between 15 and 25oC. Tausch’s goatgrass seed is rather tolerant to low water potential and high salinity stress as germination was 70% and 65% at osmotic potentials of -1.7 MPa and salinity level of 400 mM, respectively. Medium pH and light have no significant effect on seed germination. Highest emergence (>80% occurred from depths of 1 to 3cm, but no seedlings emerged when burial depth reached 8cm. Knowledge of germination biology of Tausch’s goatgrass obtained in this study will be useful in predicting the potential distribution area and developing effective management strategies for this species.

Feng Fang

2012-01-01

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Factors Affecting the Optimum Seeding Level of Coal or Char-Fired, Open-Cycle MHD Power Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of the optimum seed level with ash-containing, seeded fuels was made using a mathematical model to determine the composition and amounts of the combustion products which included a slag phase and condensed seed compounds. The results indicate that: the mechanism of seed condensation is the formation of liquid alkali sulphate; the contamination of the liquid seed with silica occurs because silica condenses over approximately the same temperature range as the alkali sulphate; and the level of seed contamination with silica plays a major role in deciding the system seed level. This contamination is unavoidable due to the difficulty of separating the alkali from the glass-like slag by ordinary chemical or physical means. Therefore the silica remaining in the gas phase when the bulk of the slag is separated from the combustion products must be recycled to the system with the co-condensed seed. This increased silica lowers the combustion temperature because of the energy required for its volatilization. The important factors in establishing the steady-state silica level in the system are: (1) The air/fuel level. Lowering this parameter below stoichiometric requirements decreases the silica contamination and increases the electrical conductivity of the combustion products; (2) The nature of the fuel. Silica levels are in general higher for a char than for a coal fuel. This is compensated for to a degree,by the higher electrical conductivity of the combustion products from char; (3) The sulphur level of the fuel. The higher the sulphur level the higher the temperature at which seed condensation (as the sulphate) initiates hence the greater the fraction of silica remaining in the gas phase; (4) The silica content of the fuel: (5) The seeding level. The greater the seed/coal ratio, the higher the initiation temperature of seed condensation; (6) The type of seed. A non-sulphur-containing seed results in a lower initiation temperature of seed condensation; (7) The separation temperature of the bulk of the liquid slag from the combustion products. This temperature should be just above the seed condensation initiation temperature for minimum silica recycle with minimum seed loss. Data are presented which illustrate the above factors for a bituminous coal at sulphur levels of 0.5 and 4 wt% sulphur and a bituminous coal char. Seeding materials, considered are potassium carbonate and potassium sulphate. A combustor pressure of 5 atm is assumed with the air-preheat temperature used as a parameter. The results show an increase in electrical conductivity of the combustion products when the sulphur level of the system is reduced. One way of effecting this reduction is to remove the sulphur from the spent seed-silica mixture before its return to the combustor. In addition to increased conductivity, this reduced sulphur mode of operation also allows an MHD/steam power plant to be operated free of sulphur oxide effluent gases. (author)

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Loss-of-function mutations affecting a specific Glycine max R2R3 MYB transcription factor result in brown hilum and brown seed coats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although modern soybean cultivars feature yellow seed coats, with the only color variation found at the hila, the ancestral condition is black seed coats. Both seed coat and hila coloration are due to the presence of phenylpropanoid pathway derivatives, principally anthocyanins. The genetics of soybean seed coat and hilum coloration were first investigated during the resurgence of genetics during the 1920s, following the rediscovery of Mendel's work. Despite the inclusion of this phenotypic marker into the extensive genetic maps developed for soybean over the last twenty years, the genetic basis behind the phenomenon of brown seed coats (the R locus has remained undetermined until now. Results In order to identify the gene responsible for the r gene effect (brown hilum or seed coat color, we utilized bulk segregant analysis and identified recombinant lines derived from a population segregating for two phenotypically distinct alleles of the R locus. Fine mapping was accelerated through use of a novel, bioinformatically determined set of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR markers which allowed us to delimit the genomic region containing the r gene to less than 200 kbp, despite the use of a mapping population of only 100 F6 lines. Candidate gene analysis identified a loss of function mutation affecting a seed coat-specific expressed R2R3 MYB transcription factor gene (Glyma09g36990 as a strong candidate for the brown hilum phenotype. We observed a near perfect correlation between the mRNA expression levels of the functional R gene candidate and an UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UF3GT gene, which is responsible for the final step in anthocyanin biosynthesis. In contrast, when a null allele of Glyma09g36990 is expressed no upregulation of the UF3GT gene was found. Conclusions We discovered an allelic series of four loss of function mutations affecting our R locus gene candidate. The presence of any one of these mutations was perfectly correlated with the brown seed coat/hilum phenotype in a broadly distributed survey of soybean cultivars, barring the presence of the epistatic dominant I allele or gray pubescence, both of which can mask the effect of the r allele, resulting in yellow or buff hila. These findings strongly suggest that loss of function for one particular seed coat-expressed R2R3 MYB gene is responsible for the brown seed coat/hilum phenotype in soybean.

Gillman Jason D

2011-11-01

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Factors affecting image formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Factors affecting image formation are discussed in terms of effects on lesion detectability. Lesion detectability is a function of spatial resolution, object contrast, count density, and lesion size. The image forming process is described. Image formation is a complicated process which can be affected by a variety of factors. These are discussed and include: the imaging agent, administered activity; collimator design; detector characteristics; preimage electronic processing; display and recording medium; image data manipulation; patient motion; and artifacts

9

Factors affecting forage stand establishment  

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Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should be expanded in the industry to enable matching seed lot performance to specific environmental conditions where performance can be maximized. Seed treatment and seed coating are used in the forage seed industry, and studies have shown they are of benefit in some environments. There is an increase in no-tillage seeding of forage crops, but improvements in the no-tillage planting equipment are needed to make them better suited to small seeds. Other recent developments in seeding techniques include broadcasting seed with dry granular and fluid fertilizers, which improves the efficiency of the seeding operation.

Sulc R.M.

1998-01-01

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Factors affecting the production of seeds in fully fertile tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Mill. and those showing a tendency to parthenocarpy  

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Full Text Available Comparative studies on the development of the female gametophyte, pollination and fertilization in two lines of Lycopersicon esculentum, Kholodostoykye (Kh, fertile and A33 (with a tendency to parthenocarpy have revealed that seed production is affected by disturbances in embryo sac formation but mainly by its degeneration after anthesis, which is especially visible in line A33. Moreover, delayed development of some embryo sacs and incomplete pollination due to various stigma levels seem to be responsible for the diminution of seed number in line A33. Deep fluorescence of numerous pollen grains as well as whole pollen tubes in 83.3 per cent of A33 stigmas and only 24.1 per cent in the Kh line points to the heterogeneity of pollen. This could be one more reason for reduced fertility. The results of application of plant growth regulators (auxin, PCIB which affect seed production in tomato of line A33 remain inconclusive.

Barbara Gabara

1985-09-01

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Factors Affecting Gentamicin Assay  

OpenAIRE

Measurements of gentamicin concentrations in serum by the luciferase method are affected by sodium phosphate, glucose, and heparin. The effects of the first two factors can be eliminated by omitting phosphate and increasing the level of glucose in the culture medium. The effects of heparin cannot be easily circumvented, thus precluding use of this agent as an anticoagulant. Bilirubin, which purportedly inhibits measurement of gentamicin in serum by the disk diffusion assay, does not affect th...

Nilsson, L.

1980-01-01

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Factors affecting vegetable stand establishment  

OpenAIRE

Several factors can influence stand establishment in vegetable crop production. Environmental conditions such as soil physical characteristics, temperature and moisture, various cultural practices, and diseases may all be limiting factors in establishing maximum stands and achieving the highest possible yields. Measures taken to increase stands include soil improvements, implementing cultural practices, and use of chemical and biological seed treatments. Combining seed treatments and cultural...

Grassbaugh E. M.; Bennett M. A.

1998-01-01

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Factors affecting bone growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone growth and development are products of the complex interactions of genetic and environmental factors. Longitudinal bone growth depends on the growth plate. The growth plate has 5 different zones-each with a different functional role-and is the final target organ for longitudinal growth. Bone length is affected by several systemic, local, and mechanical factors. All these regulation systems control the final length of bones in a complicated way. Despite its significance to bone stability, bone growth in width has not been studied as extensively as longitudinal bone growth. Bone growth in width is also controlled by genetic factors, but mechanical loading regulates periosteal apposition. In this article, we review the most recent data regarding bone growth from the embryonic age and analyze the factors that control bone growth. An understanding of this complex system is important in identifying metabolic and developmental bone diseases and fracture risk. PMID:25658073

Gkiatas, Ioannis; Lykissas, Marios; Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis; Korompilias, Anastasios; Batistatou, Anna; Beris, Alexandros

2015-02-01

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Methylation affects transposition and splicing of a large CACTA transposon from a MYB transcription factor regulating anthocyanin synthase genes in soybean seed coats.  

Science.gov (United States)

We determined the molecular basis of three soybean lines that vary in seed coat color at the R locus which is thought to encode a MYB transcription factor. RM55-r(m) is homozygous for a mutable allele (r(m)) that specifies black and brown striped seeds; RM30-R* is a stable black revertant isoline derived from the mutable line; and RM38-r has brown seed coats due to a recessive r allele shown to translate a truncated MYB protein. Using long range PCR, 454 sequencing of amplicons, and whole genome re-sequencing, we determined that the variegated RM55-r(m) line had a 13 kb CACTA subfamily transposon insertion (designated TgmR*) at a position 110 bp from the beginning of Intron2 of the R locus, Glyma09g36983. Although the MYB encoded by R was expressed at only very low levels in older seed coats of the black revertant RM30-R* line, it upregulated expression of anthocyanidin synthase genes (ANS2, ANS3) to promote the synthesis of anthocyanins. Surprisingly, the RM30-R* revertant also carried the 13 kb TgmR* insertion in Intron2. Using RNA-Seq, we showed that intron splicing was accurate, albeit at lower levels, despite the presence of the 13 kb TgmR* element. As determined by whole genome methylation sequencing, we demonstrate that the TgmR* sequence was relatively more methylated in RM30-R* than in the mutable RM55-r(m) progenitor line. The stabilized and more methylated RM30-R* revertant line apparently lacks effective binding of a transposae to its subterminal repeats, thus allowing intron splicing to proceed resulting in sufficient MYB protein to stimulate anthocyanin production and thus black seed coats. In this regard, the TgmR* element in soybean resembles McClintock's Spm-suppressible and change-of-state alleles of maize. This comparison explains the opposite effects of the TgmR* element on intron splicing of the MYB gene in which it resides depending on the methylation state of the element. PMID:25369033

Zabala, Gracia; Vodkin, Lila O

2014-01-01

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Factors affecting Cyperus difformis seed germination and seedling emergence / Fatores que afetam a germinação de sementes e a emergência de plântulas de Cyperus difformis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O conhecimento específico sobre os padrões de dormência, germinação e emergência de espécies de plantas daninhas auxilia o desenvolvimento de estratégias integradas de gestão. Foram realizados estudos de laboratório para determinar o efeito de vários fatores ambientais na germinação de sementes e em [...] ergência de plântulas de Cyperus difformis. A germinação das sementes recém-colhidas foi inibida pela escuridão; no entanto, quando as sementes foram transferidas posteriormente para a luz total, germinaram prontamente. Nossos resultados mostraram que duas semanas de estratificação fria superam o requisito de luz para a germinação. As sementes de C. difformis conseguiram germinar numa ampla gama de temperaturas (25/15, 30/20, 35/25, e 40/30 ºC dia/noite). A resposta da taxa de germinação à temperatura foi descrito como uma função não-linear. Com base em resultados do modelo, as temperaturas de base, ótima e e teto foram estimadas em 14,81, 37,72 e 45 ºC, respectivamente. Foi preciso uma temperatura de 120 ºC por mais 5 minutos para inibir 50% da germinação máxima. O potencial osmótico e a salinidade necessários para uma inibição de 50% da máxima germinação foram -0,47 MPa e 135,57 mM, respectivamente. Foi observada uma alta percentagem de germinação das sementes (89%) com pH=6, a qual diminuiu para 12% em meio alcalino (pH 9) de pH. As sementes semeadas na superfície do solo resultaram na maior porcentagem de emergência de plântulas, e nenhuma plântula emergiu a partir de sementes enterradas no solo a uma profundidade de 1 cm. Abstract in english Specific knowledge about the dormancy, germination, and emergence patterns of weed species aids the development of integrated management strategies. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effect of several environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of Cyperus diffor [...] mis. Germination of freshly harvested seeds was inhibited by darkness; however, when seeds were subsequently transferred to complete light they germinated readily. Our results showed that 2 wk of cold stratification overcome the light requirement for germination. Seeds of C. difformis were able to germinate over a broad range of temperatures (25/15, 30/20, 35/25, and 40/30 ºC day/night). The response of germination rate to temperature was described as a non-linear function. Based on model outputs, the base, the optimum and the ceiling temperatures were estimated as 14.81, 37.72 and 45 ºC, respectively. A temperature of 120 ºC for a 5 min was required to inhibit 50% of maximum germination. The osmotic potential and salinity required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.47 MPa and 135.57 mM, respectively. High percentage of seed germination (89%) was observed at pH=6 and decreased to 12% at alkaline medium (pH 9) pH. Seeds sown on the soil surface gave the greatest percentage of seedling emergence, and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried in soil at depths of 1 cm.

A., Derakhshan; J., Gherekhloo.

2013-12-01

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Loss-of-function mutations affecting a specific Glycine max R2R3 MYB transcription factor result in brown hilum and brown seed coats  

Science.gov (United States)

Although modern soybean cultivars feature yellow seed coats, with the only color variation found at the hila, the ancestral condition is black seed coats. Both seed coat and hila coloration are due to the presence of phenylpropanoid pathway derivatives, principally anthocyanins. The genetics of soyb...

17

Factors affecting mining costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject is discussed under the following headings: investment decision-making, unit cost factors (declining ore grade, low-price contracts, ore grade/output relationship, above average cost increases). Economic, environmental, sociological and political aspects are considered. (U.K.)

18

Factors Affecting Biodiesel Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biodiesel is a renewable alternate fuel to diesel engines that could be partially orfully replace or reduce the use of petroleum diesel fuel. Biodiesel can be produced fromplant and animal fats through transesterification reaction. The transesterification reaction isaffected by molar ratio of alcohol, presence of water and Free Fatty Acid content, reactiontemperature, catalyst concentration and agitation speed. This review paper discuss aboutthe factors involved in transesterification reaction.

M.Mathiyazhagan

2011-06-01

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Factors Affecting Biodiesel Production  

OpenAIRE

Biodiesel is a renewable alternate fuel to diesel engines that could be partially orfully replace or reduce the use of petroleum diesel fuel. Biodiesel can be produced fromplant and animal fats through transesterification reaction. The transesterification reaction isaffected by molar ratio of alcohol, presence of water and Free Fatty Acid content, reactiontemperature, catalyst concentration and agitation speed. This review paper discuss aboutthe factors involved in transesterification reaction.

Mathiyazhagan, M.; Ganapathi, A.

2011-01-01

20

Intracellular ice and cell survival in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum: an ultrastructural study of factors affecting cell and ice structures  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryogenic technologies are required to preserve embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds. Formation of potentially lethal intracellular ice limits successful cryopreservation; thus, it is important to understand the relationships among cryo-exposure techniques, water content and survival. In this pap...

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Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

2009-01-01

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Fatores que afetam a germinação de sementes e emergência de plântulas de arruda (Ruta graveolens L. Factors affecting seed germination and seedling emergence in rue (Ruta graveolens L.  

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Full Text Available Ruta graveolens L., também conhecida com arruda, é planta originária do sul da Europa, cultivada no Brasil e em outros países como planta medicinal, muito utilizada em rituais religiosos. Tendo em vista que a germinação constitui um fator primordial para que a semente possa gerar uma planta vigorosa e com alto potencial produtivo, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a resposta germinativa de sementes para arruda sob condições de temperatura, luminosidade, estresse hídrico e salino e emergência de plântulas em diferentes profundidades de semeadura. Sementes de Ruta graveolens são indiferentes à luz, germinando melhor em temperatura constante de 25ºC ou alterna (20-30ºC. Os potenciais osmóticos induzidos por manitol a partir de -0,4MPa e por NaCl a partir de -0,8MPa influenciam negativamente o processo germinativo. Maiores percentuais de plântulas são obtidas quando a espécie é semeada na superfície do substrato.Ruta graveolens L., also known as rue, is from the south of Europe, cultivated in Brazil and other countries as a medicinal plant greatly used in religious rituals. Since germination is essential for the seed to generate a vigorous plant of high productive potential, this work aimed to evaluate the germinative response of rue seeds under different temperatures, luminosity conditions, and water and salt stress, besides seedling emergence at different sowing depths. Ruta graveolens L. seeds are indifferent to light, better germinating at constant temperature of 25ºC or alternated temperature (20-30ºC. The osmotic potentials induced by mannitol from -0.4MPa and by NaCl from -0.8MPa negatively influenced the germination process. Higher seedling percentages are obtained when the species is sown on the substratum surface.

O.M. Yamashita

2009-01-01

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Fatores que afetam a germinação de sementes e emergência de plântulas de arruda (Ruta graveolens L.) / Factors affecting seed germination and seedling emergence in rue (Ruta graveolens L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Ruta graveolens L., também conhecida com arruda, é planta originária do sul da Europa, cultivada no Brasil e em outros países como planta medicinal, muito utilizada em rituais religiosos. Tendo em vista que a germinação constitui um fator primordial para que a semente possa gerar uma planta vigorosa [...] e com alto potencial produtivo, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a resposta germinativa de sementes para arruda sob condições de temperatura, luminosidade, estresse hídrico e salino e emergência de plântulas em diferentes profundidades de semeadura. Sementes de Ruta graveolens são indiferentes à luz, germinando melhor em temperatura constante de 25ºC ou alterna (20-30ºC). Os potenciais osmóticos induzidos por manitol a partir de -0,4MPa e por NaCl a partir de -0,8MPa influenciam negativamente o processo germinativo. Maiores percentuais de plântulas são obtidas quando a espécie é semeada na superfície do substrato. Abstract in english Ruta graveolens L., also known as rue, is from the south of Europe, cultivated in Brazil and other countries as a medicinal plant greatly used in religious rituals. Since germination is essential for the seed to generate a vigorous plant of high productive potential, this work aimed to evaluate the [...] germinative response of rue seeds under different temperatures, luminosity conditions, and water and salt stress, besides seedling emergence at different sowing depths. Ruta graveolens L. seeds are indifferent to light, better germinating at constant temperature of 25ºC or alternated temperature (20-30ºC). The osmotic potentials induced by mannitol from -0.4MPa and by NaCl from -0.8MPa negatively influenced the germination process. Higher seedling percentages are obtained when the species is sown on the substratum surface.

O.M., Yamashita; E., Fernandes Neto; O.R., Campos; S.C., Guimarães.

24

Psychological factors affecting equine performance  

OpenAIRE

Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the ...

McBride Sebastian D; Mills Daniel S

2012-01-01

25

Factors affecting prognosis in myelofibrosis  

OpenAIRE

Studies investigating factors affecting prognosis in primary myelofibrosis have been numerous over the years because of the high heterogeneity with regard to its natural clinical course. Recently, the increasing application of reduced-intensity conditioning with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as well as the ongoing rapid development of new experimental agents, such as JAK2 inhibitors, have made the requirement for simple and accurate scoring systems to select individual pa...

Onida, Francesco

2009-01-01

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Psychological factors affecting equine performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

McBride Sebastian D

2012-09-01

27

Sugarbeet seed’s yield and quality as affected by irrigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Irrigation to the sugar-beet seed crop is a common practice since many years in Emilia Romagna region, even though information on the most suitable ways to irrigate is very limited. The aim of this three-year long experimentation was to evaluate the influence of timing and number of irrigation treatments on seed yield and quality. Treatments at the onset, at full, and at the end of flowering, wit all their possible combinations were compared among themselves and with the non-irrigated control. During the second and third years the water content of the soil was monitored weekly, starting from just before the first treatment to harvest. These measurements indicate that the upper layers (0-20 cm, which are more subjected to evapotranspiration, are more affected by irrigations than the deeper layers (20-40. The effectiveness of irrigation treatments on seed yield was tightly dependent in the distribution of precipitations. The treatments applied in full or late flowering, both separately or together, determined significant increases in yield and in the percentage of seed balls with a diameter higher than 4.0 mm, whereas those at the beginning of flowering did not produced any improvements. No significant effects of the different treatments on 1000-seed weight and germinability were observed, except for a slightly negative influence of irrigations applied at the end of flowering.When all the traits were considered, an overall moderate correlation was detected between seed yield and quality.

Paola Rossi Pisa

2007-07-01

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Sugarbeet seed’s yield and quality as affected by irrigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Irrigation to the sugar-beet seed crop is a common practice since many years in Emilia Romagna region, even though information on the most suitable ways to irrigate is very limited. The aim of this three-year long experimentation was to evaluate the influence of timing and number of irrigation treatments on seed yield and quality. Treatments at the onset, at full, and at the end of flowering, wit all their possible combinations were compared among themselves and with the non-irrigated control. During the second and third years the water content of the soil was monitored weekly, starting from just before the first treatment to harvest. These measurements indicate that the upper layers (0-20 cm, which are more subjected to evapotranspiration, are more affected by irrigations than the deeper layers (20-40. The effectiveness of irrigation treatments on seed yield was tightly dependent in the distribution of precipitations. The treatments applied in full or late flowering, both separately or together, determined significant increases in yield and in the percentage of seed balls with a diameter higher than 4.0 mm, whereas those at the beginning of flowering did not produced any improvements. No significant effects of the different treatments on 1000-seed weight and germinability were observed, except for a slightly negative influence of irrigations applied at the end of flowering.When all the traits were considered, an overall moderate correlation was detected between seed yield and quality.

Paola Rossi Pisa

2011-02-01

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Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

Adnan Nazir

2013-05-01

30

Arabidopsis thaliana DOF6 negatively affects germination in non-after-ripened seeds and interacts with TCP14.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed dormancy prevents seeds from germinating under environmental conditions unfavourable for plant growth and development and constitutes an evolutionary advantage. Dry storage, also known as after-ripening, gradually decreases seed dormancy by mechanisms not well understood. An Arabidopsis thaliana DOF transcription factor gene (DOF6) affecting seed germination has been characterized. The transcript levels of this gene accumulate in dry seeds and decay gradually during after-ripening and also upon seed imbibition. While constitutive over-expression of DOF6 produced aberrant growth and sterility in the plant, its over-expression induced upon seed imbibition triggered delayed germination, abscisic acid (ABA)-hypersensitive phenotypes and increased expression of the ABA biosynthetic gene ABA1 and ABA-related stress genes. Wild-type germination and gene expression were gradually restored during seed after-ripening, despite of DOF6-induced over-expression. DOF6 was found to interact in a yeast two-hybrid system and in planta with TCP14, a previously described positive regulator of seed germination. The expression of ABA1 and ABA-related stress genes was also enhanced in tcp14 knock-out mutants. Taken together, these results indicate that DOF6 negatively affects seed germination and opposes TCP14 function in the regulation of a specific set of ABA-related genes. PMID:22155632

Rueda-Romero, Paloma; Barrero-Sicilia, Cristina; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Carbonero, Pilar; Oñate-Sánchez, Luis

2012-03-01

31

Understorey Regeneration of Lophira alata as Affected by Seed Tree Size and Growing Conditions  

OpenAIRE

Demographic pressure and slash and burn practices are two factors which reduce the number of Lophira alata plants in its natural range where it is more represented by young plants. The hypothesis that its understorey regeneration may be affected by seed tree size and growing conditions was investigated in the tropical moist forest in southern Cameroon using mature trees of various diameter classes for a sustainable management of the species. Biomass partitioning was also examined in regenerat...

Bongjoh, Ca; Ngono, G.

2005-01-01

32

Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil  

OpenAIRE

The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol) contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ...

Abu-alruz, K.; Afaneh, I. A.; Quasem, J. M.; Hmidat, M. A.; Abbady, J.; Mazahreh, A. S.

2011-01-01

33

Fruitful factors: what limits seed production of flowering plants in the alpine?  

Science.gov (United States)

Predicting demographic consequences of climate change for plant communities requires understanding which factors influence seed set, and how climate change may alter those factors. To determine the effects of pollen availability, temperature, and pollinators on seed production in the alpine, we combined pollen-manipulation experiments with measurements of variation in temperature, and abundance and diversity of potential pollinators along a 400-m elevation gradient. We did this for seven dominant species of flowering plants in the Coast Range Mountains, British Columbia, Canada. The number of viable seeds set by plants was influenced by pollen limitation (quantity of pollen received), mate limitation (quality of pollen), temperature, abundance of potential pollinators, seed predation, and combinations of these factors. Early flowering species (n = 3) had higher seed set at high elevation and late-flowering species (n = 4) had higher seed set at low elevation. Degree-days >15 °C were good predictors of seed set, particularly in bee-pollinated species, but had inconsistent effects among species. Seed production in one species, Arnica latifolia, was negatively affected by seed-predators (Tephritidae) at mid elevation, where there were fewer frost-hours during the flowering season. Anemone occidentalis, a fly-pollinated, self-compatible species had high seed set at all elevations, likely due to abundant potential pollinators. Simultaneously measuring multiple factors affecting reproductive success of flowering plants helped identify which factors were most important, providing focus for future studies. Our work suggests that responses of plant communities to climate change may be mediated by flowering time, pollination syndrome, and susceptibility to seed predators. PMID:25447635

Straka, Jason R; Starzomski, Brian M

2014-12-01

34

FACTORS AFFECTING INTERNATIONAL LABOR MIGRATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  The article reviews the evolution of the main theories that explain the labor migration system impacts on international labor migration are shown. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of external labor migration factors in Ukraine based on the use of the basic tenets of the "push and pull factors" theory.

?.?. ???????

2012-03-01

35

Factors Affecting University Library Website Design  

OpenAIRE

Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR); yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider u...

Kim, Yongi-mi University Of Oklahoma

2011-01-01

36

Factors Affecting Performance of AODV  

OpenAIRE

In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) it is hard for a route to sustain for a longer period of time due to the mobility of nodes. High mobility of nodes results in active route failure and re-route discoveries. Such frequent route discoveries result in decreased network performance. In this study we have analyzed in detail the affect of different node mobility parameters on the performance of AODV (Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector) Routing Protocol. Simulation results are provided at the end.

Hussain, S. A.; Mahmood, K.; Garcia, E.

2007-01-01

37

Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ended in July 2008. The following 11 factors were taken into consideration during sample collection: olive fly infection, topography, olive storage before pressing, geographical area, effect of olive seeds during oil extraction, effect of pressing temperature, presence of olive leaves during oil extraction, soil type, maturity index of the olive fruit, olive variety and oil preservation and storage in terms of storage container types. The results show that soil type, region, maturity index and olive fly infection are the main factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol. Pressing temperature, olive storage before pressing, olive variety and oil storage showed a moderate effect. Olive seeds, topography and presence of olive leaves had a negligible effect on D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil.

K. Abu-Alruz

2011-01-01

38

Factors Affecting Electricity Demand in Jordan  

OpenAIRE

1) The paper examines the relationship between electricity demand and climate/non-climate related factors using statistical regression analysis. 2) It focuses on the environmental, demographic, policy (energy pricing) and technological factors as the main factors affecting the consumption pattern in Jordan. 3) The paper also presents the variations occurred in the electricity demand over the period 19...

Mohammad Awad Momani

2013-01-01

39

Conditions Affecting Shelf-Life of Inoculated Legume Seed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microbial inoculants are becoming more available as sustainable alternatives to fertilizers and other agrichemicals in broad-acre cropping. However, with the exception of legume inoculants little is understood about effective delivery and survival of the inoculum. Legume inoculants are applied to both seed and soil but seed inoculation is the most economical technique. Large quantities of pasture seed in Australia are inoculated by commercial seed coating companies, but the long-term survival of seed-applied inoculum is variable and monitoring of viability requires specialist microbiology skills and facilities. The aim of our research was to define optimum storage conditions for survival of rhizobia on legume seed and evaluate water activity as a means of monitoring shelf-life. The relationship between survival and water activity varied according to seed species, inoculum preparation, coating ingredients, initial water activity and time suggesting that storage conditions would need to be defined for each different combination. Although drying seeds after coating significantly reduced viable numbers of rhizobia, survival of rhizobia on dried commercially coated lucerne seed after 11 weeks was less variable than seeds that had not been dried. The highest numbers were maintained when seeds remained dry with water activities of between 0.47 and 0.38. The quality of inoculated seed could be improved by reducing the death rate of inoculum during preparation and providing optimum storage conditions for long-term survival.

Greg Gemell

2012-02-01

40

MATURITY AND TEMPERATURE AFFECTS THE GERMINATION OF STYRAX JAPONICUS SEEDS  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of seed maturity, warm (18oC) or cold (5.5oC) temperature, and gibberellic acid (GA3) on seed germination of Styrax japonicus Sieb. et. Zucc was investigated. Seed maturity and morphological changes were observed using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI). Fruits harvested on July 22,...

41

Factors That Affect Chinese EFL Learner's Acquisition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is concerned with factors affecting Chinese English-as-Second-Language (ESL) learner's acquisition in the Department of Foreign Languages at Tianjin Institute of Technology. These factors, which include language shock, culture differences, culture background knowledge, motivation, and ego permeability, create psychological distance…

Wang, Zhigang

42

ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE  

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Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

Carmen BOGHEAN

2013-12-01

43

Factors affecting Internet development: An Asian survey  

OpenAIRE

This study examined the relationship between the Internet development and various social, economic and political factors that are hypothesized to affect the Internet growth. Using secondary data for 28 sampled Asian countries, this study tested seven hypotheses about the impact of various factors on Internet growth. The findings show that the Internet penetration is related to a country’s wealth, telecommunication infrastructure, urbanization and stability of the government, but not related...

Xiaoming, Hao; Kay, Chow

2004-01-01

44

Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students  

OpenAIRE

This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and...

Supangco, Vivien T.

2001-01-01

45

CLIL Learning: Achievement Levels and Affective Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to investigate how successfully pupils had learned content in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) and to assess pupils' affective learning factors, such as motivation and self-esteem, in CLIL. Learning was presented in terms of achievement level, which was described as the relationship between measured levels…

Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

2007-01-01

46

Factors Affecting Smoking Tendency and Smoking Intensity  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative effect of relevant explanatory variable on smoking tendency and smoking intensity. Design/methodology/approach: Using survey data collected by the Israeli Bureau of Statistics in 2003-2004, a probit procedure is estimated for analyzing factors that affect the probability of being a…

David, Nissim Ben; Zion, Uri Ben

2009-01-01

47

Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability  

Science.gov (United States)

The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

2011-01-01

48

Remote sensing of environmental factors affecting health  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research to identify, by satellite imagery, parameters of the environment affecting health on Earth. Thus, we suggest expanding the application of space technology to preventive medicine, as a new field in the peaceful uses of outer space. The scope of the study includes all parts of the environment, natural and man-made, and all kinds of protection of life: human, animal and vegetation health. The general objective is to consider and classify those factors, detectable from space, that affect or are relevant to health and may be found in the air, water, sea, soil, land, vegetation, as well as those linked to climate, industry, energy production, development works, irrigation systems, and human settlements. The special objective is the classification of environmental factors detectable from space, that are linked to communicable or chronic endemic diseases or health problems. The method of identifying the factors affecting health was the parallel study of environmental epidemiological and biological parameters. The role of environmental factors common to both human and animal populations is discussed. Conclusive findings are formulated and possible applications, both scientific and practical, in other sectors are also discussed.

Jovanovic, Petar

49

Factors affecting patient dose in diagnostic radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report, Factors Affecting Patient Dose in Diagnostic Radiology is divided into three main sections. Part one is introductory and covers the basic principles of x-ray production and image formation. It includes discussion of x-ray generators and x-ray tubes, radiation properties and units, specification and measurement of x-ray beams, methods of patient dose measurement, radiation effects, radiation protection philosophy and finally the essentials of imaging systems. Part two examines factors affecting the x-ray output of x-ray machines and the characteristics of x-ray beams. These include the influence of heat ratings, kVp, waveform, exposure timer, filtration, focus-film distance, beam intensity distribution, x-ray tube age and focal spot size. Part three examines x-ray machine, equipment and patient factors which affect the dose received by individual patients. The factors considered include justification of examinations, choice of examination method, film/screen combinations, kVp, mAs, focus-film distance, collimation and field size, exposure time, projection, scatter, generator calibration errors, waveform, filtration, film processing and patient size. The patient dose implications of fluoroscopy systems, CT scanners, special procedures and mammography are also discussed. The report concludes with a brief discussion of patient dose levels in New Zealand and dose optimisation. 104 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs

50

Factors affecting beam shape and quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The beam shape and quality are affected by hash, ripple, ion intensity distribution and geometrical and operational factors. Hash, which was found to be localized mainly at the sides of the beam (parasitic divergence ?), must be stopped by an appropriate diapharam to improve the image quality. The magnitude of ? is strongly dependent on the relative hash. Of all the source parameters, the magnetic field is the dominant factor in determining hash. Ripple in the cathode or arc power supplies of the source leads to a modulation of the beam divergence and consequently to an apparant increase of ?. The main result is an equivalent loss of transmission when ? is eliminated. Installing effective filters in the cathode and arc supplies of the MEIRA separator reduce the ripple by a factor of 10. Other factors found to increase the value of ? for long emission slits were faulty alignment of the electrode with the emission slit and non-uniform current density along this slit. Factors affecting ion current density distribution along the slit are described. Preliminary results are given concerning the variation of features of the divergence curve with operational parameters. (Auth.)

51

Factors affecting lactose quantity in raw milk  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to characterize factors affecting lactose quantities in raw cow's milk. This study combined the survey design with laboratory analysis. Selected farm members of Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives, from Ban Pong and Photharam Districts, Ratchaburi Province, were sampled. From the selected farms, data collected included lactose quantities in the raw milk and dairy farming information. The raw milk of selected farms was sampled at the delivery site of Nong Poh dairy cooper...

Rubporn Kittivachra; Rommanee Sanguandeekul; Rungpetch Sakulbumrungsil; Penphimon Phongphanphanee

2007-01-01

52

EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT  

OpenAIRE

Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having th...

Yu-Jia Hu

2012-01-01

53

Factors Affecting E-Service Satisfaction  

OpenAIRE

User satisfaction is an important predictor of online consumer behavior and the success of a web-based system. If customers are satisfied with the services received through the online system, it is likely they will keep using the system. To examine factors affecting user satisfaction with e-services, a questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of (615) students out of (5918) at Petra University in Jordan to explore their perceptions. Regression analysis was conducted to test the hypoth...

Mohammed Mufaddy Al-Kasasbeh; Subhasish Dasgupta; Abeer Hmoud AL-Faouri

2011-01-01

54

Factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth factors that are present in goat milk may be responsible for its beneficial effects on the digestive system as described in ancient Chinese medical texts. To develop a nutraceutical product rich in growth factors for promoting gastrointestinal health, it is essential to collect milk with consistently high growth factor activity. Therefore, we investigated the factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk. Among the 5 breeds of dairy goats tested, milk from Nubian goats had the highest growth factor activity. Tight-junction leakage induced by a 24-h milking interval did not increase growth factor activity in the milk. Milk collected from pregnant does had a significantly higher growth factor activity than milk collected postpartum. Growth factor activity decreased during the first 8 wk of lactation, fluctuated thereafter, and then increased dramatically after natural mating. During wk 1 to 8, growth factor activity was inversely correlated with milk yield and week of lactation. No correlation was observed during wk 9 to 29. After natural mating of the goats, the growth factor activity in the milk correlated significantly with somatic cell count and conductivity (a measure of membrane permeability), and correlated inversely with milk yield. Based on the above data, goat milk with higher growth factor activity could be selectively collected from Nubian pregnant does. PMID:16702258

Wu, F Y; Tsao, P H; Wang, D C; Lin, S; Wu, J S; Cheng, Y K

2006-06-01

55

Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in highith retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

56

From Perceptions to Practice: Factors Affecting Recast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review study was motivated by a debate about the role of recast in L2 learning. Recast is the most frequent type of feedback but probably the least effective one. While some researchers have criticized it as inefficient, others have supported it as an unobtrusive type of feedback especially useful during interactive activities. This review of studies on recast helps pinpoint the factors contributing to the effectiveness of recast. In this regard, two factors were found to have a determining role; saliency and learners’ proficiency level. Saliency concerns the noticeability of recast by learners. Different factors affect saliency including shortness of recast, added-stress on the erroneous part, number of corrections, and the focus of recast. On the other hand, the results of studies confirm the role of proficiency. In other words, proficient learners are more likely to notice their errors using recast even when it is insalient.

Sajjad Sepehrinia

2011-08-01

57

FACTORS AFFECTING THE SPORT RELATED CONSUMER EXPENDITURES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years there has been a significant change in the importance given to economic and social role of sport related economic activities since sport has changed to a much broader concept involving sport clubs, associations, organizations and businesses where the implementation of carefully designed marketing strategies became vital for success. This study aims to explore the factors affecting the sport related consumer expenditures. Empirical results were obtained by means of a questionnaire survey in Izmir, the third biggest city in Turkey. The results include demographic and socio-economic analysis of respondents, their practices about sport related activities and expenditures associated with these activities. Six factors were obtained from the factor analysis depending on the respondents’ attitudes towards sporting activities were examined for their effects on sport related expenditures of the consumers.

Aykan CANDEM?R

2012-01-01

58

Common QTL Affect the Rate of Tomato Seed Germination under Different Stress and Nonstress Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the rates of tomato seed germination under different stress and nonstress conditions were under common genetic controls by examining quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting such traits. Seeds of BC1 progeny of a cross between a slow-germinating tomato breeding line and a rapid-germinating tomato wild accession were evaluated for germination under nonstress as well as cold, salt, and drought stress conditions. In each treatment, the most rapidly-germinating seeds were selected, grown to maturity, and subjected to molecular marker analysis. A selective genotyping approach detected between 6 and 9 QTL affecting germination rate under each of the four conditions, with a total of 14 QTL identified. Ten QTL affected germination rate under 2 or 3 conditions, which were considered germination-related common QTL. Four QTL affected germination rate only in one treatment, which were considered germination-related, condition-specific QTL . The results indicated that mostly the same QTL affected seed germination under different stress and nonstress conditions, supporting a previous suggestion that similar physiological mechanisms contribute to rapid seed germination under different conditions. Marker-assisted selection for the common QTL may result in progeny with rapid seed germinability under different conditions.

Liping Zhang

2008-02-01

59

Factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to present some factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats. To develop our work, individual and average data from performance experiments with lactating goats were used. The following variables were evaluated: gross feed efficiency, adjusted feed efficiency, dry [...] matter intake, milk-yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter digestibility, dietary neutral detergent fiber content, different roughage-to-concentrate ratios and body weight. The statistical analyses involved the application of descriptive and dispersion measures besides Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis. The analyzed variables were highly correlated with feed efficiency. The feed efficiency of lactating goats was affected by the milk fat correction, dry matter digestibility, dietary fiber content, proportion of roughage in the diet and body weight. Among these factors, standardization of the milk fat appeared to be the most efficient in correcting the feed efficiency in lactating goats. Correction of some of these factors implies greater precision in the measurement of feed efficiency.

Tadeu Silva de, Oliveira; Fernando de Paula, Leonel; Cássio José da, Silva; Danielle Ferreira, Baffa; José Carlos, Pereira; Joanis Tilemahos, Zervoudakis.

2014-10-01

60

Interaction of factors modifying the radiosensitivity of dormant seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented on modification of radiation-induced effects in dormant plant seeds. Possible sources of discrepancy of data in the earlier literature are analysed. Approaches to the correct experimental study of mechanisms of interaction of environmental factors (water content, temperature, storage conditions) in the modification of radiobiological reactions are discussed. Progress in the radiation biology of plant seeds, achieved by precise control of experimental conditions, is considered. Plant genera used were barley, rice, maize, wheat, lupins, cotton, oats, pine, pea, crepis, brassica, lactuca, lycopersicon, trifohum, festuca, hibiscus. (author)

61

Herbivore and Fungal Pathogen Exclusion Affects the Seed Production of Four Common Grassland Species  

OpenAIRE

Insect herbivores and fungal pathogens can independently affect plant fitness, and may have interactive effects. However, few studies have experimentally quantified the joint effects of insects and fungal pathogens on seed production in non-agricultural populations. We examined the factorial effects of insect herbivore exclusion (via insecticide) and fungal pathogen exclusion (via fungicide) on the population-level seed production of four common graminoid species (Andropogon gerardii, Schizac...

Dickson, Timothy L.; Mitchell, Charles E.

2010-01-01

62

AN OVERVIEW ON FACTORS AFFECTING GLOBAL HRM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mounting economic interdependence of countries globally through rising volume and multiplicity of cross border transactions in goods and services and international capital flows, and also through the more rapid and prevalent diffusion of technology had influences organizations that compete for customers with high expectations for performance, quality, and cost. The globe trade and industry order is changing speedily. Evolutionary transformations are taking place at revolutionary speed, principally pressed by strong external forces, arising out of a desire to rising competitiveness and competence. The organizations of world are no longer defined by national boundaries. Globalization also put forth stress on the Human Resource Management (HRM function to adjust to changing organizational needs, add greater value and hence, HRM is especially involved with those employees who are working across national boundaries in multinational or global enterprises. Functioning on an international level entails that the assumption of a universality of HR policies and practices and the faith in to administer in one best way has become indefensible. Aglobal organization wishes a worldwide HRM system that features decision making from a global point of view, managers from across national boundaries, and thoughts contributed by people from a diversity of cultures. The participants from different countries and cultures contribute ideas from a position of equality, rather than the home country's culture dominating. Organizations that function in more than one country must be acquainted with the countries that are not identical and differ in terms of many factors. This present research paper is an attempt to reviews major factors affecting HRM. The intention of this study is to examine the challenges/factors affecting the role of HRM.

G. G. Gondane

2014-09-01

63

Factors Affecting Electricity Demand in Jordan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 1 The paper examines the relationship between electricity demand and climate/non-climate related factors using statistical regression analysis. 2 It focuses on the environmental, demographic, policy (energy pricing and technological factors as the main factors affecting the consumption pattern in Jordan. 3 The paper also presents the variations occurred in the electricity demand over the period 1994-2008. The variations that are observed during the period of study are: Shifting of the peak load occurrence from evening to morning period, Modification in the annual daily load curve especially in winter season, Variation in relationship between space temperature and demand especially in winter, and dramatic increase in electric generation after year 2003. The shift in peak load from evening to morning period is mainly due to technological factor as a result of wide use of the air conditions in houses, services and government offices for cooling in summer instead of ordinary air fans. The variations in consumption pattern between 2000 and 2007 are mainly associated with economic, social and demographic factors. The high demand at lower space temperature is governed by introducing new appliances for heating in winter as a result of low electricity pricing comparing with gasoline price. The dramatic increase in electric generation after 2003 is probably due to demographic factors as a result of high growth of population after the Gulf war II. 4 The correlation between the daily maximum loads in morning and evening periods with the differential temperature (?T above 20?C threshold in summer and below 15?C threshold in winter, shows pronounced changes in 2007 compared with year 2000. The regression tests show that a decrease of 1?C below 15?C threshold in winter 1 increases the morning demand by only 2 MW/?C in 2000 and 16.7 MW/?C in 2007, 2 decreases the evening peak by ?2.6 MW/1?C in 2000 and increases the evening peak by 22.9 MW/1?C in 2007. Results show that the demographic, technological, environmental and national energy pricing factors play a vital rule in consumption pattern in Jordan. Moreover, the paper reveals that planners and decision makers should be careful when applying new tariff in the developing countries such as Jordan.

Mohammad Awad Momani

2013-01-01

64

EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

Yu-Jia Hu

2012-01-01

65

Factors affecting sporoplasm release in Kudoa septempunctata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The myxosporean parasite Kudoa septempunctata has been isolated from cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and was recently identified as a cause of food poisoning in humans. Since the sporoplasm plays an important role in causing diarrhea by invading intestinal cells, the specific factors affecting the release of sporoplasm from spores should be determined. Thus, we investigated the effect of digestive and serum enzymes, fetal bovine serum (FBS), temperature, and the role of glucose in cell culture media on the release of sporoplasm. Sporoplasm release was observed in the groups treated with FBS and media containing glucose. In addition, 1,10-phenanthroline inhibited the release of sporoplasm in the FBS medium. These results indicate that K. septempunctata uses glucose for releasing its sporoplasm and that zinc or metalloprotease is related to the release mechanism. The present study provides important information for the development of agents to prevent sporoplasm release and the consequent food poisoning caused by K. septempunctata. PMID:25563617

Shin, Sang Phil; Zenke, Kosuke; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi

2015-02-01

66

Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

67

Factors Affecting Fertility Desires in the Philippines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Factors affecting fertility desires in the Philippines were examined using data from a national survey and from individual and group qualitative interviews involving 143 respondents. Fertility goals usually range from two to three children, but evidence suggests that they are dynamic and may change over a person’s lifetime. Qualitative interviews reveal that when negotiating about family size, it is the partner who wants more children that will be followed. A strong demand for gender balance among offspring creates a willingness to have more children than originally desired. Fertility goals increase over time among women. While those who start childbirth at a very young age successfully space their children, they tend to want larger families than those who start late. Initial fertility goals among women are generally low but may increase because of higher fertility desires among men, a demand for gender balance in children, and the desire for babies once their children have grown.

Clarissa C. David

2014-12-01

68

Factors affecting hydrocarbon removal by air stripping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper includes an overview of the theory of air stripping design considerations and the factors affecting stripper performance. Effects of temperature, contaminant characteristics, stripping tower geometry and air/water ratios on removal performance are discussed. The discussion includes treatment of groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents such as TCE and PCE. Control of VOC emissions from air strippers has become a major concern in recent years, due to more stringent restrictions on air quality in many areas. This paper includes an overview of available technology to control air emissions (including activated carbon adsorption, catalytic oxidation and steam stripping) and the effects of air emission control on overall efficiency of the treatment process. The paper includes an overview of the relative performance of various packing materials for air strippers and explains the relative advantages and disadvantages of comparative packing materials. Field conditions affecting selection of packing materials are also discussed. Practical guidelines for the design of air stripping systems are presented, as well as actual case studies of full-scale air stripping projects

69

Factors affecting dwell times on digital displaying  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of exploratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of advanced display formats and display media on pilot scanning behavior using Langley's oculometer, a desktop flight simulator, a conventional electro-mechanical meter, and various digital displays. The primary task was for the test subject to maintain level flight, on a specific course heading, during moderate turbulence. A secondary task of manually controlling the readout of a display was used to examine the effects of the display format on a subject's scan behavior. Secondary task scan parameters that were evaluated were average dwell time, dwell time histograms, and number of dwells per meter change. The round dial meter demonstrated shorter dwell times and fewer dwells per meter change than the digital displays. The following factors affected digital display scanning behavior: (1) the number of digits; (2) the update rate of the digits; (3) the display media; and (4) the character font. The size of the digits used in these tests (0.28 to 0.50 inches) did not affect scan behavior measures.

Williams, A. J.; Harris, R. L., Sr.

1985-01-01

70

FACTORS AFFECTING PHARMACOKINETIC DISPOSITION OF DRUGS  

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Full Text Available Absorption of drugs from the gastrointestinal tract is a complex process the variability of which is influenced by many physicochemical and physiologic factors. The two most important physicochemical factors that affect both the extent and the rate of absorption are lipophilicity and solubility. The rate and extent of absorption are governed by the solubility, permeability and stability of the drug, with solubility being a pH-dependent parameter for weak acids and bases. The gastrointestinal tract can be viewed as discrete sections with a variety of differential local pH environments ranging from the acidic stomach to the more basic small intestine. The multiple peaking, double peaking or secondary peaking phenomena can occur in the disposition of a variety of xenobiotics during drug development (the pre-clinical phase and in subsequent clinical studies and use. The physicochemical and physiological mechanisms underlying the occurrence of this phenomenon are often multi factorial and include but are not limited to solubility-limited absorption, modified-release formulations, complexation, enterohepatic recirculation, gastric emptying and the intestinal transit time, site-specific absorption, gastric secretion-enteral reabsorption. Double peak absorption has been described with several orally administered drugs such as cimetidine furosemide, piroxicam, ranitidine, talinolol, alprazolam and phenazopyridine.

Mehta Hiren R

2011-05-01

71

Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency  

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Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars. Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios. The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors. The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless. Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient  attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

Marius Liutvinavi?ius

2013-08-01

72

Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

Virgilijus Sakalauskas

2011-12-01

73

Factors affecting seismic response of submarine slopes  

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Full Text Available The response of submerged slopes on the continental shelf to seismic or storm loading has become an important element in the risk assessment for offshore structures and 'local' tsunami hazards worldwide. The geological profile of these slopes typically includes normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated soft cohesive soils with layer thickness ranging from a few meters to hundreds of meters. The factor of safety obtained from pseudo-static analyses is not always a useful measure for evaluating the slope response, since values less than one do not necessarily imply slope failure with large movements of the soil mass. This paper addresses the relative importance of different factors affecting the response of submerged slopes during seismic loading. The analyses use a dynamic finite element code which includes a constitutive law describing the anisotropic stress-strain-strength behavior of normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated clays. The model also incorporates anisotropic hardening to describe the effect of different shear strain and stress histories as well as bounding surface principles to provide realistic descriptions of the accumulation of the plastic strains and excess pore pressure during successive loading cycles. The paper presents results from parametric site response analyses on slope geometry and layering, soil material parameters, and input ground motion characteristics. The predicted maximum shear strains, permanent deformations, displacement time histories and maximum excess pore pressure development provide insight of slope performance during a seismic event.

G. Biscontin

2006-01-01

74

Insecticide use in hybrid onion seed production affects pre- and postpollination processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on threats to pollination service in agro-ecosystems has focused primarily on the negative impacts of land use change and agricultural practices such as insecticide use on pollinator populations. Insecticide use could also affect the pollination process, through nonlethal impacts on pollinator attraction and postpollination processes such as pollen viability or pollen tube growth. Hybrid onion seed (Allium cepa L., Alliaceae) is an important pollinator-dependent crop that has suffered yield declines in California, concurrent with increased insecticide use. Field studies suggest that insecticide use reduces pollination service in this system. We conducted a field experiment manipulating insecticide use to examine the impacts of insecticides on 1) pollinator attraction, 2) pollen/stigma interactions, and 3) seed set and seed quality. Select insecticides had negative impacts on pollinator attraction and pollen/stigma interactions, with certain products dramatically reducing pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Decreased pollen germination was not associated with reduced seed set; however, reduced pollinator attraction was associated with lower seed set and seed quality, for one of the two female lines examined. Our results highlight the importance of pesticide effects on the pollination process. Overuse may lead to yield reductions through impacts on pollinator behavior and postpollination processes. Overall, in hybrid onion seed production, moderation in insecticide use is advised when controlling onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, on commercial fields. PMID:24665681

Gillespie, Sandra; Long, Rachael; Seitz, Nicola; Williams, Neal

2014-02-01

75

Maturity dates affect soybean seed constituents protein, oil ash and moisture  

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Full Text Available The quality of soybean seed at harvest is dependent on the field production environment during development and maturation on the plant. These investigations were conducted to evaluate the effect of planting dates on soybean protein, oil, ash and moisture content. Soybean seeds were planted in the spring (January 13, January 16, February 19 and March 1 and in the Fall (July 10, July 20, July 26 and August 25, 1991 at Agriculture Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan. Planting dates were manipulated in such a way that seed developed and matured at high temperature for spring planted crops, while seed development and maturation occurred at low temperature for all planted crops. Mature seeds that developed under these conditions were analyzed for differences in composition. Protein, oil and ash contents were strongly affected by planting date (different temperature at pod fill. Seed that matured at high temperature (spring planting resulted in higher protein, oil and ash content than the seed that matured at low temperature (fall planting. A positive correlation was found between protein and oil content and protein and ash content. The effect of temperature during pod filling storage was much greater than the temperature during early growth. Protein, oil and ash contents were positively correlated with temperature during pod filling stage and increased with each increment of temperature. Moisture content was unaffected by planting date.

Shad K. Khalil

2000-01-01

76

Genome-wide association mapping and biochemical markers reveal that seed ageing and longevity are intricately affected by genetic background and developmental and environmental conditions in barley.  

Science.gov (United States)

Globally, over 7.4 million accessions of crop seeds are stored in gene banks, and conservation of genotypic variation is pivotal for breeding. We combined genetic and biochemical approaches to obtain a broad overview of factors that influence seed storability and ageing in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Seeds from a germplasm collection of 175 genotypes from four continents grown in field plots with different nutrient supply were subjected to two artificial ageing regimes. Genome-wide association mapping revealed 107 marker trait associations, and hence, genotypic effects on seed ageing. Abiotic and biotic stresses were found to affect seed longevity. To address aspects of abiotic, including oxidative, stress, two major antioxidant groups were analysed. No correlation was found between seed deterioration and the lipid-soluble tocochromanols, nor with oil, starch and protein contents. Conversely, the water-soluble glutathione and related thiols were converted to disulphides, indicating a strong shift towards more oxidizing intracellular conditions, in seeds subjected to long-term dry storage at two temperatures or to two artificial ageing treatments. The data suggest that intracellular pH and (bio)chemical processes leading to seed deterioration were influenced by the type of ageing or storage. Moreover, seed response to ageing or storage treatment appears to be significantly influenced by both maternal environment and genetic background. PMID:25328120

Nagel, Manuela; Kranner, Ilse; Neumann, Kerstin; Rolletschek, Hardy; Seal, Charlotte E; Colville, Louise; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Börner, Andreas

2014-10-18

77

Factors Affecting Resveratrol Content in Strawberries  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the occurrence of resveratrol in Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and the effect of preharvest conditions on resveratrol content. Both cis- and trans- resveratrol were detected in strawberry achenes (seeds) and pulp (receptacle tissue). Resveratrol was identified by LC-MS. Resver...

78

DASH transcription factor impacts Medicago truncatula seed size by its action on embryo morphogenesis and auxin homeostasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The endosperm plays a pivotal role in the integration between component tissues of molecular signals controlling seed development. It has been shown to participate in the regulation of embryo morphogenesis and ultimately seed size determination. However, the molecular mechanisms that modulate seed size are still poorly understood especially in legumes. DASH (DOF Acting in Seed embryogenesis and Hormone accumulation) is a DOF transcription factor (TF) expressed during embryogenesis in the chalazal endosperm of the Medicago truncatula seed. Phenotypic characterization of three independent dash mutant alleles revealed a role for this TF in the prevention of early seed abortion and the determination of final seed size. Strong loss-of-function alleles cause severe defects in endosperm development and lead to embryo growth arrest at the globular stage. Transcriptomic analysis of dash pods versus wild-type (WT) pods revealed major transcriptional changes and highlighted genes that are involved in auxin transport and perception as mainly under-expressed in dash mutant pods. Interestingly, the exogenous application of auxin alleviated the seed-lethal phenotype, whereas hormonal dosage revealed a much higher auxin content in dash pods compared with WT. Together these results suggested that auxin transport/signaling may be affected in the dash mutant and that aberrant auxin distribution may contribute to the defect in embryogenesis resulting in the final seed size phenotype. PMID:25492260

Noguero, Mélanie; Le Signor, Christine; Vernoud, Vanessa; Bandyopadhyay, Kaustav; Sanchez, Myriam; Fu, Chunxiang; Torres-Jerez, Ivone; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Gallardo, Karine; Udvardi, Michael; Thompson, Richard; Verdier, Jerome

2015-02-01

79

Factors that affect toilet training in children  

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Full Text Available Objective: To identify age of initiation of toilet training and affecting factors for children. Material and Methods: 861 children were included in this study. "Chi square test", "Mann-Whitney U Test" and "Kruskall-Wallis Variance Analysis" statistical analysis methods have been applied. Ethical permission has been provided by local ethical committee. Results: 861 children under age of five were evaluated in this study (average age was 4±0.9; 433 children were boy (50.3%, 428 children were girl (49.7%. Age of initiation of toilet training was younger than 1 years old for 45 children (5.2%, between 13-18 month for 223 children (25.9%, between 19-24 month for 307 children (35.7%, between 25-30 month for 201 children (23.3% and older than 30 month for 85 children (9.9%. That families who live below hunger threshold and small families initiate toilet training earlier that other families were determined (p=0.001. Children in 19-24 month have shorter duration of toilet training than other groups (p<0.05. That children who live in shanty have longer duration of toilet training than children who live in apartment were determined (p=0,031. That 219 children (25.4% who had faced traumatic experiences which may affect training process, recently have longer duration of toilet training than other children (p=0,008. Duration of the training is shorter for f amilies who did not use toilet training methods than families who used methods. Conclusion: In our study, we found that age of initiation of toilet training is smaller for children who belong to family which has low level of income and small families. Duration of training is the longer for children whose initiation of toilet training was earlier than 18 month and later than 30 month, live in shanty, faced traumatic experiences.

Serdar Önen

2012-01-01

80

Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort  

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Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150 who applied to the delivery service of the Ba?kent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7% and were multipara (66.0%. It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05.Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05.

Gül P?nar

2009-01-01

81

Proximate Composition, Antinutritional Factors and Protein Fractions of Guar Gum Seeds as Influenced by Processing Treatments  

OpenAIRE

The proximate composition, antinutritional factors and protein fractions of guar seeds were studied before and after autoclaving, soaking followed by dehulling and germination treatments. Chemical composition was varied between the treatments. Soaking of seeds followed by dehulling significantly increase protein content to 67.8%. Germination of seeds increased tannin and phytic acid content of the seeds. Polyphenols were fluctuating during processing. Albumin fraction of the seeds was ...

Ahmed, Majed B.; Hamid, Rashed A.; Ali, Mohamed E.; Hassan, Amro B.; Babiker, Elfadil E.

2006-01-01

82

Factors affecting liver uptake of gallium-67  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From our clinical experience, we have suggested that the absence of liver uptake during Ga-67 scintigraphy was mainly due to markedly decreased unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC). We have succeeded in producing a rat model of absent liver uptake by administration of iron and vincristine to markedly decrease UIBC. However, the possibility of decreased liver uptake of Ga-67 due to liver dysfunction caused by these drugs can not be denied, so we performed further experiments. The changes of uptake by liver and other tissues, and UIBC induced by administration of apotransferrin (ATF) and deferoxamine (DEF) before the second scan were determined. The abscess uptake of Ga-67 during the absence of liver uptake was also determined. The administration of ATF one day before the second scan made liver uptake recover to almost normal levels and UIBC recover considerably. No recovery was produced by administration of DEF. The mechanism of Ga-67 uptake in various tissues is not completely clear. The theory that the amount of strage iron in the liver affects liver uptake has been proposed. The possibility is also suggested that antineoplastic agents may damage the synthesis of transferrin (TF) and intracellular Ga-67 carrier molecules, and/or block TF receptors in the hepatocyte to decrease liver uptake. The fact that liver uptake recovered rapidly after administration of ATF refutes these hypotheses, at least in vivo, and serum UIBC level is the decisive factor in liver uptakevel is the decisive factor in liver uptake of Ga-67. The lack of significant decrease in abscess uptake of Ga-67 during the absence of liver uptake may suggest that the pathway to the abscesses is different from that to the liver. (author)

83

Some Environmental Factors Affecting on Growth Characteristics  

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Full Text Available Live weights, weight gains and some body measurements at different ages of Eastern Anatolian Red Cattle (EAR were determined and some environmental factors affecting on these traits were investigated. The effect of dam’s age on the birth weight was highly significant (P<0.01. Although the lowest birth weight was obtained from calves of dams at the 3 years of age, the highest birth weight was obtained from calves given birth by cows at the 5 years of age. The males had heavier live weights and weight gains at different ages than the females. The effect of the sex on the live weights except for 9 and 12 months weights was found as highly significant (P<0.01. Feeding of the calves with different amount of milk had significant (P<0.01 influence on the 3, 6 and 9 months weights as well as weight gains. The effect of the years on the daily weight gains in EAR was also highly significant (P<0.01. The results shows the importance of the environmental effects on the traits studied and revealed that there is need for them to be corrected prior to the improvement studies.

N. Tuzemen

2007-01-01

84

Factors affecting small axial cooling fan performance  

Science.gov (United States)

Many factors such as outer diameter, hub ratio, blade numbers, shape and stagger angle affect the performance of small cooling fans. A small cooling fan was simulated using CFD software for three blade stagger angles (30.5°, 37.5°, 44.5°)and obtained the internal flow field and the static characteristics. Research indicated that the stagger angle has an obvious effect on the static characteristics of a fan. For flow rates below 0.0104 m3/s, total pressure is the greatest when the stagger angle is 37.5°; flow rates higher than 0.0104 m3/s, the total pressure is greatest when the stagger angle is 44.5° For the same flow rates, the velocity at inlet of pressure surface increases with increasing stagger angle, but the change of velocity on the suction surface is very small. For one model, vortices and the speed of revolution surfaces decrease with tip clearance increasing. But for other three models, increasing the stagger angle, the vortex intensity and speed of revolution surfaces at same height tip clearance increases, simultaneously, the position of vortex offset from the top of the rotor blade to the suction surface.

Wang, Lihong; Jin, Yingzi; Cui, Baoling; Jin, Yuzhen; Lin, Jin; Wang, Yanping; Wu, Chuanyu

2010-04-01

85

Gallbladder polyps: Factors affecting surgical decision  

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Full Text Available AIM: To determine the factors affecting the decision to perform surgery, and the efficiency of ultrasonography (USG in detecting gallbladder polyps (GP. METHODS: Data for 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1996 and 2012 in our clinic with a diagnosis of GP were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were evaluated. Patients were evaluated in individual groups according to the age of the patients (older or younger than 50 years old and polyp size (bigger or smaller than 10 mm and characteristics of the polyps (pseudopolyp or real polyps. ?2 tests were used for the statistical evaluation of the data. RESULTS: The median age was 50 (26-85 years and 91 of patients were female. Of 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy with GP diagnosis, only 99 had a histopathologically defined polyp; 77 of them had pseudopolyps and 22 had true polyps. Twenty-one patients had adenocarcinoma. Of these 21 patients, 11 were male, their median age was 61 (40-85 years and all malignant polyps had diameters > 10 mm (P 10 mm, 22 had true polyps. The sensitivity of USG was 84.6% for polyps with diameters > 10 mm (P 10 mm.

Pinar Sarkut

2013-01-01

86

Factors affecting lactose quantity in raw milk  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize factors affecting lactose quantities in raw cow's milk. This study combined the survey design with laboratory analysis. Selected farm members of Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives, from Ban Pong and Photharam Districts, Ratchaburi Province, were sampled. From the selected farms, data collected included lactose quantities in the raw milk and dairy farming information. The raw milk of selected farms was sampled at the delivery site of Nong Poh dairy cooperatives in the morning during December 2003 till February 2004. Lactose in the raw milk was then quantified by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using the MilkoScan FT6000 at the Department of Livestock Development. The farm owners or managers of selected farms were in-depth interviewed on dairy farming information including cowsí health and cows' diet. The data revealed that all cows from the selected farms were fed with concentrate diet purchased from Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives and grass as high fiber diets. Sample of eighteen farms also fed their cows with one of supplements: corn stem, soybean meal, or rice straw. All cows from these farms were Holstein-Friesian Hybrid. As supplemented high fiber diets, corn stem significantly increased the lactose quantities over soybean meal and rice straw (planned comparison, pvalue = 0.044. The study concluded that some high fiber diets, specifically corn stem, significantly contributed to the lactose quantities in raw milk.

Rubporn Kittivachra

2007-07-01

87

Seed Yield of Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L. as Affected by Row Distance and Herbicide Applications  

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Full Text Available The experiment on the effects of row distances and herbicide applications on the seed yield and some characteristics of Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L. was conducted in 1998-1999 and 1999-2000 growing seasons in Bornova, Izmir, Turkey. The experimental design was split-plots design with three replications. Row distances were 20, 30 and 40 cm and the herbicides were imazethapyr, imazamox and bentazone. Imazethapyr is not a suitable herbicide for weed control in Persian clover. Bentazone must be used for broad-leaved weeds such as Anagallis caerula, Matricaria chamomilla, Polygonum aviculare, Sinapis arvensis and Stellaria media. It had an effect on Fumaria parviflora in second year, only. In case of presence of wild oat (Avena sterilis and some broad-leaved weeds such as Sinapis arvensis, Anagallis caerula, Polygonum aviculare and Stellaria media, it is thought that imazamox is useful to achieve a satisfactory seed yield. The row distance had an effect on the number of lateral branches per plant and 1000 seed weight. Herbicide applications affected the number of lateral branches per plant, the number of heads per plant and seed yield. The highest seed yields were obtained from the control, imazamox and bentazone applications and the yields were 799, 733 and 712 kg ha-1, respectively. Although there were no statistical important differences among the row distances, more seed yield (752 kg ha-1 was obtained from the row distance of 40 cm.

Naci Algan

2007-01-01

88

A soybean cell wall protein is affected by seed color genotype.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dominant I gene inhibits accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in epidermal cells of the soybean seed coat. We compared saline-soluble proteins extracted from developing seed coats and identified a 35-kilodalton protein that was abundant in Richland (genotype I/I, yellow) and much reduced in an isogenic mutant line T157 (genotype i/i, imperfect black seed coats). We purified the 35-kilodalton protein by a novel procedure using chromatography on insoluble polyvinylpolypyrrolidone. The 35-kilodalton protein was composed primarily of proline, hydroxyproline, valine, tyrosine, and lysine. Three criteria (N-terminal amino acid sequence, amino acid composition, and sequence of a cDNA) proved that the seed coat 35-kilodalton protein was PRP1, a member of a proline-rich gene family expressed in hypocotyls and other soybean tissues. The levels of soluble PRP1 polypeptides and PRP1 mRNA were reduced in young seed coats with the recessive i/i genotype. These data demonstrated an unexpected and novel correlation between an anthocyanin gene and the quantitative levels of a specific, developmentally regulated cell wall protein. In contrast, PRP2, a closely related cell wall protein, was synthesized later in seed coat development and was not affected by the genotype of the I locus. PMID:1841717

Lindstrom, J T; Vodkin, L O

1991-06-01

89

Factsheet 2: Factors affecting waste generation  

SCPinfonet

Oct 1, 2008 ... undertaken by students on the Course „Environmental Control and Public Health\\?. The ... Both the quantities and composition of waste were affected by a .... \\disposable nappies was clearly dependent on whether or not infant ...

90

How do organizational factors affect compliance?  

OpenAIRE

This thesis qualitatively covers how and why leadership, competence, responsibility and contractors influence compliance with procedures, and whether or not there are other factors that may potentially influence these organizational factors and the relationship between them.The theoretical approach in this thesis is based on an MTO perspective in regards to assessing factors that may influence leadership, competence, responsibility, contractors and compliance. Compliance with procedures is re...

Skaugrud, Ida

2011-01-01

91

Epidemiological factors affecting low birth weight  

OpenAIRE

The present study was conducted to determine the epidemiological factors influencing low birth weight. The prominent factors associated with low birth weight (LBW) such as maternal age, parity, obstetric and maternal anthropometry were studied in a rural community of district Dehradun. The average birth weight of all newborns was 2.67± 0.42 kg and 23.84% of newborns were LBW. The factors which were significant for LBW were antenatal care, parity, inter-pregnancy interval, gestati...

K S Negi, S. D. Kandpal

2006-01-01

92

Seed Transmission Rates of Bean pod mottle virus and Soybean mosaic virus in Soybean May Be Affected by Mixed Infection or Expression of the Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor  

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Full Text Available To facilitate their spread, plant viruses have developed several methods for dispersal including insect andseed transmission. While insect transmission requires virus stability against insect digestion, seed-transmittedviruses have to overcome barriers to entry into embryos. Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV is transmittedthrough seed at levels typically below 0.1%, but co-infection with Soybean mosaic virus (SMV enhanced theseed transmission rate of BPMV in one experiment. In contrast, the rate of SMV seed transmission was notaffected by BPMV co-infection. In a second preliminary study, the rate of SMV transmission was lower in anisoline of Williams 82 that contained a null mutation for the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor gene than in Williams82. In this preliminary study, we observed that factors such as protease inhibitor expression and dualinfection may affect the frequency of seed transmission of BPMV and SMV.

Moon Nam

2013-06-01

93

Stand, tree and crown variables affecting cone crop and seed yield of Aleppo pine forests in different bio climatic regions of Tunisia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Tunisia, the Aleppo pine seed has a great importance, since in the last decades human consumption has risen considerable. Thus its regeneration and seed production capacities are important factors to take into account to reach the necessities of the country. To study the production of cones and seeds of Aleppo pine, Tunisias native Aleppo pine forests were surveyed in summer 2006, using 79 plots (40 × 25 m: 1,000 m²) spread over four bioclimatic zones. Stand and tree characteristics, crown dimensions and cone/seed variables were measured from an average tree of each plot (i.e. a total of 79 trees). Recorded data were submitted to simple and multiple regression analyses for explaining the variability in crown volume and crown surface, cone number and seed yield per average tree. Results showed a negative correlation between the stand density, crown characteristics and number of cones and seeds harvested from the average tree. For crown volume and surface, age, stand density, tree height, diameter at breast height, crown diameter and crown height were important explanatory variables under multiple regression analyses. For cone number per tree, only the age, stand density and total height were the most determinant variables. Matures cone number per tree and cone mass per tree were the most informative parameters for the total seed yields per tree. Finally, forest managers should know that crown size affects cone and seed crop of the Aleppo pine individual tree grown in Tunisia, but has no effects on seed number per cone and seed mass per cone. (Author) 50 refs.

Ayari, A.; Zubizarreta-Gerendiain, A.; Tome, M.; Gaqrchi, S.; Henchi, B.

2012-11-01

94

Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor  

OpenAIRE

A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1) aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 2...

Nascimento Warley Marcos; Aragão Fernando Antônio Souza de

2004-01-01

95

Effect of chemical and physical factors on germination capacity of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. seed depending on storage time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the research results regarding the effect of temperature (-15oC and sulfuric and gibberellic acids on germination capacity of 1-, 2- and 4-year-old seed of reed canary grass (P. arundinacea. According to the results obtained, the stimulatory and inhibitory effect of the above mentioned factors depended on seed age and the time of seed exposure. A significant increase in germination capacity under the influence of low temperature (-15oC was recorded only for 2- and 4-year-old seed after 6-hour exposure. However, one-year-old seed showed a significant decrease in germination capacity after 48 hours of freezing. The application of sulfuric acid significantly increased seed germination capacity only in the case of 4-year-old seed, regardless of the time of exposure, while a decrease in germination capacity, also not related to the time of sulfuric acid application, was observed in 1-year-old seed. A significant increase in germination, resulting from seed treatment with gibberellic acid, was recorded for 4-year-old seed subjected to soaking for 12 h and for 2-year-old seed (soaking time 6 h as well as for 1-year-old seed exposed to this factor for 1h. The inhibitory effect of gibberellic acid was observed in 1-year-old seed affected by this factor for 6h and 12 h as well as for hormone treatment of 2-year-old seed for 1 h and 12 h.

Tomasz R. Sekutowski

2014-12-01

96

The Effects of Affective Factors in SLA and Pedagogical Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Affective factors are the most important factors in SLA and English teaching. These factors include emotion, feeling, mood, manner, attitude and so on. All these factors, especially, motivation, self-confidence and anxiety, decide the input and output of the second language. Under the guidance of the Affective Filter Hypothesis proposed by Krashen, the present paper makes a survey on advanced English majors. By collecting and analyzing research data, some useful results and implications have been found and can be used in future teaching. The affective factors will surely help the teachers to improve their teaching quality and students to cultivate an all-round development.

Hui Ni

2012-07-01

97

Factors Affecting Quality of Life Following Stroke  

OpenAIRE

Stroke is a chronic and important health problem affecting all aspects of an individual’s life. Neurological impairment resulting from stroke leads to functional disability in patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of age, gender, duration of stroke and side of hemiplegia on the quality of life and the correlation between disability indices and the quality of life. Sixty-eight patients followed by the Stroke Policlinic of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Departmen...

Peker, Ozlen; Avcilar, Soner; Soylev, Gozde Ozcan; El, Ozlem; Senocak, Ozlem

2008-01-01

98

Factors affecting levodopa effects in Parkinson's disease.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Levodopa is the gold standard for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD because of its outstanding clinical efficacy. However, the majority of patients experience various adverse reactions, including the wearing-off phenomenon, the on-off phenomenon, dyskinesia and psychiatric symptoms. The response to levodopa depends not only on the intrinsic responsiveness of the patients, but also on various other important factors including the type of levodopa preparation, its absorption/metabolism, the blood-brain barrier, age at onset of disease and concomitant use of anti-parkinsonian drugs. This review summarizes factors which influence the effects of levodopa in PD. To minimize levodopa-induced adverse reactions and to relieve long-term parkinsonian symptoms, levodopa therapy should be conducted by taking these factors into consideration.

Ogawa N

2000-06-01

99

Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

Felicity Murphy

1998-11-01

100

Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

2008-01-01

101

Antinutrient Factors of Vegetable Cowpea (Sesquipedalis Seeds During Thermal Processing  

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Full Text Available The effect of boiling, roasting and autoclaving on the levels of some antinutrient factors present in the seeds of vegetable cowpea (sesquipedalis were studied. The reduction of trypsin inhibitor was found to be highest (100% with autoclaving at 60 min. Boiling was more effective in reducing phytic acid (68.34% and haemagglutinin (75.98% respectively at 60 min than the other processing treatments at the same time. The hydrogen cyanide was markedly reduced up to 81.25% at 15 min by autoclaving method while boiling at 60min resulted in (81.25% reduction. Tannin content was reduced by boiling and roasting up to 75.00% at 60 min and 75.00% at 120 min respectively. Boiling and autoclaving at 60 min significantly reduced stachyose (60.52% - 84.21% and raffinose (67.97 - 83.66%.

E.A. Udensi

2007-01-01

102

Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM)  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management) scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response) and environmental (physical envi...

Nitzke Susan; Brown Roger; Chang Mei-Wei

2008-01-01

103

The Direct and Indirect Factors on Affecting Organizational Sustainability  

OpenAIRE

Successful firms pursue organizational sustainability. The aim of this study is to explore the direct and indirect factors affecting on organizational sustainability. Indirect factors being those that first influence competitive advantage, and then affecting organizational sustainability. This study analyzes 145 articles retrieved from the SDOL (Science Driect Online) database that were published between 2009 and January 2013. Papers were retrieved using ‘organizational sustainability’...

Meng-Shan Tsai; Meng-Chen Tsai; Chi-Cheng Chang

2013-01-01

104

Factors influencing repeated seed movements by scatter-hoarding rodents in an alpine forest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scatter-hoarding rodents are effective dispersal agents for many plant species. Several studies have shown that rodents repeatedly re-cache seeds. The re-caching process often has a significant impact on final seedling establishment, but the factors determining its occurrence are poorly understood. In this study, we followed the fate of 3564 artificial seeds that varied in size, nutrient content and tannin content. Seeds cached closer to their original releasing plots were more likely to be re-cached, and to a further distance. Larger seeds were more likely to be re-cached than smaller ones, while nutrient and tannin content had little effect. Most plant species that depend on scatter-hoarding rodents for seed dispersal bear relatively large seeds, and large seeds are usually more likely to be dispersed and to establish seedlings, suggesting that the caching preferences of scatter-hoarding rodents may have played an important role in the evolution of large seeds. PMID:24759374

Wang, Bo; Chen, Jin; Corlett, Richard T

2014-01-01

105

Factors which affect fatigue strength of fasteners  

Science.gov (United States)

Axial load cycling fatigue tests of threaded fasteners are useful in determining fastener fatigue failure or design properties. By using appropriate design factors between the failure and design fatigue strengths, such tests are used to establish fatigue failure and design parameters of fasteners for axial and bending cyclic load conditions. This paper reviews the factors which influence the fatigue strength of low alloy steel threaded fasteners, identifies those most significant to fatigue strength, and provides design guidelines based on the direct evaluation of fatigue tests of threaded fasteners. Influences on fatigue strength of thread manufacturing process (machining and rolling of threads), effect of fastener membrane and bending stresses, thread root radii, fastener sizes, fastener tensile strength, stress relaxation, mean stress, and test temperature are discussed.

Skochko, G. W.; Herrmann, T. P.

1992-11-01

106

Bioprosthetic valve endocarditis: factors affecting bad outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) remains an uncommon but serious complication of cardiac valve replacement. We analysed several risk factors (active or healed, early or late endocarditis, congestive heart failure, arterial emboli etc.) in order to identify the factors which may predict bad outcome. The overall mortality rate was 46.8% (15/32 patients). There was a significantly higher mortality rate in patients with early endocarditis (80%) than in those with late endocarditis (38%) (p less than 0.01). In the group of patients who underwent reoperation, the mortality rate was higher in those with active endocarditis (70%) than in those with healed endocarditis (28.5%) (p less than 0.05). We believe that combined medical and surgical treatment is the best management for bioprosthetic valve endocarditis, with the institution of appropriate preoperative antibiotic therapy, to attempt to achieve sterilization. PMID:1752903

Gagliardi, C; Di Tommaso, L; Mastroroberto, P; Stassano, P; Spampinato, N

1991-01-01

107

Internal factors affecting the jury members verdict  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of socio-demographic and individual psychological characteristics that influence the verdict of jury. The study involved 38 men and women aged 25 to 64 years. With the help of a questionnaire, developed on the basis of legal development model by J. Tapp and F. Levine, we revealed levels of jury members’ legal conscience, which, together with socio-demographic characteristics and personality characteristics of the subjects, identified by R. Cattell 16PF Questionnaire, were related to the responses on the Questionnaire while returning verdict on specially selected criminal cases with implicit guilt of the defendant. According to the study, it was determined that the socio-demographic characteristics of the jurors did not significantly affect their verdict, and among the psychological characteristics of the jurors the greatest impact on their verdict has the level of legal development. Thus, depending on the nature of the crime (violent, non-violent or committed through negligence, the same level of legal conscience differently affect the decision of jurors.

Kalashnikova A.S.

2013-09-01

108

Econometrics Analysis on Factors Affecting Student Achievement  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: This study aims to identify school-level variables that influence academic outcomes, and to determine the extent of their influence. Using state-level panel data, this study estimates a simple achievement function to explore the nexus between three identified factors (percentage of students eligible for reduced/free lunch program, school enrolment and per-pupil expenditure) and student achievement (percentage of satisfactory of 4th...

Yueyi Sun

2014-01-01

109

Factors affecting levodopa effects in Parkinson's disease.  

OpenAIRE

Levodopa is the gold standard for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) because of its outstanding clinical efficacy. However, the majority of patients experience various adverse reactions, including the wearing-off phenomenon, the on-off phenomenon, dyskinesia and psychiatric symptoms. The response to levodopa depends not only on the intrinsic responsiveness of the patients, but also on various other important factors including the type of levodopa preparation, its absorption/metabolism,...

Ogawa N

2000-01-01

110

FACTORS AFFECTING VASECTOMY ACCEPTABILITY IN ETHIOPIA  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT: Vasectomy is one of the most effective but less utilized types of contraception method which could addresses the involvement of males to the family planning. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate the awareness about and practice of men towards vasectomy among workers in Dashen brewery, Ethiopia. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted using pre tested self-administered questioner to assess the Knowledge, attitude and factors associated with low utilization of vas...

E Admasu, Negalign Chekol

2013-01-01

111

ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING PARTNERSHIP ON SEED POTATO SUPPLY CHAIN IN WEST JAVA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The low productivity of certified seed potatoes is a national problem needs to be solved hrough a partnership system. This study aimed to determine the dominant factors that affect the partnership and to analyze critical issues of the partnership's life cycle through an optimization approach of the success of the supply chain partnership. Data were collected through interviews and distribution of questionnaires to 175 respondents involved in the seed potato partnership within the period of June to December 2013. Results of the study indicated that the dominant factors affecting the level of partnership were commitment, trust, mutual dependence on knowledge and process, and knowledge of the partners. Management of critical issues in the implementation phase of the partnership needed to be done through the development of expertise and reliability, open-mindedness, core competence, provision of capital based on the price policy, and easiness for access to banking, and designing standard procedures. In the shakedown phase, it needed to be done through strong leadership to change mindset of the members, building equality and avoiding group dominances, conducting formal trainings and apprenticeships, fairness in implementation of reward and punishment policy, increase in communication intensities, as well as routine monitoring and evaluation.

M.Takdir Mulyad

2014-07-01

112

Factors affecting the microstructure of porous ceramics  

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Full Text Available In this study, porous ceramics were produced by using two methods: the polymeric sponge and foam method. Astudy of the effect of viscosity on the characteristics of the final product produced using the polymeric sponge method revealed that the microstructure of porous ceramics is highly affected by the viscosity of the slurry. The optimal ratio between porosity and the strength of the porous material was achieved by subsequently repeating the immersing and drying processes. Astudy of the porous material obtained using the foam method revealed that the pore size and foam volume can be controlled by varying the amounts of anhydride and thermal blowing agent. The problem related to foam collapsing was solved by using a thermal blowing agent. The microstructure of the samples was characterized by SEM.

DUSAN TRIPKOVIC

2006-03-01

113

Ionome of soybean seed affected by previous cropping with mycorrhizal plant and manure application.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of previous cultivation of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) host plant and manure application on the concentration of 19 mineral elements in soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr. cv. Tsurumusume) seeds. Each experiment ran for two years (experiment 1 took place in 2007-2008, and experiment 2 took place in 2008-2009) with a split plot design. Soybeans were cultivated after growing either an AM host plant (maize, Zea mays L. cv. New dental) or a non-AM host plant (buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. cv. Kitawase-soba) in the first year in the main plots, with manure application (0 and 20 t/ha) during the soybean season in split plots from both main plots. On the basis of the two experiments, manure application significantly increased the available potassium (K) and decreased the available iron (Fe) and cesium (Cs) in the soil. However, higher concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba) and lower concentrations of Cs in the seed were induced by the application of manure. Cd levels in the seed were decreased by prior cultivation with the AM host plant. The present study showed that the identity of the prior crop and manure application changed the mineral contents of the soybean seed and suggests a connection between environmental factors and food safety. PMID:22950648

Sha, Zhimin; Oka, Norikuni; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Tampubolon, Biatna Dulbert; Okazaki, Keiki; Osaki, Mitsuru; Shinano, Takuro

2012-09-26

114

Proximate Composition, Antinutritional Factors and Protein Fractions of Guar Gum Seeds as Influenced by Processing Treatments  

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Full Text Available The proximate composition, antinutritional factors and protein fractions of guar seeds were studied before and after autoclaving, soaking followed by dehulling and germination treatments. Chemical composition was varied between the treatments. Soaking of seeds followed by dehulling significantly increase protein content to 67.8%. Germination of seeds increased tannin and phytic acid content of the seeds. Polyphenols were fluctuating during processing. Albumin fraction of the seeds was decreased; prolamin and globulin were fluctuated during processing while glutelin was greatly increased.

Majed B. Ahmed

2006-01-01

115

Critical Factors that Affecting Efficiency of Solar Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device which generates electricity directly from visible light. However, their efficiency is fairly low. So, the solar cell costs expensive according to other energy resources products. Several factors affect solar cell efficiency. This paper presents the most important factors that affecting efficiency of solar cells. These effects are cell temperature, MPPT (maximum power point tracking and energy conversion efficiency. The changing of these factors improves solar cell efficiency for more reliable applications.

Furkan Dincer

2010-05-01

116

Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

Yurdun Kuyucu

2009-08-01

117

Some factors affecting signalized intersection capacity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The estimates of saturation flow needed to calculate the capacity of a signalized intersection can be obtained in two basic ways. The first approach involves conducting field studies to measure saturation flows at the intersection(s) of interest. In this approach, capacity-influencing factors are empirically included, and the measured saturation flows represent the maximum capacity of the intersection approach under the prevailing conditions. The second approach to the problem involves the use of base saturation flow values, such as theoretical maximum values. These basic values can be adjusted to account for the physical and operating conditions of the particular intersection approaches being analyzed and used in intersection capacity studies. The assumption implicit in the use of base flow rates in capacity studies is that quantifiable relationships exist between saturation flows and the physical and operating characteristics of signalized intersections. Validation of this assumption has been, and continues to be, a source of considerable controversy.

Stokes, R.W.

1989-01-01

118

Factors Affecting Bank Profitability in Pakistan  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between bank-specific and macro-economic characteristics over bank profitability by using data of top fifteen Pakistani commercial banks over the period 2005-2009. This paper uses the pooled Ordinary Least Square (POLS method to investigate the impact of assets, loans, equity, deposits, economic growth, inflation and market capitalization on major profitability indicators i.e., return on asset (ROA,return on equity (ROE, return on capital employed (ROCE and net interest margin (NIM separately. The empirical results have found strong evidence that both internal and external factors have a strong influence on the profitability. The results of the study are of value to both academics and policy makers.

Sehrish Gul

2011-03-01

119

Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do not predict knowledge workers’ proposed future length of service.Factor analysis revealed seven underlying dimensions of retention cognitions. Cluster analysis revealed nine distinct clusters of knowledge workers with regard to their retention cognitions. High levels of individualism, need for challenge and focus on personal development were demonstrated. The implications of these findings are discussed. Opsomming
Een van die eienskappe van kenniswerkers is hulle hoë vlak van mobiliteit. Die koste van arbeidsomset van hierdie sleutelbronne is hoog in beide finansiële en nie-finansiële terme. Daar bestaan dus ’n behoefte om die faktore wat onderliggend is aan die retensiekognisies van kenniswerkers te verstaan. Data is ingesamel van 306 kenniswerkers in voltydse diens wat ’n wye reeks demografiese groeperings verteenwoordig. Die resultate dui daarop dat werktevredenheid en organisasieverbondenheid nie die kenniswerkers se verwagte lengte van diens voorspel nie. Faktorontleding het sewe onderliggende dimensies van retensiekognisies blootgelê. ’n Bondelontleding het nege duidelike bondels van kenniswerkers ten opsigte van hulle retensiekognisies onderskei. Hoë vlakke van individualisme, behoefte aan uitdaging en fokus op persoonlike ontwikkeling is aangedui. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

Wilhelm Jordaan

2004-11-01

120

Factors affecting thermally induced furan formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Furan, a potential carcinogen, can be induced by heat from sugars, ascorbic acid, and fatty acids. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of pH, phosphate, temperature, and heating time on furan formation. Heat-induced furan formation from free sugars, ascorbic acid, and linoleic acid was profoundly affected by pH and the presence of phosphate. In general, the presence of phosphate increased furan formation in solutions of sugars and ascorbic acid. In a linoleic acid emulsion, phosphate increased the formation of furan at pH 6 but not at pH 3. When an ascorbic acid solution was heated, higher amounts of furan were produced at pH 3 than at pH 6 regardless of phosphate's presence. However, in linoleic acid emulsion, more furan was produced at pH 6 than at pH 3. The highest amount of furan was formed from the linoleic acid emulsion at pH 6. In fresh apple cider, a product with free sugars as the major components (besides water) and little fatty acids, ascorbic acid, or phosphate, small or very low amounts of furan was formed by heating at 90-120 degrees C for up to 10 min. The results indicated that free sugars may not lead to significant amounts of furan formation under conditions for pasteurization and sterilization. Importantly, this is the first report demonstrating that phosphate (in addition to pH) plays a significant role in thermally induced furan formation. PMID:18811167

Fan, Xuetong; Huang, Lihan; Sokorai, Kimberly J B

2008-10-22

121

Factors affecting the soil sorption of iodine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine-129 is an important radionuclide released from nuclear facilities because of its long radioactive half-life and its environmental mobility. Its retention in surface soils has been linked to pH, organic matter, and Fe and Al oxides. Its inorganic solution chemistry indicates I will most likely exist as an anion. Three investigations were carded out to provide information on the role of the inorganic and organic chemistry during sorption of I by soil. Anion competition using C1- showed that anion exchange plays a role in I sorption in both mineral and organic soils. The presence of Cl decreased the loss of I- from solution by 30 and 50% for an organic and a carbonated sandy soil respectively. The I remaining in solution was associated primarily with dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The loss rate from solution appears to depend on two reactions of I with the soil solids (both mineral and organic) creating both a release to and a loss from solution, and the reaction of I with the DOC (from very low to high molecular weight). Composition analyses of the pore water and the geochemical modelling indicate that I sorption affects the double-charged anion species in solution the most, particularly SO4--. Iodide introduced to natural bog groundwater at three concentrations (l0-3, 10-1 and 10 meq L-1) remained as I- and was not lost from solution quickly, indicating that the association quickly, indicating that the association of I with DOC is slow and does not depend on the DOC or I concentration. If sorption of I to soil solids or DOC is not sensitive to concentration, then stable I studies, which by necessity must be carried out at high environmental concentrations, can be linearly extrapolated to radioactive I at much lower molar concentrations. (author)

122

Factors Affecting Patient Satisfaction During Endoscopic Procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the quality and patient satisfaction in Endoscopy Unit of Shifa International Hospital. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Division of Gastroenterology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from July 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Quality and patient satisfaction after the endoscopic procedure was assessed using a modified GHAA-9 questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 1028 patients were included with a mean age of 45 A+- 14.21 years. Out of all the procedures, 670 (65.17%) were gastroscopies, 181 (17.60%) were flexible sigmoidoscopies and 177 (17.21%) were colonoscopies. The maximum unsatisfactory responses were on the waiting time before the procedure (13.13 %), followed by unsatisfactory explanation of the procedure and answers to questions (7.58%). Overall, unsatisfied impression was 4.86%. The problem rate was 6.22%. Conclusion: The quality of procedures and level of satisfaction of patients undergoing a gastroscopy or colonoscopy was generally good. The factors that influence the satisfaction of these patients are related to communication between doctor and patient, doctor's manner and waiting time for the procedure. Feedback information in an endoscopy unit may be useful in improving standards, including the performance of endoscopists. (author)

123

Factors Affecting Penetrating Captive Bolt Gun Performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session. PMID:25415241

Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

2014-11-21

124

Trust Factors Affecting Cooperation in Construction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With all the advances in professionalism, methods, technology, and human resource training, we should have seen an increase in productivity. However, this has not happened and the construction industry is losing the battle to be competitive and has instead become a high-cost, low-productivity sector. By applying the theory that insufficient cooperation is the result of low trust the aim was to investigate how conditions for formation of positive and lasting trustful relationships can be created. A questionnaire survey including clients, contractors, architects, engineers and client design advisor was carried out. The analysis showed that the ability to be trustful can be developed through the experience of different factors (e.g. control mechanisms, mutual respect, repeated cooperation, shared understanding and communication). Furthermore, the ability to trust other parties depends on knowledge of others' skillsets. Interdisciplinary collaboration through education would limit the formation of negative stereotypes and the overall trust level increases, due to more and better knowledge of other disciplines.

Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; HaugbØlle, Kim

2013-01-01

125

Factors affecting proximal tubular reabsorption during development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies performed in several animal species have demonstrated that glomerulotubular balance is maintained throughout development despite the many changes that occur in the factors known to control it. In an attempt to understand the nature of this phenomenon the authors quantified the magnitude and described the profile of these changes in guinea pigs. The changes in physical forces were assessed from measurements of hydrostatic and oncotic pressures, whereas those in the permeability characteristics of the proximal tubule epithelium were estimated from permanence to radioactivity-labelled macromolecules of graded radii, histologic measurements of the intercellular channels, and measurements of end-proximal ratio of tubular fluid-to-plasma osmolality (TF/P/sub osm/). Between 1 and 50 days of age the net pressure for reabsorption increased from 15.0 to 30.9 mmHg with the major change occurring during the first 2-3 wk of postnatal life. The urinary recovery of [3H]inulin, [14C]sucrose, and [14C]creatinine, injected in the early segment of proximal tubules did not vary with age. The urinary recovery of [14C]mannitol increased from 92% at birth to 100% at 49 days of age. The length of the zonulae occludens and the width of the intercellular channels did not change during this period. The findings support the hypothesis that during early postnatal life glomerulotubular balance is made possible by a high permeability of the proximsible by a high permeability of the proximal tubule, which compensates for the low net reabsorptive pressure. As the animal matures and the proximal tubule epithelium becomes tighter, for glomerulotubular balance to be maintained, an increase in the number of intercellular channels and in the active transport of sodium need to be postulated

126

Factors Defining Field Germination of Oilseed Radish Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influence of temperature, depth of crops and granulometric of soil structure on germination speed, laboratory and field germination of oilseed radish seeds were studied. It was established that the period of seed-germination is defined both by temperature and granulometric structure of soil. The highest field germination was marked on sandy loam at depth of crops' seeds at 3 cm and 20°?.

N.V. Dorofeev

2013-08-01

127

Determination of Minerals and Anti-Nutritional Factors of Some Lesser-Known Crop Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cost of raw material needed for the production of animal feed has led to the evaluation and ascertaining the adequacy of some lesser known crop seeds for minerals composition and the possible effects of anti nutritional factors on the availability of the required nutrients. The mineral elements and anti nutritional factors Jatropha curcas, Trichosanthes cucumerina, Citrillius vulgaris, were determined using standard analytical methods. The concentration of copper (16.00 mg/kg-43.00 mg/kg, Zinc [33.00 mg/kg-45.00 mg/kg], Manganese [51.70 mg/kg-63.00 mg/kg], Potassium [8704.15 mg/kg-9246.33 mg/kg], Sodium [170v mg/kg-206. mg/kg], Phosphorus [322.20 mg/kg-411.60 mg/kg], Iron [133 mg/kg-187 mg/kg], Magnesium [1896.00 mg/kg-2394 mg/kg] and Calcium [1534.00 mg/kg-1826.00 mg/kg], varied significantly in the seeds respectively. The content of the minerals in metabolize state were greatly affected by the anti-nutritional factors, tannin [7.50 mg/100 g-25.30 mg/100 g], saponin [1100.00 mg/100 g-2097 mg/100 g], oxalate [17.40 mg/100 g-40.65 mg/100 g], nitrite [50.30 mg/100 g-57.30 mg/100 g], nitrate [9.00 mg/100 g-24.60 mg/100 g] and phytic acid [480.03 mg/100 g-2012.02 mg/100 g]. Concentration of mineral elements in all lesser known crop seeds are below the dietary requirements for animal.

N.O.A. Ilelaboye

2009-01-01

128

Seed Physiological Quality of Three Capsicum Species as Affected by Seed Density and Hydropriming Treatment Durations  

OpenAIRE

Seeds uniformity and seedling establishment are major problem in pepper production in developing countries and have great impact on production quality and performance. Seed enhancement technology like hydropriming can be done to address this gap. A study was initiated to determine the physiological quality of three Capsicum species (Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens and Capsicum chinense) in relation to seed density and hydropriming treatment durations. In the f...

Esuruoso, O. A.; Abdul-rafiu, M. A.; Kehinde, T. O.; Adebisi, M. A.; Oni, O. D.; Ativie, O.

2013-01-01

129

Transcription factor AtTCP14 regulates embryonic growth potential during seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of seed germination, we searched enriched cis elements in the upstream regions of Arabidopsis genes whose transcript levels increased during seed germination. Using available published microarray data, we found that two cis elements, Up1 or Up2, which regulate outgrowth of Arabidopsis axillary shoots, were significantly over-represented. Classification of Up1- and Up2-containing genes by gene ontology revealed that protein synthesis-related genes, especially ribosomal protein genes, were highly over-represented. Expression analysis using a reporter gene driven by a synthetic promoter regulated by these elements showed that the Up1 is necessary and sufficient for germination-associated gene induction, whereas Up2 acts as an enhancer of Up1. Up1-mediated gene expression was suppressed by treatments that blocked germination. Up1 is almost identical to the site II motif, which is the predicted target of TCP transcription factors. Of 24 AtTCP genes, AtTCP14, which showed the highest transcript level just prior to germination, was functionally characterized to test its involvement in the regulation of seed germination. Transposon-tagged lines for AtTCP14 showed delayed germination. In addition, germination of attcp14 mutants exhibited hypersensitivity to exogenously applied abscisic acid and paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis. AtTCP14 was predominantly expressed in the vascular tissues of the embryo, and affected gene expression in radicles in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Taken together, these results indicate that AtTCP14 regulates the activation of embryonic growth potential in Arabidopsis seeds. PMID:17953649

Tatematsu, Kiyoshi; Nakabayashi, Kazumi; Kamiya, Yuji; Nambara, Eiji

2008-01-01

130

Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

1984-05-01

131

Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer  

OpenAIRE

The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

Sven Skjenneberg (ed.)

1984-01-01

132

Factors Affecting Wedding Banquet Venue Selection of Thai Wedding Couples  

OpenAIRE

The wedding day is one of the most important days for couples, so they want their ceremony to be as near to perfect as possible. Finding a venue for the wedding banquet is the first stage of the couple’s planning and many factors affect this decision. The objective of this research was to study the factors that affect the selection of wedding banquet venues among Thai wedding couples. This study obtained data via questionnaires and used statistical tests such ...

Kulkanya Napompech

2014-01-01

133

Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils  

OpenAIRE

Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3?) addition, carbon quality (labile...

Garci?a-marco, S.; Ravella, S. R.; Chadwick, D.; Vallejo, A.; Gregory, A. S.; Ca?rdenas, L. M.

2014-01-01

134

FACTORS AFFECTING INTENT TO PURCHASE VIRTUAL GOODS IN ONLINE GAMES  

OpenAIRE

Online games increasingly sell virtual goods to generate real income. As a result, it isincreasingly important to identify factors and theory of consumption values that affect intent topurchase virtual goods in online games. However, very little research has been devoted to thetopic. This study is an empirical investigation of the factors and theory of consumption valuesthat affect intent to purchase virtual goods in online games. The study determines the effects ofgame type, satisfaction wit...

Cheng-Hsun Ho; Ting-Yun Wu

2012-01-01

135

FACTORS AFFECTING ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTICANCER PROPERTIES OF BERRY FRUITS  

Science.gov (United States)

Berry fruits have been shown to contain high levels of antioxidant compounds such as carotenoids, vitamins, phenols, flavonoids, dietary glutathionine, and endogenous metabolites. Many factors affect antioxidant levels in berry fruits. These factors include genotype variation and maturity, pre-har...

136

Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

Bista, Krishna K.

2008-01-01

137

Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, rchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

138

Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour  

Science.gov (United States)

The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

2013-06-01

139

Agronomic Traits of Mungbean and Subsequent Rice Crop as Affected by Seed Inoculation and Different Fertilizer Level  

OpenAIRE

Effect of seed inoculation and different fertilizer levels on the yield and yield components of mungbean and subsequent rice crop was studied. Results showed that seed inoculation and different fertilizer levels significantly affected yield and yield components of mungbean and rice crops. Treatment (T6) exhibited superior performance for exploiting maximum potential of mungbean crop (954.8 kg ha-1 grains), which was 50% more than that of control. Whereas T7 ga...

Aasrar Mahboob; Muhammad Jamil Tahir; Asmat Ali Javed; Tariq Mehmood

2003-01-01

140

Does Cold Plasma Affect Breaking Dormancy and Seed Germination? A Study on Seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low-pressure discharge is applied for stimulation of germination of two seed lots of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) with different starting germinations (17%, 8%) and in different stages of dormancy. Different exposition durations with cold plasma treatment were applied. The variable of the ratio cumulative germination was calculated. The Richards' equation was used for curve-fitting and simulation of the growth curves. Population parameters, namely Vi - viability, Me - time, Qu - dispersion, and Sk - skewness, counted from the curves described the germination rate well. Significant differences among Qu confirmed the erratic dormancy and gradual germination of Lamb's Quarters. No difference in the Me parameter was found between two tested seed lots, and no interspecies characteristics were changed using low-pressure discharge. The results suggested that plasma treatment changed seed germination in Lamb's Quarters seeds.

141

Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3 (-)) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3 (-) addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3 (-) and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time. PMID:25177207

García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

2014-07-01

142

Factors affecting the pace of world fusion development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principal factors affecting the pace of world fusion development are costs, technical progress, and management. Costs are of two types: the inherent costs of the R and D and the money that governments are willing to make available. Technical progress can accelerate pace if it is ''positive'' but can slow pace if results are ''negative''. Management affects pace by the nature of national or regional decisions but also through cooperative international agreement. (author)

143

Crucial Factors Affecting Stress: A Study among Undergraduates in Pakistan  

OpenAIRE

Stress is normally unavoidable part of everyone’s life living in this world. It portrays a negative notion that can have an impact on one’s mental and physical well-being. The core intention of this study was to detect the most influencing factors of stress affecting undergraduates. The four factors that had taken under consideration were Family stress, Emotional stress, Financial Stress and Social Stress. To accomplish this research stress inventory has developed using scientific methods...

Kashif Ud Din Khan; Shazia Gulzar; Farzan Yahya

2013-01-01

144

Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment  

OpenAIRE

Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n = 154 Blue-faced Leicester×Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal charac...

Gardner, D. S.; Buttery, P. J.; Daniel, Z.; Symonds, M. E.

2007-01-01

145

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia  

OpenAIRE

Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of ...

Awases, Magdalene H.; Bezuidenhout, Marthie C.; Roos, Janetta H.

2013-01-01

146

Folate, Hormones and Infertility : Different factors affecting IVF pregnancy outcome  

OpenAIRE

Various hormones have been studied as regards prediction of pregnancy outcome after infertility treatment, but no ideal candidate has been found. Folate and genetic variations in folate metabolism have also been associated with infertility, but it remains unclear how these factors affect IVF pregnancy outcome. It is known that infertility is associated with active folic acid supplement use, but the effect of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors on folic acid supplement use in infertile women h...

Murto, Tiina

2014-01-01

147

Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males) divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with ...

Al-Quran Firas A; Al-Ghalayini Raed F; Al-Zu'bi Bashar N

2011-01-01

148

Factors affecting the diffusion of online end user literature searching.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect diffusion of usage of online end user literature searching. Fifteen factors clustered into three attribute sets (innovation attributes, organizational attributes, and marketing attributes) were measured to study their effect on the diffusion of online searching within institutions. METHODS: A random sample of sixty-seven academic health sciences centers was selected and then 1,335 library and informatics staff members at th...

Ash, J. S.

1999-01-01

149

Factors affecting influenza vaccination among pregnant women : a systematic review  

OpenAIRE

Objective: Pregnancy has been recognized as a risk factor for severe pandemic influenza illness and this “vulnerable” group is suggested to be heightened alertness to the disease by WHO. This systemic review aims to identify the factors affecting the uptake of influenza vaccination among pregnant women as the immunization uptake among this particular group of population is low or suboptimal worldwide. Methods: Systematic literature reviews were conducted by using MEDLINE and PubMed wit...

Fong, Choi-ching; ???

2013-01-01

150

Factors Affecting The Profitability Rate of Leading Firms in Makassar  

OpenAIRE

The purposes of this research are to investigate the factors which affecting firms’ profitability in Makassar. The factors are amount of capital, growth of sales, net working capital, leverage ratio, and current ratio. The sample involved in the survey 45 companies which identified as leading companies in Makassar. The result outlined that the leading businesses tended to consider financial ratio in implementing financial policy. The findings indicated that growth of sales, current ratio a...

Rakhman, Abdul

2010-01-01

151

Analysis and Measurement of Buildability Factors Affecting Edge Formwork  

OpenAIRE

Labour productivity is affected by several factors, but buildability is among the most important. Nevertheless, a thoroughexamination of the literature revealed a dearth of research into the influence of buildability factors on labour productivityof in situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the formwork trade level. Although edge formwork is an importantlabour intensive activity, most often, its labour cost is either crudely estimated or lumped within the formwork cost of othera...

Jarkas, A. M.

2010-01-01

152

Factors affecting vegetable stand establishment Fatores que afetam o estabelecimento do estande em hortaliças  

OpenAIRE

Several factors can influence stand establishment in vegetable crop production. Environmental conditions such as soil physical characteristics, temperature and moisture, various cultural practices, and diseases may all be limiting factors in establishing maximum stands and achieving the highest possible yields. Measures taken to increase stands include soil improvements, implementing cultural practices, and use of chemical and biological seed treatments. Combining seed treatments and cultural...

Grassbaugh, E. M.; Bennett, M. A.

1998-01-01

153

Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

2009-01-01

154

Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A).…

Küçüközer, Asuman

2015-01-01

155

Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…

Nergis, Aysegul

2013-01-01

156

Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

Kwan, Eugene E.

2005-01-01

157

Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

2011-01-01

158

Chemistry Time: Factors Affecting the Rate of a Chemical Reaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents an activity that explores the factors affecting the rate of a chemical reaction. Contains information for the instructor such as details about the chemistry of the reaction, answers to student questions, and sources of additional information and related activities. (DDR)

Journal of Chemical Education, 1998

1998-01-01

159

Factors Affecting the Development and Use of Learning Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored barriers and facilitating factors affecting the development and use of learning objects in developing instructional materials and their use in supporting individualized learning. Over a two-month period, students in a graduate-level instructional design course developed instructional materials incorporating learning objects or…

Moisey, Susan D.; Ally, Mohamed; Spencer, Bob

2006-01-01

160

Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

Kwenda, Maxwell

2011-01-01

161

Factors affecting determination of the optical path in radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primary factors affecting determination of the optical path in radiography are investigated. For two different detect ways, the direct and the converting screen methods, these factors are the same, including the scattering effect, the angle distribution effect of the exposure, and the inverse effect of the exposure to the square of radiographic distance. In the high-energy radiography, the scatter is very serious and it is the most important factor. The scatter effect makes the measured value of optical path 20%-40% lower than its actual value. Before CT reconstruct of the radiographic image, it is necessary to reduce scatter effect from the measured optical path. (author)

162

Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market.

163

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors inf [...] luencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. METHOD: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia. RESULTS: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

Magdalene H., Awases; Marthie C., Bezuidenhout; Janetta H., Roos.

2013-01-01

164

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

Magdalene H. Awases

2013-01-01

165

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

Magdalene H. Awases

2013-04-01

166

Factors Affecting Wedding Banquet Venue Selection of Thai Wedding Couples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The wedding day is one of the most important days for couples, so they want their ceremony to be as near to perfect as possible. Finding a venue for the wedding banquet is the first stage of the couple’s planning and many factors affect this decision. The objective of this research was to study the factors that affect the selection of wedding banquet venues among Thai wedding couples. This study obtained data via questionnaires and used statistical tests such as the Mann-Whitney U test and one-way analysis of variance. Results showed that among the 30 factors that were assessed by 222 respondents, good service from employees, food quality, the venue’s atmosphere, size of the event room and facilities in the wedding room were the five most important factors determining the attractiveness of a wedding banquet venue. The results demonstrated that respondents who organized a wedding banquet at a hotel prioritized the atmosphere. In contrast, respondents who organized a wedding banquet at a restaurant placed highest priority on the facilities of the wedding room. Results showed that significant differences regarding the factors that affect the selection of wedding banquet venues exist across groups with different demographic variables (i.e., age, income, education level.

Kulkanya Napompech

2014-01-01

167

An Evaluation of Factors Affecting E-learner\\\\\\'s Satisfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Worldwide, the e-learning has a growth, but failures exist. Previous researches showed that user’s satisfaction is one of the most important factors in assessing the success of e-learning system implementation and a variety of factors affecting users' satisfaction. In this research, eight independent variables namely learner Internet self-efficacy, instructor response timeliness, e-learning course flexibility, e-learning course quality, technology quality, system usefulness, system ease of use, and diversity in assessment with nine hypotheses were discussed. The Spearman's correlation analysis was used to test initial eight hypotheses and a stepwise multiple linear regression model was conducted to test the ninth hypothesis. The results revealed that e-learning course flexibility, e-learning course quality, technology quality, and diversity in assessment were the critical factors affecting e-learner satisfaction that could not be neglected when implementing successful e-learning courses.

Davood Karimzadegan Moghadam

2012-03-01

168

An experiment on the factors affecting simple reaction time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reaction time is considered as an important measure that affects performance of an individual both in business and private life. Especially, reaction time, which can be defined as a period of time being required for giving appropriate responses to the perceived stimuli, is an important factor in terms of efficiency of organization and also health and safety at work. Moreover, reaction time is regarded as an important factor in product design. In this study, an experiment is designed to reveal the factors that affect simple reaction time and the effects of (discrete / continuous variables such as age, height, weight, gender, sight defects, smoking and alcohol use, regular habits of sports and academic achievement on reaction time of individuals are investigated, and the findings are interpreted.

Hale Akkocao?lu

2013-10-01

169

Processing Effects on Some Antinutritional Factors and In vitro Multienzyme Protein Digestibility (IVPD of Three Tropical Seeds: Breadnut (Artocarpus altilis, Cashewnut (Anacardium occidentale and Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mature seeds of breadnut, cashewnut and fluted pumpkin were processed in the laboratory into the raw dried, boiled, fermented, germinated and roasted seeds. Differently processed seeds were dried at 50°C, ground and sieved through 500?m sieves. The seed flours were evaluated for trypsin inhibitor activity, tannin, phosphorus compounds and in vitro multienzyme protein digestibility (IVPD. The results show that processing significantly (P = 0.05 affected the antinutritional factors in the seed flours. Breadnut flours contain 2.8-5.3g/kg phytic acid, 5.8-9.2g/kg tannin and 0.9-8.1mg/g flour of trypsin inhibitor activity. Cashewnut flours contain 6.0-9.9g/kg phytic acid, 5.1-13.3g/kg tannin and 0.8-2.5mg/g flour of trypsin inhibitor activity. Fluted pumpkin seed flours contain 2.8-13.8g/kg phytic acid, 7.5-19.1g/kg tannin and 0.0-11.0mg/g flour of trypsin inhibitor activity. Fermentation is the most effective processing method to reduce phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor activity while boiling is most effective in reducing the tannin content. The result of IVPD of the seeds generally show that the boiled samples are the most digestible followed by the fermented samples while the raw dried/germinated samples are the least. The order of digestibility of the three seeds is fluted pumpkin (72.0 - 86.0% > cashewnut (74.3 - 82.9% > Breadnut flour (71.3 - 78.3%. Processing techniques used reduced the antinutritional factors in the seeds and improve its IVPD when compared with the raw dried seed flours.

T.N. Fagbemi

2005-01-01

170

Relationship between Factors of Construction Resources Affecting Project Cost  

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Full Text Available The success of any construction project highly depends on how proper and effective the management of construction resources flow. Studies show that various resources factors affected cost management and have resulted to significant amount of cost overrun worldwide. However, a few investigations had been carried out in Malaysia regarding the effect of resources in construction industry. Hence, this study focuses on identifying significant resource factors causing construction cost overrun and also assessing the relationship between these factors. Data collection was carried out through a structured questionnaire survey consisting of 20 factors identified through a comprehensive literature review. Data was analyzed using statistical software package SPSS. The Cronbach’s alpha of the data was 0.910 which means that the collected data was highly reliable. The factors were ranked through mean rank approach and it was found that 3 most significant factors are “fluctuation of prices of materials”, “cash flow and financial difficulties faced by contractors” and “shortages of materials”. While the least significant factors in causing cost overrun are “insufficient numbers of equipment”, “relationship between management and labour”, and “labour absenteeism”. The result of Spearman test indicates that “cash flow and financial difficulties faced by contractors” with “financial difficulties of owner” correlate strongly at a significant level of 0.752. This identification of factors and relationships will help construction community in controlling resopurce factors for achieving project completion within the budget.

Ismail Abdul Rahman

2012-12-01

171

FACTORS AFFECTING INTENT TO PURCHASE VIRTUAL GOODS IN ONLINE GAMES  

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Full Text Available Online games increasingly sell virtual goods to generate real income. As a result, it isincreasingly important to identify factors and theory of consumption values that affect intent topurchase virtual goods in online games. However, very little research has been devoted to thetopic. This study is an empirical investigation of the factors and theory of consumption valuesthat affect intent to purchase virtual goods in online games. The study determines the effects ofgame type, satisfaction with the game, identification with the character, and theory ofconsumption values on intent to purchase virtual goods. The study used a survey to collectinformation from 523 virtual game users. Study results showed that game type is a moderatingvariable that affects intent to purchase virtual goods. And it demonstrated that role-playing gameusers are affected by theory of consumption values: functional quality, playfulness, and socialrelationship support. Moreover, war-strategy game users are affected by satisfaction with thegame, identification with the character, and theory of consumption values: price, utility, andplayfulness. The study also presents conclusions, proposes applications, and describesopportunities for further research.

Cheng-Hsun Ho

2012-10-01

172

Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral  

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Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5% such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

Bahieh Moradi

2011-12-01

173

Factors Affecting Nurses’ Coping With Transition: An Exploratory Qualitative Study  

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Full Text Available Aim: One of the most important factors contributing to staff shortage is nurses’ ineffective coping with transitions. Changes in nurses’ official positions are usually associated with varying degrees of transition. Identification of affecting factors on nurses’ coping in responding to transition can promote quality of nursing activity and prevent nurses’ shortage. So the aim of this study was to explore factors affecting nurses’ coping with transitions. Methods: The participant of this exploratory qualitative study consisted of sixteen nurses that were work in medical wards of four hospitals in Qazvin, Iran. Data collected by semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis approach. Results: The main theme of the study was ‘inadequate preparation for transition’. This theme consisted of six categories including “staff training and development”, “professional relationships”, “perceived level of support”, “professional accountability and commitment”, “welfare services”, and “nursing staff shortage”. Conclusion: Nursing managers and policy makers need to pay special attention to the affecting factors on nurses’ coping with transition and develop effective strategies for facilitating it.

Jalil Azimian

2014-06-01

174

Effects of prolonged exposure to space flight factors for 175 days on lettuce seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied the effects of prolonged (up to 175 days) exposure of Lactuca sativa seeds to space flight factors, including primary cosmic radiation heavy ions. The data obtained evidence a significant fourfold increase ofs pontaneous mutagenesis in seeds both with regard to the total number of aberrant cells as well as the formation of single cells with multiple aberrations. Comparison of the present experiment with earlier works shows that the frequency of such aberrations increases with the duration of the flight.

Nevzgodina, L. V.; Maximova, E. N.; Akatov, Yu. A.

175

Effects of prolonged exposure to space flight factors for 175 days on lettuce seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of prolonged (up to 175 days) exposure of Lactuca sativa seeds to space flight factors, including primary cosmic radiation heavy ions have been studied. The data obtained evidence a significant fourfold increase of spontaneous mutagenesis in seeds both with regard to the total number of aberrant cells as well as the formation of single cells with multiple aberrations. Comparison of the present experiment with earlier works shows that the frequency of such aberrations increases with the duration of the flight

176

Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

Daniel P. Molloy

2004-02-24

177

Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

Al-Quran Firas A

2011-12-01

178

Can salvage logging affect seed dispersal by birds into burned forests?  

Science.gov (United States)

The recovery of vegetation in Mediterranean ecosystems after wildfire is mostly a result of direct regeneration, since the same species existing before the fire regenerate on-site by seeding or resprouting. However, the possibility of plant colonization by dispersal of seeds from unburned areas remains poorly studied. We addressed the role of the frugivorous, bird-dependent seed dispersal (seed rain) of fleshy-fruited plants in a burned and managed forest in the second winter after a fire, before on-site fruit production had begun. We also assessed the effect on seed rain of different microhabitats resulting from salvage logging (erosion barriers, standing snags, open areas), as well as the microhabitats of unlogged patches and an unburned control forest, taking account of the importance of perches as seed rain sites. We found considerable seed rain by birds in the burned area. Seeds, mostly from Olive trees Olea europaea and Evergreen pistaches Pistacia lentiscus, belonged to plants fruiting only in surrounding unburned areas. Seed rain was heterogeneous, and depended on microhabitat, with the highest seed density in the unburned control forest but closely followed by the wood piles of erosion barriers. In contrast, very low densities were found under perches of standing snags. Furthermore, frugivorous bird richness seemed to be higher in the erosion barriers than elsewhere. Our results highlight the importance of this specific post-fire management in bird-dependent seed rain and also may suggest a consequent heterogeneous distribution of fleshy-fruited plants in burned and managed areas. However, there needs to be more study of the establishment success of dispersed seeds before an accurate assessment can be made of the role of bird-mediated seed dispersal in post-fire regeneration.

Rost, J.; Pons, P.; Bas, J. M.

2009-09-01

179

Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor  

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Full Text Available A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1 aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 25°C and germination percentage at 17°C. An interaction effect on germination performance between vigor and priming was observed, especially at low temperature. Priming increased germination performance in seeds of low vigor, and the response was cultivar dependent.

Nascimento Warley Marcos

2004-01-01

180

Analysis on Psychological Factors to Affect the Vocal Stage Performance  

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Full Text Available

The stage performance is an important part of artistic practice for vocal students. To perfectly express the music on stage is the dream of every vocal music performer. This essay is about analysis of the psychological factors to affect the vocal stage performance and to explore the reasons for stage fright and the methods to overcome this, to enable students to further enhance the level of their vocal music.

Key words: Vocal music; Stage performance; Psychological factor

Xihong CHEN

2012-11-01

181

Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh  

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Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author

2011-09-01

182

Factors affecting the dermal bioavailability of hydrocarbons in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The science of risk assessment has advanced significantly in recent years, in a continuing effort to more accurately represent potential human health effects from exposure to chemicals in the environment. This paper describes some environmental factors that affect the behavior of chemicals in soil and the relationship of this chemical behavior to the prediction of dermal exposures relating to soil contamination. The information presented in this paper suggests that the mass transfer of chemicals from the soil to the skin is as much an issue in dermal exposures to soil-sorbed chemicals as the actual absorption of the chemical through the skin. Relevant factor affecting the sorption, desorption, and mass transfer of hydrocarbon chemicals in soil are discussed. A summary of the scientific literature related to research on chemicals sorbed to soil is also presented

183

Operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses  

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Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses,which comprised rotor speed (RS, louver inclination (LI, grain moisture content (MC, feed rate (FR, and grain to materialother than grain ratio (GM. Seventeen Thai corn-shelling threshers were random-sampled during the late rainy season cropof 2008 and ten threshers were sampled in the early rainy season crop of 2009 in Loei province, Northeast of Thailand.The results of this study indicated that LI and MC affected shelling losses whereas RS, FR and GM did not affect losses.Increased LI or decreased MC tended to reduce shelling losses. In operating the Thai threshers for corn shelling, if shellinglosses have to be kept lower that 0.5%, the moisture content should not exceed 20%wb and the louver inclination should notbe less than 85 degrees.

Somchai Chuan-udom

2013-02-01

184

Survey Of Complaints And Factors Affecting Them In Firoozgar Hospital  

OpenAIRE

 Background and Aim: Complaint is the expression of dissatisfaction that needs a response and investigation. It is an effective tool to improve the quality of services. The aim of this study was the survey of complaints, factors affecting them, and the complaint process in Firoozgar Hospital. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study. All registered complaints, such as written, verbal and telephone complaints were reviewed in 2012. The dat...

Saeedeh Movahednia; Zeinab Partovishayan; Mahmoud Bastani

2014-01-01

185

Factors affecting individual lactation curve in Italian river buffaloes  

OpenAIRE

Lactation curves for milk yield of 3860 Italian river buffaloes were modelled with the Wilmink function. For this species, a wide range of goodness of fit indicates much variation of shapes among animals. Moreover, about 30% of individual curves showed the atypical shape, i.e., characterised by the absence of the lactation peak. The presence of atypical curves may seriously bias results of analysis based on comparison between individual parameter values. Factors affecting the occurrence of at...

Macciotta, Nicolo? Pietro Paolo; Dimauro, Corrado; Catillo, Gennaro; Coletta, Angelo; Cappio Borlino, Aldo

2006-01-01

186

Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations are made for future work to enhance the effectiveness of water jetting as a nuclear decontamination technique and the importance of containment and effluent treatment is outlined. (author)

187

Five Factors Affecting Stability and Security in the Middle East  

OpenAIRE

There are five factors that affect security and stability in the Middle East. The first of these is the ticking bomb of sectarianism between the Sunni and Shiite strands of Islam, which have become more widespread in recent years due to the politisation of sectarian tensions and their transformation among some actors to a means to achieve political demands. Secondly, the impact of the Arab revolutions and the accompanying rise of Islamist groups through the new democratic tendencies encourage...

Yahya Alshammari

2012-01-01

188

Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed ...

Bauer, S.; Ketema, M.

2012-01-01

189

Factors Affecting the Crevice Corrosion Susceptibility of Alloy 22  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The susceptibility or Alloy 22 (N06022) to crevice corrosion may depend on environmental or external factors and metallurgical or internal factors. Some of the most important environmental factors are chloride concentration, inhibitors, temperature and potential. The presence of a weld seam or second phase precipitation in the alloy are classified as internal factors. The localized corrosion resistance of Alloy 22 has been extensively investigated in the last five years, however not all affecting factors were considered in the studies. This paper discusses the current findings regarding the effect of many of these variables on the susceptibility (or resistance) of Alloy 22 to crevice corrosion. The effect of variables such as temperature, chloride concentration and nitrate are rather well understood. However there are only limited or no data regarding effect of other factors such as pH, other inhibitive or deleterious species and type of crevicing material and crevice geometry. There are contradictory results regarding the effect of metallurgical factors such as solution heat treatment.

Rebak, R B

2004-11-24

190

Factors That Affect Body Mass Index of Adults  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the factors that contribute to the body mass index (BMI of adults and evaluate the eating habits of the individuals. The study was conducted on 498 adults whose ages were ranging from 20 to 85 (39.1±14.9 year. The data were collected using a questionnaire form that consisted of questions concerning general characteristics of individuals, frequency of food consumption and eating habits. Food types in the food consumption frequency were grouped together according to Nutrition Guide for Turkey. Body weights and heights of the individuals were measured. BMI of the 55% of the individuals participated in the study is 25 or higher than 25. The average BMI of the individuals differs according to age, educational, marital, smoking status, parity and sleep duration (p0.05. A statistically significant correlation was found between BMI of participants and their habit of eating at night, appetite and use of sweeteners (p<0.05. Individuals with BMI<25 were determined to have a lower consumption frequency of milk and dairy products and fruits-vegetables monthly (p<0.05. In this study; age, educational, marital, smoking status and sleep duration were found to affect body mass index. Analysis of genetic and environmental factors affecting obesity is required to reveal the factors affecting body mass index of individuals more clearly.

Esma Asil

2014-01-01

191

Breeding for Grass Seed Yield  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses.

Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

2010-01-01

192

Removal of antinutritional factors from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds  

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Full Text Available Phytohemagglutinin and the lectin-related proteins present in bean seeds are toxic to monogastric animals and lower the nutritional value of beans. Since these antimetabolites are present in substantial amounts, a breeding program aimed to the removal ofphytohemagglutinin was developed. The character ""absence of phytohemagglutinin"" was transferred into a bean cultivar by backcrossing. The lines obtained maintained the agronomic performance of the recurrent parent. Preliminary results show that removal of phytohemagglutinin results in a higher true protein digestibility. Further modification in the composition of the lectin-related protein family is now under way.

Bollini R.

1999-01-01

193

Ball milling improves extractability and affects molecular properties of psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) seed husk arabinoxylan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) seed husk (PSH) is very rich in arabinoxylan (AX). However, its high gelling capacity and the complex nature of the AX make it difficult to process. In this study, ball milling was investigated as a tool for enhancing PSH AX water extractability and molecular mass (MM). A 48 h laboratory-scale ball mill treatment under standardized optimal conditions reduced the PSH average particle size from 161 microm for the untreated sample to 6 microm. Concurrently, it increased the water-extractable AX (WE-AX) level from 13 (untreated PSH) to 90% of the total PSH AX. While the WE-AX of the untreated PSH had a peak MM of 216 kDa and an arabinose to xylose (A/X) ratio of 0.20, WE-AX fragments from ball mill-pretreated PSH had a peak MM of 22 kDa and an A/X ratio of 0.31. Ball milling further drastically reduced the intrinsic viscosity of PSH extracts and their water-holding capacity. Prolonged treatment brought almost all AX (98%) in solution and yielded WE-AX fragments with an even higher A/X ratio (0.42) and a lower peak MM (11 kDa). While impact and jet milling of PSH equally led to significant reductions in particle size, these technologies only marginally affected the water extractability of PSH AX. This implies that ball milling affects PSH particles and their constituent molecules differently than impact and jet milling. PMID:19007123

Van Craeyveld, Valerie; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

2008-12-10

194

Factors affecting leachability of Cs-137 in cement matrix  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various factors affecting the leachability of Cs-137 in cement matrix are investigated. System factors include such as pressure curing, vibration curing, pressure leaching and the dependency of exposed surface area. Solid factors are the effect of the clay(natural zeolite catalyst) addition, ion-exchange resin (IRN-77) addition, and CO/sub 2/ and air injection. Cement matrices usually may not contact directly with underground water in real repository, since the surroundings of disposed drums is filled with backfill material. Thus, the effect of backfill material to the leachability is also investigated. The well-known diffusion theory was utilized to predict long term leach rate and cumulative fraction leached of Cs-137 or non-radioactive species

195

Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were used to divide the metabolites into the following three groups: 1) correlated to growth, 2) correlated to color formation, and 3) formed at high pH. Subsequently, a full factorial experiment with factors P, Mg and Cu, showed that low P concentrations (2000 mg/kg) induced yellow color formation. Among the factors contributing to yellow color formation, pH and salt concentration are easy to control for the cheesemaker, while the third factor, P-concentration, is not. Naturally occurring variations in the P-concentration in milk delivered to Blue Cheese plants, could be responsible for the yellow discoloration phenomenon observed in the dairy industry.

Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.

2002-01-01

196

Cytosolic phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases affect Arabidopsis cellular metabolism and promote seed oil accumulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cytosolic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC) catalyzes a key reaction in glycolysis, but its contribution to plant metabolism and growth are not well defined. Here, we show that two cytosolic GAPCs play important roles in cellular metabolism and seed oil accumulation. Knockout or overexpression of GAPCs caused significant changes in the level of intermediates in the glycolytic pathway and the ratios of ATP/ADP and NAD(P)H/NAD(P). Two double knockout seeds had ?3% of dry weight decrease in oil content compared with that of the wild type. In transgenic seeds under the constitutive 35S promoter, oil content was increased up to 42% of dry weight compared with 36% in the wild type and the fatty acid composition was altered; however, these transgenic lines exhibited decreased fertility. Seed-specific overexpression lines had >3% increase in seed oil without compromised seed yield or fecundity. The results demonstrate that GAPC levels play important roles in the overall cellular production of reductants, energy, and carbohydrate metabolites and that GAPC levels are directly correlated with seed oil accumulation. Changes in cellular metabolites and cofactor levels highlight the complexity and tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana cells to the metabolic perturbation. Further implications for metabolic engineering of seed oil production are discussed. PMID:24989043

Guo, Liang; Ma, Fangfang; Wei, Fang; Fanella, Brian; Allen, Doug K; Wang, Xuemin

2014-07-01

197

Nitrogen Fertilizer Affecting Growth, Seed Yield and Active Substances of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum  

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Full Text Available The ripe fruit of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaerth contain flavonoids that are used to prepare anti - hepatotoxic drugs. This plant is important to pharmaceutical industries. The main aim of this investigation was to study the influence of nitrogen fertilizer on growth, seed yield and active substances (silymarin and silybin content of milk thistle. The results showed that nitrogen fertilizer had significant effect on growth (plant height, number of capitula per plant, capitula diameter, seed yield, silymarin and silybin content. The highest seed yield (2.35 kg/plot was obtained from the plots, receiving 200kg / ha N as top dressing after seed germination. But the highest silymarin (9.25% and silybin (33. 58% content was accumulated in the seeds of control treatment plants.

R. Omidbaigi

2001-01-01

198

Yield component and seed yield of wheat as affected by seed size under the rain-fed condition of Dera Ismail Khan  

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Full Text Available Field experiments on the seed sizes conducted during 1994-95 and 1995-96 to determine its effect on yield component and seed yield of wheat CV. Pirsabak-85. T he treatments consisted of Large and small seed sizes. The data indicated that crop seeded with large seed size significantly produced maximum seed yield by increased number of plant stand/m2 and generally provide the greater seed weight both the years, respectively.

Rahmat Ullah Khan

2000-01-01

199

An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors  

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Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs, problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL. Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

Takashi Kuremoto

2013-07-01

200

Irradiation inactivation of some antinutritional factors in plant seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of gamma-irradiation (1.0-10 kGy) on trypsin, chymotrypsin, and alpha-amylase inhibitors of soybean and Moringa peregrina seeds on tannin of sorghum, gossypol of cottonseed, and in vitro digestibility of soybean were investigated. A dose of 10.0 kGy caused decreases in trypsin (by 34.9%) and chymotrypsin (by 71.4%) inhibitor activities in soybean defatted flour, whereas its in vitro digestibility increased from 79.8 to 84.2%. The alpha-amylase inhibitor activity of Al-Yassar (M. peregrina) was decreased by 43.6 and 47.8% upon treatment of 7.0 and 10.0 kGy, respectively. Doses of 10.0 and 7.0 kGy significantly reduced the tannin content in Shahlla sorghum but not in Hemaira sorghum. Total and free gossypol contents were slightly reduced by irradiation

201

The Effects of Storage on Germination Characteristics and Enzyme Activity of Sorghum Seeds  

OpenAIRE

Seed moisture content (MC) and storage temperature are the most important factors affecting seed longevity and vigor. Exposure to warm, moist air is principally responsible for this. Proper storage and optimum seed moisture content can affect the grain quality significantly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the different storage treatments on seed quality of sorghum. The seed materials were fresh without any storage period. For storage treatments, 3 seed moisture contents (6, 10, ...

Azadi M.S.; Younesi E.

2013-01-01

202

Analysis and Measurement of Buildability Factors Affecting Edge Formwork  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Labour productivity is affected by several factors, but buildability is among the most important. Nevertheless, a thoroughexamination of the literature revealed a dearth of research into the influence of buildability factors on labour productivityof in situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the formwork trade level. Although edge formwork is an importantlabour intensive activity, most often, its labour cost is either crudely estimated or lumped within the formwork cost of otheractivities. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate and quantify the effects and relative influence of the followingbuildability factors on its labour productivity: (a depth of slab being edge-formed; (b slab geometric factor; and (ctype of formwork material used. To achieve this objective, a sufficiently large volume of productivity data was collected andanalyzed using the multiple categorical-regression method. As a result, the effects and relative influence of the buildabilityfactors investigated are determined. The findings show significant effects of these factors on edge formwork labour productivity,which can be used to provide designers feedback on how well their designs consider the requirements of buildabilityprinciples, and the consequences of their decisions on labour efficiency. On the other hand, the depicted patterns of resultsmay provide guidance to construction managers for effective activity planning and efficient labour utilization.

A. M. Jarkas

2010-01-01

203

Factors Affecting The Entrepreneurial Behavior Of TUMS Research Centers Managers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Background and Aim: Entrepreneurial roles can be performed by managers at different levels. In fact, entrepreneurship can be interpreted as a tendency adopted by managers towards their environment in which they should have the ability to discover new opportunities for their innovative activities. This study aims to identify factors affecting entrepreneurial behavior of research centers managers at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS.  Materials and Methods: Considering the sample size determined through Cochran’s formula, 90 questionnaires were distributed among TUMS research centers managers. The data were analyzed based on structural equation modeling applying partial least squares approach through Smartpls.2 software.  Results: Of the 90 questionnaires distributed, 67 were acceptable for study. The model created for effective factors enjoyed an acceptable goodness of fit index (GOF=0.49. Factors loading for the observed variables were above 0.4 and the constructs had an acceptable level of reliability and validity.  Conclusion : The results show that contextual and behavioral factors have a positive effect on entrepreneurial behavior and that structural factors have a negative effect on it. 

Mahdi Khayatan

2014-09-01

204

Factors affecting surface and release properties of thin PDMS films  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) elastomers are commonly used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP). DEAP films are used in making actuators, generators and sensors. In the large scale manufacture of DEAP films, release of films from the substrate (carrier web) induces some defects and pre-strain in the films which affect the overall performance of the films. The current research is directed towards investigating factors affecting the peel force and release of thin, corrugated polydimethylsiloxane films used in DEAP films. It has been shown that doping the PDMS films with small quantities of perfluoroether allylamide (PFE) lowered the surface energy which could ease the release. This is further investigated together with an evaluation of the resulting change in actuator performance. The relationship between the adhesive energy, surface energy, Young’s modulus and peel force of the films is analyzed.

Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Junker, Michael Daniel

2013-01-01

205

Male inbreeding status affects female fitness in a seed-feeding beetle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inbreeding generally reduces male mating activity such that inbred males are less successful in male-male competition. Inbred males can also have smaller accessory glands, transfer less sperm and produce sperm that are less motile, less viable or have a greater frequency of abnormalities, all of which can reduce the fertilization success and fitness of inbred males relative to outbred males. However, few studies have examined how male inbreeding status affects the fitness of females with whom they mate. In this study, we examine the effect of male inbreeding status (inbreeding coefficient f = 0.25 vs. f = 0) on the fecundity, adult longevity and the fate of eggs produced by outbred females in the seed-feeding beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Females mated to inbred males were less likely to lay eggs. Of those that laid eggs, females mated to inbred males laid 6-12% fewer eggs. Females mated to inbred males lived on average 5.4% longer than did females mated to outbred males, but this effect disappeared when lifetime fecundity was used as a covariate in the analysis. There was no effect of male inbreeding status on the proportion of a female's eggs that developed or hatched, and no evidence that inbred males produced smaller nuptial gifts. However, ejaculates of inbred males contained 17-33% fewer sperm, on average, than did ejaculates of outbred males. Our study demonstrates that mating with inbred males has significant direct consequences for the fitness of female C. maculatus, likely mediated by effects of inbreeding status on the number of sperm in male ejaculates. Direct effects of male inbreeding status on female fitness should be more widely considered in theoretical models and empirical studies of mate choice. PMID:21995954

Fox, Charles W; Xu, J; Wallin, W G; Curtis, C L

2012-01-01

206

Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

Lemontt, J F

1979-01-01

207

Factors Affecting the End-User Computing Satisfaction  

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Full Text Available In this study we investigate factors that are affecting the end-user computing of accounting information system satisfaction from financial managers' point of view. Our sample is selected from companies listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. This research is a descriptive - empirical field study. The required data is collected by sending out questionnaires to the financial managers of the sampled companies. Our findings indicate that, the information content, ease of using accounting information system, accuracy and correctness of information, format of the reports and timeliness of information have an impact on the end-user computing satisfaction.

Mohsen Dastgir

2012-07-01

208

Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

209

Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A). Additionally, the resistance depends on the type of conductor. Resistance R can be thus be expressed as R = ?L/A, where ? is the resistivity of the conductor.

Küçüközer, Asuman

2015-01-01

210

Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service syste [...] m such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT) and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - 'wireless internet' and 'mobile applications' - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.

Youngmo, Kang; Mingook, Lee; Sungjoo, Lee.

2014-07-01

211

A Study on Factors Affecting Turnover Intention of Hotel Empolyees  

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Full Text Available his study used linear structural modeling to explore the factors affecting the turnover intention of hotel employees in Taiwan. A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed to hotel employees. Among these, 350 were valid samples, a valid return rate of 87.50%. The empirical results showed that (1 more harmonious coworker relationships between hotel employees and a higher level of satisfaction regarding their work environment have a significantly positive effect on job satisfaction; (2 a higher level of organizational commitment among hotel employees has a significantly negative effect on turnover intention; (3 the direct effect of employee job satisfaction and salary level on turnover intention has not reached a significant level. Nevertheless, the two factors have indirect negative effects on turnover intention.

Chun-Chang Lee

2012-11-01

212

Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service system such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - ‘wireless internet’ and ‘mobile applications’ - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.

Youngmo Kang

2014-06-01

213

The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities within local school districts, the use of formal and informal professional development, and the needs of rural science teachers compared to urban and suburban teachers.

Roux, Judi Ann

214

Factor Affecting the Sustainable Management of Agricultural Water  

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Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the sustainable management of agricultural water in Hamedan. The study population included all wheat farmers possessing irrigated farms in Hamedan city (N=1800. Of these farmers a sample of 317 people has been selected by using randomized multi-stage sampling method. The data were collected through a questionnaire's tool with help of the interview technique. Accuracy of the questions in the questionnaire was face validated by a panel of specialists. To test the reliability of the questionnaires, the questionnaires were first given to 30 farmers and Cronbach's Alpha was calculated (Alpha=0.92 then the questionnaire was finalized. Data analyzing methods such as Multiple Regression and the coefficient of variation (CV= standard deviation /mean were used in this study. To determine the level of sustainability of the farms Bossel method proposed for classification and grading the fields was used. The results showed that variables agronomic factors, policy factors and institutional factors were able to explain 34 percent of the dependent variable's changes (sustainable management of agricultural water. According to the results, 95.3 percent of the farmers were categorized into unsustainable group, 4.1 percent into semi-sustainable and only 0.6 percent in sustainable group.

Masoud Samian

2014-12-01

215

A review of factors affecting vaccine preventable disease in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded "routine" (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay "voluntary" groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion. PMID:25628969

Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Ching, Michael Sl

2014-12-01

216

Maturity dates affect soybean seed constituents protein, oil ash and moisture  

OpenAIRE

The quality of soybean seed at harvest is dependent on the field production environment during development and maturation on the plant. These investigations were conducted to evaluate the effect of planting dates on soybean protein, oil, ash and moisture content. Soybean seeds were planted in the spring (January 13, January 16, February 19 and March 1) and in the Fall (July 10, July 20, July 26 and August 25, 1991) at Agriculture Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan. Planting ...

Khalil, Shad K.; Mexal, John G.; Murray, Leigh W.

2000-01-01

217

Factors Affecting Longevity of Tunneled Central Venous Cathe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate factors which affect the longevity of tunneled central venous catheters (T-CVCs). A retrospective study was conducted on 363 T-CVCs. We evaluated the relevant factors affecting the longevity of the T-CVCs, such as age, gender, indication for catheterization, site of entry vessel, diameter and type of T-CVC, catheter tip position, and underlying diseases. Of the 363 T-CVCs which had been inserted, 331 (91%) were placed through the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The catheter tip position was the strongest predictor for the longevity of the T-CVC. The short limb of the catheter tip placed either at the cavoatrial junction (CA junction) or below the lower margin of the right main bronchus had a good prognosis. The vessel through which the T-CVC was placed significantly influenced the longevity of the T-CVC; the RIJV was associated with better results than the left internal jugular vein. Also, a split-type catheter was significantly associated with a better result. A two distinct and separate type T-CVC placed through the RIJV in which the short limb catheter tip position was at the level of the CA junction, significantly increased the longevity of T-CVCs.

218

Factors affecting interaction of radiocesium with freshwater solids Pt. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper aims at the analysis of principal factors affecting the interaction of radiocesium with freshwater solids, important for the migration of radiocesium in rivers. Uptake and release of radiocesium by bottom sediment and suspended solids from a small stream were studied as a function of contact time during the uptake and release, of concentration of the solid phase and of temperature, using laboratory model experiments. Kinetics of the uptake were found to be significantly affected by temperature and concentration of the solid phase. The kinetics and the concentration effect can be quantitatively described using kinetic model of two parallel or consecutive reactions. Kinetic parameters for the model were determined. Distribution coefficient Kd is independent of sediment concentration in the range of 20-70mg·dm-3 but passes through a maximum at higher concentration values. Release of radiocesium absorbed on the freshwater solids was observed. The amount released decreased with increasing contact time of radiocesium with solid phase. Quantitative evaluation of the release revealed partial irreversibility of radiocesium uptake on the solids studied. Results obtained are compared with literature data and conclusions are drawn on the importance of the factors studied for modeling of radiocesium migration in rivers. (author) 40 refs.; 7 figs.; 6 tabs

219

Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors  

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Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

Naile Bilgili

2009-12-01

220

Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players  

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Full Text Available This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs. A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM. The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36, as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37. Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players’ willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs.

Michael D. Cusimano

2013-05-01

221

Chemical Composition of Artocarpus communis (Breadfruit Seed flour as Affected by Processing (Boiling and Roasting  

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Full Text Available Artocarpus communis (Breadfruit seed flour was subjected to boiling and roasting to determine their effects on the chemical composition. Proximate composition showed a significant difference (p>0.05 in the raw and processed flour samples. The moisture content was lowest (14.77% in the roasted A. communis seed flour and highest (24.08% in the boiled seed flour. Percentage ash, fat and protein were highest (3.66, 3.74 and 4.67% in the raw while ash and fibre contents were least (2.75 and 1.81%, respectively in the boiled flour. Carbohydrate was highest (87.29% in the boiled and least (85.60% in the raw. Boiling and roasting indicated that the vitamin C content and the mineral contents were significantly higher in the raw A. communis seed flour. The effects of boiling and roasting with regards to loss and retention of the nutrients differed significantly (p>0.05, with only the roasting retaining more of the nutrients than boiled seed flour. Sodium and potassium contents of boiled (0.27 and 0.75 mg/L, respectively and roasted (0.34 and 0.78 mg/L, respectively A. communis seed flours compared well (p<0.05 with the raw (0.37 and 0.83 mg/L, respectively.

S.U. Okorie

2010-01-01

222

Studies on the dormancy of cereal seeds as affected by gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of gamma radiation (10 kR) was studied on the germination of freshly harvested seeds of several varieties of barley, wheat and triticale. On the basis of the germination in irradiated seeds in comparison to controls, barley varieties may be categorized into three groups: (i) those showing reduction in germination, (ii) those showing stimulation in germination and (iii) those remaining unaffected. The mean germination percentage of the controls was 50.7, 19.4 and 2.1 in group i, ii and iii varieties, respectively. After 6 weeks, varieties in group iii lost seed dormancy. The response of these varieties to irradiation then became similar to group i or ii. Wheat and triticale varieties also could be grouped in similar way. It has been suggested that germination response of seeds of these cereal varieties to relatively 'low doses' of gamma radiation depends on their innate dormancy status and germination could be stimulated by gamma radiation (10 kR) in seeds having low germination due to seed dormancy. (author)

223

Factors affecting the reproductive potential of dairy cows  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various factors that affect fertility were examined in high yielding dairy cows. In cows treated for the synchronization of oestrous cycles, manifestation of oestrus following synchronization treatment was affected by the body condition score in the winter; 74% of the cows had a low score. Primiparous cows that were thin or fat had a low conception rate. The conception rate of multiparous cows with different body condition scores did not differ in the winter. However, in the summer, thin, medium-low, medium-high and fat cows had a conception rate of 15, 36, 48 and 27%, respectively (P4) levels five days before the first post-partum AI affected conception rates. Primiparous cows with low (?2 ng/mL), medium (2.1-4.0 ng/mL) and high (?4.1 ng/mL) P4 levels had a conception rate of 28, 17 and 61%, respectively (P4 had a conception rate of 25, 46 and 52%, respectively (P<0.02). Cows in their fifth or later lactation that were fed straw as their sole roughage had a conception rate of 23% and a 120 day pregnancy rate of 23%. Cows of the same parities that were fed hay had a conception rate of 50% (P<0.05) and a pregnancy rate of 80% (P<0.005). (author). 15 refs, 5 tabs

224

Effect of Different Processing Methods on Proximate, Mineral and Anti Nutritional Factors Content of Baobab (Adansonia digitata Seeds  

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Full Text Available Effect of different processing methods on chemical profile of Baobab (Adansonia digitata seed meal was investigated. Raw Baobab seeds were collected for the study. Five different processing methods (Boiling, toasting, soaking, soak and boiling and sprouting were used. All the processed seeds with the exception of toasted seeds were oven dried before milling for chemical analysis. Result of the study shows that raw baobab seed contains 28.85% CP with a reasonable amount of mineral and energy, it also contain some anti-nutritional factors. Processing significantly reduced crude protein, mineral and anti nutrition factors content but improved energy content. Boiling gave the least percentage reduction of crude protein and highest percentage reduction of anti nutritional factor. Boiling processing is recommended for baobab seed.

L.A. Saulawa

2014-01-01

225

Study of the factors affecting radon diffusion through building materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following - decay of 226Ra in underground soil and building materials used, in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. The diffusion of radon in dwellings is a process determined by the radon concentration gradient across the building material structure and can be a significant contributor to indoor radon inflow. Radon can originate from the deeply buried deposit beneath homes and can migrate to the surface of earth. Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process and is affected by several factors. It is well known that for building construction materials the porosity, permeability and the diffusion coefficient are the parameters, which can quantify the materials capability to hinder the flow of radon soil gas. An increase in porosity will provide more air space within the material for radon to travel, thus reducing its resistance to radon transport. The permeability of material describes its ability to act as a barrier to gas movement when a pressure gradient exists across it and is closely related to the porosity of material. The radon diffusion coefficient of a material quantifies the ability of radon gas to move through it when a concentration gradient is the driving force. This parameter depends upon the porosity and permeability of the medium. As diffusion process is the major contributor to indoor levels, therefore, the factors affecting the diff therefore, the factors affecting the diffusion process need to be kept in consideration. Keeping this in mind the experimental arrangements have been made for control study of radon diffusion through some building materials to observe the effects of different factors viz.; compaction, grain size, temperature, humidity and the mixing of these materials etc. For the present study alpha sensitive LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) have been used for the recording of alpha tracks caused by radon gas after its diffusion through the material. After exposure, the detectors were subjected to a chemical etching process. The detectors were washed, dried and after that, the tracks caused by alpha particle were counted using an optical Olympus microscope at magnification 600X. Using the track density produced the parameters like radon diffusion coefficients and diffusion lengths through these building construction materials have been calculated in each case under study. The results of present investigations provide better insight into the selection of building construction materials capable of controlling the indoor radon levels. (author)

226

Systematic factors that affect ostrich egg incubation traits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock maintained at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate environmental and genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), water loss of incubated eggs up to 21 days (WL21), water loss up to 35 days (WL35), pipping time (PT) and weight of day-old chicks (C [...] WT). Between 13806 and 19913 artificially incubated ostrich eggs during the 2003 to 2006 production years were used. Systematic factors affecting these traits such as production year, breeding season, female age, incubator type, storage time and ostrich breed, were initially assessed in single-trait-analyses, using ASREML. Eggs and chicks produced by Zimbabwean Blue (ZB) females were 5 and 7% heavier, respectively, than those produced by South African Black (SAB) females. WL21 and WL35 were not significantly different between ZB and SAB birds. There were trends for within-season effects on EWT and CWT, but no general, robust trend applicable to all years could be discerned. Season had a significant effect on WL21, WL35 and PT. An increase was apparent in EWT, CWT and PT with an increase in female age. There was a linear increase in pipping time as egg storage time prior to incubation increased. Incubator type had an effect on WL21 and WL35. Systematic factors affect traits such as WL21, WL35 and PT and should be accounted for before the estimation of genetic parameters. These factors should be considered when planning commercial ostrich husbandry and artificial incubation operations.

Z., Brand; S.W.P., Cloete; C.R., Brown; I.A., Malecki.

2008-04-01

227

Geolocation by light: accuracy and precision affected by environmental factors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1. Geolocation by light allows for tracking animal movements, based on measurements of light intensity over time by a data-logging device (‘geolocator’). Recent developments of ultra-light devices (<2 g) broadened the range of target species and boosted the number of studies using geolocators. However, an inherent problem of geolocators is that any factor or process that changes the natural light intensity pattern also affects the positions calculated from these light patterns. Although the most important factors have been identified, estimation of their effect on the accuracy and precision of positions estimated has been lacking but is very important for the analyses and interpretation of geolocator data. 2. The ‘threshold method’ is mainly used to derive positions by defining sunrise and sunset times from the light intensity pattern for each recorded day. This method requires calibration: a predefined sun elevation angle for estimating latitude by fitting the recorded day / night lengthsto theoretical values across latitudes. Therewith, almost constant shading can be corrected for by finding the appropriate sun elevation angle. 3. Weather, topography and vegetation are the most important factors that influence light intensities. We demonstrated their effect on the measurement of day /night length, time of solar midnight /noon and the resulting position estimates using light measurements from stationary geolocators at known places and from geolocators mounted on birds. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of different calibration methods on the accuracy of the latitudinal positions. 4. All three environmental factors can influence the light intensity pattern significantly. Weather and an animal’s behaviour result in increased noise in positioning, whereas topography and vegetation result in systematic shading and biased positions. Calibration can significantly shift the estimated latitudes and potentially increase the accuracy, but detailed knowledge about the particular confounding factors and the behaviour of the studied animal is crucial for the choice of the most appropriate calibration method.

Lisovski, Simeon; Hewson, Chris M.

2012-01-01

228

Factors Affecting the Adoption and use of NERICA Varieties among Rice Producing Households in Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper uses cross sectional data which were collected from 200 smallholder rice producers in Ghana, to examine the factors influencing the adoption and extent of use of NERICA rice varieties in Ghana. About 57.93 per cent of the sampled rice producers allocated 35.77 per cent of their land to NERICA accounting for about 33.13 per cent of seeds planted. The Tobit regression model suggests fertilizer use, existence of other complementary projects in the area, proportion of active persons in household, access to alternative income sources, distance to seed source and education as key factors influencing the quantity of seeds planted as well as the proportion of land allocated to the NERICA varieties. With the exception of distance to seed source, all the other factors positively influenced the extents of adoption. The findings suggest the need to ensure availability of NERICA seeds within acceptable distances to farming communities. This could be achieved through identification of certified rice seed growers in strategic locations throughout the country and supported with necessary logistics to produce NERICA seeds at reasonable proximities to rice producing communities. This could also be enhanced through establishment of linkages with existing institutions and projects to compliment promotional efforts.

Asante Bright Owusu

2013-10-01

229

Crucial Factors Affecting Stress: A Study among Undergraduates in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stress is normally unavoidable part of everyone’s life living in this world. It portrays a negative notion that can have an impact on one’s mental and physical well-being. The core intention of this study was to detect the most influencing factors of stress affecting undergraduates. The four factors that had taken under consideration were Family stress, Emotional stress, Financial Stress and Social Stress. To accomplish this research stress inventory has developed using scientific methods. Respondents were undergraduate students of university with different demographics. Results has presented graphically, descriptively and inferentially using SPSS and Excel. Pearson’s chi-square and correlation has applied to verify the relationship between stress factors and demographics. Results show that living persuasively under strict rules and regulations can be a family stressor. Unavailability of best choices and paramount match to live with as a partner can be an emotional stress. Less income students find difficulty to spend money on buying and enjoying which is a predictor of financial stress. Pressurized life and squat admiration from people has lied under Social stress. Other verdicts are also deemed according to Pakistani cultural context.

Kashif Ud Din Khan

2013-02-01

230

Demotivating Factors Affecting EFL Learning of Iranian Seminary Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the demotives affecting EFL learning of Iranian Islamic seminary students and also to distinguish the motivated and demotivated EFL learners in terms of their EFL learning as the major focus of this study. Fifty Iranian EFL seminary students were investigated using two validated questionnaires. First a modified version of The Attitude/Motivation Test Battery Questionnaire (AMTB originally developed by Gardner (2004 was used to determine the degree of learners’ motivation. Second a modified version of Warrington's (2005 questionnaire was administered to determine the demotivating factors from the students' point of view. Then, the IOPT (Interchange Objective Placement Test was administered to measure the general proficiency of the subjects under study. The comparison of the IOPT score means of the two groups revealed a significant difference in the results of IOPT of students with higher scores in the AMTB and those with lower scores. That is, the more motivated the students were, the higher their IOPT scores were. Furthermore, factors such as the improper method of English teaching, frequency of classes in a week, problems in understanding listening materials and lack of use of English in students’ real life were found to be the essential demotivating factors among Iranian seminary students. Having known the barriers of learning, the teachers and Islamic Propagation Office materials developers can organize their activities so that they would lead to better understanding of the lessons and improvement of teaching programs.

Omid Tabatabaei

2012-01-01

231

Factors Affecting Software Cost Estimation in Developing Countries  

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Full Text Available Cost is the main driving factor for all projects. When it is done correctly, it helps in the successful completion of the project. In this research we have discussed various factors that affect the estimation procedure. These include team structure, team culture, managerial style, project type (Core application or integrated application, client’s working environment. Accurate estimation is far difficult in developing countries where most of the organizations follow local standards. These inaccurate estimations lead to late delivery, less profit or in worst case complete failure. Software requirement gathering, development, maintenance, quality assurance and cost of poor quality are major groups responsible for overall cost in software production process. The exact proportion among them varies significantly in consecutive software releases, which is caused by many factors. The ever increasing need for the reliability of the software systems, especially mission critical applications in the public safety domain, raises the bar for the accuracy of prediction and estimation techniques. The accuracy of estimations in many areas brings about more concerns regarding techniques already used in the software industry. Widely deployed techniques, such as Wideband Delphi method, stress the engineering and technical aspects of the process of how estimates are prepared.

Ali Javed

2013-04-01

232

FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR  

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Full Text Available The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that salary, efficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The overall job satisfaction of the employees in pharmaceutical sector is at the positive level. The nature of business operation, the work culture and the level of job satisfaction have undergone sea change for the pharmaceutical companies. As a business proposition initiated huge investment whereas majority of their stocks is going down bringing a high level of apprehension related to job security among its employees. This research paper highlights some of these problems and presents a picture of level of job satisfaction among employees of pharmaceutical companies. It also identifies unique issues of job satisfaction in the companies. Pharmaceuticals Companies are selected for the research because they are currently undergoing continued expansion. In order to gain competitive advantage and adapt to the dramatic changing environment, it is important for them to achieve management efficiency by increasing employee satisfaction in the organisation. Hence this research was mainly undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting the job satisfaction. This paper presents a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of pharmaceutical business, the factors causing the dissatisfaction & suggestions to improve them.

Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin

2011-10-01

233

Weed Infestation in Direct Seeded and Transplanted Aus Rice as Affected by Method of Planting and Weeding Regime  

OpenAIRE

The experiment was conducted to determine the weed vegetation due to the effect of planting methods and weeding regime. Two factors included in the experiment were: methods of planting and weeding regime. The results revealed that weed vegetation in the two methods of planting varied remarkable. Fifty-five weed species belonging to 17 families infested the crop. Among the weed species, Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl was the principal weed in direct seeded aus rice and Panicum repen...

Sarker, M. Y.; Mosaddeque Hossain, M.; Hasan, M. K.; Khan, M. A. H.; Amin, M. R.; Begum, F.

2002-01-01

234

Postoperative [125I] seed brachytherapy in the treatment of acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland. With associated risk factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This retrospective study was undertaken to analyze data from patients receiving iodine-125 ([125I]) seed brachytherapy postoperatively for the treatment of acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) of the parotid gland along with the following risk factors: residual tumor, recurrent tumor, facial nerve invasion, positive resection margins, advanced tumor stage, or tumor spillage. Twenty-nine patients with ACC (17 females, 12 males; age range, 13-73 years; median age, 37.3 years) were included. Median follow-up was 58.2 months (range, 14-122 months). Patients received [125I] seed brachytherapy (median actuarial D90, 177 Gy) 3-41 days (median, 14 days) following surgery. Radioactivity was 18.5-33.3 MBq per seed, and the prescription dose was 80-120 Gy. The 3-, 5-, and 10-year rates of local control were 93.1, 88.7, and 88.7 %, respectively; overall survival was 96.6, 92, and 92 %; disease-free survival was 93.1, 88.4, and 88.4 %; and freedom from distant metastasis was 96.6, 91.2, and 91.2 %. Lymph node metastases were absent in all patients, although two patients died with distant metastases. Facial nerve recovery was quick, and no severe radiotherapy-related complications were noted. Recurrence history, local recurrence, and distant metastasis significantly affected overall survival. Postoperative [125I] seed brachytherapy is effective in treating ACC and has minor complications. Patients with a history of recurrence showed poor prognosis and were more likely to experience disease recurrence and develop metastases. (orig.)

235

Factors and mechanisms affecting corrosion of steel in concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atomic power plants possess reinforced concrete structures which are exposed to sea water or sea atmosphere. Sea water or its surrounding environment contain very corrosive species which cause corrosion of metal in concrete. It should be mentioned that corrosion of steel in concrete is a complex problem that is not completely understood. Some of the factors which influence the corrosion mechanism and can be related to the pore solution composition is discussed. Chloride ion caused problems are the main source of the corrosion damage seen on the reinforced concrete structures. Corrosion rate in concrete varies and depends on the way chloride ion diffuses into concrete. In addition, the associated cations can influence diffusion of chloride into concrete. The type of portland cement and also the concrete mix design all affect the corrosion behaviour of steel in concrete

236

FACTORS AFFECTED DECARBOXYLATION ACTIVITY OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM ISOLATED FROM RABBIT  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Biogenic amines (BA are basic nitrogenous compounds formed mainly by decarboxylation of amino acids. There are generated in course of microbial, vegetable and animal metabolisms. The aim of the study was to monitor factors affected production of biogenic amines by Enterococcus faecium, which is found in rabbit meat. Biogenic amines were analyzed by means of UPLC (ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. Decarboxylation activity of E. faecium was mainly influenced by the cultivation temperature and the amount of NaCl in this study. E. faecium produced most of the monitored biogenic amines levels: tyramine ?2500 mg.l-1; putrescine ?30 mg.l-1; spermidine ?10 mg.l-1 and cadaverine ?5 mg.l-1.doi:10.5219/182

František Bu?ka

2012-04-01

237

FACTORS AFFECTING ATM USAGE IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS  

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Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for ATM services, by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The results indicate that graduated and employed male customers who belong from higher income groups and having a bank account preferably in public sector bank are greatly emphasized to use of the banking services. Significant positive influence of the characterized socio-economic attributes on the use of ATM service was found. The service occupied customers significantly more emphasized to the use of ATM services. Noticeable, the banking attributes such as account type, convenience, number of services offered, and cost of banking services don’t have very attentive influence on the use of advanced IT based banking services.

Shariq Mohammed

2012-06-01

238

Factors affecting CFC end-user conversion to substitute products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides an overview of the issues facing CFC end-users as they convert to non-CFC systems. The various end use applications for CFCs are quite diverse (e.g., refrigerants, blowing agents foam plastics, aerosol propellant, solvent cleaning); each of the applications will likely have different substitute solutions. For most applications there appears to be both a short-term and long-term solution to the problem, whereas in other applications no suitable replacement for CFCs are apparent. Other fluorocarbons, (i.e., HCFCs and HCFs) are under consideration for many applications. Some of the factors to be addressed that affect the conversion time include: substitute performance in end use application, equipment conversions required to use the substitutes, as well as commercial availability of substitutes

239

studies on some factors affecting oxidative low density lipoprotein  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of occupational radiation exposure on some oxidant antioxidant parameters in addition to other factors affecting oxidative stress such as age, smoking, hypertension, high sedimentation rate for this purpose. a total of 131 individuals were included in this study 81 of them working in the radiation field the age was from 27 to 63 years. the occupational time from five to more than 25 where the control groups was composed of 50 healthy volunteers who had never worked in radiology related job otherwise with the same characteristics . the parameters tested are LDL, HDL, triglycerides, cholesterol, vitamin E, SOD, MDA, hemoglobin, fasting blood sugar, urea, creatinine, and liver enzymes GOT, GPT.our results show that time of exposure to radiation shows remarkable effect beginning with decrease of vitamin E after five years exposure,extending to MDA, triglycerides and LDL which increased while SOD decreased

240

Factors affecting Brucella spp. blood cultures positivity in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brucella infections have a wide spectrum of symptoms especially in children, making the diagnosis a complicated process. The gold standard for the final diagnosis for brucellosis is to identify the Brucella spp. isolated from blood or bone marrow cultures. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the factors affecting the isolation of Brucella spp. from blood cultures. In our study, the ratio of fever, presence of hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly were found to be higher in the bacteremic group. In addition, C-reactive protein levels and liver function enzymes were found to be higher in the bacteremic group. In our opinion, while evaluating the febrile child with suspected Brucella infection, we highly recommend sampling blood cultures regardless of the history of previous antimicrobial therapy and duration of the symptoms. PMID:23421883

Apa, Hur?it; Devrim, Ilker; Memur, Seyma; Günay, Ilker; Gülfidan, Gamze; Celegen, Mehmet; Bayram, Nuri; Karaarslan, Utku; Ba?, Ozlem; I?güder, Rana; Oztürk, Aysel; Inan, Seyhan; Unal, Nurrettin

2013-03-01

241

Five Factors Affecting Stability and Security in the Middle East  

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Full Text Available There are five factors that affect security and stability in the Middle East. The first of these is the ticking bomb of sectarianism between the Sunni and Shiite strands of Islam, which have become more widespread in recent years due to the politisation of sectarian tensions and their transformation among some actors to a means to achieve political demands. Secondly, the impact of the Arab revolutions and the accompanying rise of Islamist groups through the new democratic tendencies encouraged by those revolutions. Thirdly, Iran’s behaviour through the use of both direct and indirect threats to several countries in the region. Fourthly, the existence of a fertile environment for terrorist groups in Yemen. Finally, the struggle between Arabs and Israelis over the existence of the State of Israel and the plight of the Palestinians. This article provides a clear set of linkages between these and investigates them with the intention of enhancing understanding and encouraging debate.

Yahya Alshammari

2012-12-01

242

Factors affecting cellulose hydrolysis based on inactivation of adsorbed enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose reaction is known to decrease significantly as the reaction proceeds. Factors such as reaction temperature, time, and surface area of substrate that affect cellulose conversion were analyzed relative to their role in a mechanistic model based on first order inactivation of adsorbed cellulases. The activation energies for the hydrolytic step and inactivation step were very close in magnitude: 16.3 kcal mol(-1) for hydrolysis and 18.0 kcal mol(-1) for inactivation, respectively. Therefore, increasing reaction temperature would cause a significant increase in the inactivation rate in addition to the catalytic reaction rate. Vmax,app was only 20% or less of the value at 72 h compared to at 2h as a result of inactivation of adsorbed cellulases, suggesting prolonged hydrolysis is not an efficient way to improve cellulose hydrolysis. Hydrolysis rate increased with corresponding increases in available substrate surface binding area. PMID:25027809

Ye, Zhuoliang; Berson, R Eric

2014-09-01

243

Potential factors affecting accumulation of unsupported 210Pb in soil  

Science.gov (United States)

Airborne 210Pb, daughter of 222Rn, is frequently used as a tracer in different studies concerning atmospheric transport, sedimentation, soil erosion, dating, etc. Concentration of 210Pb was measured in 40 soil samples collected in urban and industrial areas in order to get evidence of possible influence of some factors on accumulation of airborne 210Pb in soil. Different soil properties such as the content of organic matter, free CaCO3, and available phosphorus (P2O5) were measured to explore their possible correlation with the amount of 210Pb. Special attention was given to the correlation between 210Pb and stable lead accumulated in the soil. Several samples were taken near a battery manufacturer to check if extremely high concentrations of lead can affect the uptake of the airborne 210Pb in soil. Soil samples were also taken at different depths to investigate the penetration of lead through the soil.

Mihailovi?, Aleksandra; Vu?ini? Vasi?, Milica; Todorovi?, Nataša; Hansman, Jan; Vasin, Jovica; Krmar, Miodrag

2014-06-01

244

Factors Affecting Prostate Volume Estimation in Computed Tomography Images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to investigate how apex-localizing methods and the computed tomography (CT) slice thickness affected the CT-based prostate volume estimation. Twenty-eight volunteers underwent evaluations of prostate volume by CT, where the contour segmentations were performed by three observers. The bottom of ischial tuberosities (ITs) and the bulb of the penis were used as reference positions to locate the apex, and the distances to the apex were recorded as 1.3 and 2.0 cm, respectively. Interobserver variations to locate ITs and the bulb of the penis were, on average, 0.10 cm (range 0.03-0.38 cm) and 0.30 cm (range 0.00-0.98 cm), respectively. The range of CT slice thickness varied from 0.08-0.48 cm and was adopted to examine the influence of the variation on volume estimation. The volume deviation from the reference case (0.08 cm), which increases in tandem with the slice thickness, was within ± 3 cm3, regardless of the adopted apex-locating reference positions. In addition, the maximum error of apex identification was 1.5 times of slice thickness. Finally, based on the precise CT films and the methods of apex identification, there were strong positive correlation coefficients for the estimated prostate volume by CT and the transabdominal ultrasonography, as found in the present study (r > 0.87; p < 0.0001), and this was confirmed by Bland-Altman analysis. These results will help to identify factors that affect prostate volume calculation and t affect prostate volume calculation and to contribute to the improved estimation of the prostate volume based on CT images.

245

Factors affecting sorption of radiocobalt by river sediments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of the principal factors affecting the interaction of radio cobalt with fresh water sediments and their importance for migration of radio cobalt in surface water streams. The uptake percent (U%) of radio cobalt by Ismailia Cannal bottom sediments (ICUBS) have been studied as a function of contact time, ph, competing ion, carrier concentration and natural ligands such as humic acid using batch technique. Mineralogical analyses of the sediment samples were carried out. The amount sorbed per gram sediment, (X/m), increased as the carrier concentration increased from 10-8 mol. Following a Freundlich type isotherm. The uptake of radio cobalt was found to be affected by changing in the ph of the aqueous phase. Presence of Mg24 ions as competing cation decreases the sorption of 60Co. Presence of humic acid shows a slight effect on the sorption of 60Co. Desorption of the investigated metal ion from the loaded sediment samples was also studied. A mathematical model for the migration of the investigated radioisotope in Ismailia canal water stream was developed to predict the concentrations of cobalt ion at different distances in X-direction

246

Major factors affecting severity of obstructive sleep apnea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Computed tomography (CT) has become a common method for evaluating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between CT parameters and clinical parameters in OSA patients to determine major factors affecting the severity of OSA. The records of 128 consecutive snoring patients (98 males, 30 females) diagnosed with OSA were retrospectively reviewed. Polysomnography was performed for each patient. On CT scans, airway areas were measured at the level of the hard palate, the soft palate, and the base of the tongue. Polysomnographic parameters were compared by gender and age using the Mann-Whitney U test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to analyze relationships between variables and the AHI in each age group. The women were significantly older than the men (p apnea index were significantly higher in men than in women. Stage 1 sleep and rapid eye movement sleep were more frequent in men than in women. The area at the base of the tongue was significantly smaller in women than in men (p = 0.027). In the 50-60 age group, the AHI was significantly higher in men (41.47 ± 19.67) than in women (17.14 ± 15.63) (p = 0.001). OSA severity varies with age, gender, and upper airway area. The OSA prognosis could be improved by evaluating the major factors and treating OSA patients according to epidemiological characteristics and anatomical structures. PMID:25621265

Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Boo-Young; Han, Jung Ju; Hwang, Jae Hyung; Jung, Kihwan; Kim, Min; Kim, Soo Whan

2015-03-01

247

Factors affecting particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation  

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Full Text Available In this paper, we report a range of factors which affect the retention of colloidal particles in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF. These results are observed among different sizes of polystyrene (PS latex particles suspended in both aqueous and nonaqueous liquid carriers and very low density lipoproteins in a phosphate buffer. These factors include particle size and chemical composition, field strength, cold-wall temperature of the channel and the nature of the suspension medium. These results show that ThFFF can be used to fractionate colloidal particles according to size and that for an unknown colloidal sample material, a calibration curve must be obtained using particles of similar composition. This is necessary because the degree of retention of the colloidal material is dependent on chemical composition of sample material as evidenced by the chemical composition study. The potential of using ThFFF for physico-chemical characterization of colloidal material is illustrated through the evaluation of thermal diffusion coefficient of PS particles as a function of size, cold-wall temperature, and carrier solution composition. The tunabiliy of the extent of retention of the colloidal particles in a ThFFF channel is illustrated by results of the influence of field strength on retention.

Paul M. Shiundu

2002-06-01

248

Evaluation of hydraulic factors affecting flow accelerated corrosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) is known as a complex phenomena of hydraulics and electro-chemicals. Essential mechanism of the hydraulic factors affecting FAC is the mass transfer of ferrous ions dissolved from the pipe surface. To predict the FAC rate in susceptible pipe elements, evaluation of the mass transfer in those geometry with eccentric flow is required. For this purpose, new model of mass transfer coefficient was proposed by combining knowledges of previous studies and consideration of local turbulent velocity. In this process, Chilton-Colburn analogy of heat and mass transfer and Blasius' friction factor were referred to. To validate the model, FAC experiment and flow numerical calculation were conducted. In the experiment, carbon steel test specimens were set in the downstream of a flow contraction in small rectangular flow ducts, and FAC rate profiles on the specimens were observed in PWR condensate condition. In the calculation, flow field for the experiment was calculated with the in-house code 'MATIS-I' utilizing LES turbulence model, and mean and turbulent velocity profiles on the specimen's surface were evaluated. By comparing these results, the new mass transfer coefficient showed good correlation with the local FAC rate, and the effect of introducing the turbulent velocity to the model was confirmed. (author)

249

Characterization of visibility and its affecting factors over Nanjing, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Visibility, Air Pollution Index (API) and meteorological parameters over Nanjing during 2004 are analyzed using multiple statistic methods to study the characterization of visibility and relevant affecting factors. The mean value of visibility during the study year is 8.8 km, with 57.9% of daily average less than 10 km. Annual average visibility exhibits a significant diurnal variation with minimum of 6.6 km at 07:00 Local Time (LT) and maximum of 10.7 km at 16:00 LT. Seasonal variations is weak: 9.2 km in spring (March-May), 9.8 km in summer (June-August), 8.2 km in autumn (September-November), and 8.1 km in winter (December-February), respectively. No significant weekend effect in visibility is found. Moreover, wavelet analysis reveals the significant periodic variations in visibility, with major periods of synoptic scale (2-8 days), and quasi-two-week scale (8-17 days). Using a high pass filtering technique to eliminate the seasonal trend, correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) are carried out to investigate the relations between visibility and relevant factors and to understand the dominated processes/causes to the synoptic changes in visibility. Our results highlight the significant impact of synoptic weather on air pollution and visibility in Nanjing.

Deng, Junjun; Wang, Tijian; Jiang, Ziqiang; Xie, Min; Zhang, Renjian; Huang, Xiaoxian; Zhu, Jialei

2011-08-01

250

Factors affecting RAIU in hyperthyroidism patients: an analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To analyze the factors affecting thyroid radioiodine uptake (RAIU) of hyperthyroidism patients. Methods; RAIU was performed in 106 hyperthyroidism patients. Some factors were studied to analyze influences on the peak of RAIU, including patients' age and sex, gland weight, taking antithyroid drugs (ATD) or not, time of ATD taking and withdrawal. Results: Patients' RAIU peak had no significant difference for different ages and sex (F=1.68, P=0.1439). If preparation was performed according to the requirements before RAIU measurement, taking ATD or not had no influence on RAIU (t=1.1362, P=0.2625). RAIU peak was different between patients whose gland weight was ? 30 g and >30 g. Conclusions: Age and sex have no influence on RAIU. As long as ATD was discontinued at least one week before RAIU measurement, time of taking ATD and discontinuation have no influence on RAIU, and the result of measurement coincide with that of patients who do not take medicine. RAIU peak has relation with gland weight, and RAIU of people with gland weight ?30 g was lower than that of people with gland weight >30 g

251

DOF transcription factors in developing peanut (Arachis hypogaea seeds  

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Full Text Available DNA binding with one finger (DOF transcription factors play important roles in storage material accumulation and morphogenesis of developing seeds. Oil and protein contents varied in different cultivars in important oil crop peanut. DOF proteins have not been studied in this crop. In this paper, we analyzed all the DOF genes expressed in developing seeds from a cDNA library with 20,000 transcripts, cloned and compared similar genes of GW391729 from eight peanut cultivars, and analyzed similar genes expressed in root and leave with control and inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum. The results indicate that total eight types of DOF genes were expressed in developing seeds of cultivar 063103. Most of DOF transcription factors expressed involved in developmental process in a complicated way. Among them, GW391729 is possible related to the seed number in fruit, and also is possible related to leafspot resistance. Detailed function of these DOF proteins need to be further studied.

Haiyan Yan

2011-12-01

252

Identifying the Factors Affecting the Participation of Agricultural Cooperatives' Members  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: 40-year history of agricultural production cooperatives in the country shows that this type of exploitation system has faced many ups and downs during this period. First, despite the help and support by the government, the cooperative sector has not been able to play a major role in the development of the country and its share has not exceeded 3% of development program. The main aim of this study is identifying the factors affecting the participation of Shirvan-Chardavol township?s agricultural cooperatives? members. Approach: This casual comparative applied research which uses survey method for data accumulation, is of Quasi-experimental research type because of impossibility of controlling the research variables. A researcher-made questionnair was used as the main tool for gathering data. The face and content validity of the questionnaire were confirmed by a group of university professors and cooperative experts; also the reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed through calculating the Kronbach alfa coefficient (a = 0.80. Results: The statistical society of the research included 751 active members of Shirvan-Chardavol township?s agricultural cooperatives, among which 260 people were selected for the study using classified proportional random sampling method and with the aid of Morgan sample-volume table. Data processing was performed using SPSS estatistial software, as well as descriptive estatistics (central and inferential indexes and analytical estatistics (correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Conclusion: The correlation coefficient results show that there is significant relationship between the variables like age, background history of membership in cooperatives, the members? agricultural land areas, annual income of the members, socio-cultural features, economical features, educational-extensional features, managerial factors, psychological features, political factors and communicational-informational factors from the one hand and the dependent variable of agricultural cooperatives? members? level of participation from the other. The multiple regression analysis results showed that variables like political, economic, managerial and social factors have positive effect on the dependent variable of agricultural cooperatives? members? participation, describing 65% of the changes of the mentioned dependent variable.

Bagher Arayesh

2011-01-01

253

Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku  

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Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku are definedtogether withshowing the optimal ways of development.

Vusat AFANDIYEV

2014-12-01

254

Factors Affecting in-Hospital Mortality of Acute Myocardial Infarction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. Considering immense socioeconomic damages of growing AMI in developing countries we estimated prognostic value of major risk factors of AMI to predict probable In-hospital AMI mortality."nMethods: In a cohort survey from June 2004 to March 2006, 1798 patients hospitalized with proven AMI entered into two groups: Survived (patients discharged alive and Expired (patients expired during hospitalization due to AMI. We evaluated relationship of 17 risk factors including age, sex, smoking, opium usage, hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM, dyslipidemia, Killip class, existence of Q wave, St segment elevation, bundle branch blocks (BBB, involved surface of heart, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, mitral valve regurgitation (MR, and serum level of Troponin I and CKMB, with patients' survival and expiry by using chi square test, T test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. P value ? 0.05 was considered significant."nResults: There were 1629 (90.6% survived and 169 (9.4% expired patients. Factors significantly affected in-hospital mortality of AMI include: age (P< 0.001, femaleness (P< 0.001, smoking (P< 0.001, Killip class>II (P< 0.001, hy­per­tension (P= 0.036, DM (P< 0.001, bundle branch block (P< 0.001, Moderate to severe mitral regurgitation (P< 0.001, lower Mean LVEF (P< 0.001, and lower mean serum concentration of CKMB and Troponin I (P< 0.001. Mortality was significantly higher in anterolateral infarction."nConclusion: Mean age> 69.01 yr, femaleness, Killip class III & V, hypertension, DM, moderate to severe MR, anterolateral AMI, bundle branch block and higher serum concentration of CKMB & Troponin I are associated with higher In-hospital post-AMI mortality.

M Salarifar

2009-09-01

255

Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.

2008-01-01

256

Soybean seed yield and its components as affected by different irrigation regimes at different reproductive stages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of an efficient and economical irrigation management system for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is essential to apply irrigations at specific stages of reproductive ontogeny. Soybean cultivar, Williams-82 was subjected to a factorial set of irrigated treatments: R1 to R2 flowering (F), R3 to R4 pod elongation (P) and R5 to R6 seed enlargement (S). The experiment was conducted for two years in spring 1986 and 1987 on a clay-loam soil at the National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad. An F-irrigation at flowering sage had great effect on seed yield (2253 kg/ha). Almost similar yield response was observed for an F-S irrigation and F-P-S irrigation, soybean seed yield for S-irrigation, P-irrigation, F-P and P-S irrigations were significantly lower than a single F-irrigation, F-S and F-P-S irrigation. Also a single irrigation at pod elongation stage (P) and seed enlargement stage (S) enhanced more yield than duel irrigations of F-P and P-S.(author)

257

Tri-trophic interactions affect density dependence of seed fate in a tropical forest palm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural enemies, especially host-specific enemies, are hypothesised to facilitate the coexistence of plant species by disproportionately inflicting more damage at increasing host abundance. However, few studies have assessed such Janzen-Connell mechanisms on a scale relevant for coexistence and no study has evaluated potential top-down influences on the specialized pests. We quantified seed predation by specialist invertebrates and generalist vertebrates, as well as larval predation on these invertebrates, for the Neotropical palm Attalea butyracea across ten 4-ha plots spanning 20-fold variation in palm density. As palm density increased, seed attack by bruchid beetles increased, whereas seed predation by rodents held constant. But because rodent predation on bruchid larvae increased disproportionately with increasing palm density, bruchid emergence rates and total seed predation by rodents and bruchids combined were both density-independent. Our results demonstrate that top-down effects can limit the potential of host-specific insects to induce negative-density dependence in plant populations. PMID:21899693

Visser, Marco D; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Wright, S Joseph; Rutten, Gemma; Jansen, Patrick A

2011-11-01

258

Aspects of open-cycle MHD affecting heat and seed recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper explores aspects of an MHD power plant operation that influence the design of heat and seed recovery equipment. Particular emphasis is directed toward aspects which are unique to open-cycle MHD operations, as envisioned by the ANL/MHD System Analysis Group. 25 refs

259

Studies and Research on Friction, Friction Factor and Affecting Factors : A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The friction and friction factors are very significant factors in flow through pipes, channels, heat exchangers . From the pumping cost point of view, minimum friction is desirable as it will decrease the energy loss. In the rotating components like axle-shaft arrangements, the friction and slip are important factors. In case of heat exchanger, the friction factor is important as the heat transfer depends on it. The research was also reported on effect of submerged vegetation on friction for river. The friction coefficient was a function of flow depth and velocity. Also various models were suggested by investigators to predict friction coefficient based on their research related to factors affecting the friction coefficient and the nature and gravity of their effect on friction.

Sunil J. Kulkarni

2014-10-01

260

Factors that affect the nutritive value of canola meal for poultry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the factors affecting the nutritive value of canola meal (CM), including glucosinolates, sinapine, phytic acid, tannins, dietary fiber, and electrolyte balance. It also addresses the means of improving the nutritive value of CM throughout seed dehulling, development of low-fiber canola, or application of feed enzymes. Over the years, the glucosinolate content of canola has been declining steadily and is now only about one-twelfth of that of the older high-glucosinolate rapeseed (that is, 10 vs. 120 ?mol/g). Therefore, the rations for broilers or laying hens could now contain 20% of CM without producing any adverse effects. Tannins are of lesser importance due to their presence in the hull fraction and thus low water solubility. Sinapine has been implicated with the production of a "fishy" taint in brown-shelled eggs, which results from a genetic defect among the strain of Rhode Island Red laying hens. The White Leghorns have been reported not to be affected. Although lower in protein, CM compares favorably with soybean meal with regard to amino acid content. Because CM contains more methionine and cysteine but less lysine, both meals tend to complement each other when used together in poultry diets. Canola meal is low in arginine (Arg) which could be of importance when introducing CM to broiler diets at high inclusion rates. The Arg content of CM is approximately two-thirds of that of soybean meal. Chickens fail to synthesize Arg and are highly dependent on dietary sources for this amino acid. Supplementation of Arg to CM-based diets has been shown to partly restore the growth performance. Dietary cation-anion difference in CM is also less than optimal due to the high sulfur and low potassium contents. Seed dehulling has not been very successful due to excessive fineness and thus difficulties with percolation of the miscella through the cake. Development of low-fiber, yellow-seeded canola and the use of enzymes have proven to increase the energy utilization and the nutritive value of CM for poultry. PMID:22991543

Khajali, F; Slominski, B A

2012-10-01

261

Características agronômicas e rendimento de sementes de soja na semeadura realizada no período de safrinha Agronomic traits and seed parameters of soybean cultivars as affected by delayed sowings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dentre os fatores que afetam o rendimento das sementes de soja, a definição da época de semeadura é fundamental para obter sementes de melhor qualidade e em maiores quantidades. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da semeadura da soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill na época denominada "safrinha" nas características agronômicas das plantas e no rendimento de sementes de cinco cultivares. Foram desenvolvidos três experimentos de competição de cultivares em dois anos agrícolas (1998/99 e 1999/00, com delineamento em blocos completos casualizados, instalando-se um experimento em cada época de semeadura (15/11, 15/1 e 15/2. A semeadura realizada em novembro foi utilizada na comparação com os períodos de safrinha. As cultivares estudadas, bem como os respectivos grupos de maturação, foram os seguintes: 'BRS 132' (precoce, 'BRS 133' (semiprecoce, 'BR 16' (semiprecoce, 'BRS 134' (médio e 'FT-Estrela' (tardio. No campo, foram realizadas as seguintes determinações: números de dias para a emergência, para o florescimento e para a maturação, grau de acamamento das plantas, altura de inserção das primeiras vagens, altura das plantas, número de vagens por planta, massa de mil sementes e rendimento de sementes. A semeadura realizada nos meses de janeiro e fevereiro não é alternativa viável para a produção quantitativa de sementes na Região de Maringá (PR, independentemente da duração de ciclo da cultivar de soja utilizada.Sowing date is one of the most important factors affecting soybean yielding potential. The main aim of this research work was to evaluate the effects of delayed sowings on soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril cultivar agronomic traits and seed yields. Experimental trials were carried out during the 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 growing seasons, using three sowing dates (November 15th, January 15th; and February 15th and five soybean cultivars with different seed maturation periods (BRS-132: very early; BRS-133: early; BR-16: early; BRS-134: intermediate and FT-Estrela: late. A randomized complete block design, with three replications, was set up for each sowing date, the November sowing date considered as the reference. The following agronomic traits were scored: number of days from sowing to seedling emergence, full blooming and seed maturation; first pod insertion height; plant height and degree of laid-down plants as well as the seed parameters overall seed yields, number of pods per plant and mass of thousand seeds. The strong seed yield reductions in delayed sowings for all soybean cultivars (not talking into their flowering and/or seed maturation periods, in both growing seasons, regardless the seed maturation periods of soybean cultivars, as compared to the usual growing season (November, as well as other agronomic traits, clearly indicate the unfeasibility of delayed sowings at the region of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil.

Alessandro de Lucca e Braccini

2004-01-01

262

Características agronômicas e rendimento de sementes de soja na semeadura realizada no período de safrinha / Agronomic traits and seed parameters of soybean cultivars as affected by delayed sowings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Dentre os fatores que afetam o rendimento das sementes de soja, a definição da época de semeadura é fundamental para obter sementes de melhor qualidade e em maiores quantidades. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da semeadura da soja (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) na [...] época denominada "safrinha" nas características agronômicas das plantas e no rendimento de sementes de cinco cultivares. Foram desenvolvidos três experimentos de competição de cultivares em dois anos agrícolas (1998/99 e 1999/00), com delineamento em blocos completos casualizados, instalando-se um experimento em cada época de semeadura (15/11, 15/1 e 15/2). A semeadura realizada em novembro foi utilizada na comparação com os períodos de safrinha. As cultivares estudadas, bem como os respectivos grupos de maturação, foram os seguintes: 'BRS 132' (precoce), 'BRS 133' (semiprecoce), 'BR 16' (semiprecoce), 'BRS 134' (médio) e 'FT-Estrela' (tardio). No campo, foram realizadas as seguintes determinações: números de dias para a emergência, para o florescimento e para a maturação, grau de acamamento das plantas, altura de inserção das primeiras vagens, altura das plantas, número de vagens por planta, massa de mil sementes e rendimento de sementes. A semeadura realizada nos meses de janeiro e fevereiro não é alternativa viável para a produção quantitativa de sementes na Região de Maringá (PR), independentemente da duração de ciclo da cultivar de soja utilizada. Abstract in english Sowing date is one of the most important factors affecting soybean yielding potential. The main aim of this research work was to evaluate the effects of delayed sowings on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) cultivar agronomic traits and seed yields. Experimental trials were carried out during the 199 [...] 8/1999 and 1999/2000 growing seasons, using three sowing dates (November 15th, January 15th; and February 15th) and five soybean cultivars with different seed maturation periods (BRS-132: very early; BRS-133: early; BR-16: early; BRS-134: intermediate and FT-Estrela: late). A randomized complete block design, with three replications, was set up for each sowing date, the November sowing date considered as the reference. The following agronomic traits were scored: number of days from sowing to seedling emergence, full blooming and seed maturation; first pod insertion height; plant height and degree of laid-down plants as well as the seed parameters overall seed yields, number of pods per plant and mass of thousand seeds. The strong seed yield reductions in delayed sowings for all soybean cultivars (not talking into their flowering and/or seed maturation periods), in both growing seasons, regardless the seed maturation periods of soybean cultivars, as compared to the usual growing season (November), as well as other agronomic traits, clearly indicate the unfeasibility of delayed sowings at the region of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil.

Alessandro de Lucca e, Braccini; Ivo de Sá, Motta; Carlos Alberto, Scapim; Maria do Carmo Lana, Braccini; Marizangela Rizzatti, Ávila; Dana Kátia, Meschede.

263

Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

Pyo, Katrina A.

2011-07-01

264

Analysis of Factors Affecting the Quality of an E-commerce Website Using Factor Analysis  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify factors which affect the quality and effectiveness of an e commerce website which also majorly affect customer satisfaction and ultimately customer retention and loyalty. This research paper examines a set of 23 variables and integrates them into 4 factors which affect the quality of a website. An online questionnaire survey was conducted to generate statistics regarding the preferences of the e-commerce website users.The 23 variables taken from customer survey are generalized into 4 major factors using exploratory factor analysis which are content, navigation, services and interface design. The research majorly consists of the responses of students between the age group of 18-25 years and considers different B2C commercial websites. Identified variables are important with respect to the current competition in the market as service of an e-commerce website also play a major role in ensuring customer satisfaction. Further research in this domain can be done for websites’ version for mobile devices.

Saurabh Mishra

2014-12-01

265

Interaction Between Optical and Neural Factors Affecting Visual Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

The human eye suffers from higher order aberrations, in addition to conventional spherical and cylindrical refractive errors. Advanced optical techniques have been devised to correct them in order to achieve superior retinal image quality. However, vision is not completely defined by the optical quality of the eye, but also depends on how the image quality is processed by the neural system. In particular, how neural processing is affected by the past visual experience with optical blur has remained largely unexplored. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the interaction of optical and neural factors affecting vision. To achieve this goal, pathological keratoconic eyes were chosen as the ideal population to study since they are severely afflicted by degraded retinal image quality due to higher order aberrations and their neural system has been exposed to that habitually for a long period of time. Firstly, we have developed advanced customized ophthalmic lenses for correcting the higher order aberration of keratoconic eyes and demonstrated their feasibility in providing substantial visual benefit over conventional corrective methodologies. However, the achieved visual benefit was significantly smaller than that predicted optically. To better understand this, the second goal of the thesis was set to investigate if the neural system optimizes its underlying mechanisms in response to the long-term visual experience with large magnitudes of higher order aberrations. This study was facilitated by a large-stroke adaptive optics vision simulator, enabling us to access the neural factors in the visual system by manipulating the limit imposed by the optics of the eye. Using this instrument, we have performed a series of experiments to establish that habitual exposure to optical blur leads to an alteration in neural processing thereby alleviating the visual impact of degraded retinal image quality, referred to as neural compensation. However, it was also found that chronic exposure to poor optics caused neural insensitivity to fine spatial detail thus adversely limiting the achievable visual benefit when improving the eye's optical quality. Finally, we demonstrated that the altered, but plastic visual system could be re-adapted to improved optics such that it partially recovers its normal mechanism. These findings not only provide vast clinical implications for advanced customized vision correction methodologies for normal, pathologic and presbyopic eyes but also vital scientific insight into the neural processing of the visual system in response to the aberrated optics of the eye.

Sabesan, Ramkumar

266

Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients  

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Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols.

Azin Ayatollahi

2013-01-01

267

Irrigation amounts affect the compositional changes of Moringa oleifera seeds throughout different developmental stages  

OpenAIRE

The compositional development of Moringa oleifera seed across a range of growth stages was monitored at three irrigation treatments, simulating total annual rainfall of 900 mm, 600 mm and 300 mm/annum over two consecutive growing seasons (24 months). Fruit developmental stages were categorized according to fruit diameter (0 mm – 28 mm) at 2 mm increments. Starch was the first to accumulate during the initial histo-differentiation phase (fruit diameters of 0 mm-12 mm), while oil ...

Muhl, Quintin Ernst; Du Toit, Elsa Sophia; Steyn, J. M.

2014-01-01

268

Germination Characteristics of Korean and Southeast Asian Redrice (Oryza sativa L. Seeds as Affected by Temperature  

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Full Text Available Red rice (Oryza sativa L. is considered an important weed in many paddy fields. We performed a laboratory investigation to evaluate the germination percent, germination speed and days to 50% germination (T50 of red rice seed three groups were selected: (1 four Southeast Asian varieties/germplasms, (2 six Korean varieties/germplasms with enhanced yield and (3 four Korean varieties/germplasms which are problem in direct-sown paddy fields. The selected varieties/germplasms were incubated at four different day/night temperature settings: 15/10, 20/15, 25/20 and 30/25°C. This study has been carried out at phytotron and glass house between 2007 through 2009 to find out the characteristics of Asian redrice germ plasms. According to results, the germination percent and germination speed of red rice seed generally increased with increasing temperature. At low temperature (20/15°C, red rice seeds, selected or imported red rice from cold areas, resulted in lowest germination percent (9% and germination speed (12.3, however, T50 was the lowest (7.2 at 15/10°C compared to all the Southeast Asia red rice varieties/germplasms. Germination characteristics of Korean red rice seeds showed similar responses to temperature conditions depending on where they came from and local temperature: southern part of Korea (Hapcheon or northern part (Suwon. However, Yeongcheon red rice showed high germination percent (96-100% and low T50 (9.0-2.7 which was very similar to group 2 which were already selected as cultivars/germplasms for high vigor and high yield. The critical temperature for red rice germination related characteristics was 25/20°C and activity (germination speed and T50 did not increase much at 30/25°C. In conclusion, red rice varieties/germplasms selected from a local area would represent the temperature of the area partially.

Young-Son Cho

2010-01-01

269

Factores grupales que inciden en la productividad / Group factors affecting productivity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las organizaciones en la actualidad están sometidas permanentemente a cambios acelerados, obligándolas a incrementar su flexibilidad y adaptabilidad para mantener su posición competitiva, sobrevivir a estas presiones lograr sus objetivos y ser más productivas. Por estas razones, la productividad del [...] factor humano es fundamental, ya que son las personas las que realizan los procesos creativos que generan resultados en las organizaciones. Cuando las personas interactúan en la organización se generan unos procesos de carácter psicosocial que incide en el desempeño de individuos, grupos y organización y se denominan Factores grupales, porque son producto de la actuación de las personas en grupos de trabajo. Dichos factores tienen impacto en la productividad, por lo que resulta de interés el estudio de estas relaciones. Con el fin de analizar este impacto, se presenta relaciones Factores Grupales-Productividad, mediante un Modelo de Ecuaciones Estructurales (SEM), donde los Factores Grupales y la Productividad son constructos o variables latentes explicadas por variables observables o indicadores. El modelo planteado, es aceptado de acuerdo con los índices globales de ajuste y a las cargas factoriales de las variables del modelo resultante. Se corroboró que los factores grupales, tales como Cohesión, Conflicto, Consenso y Moral, inciden en la productividad. Abstract in english Organizations today are undergoing rapid change permanently, forcing them to increase their flexibility and adaptability to stay competitive, to survive these pressures, achieve their goals and be more productive. For these reasons, the productivity of the human factor is critical because it is the [...] people doing the creative processes those results in organizations. When people interact in the organization are a generated psychosocial process that affects the performance of individuals, groups and organization and are called group factors, because they are the product of individual behavior in work groups. These factors have an impact on productivity, so it is interesting to study these relationships. To analyze this impact is presented group factors-productivity relationships through a Structural Equation Model (SEM), where the group factors and productivity are constructs or latent variables explained by observable variables or indicators. The proposed model is accepted in accordance with the global fit indices and factor loadings of the variables of the resulting model. It was confirmed that the group factors, such as Cohesion, Conflict, Consensus and Moral affect productivity.

Cequea, Mirza Marvel; Miguel, Núñez Bottini; Carlos, Rodríguez-Monroy.

2011-12-01

270

Factors affecting the ion beam implantation in silicon  

CERN Document Server

The factors affecting the ion beam implantation in silicon have been studied using boron, phosphorus, oxygen, and argon ions having energy range 0.5 ke V-200 ke V. It was found that the range of the ions in silicon increases with the increase of their energy and decreases with the increase of their masses. The ionization process is found to be the main process for causing damage in the silicon matrix whether it is produced by the accelerated ions or by the recoiled silicon atoms. The magnitude of ionization in silicon is found to be inversely proportional to the mass of ions. Ionization produced by ions or recoils shows different contributions to the damage depending on the mass of ions where the ions energy loss to ionization decreases from 70% to 23% as the mass is increased from 11 for boron (B) to 40 for argon (Ar). Its magnitude, as produced by ions, is found to decrease with the increase of their masses. Its value is observed to increase in a complementary way with the mass increase. Ions energy loss to...

El-Shanshoury, A I

2003-01-01

271

Factors Affecting the Radii of Close-in Transiting Exoplanets  

CERN Document Server

The radius of an exoplanet may be affected by various factors, including irradiation, planet mass and heavy element content. A significant number of transiting exoplanets have now been discovered for which the mass, radius, semi-major axis, host star metallicity and stellar effective temperature are known. We use multivariate regression models to determine the dependence of planetary radius on planetary equilibrium temperature T_eq, planetary mass M_p, stellar metallicity [Fe/H], orbital semi-major axis a, and tidal heating rate H_tidal, for 119 transiting planets in three distinct mass regimes. We determine that heating leads to larger planet radii, as expected, increasing mass leads to increased or decreased radii of low-mass (2.0R_J) planets, respectively (with no mass effect on Jupiter-mass planets), and increased host-star metallicity leads to smaller planetary radii, indicating a relationship between host-star metallicity and planet heavy element content. For Saturn-mass planets, a good fit to the radii...

Enoch, B; Horne, K

2012-01-01

272

[Factors that affect adult men's decisions to hire a prostitute].  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study analyzed demographic and psychological factors that affect adult men's decisions to solicit a prostitute. We administered a questionnaire to 1400 randomly sampled men aged 20 to 59, who live in the Tokyo metropolitan area (obtaining 664 valid responses). The results revealed that 14.6 percent of respondents have had the experience of being a client in prostitution at some point over the past four to five years. Men in their 50s, who spent their adolescence before the enforcement of anti-prostitution laws, had high prostitution acceptability. Those in their 20s and 30s, who spent their adolescence in the 1990s when "Enjyo-Kousai" (Japanese amateur prostitution) gained topicality, also showed high rates. These findings are considered to be birth cohort effects. In addition, those men who reported greater sexual drive and desire for intimate contact with others, as well as those who reported fewer attitudes of gender egalitarianism, had higher rates of prostitution solicitation. Finally, those men who reported less emotional family bonds also showed higher rates. PMID:18939442

Ui, Miyoko; Matsui, Yutaka; Fukutomi, Mamoru; Narita, Ken'ichi; Kamise, Yumiko; Yashiro, Kaoru

2008-08-01

273

THEORIES AND FACTORS AFFECTING MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A REVIEW  

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Full Text Available Bioadhesion is an interfacial phenomenon in which two materials, at least one of which is biological, are held together by means of interfacial forces. When the associated biological system is mucous, it is called mucoadhesion. This property of certain polymeric systems have got place in the drug delivery research in order to prolong contact time in the various mucosal route of drug administration, as the ability to maintain a delivery system at a particular location for an extended period of time has a great appeal for both local action as well as systemic drug bioavailability. A complete and comprehensive theory that can predict adhesion based on the chemical and/or physical nature of a polymer is not yet available. Several theories have been proposed to explain the fundamental mechanisms of adhesion such as glues, adhesives, and paints, have been adopted to study the mucoadhesion. Mucoadhesion is a complex process and numerous theories have been presented to explain the mechanisms involved. These theories include mechanical-interlocking, electrostatic, diffusion–interpenetration, adsorption and fracture processes. They are Electronic theory, Adsorption theory, Wetting theory, Diffusion theory, Fracture theory. The objective of the study is to explain the different mechanisms involved in mucoadhesion and various factors affecting mucoadhesion.

Alexander Amit

2011-04-01

274

Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels, artificial insemination stud (4 levels and sire of bull (137 levels. All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

Martino Cassandro

2012-01-01

275

Chordoma: review of clinico radiological features and factors affecting survival  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study reviews the clinico radiological features of cranial and sacrospinal chordomas and identifies factors affecting survival. Nineteen patients seen between January 1980 and December 2000 with histopathological diagnosis of chordomas were retrospectively reviewed with reference to clinical presentation, imaging features, treatment modalities and post-therapy status. Eight had tumours in the skull base while 11 patients had spinal and sacro-coccygeal lesions. Surgical resection was performed in 16 patients whose subsequent natural history was used to identify clinical indicators that may influence survival. Completeness of resection, age, gender and postoperative irradiation were subjected to analysis using the Cox proportional hazard models. Kaplan-Meir survival curves illustrate the survival distributions. Diplopia and facial pain are prime clinical presentations in cranial lesions, while extremity weakness and a sacrogluteal mass are common complaints in the sacrospinal group. Lesional calcifications are present in 40% while an osteolytic soft tissue mass is detectable by CT in all cases. Heterogeneous signals and internal septations on T2-weighted MRI are predominant features. In sacrospinal tumours, complete excision with adjuvant radiotherapy achieves the best results with a disease-free survival of more than 5 years. The clinical and imaging findings in this study are in accordance with those of other series. Except for complete surgical excisieries. Except for complete surgical excision followed by radiotherapy in the subset of patients with sacrospinal tumours, none of the other clinical indicators show a statistical significant influence on survival. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

276

Factors affecting the motivation of smokers to quit smoking  

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Full Text Available smoking. Success of smoking cessation depends mainly on the balance between motivation and the degree of nicotine dependence. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting the motivation of smokers to stop smoking. Method: Data were collected from 139 smokers, aged 18-69 divided in two groups. Questionnaires were completed about the demographic data, smoking history, anthropometric characteristics, degree of nicotine dependence, motivation degree and alcohol consumption. Results: Body Mass Index was positively correlated with the dependence degree and heavy smoking, while those who were overweight in adolescence showed a lower degree of motivation for smoking cessation. Individuals with moderate or heavy alcohol consumption, those who smoked in their working environment and were heavier smokers needed greater motivation. The low degree of dependence was associated with a lower degree of motivation, while those who showed medium dependence were moderately motivated. Conclusions: Health care professionals should take into account all the above components with the aim of motivating smokers to stop smoking.

Gourgoulianis K.

2011-07-01

277

Factors Affecting Internet Banking Usage in India: An Empirical Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for Internet banking usage by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The study was conducted on the private, public and foreign banks which included ICICI Bank Ltd., HDFC Bank Ltd. and AXIS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and Yes Bank. Among public sector banks the respondents were from Bank of Baroda, Punjab National Bank and State Bank of India and Canara Bank. The sample size of 450 has been taken from among the urban population of above 18 years of age. The result indicates that the educated respondents use the service of internet banking. Based on occupation we can say that the service class and the business class is the one who use internet banking service to nearly 2 times as other occupation. The high income respondents having more than 1 lack income prefer to use this service. The private sector bank account holders use this service as compared to public sector banks. The banking attributes i.e. convenience and security do have very attentive influence on the use of Internet banking.

Shariq Mohammed

2013-10-01

278

Factors affecting return to driving post-stroke.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect a person\\'s ability to drive, an important means of transportation in the developed world. AIMS: To determine percentage of patients and factors associated with return to driving post-stroke in a service with emphasis on driver assessment. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients discharged from the Stroke Service of our 470-bed teaching hospital from 1998 to 2002. RESULTS: Of 72 drivers pre-stroke, 54% recalled a driving assessment and 68% returned to driving. Younger patients (58.6 +\\/- 12.0 vs. 66.5 +\\/- 10.5, p = 0.008) with lower Modified Rankin Score (median 1 vs. 2, p = 0.0001) and normal cognition (55 vs. 43%, p = 0.45) were more likely to resume driving. More patients who were assessed returned to driving than those who were not (74 vs. 61%, p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high level of return to driving can be achieved post-stroke with a pro-active approach to driver assessment and rehabilitation. A structured assessment and referral programme should be offered where appropriate.

Tan, K M

2012-02-01

279

Factors affecting the success of influenza laboratory diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Influenza is one of the most common human infectious diseases, and has profound health and economic consequences. The laboratory diag- nosis of influenza virus infections plays an important role in the global surveillance of influenza. Therefore, there is a growing demand for highly sensitive and rapid methods for detecting influenza. The performance of particular diagnostic methods is affected by various factors. In this study, we assess the effects of patients' age and time to diagnosis on the probability of detecting influenza using four diagnostic methods (virus isolation, rapid test, RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR). We examined 3,546 samples from central and eastern Slovakia during the influenza seasons from 2005-2006 to 2010-2011. In general, the probability of influenza detection significantly decreased with the time from onset of illness to sample collection (T1) as well as with patients' age (AGE). On the contrary, time from sample collection to delivery (T2) did not play a role in the prob- ability of influenza detection. As judged by odds ratios, the virus isolation method was most sensitive to T1, followed by the rapid test and RT-PCR methods. For the effect of AGE, the rapid test and virus isolation methods were more sensitive than PCR-based methods. The effects of T1 and AGE were independent of each other. Laboratories which participate in inifluenza surveillance should use several methods to enable rapid and accurate influenza A and B virus detection. PMID:25438393

Kissová, Renáta; Svitok, Marek; Klement, Cyril; Mad'arová, Lucia

2014-09-01

280

Mechanical factors affecting reliability of pressure components (fatigue, cracking)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reliability of a pressure component can be seriously affected by the formation and development of cracks. The experimental studies presented in this paper are devoted to three different aspects of crack propagation phenomena which have been relatively little described. In close connection with safety analyses of PWR, the authors study the influence of the environment by carrying out fatigue tests with samples bathed in hot pressurized water. Ferritic, austenitic and Incolloy 800 steels were used and the results are presented in the form of fatigue curves in the oligocyclic region. The second part of the paper relates to crack initiation cirteria in ductile steels weakened by notches. The CT samples used make it possible to study almost all types of fracture (ductile, intermediate and brittle). The use of two criteria based on the load limit and on the toughness of the material constitutes a practical way of evaluating crack propagation conditions. A series of tests carried out on notched spherical vessels of different size shows that large vessels are relatively brittle; fast unstable fracture is observed as size increases. Crack growth rate in PWR primary circuits (3/6 steel) is studied on piping elements (0.25 scale) subjected to cyclic stress variations (2850C and with pressure varying between 1 and 160 bar in each cycle). By calculating the stress intensity factor, correlation with results obtained in the laboratory on CT samples is possible. (authoboratory on CT samples is possible. (author)

281

Some factors affecting the in vitro culture of banana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Factors affecting in vitro regeneration of shoots in shoot tip explant cultures of banana cultivar 'Basrai', such as solid and liquid media, growth regulators, vitamins, and antioxidants were studied. Three-quarters strength of MS liquid medium supplemented with 17.75 micro m 6-benzyladenine (BA), 11.42 micro M indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 205 micro M adenine sulphate induced the formation of mean number of 12.3 shoots, with the mean length of 3.0 cm, after three weeks of culture. Maximum shoot multiplication (14.33) occurred in liquid medium containing 22.19 micro M BA. Addition of 2.0% activated charcoal (AC) to the liquid medium improved quality of the regenerated plants with expanded and glossy leaves, though the number of shoots was reduced (13.66). Profuse formation of roots was characteristically induced by AC. Addition of citric acid (CA) to the medium caused decline in morphogenetic expression of the cultures. (author)

282

Critical Factors Affecting Cell Encapsulation in Superporous Hydrogels  

OpenAIRE

We recently showed that superporous hydrogel scaffolds promote long-term stem cell viability and cell driven mineralization when cells were seeded within the pores of pre-fabricated SPH scaffolds. The possibility of cell encapsulation within SPH hydrogel matrix during its fabrication was further explored in this study. The impact of each chemical component used in the SPH fabrication and each step of the fabrication process on cell viability was systematically examined. Ammonium persulfate, a...

Desai, Esha S.; Tang, Mary Y.; Ross, Amy E.; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

2012-01-01

283

Molecular insights into how a deficiency of amylose affects carbon allocation – carbohydrate and oil analyses and gene expression profiling in the seeds of a rice waxy mutant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding carbon partitioning in cereal seeds is of critical importance to develop cereal crops with enhanced starch yields for food security and for producing specified end-products high in amylose, ?-glucan, or fructan, such as functional foods or oils for biofuel applications. Waxy mutants of cereals have a high content of amylopectin and have been well characterized. However, the allocation of carbon to other components, such as ?-glucan and oils, and the regulation of the altered carbon distribution to amylopectin in a waxy mutant are poorly understood. In this study, we used a rice mutant, GM077, with a low content of amylose to gain molecular insight into how a deficiency of amylose affects carbon allocation to other end products and to amylopectin. We used carbohydrate analysis, subtractive cDNA libraries, and qPCR to identify candidate genes potentially responsible for the changes in carbon allocation in GM077 seeds. Results Carbohydrate analysis indicated that the content of amylose in GM077 seeds was significantly reduced, while that of amylopectin significantly rose as compared to the wild type BP034. The content of glucose, sucrose, total starch, cell-wall polysaccharides and oil were only slightly affected in the mutant as compared to the wild type. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH experiments generated 116 unigenes in the mutant on the wild-type background. Among the 116 unigenes, three, AGP, ISA1 and SUSIBA2-like, were found to be directly involved in amylopectin synthesis, indicating their possible roles in redirecting carbon flux from amylose to amylopectin. A bioinformatics analysis of the putative SUSIBA2-like binding elements in the promoter regions of the upregulated genes indicated that the SUSIBA2-like transcription factor may be instrumental in promoting the carbon reallocation from amylose to amylopectin. Conclusion Analyses of carbohydrate and oil fractions and gene expression profiling on a global scale in the rice waxy mutant GM077 revealed several candidate genes implicated in the carbon reallocation response to an amylose deficiency, including genes encoding AGPase and SUSIBA2-like. We believe that AGP and SUSIBA2 are two promising targets for classical breeding and/or transgenic plant improvement to control the carbon flux between starch and other components in cereal seeds.

Zhang Ming-Zhou

2012-12-01

284

Siliqua and Seed Development in Rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. as Affected by Different Irrigation Levels and Row Spacing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accumulation of dry matter in siliqua, number of siliqua per plant, length of siliqua and seeds per siliqua of rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. plants were studied under three irrigation levels (no irrigation, one irrigation at 30 DAS and two irrigations at 30 and 60 DAS and three row spacing (20 cm, 30 cm and 40 cm. The experiment was carried out at Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University (SAU Farm, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh during the period from October, 2005 to January, 2006. The results revealed that the maximum dry matter accumulation in siliquae observed with two irrigations (at 30 DAS and 60 DAS with 40 cm row spacing. Number of siliquae per plant was affected by different irrigation levels and row spacing and the highest number of silique was produced by two irrigations (at 30 DAS and 60 DAS with 40 cm row spacing. At harvest, two irrigations produced the highest number of siliquae (120.3 which was statistically different from one irrigation (76.14 and no irrigation (control treatments (30.99 and the differences were 288.2% and 145.7%, respectively over control. Length of silique as well as number of seeds per siliqua were significantly affected by the combination of irrigation levels and row spacing.

Mirza HASANUZZAMAN

2008-12-01

285

Factors affecting stall use for different freestall bases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to compare stall use (stall occupancy and cow position) by barn side for factors affecting stall use. A closed circuit television system recorded stall use four times per day for a 9-mo period starting May 9, 2001. Six factors were analyzed: stall base, distance to water, stall location within stall base section, stall location within barn, inside barn temperature, and length of time cows were exposed to stall bases. Two barn sides with different stocking densities were analyzed: low (66%), with cows milked by robotic milker; and high (100%), with cows milked 2X in parlor. Six stall base types were tested: two mattresses, a waterbed, a rubber mat, concrete, and sand (high side only). The base types were grouped 3 to 7 stalls/section and randomly placed in each row. Cows spent more time in mattress-based stalls, but the highest percentage lying was in sand-based stalls. The following significant stall occupancy percentages were found: sand had the highest percentage of cows lying on the high stocking density side (69%), followed by mattress type 1 (65%) > mattress type 2 (57%) > waterbed (45%) > rubber mat (33%) > concrete (23%). Mattress type 1 had the highest percentage stalls occupied (88%), followed by mattress type 2 (84%) > sand (79%) > soft rubber mat (65%) > waterbed (62%) > concrete (39%). On the low stocking rate side, mattress type 1 had the highest percentage cows lying (45%) and occupied (59.6%), followed by mattress type 2 > waterbed > soft rubber mat > concrete. Cow lying and stalls occupied percentages were highest for stalls 1) not at the end of a section, and 2) on the outside row, and varied by base type for time cows exposed to stalls and inside barn temperature. Lying and occupied percentages were different for different mattress types. The percentage of stalls with cows standing was higher for mat and mattress-based stalls. Results show mattress type 1 and sand to be superior and rubber mats and concrete inferior stall bases. PMID:12836963

Wagner-Storch, A M; Palmer, R W; Kammel, D W

2003-06-01

286

Environmental and genetic factors affecting cow survival of Israeli Holsteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives were to investigate the effects of various environmental factors that may affect herd-life of Israeli Holsteins, including first-calving age and season, calving ease, number of progeny born, and service sire for first calving in complete and truncated records; and to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations between herd-life and the other traits included in the Israeli breeding index. The basic data set consisted of 590,869 cows in milk recording herds with first freshening day between 1985 and at least 8 yr before the cut-off date of September 15, 2013. Herd-life was measured as days from first calving to culling. The phenotypic and genetic trends for herd-life were 5.7 and 16.8d/yr. The genetic trend was almost linear, whereas the phenotypic trend showed 4 peaks and 3 valleys. Cows born in February and March had the shortest herd-life, whereas cows born in September had the longest herd-life. Herd-life was maximal with calving age of 23mo, which is 1mo less than the mean calving age, and minimal at 19 and 31mo of calving age. Dystocia and twinning on first-parity calving reduced herd-life by approximately180 and 120d, but the interaction effect increased herd-life by 140d. Heritability for herd-life was 0.14. Despite the fact that the service sire effect was significant in the fixed model analysis, service sire effect accounted for milk, fat, and protein production, somatic cell score (SCS), and female fertility were all positive, except for SCS, in which negative values are economically favorable. The highest correlations with herd-life in absolute value were with female fertility and SCS. PMID:25468704

Weller, J I; Ezra, E

2015-01-01

287

Factors affecting performance of Nili-Ravi buffaloes in Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of herd, year, age, season, and lactation length on milk yield and reproductive efficiency for the Nili-Ravi breed of buffalo were determined by analysis of variance of 5,716 lactation records from two herds in Pakistan. Herds differed in all traits. Herd average milk yields were 1,702 and 2,064 kg. Year, season, herd, parity number, days in milk, days open, age, and sire all influenced milk yield. Herd, year, season, and parity number also had significant effects on days open and calving interval. Month of calving was important for time until return to estrus. Percentages of variance in milk yield attributed to herd, year, sire, cow, and residual were 20.3, 11.4, 4.3, 17.0, and 47.0. Classification of lactation length (greater than 60, greater than 250, or at least 305 days) markedly influenced the sire component of variance suggesting some interdependence of milk yield and lactation length. Total variance for milk yield was 466,911 kg2. Within herd heritability for milk yield was .25, and repeatability was low (.31). Predicted breeding values for sires for 250 to 305-day milk ranged from -172 kg to +260. Cows in Herd 1 completed 5.58 lactations with an average herd life of 12.3 yr; Herd 2 cows completed 4.52 lactations with culling at 10.6 yr. Frequency of termination of lactations because of mastitis, reproductive problems, or health was similar to frequencies for cattle. Factors affecting milk yield in buffaloes are similar to those of cattle. PMID:6841754

Cady, R A; Shah, S K; Schermerhorn, E C; McDowell, R E

1983-03-01

288

Some factors affecting cellulose degradation with Pellicularia filamentosa cellulases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cellulose degradation with a crude cellulase preparation obtained from the culture filtrate of Pellicularia filamentosa strain FERM-P 1797 rapidly reached a plateau at a low level of degradation. To explain and prevent this phenomenon, several factors affecting cellulase activities were investigated for three cellulase components, I-A-3, I-A-4, and I-A-5, fractionated from the crude cellulase. Marked lowering of the cellulose degradation rate was observed in every component tested, as in the crude cellulase. However, no evidence was obtained that denaturation or product inhibition are involved under the conditions tested. In the case of I-A-4, a component of high substrate specificity toward crystalline cellulose, the sole condition for the phenomenon is the coexistence of cellulase and cellulose. The addition of at least 100 ..mu..g of non-cellulase protein per ml of reaction mixture prevented the lowering of activity. In the case of I-A-5, a component of high substrate specificity toward CM-cellulose, the occurrence of a gas-liquid interface under the coexistence of cellulase and substrate may be one cause of the lowering of activity. The phenomenon could be prevented by addition of non-cellulase protein with CM-cellulose as substrate, but not with crystalline cellulose. I-A-3, a component of high substrate specificity toward crystalline cellulose and CM-cellulose, showed the combined properties of the other two components with respect to the causes and methods of prevention of the lowering of activity.

Tanaka, M.; Takenawa, S.; Matsuno, R.; Kamikubo, T.

1978-01-01

289

Some factors affecting the magnitude of comodulation masking release.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines some of the factors that can affect the magnitude of comodulation masking release (CMR). In experiment I, psychometric functions were measured for the detection of a 1-kHz sinusoidal signal in a "multiplied" narrow-band noise centered at 1 kHz (reference condition) and the same noise with two comodulated flanking bands added. The functions were slightly steeper for the comodulated than for the reference masker. Thus CMRs measured at a high percent correct point were slightly (0.4 dB) larger than CMRs measured at a low percent correct point. Large individual differences were found for the reference masker but not for the comodulated masker. Experiment II compared CMRs obtained with narrow-band Gaussian noise and multiplied noise, using a single flanking band. For a flanking band remote from the signal frequency, the CMRs were smaller and more variable for the multiplied noise than for the Gaussian noise. This variability arose mainly from individual differences in the reference condition. Experiment III compared growth-of-masking functions for a signal centered in Gaussian noise and multiplied noise. Thresholds were lower for the multiplied than for the Gaussian noise, and the differences were greatest at high noise levels. The results are consistent with the idea that, for multiplied noise, some subjects can detect a change in the distribution of the envelope of the stimulus, when the signal is added to the masker. Such subjects have low thresholds in the reference condition, and give small CMRs. Other subjects are relatively insensitive to this cue. They have higher thresholds in the reference condition, and give larger CMRs. For Gaussian noise, thresholds for the reference condition are relatively stable across subjects and CMRs tend to be substantial, even for flanking-band frequencies remote from the signal frequency. PMID:2262626

Moore, B C; Hall, J W; Grose, J H; Schooneveldt, G P

1990-10-01

290

BROCCOLI Spears Yield Affected By GAMMA Rays Irradiated Seeds And Foliar Application Of Some Growth Regulators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two field experiments were carried out during 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 winter growing seasons at the experimental farm of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt.The experiments were conducted to study the effect of pre-sowing broccoli seeds (cv. F1 175) irradiated with different doses of gamma rays (2, 3 and 4 Gy). The plants were sprayed with GA3 at rate of 50 ml/liter/fed and 20 ml/liter/fed for NAA. Main spear fresh and dry weight per plant, total spears fresh and dry weight per plant, total spears yield, ascorbic acid, TSS, carbohydrates, total chlorophyll, NPK and total protein content of spears were evaluated. The results showed that broccoli seeds irradiated with gamma rays up to 4 Gy pre-sowing increased the abovementioned parameters with different magnitudes comparing with the non-irradiated control plants except spears N, P and protein contents showed decrease in their values comparing with un-treated plants.It could be concluded that the foliar application of GA3 and NAA on broccoli spears increased all the abovementioned parameters, except spears N, P and protein contents showed decrease in their values.

291

Physiological Responses of West African Dwarf Buck as Affected by Datura Stramonium Linn Seed Extract  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To evaluate the action of aqueous extract of Datura stramonium seeds on the physiological status of West African Dwarf (WAD -bucks, the effects of aqueous extract of the seed of Datura stramonium Linn was investigated for some physiological parameters in twenty (20 West African Dwarf bucks aged 12- 18 months and averaged 8.76±1.23kg for a period of 2months. The bucks were grouped into five treatments consisting four bucks and using Completely Randomized Design (CRD. The bucks were subcutaneously administered with the plant extract at a dose of 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08ml/kg bodyweight respectively. The results of the study revealed that the treated bucks had higher (p>0.05 body weight than the control but treated had lower rectal temperature than the control (p>0.05. However, the extract produced significant effect (p<0.05 on the pulse and heart rate and this may be as a result of the active principles present in the extract used for the study. Based on the findings of the present study, the aqueous extract of Datura stramonium could serve as a stimulatory agent and if properly screened using additional solvents, pharmacologically active drugs could be obtained. The significant effect produced by the aqueous extract on the animals has provided scientific justification for the ethno medicinal uses of the plant in India and South Africa.

Fatoba, T. A.

2012-12-01

292

Seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals concentration as affected by foliar K-glyphosate applications in soybean cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous studies showed that glyphosate (Gly may chelate cation nutrients, including potassium (K, which might affect the nutritional status of soybean seed. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals as influenced by foliar applications of K + Gly. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at Mississippi Valley State University, using two glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivars DK 4968 and Pioneer 95Y70 grown in a randomized complete block design. The treatments were foliar applications of K alone, Gly alone, K + Gly combined, and nontreated control (C. A single application of potassium (1.75% as K2SO4 was applied, and Gly was applied at a rate of 0.75 ae/ha at V5 stage. Leaf samples were harvested one week after treatment (1WAT and 3WAT. Mature seeds were collected at harvest maturity (R8. The results showed that K, nitrogen (N, and phosphorus (P concentrations increased in leaves in K alone and K + Gly treatments at 1WAT, but significantly increased at 3WAT in all treatments. The concentration of iron (Fe and zinc (Zn showed a decrease in leaf concentration in Gly and K + Gly treatments compared to C. Boron (B concentration increased in Gly treatment. Seed protein percentage was higher in all treatments in cultivar DK 4968, and the increase was about 4.0% in K treatment, 6.9% in Gly treatment, and 3.5% in K + Gly treatment compared to C. The opposite trend was observed in oil concentration, especially in Gly treatment where the percentage decrease was 11.2% compared to C. Stearic fatty acid was significantly higher in K + Gly treatment compared to K treatment for DK 4968. A higher percentage increase in linolenic acid was observed in DK 4968 in K treatment (an increase of 24.5% and in K + Gly treatment (an increase of 29.5% compared to C. In Pioneer 95Y70, the decrease in oil was 2.7% in K treatment and 2.3% in K + Gly treatment compared to C. Stearic acid in Pioneer 95Y70 was significantly higher in Gly treatment, an increase of 8.3%, compared to C. Our research demonstrated that foliar application of K and Gly altered mineral concentration in leaves and shifted seed composition towards protein and stearic concentration. Further research under field conditions is needed before final conclusions are made.

Manju Pande

2012-10-01

293

Critical factors affecting cell encapsulation in superporous hydrogels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We recently showed that superporous hydrogel (SPH) scaffolds promote long-term stem cell viability and cell driven mineralization when cells were seeded within the pores of pre-fabricated SPH scaffolds. The possibility of cell encapsulation within the SPH matrix during its fabrication was further explored in this study. The impact of each chemical component used in SPH fabrication and each step of the fabrication process on cell viability was systematically examined. Ammonium persulfate, an initiator, and sodium bicarbonate, the gas-generating compound, were the two components having significant toxicity toward encapsulated cells at the concentrations necessary for SPH fabrication. Cell survival rates were 55.7% ± 19.3% and 88.8% ± 9.4% after 10 min exposure to ammonium persulfate and sodium bicarbonate solutions, respectively. In addition, solution pH change via the addition of sodium bicarbonate had significant toxicity toward encapsulated cells with cell survival of only 50.3% ± 2.5%. Despite toxicity of chemical components and the SPH fabrication method, cells still exhibited significant overall survival rates within SPHs of 81.2% ± 6.8% and 67.0% ± 0.9%, respectively, 48 and 72 h after encapsulation. This method of cell encapsulation holds promise for use in vitro and in vivo as a scaffold material for both hydrogel matrix encapsulation and cell seeding within the pores. (paper)

294

Factors influencing the fruit crops and seed fates of Pistacia chinensis: the results of structural equation modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seed production and quality are important factors influencing population regeneration in many seed plants. We used structural equation modeling to investigate how plant and fruit traits interact with each other to influence the fruit crops and seed fates of Pistacia chinensis. From May to September 2009, we sampled 45 fruiting female trees and measured plant traits (height, DBH and crown area, fruit traits (infructescence size, fruit size and the fruit crop of each sampled tree in Jiyuan City of Henan Province, Central China. The fruit crops of P. chinensis were positively correlated with tree height, crown area and infructescence size but not significantly correlated with DBH or fruit size. The fruit crop of an individual tree had no negative direct effect on the infestation of seeds by wasps (Eurytoma plotnikovi. Such a direct effect would be predicted by the predator satiation hypothesis. Tree height and fruit size had a positive direct effect on the seed predation rate, but a significant negative correlation was found between the seed predation rate and the rate of seedlessness. Our results indicate that seedless fruits may serve as a defensive mechanism against insect seed predators. In addition, both seedless and insect-infested fruits had a negative direct effect on seed survival, and DBH, infructescence size and fruit crop had a positive indirect effect on seed survival. However, tree height and fruit size had negative indirect effects on seed survival. In conclusion, we have shown that both plant and fruit traits can strongly influence fruit crops and insect seed predation and subsequently determine the seed quality and population regeneration of P. chinensis.

Hongling Guo

2014-03-01

295

Factors Affecting Students' Choice of Science and Engineering in Portugal.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the results of a study undertaken in Portugal to determine the influence of different factors on students' (n=499) decisions to study or refuse to study in one of the physical sciences or engineering. Some influencing factors are related to what goes on in school and during science lessons, and other factors are related to the…

de Almeida, Maria Jose B. M.; Leite, Maria Salete S. C. P.; Woolnough, Brian E.

296

Chemical composition of tomato seeds affected by conventional and organic production systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tomato is amongst the most consumed vegetables in the world, not only for its culinary versatility but also for its high nutritional value. In the last years, consumers have shown an increased concern regarding food origin and safety. The organic tomato production has been a promising alternative for the consumer offering a safer food in relation to environmental, social and nutritional aspects. This study assessed the chemical composition of tomato seeds produced in both conventional and organic systems by INAA. The results showed significant differences (p?0.05) in the mass fractions of Br, Cs, Eu, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb and Sm between both systems, indicating influence of the crop management adopted in the different tomato production systems. (author)

297

Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. A surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). In the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survival of seeds of seven species of weeds and non-embryonated eggs of the large roundworm of pigs, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still maintained low levels (~1%) of germination ability after 1 week. Chenopodium album was the only weed species which survived 1 week at substantial levels (7%) although after 11 d germination ability was totally lost. Similarly, at 55°C, no Ascaris eggs survived more than 3h of incubation. Incubation at 37°C did not affect egg survival during the first 48 h and it took up to 10 days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites and weeds so that the digestates can be applied without risking spread of these pests. PMID:23266071

Johansen, Anders; Nielsen, Henrik B; Hansen, Christian M; Andreasen, Christian; Carlsgart, Josefine; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Roepstorff, Allan

2013-04-01

298

Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. A surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). In the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survival of seeds of seven species of weeds and non-embryonated eggs of the large roundworm of pigs, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still maintained low levels (?1%) of germination ability after 1 week. Chenopodium album was the only weed species which survived 1 week at substantial levels (7%) although after 11d germination ability was totally lost. Similarly, at 55°C, no Ascaris eggs survived more than 3h of incubation. Incubation at 37°C did not affect egg survival during the first 48h and it took up to 10days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites and weeds so that the digestates can be applied without risking spread of these pests.

Johansen, Anders; BangsØ Nielsen, Henrik

2013-01-01

299

Prioritization of the Factors Affecting Sport Tourism Development  

OpenAIRE

Today, tourism and sport enjoy a complementary interrelationship directly affecting the nations` economy. Also sport tourism is, nowadays, considered as the most lucrative industry worldwide. In addition, it may affect all the social strata economically and politically. Thus, needless to say that much more attention should be directed to the industry through clear-cut policies, visions and constructive plans in this regard. To this end, in this paper, the authors investigated and offered the ...

Sajjadi, S. N.; Arefeh Jamshidi; Akbar Heidary

2012-01-01

300

FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHERS’ USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY  

OpenAIRE

Research studies in the past decade have shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. Studies reveal a number of factors influencing teachers’ decisions to use ICT in the classroom: non-manipulative and manipulative school and teacher factors. These factors are interrelated. The success of the implementation of ICT is no...

Mojgan Afshari; Kamariah Abu Bakar; Wong Su Luan; Bahaman Abu Samah; Foo Say Fooi

2009-01-01

301

Emission factor of single pellet cake seed Jatropha curcas in a fix bed reactor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the emission factor of oil cake seed Jatropha curcas that was formed into pellets with three parameters: pyrolisis, densification and air flow rate. The effect of pyrolisis was investigated using four samples of pellet: nonpyrolysis pellet, 90 minutes pyrolysis pellet, 120 minutes pyrolysis pellet, 150 minutes pyrolysis pellet. The effect of densification was provided by three samples: 11 mm, 13 mm, and 16 mm diameter. Furthermore, the parameter of air flow rate was varied from 0.1 m/s to 0.4 m/s. The results show that the lowest emission factor occurs in the non-pyrolysis pellet containing 14.3 gram carbon monoxide per kilogram pellet. Meanwhile the best densification was obtained by 13-mm diameter pellet containing 14.8 gram carbon monoxide. Air flow rate of 2.0 m/s was the suitable air flow rate to achieve lowest emission factor.

N. Agung Pambudi

2012-06-01

302

ACCURACY OF PESTICIDE REFERENCE STANDARD SOLUTIONS. PART I. FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIC SOLVENT EVAPORATION  

Science.gov (United States)

A gravimetric experiment was undertaken to identify the factors affecting solvent evaporation from analytical reference standard solutions and to establish the magnitude of the resultant solvent evaporation. The evaporation of organic solvent from standard solutions is affected b...

303

The BME3 (Blue Micropylar End 3) GATA zinc finger transcription factor is a positive regulator of Arabidopsis seed germination.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many plant species, seed dormancy is broken by cold stratification, a pre-chilling treatment of fully imbibed seeds. Although the ecological importance of seed response to cold temperature is well appreciated, the mechanisms underlying the physiological changes during cold stratification is unknown. Here we show that the GATA zinc finger protein expressed in Arabidopsis seeds during cold stratification plays a critical role in germination. Characterization of an enhancer-trap population identified multiple lines that exhibited beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in the micropylar end of the seed (named Blue Micropylar End, BME lines). One of these lines, BME3, had a T-DNA insertion site in the 5' upstream region of a GATA-type zinc finger transcription factor gene (termed BME3-ZF). The BME3-ZF mRNA accumulated in seeds during cold stratification. Characterization of the BME3-ZF promoter indicated that this gene was activated specifically in the embryonic axis, which was still enclosed by the endosperm. The zinc finger gene knockout plants produced seeds exhibiting deeper dormancy, which showed reduced response to cold stratification. The ungerminated knockout seeds exhibited testa rupture, but failed to penetrate the endosperm layer. Application of gibberellic acid (GA3) rescued impaired germination of knockout seeds without cold stratification, indicating that the normal GA signal transduction pathway is present in the knockout mutants. Expression of GA20-oxidase and GA3-oxidase genes was greatly reduced in the knockout seeds, suggesting the potential involvement of the zinc finger protein in GA biosynthesis. These results suggest that the GATA zinc finger protein is a positive regulator of seed germination. PMID:16359389

Liu, Po-Pu; Koizuka, Nobuya; Martin, Ruth C; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

2005-12-01

304

Factors Affecting the Success of Natural Regeneration in Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) Forests in Turkey  

OpenAIRE

The success of natural regeneration using the Uniform Shelterwood Method (USM) wasdetermined in an oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) stand, in the Bart?n-Sökü Forest RangeDistrict. Number, height growth and root collar diameter of seedlings were investigated in the10 experimental plots in the 5.0 ha regeneration area for 7 years (2004–2010). According to the resultof factor analyses, it was found that amount of filled seeds, soil cover, growth status of seed trees,stand canopy cl...

O?zel, Halil Bar?s?; Ertekin, Murat; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Kirdar, Erol

2010-01-01

305

Cognitive Factors Affecting Student Understanding of Geologic Time.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a model that describes how students reconstruct geological transformations over time. Defines the critical factors influencing reconstructive thinking: (1) the transformation scheme, which influences the other diachronic schemes; (2) knowledge of geological processes; and (3) extracognitive factors. (Author/KHR)

Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

2003-01-01

306

Seed size: a priority trait in cereal crops.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crop production and productivity must be increased to provide a balanced diet for the global population. The entire genome sequences of crop species allow the elucidation of genes that regulate important traits related to the final crop seed yield, which frequently depends mainly on seed size. Seed size is a major factor that controls seed quantity and it is strongly affected by various biotic, abiotic and genetic factors. Epigenetic marks in the genome and phytohormones are also important factors affecting seed growth and development. Several genes are known to be involved in the control of seed size, but their interaction and functional characterization have yet to be resolved. In this review, we discuss the different factors that govern seed size in cereal crops and Arabidopsis. PMID:22680622

Kesavan, Markkandan; Song, Jong Tae; Seo, Hak Soo

2013-02-01

307

Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-04-01

308

Factors Affecting Students' Self-Efficacy in Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…

van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien

2011-01-01

309

Factors and pharmaceuticals that affect the radiopharmaceuticals bio distributions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pattern of biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals may be affected by various agents and therapeutical procedures, chemotherapy agents, thyroid hormones, metals, radiotherapy, surgery, anesthetic agents, dialysis other radiopharmaceutical interactions. Recommendations for the detection of altered biodistribution in patients by causes not directly related with the pathology itself was given. pathology itself was given

310

Factors Affecting Quality Enhancement Procedures for E-Learning Courses  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This paper reports on an empirical study exploring the way in which campus-based higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK apply their internal quality assurance and enhancement (QA/QE) procedures to their e-learning courses. The purpose of this paper is to identify those characteristics of e-learning courses which affected the…

Jara, Magdalena; Mellar, Harvey

2009-01-01

311

Factors Affecting the Real Estate Prices in Pakistan  

OpenAIRE

The current study examines the effect of factors influencing the prices of real estate inQuetta city. Hypothetically, this study is based upon five observed factors(urbanization, refugees’ influx, monetary, lack of investment alternatives and inflow offoreign remittances) in relation to the prices of real estate. Questionnaire developed onthe basis of above variables were administered to a heterogeneous sample of 50property dealers and Quetta Development Authority. Descriptive statistics (p...

Mehmood khan kakar; Ali Kakar, M.

2011-01-01

312

Factors affecting appropriateness of hospital use in Massachusetts  

OpenAIRE

To determine the extent of inappropriate hospital use, and to investigate factors related to variations in appropriateness, 8,031 hospital records of patients discharged from 41 hospitals in 3 Massachusetts professional standards review organization (PSRO) areas were reviewed in 1973 and 1978. The Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP) was used for the reviews and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze factors associated with inappropriate use.

Restuccia, Joseph D.; Kreger, Bernard E.; Payne, Susan M. C.; Gertman, Paul M.; Dayno, Susan J.; Lenhart, Gregory M.

1986-01-01

313

Factors Affecting Knowledge Transfer Success in Business Transforming Enterprise  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study is to provide the systematic analysis of an intra-generational KT (knowledge transfer) influence factor evaluation model in business transforming enterprises. The study examined factors such as knowledge context, relation context, transferor context, recipient context and enterprises transforming context, in which process semi-structured interviews and Delphi methods were employed in respect of the data collection and Interpretative ...

Zhaorong Zhuang; Dongqiang Guo

2013-01-01

314

Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function  

Science.gov (United States)

... factors for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... risk factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

315

Analysis on the Main Factors Affecting the Reliability of Test Papers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reliability is an important factor to evaluate test papers. This paper analyzes the factors which affect the reliability of test papers and discusses the methods to increase the reliability of test papers.

Jiang Zhu

2011-01-01

316

Fragmentation of Atlantic forest has not affected gene flow of a widespread seed-dispersing bat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Habitat loss and resultant fragmentation are major threats to biodiversity, particularly in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. It is increasingly urgent to understand fragmentation effects, which are often complex and vary across taxa, time and space. We determined whether recent fragmentation of Atlantic forest is causing population subdivision in a widespread and important Neotropical seed disperser: Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). Genetic structure within highly fragmented forest in Paraguay was compared to that in mostly contiguous forest in neighbouring Misiones, Argentina. Further, observed genetic structure across the fragmented landscape was compared with expected levels of structure for similar time spans in realistic simulated landscapes under different degrees of reduction in gene flow. If fragmentation significantly reduced successful dispersal, greater population differentiation and stronger isolation by distance would be expected in the fragmented than in the continuous landscape, and genetic structure in the fragmented landscape should be similar to structure for simulated landscapes where dispersal had been substantially reduced. Instead, little genetic differentiation was observed, and no significant correlation was found between genetic and geographic distance in fragmented or continuous landscapes. Furthermore, comparison of empirical and simulated landscapes indicated empirical results were consistent with regular long-distance dispersal and high migration rates. Our results suggest maintenance of high gene flow for this relatively mobile and generalist species, which could be preventing or significantly delaying reduction in population connectivity in fragmented habitat. Our conclusions apply to A. lituratus in Interior Atlantic Forest, and do not contradict broad evidence that habitat fragmentation is contributing to extinction of populations and species, and poses a threat to biodiversity worldwide. PMID:23909879

McCulloch, Eve S; Tello, J Sebastián; Whitehead, Andrew; Rolón-Mendoza, Claudia M J; Maldonado-Rodríguez, Mario C D; Stevens, Richard D

2013-09-01

317

A Study on Students’ Affective Factors in Junior High School English Teaching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Affect is considered as aspects of emotion, feeling, mood or attitude which condition behaviors in second language acquisition. Positive affect is good for studying while negative affect will inevitably hinder learners’ learning process. As we know, students in junior high school are special groups as they are experiencing great changes both in physiology and psychology. Their affect can be easily influenced by external and internal factors. Therefore, it is of vital importance to pay close attention to students’ affective factors in English learning process, particularly to the negative ones. Based on the results of the previous research about affects in second language acquisition, the study finds that junior high school students have the following negative affective factors such as boredom, anxiety, hopelessness, inhibition and low self-confidence in their English learning. Then some suggestions for cultivating and improving students’ affect are put forward in the hope of improving junior high school English teaching and learning.

Biyi Zhu

2012-06-01

318

[Factors affecting the response to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents].  

Science.gov (United States)

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has transformed the management chronic renal failure (CKD) and considerably improved the outcome of patients on regular chronic dialysis. However, a significant number of patients fail to respond to high of Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and several causes of inadequate response to epoetin therapy have been identified. Some factors, such as gender, age, length of time on dialysis, type of dialysis and co-morbidities such as hemoglobinopathy, are not susceptible to clinical intervention. However, many other factors can be adjusted. Iron deficiency, whether functional or absolute, is the most common factor that limits the response to rHuEPO. Monitoring of iron parameters and a large use of iron supplementation result in an efficient epoetin response. Infection and inflammation have been shown to reduce responsiveness to ESAs by disrupting iron metabolism and increasing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that inhibit erythropoiesis. Increase dialysis dose is associated with improvements in anemia correction and reduced requirements for ESAs. Severe hyperparathyroidism and aluminum overload lead to a reduced number of responsive erythroid progenitor cells. Finally, a number of nutritional factors, such as deficiencies of carnitine, vitamin B12, folic acid, and vitamin C, are susceptible to alter erythropoiesis. Optimizing patient response to ESAs therefore requires consideration of many of well-established factors and is important for both patient outcomes and cost of treatment. PMID:17373270

Jauréguy, Maïté; Choukroun, Gabriel

2006-09-01

319

Factors Affecting the Prescribing Patterns of Antibiotics and Injections  

OpenAIRE

There are serious problems concerning the inadequate prescription of antibiotics and overuse of injections in primary care. However, the determinants of prescription patterns in Korea are not well-documented. To examine the area characteristics affecting the prescription of antibiotics and injections in primary care practices in the treatment of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), a nationwide cross-sectional study was performed in all 250 administrative districts of Korea. The outcome was m...

Choi, Kyung-hyun; Park, Sang-min; Lee, Ju-hyun; Kwon, Soonman

2012-01-01

320

Factors Affecting the Wheel Rutting on Rural Roads  

OpenAIRE

In this study, the wheel ruts frequency and dimensions were investigated according to geographical aspects, longitudinal gradient and surfacing layer of rural roads in Denji Kola village, Mazandaran Province, Iran. Ruts were divided into shallow and deep wheel ruts. Results showed that the ruts length and area were significantly affected by longitudinal gradient of rural roads (p<0.0001). Ruts length in longitudinal gradient class 8-12% was significantly more than other classes (p<...

Parsakhoo, A.; Hosseini, S. A.

2009-01-01

321

Factors affecting mortality of shearwaters stranded by light pollution  

OpenAIRE

Every year and across the world, thousands of fledglings of different petrel species crash into human structures because they are disorientated by artificial lights during their first flights. As this phenomenon is rather predictable, rescue cam- paigns are organized to help birds to reach the ocean, but unfortunately, a low proportion gets hurt or dies. Despite the huge number of affected individuals, and the fact that the problem was detected a long time ago, little is known ...

Rodri?guez, Airam; Rodri?guez, Beneharo; Curbelo, A. J.; Pe?rez, A.; Marrero, S.; Negro, Juan J.

2012-01-01

322

Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.  

Science.gov (United States)

The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at appropriate scales. Our results reiterate the need for conflict management programs to be multipronged. PMID:25039397

Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

2014-12-01

323

Effects of Some Environmental Factors on Seed Germination and Spreading Potentials of Silybum marianum Gaertner  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Silybum marianum Gaertner is spreading in many crops of Southern Italy, particularly in durum wheat, sugar beet and some vegetable crops. Information about its biology are useful to set up effective control strategies. Four experiments were carried out at the Crop Science Department of the University of Bari (Southern Italy. Two trials were conducted in Petri dishes and evaluated the effects of different light, temperature and osmotic stress conditions on the seed germination. Another trial evaluated the ability of seedlings to emerge from different depths. The effects of eight different sowing periods on the plant growth were assessed in the fourth experiment. The highest germination rate was found with constant temperatures of 25 °C or 30 °C and with alternating temperatures of 25- 15 °C for 8 and 16 hours respectively. Germination was affected by the light and was significantly decreased at 0.2 Mpa and completely inhibited at -0.8 Mpa. Plant emergence was strongly reduced from a depth of more than 3 cm. The plant size at the first bloom was reduced by postponing the sowing period from October to February. The same decreasing trend was observed in the number of flower heads and in the number of days required for the first bloom. Results can suggest some important strategies to manage this species. False sowing, followed by irrigation, can be recommended in summer, in order to obtain the highest seed germination. Since the emergence of this plant is very scarce from a depth of more than 3 cm, ploughing can be effective to bury seeds in case of strong disseminations in order to reduce the infestation in the following crop.

Antonio Lonigro

2007-09-01

324

The factors affecting effectiveness of treatment in phages therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, the use of lytic bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents controlling pathogenic bacteria has appeared as a promising new alternative strategy in the face of growing antibiotic resistance which has caused problems in many fields including medicine, veterinary medicine, and aquaculture. The use of bacteriophages has numerous advantages over traditional antimicrobials. The effectiveness of phage applications in fighting against pathogenic bacteria depends on several factors such as the bacteriophages/target bacteria ratio, the mode and moment of treatment, environmental conditions (pH, temperature...), the neutralization of phage and accessibility to target bacteria, amongst others. This report presents these factors and the challenges involved in developing phage therapy applications. PMID:24600439

Ly-Chatain, Mai Huong

2014-01-01

325

Factors Affecting Knowledge Transfer Success in Business Transforming Enterprise  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide the systematic analysis of an intra-generational KT (knowledge transfer influence factor evaluation model in business transforming enterprises. The study examined factors such as knowledge context, relation context, transferor context, recipient context and enterprises transforming context, in which process semi-structured interviews and Delphi methods were employed in respect of the data collection and Interpretative Structural Modeling and Analytic Network Process were used to establish the model. The case study shows that the recipient’s desire to learning new knowledge plays significant role in putting forward to undertake transfer activities.

Zhaorong Zhuang

2013-01-01

326

Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

Jantzen, Paul G.

1978-01-01

327

FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...

328

Historic Factors Affecting Educational Administration in Korean Higher Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

An official of the Korean Education Department Institute analyzes the effect of historic factors on current educational administration in Korea. He suggests that Confucianism, Shinto-Confucianism, Christianity, and Western ideas mainly dominate current Korean educational administration's organizational structure, culture, and leadership, while…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

1999-01-01

329

Factors affecting employee retention : what do engineers think?  

OpenAIRE

Much has been made of the skills shortage in South Africa. One of the main factors sited for the government’s inability to get on top of the backlog in infrastructure is the lack of skills in the country. In addition to this, the skills shortage is believed to have an adverse impact on the country’s growth rate.

Stanz, Karel J.

2009-01-01

330

Factors Affecting Principal Turnover: A Study of Three Midwestern Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. This dissertation addresses the problem of principal turnover. Using state and city level administrative data, a study of principals and their schools in greater Kansas City, Missouri, St. Louis, Missouri, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was conducted with the goal of discovering themes that emerge regarding the factors associated with turnover…

Belt, Charles M.

2009-01-01

331

Individual Differences: Factors Affecting Employee Utilization of Flexible Work Arrangements  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated individual and organizational factors that predict an individual's choice to use flexible work arrangements (FWAs). Survey data was collected from 144 employees in two different organizations. The results revealed several significant predictors of FWAs: tenure, hours worked per week, supervisory responsibilities,…

Lambert, Alysa D.; Marler, Janet H.; Gueutal, Hal G.

2008-01-01

332

Factors Affecting the Shape of Current-Potential Curves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Voltammetry, the fundamental electrochemical experiment, is the measurement of the current which flows at an electrode as a function of the potential applied to the electrode. Such an experiment is discussed, focusing on factors which influence the shape of the current potential curve. (JN)

Maloy, J. T.

1983-01-01

333

Factors Affecting Alternate Rice-Fish Production of Mymensingh District in Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Cobb-Douglas production function has been used to measure the effect of various factors on alternate rice-fish production. The chosen factors were of fingerlings cost, cost of cow dung, cost of rice bran, cost of oil cake, cost of lime, cost of urea cost of human labour and cost of netting for fish production and for rice production the factors were human labour, animal labour. Cow dung, urea, TSP, MP, seed and irrigation cost. It was found that except cost of rice bran and lime for fish prod...

Rabbani M.G.; Hossain, M. I.; Islam, M. S.; Hossain, T. M. B.; Mannan, M. A.

2004-01-01

334

Factors Affecting the Birth Weight of Cholistani Cattle Calves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of year, season and lactation number on birth weight of Cholistani calves was determined by analyzing the data of 709 cows recorded at Government Livestock Farm, Jugait Peer, district Bahawalpur during the years 1999-2007. The Cholistani calves showed a mean birth weight of 19.13 ± 0.06Kg and was significantly affected by year (P<0.05, calf sex (P<0.01 and lactation number (P<0.05. Male calves were heavier than the female (19.53 vs 19.04Kg.

F. Shahzad*, M. Yaqoob1, M. Younas1, U. Farooq, F. Sher2, M. Asim2, S. Qamar2, M. Akbar3 and I. Irshad4

2010-10-01

335

Chemical and biological factors affecting bioavailability of contaminants in seawater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the influence that salinity has on the bioavailability of the two largest classes of contaminants, trace metals and organic compounds will be discussed. Although data on contaminant toxicity will be used to draw inferences about chemical availability, this discussion will focus on the properties that contaminants are likely to exhibit in waters of varying salinities. In addition, information on physiological changes that are affected by salinity will be used to illustrate how biological effects can alter the apparent availability of contaminants

336

The Internal Structure of Positive and Negative Affect: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PANAS  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…

Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.

2010-01-01

337

Factors Affecting the Real Estate Prices in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current study examines the effect of factors influencing the prices of real estate inQuetta city. Hypothetically, this study is based upon five observed factors(urbanization, refugees’ influx, monetary, lack of investment alternatives and inflow offoreign remittances in relation to the prices of real estate. Questionnaire developed onthe basis of above variables were administered to a heterogeneous sample of 50property dealers and Quetta Development Authority. Descriptive statistics (percentage,percentile and frequency distribution were used to identify the level of influence andthe relation of above mentioned attributes towards the prices of real estate. The resultsrevealed that the prices of real estate in the region have been on an increasing trendand strong influence of all variables especially of government’s monetary and fiscalpolices and urbanization was found significant on the prices of real estate in Quetta.

Mehmood khan kakar

2011-06-01

338

[Factors affecting the recovery in the intensive care unit].  

Science.gov (United States)

Urgency of the problem is defined by economical, regulatory and legislative acts, regional social and moral factors. There is critical situation in Russian Pediatric Healthcare system. This situation is due to inadequate funding, high medical technologies inaccessibility for some Russian children, their adverse health state. The article presents a retrospective analysis of intensive therapy and resuscitation outcomes with technical equipment and work environment assessment in the intensive care unit of Tushinskaya city pediatric clinic for the period from 2007 to 2011. Anaesthetic and emergency care quality and safety depend on several factors: permanent equipment improvement, comprehensive analysis of every fatal case and full implementation of "Anti-epidemic (prophylactic) actions plan" and "Program of monitoring compliance with the sanitary norms". PMID:23808260

Turkov, P N; Nikitin, V V; Antsupova, M A; Podkopaev, V N; Panfilova, R P; Ivanova, I N; Nesterova, L I

2013-01-01

339

Factors affecting visualization of posterior rib fractures in abused infants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rib fractures in abused infants commonly occur in the posterior rib arcs. Fractures occurring near the costovertebral articulations are usually identified radiographically only once callus has formed. To assess the factors influencing the visibility of fractures near the costovertical articulations, the authors studied 103 posterior rib fractures occurring in 16 abused infants. Radiologic findings were correlated with CT findings and pathologic material from nine ribs in four patients. The limited visibility of fractures relates to (1) the frequent superimposition of the transverse process over the rib fracture site, (2) a fracture line that crosses at an obliquity to the x-ray beam, and (3) nondisplacement of rib fragments due to preservation of the posterior periosteum. Fresh rib fractures invisible on a frontal projection may be clearly defined on axial CT scans, or on postmortem radiographs. A knowledge of the factors influencing the visibility of these important injuries is useful in planning an appropriate diagnostic evaluation of suspected infant abuse

340

Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

Pelham, J.

1991-12-31

341

Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

Pelham, J.

1991-01-01

342

Somatic cell and factors which affect their count in milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milk quality is determined by chemical composition, physical characteristics and hygienic parameters. The main indicators of hygienic quality of milk are total number of microorganisms and somatic cell count (SCC. Environmental factors have the greatest influence on increasing SCC. The most important environmental parameters are status of udder infection, age of cow, stage of lactation, number of lactation, breed, housing, geographicalarea and seasons, herd size, stress, heavy physical activity and, milking. A farmer (milk producer himself can control a great number of environmental factors using good management practise and permanent education. Since SCC participate in creating the price of milk, it is necessary to inform milk producers how to organise their production so that they would produce maximum quantity of good hygienic quality milk.

Zrinka ?a?i?

2003-01-01

343

Prioritization of the Factors Affecting Sport Tourism Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, tourism and sport enjoy a complementary interrelationship directly affecting the nations` economy. Also sport tourism is, nowadays, considered as the most lucrative industry worldwide. In addition, it may affect all the social strata economically and politically. Thus, needless to say that much more attention should be directed to the industry through clear-cut policies, visions and constructive plans in this regard. To this end, in this paper, the authors investigated and offered the guidelines for sport tourism development in Zanjan from economic, social and cultural perspectives. This was an applied research carried out as a field study. The statistical sample was divided into 2 groups: 1 Experts including physical education teachers, cultural heritage and physical education department employees and, 2 Customers including different sportsmen and sportswomen traveling to Zanjan. The research tool was a 43 item researcher-made questionnaire in Likert scale whose reliability and validity were confirmed by the board of university professors. We applied descriptive to describe the demography and T-test and Friedman to determine the differences and prioritize both groups` viewpoints regarding sport tourism development in Zanjan.

S.N. Sajjadi

2012-12-01

344

Postoperative [{sup 125}I] seed brachytherapy in the treatment of acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland. With associated risk factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This retrospective study was undertaken to analyze data from patients receiving iodine-125 ([{sup 125}I]) seed brachytherapy postoperatively for the treatment of acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) of the parotid gland along with the following risk factors: residual tumor, recurrent tumor, facial nerve invasion, positive resection margins, advanced tumor stage, or tumor spillage. Twenty-nine patients with ACC (17 females, 12 males; age range, 13-73 years; median age, 37.3 years) were included. Median follow-up was 58.2 months (range, 14-122 months). Patients received [{sup 125}I] seed brachytherapy (median actuarial D90, 177 Gy) 3-41 days (median, 14 days) following surgery. Radioactivity was 18.5-33.3 MBq per seed, and the prescription dose was 80-120 Gy. The 3-, 5-, and 10-year rates of local control were 93.1, 88.7, and 88.7 %, respectively; overall survival was 96.6, 92, and 92 %; disease-free survival was 93.1, 88.4, and 88.4 %; and freedom from distant metastasis was 96.6, 91.2, and 91.2 %. Lymph node metastases were absent in all patients, although two patients died with distant metastases. Facial nerve recovery was quick, and no severe radiotherapy-related complications were noted. Recurrence history, local recurrence, and distant metastasis significantly affected overall survival. Postoperative [{sup 125}I] seed brachytherapy is effective in treating ACC and has minor complications. Patients with a history of recurrence showed poor prognosis and were more likely to experience disease recurrence and develop metastases. (orig.) [German] Diese retrospektive Studie wurde durchgefuehrt, um die Daten von Patienten zu analysieren, die postoperativ eine Seed-Brachytherapie mit Iod-125 ([{sup 125}I]) zur Behandlung von Azinuszellkarzinomen der Ohrspeicheldruese mit begleitenden Risikofaktoren, wie Residualtumor, Rezidivtumor, Invasion in den N. facialis, positive (= nicht tumorfreie) Resektionsraender, fortgeschrittenes Tumorstadium oder lokale Verbreitung von Tumorzellen waehrend der Resektion aufwiesen. In die Studie wurden 29 Patienten mit Azinuszellkarzinom der Ohrspeicheldruese (17 weiblich, 12 maennlich; Altersbereich 13-73 Jahre; medianes Alter 37,3 Jahre) eingeschlossen. Die mediane Nachbeobachtungszeit betrug 58,2 Monate (Spanne14-122 Monate). Die Patienten erhielten eine [{sup 125}I]-Seed-Brachytherapie an den Tagen 3-41 (Median 14 Tage) nach der Operation. Die Radioaktivitaet betrug 18,5-33,3 MBq/Seed, die Dosis lag bei 80-120 Gy. Die Brachytherapie mit [{sup 125}I]-Seeds ist eine effektive Behandlung der Azinuszellkarzinome der Ohrspeicheldruese mit geringer Komplikationsrate. Patienten, die in der Vergangenheit schon ein Rezidiv gehabt hatten, hatten eine schlechte Prognose und entwickelten mit groesserer Wahrscheinlichkeit erneut oder zum ersten Mal Metastasen. (orig.)

Mao, Ming-hui; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Lei; Liu, Shu-ming; Huang, Ming-wei; Shi, Yan [Peking Univ. School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

2014-11-15

345

Factors Affecting Hemodialysis Patients' Satisfaction with Their Dialysis Therapy  

OpenAIRE

Aim. To assess the degree of satisfaction among hemodialysis patients and the factors influencing this satisfaction. Methods. Patients were recruited from 3 Saudi dialysis centers. Demographic data was collected. Using 1 to 10 Likert scale, the patients were asked to rate the overall satisfaction with, and the overall impact of, their dialysis therapy on their lives and to rate the effect of the dialysis therapy on 15 qualities of life domains. Results. 322 patients were recruited (72...

Al Eissa, M.; Al Sulaiman, M.; Jondeby, M.; Karkar, A.; Barahmein, M.; Shaheen, F. A. M.; Al Sayyari, A.

2010-01-01

346

Factors affecting statistical power in the detection of genetic association  

OpenAIRE

The mapping of disease genes to specific loci has received a great deal of attention in the last decade, and many advances in therapeutics have resulted. Here we review family-based and population-based methods for association analysis. We define the factors that determine statistical power and show how study design and analysis should be designed to maximize the probability of localizing disease genes.

Gordon, Derek; Finch, Stephen J.

2005-01-01

347

Factors Affecting Blood Glucose Monitoring: Sources of Errors in Measurement  

OpenAIRE

Glucose monitoring has become an integral part of diabetes care but has some limitations in accuracy. Accuracy may be limited due to strip manufacturing variances, strip storage, and aging. They may also be due to limitations on the environment such as temperature or altitude or to patient factors such as improper coding, incorrect hand washing, altered hematocrit, or naturally occurring interfering substances. Finally, exogenous interfering substances may contribute errors to the system eval...

Ginsberg, Barry H.

2009-01-01

348

Environmental factors affecting indole metabolism under anaerobic conditions.  

OpenAIRE

The influence of physiological and environmental factors on the accumulation of oxindole during anaerobic indole metabolism was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under methanogenic conditions, indole was temporarily converted to oxindole in stoichiometric amounts in media inoculated with three freshwater sediments and an organic soil. In media inoculated with methanogenic sewage sludge, the modest amounts of oxindole detected at 35 degrees C reached higher concentrations...

Madsen, E. L.; Francis, A. J.; Bollag, J. M.

1988-01-01

349

Factors affecting the achievements of intellectually gifted children  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the study - to analyze the main factors of learning achievements of intellectually gifted children. The sample consists of 16 - 18 year old students (N = 54), whose Reasoning Total (RT) scores in Intelligence Structure Test 2000R (I-S-T 2000 R, Amthauer R., Brocke B., Liepmann D, Beauducel, 2001) are 90 percentile or higher. This thesis analyses the peculiarities of intellectual activity of intellectually gifted 16- 18 years old students, their learning achievements and has the obj...

S?imelioniene?, Aida

2012-01-01

350

Factors affecting statistical power in the detection of genetic association  

Science.gov (United States)

The mapping of disease genes to specific loci has received a great deal of attention in the last decade, and many advances in therapeutics have resulted. Here we review family-based and population-based methods for association analysis. We define the factors that determine statistical power and show how study design and analysis should be designed to maximize the probability of localizing disease genes. PMID:15931375

Gordon, Derek; Finch, Stephen J.

2005-01-01

351

A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspec...

Eda Atilgan-Inan; Aslihan Buyukkupcu; Serkan Akinci

2010-01-01

352

Social factors affecting women's susceptibility to HIV in India  

OpenAIRE

India is the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Asia. Previous research indicates that the majority of HIV-positive women in India were infected by their husbands, their only sexual partner, which makes them difficult identify as a high-risk population. This paper seeks to assess social factors associated with the transmission of HIV based on demographic determinants, such as age; sexual behavior; and gendered discrimination, such as domestic violence. Research for this paper consists of s...

Lall, Priya

2014-01-01

353

Somatic cell and factors which affect their count in milk  

OpenAIRE

Milk quality is determined by chemical composition, physical characteristics and hygienic parameters. The main indicators of hygienic quality of milk are total number of microorganisms and somatic cell count (SCC.) Environmental factors have the greatest influence on increasing SCC. The most important environmental parameters are status of udder infection, age of cow, stage of lactation, number of lactation, breed, housing, geographicalarea and seasons, herd size, stress, heavy physical activ...

Zrinka ?a?i?; Samir Kalit; Neven Antunac; Mato ?a?i?

2003-01-01

354

Factors Affecting the Quality of Life in Patients with Fibromyalgia  

OpenAIRE

Objective: Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal pain syndrome characterized by diffuse pain and specific painful tender points.This study was planned to gain a better understanding of the factors that may impact the quality of life of patients with fibromyalgia.Material and Methods: The study was carried out in the Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation outpatient clinic with 35 women with fibromyalgia and 20 healthy women with no current or past medical history as controls. The subjects we...

Nuri Çetin; ?eniz Akçay Yalbuzda?; Mehmet Tu?rul Cab?o?lu; Nur Turhan

2009-01-01

355

Factors affecting the species composition of arable field boundary vegetation  

OpenAIRE

1. In recent decades the botanical diversity of arable field boundaries has declined drastically. To determine the most important factors related to the species composition of arable field boundaries, the vegetation composition of 105 herbaceous boundaries, 1-m wide, in the central and eastern Netherlands was surveyed. Biomass samples of the boundary were taken at 0-33, 34-66 and 67-100 cm from the adjacent arable field. 2. Farmers were interviewed with respect to boundary management and lan...

Kleijn, D.; Verbeek, M.

2000-01-01

356

Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

2014-06-01

357

Factors affecting levels of genetic diversity in natural populations.  

OpenAIRE

Genetic variability is the clay of evolution, providing the base material on which adaptation and speciation depend. It is often assumed that most interspecific differences in variability are due primarily to population size effects, with bottlenecked populations carrying less variability than those of stable size. However, we show that population bottlenecks are unlikely to be the only factor, even in classic case studies such as the northern elephant seal and the cheetah, where genetic poly...

Amos, W.; Harwood, J.

1998-01-01

358

Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

2010-12-01

359

Effect of aqueous, acid, and alkaline thermal treatments on antinutritional factors content and protein quality in Lupinus campestris seed flour.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lupinus campestris seeds grown in Mexico have a similar composition to soybean (44% protein, 13% lipids). Use of lupin seed in human and animal diets is limited by its quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) and other antinutritional factor contents. The effect of aqueous, acid, and alkaline thermal debittering treatments with L. campestris seeds flour was evaluated on QAs, oligosaccharides (RFOs), and phenolic compounds (PCs) contents, as well as protein quality. The alkaline treatment most effectively eliminated QAs. Protein content increased from 430 g/kg in untreated seeds to 543 in the aqueous treatment, 567 in the alkaline treatment, and 563 g/kg in the acid treatment. RFOs were eliminated in all treatments. The obtained sample with alkaline treatment had the best protein quality (2.04); this value was 17% lower than that of casein (2.45). The apparent digestibility was over 90% in all treatments, with the aqueous treatment exhibiting the best value (93%). PMID:20058925

Cristian, Jiménez-Martínez; Rosalva, Mora-Escobedo; Anaberta, Cardador Martínez; Mercedes, Muzquiz; Mercedes, Martin Pedrosa; Gloria, Dávila-Ortiz

2010-02-10

360

Environmental factors affecting pregnancy: Endocrine disrupters, nutrients and metabolic pathways.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uterine adenogenesis, a unique post-natal event in mammals, is vulnerable to endocrine disruption by estrogens and progestins resulting in infertility or reduced prolificacy. The absence of uterine glands results in insufficient transport of nutrients into the uterine lumen to support conceptus development. Arginine, a component of histotroph, is substrate for production of nitric oxide, polyamines and agmatine and, with secreted phosphoprotein 1, it affects cytoskeletal organization of trophectoderm. Arginine is critical for development of the conceptus, pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation and placentation. Conceptuses of ungulates and cetaceans convert glucose to fructose which is metabolized via multiple pathways to support growth and development. However, high fructose corn syrup in soft drinks and foods may increase risks for metabolic disorders and increase insulin resistance in adults. Understanding endocrine disrupters and dietary substances, and novel pathways for nutrient metabolism during pregnancy can improve survival and growth, and prevent chronic metabolic diseases in offspring. PMID:25224489

Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Gregory A; Wang, Xiaoqiu

2014-12-01

361

Feasibility Analysis of Critical Factors Affecting Cloud Computing in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cloud computing is an evolving and new way of delivering computing services and resources over the internet which are managed by third parties at remote sites. Cloud computing is based on existing technologies like web services, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA, web3.0, grid computing and virtualization, etc. Computing services includes data storage, processing and software. Cloud computing is enjoying a lot of buzz in Nigeria due to its perceived economic and operational benefits and stakeholders believe that it will transform the IT industry in Nigeria. Despite all its promises there still exist so many challenges before Cloud computing see the light of the day in Nigeria. This paper delivers an overview of Cloud computing together with its advantages and disadvantages. Thereafter, the challenges and drivers affecting the adoption of Cloud computing in Nigeria are outlined. Finally, recommendations for the adoption of Cloud computing is discussed with Nigeria as a case study.

Eustace Manayi Dogo

2013-10-01

362

Factors affecting texture and structure of duplex steel sheets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work deals with the texture and structure development in austenitic-ferritic steels of duplex type subjected to cold rolling within the range up to 90% of reduction of subsequently annealed at the temperatures 850-1050 oC. Performed investigations included X-ray phase analysis, measurements of pole figures, calculations of orientation distribution functions measurements of pole figures, calculations of orientation distribution functions (ODF's) and structure observations by means of optical microscopy. Obtained results indicate that considerable differences in the development of rolling and annealing textures in relation to one-phase steels result from two-phase character of the structure and phase instability of austenitic-ferritic steels. It was found that formation of ferrite-austenite banded structure and deformation induced (???) phase transformation as well as the inverse (???) transformation and sigma (?) phase precipitation occurring upon annealing, affect the appearance and intensity of main texture components of both phases. (author)

363

Conservação de sementes de Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh seed storability as affected by temperature and seed moisture content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As sementes de Myrciaria dubia apresentam baixa longevidade e demandam a ampliação do conhecimento sobre fatores interferentes na sua conservação. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar as influências do grau de umidade e da temperatura do ambiente na manutenção da qualidade dessas sementes. Para tanto, sementes com 48%, 43%, 40%, 34%, 30%, 24%, 18% e 14% de água, acondicionadas em sacos de polietileno, foram armazenadas sob temperaturas controladas de 10 ºC, 20 ºC e 30 ºC, durante 280 dias, e submetidas, periodicamente, à avaliação do grau de umidade, da germinação, do vigor e da sanidade. Constatou-se que as sementes têm a conservação favorecida pela associação do grau de umidade de 43% com a temperatura de armazenamento de 10 °C.Myrciaria dubia seeds have a short life span and few informations are available about the factors that determine their storability. The main aim of this research work was to check the effects of three temperatures (10 ºC, 20 ºC and 30 ºC and eight seed moisture contents (48%, 43%, 40%, 34%, 30%, 24%, 18% and 14% on seed storability, during a time period of 280 days. Periodic evaluations of seed moisture content, germination, vigor and healthness were carried out throughout the experimental time. The best seed storability conditions were observed at 10 °C and 43% of seed moisture content.

Daniel Felipe de Oliveira Gentil

2004-12-01

364

Risk of Postpartum Depression and Affecting Factors in Konya Center  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: This study is proposed to determine the incidence of postpartum depression and the risk factors that may play role in arising of it in Konya because there is not any constructed study previously. METHODS: This cross-sectional study is constructed among 242 mothers in the postpartum period between 2-6 months who applied two village clinics of Meram County, Konya between 1 December 2005- 31 January 2006. Two forms were used to collect necessary data. First form was ?mother introduction form? that was prepared by us to determine the sociodemographic properties of mothers, and the second form was Edinburgh Posnatal Depression Scale (EPDS to diagnose the risk of postpartum depression. RESULTS: While the cut-off point of EPDS was taken as 13 and over, the probability of experiencing postpartum depression was detected as 19.4%. The probability of experiencing postpartum depression according to EPDS was high in statistical sense among the mothers who had lower monthly income, psychological problems after the preceding pregnancy, 4 and lower prenatal controls, experienced attitude changes among their husbands and/or husbands? families after learning gender of baby, and medical problems during these pregnancies. CONCLUSION: The modifiable risk factors are determined as the number of prenatal controls, changing the preconceptions and obsessions related gender of baby of husbands and families via healthy education, and well-qualified prenatal care. The long-term improvable risk factors are detected as improving monthly incomes of the families. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 391-398

Saniye Ozdemir

2008-10-01

365

An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Huck’s Growth  

OpenAIRE

Huckleberry Finn is one of Mark Twain’s outstanding masterpieces. Superficially, it tells a story about a 13 or 14 year old boy’s adventures with Negro Jim on the Mississippi river. In fact, it reflects the growth process of Huck through adventures. His growth is embodied by his choice on independence, his change of attitude towards Jim, his moral growth, and the different social roles he plays. Huck’s growth is influenced by the inner and outer factors. On the one hand, friendship, nat...

Yanxia Sang

2010-01-01

366

Factors affecting pupil size after dilatation: the Twin Eye Study  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND/AIMS—Well dilated pupils make eye surgery easier. A classic twin study was established to examine the relative importance of genes and environment in the variance of pupil size after mydriasis, and to examine the effects of other factors such as age, iris colour, and refractive error.?METHODS—506 twin pairs, 226 monozygotic (MZ) and 280 dizygotic (DZ), aged 49-79 (mean age 62.2 years, SD 5.7) were examined. Dilated pupil size was measured using a standardised grid superimp...

Hammond, C.; Snieder, H.; Spector, T.; Gilbert, C

2000-01-01

367

Analysis of Factors Affecting Log Band Saw Capacity  

OpenAIRE

The goal of this research was to measure the capacity of the log band saw by monitoring the sawing process per operation for each log and to determine what the influencing factors were and their effect on the technological capacity of the log band saw, based on recorded and processed data. The analysis of the recorded data shows that the processed log volume, whose increase also increases the saw capacity, has the most important effect on log band saw capacity. It is imperative to take into a...

Rajka Karan; Ružica Beljo Lu?i?; Matija Jug; Josip Ištvani?

2009-01-01

368

Affecting the Choice Factors of Fishery Products Consumption in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines fish consumption behavior patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of choosing factors in determining food pattern of Turkish people. A total of 666 surveys in all around Turkey responded to a self-administered questionnaire about seafood consumption habits, past frequency of seafood consumption, attitude towards and intention to eat seafood. In this research some prompts were used such as health, taste, availability, versatility, the components of a good family meal, value for money and alternatives to red meat.

Hekimoglu Muge Aliye

2011-01-01

369

The factors affecting mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH occurs usually from the rupture of vessels into the brain parenchyma and accounts for approximately 10% of all strokes. ICH occurs more commonly in Turkey than in other western countries and carries a significantly high mortality than ischemic strokeMaterials and methods: We evaluated 86 consecutive patients with ICH who were admitted to Neurology Clinics of SDU University Medical Faculty. The factors studied were age, gender, risk factors, electrocardiography results, blood pressure, fever, blood cells, biochemistry, hematoma volume and localization, clinical findings, and demographic characteristics.Results: ICH is a 30-day mortality rate between approximately 50%, with half of the deaths occurring within 48 hour from the onset.Conclusion: It was found that age, site and volume of hematoma, initial level of consciousness and drainage of hematoma into the ventricular cavity have significant effects on the prognosis. The prognosis of ICH remains frequently poor despite the best medical management, control of vital functions and infections. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 404-407

Serpil Demirci

2011-12-01

370

Factors affecting the selection of tour destination in Bangladesh:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although multifaceted problems are causing the frustrating scenario of the country’s tourism sector, Bangladesh has the potentials to develop its tourism sector and earn huge foreign currency and generate employment opportunities like the neighboring countries, such as India, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Nepal who attract substantial number of tourists every year and thus generates huge amount of foreign currencies. The paper looks at different preferences of the tourist and examines the tour intention in selecting different tour destination. The study utilizes both exploratory and empirical research approach. The study collects data through interview with a structured self-administered questionnaire from 146 tourists, in utilizing convenient sampling technique. A multiple regression model was estimated to examine the effects of different factors on the tourists tour intention where nine factors related to different aspects of tourism such as service quality, natural beauty, known destination, convenient lodging, adventure, security, effective and efficient transportation, safe and quality food and shopping facility were used as indigenous variables where tour intention was used as exogenous variable of the model.  The regression result shows that Service quality, Natural Beauty, Security and Shopping Facility are statistically significant indicating 24.6% of the variation in explaining the intention to select a tour destination in Bangladesh. The study outlines some policy implications.

Md. Shah Azam

2010-02-01

371

Factors Affecting Detection Probability of Acoustic Tags in Coral Reefs  

KAUST Repository

Acoustic telemetry is an important tool for studying the movement patterns, behaviour, and site fidelity of marine organisms; however, its application is challenged in coral reef environments where complex topography and intense environmental noise interferes with acoustic signals, and there has been less study. Therefore, it is particularly critical in coral reef telemetry studies to first conduct a long-term range test, a tool that provides informa- tion on the variability and periodicity of the transmitter detection range and the detection probability. A one-month range test of a coded telemetric system was conducted prior to a large-scale tagging project investigating the movement of approximately 400 fishes from 30 species on offshore coral reefs in the central Red Sea. During this range test we determined the effect of the following factors on transmitter detection efficiency: distance from receiver, time of day, depth, wind, current, moon-phase and temperature. The experiment showed that biological noise is likely to be responsible for a diel pattern of -on average- twice as many detections during the day as during the night. Biological noise appears to be the most important noise source in coral reefs overwhelming the effect of wind-driven noise, which is important in other studies. Detection probability is also heavily influenced by the location of the acoustic sensor within the reef structure. Understanding the effect of environmental factors on transmitter detection probability allowed us to design a more effective receiver array for the large-scale tagging study.

Bermudez, Edgar F.

2012-05-01

372

Formulation and Sun Protection Factor Estimation of Squash Cucurbita maxima Seeds Sunblock Lotion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fact that the sun's ultraviolet (UVA and UVB radiation reaches the earth's surface associates sun exposure with many skin problems such as sunburn, photoaging, hyperpigmentation, and skin cancers. Because sunlight is unavoidable, sunscreen/sunblock application is essential to protect the skin from the mentioned problems. Zinc, in the form of zinc oxide, is an active ingredient in sunblocks as it deflects away UVA and UVB. Zinc is an immunologically important mineral that helps in wound healing, antiinflammation, and cell protection. One natural and rich source of zinc is squash seeds, which many consider as trash. This study features the formulation of a sunblock lotion using squash seeds as the active ingredient. Squash seeds extract and powder were first subjected to Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS to quantitate zinc content, and enough were used to formulate a sunblock lotion to a final zinc concentration of 5%. Various physical tests on the finished product showed that it is stable and gentle, having high melting point of 440C, and being easily spreadable, water insoluble, and weakly basic at pH 7.5. Patch tests gave negative results in all subjects, indicating the product's hypoallergenicity. UV spectrophotometry revealed substantially low UV absorbance (<0.03 from 290nm - 320nm wavelengths, which is consistent with the action of zinc oxide as UV deflector, not absorber. The Sun Protection Factor (SPF was determined using a modified formula set by the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 based on the ratio of minimal erythema (skin redness due to dilated dermal capillaries on protected skin to that on unprotected skin, and was calculated to be SPF20. Further, costing and pricing analysis showed the production cost to be P0.80/mL, and recommended selling price (at 100% markup of P1.60/mL, which is up to 13 times cheaper than popular commercial brands of similar effectiveness. Thus, the study successfully formulated a gentle, effective, and affordable sunblock lotion using squash seeds as organic active ingredient

Mary Jane G. Barluado

2012-10-01

373

GENDER DIFFERENTIALS IN FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN LAGOS STATE – NIGERIA  

OpenAIRE

There is a lack of empirical data segregation on factors affecting gender as the variable of interest. However, previous research had indicated several factors that affect business performances among small-scale enterprise owners. Using feminist theory and a descriptive survey research design, data were collected from fifty (50) small-scale enterprise owners that were purposively chosen across the study area. The findings show that the factors that were significant for female were significant...

Yusuff Olabisi Sherifat

2013-01-01

374

Factors affecting skin tannin extractability in ripening grapes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acetone-extractable (70% v/v) skin tannin content of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapes was found to increase during late-stage ripening. Conversely, skin tannin content determined following ethanol extraction (10, 20, and 50% v/v) did not consistently reflect this trend. The results indicated that a fraction of tannin became less extractable in aqueous ethanol during ripening. Skin cell walls were observed to become more porous during ripening, which may facilitate the sequestering of tannin as an adsorbed fraction within cell walls. For ethanol extracts, tannin molecular mass increased with advancing ripeness, even when extractable tannin content was constant, but this effect was negligible in acetone extracts. Reconstitution experiments with isolated skin tannin and cell wall material indicated that the selectivity of tannin adsorption by cell walls changed as tannin concentration increased. Tannin concentration, tannin molecular mass, and cell wall porosity are discussed as factors that may influence skin tannin extractability. PMID:24432763

Bindon, Keren A; Madani, S Hadi; Pendleton, Phillip; Smith, Paul A; Kennedy, James A

2014-02-01

375

Analysis of Factors Affecting Log Band Saw Capacity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this research was to measure the capacity of the log band saw by monitoring the sawing process per operation for each log and to determine what the influencing factors were and their effect on the technological capacity of the log band saw, based on recorded and processed data. The analysis of the recorded data shows that the processed log volume, whose increase also increases the saw capacity, has the most important effect on log band saw capacity. It is imperative to take into account the volume of logs being processed when calculating the capacity of the log band saw. When monitoring the work of the operator, the use of fixed norms is not recommended and it is imperative that norms are connected to the volume of logs being processed.

Rajka Karan

2009-06-01

376

??????????????? The Research of Factors Affecting Consumer Channel Migration Behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????PPM???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The advent of network economy, make the consumer formed a trend of movement from offline to online channels. This paper uses PPM model in the theory of migration and analyzes the factors influencing consumers from offline to online from the characteristic of consumers and channel characteristics, the study found that there are the positive correlation between the push effects of offline, pull effects of online and the migration intention and effect of pulling more obvious, there are the negative relationship between mooring effects of channels and migration intentions, indicating that the mooring effects will impede movement be-tween the consumer channel. Accordingly, the paper brings up multi-channel enterprise’s marketing enlighten-ment and limitations of the study and the future research direction.

??

2012-02-01

377

Factors affecting the precision of bone mineral measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An evaluation of the factors which influence the precision of bone mineral measurements using single photon absorptiometry (SPA) is presented. This incorporates several techniques which have been developed over the past few years to improve the reliability of such measurements. As such, the figures obtained should provide an objective and up-to-date basis for critical comparison with other modalities such as quantitative computerized tomography , dual photon absorptiometry using Gd-153, and quantitative digital radiography. Under optimum conditions, a precision of 0.3% was achievable for in vitro phantom measurements. Under current working conditions, however, a precision of 1.0% for phantoms and 1.4% for clinical studies was found to be more realistic for bone mineral content measurements. Derived parameters such as bone mineral density were generally less reliable, with a precision of 4.7%. It is estimated that these values cannot be improved substantially with current SPA technology. 25 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

378

Factors affecting oral feeding with severe traumatic brain injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Safe and adequate nutrition, vital to the recovery from a traumatic brain injury, can be severely compromised by the presence of dysphagia. This study identified injury severity and swallowing factors that were associated with impaired oral intake in patients with severe brain injury. An admitting Glasgow Coma Scale (GSC) 3-5; a Rancho Los Amigos Scale of Cognitive Functioning (RLA) Level II; a computed tomography (CT) scan exhibiting midline shift, brainstem involvement, or brain pathology requiring emergent operative procedures; or ventilation time >/=15 days identified patients at highest risk for abnormal swallowing, aspiration, and delay in initiation of oral feeding and achievement of total oral feeding. When combined in multivariate models, RLA Level, CT scan, ventilation time and aspiration emerged as significant independent predictors of impaired oral intake. PMID:10653939

Mackay, L E; Morgan, A S; Bernstein, B A

1999-10-01

379

Enzymatic biodiesel synthesis. Key factors affecting efficiency of the process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chemical processes of biodiesel production are energy-consuming and generate undesirable by-products such as soaps and polymeric pigments that retard separation of pure methyl or ethyl esters of fatty acids from glycerol and di- and monoacylglycerols. Enzymatic, lipase-catalyzed biodiesel synthesis has no such drawbacks. Comprehension of the latter process and an appreciable progress in production of robust preparations of lipases may soon result in the replacement of chemical catalysts with enzymes in biodiesel synthesis. Engineering of enzymatic biodiesel synthesis processes requires optimization of such factors as: molar ratio of substrates (triacylglycerols: alcohol), temperature, type of organic solvent (if any) and water activity. All of them are correlated with properties of lipase preparation. This paper reports on the interplay between the crucial parameters of the lipase-catalyzed reactions carried out in non-aqueous systems and the yield of biodiesel synthesis. (author)

Szczesna Antczak, Miroslawa; Kubiak, Aneta; Antczak, Tadeusz; Bielecki, Stanislaw [Institute of Technical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 4/10, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

2009-05-15

380

Hyperplastic forming: Process potential and factors affecting formability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aluminum has an outstanding potential for reducing the mass of automobiles. One of the key problems is that it is very difficult to form without tearing. This paper has two distinct goals. First, the authors argue in an extended introduction that high velocity forming, as can be implemented through electromagnetic forming, is a technology that should be developed. As a process used in conjunction with traditional stamping, it may offer dramatically improved formability, reduced wrinkling and active control of springback among other advantages. In the body of the paper they describe the important factors that lead to improved formability at high velocity. In particular, high sample velocity can inhibit neck growth. There is a sample size dependence where larger samples have better ductility than those of smaller dimensions. These aspects are at least partially described by the recent model of Freund and Shenoy. In addition to this, boundary conditions imposed by sample launch and die impact can have important effects on formability.

Daehn, G.S.; Vohnout, V.J.; Datta, S.

2000-07-01

381

Factors affecting interaction of radiocobalt with river sediments Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper contains the data obtained in the study of radiocobalt interaction with sediments from a small river receiving low-level activity liquid wastes from a decomissioning and an operating nuclear power plant, respectively. These data are important for mathematical modelling of radiocobalt migration in the river. The effects of pH, solution composition, concentration of cobalt and contact time on radiocobalt uptake and release are discussed in this first part of the paper. In the second part effects of composition, the concentration of the sediment and other factors are analyzed. The paper does not aim at producing quantitative data directly usable in migration models but it should help in assessment of parameters important for inclusion into the models. (author) 31 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

382

Factors affecting prostate volume estimation in computed tomography images.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate how apex-localizing methods and the computed tomography (CT) slice thickness affected the CT-based prostate volume estimation. Twenty-eight volunteers underwent evaluations of prostate volume by CT, where the contour segmentations were performed by three observers. The bottom of ischial tuberosities (ITs) and the bulb of the penis were used as reference positions to locate the apex, and the distances to the apex were recorded as 1.3 and 2.0 cm, respectively. Interobserver variations to locate ITs and the bulb of the penis were, on average, 0.10 cm (range 0.03-0.38 cm) and 0.30 cm (range 0.00-0.98 cm), respectively. The range of CT slice thickness varied from 0.08-0.48 cm and was adopted to examine the influence of the variation on volume estimation. The volume deviation from the reference case (0.08 cm), which increases in tandem with the slice thickness, was within ± 3 cm(3), regardless of the adopted apex-locating reference positions. In addition, the maximum error of apex identification was 1.5 times of slice thickness. Finally, based on the precise CT films and the methods of apex identification, there were strong positive correlation coefficients for the estimated prostate volume by CT and the transabdominal ultrasonography, as found in the present study (r > 0.87; p images. PMID:20202814

Yang, Cheng-Hsiu; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Lin, Chao-An

2011-01-01

383

Factors affecting mechanical properties of biomass pellet from compost.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effectiveness of a densification process to create strong and durable bonding in pellets can be determined by testing the mechanical properties such as compressive strength (CS) and durability. Mechanical properties of pellet from composted municipal solid waste were determined at different raw material and densification conditions. Ground compost samples were compressed with three levels of moisture content (35%, 40% and 45% (wb)), piston compaction speed (2, 6 and 10 mm/s), die length (8, 10 and 12mm) and raw material particle size (0.3, 0.9 and 1.5mm) into cylindrical pellets utilizing opened-end dies under axial stress from a vertical piston applied by a hydraulic press. The effects of independent variables on mechanical properties were determined using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design (BBD). All independent variables affected the durability significantly. However, different piston speed and die length not produce any significant difference on CS of pellets. Also in this research the electron photography method was used to identify the binding mechanism of compost particles. PMID:24600888

Zafari, A; Kianmehr, M H

2014-01-01

384

A Psychological Factor Affecting a Cardiac Condition in a Psychotherapist  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been established that intense emotions can affect the development and course of cardiac arrhythmias. This study sought to convey that a lack of expression of emotion can also have an effect on arrhythmias. A psychotherapist with Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation and an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator measured his rate of Premature Ventricular Contractions using a Holter monitor during three separate six-week periods and in three domains: A work days vs. off days, B a 27 hour work week vs. 22 hour work week, and C in 5 different modalities including 1 Meeting with department head 2 Individual psychotherapy with patients 3 Group therapy with patients 4 Supervision of residents 5 Personal psychoanalysis. The results showed more than a 3-fold increase of arrhythmogenic activity during the 27-hour work week vs. 22 and a 5-fold increase in arrhythmogenic activity on work days compared to days off. Department Head meetings were found to be most arrhythmogenic and personal psychoanalysis was least. The data suggest that the psychiatrist’s lack of emotional expression in his clinical work has been demonstrated to markedly worsen his arrhythmia. The results also point to the potential ameliorating effects of the therapist’s own psychotherapy.

R Waxman

2009-03-01

385

Factors Affecting the Wheel Rutting on Rural Roads  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the wheel ruts frequency and dimensions were investigated according to geographical aspects, longitudinal gradient and surfacing layer of rural roads in Denji Kola village, Mazandaran Province, Iran. Ruts were divided into shallow and deep wheel ruts. Results showed that the ruts length and area were significantly affected by longitudinal gradient of rural roads (p<0.0001. Ruts length in longitudinal gradient class 8-12% was significantly more than other classes (p<0.05. The mean of rut length in this class was 8.19 m. The deep ruts frequency in longitudinal gradient class 0-4% was more than shallow ruts, whereas the number of shallow ruts was more than deep ruts in other classes. The effects of geographical aspect on ruts length (p<0.0001, ruts width (p = 0.0019 and ruts area (p<0.0001 was significant. Although, the ruts width and depth on gravel-grassed surface was more than other surfacing layer, the number of ruts in this surfacing layer was less than bare soil and graveled surfacing layer. Thus, thickness layer of gravel which has been covered by grass is the best mixture for surfacing layer of rural roads.

A. Parsakhoo

2009-01-01

386

Study on the factors affecting ?-AP RIA results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the effect of (1) storage time (2) hemolysis (3) excessive lipid content (4) bacterial contamination on the tested serum ?-AP RIA results. Methods: (1) Specimen was stored at 4 degree C and ?-AP contents determined daily for seven consecutive days (9 specimens). (2) specimen was assayed, then the clot forcibly broken to cause hemolysis and the serum re-assayed (8 specimens). (3) Hyperlipemic specimen was assayed, the excess lipid extracted with ether and serum re-assayed (8 specimens). (4) Specimen was assayed and left at room temperature for a few days. The specimen was re-assayed for several times after bacterial growth (10 specimens). Results: serum ?- AP contents were stable up to 4 days under 4 degree C (P > 0.05 ). Serum ? -AP contents increased significantly after hemolysis (P<0.01 ). ?-AP contents in hyperlipemic samples decreased significantly after ether treatment (P<0.01). With bacterial growth, the ?-AP contents could increase or decrease, depending upon the type of bacteria. Conclusion: Serum ?-AP was stable up to 4 days at 4 degree C, but rapid degraded under room temperature. Moreover, hemolysis, hyperlipemia and contamination would all affect the RIA result and should be carefully dealt with in daily work. (authors)

387

Scoping experimental analysis of factors affecting cask contamination weeping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One issue of particular concern to both the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) involves the control of in-transit 'weeping' of surface contamination on pool-loaded spent fuel transportation casks. Weeping is the release of semi-fixed radioactive particulates from an exterior surface of a transportation cask some time after removal from a fuel pool. Effective prevention requires an understanding of the physical processes and the determination of related parameters which contribute to the weeping phenomenon. A program is underway at Sandia Laboratories to experimentally address the following goals: induce weeping under controlled conditions; isolate and identify what contaminants adsorption and release; and provide a basis for the development of decontamination or contaminant blocking methods to prevent weeping. The first set of experiments, reported herein, concentrated on inducing weeping, isolating and identifying the contaminants, and scoping macroscopic variables affecting weeping. a second series of tests is underway to characterize bonding and release mechanisms, and to suggest effective decontamination means. 4 refs., 2 tabs

388

Seed germination and seedling development of white oat affected by silicon and phosphorus fertilization Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de aveia-branca em função da adubação com silício e fósforo  

OpenAIRE

Silicon (Si) fertilizers have been increasingly used in agriculture due to several benefits as acidity correction in tropical soils and positive effects on the development of grasses. Nutrient availability and plant nutrition play an important role in seed production and may affect the physiological quality of white oat seeds. The present study had as objective to evaluate seed germination and seedling development of white oat (Avena sativa L.) affected by silicon and phosphorus fertilization...

Mariana Zampar Toledo; Rodrigo Arroyo Garcia; Alexandre Merlin; Dirceu Maximino Fernandes

2011-01-01

389

Importance Degree Evaluation of the Affecting Factors on Exhibition Security Accidents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence of exhibition security accidents is the result of the mutual coupling factors of "man-machine-environment-management". This study is going to elaborate 11 influencing factors of exhibition security accidents from four aspects, i.e., man, mechanical equipment, environment and management. With the help of grey relational analysis, this study evaluates the importance degree of the affecting factors in exhibitions. The result shows that affecting factors of facilities and equipments failure is of the greatest importance degree and site maintenance personnel, site design, building material quality are the secondary important factors; another important factors are safety management body, social environment, activity organization management, safety management system, natural environment and event participant behavior which are considered as the third important ones. Evaluation of the importance degree of affecting factors on exhibition security incidents will provide a theoretical basis for exhibition security control.

Lin Wei-Ling

2013-01-01

390

Fuzzy ordering of the factors affecting the implementation of construction projects in Poland  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper authors present the set of data on the factors affecting the implementation of construction projects in Poland. To develop that data, surveys were conducted among companies and engineers working in construction industry. The result of the paper is classification of the factors affecting the implementation of construction projects, due to the degree of significance. Elements of the fuzzy sets theory were applied, to order those factors, and to develop their formal description. Authors also describe possibility of using ordered factors, to determine the potential risk of variability of the implementation factors. This could be the basis for the design of construction projects in Polish conditions.

Ibadov, Nabi; Kulejewski, Janusz; Krzemi?ski, Micha?

2013-10-01

391

Case Study of Factors Affecting Chinese Students’ English Communication Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For ESL teaching in China’s universities, not enough emphasis is put on verbal communication as a yardstick of language mastery and methodological success. Developing student’s communication competence is not only concerned with the nature of language learning from linguistic perspectives, but also could be influenced by such exogenous factors as learning environment, learning psychology, and learning strategies. It is necessary to investigate whether these factors have an impact on Chinese university students’ English communication performance. This paper tries to examine the relationships among social needs, system inefficiencies, learning objectives, learning strategies, and effort, according to a constructed model. The model’s hypotheses are drawn from theories as diverse as person-environment (PE fit (Caplan, 1987, intrinsic motivation (Ryan and Deci, 2000, conceptions about learning approach (Entwistle, 1990, and “learning strategy” (Biggs, Kember, & Leung, 2001. The sample was collected from one of the Chinese universities in Southeast for a case study to shed light on how to improve English teaching and learning in TESL of China. The quantitative research method is used with SPSS system in this essay to report the statistical analyses of the model. Among the eight hypotheses tested, six were confirmed to be true, and two could not be validated.
Key words: communication performance; 5-factor model; person-environment (PE fit; intrinsic motivation; learning strategies

Résumé: Dans les universités chinoises où l’anglais est enseigné comme la deuxième langue, l'accent n'est pas suffisamment mis sur la communication verbale en tant qu’un critère de maîtrise de la langue et du succès méthodologique. Le développement de la compétence communicative des élèves n'est pas seulement concerné par la nature de l'apprentissage des langues du point de vue linguistique, mais pourrait aussi être influencé par des facteurs exogènes comme l'environnement d'apprentissage, la psychologie de l'apprentissage et les stratégies d'apprentissage. Il est nécessaire d'examiner si ces facteurs ont une influence sur la performance de communication en anglais des étudiants chinois. Le présent document tente d'étudier les relations entre les besoins sociaux, l'inefficacité du système, les objectifs d'apprentissage, les stratégies d'apprentissage et des efforts, selon un modèle construit. L’hypothèse du modèle vient de diverses théories, telles que la théorie de l’adaptation peronne-environnement-(PE (Caplan, 1987, la motivation intrinsèque (Ryan et Deci, 2000, les conceptions sur l''approche de l’apprentissage ( Entwistle, 1990, et les stratégies d'apprentissage (Biggs, Kember, & Leung, 2001. Les sujets d’études viennent de l'une des universités chinoises situées dans le Sud-est pour montrer la façon d'améliorer l'enseignement et l'apprentissage de l'anglais en tant que la deuxième langue en Chine. La méthode de recherche quantitative est utilisée avec le système de SPSS dans cet essai pour montrer des analyses statistiques du modèle. Parmi les huit hypothèses testées, six ont été confirmées d’être vraies et deux n'ont pas pu être validées.
Mots-Clés: performance de communication; modèle de 5-facteurs; le modèle de l’adaptation personne-environment(PE; motivation intrinsèque; stratégies d’apprentissage

Ping LIU

2009-10-01

392

An Analysis of Factors Affecting Community College Students' Expectations on E-Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many factors that affect the e-learning process. Instructor, assessment and evaluation, communication, and technical support are among the leading factors. It is obvious that these factors influence the effectiveness of e-learning and may be related to different expectations of e-learners. Therefore, this study focuses on examining the…

Kilic-Cakmak, Ebru; Karatas, Sercin; Ocak, Mehmet Akif

2009-01-01

393

Recognition of Factors Affecting the Successful Implementation of Electronic-Banking in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research examines the factors that can speed up the successful implementation of electronic banking innovations in the Iran’s country. Through the literature review, the factors affecting the successful implementation of e-banking in Iran have been detected and classified into a tri-radiate model of co-structural, content and context factors. After collecting the questionnaires which were distributed randomly among experts and IT managers of 90 banks, the data analysis revealed that there is a meaningful and significant relationship between these three factors and the successful implementation of e-banking in Iran. Using Friedman analysis of variance test, the co-structural factors got first rank, context factors as second and the content factors the third rank, respectively. Mean while, the influencing factors on implementing e-banking were classified and ranked. Finally, some recommendations have been proposed to develop and reinforce the affecting factors bound up with implementing e-banking.

M.A. Sarlak

2009-01-01

394

The examination of factors affecting e-learning effectiveness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Technology information has increased dramatically in the last years and has contributed to the growth in technology delivered instruction as an important learning and education method. In this perspective, many academic researches considered the importance of e-learning effectiveness.Although the existing models of e-learning effectiveness has improved our understanding of how online training can support and enhance learning, most of published models do not take into account the importance of the relationship between social presence and interaction. Thus, this study develops preceding investigation by extending a model of e-learning effectiveness which adds social presence to other studied variables including computer self efficacy, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, interaction between trainer and trainees, and e-learning effectiveness. Moreover, the model includes the possible relationships between independent factors. In this case, the present research seek to identify the influence of computer self efficacy, ease of use, perceived usefulness, interaction, and social presence on e- learning effectiveness. Furthermore, this study considers the possible influences between individual characteristics, perceptual characteristics and environmental characteristics.Using data from 410 employees, the conceptual model was validated through a Tunisian context. Results indicate the importance of interaction, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and social presence on e-learning achievement. E-learning achievement, in turn, influences e-learning transfer.

Rabeb Mbarek

2013-04-01

395

Intrinsic factors affecting apoptosis in bovine in vitro produced embryos.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main purpose for human assisted reproductive technologies (ART) is clearly to bypass reproductive failures. This purpose is totally different from the aims in animal ART, being genetic improvement and more recently conservation of endangered species. Apoptosis or programmed cell death has been detected before implantation in in vivo as well as in vitro embryos and might contribute to lower developmental competence and embryonic losses of in vitro embryos. In vitro embryo quality is clearly jeopardized by quality of the gametes (oocytes and spermatozoa) and suboptimal culture condition, but there is no consensus on which factor is most important in the incidence of apoptosis during early embryo development. The objective of the present study was to unravel the contribution of both male and female gamete quality to the incidence of apoptosis of bovine embryos produced in vitro. In vivo bull fertility expressed a very low correlation with cleavage rate and blastocyst yield. In contrast, developmental kinetics and oocyte diameter are important markers of embryo developmental potential and embryo quality in terms of the appearance of apoptosis, indicating a significant maternal effect on embryo quality. PMID:22276397

Vandaele, L; Van Soom, A

2011-01-01

396

Factors affecting the cost and competitiveness of nuclear electricity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general context in which are carried out the investment choices of the electric sector has evolved in a significant way during these last years and the changes are to a certain extent irreversible. Economic globalization, deregulation of the electricity market, privatisation of electricity producers, and increasing awareness of environmental issues are modifying the policy-making landscape and the criteria and priorities of decision-makers in the power sector. Competitiveness remains a cornerstone for evaluating and choosing alternative technologies in the process of planning and decision-making for electricity system expansion or power plant replacement. Nevertheless, the production costs analysis inserts factors which were not taking before into account as for instance social impacts, health and environmental effects. These new approaches better reveal the total costs of the different production means. They will certainly lead to different choices than those based on the whole comparison of direct costs supported by producers. The economic studies carried out by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (NEA) cover all the preceding aspects and give objective information on the competitiveness of nuclear electricity. The nuclear industry has today the necessary means to take up the challenges of the electricity new markets. (O.M.)

397

Environmental factors affecting starch encapsulated herbicide rates of release  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Starch-encapsulation (SE) is an experimental control release technology designed to extend the period of time over which a herbicide is released into the soil environment. The objectives of controlled release are to improve efficacy and reduce negative environmental impacts. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to evaluate how environmental factors influence the release rate of SE-atrazine and SE-alachlor. Decreasing water availability, significantly reduced swelling and subsequent rates-of-release for both herbicides. As starch granules imbibe water they swell, allowing the herbicide to diffuse more readily out of the granule. Decreasing temperature also resulted in decreased rates of herbicide release. Soil microbial activity increased rates-of-release for both herbicides, likely the result of enzymatic breakdown of the starch matrix. The enhanced release of alachlor relative to atrazine under varied environmental conditions was attributed to alachlor's greater solubility in water. Although the SE-formulations are experimental, modification of herbicide behavior was observed that could reduce negative environmental impacts. 20 refs, 9 figs

398

Extracorporeal model for study of factors affecting thrombus formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors determining thrombus formation on a foreign surface were studied with the use of plastic flow chambers introduced into extracorporeal shunts. Silicone rubber shunts, joining the carotid artery and jugular vein, were implanted in dogs and remained patent for several weeks. The flow chamber geometry consisted of a 4.8 mm diameter straight tube having a 3.2 X 3.2 mm circumferential cavity in the wall. Chambers were introduced sequentially into the shunts for exposure times of 10 to 30 minutes and regulated blood flow rates of 100 to 400 ml/min. The dry weight of thrombus accumulated in the chamber (5 to 50 mg) was found to increase with exposure time up to 20 minutes and to decrease with increasing flow rate. Various components of the process of thrombus formation were altered by the administration of acetylsalicylic acid, heparin and lysozyme, used alone and in pairs. Heparin was found to be the most effective antithrombotic agent, dry weights of accumulated thrombus being on the order of 50 percent lower when compared to control values. The efficacy of heparin was found to be unaffected by the presence of aspirin and lysozyme, which themselves were not effective antithrombotic agents under the conditions of these experiments. The technique described here may provide a useful animal model for studying the influence of blood flow and different biomaterials on thrombus formation. PMID:1103356

Benis, A M; Nossel, H L; Aledort, L M; Koffsky, R M; Stevenson, J F; Leonard, E F; Shiang, H; Litwak, R S

1975-09-30

399

Factors Affecting the Quality of Life in Patients with Fibromyalgia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal pain syndrome characterized by diffuse pain and specific painful tender points.This study was planned to gain a better understanding of the factors that may impact the quality of life of patients with fibromyalgia.Material and Methods: The study was carried out in the Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation outpatient clinic with 35 women with fibromyalgia and 20 healthy women with no current or past medical history as controls. The subjects were evaluated with digital palpation to test tender points, by algometric measurements to test pressure pain threshold, the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ scores to test pain severity, and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ to test quality of life.Results: The two groups were similar with respect to mean age, body mass index and education status. Algometric pressure pain thresholds of tender point sites were lower in patients with fibromyalgia than in healthy controls. In this patient group, there were linear relations between the number of tender points, duration of pain, SF-MPQ scores, and FIQ. There were also linear relations between duration of pain and SF-MPQ scores and the total number of tender points.Conclusion: In the patient group, all the pain measurements were significantly correlated with each other. The quality of life score was also significantly related to each of the pain parameters.

Nuri Çetin

2009-06-01

400

Factors affecting urinary calculi treatment by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy  

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Full Text Available Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL is still the treatment of choice for most renal and upper ureteric stones; however the outcome depends on multiple factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stone density, as measured by Hounsfield Units (H.U by non-contrast Computerized Tomography (CT, stone size and stone location on ESWL treatment outcome of urinary calculi in Jordanian patients. 65 patients underwent clinical, biochemical and radiological assessments followed by ESWL treatment. Statistical analyses including chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA, correlation, regression were performed for statistical significance between ESWL treatment, stone fragmentation and stone density, size and location in the renal pelvis. ESWL success rate was high (94% for low density stones (< 500 Hounsfield units. In general CT densities of 750 Hounsfield units or less were almost always successfully treated by ESWL. An inverse association between ESWL treatment outcome and stone size was also documented. CT stone density and stone size combined account for nearly 73% of the variation in the number of shock waves required to attain fragmentation. Stones located in lower calyceal area had less success rates. In conclusion, stones with higher density, large size and lower location may better be managed by percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

Tarawneh Emad

2010-01-01

401

Trends Analyses for Several Factors Affected by Tropical Cyclones  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presents an analytical investigation for the trends of several factors such as number of death of peoples, damages of wealth, flood surge heights, wind speed and radius of the severe storm due to tropical cyclones in Bangladesh. Approach: The study is performed by conducting the field visits to cyclone site, collected data and information on damages and deaths of peoples during field visits, necessary data related to tropical cyclones obtained from available publications and news-study. The data since the period of the independence of Bangladesh (nearly 40 years are analyzed. Results: The analyses showed that the 17 major cyclones have been occurred since 1970. Among these 17 major cyclones, the 5 cyclones were tragically severe that killed over 400 thousand peoples. It is observed that the coast of the Bay of Bengal is particularly vulnerable to tropical cyclones. It is revealed that Bangladesh is more vulnerable to devastating cyclones in the recent years because the frequency of the severe cyclones has increased remarkably. Conclusion/Recommendation: The return period of the major cyclones was decreased drastically in recent years and the country, especially, the Bengal Bay is predominantly helpless during the cyclone seasons.

Md. T. Islam

2011-01-01

402

Factors affecting storage stability of various commercial phytase sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 360-d study was performed to evaluate the effects of different environmental conditions on storage stability of exogenous phytases. Coated and uncoated products from 3 phytase sources [Ronozyme P (DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland), OptiPhos (Phytex LLC, Sheridan, IN), and Phyzyme (Danisco Animal Nutrition, Marlborough, UK)] were stored as pure forms, in a vitamin premix, or in a vitamin and trace mineral (VTM) premix. Pure products were stored at -18, 5, 23, and 37°C (75% humidity). Premixes were stored at 23 and 37°C. Sampling was performed on d 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 270, and 360. Sampling of the pure products stored at -18 (lack of sample) and 5°C (because of mold growth) was discontinued after d 120. Stability was reported as the residual phytase activity (% of initial) at each sampling point. For the stability of the pure forms, all interactive and main effects of the phytase product, coating, time, and storage temperature were significant (P phytases retained at least 91, 85, 78, and 71% of their initial phytase activity at 30, 60, 90, and 120 d of storage, respectively. However, storing pure products at 37°C reduced (P phytase stability, with OptiPhos retaining the most (P storage temperature for Ronozyme and OptiPhos (from d 90 onward), but not for Phyzyme. For the stability of phytase in different forms of storage, all interactive and main effects of phytase product, form, coating, time, and temperature of storage were significant (P phytase activities for most the phytase sources were more than 85, 73, and 60% of the initial activity up to 180 d when stored as pure products, vitamin premixes, or VTM premixes, respectively. When stored at 37°C, pure phytase products had greater (P phytase activity than when phytases were mixed with the vitamin or VTM premixes. Coated phytases stored in any form had greater (P phytases at all sampling periods. Results indicate that storage stability of commercially available phytases is affected by duration of storage, temperature, product form, coating, and phytase source. Pure products held at 23°C or less were the most stable. In premixes, longer storage times and higher temperatures reduced phytase activity, but coating mitigated some of these negative effects. PMID:21890502

Sulabo, R C; Jones, C K; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Dritz, S S; Campbell, D R; Ratliff, B W; DeRouchey, J M; Nelssen, J L

2011-12-01

403

Phenotypic factors affecting coagulation properties of milk from Sarda ewes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, milk-coagulation properties (MCP) were characterized in the Sarda sheep breed. Milk composition and MCP [rennet-coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time [time to reach a curd firmness of 20mm (k20)], and curd firmness (a30), (a45), and (a60)] were obtained extending the lactodynamographic analysis from 30 to 60min from a population of 1,121 ewes from 23 different farms. Managerial characteristics of farms and parity, individual daily milk yields and stage of lactation of ewes were recorded. Data were analyzed using a mixed-model procedure with fixed effects of days in milk, parity, daily milk yield, and flock size and the random effect of the flock/test day nested within flock size. Sampled farms were classified as small (600 ewes), often operated through hired workers. Daily milk yield was, on average, 1.58±0.79L/d and variability for this trait was very high. The average content of fat, protein, and casein was respectively 6.41, 5.39, and 4.20%. The class of flock size had a significant effect only on curd firmness, whereas days in milk affected RCT and k20. The flock test day, parity, and daily milk yield were important sources of variation for all MCP. The mean value of RCT (8.6min) and the low occurrence of noncoagulating samples (0.44%) confirmed the excellent coagulation ability of sheep milk compared with cattle milk. A more rapid coagulation was observed in mid-lactating, primiparous, and high-yielding ewes. The k20 was usually reached in less than 2min after gelation, with the most favorable values at mid lactation. The mean value of curd firmness 30min after rennet addition (a30) was, on average, 50mm and decreased to 46 and 42mm respectively after 45 (a45) and 60min (a60). The decreasing value of curd-firmness traits was likely to be caused by curd syneresis and whey expulsion. The correlation between RCT and a30 was much lower than in dairy cows and about null for a45 and a60. This means that curd firmness in dairy ewes is almost independent of gelation time and this can provide specific information for this species. In conclusion, this study showed that milk from Sarda sheep is characterized by an earlier gelation, a faster increase in curd firmness with time, and greater curd firmness after 30min compared with dairy cows. Furthermore, correlations between MCP in sheep are much lower than in bovines and some of the assumptions and interpretations related to cows cannot be applied to sheep. PMID:25151884

Pazzola, M; Dettori, M L; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G; Vacca, G M

2014-11-01

404

Research on Application of Matlab Uniform Design in Psychological Experiment of Factors Affecting Reading Comprehension  

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Full Text Available Experimental psychology is an essential primary discipline for psychological teaching and research, with the continuous development of science and technology, measurement techniques and computer data simulating techniques have a great power to implement the experimental design and the design method of experiment is also very important. In this study, the uniform design experiment is adopted to study the factors affecting reading comprehension in psychology, this study first gives four factors affecting reading comprehension, the level of the four factors is technically divided into five grades, the uniform design of psychological experiments is then analyzed, finally carry out regression analysis on the factors affecting reading comprehension by using the uniform design’s experimental data of five testers, thus the effect of factors affecting reading comprehension is obtained, which provides a theoretical basis for the experimental design and data analysis of psychology, expecting a more distant development of experimental psychology.

Wenjun Cong

2013-01-01

405

Three genotypes of soybean (Glysine max L.) grown under semi-arid conditions of Sudan affected by seed rates  

OpenAIRE

Field experiment was conducted for two consecutive seasons (2008/09-2009/10) at the Demonstrated Farm, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Sudan, to study the effect of seed rates on growth, and yield, of three genotypes of soybean (Glycine max.L.). Treatments were three genotypes G1 (Egyptian), G2 (1448-2E (M)) andG3 (1905-2E (M) and seed rate were SR1 (48.000seedha-2 , one seed /hole one side), SR2(195.000seedha-2 , two seeds/hole two sides) and SR3 (146.000seedha-2 , three see...

Et Al, Yagoub S. O.

2013-01-01

406

Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don’t use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. Methods A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan between 1st May and 31st July 2012. Results A total of 812 married women were enrolled in this study. Their mean age and parity was 31.8 (7.3 and 3.4 (1.8 respectively. Ever use of contraception was 25.4% (206/812 and 26.2% (213/812 were currently using contraception. Unmet need for spacing was 15.1% while unmet need for limiting was 0.7%. The pregnant and amenorrheic women whose the pregnancy or birth was unwanted and mistimed were 105 (13% and 130 (16% respectively. Using Westoff model the total unmet need was estimated as 44.8%. The total demand for family planning was 71%. In logistic regression model, while age, age at marriage, parity, residence and experience of child death were not associated with total unmet need for family planning, women education P=0.00, husband education P = 0.00 and woman’s occupation; housewife (OR=4.3; CI=2.5-7.2; P=0.00 were associated with the total unmet need. Conclusions Unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan was significantly higher among women with less than secondary education. Also; it is influenced by couple’s educational status and woman s occupation. The results of this study necessitate the need for the programme managers to take into account the concept of reproductive health education.

Ali Abdel Aziem A

2013-02-01

407

Factors affecting insulin adherence to type I glass bottles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some physicochemical factors that could account for insulin adherence to type I glass bottles from admixtures of insulin with 5% dextrose (D5W) and 0.9% sodium chloride (NS) injections were studied. Samples of three volumes of NS or D5W containing insulin 125I were mixed in three sizes of bottles to test the effect of surface area and volume. Appropriate volumes of insulin were combined with insulin 125I and D5W or NS to yield solutions containing nine concentrations of insulin to test the effect of insulin concentration. Appropriate volumes of KCl injection to yield six concentrations were combined with insulin 125I and NS or D5W to test the effect of KCl concentration. All samples were assayed by gamma scintillation. In general, there was a direct relationship between the percentage of insulin adhering and the container surface area. In D5W admixtures, as the fill volume at constant insulin 125I concentration was doubled and quadrupled, the adherence of insulin decreased in all three bottle sizes (200, 250, and 500 ml). In NS admixtures, however, this effect was seen only with the 250-ml bottle. Increasing insulin concentrations over the range of 50-300 units/liter in D5W and 0-50 units/liter in NS resulted in decreased adherence. The addition of 1-60 meq/liter of KCl resulted in a significant decrease of insulin adhering from D5W and an insignificant decrease from NS admixtures. The percentage of insulin adhering to type he percentage of insulin adhering to type I glass surfaces may be reduced to 25% or less by preparing i.v. admixtures in full bottles of D5W or NS at insulin concentrations of 25 to 300 units/liter. The addition of KCl, when therapeutically appropriate, will further decrease the extent of insulin adherence

408

Factors affecting ovarian compensation after unilateral ovariectomy in gilts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments were conducted to identify the temporal limits of an ovarian compensatory response after unilateral ovariectomy (ULO) in gilts and to examine ovarian and hormonal factors that might be related to this response. In the first study, all eight gilts that were unilaterally ovariectomized on d 12, 14 or 16 of an estrous cycle and two of four ULO on d 18 had a significant compensatory increase in ovulation rate per ovary compared with controls. Ovulatory compensation failed to occur, however, in two of four and four of four gilts ULO on d 18 or 19 of an estrous cycle, respectively. In the second study, blood samples were collected from 26 gilts beginning on d 14 of an estrous cycle, and animals were assigned to sham-surgery or ULO on d 17, 18 or 19. Ovarian compensation occurred after ULO on all 3 d of surgery in the second study, but most follicles failed to ovulate and formed large luteinized cysts. The ability to compensate was related positively to the number of medium-sized follicles on the intact ovary at the time of ULO, to an increase in concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone 12 to 18 h after ULO and to the interval from ULO to the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone. In a third experiment, interruption of the ovulatory mechanism and development of cystic follicles similar to those observed in the second study were induced simply by physical manipulation of the d 19 preovulatory ovary while contralateral untouched ovaries ovulated normally. PMID:6430861

Coleman, D A; Fleming, M W; Dailey, R A

1984-07-01

409

Emission factor of single pellet cake seed Jatropha curcas in a fix bed reactor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study is to evaluate the emission factor of oil cake seed Jatropha curcas that was formed into pellets with three parameters: pyrolisis, densification and air flow rate. The effect of pyrolisis was investigated using four samples of pellet: nonpyrolysis pellet, 90 minutes pyrol [...] ysis pellet, 120 minutes pyrolysis pellet, 150 minutes pyrolysis pellet. The effect of densification was provided by three samples: 11 mm, 13 mm, and 16 mm diameter. Furthermore, the parameter of air flow rate was varied from 0.1 m/s to 0.4 m/s. The results show that the lowest emission factor occurs in the non-pyrolysis pellet containing 14.3 gram carbon monoxide per kilogram pellet. Meanwhile the best densification was obtained by 13-mm diameter pellet containing 14.8 gram carbon monoxide. Air flow rate of 2.0 m/s was the suitable air flow rate to achieve lowest emission factor.

N. Agung, Pambudi; Shuichi, Torii; M., Syamsiro; Harwin, Saptoadi; Indra Mamad, Gandidi.

2012-06-01

410

THE TYPE OF PACKAGING MATERIAL AND STORAGE CONDITIONS AS FACTORS FOR WHEAT SEED QUALITY  

OpenAIRE

Seed of cereal is normally grown on 5-8% of the overall plots under cereals in the Republic of Croatia. The produced seed meets the needs for high quality seed of wheat, barley, oat and other cereals. Certain quantities of seed remain unsold every year and are kept at various storage conditions and in various packaging material. The objective of this paper was to find out which storage conditions and what sort of packaging material would provide for the best viability of wheat seed. The inves...

Josip Šimeni?

2000-01-01

411

Investigation of the effect of space flight factors on chromosomes in seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

Frequency of mutations in postflight air-dry Crepis capillaris seeds, kept for five days aboard an artificial satellite was 36.0 + or - 1.9%, vs. 19.01 + or - 1.2% for seeds in a similar ground experiment. Both groups of seeds were prepared in identical concentrations and were treated by the same mutagen. The spectrum of mutations in postflight Crepis capillaris seeds contained a large number of chromosome-type mutations and some cells showed multiple alterations. Postflight seeds not treated with mutagens had a slightly higher level of mutability.

Dubinina, L. G.

1980-01-01

412

Alpha radiolysis and other factors affecting hydrolysis of tributyl phosphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary purpose of this study was to identify the principal degradation products produced by Pu(IV) loading in 30% tributyl phosphate/dodecane (TBP-DD) solutions and to determine the formation rates of these species as a function of temperature. Experiments were also conducted to evaluate HNO3 hydrolysis of TBP as a function of temperature and to compare the effects resulting from plutonium solvent loading with effects due to loading with uranium and zirconium. The results indicate that four factors are of particular significance: (1) dibutyl phosphate (DBP) is the principal plutonium-complexing species formed at temperatures of 500C or lower, while significant concentrations of monobutyl phosphate (MBP) are also formed at higher temperatures; (2) the TBP degradation rate due to alpha radiolysis or chemical hydrolysis is strongly dependent on temperature; (3) plutonium promotes TBP hydrolysis by two mechanisms, alpha radiolysis and metal-ion-induced hydrolysis, and, of these, metal-ion-induced hydrolysis can be the major effect; and (4) small amounts of an unidentified plutonium-complexing species are formed in experiments using plutonium of high specific activity [about 4 x 108 counts per minute per milligram (c/min dot mg)]. This species cannot be removed from 30% TBP-DD by Na2CO3 washing or other solvent cleanup procedures. The TBP degradation rates (determined as grams of plutonium complexed by degradation products) increased from 0.125 mg Pu/L dot h at 250C to 47.9 mg Pu/L dot h at 800C in 30% TBP-DD solutions that contained only 0.68 M HNO3. In solutions that additionally contained approx.20 g/L of plutonium (specific activity = 9 x 107 c/min dot mg) TBP degradation rates increased from 2.46 mg Pu/L dot h at 250C to 127.1 mg Pu/L dot h at 800C. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

413

Factors affecting home delivery in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.  

Science.gov (United States)

This nested case-control study compares the characteristics of mothers having home or institutional deliveries in Kathmandu, Nepal, and explores the reasons given by mothers for a home delivery. The delivery patterns of mothers were identified in a cross-sectional survey of two communities: an urban area of central Kathmandu (Kalimati) and a peri-urban area (Kirtipur and Panga) five kilometres from the city centre. 357 pregnant women were identified from a survey of 6130 households: 183 from 3663 households in Kirtipur and Panga, 174 from 2467 households in Kalimati. Methods involved a structured baseline household questionnaire and detailed follow-up of identified pregnant women with structured and semi-structured interviews in hospital and the community. The main outcome measures were social and economic household details of pregnant women; pregnancy and obstetric details; place of delivery; delivery attendant; and reasons given for home delivery. The delivery place of 334/357 (94%) of the pregnant women identified at the survey was determined. 272 (81%) had an institutional delivery and 62 (19%) delivered at home. In univariate analysis comparing home and institutional deliverers, maternal education, parity, and poverty indicators (income, size of house, ownership of house) were associated with place of delivery. After multivariate analysis, low maternal educational level (no education, OR 5.04 [95% CI 1.61-15.8], class 1-10, OR 3.36 [1.04-10.8] compared to those with higher education) and multiparity (OR 3.1 [1.63-5.74] compared to primiparity) were significant risk factors for a home delivery. Of home deliverers, only 24% used a traditional birth attendant, and over half were unplanned due to precipitate labour or lack of transport. We conclude that poor education and multiparity rather than poverty per se increase the risk of a home delivery in Kathmandu. Training TBAs in this setting would probably not be cost-effective. Community-based midwife-run delivery units could reduce the incidence of unplanned home deliveries. PMID:10180403

Bolam, A; Manandhar, D S; Shrestha, P; Ellis, M; Malla, K; Costello, A M

1998-06-01

414

Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs.  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 microl/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose-response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this orientation. In addition, some species of bird eggs require incubation on their sides with the eggs being rolled 180 degrees for them to develop normally. Therefore, we adopted a procedure of incubating the eggs of all species on their sides and rolling them 180 degrees every hour. Little has been published about the conditions of temperature, humidity, and the movements to which eggs of wild birds need to be subjected for them to hatch optimally under artificial incubation. Not unexpectedly, hatching success in an artificial incubator is generally less than what natural incubation by the parents can achieve. However, the survival of control embryos of most wild bird species was good (generally > or = 80%) up to within 1 or 2 days of hatching when we incubated the eggs at 37.5 degrees C (or 37.6 degrees C for gallinaceous species) at a relative humidity that resulted in an approximate 15% to 16% loss in egg weight by the end of incubation and by incubating the eggs on their sides and rolling them 180 degrees /h. To improve statistical comparisons, we used survival through 90% of incubation as our measurement to compare survival of controls with survival of eggs injected with graded concentrations of mercury. PMID:16307214

Heinz, G H; Hoffman, D J; Kondrad, S L; Erwin, C A

2006-02-01

415

Mrpho-physical Factors Affecting Consumption and Coefficient of Utilization of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The selected plants in order of preference on the basis of consumption were Sorghum > Maize > Bermuda grass > Tomato > Cotton (NIAB-98 > Alfalfa > Rice >Castor oil > Okra > Cattail > Cotton (CIM-446 > Horse purslane > Rape seed > Winter cherry> Calotrope. The order of the preference on the basis of Coefficient of Utilization (CU was Sorghum > Bermuda grass > Maize > Cotton (NIAB-98 > Tomato > Winter cherry > Castor oil > Alfalfa > Okra > Rice > Cotton (CIM-446 > Horse purslane > Calotrope > Rape seed > Cattail. None of the plants was found completely resistant to H. armigera. The correlation between food consumption and CU was significantly positive. Moisture content showed positive while thickness of leaf lamina played negative role both for consumption and CU. Moisture percentage alone contributed 50.8% and 40.5% role towards resistance in term of consumption and CU, respectively. The cumulative effect of all the morpho-physical plant factors was 80.1% for consumption and 57.8% for CU.

Muhammad Ashfaq

2003-01-01

416

Antisense-inhibition of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in developing seeds of Vicia narbonensis moderately decreases starch but increases protein content and affects seed maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The small subunit of a Vicia faba ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) cDNA was expressed in antisense orientation in Vicia narbonensis under the control of the seed-specific legumin B4 promoter. From several independent transgenic lines both ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase AGP-mRNA and AGP enzyme activity were reduced by up to 95% in the cotyledons during the mid- to late-maturation phase. Starch was moderately decreased and sucrose was increased. In two of three lines, transcripts encoding the large subunit of AGP and the storage protein vicilin were increased, whereas legumin B-mRNA was decreased. Transcripts of other storage-associated genes were not altered. The cotyledons contained more protein and total nitrogen. Despite the reduction in starch, total carbon was not decreased and dry weight was unchanged. Compared to the wild type, transgenic seeds contained more water and accumulated dry weight during a longer period, and therefore had a prolonged seed-filling period. Transgenic cotyledon cells of comparable age to the wild type were more highly vacuolated and contained smaller starch grains, indicating a delay in cellular differentiation. We conclude that a specific alteration in carbon metabolism can have pleiotropic effects on water and nitrogen content and induces temporal changes in seed development. PMID:11029702

Weber, H; Rolletschek, H; Heim, U; Golombek, S; Gubatz, S; Wobus, U

2000-10-01

417

Factors Affecting Alternate Rice-Fish Production of Mymensingh District in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cobb-Douglas production function has been used to measure the effect of various factors on alternate rice-fish production. The chosen factors were of fingerlings cost, cost of cow dung, cost of rice bran, cost of oil cake, cost of lime, cost of urea cost of human labour and cost of netting for fish production and for rice production the factors were human labour, animal labour. Cow dung, urea, TSP, MP, seed and irrigation cost. It was found that except cost of rice bran and lime for fish production all the factors were statistically significant and for the rice production animal labour, TSP and irrigation cost were the insignificant.

Rabbani M.G.

2004-01-01

418

Personal Factors that Affect the Satisfaction of Female Patients Undergoing Esthetic Suture after Typical Thyroidectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background In esthetic surgery, understanding the factors that influence patient satisfaction is important for successful practice. We hypothesize that the factors that influence patient satisfaction include not only aesthetic and functional outcomes, but also personal factors such as the level of familiarity with factors affecting wound healing and expectations regarding aesthetic outcome.Methods One hundred patients who underwent esthetic closure after thyroidectomy were included in this study. In order to evaluate the individual characteristics of the patients, a preoperative survey was administered to the patients. We estimated the patient satisfaction six months postoperatively and assessed the aesthetic and functional outcomes using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale.Results According to the results of correlation analysis, level of familiarity with wound healing factors had a positive correlation with satisfaction. High expectations, pain, itching, and high observer scale score had negative correlations with satisfaction. The factors that were correlated with satisfaction were included in the multiple regression analysis. Level of familiarity with wound healing factors was found to have a positive relationship with satisfaction, while itching and observer scale were found to have a negative relationship with satisfaction. After excluding 10 patients who had hypertrophic scars, only level of familiarity with wound healing factors and expectations affected satisfaction. Conclusions The level of familiarity with factors affecting wound healing and expectations were found to independently affect satisfaction. Improving patients’ level of familiarity with wound healing factors and reducing their expectations by providing suitable preoperative education has the potential to improve patient satisfaction.

Hyo Young Kim

2013-07-01

419

14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges  

Science.gov (United States)

... Appendix B to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. B Appendix B to Part 1215—Factors Affecting Standard Charges...

2010-01-01

420

ASSESMENT OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF AMBER CHARKHA AND ERGONOMIC EVALUATION OF WORKERS  

OpenAIRE

Increasing demands of the cotton fabrics, now a day has made it necessary to increase the production of cotton fabrics. To increase the production it is necessary to study the factors affecting the performance of the women workers working on Amber charkha. Most of the Amber charkha in rural areas are hand operated (i.e. they runwith the help of human energy input). There are various medical, technical and environmental factors which affect the productivity of women workers working on Amber ch...

Thakre, G. V.; Patil, S. G.; Agrawal, D. N.

2011-01-01

421

Factors affecting Small-Scale Coffee Production in Githunguri District, Kenya  

OpenAIRE

This study was carried out to determine the factors affecting small scale coffee production in Kenya. The establishments under study were small-scale coffee farms in Githunguri District.It was to determine whether marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources affect coffee production in Githunguri District. Primary sources included use of questionnaires, observation and interviews. Secondary sources included desk research, library research on journals, text...

Margaret Njeri Gathura

2013-01-01

422

Factors affecting bonding strength of artificial teeth to acrylic resin denture bases: A review  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: The most common repair in removable prostheses and especially after delivering them to patients is substitution of debonded teeth in their places. Several studies have already been planned to study the factors affecting the bonding strength of artificial teeth to their denture acrylic base resin. The aim of this study was to make a review on the factors which affect bonding strength of artificial teeth to the acrylic denture base resin.Methods and Materials: A thorough literatur...

Ramin Mosharraf

2010-01-01

423

Distribution of practice as a factor affecting learning and/or performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earlier studies considering distribution of practice as a factor affecting learning and/or performance have employed a transfer design and consequently have failed to provide the means for refuting the contention that postrest performance was the manifestation of extended practice, a temporary performance variation, or some form of the "Hawthorne effect" rather than the result of the independent variable. The present experiment provided adequate control, and results indicated that distribution of practice was a factor affecting performance rather than learning. PMID:23961934

Dunham, P

1976-12-01

424

The analysis on factors affecting the quality of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of prostate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To discuss all sorts of factors affecting the quality of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of prostate and try to find a better method to improve the quality and accuracy of MRS in prostate, and to be helpful to clinical diagnosis. Methods: Three-dimensional prot