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Factors affecting Campsis radicans seed germination and seedling emergence  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of environmental factors on germination and emergence of Campsis radicans seeds were examined in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Campsis radicans pods produced numerous, papery, and small seeds (696 seeds/pod; 4 mg/seed). Seeds exhibited dormancy that was relieved (74% germination) after 2 wk of prechilling. Fluctuating temperatures and a 12-h photoperiod were required for maximum germination. Optimum conditions for C. radicans seed germination (74%) were 35/25 C (day/night, 12/12 h) with a 12-h photoperiod. Temperatures below 25/15 C or above 40/30 C were unfavorable for germination. Germination in constant temperatures or in continuous darkness was less than 15%. More than 59% of C. radicans seeds germinated at pH 5 to 9, but at pH 4 or 10 seed germination was totally inhibited. Germination was totally inhibited at osmotic stress higher than -0.2 MPa. Germination was 60% at 40 mM NaCl and 20% at 160 mM NaCl. Emergence was maximum (68%) for seeds that were placed on the soil surface, but no seedlings emerged from a soil depth at 4 cm. About 10% of seeds were still viable even after 20 wk of prechilling. Each pod contained about 700 seeds and each plant produced 20 to 40 pods. These results suggest that the spread potential of C. radicans by seeds would be at least 1,400 to 2,800 seeds plant-1. However, only seeds near the soil surface would be able to germinate.

Chachalis D; Reddy KN

2000-04-01

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Factors affecting germination of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) seed  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Specific knowledge about the dormancy, germination, and emergence patterns of weed species aids the development of integrated management strategies. The after-ripening period for jointed goatgrass seed was quantified, and the effects of germination conditions and spikelet structures on jointed goatgrass seed germination were measured. As the duration of after-ripening increased, jointed goatgrass seed germinated earlier, at faster rates, and to greater final percentages compared to non-after-ripened seed. Both primary and secondary positioned seed within jointed goatgrass spikelets were nondormant after 16 wk after-ripening at 22 ± 2 C. Germination of dormant seed depended on incubation temperature and dark/light conditions. Sixty-seven percent of spikelets produced a radicle when exposed to low temperatures in the dark, and light at warm temperatures increased germination by 7%. The relationship between light and incubation temperature was similar also for germination of the primary positioned seed in nondormant spikelets; however, the magnitude of the effect increased. Light increased germination of seed incubated at warm temperatures by 18%. Coleoptile emergence was dependent on planting depth for three jointed goatgrass populations, winter wheat, and spring wheat. Under optimum conditions in the greenhouse, no planting depth selectively allowed wheat germination and emergence while preventing jointed goatgrass germination and emergence. Glume removal increased jointed goatgrass secondary positioned seed final germination percentage to 96%, increased the germination rate, and decreased the number of days required to reach 50% germination to 6 d. Glume removal also promoted germination of the primary seed within jointed goatgrass spikelets. Glume removal resulted in 80% of the spikelets having two coleoptiles, but did not alleviate dormancy completely in jointed goatgrass seed. Tillage and herbicide applications for jointed goatgrass control will be most effective in the fall when primary dormancy is lost, but before secondary dormancy is imposed.

Fandrich L; Mallory-Smith CA

2006-07-01

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Impact of Weed Seed Mixture in Seed Health of Aus Rice and Factors Affecting it  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A socio-agronomical survey and a laboratory experiment on weed seed mixture with rice seed were carried out at the three different villages of Mymensingh district and in the laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh respectively during the period from January to June 2002 to know the farmer’s knowledge and idea about the impact of weed seed mixture on the quality of rice seeds, and to know the status of seed purity in rice collected from different locations of Bangladesh. In the socio-agronomical survey, 100 farmers from six villages e.g. Kazirshimla, Dewanibari, Seedstore, Bharadoba, Churkhai and Rampur under three Upazilas namely Trishal, Bhaluka and Sadar were randomly selected for interview. Pre-prepared questionnaire were used to ask questions on different aspects of weed contamination with rice seeds. Results revealed that 90% farmers of the area cultivated IR50 and only 3% farmers grew BR2 rice variety. They got higher average yields from IR50 (1.96 t ha-1) than other varieties e.g. BR2 (1.65 t ha-1) and BR3 (1.75 t ha-1). Farmers found five noxious weed seeds e.g. Echinochloa crusglli, E. colonum, Cyperus iria, Scirpus spp. and C. difformis in the rice seeds. E. crusgalli was appeared as the notorious weed to rice farmers. Forty percent of the interviewed farmers were educated up to class five and literate farmers used higher seed rate, which led to less weed infestation in the field. Eighty nine percent farmers used their own seed, which were produced and processed with care, and there was less possibility of weed seed contamination. Eight percent farmers used seeds from market, which contained more weed seeds in rice seeds. Laboratory analysis of seed samples collected from different locations of the country revealed that location has an impact on the weed seed mixture in rice seeds. Samples collected from the village more away from Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh contained more weed seeds. The purity percentage of farmers saved seed was about 95% and it contained 0.08% weed seed. The weed seeds found in the farmers saved seed samples were E. crusgalli, E.colonum, Scirpus spp. and Cyperus difformis.

Md. Fazlul Islam; S.M. Rezaul Karim; S.M.A. Haque; M.A. Rashid; M.A.Razzaque

2003-01-01

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Culinary and nutritional quality of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds as affected by environmental factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Efficient selection for specific culinary and nutritional quality traits needs a better understanding of the genetic and environmental control of quality traits at the structural, physiological and biochemical levels. Field experiments indicate great variability in the Phaseolus gene pool regarding the content of antinutritional compounds, as well as in cooking characteristics of the seeds. These seed attributes are strongly affected by geographic location, edaphic and climatic conditions at site of cultivation. However, information on the influence of specific environmental factors (such as temperature, water availability, edaphic conditions, etc.) on seed quality traits, as well as on their stability is very scarce. This lack of knowledge impairs a faster progress in the improvement of Phaseolus seed quality.

Kigel J.

1999-01-01

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Study on the factors affecting seed embryo germination of butterfly orhid Plaenopsis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Results of this eperiment shoed that (10 mproved KC culture medium was a optimum culture medium for seed embryo germinating of butterfly orchid (Phalaenopsis); (2) seed embryo germinationg fo utterlfy orchid was not affected by light treament; (3) germination rates fo the seeds in the capsules 3-4 moths after pollination wer the higheest (95%); and (4) optimum environmental conditions for root growth forchid seedings wer 26±2?. 1000 lx light, and culture medium constitued of 1/2MS+0.5mg/L NAA+10% cocontu juice(v/v).

Xu Xiaowei; Lin Shaosheng; Yao Lijuang; Chen Zhonglin; You Jubing

2004-01-01

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Seed Size, the Only Factor Positively Affecting Direct Seeding Success in an Abandoned Field in Quebec, Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Direct tree seeding is potentially an economical technique for restoring forests on abandoned fields. However, the success of tree establishment depends on many factors related to species and seed characteristics, environmental conditions, competition and predation. We compared seedling emergence, survival and growth of six tree species of different seed sizes in a forest restoration project of abandoned fields. Species were seeded in plots with and without herbaceous vegetation and with and without protection from bird and mammal predation. Yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) did not emerge in all treatments, paper birch (Betula papyrifera) and tamarack (Larix laricina) had a seedling emergence rate lower than 1%, and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) had a low overall emergence rate of 6%. Seedling emergence reached 57% for northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and 34% for red pine (Pinus resinosa), but survival of oak after one year was much higher (92%) than pine seedlings (16%). Overall, protection from birds and mammals and elimination of the herbaceous vegetation cover had no detectable effects on seedling emergence, survival and height. Nonetheless, red oak seedlings growing in the presence of vegetation had a smaller diameter and shoot biomass and a larger specific leaf area. We conclude that only large seeded species, such as oak, should be used for forest restoration of abandoned fields by direct seeding in our region.

Annick St-Denis; Christian Messier; Daniel Kneeshaw

2013-01-01

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Factors affecting the efficacy of chlorine against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on alfalfa seed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Factors affecting the efficacy of chlorine treatment for elimination of bacteria pathogens from laboratory-inoculated alfalfa seed, the ability of chlorine to eliminate Salmonella Muenchen from naturally contaminated alfalfa seed, and the effect of chlorine treatment on germination of several types of sprouting seed were evaluated. Initial water temperature (15, 22 or 40 degrees C) did not affect the rate or amount of free chlorine released from Ca(OCl)2 during 30 min of stirring. Residual chlorine was detected after 15 min of stirring at the highest ratio of seed to volume of chlorine [50 g seed to 50 ml of 3% (w/v) Ca(OCl)2] tested. Of the 29 types of sprouting seed treated for 10 min with buffered (to pH 6.8) 3.0% Ca(OCl)2, only the germination of spelt and hard, soft and Kamut wheat was drastically reduced. Treatment (10 min) of laboratory-inoculated seed with buffered (to pH 6.8) 2.5 or 3.0% (w/v) Ca(OCl)2 along with water rinses both before and after treatment led to a significant reduction (3.9-4.5 log cfu g(-1)) of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, but not their elimination. Efficacy of chlorine treatment was reduced in the absence of buffer. Altering treatment times to 5 or 20 min did not affect treatment efficacy. A 1 h presoak of seed in tap water before chlorine treatment was beneficial, but led to a greatly reduced germination percentage after treatment. Addition of low levels of surfactant had no effect on treatment efficacy. Treatment (10 min with continuous agitation) of alfalfa seed naturally contaminated with Salmonella Muenchen with buffered or unbuffered 3.0% (w/v) Ca(OCl)2, but not with buffered 0.3% (w/v) Ca(OCl)2, eliminated the pathogen from the seed.

Fett WF

2002-06-01

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Factors affecting the efficacy of pressure inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds and seed viability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The application of high hydrostatic pressure technology as a seed decontamination technology was evaluated. Alfalfa seeds inoculated with approximately 10(5) CFU/g of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were subjected to oscillatory pressure treatments at 600 MPa and 20 degrees C for up to five cycles with a holding time of 2 min/cycle. However, oscillatory pressurization was not able to eliminate E. coli O157:H7. The application of pressure treatment at 600 MPa for 2 min at 20 degrees C in the presence of chemicals such as calcium hypochlorite, calcium hydroxide, lactic acid or sodium acid sulfate was subsequently investigated and it was demonstrated that this "multiple hurdle" approach was unable to decontaminate alfalfa seeds. Soaking seeds prior to pressure treatment was found to play a critical role on enhancing the pressure inactivation of E. coli O157:H7; seeds soaked in water for 60 min followed by treatment at 600 MPa for 2 min at 20 degrees C were decontaminated and had a germination rate of 91% which was 4% lower than that of the untreated seeds (not statistically significant, P>0.05). It was further demonstrated that a process involving soaking seeds in water for > or = 10 min followed by treatment at 600 MPa for 15 min at 20 degrees C was equally effective with respect to E. coli O157:H7 elimination and viability retention of the seeds.

Neetoo H; Ye M; Chen H

2009-05-01

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Soybean Seed Matured on Different Dates Affect Seed Quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production of quality seed is one of the major problem in soybean (Glycine max. (L) Mell.,) in tropical countries including Pakistan. Seed quality in soybean, as determined by germination, seed weight and infection by seed pathogens is affected by date of maturity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality of soybean seed matured at different temperature. Soybean was planted on January 13, January 16, February 19, March 1, July 10, July 20, July 26 and August 25, 1991 at Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan. Seeds planted in January, February, and March matured during hot weather conditions (June, July), produced heavier seeds, but had lower germination, and higher infection with seed borne pathogens. Seed planted in July and August reached maturity after hot weather conditions in October and November had ended and exhibited higher germination, little infection with seed borne pathogen, but produced smaller seeds. Seed size was inversely related to germination. Conditions that favor production of large seeds also favor infection with seed borne pathogens and lower germination.

Shad K. Khalil; John G. Mexal; Leigh W. Murray

2001-01-01

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Preimplant factors affecting postimplant CT-determined prostate volume and the CT/TRUS volume ratio after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to identify preimplant factors affecting postimplant prostate volume and the increase in prostate volume after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds. Methods We reviewed the records of 180 patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds for clinical T1/T2 prostate cancer. Eighty-one (45%) of the 180 patients underwent neoadjuvant hormonal therapy. No patient received supplemental external beam radiotherapy. Postimplant computed tomography was undertaken, and postimplant dosimetric analysis was performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify preimplant factors affecting postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography and the increase in prostate volume after implantation. Results Preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound, serum prostate-specific antigen, number of needles, and number of seeds implanted were significantly correlated with postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography. The increase in prostate volume after implantation was significantly higher in patients with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy than in those without. Preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound, number of needles, and number of seeds implanted were significantly correlated with the increase in prostate volume after implantation. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound and neoadjuvant hormonal therapy were significant independent factors affecting both postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography and the increase in prostate volume after implantation. Conclusions The results of the present study show that preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound and neoadjuvant hormonal therapy are significant preimplant factors affecting both postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography and the increase in prostate volume after implantation.

Sugawara Akitomo; Nakashima Jun; Kunieda Etsuo; Nagata Hirohiko; Asakura Hirotaka; Oya Mototsugu; Shigematsu Naoyuki

2010-01-01

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Changes in chemical composition and anti nutritional factors in sesame seeds as affected by gamma and microwave radiations during storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of gamma radiation, microwave radiation, interaction between them and storage of sesame seeds were investigated to find out the best treatment which cause the maximum reduction of anti nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities) without exerting significant effect on the chemical constituents. The gamma rays was used at doses of 2.5, 5.0 and 8.0 KGy, microwave radiation was at 70 level power for 2 and 4 min and the storage of seeds was at room temperature and Rh 50-55% for six months. The obtained results on the effect of gamma radiation and storage showed slight decrease in crude protein contents, significant decrease in total free amino acids, total lipids had either slightly or non-significantly changed, decreased total carbohydrates and slight changes in total soluble sugars content. Reduction of trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities were increased as the irradiation dose levels and storage time increased. Slightly decreases in tannin and phenol contents and significant decrease in phytic acid content were observed. The obtained results on the effect of microwave radiation and storage indicated non-significant effect on protein and total lipids contents, decrease in total free amino acids, slight changes in total carbohydrate content and non-significant changes in total soluble and reducing sugars. Trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities were significantly reduced by microwave, while increasing the storage period decreased lipoxygenase activity. Significant changes were observed in tannin and phenol contents, while phytic acid was decreased.

2005-01-01

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Switchgrass establishment as affected by seeding depth and soil type  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been identified as a potential bioenergy crop for the North Central Region of the USA. One of the limitations to successful production of switchgrass is poor seedling establishment affected by the interaction between seeding depth and soil physical characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seeding depth and soil types on switchgrass seedling establishment in a greenhouse and field experiment. The greenhouse experiment included seven seeding depths (0, 13-, 19-, 25-, 38-, 51-, and 64-mm deep), three soil types, and one cultivar, Dacotah. Soil types for the greenhouse experiment were brought in from three North Dakota State University research sites located at Fargo (silty-clay, 6.1% organic matter (OM)), Prosper (fine-silty, 3.3% OM), and Carrington (coarse loamy, 2.5% OM). The field experiment was conducted at Fargo and Prosper, ND, in 2010, and included four seeding depths (13-, 19-, 30-, and 38-mm deep) and two cultivars Dacotah and Forestburg. Results from the greenhouse experiment indicated pure live seed emergence (PLSE) differed among seeding depths and soil textures. Only the surface seeding (0-mm depth) had a significantly lower PLSE. Seeding depths from 13- to 64-mm depth were not significantly different and fluctuated between 64 and 74% PLSE. The silty-clay soil at Fargo had significantly higher PLSE (74%) across all seeding depths than the fine-silty soil at Prosper, and the coarse-loamy soil at Carrington (60% PLSE). In the field experiment, the Forestburg cultivar had very poor emergence at all seeding depths and environments. The PLSE for ‘Forestburg’ was 10%, from the 13-mm depth averaged across both locations. The PLSE for Dacotah across both locations was 80, 42, 18, and 5% for the 13-, 19-, 30-, and 38-mm depths, respectively. Under controlled conditions (greenhouse experiment), seeding depth was not a major factor affecting seedling establishment except for the surface seeding where the lack of seed and soil contact and surface dryness reduced emergence. Pure live seed emergence and emergence index were greater in the silty-clay soil at Fargo across all seeding depths, presumably due to a better seed–soil contact. Under field conditions, the 13-mm depth had significantly higher PLSE indicating other factors are interacting with the seeding depth. As a general recommendation to growers switchgrass should be seeded no deeper than 13-mm depth. Testing the germination of the seed lot, without stratification, before planting is recommended to better estimate field establishment success.

Berti MT; Johnson BL

2013-01-01

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Factors affecting in vitro seed germination and shoot multiplication of a pitcher plant (Nepenthes mirabilis (Lour.) Druce)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mature seeds of a pitcher plant (Nepenthes mirabilis (Lour.) Druce) were cultured in liquid and solid MS medium (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) supplemented with BA (6-benzyladenine) at 1, 3 or 5 mg/l or withcoconut water (20% v/v). The cultures were incubated under light and dark conditions. Seeds germinated only under light incubation and BA supplemented to both types of media, and solid medium with 3 mg/l BAresulted the highest seed germination (26%) with good development of seedlings. On the contrary, the addition of coconut water to the basal medium produced poor seed germination and seedling growth. Moreover,all cultures in liquid medium terminated their growth after 6 weeks of culture. Young seedlings were subsequently transferred to fresh media of the same treatments after 15 weeks of seed culture. Multipleshoots were proliferated in all levels of BA after 6 weeks of transferring and more shoots were produced as BA level was increased. However, at high BA level of 5 mg/l, rosetting of shoots occurred while lowering BA level to 3 mg/l, fewer shoots were produced but they were vigorous, larger shoots with complete leaves. Rootdevelopment finally occurred in all BA treatments except the addition of coconut water.To evaluate the potential of shoot multiplication in different strengths of MS macromutrient, two types of explants, viz. shoot explants and stem explants (both approx. 1.5 cm long) from in vitro seedlings,were cultured on full-strength MS macronutrient medium, 1/2 MS, 1/4 MS and 1/8 MS medium. Following 16 weeks of culture, shoot production (number/ explant) increased in both explant types as the macronutrientstrength decreased. However, when lowering to 1/8 MS, the fewest shoots were produced and exhibited nutrient deficiency of leaf chlorosis. The optimum strength of MS macronutrient for the maximumproduction of normal shoots with complete leaves was 1/2 MS medium while 1/4 MS medium produced the highest shoot number from stem explants but shoots were small with abnormal narrow leaf blade. In vitro pitcher development occurred spontaneously in all levels of MS macronutrient .

Khompat, K.; Tokhao, W; Jantasilp, A.

2007-01-01

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Arabidopsis thaliana bZIP44: a transcription factor affecting seed germination and expression of the mannanase-encoding gene AtMAN7.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Endo-?-mannanases (MAN; EC. 3.2.1.78) catalyze the cleavage of ?1?4 bonds in mannan polymers and have been associated with the process of weakening the tissues surrounding the embryo during seed germination. In germinating Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, the most highly expressed MAN gene is AtMAN7 and its transcripts are restricted to the micropylar endosperm and to the radicle tip just before radicle emergence. Mutants with a T-DNA insertion in AtMAN7 have a slower germination than the wild type. To gain insight into the transcriptional regulation of the AtMAN7 gene, a bioinformatic search for conserved non-coding cis-elements (phylogenetic shadowing) within the Brassicaceae MAN7 gene promoters has been done, and these conserved motifs have been used as bait to look for their interacting transcription factors (TFs), using as a prey an arrayed yeast library from A. thaliana. The basic-leucine zipper TF AtbZIP44, but not the closely related AtbZIP11, has thus been identified and its transcriptional activation upon AtMAN7 has been validated at the molecular level. In the knock-out lines of AtbZIP44, not only is the expression of the AtMAN7 gene drastically reduced, but these mutants have a significantly slower germination than the wild type, being affected in the two phases of the germination process, both in the rupture of the seed coat and in the breakage of the micropylar endosperm cell walls. In the over-expression lines the opposite phenotype is observed.

Iglesias-Fernández R; Barrero-Sicilia C; Carrillo-Barral N; Oñate-Sánchez L; Carbonero P

2013-06-01

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Arabidopsis thaliana bZIP44: a transcription factor affecting seed germination and expression of the mannanase-encoding gene AtMAN7.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endo-?-mannanases (MAN; EC. 3.2.1.78) catalyze the cleavage of ?1?4 bonds in mannan polymers and have been associated with the process of weakening the tissues surrounding the embryo during seed germination. In germinating Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, the most highly expressed MAN gene is AtMAN7 and its transcripts are restricted to the micropylar endosperm and to the radicle tip just before radicle emergence. Mutants with a T-DNA insertion in AtMAN7 have a slower germination than the wild type. To gain insight into the transcriptional regulation of the AtMAN7 gene, a bioinformatic search for conserved non-coding cis-elements (phylogenetic shadowing) within the Brassicaceae MAN7 gene promoters has been done, and these conserved motifs have been used as bait to look for their interacting transcription factors (TFs), using as a prey an arrayed yeast library from A. thaliana. The basic-leucine zipper TF AtbZIP44, but not the closely related AtbZIP11, has thus been identified and its transcriptional activation upon AtMAN7 has been validated at the molecular level. In the knock-out lines of AtbZIP44, not only is the expression of the AtMAN7 gene drastically reduced, but these mutants have a significantly slower germination than the wild type, being affected in the two phases of the germination process, both in the rupture of the seed coat and in the breakage of the micropylar endosperm cell walls. In the over-expression lines the opposite phenotype is observed. PMID:23461773

Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Barrero-Sicilia, Cristina; Carrillo-Barral, Néstor; Oñate-Sánchez, Luis; Carbonero, Pilar

2013-04-08

16

Factors affecting forage stand establishment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should be expanded in the industry to enable matching seed lot performance to specific environmental conditions where performance can be maximized. Seed treatment and seed coating are used in the forage seed industry, and studies have shown they are of benefit in some environments. There is an increase in no-tillage seeding of forage crops, but improvements in the no-tillage planting equipment are needed to make them better suited to small seeds. Other recent developments in seeding techniques include broadcasting seed with dry granular and fluid fertilizers, which improves the efficiency of the seeding operation.

Sulc R.M.

1998-01-01

17

Factors affecting vegetable stand establishment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several factors can influence stand establishment in vegetable crop production. Environmental conditions such as soil physical characteristics, temperature and moisture, various cultural practices, and diseases may all be limiting factors in establishing maximum stands and achieving the highest possible yields. Measures taken to increase stands include soil improvements, implementing cultural practices, and use of chemical and biological seed treatments. Combining seed treatments and cultural/tillage practices to minimize environmental constraints can lead to maximum stands and yields in the production of high quality vegetable crops.

Grassbaugh E. M.; Bennett M. A.

1998-01-01

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Factors affecting corneoscleral topography.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate factors affecting corneoscleral profile (CSP) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) in combination with conventional videokeratoscopy. METHODS: OCT DATA WERE COLLECTED FROM 204 SUBJECTS OF MEAN AGE 34.9 YEARS (SD: ±15.2 years, range 18-65) using the Zeiss Visante AS-OCT and Medmont M300 corneal topographer. Measurements of corneal diameter (CD), corneal sagittal height (CS), iris diameter (ID), corneoscleral junction angle (CSJ), and scleral radius (SR) were extracted from multiple OCT images. Horizontal visible iris diameter (HVID) and vertical palpebral aperture (PA) were measured using a slit lamp graticule. Subject body height was also measured. Associations were then sought between CSP variables and age, height, ethnicity, sex, and refractive error. RESULTS: Significant correlations were found between age and ocular topography variables of HVID, PA, CSJ, SR, and ID (P < 0.0001), while height correlated with HVID, CD, and ID, and power vector terms with vertical plane keratometry, CD, and CS. Significant differences were noted between ethnicities with respect to CD (P = 0.0046), horizontal and vertical CS (P = 0.0068 and P = 0.0095), and horizontal ID (P = 0.0010). The same variables, with the exception of vertical CS, also varied with sex; horizontal CD (P = 0.0018), horizontal CS (P = 0.0018), and ID (P = 0.0012). Age accounted for the greatest variance in topography variables (36%). CONCLUSIONS: Age is the main factor influencing CSP; this should be taken into consideration in contact lens design, IOL selection, and in the optimization of surgical procedures. Ocular topography also varied with height, sex, ethnicity, and refractive error.

Hall LA; Hunt C; Young G; Wolffsohn J

2013-05-01

19

Factors that shape seed mass evolution  

Science.gov (United States)

We used correlated divergence analysis to determine which factors have been most closely associated with changes in seed mass during seed plant evolution. We found that divergences in seed mass have been more consistently associated with divergences in growth form than with divergences in any other variable. This finding is consistent with the strong relationship between seed mass and growth form across present-day species and with the available data from the paleobotanical literature. Divergences in seed mass have also been associated with divergences in latitude, net primary productivity, temperature, precipitation, and leaf area index. However, these environmental variables had much less explanatory power than did plant traits such as seed dispersal syndrome and plant growth form.

Moles, Angela T.; Ackerly, David D.; Webb, Campbell O.; Tweddle, John C.; Dickie, John B.; Pitman, Andy J.; Westoby, Mark

2005-01-01

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The seed's protein and oil content, fatty acid composition, and growing cycle length of a single genotype of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as affected by environmental factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a botanical source, variability in chia seed composition could be expected between growing locations, and between years within a location, due to genotype and environment effects as well genetic x environment's interactions. The objective of the present study was to determine the location effect on the growing cycle length, and seed's protein content, lipid content, and fatty acid profiles, of a single chia genotype. Seeds of chia genotype Tzotzol grown on eight sites in five different ecosystems were tested. One site was in Argentina, in the Semi-Arid Chaco ecosystem (T(5)); one was in Bolivia, in the Sub-Humid Chaco ecosystem (T(4)); and six in Ecuador, one in the Coastal Desert (T(3)), two on the Tropical Rain Forest (T(2)), and three in the Inter-Andean Dry Valley ecosystem (T(1)). Seeds from plants grown in T(4) and in T(3) contained significantly (P <0.05) more protein percentage than did seeds from the other three ecosystems. No significant (P <0.05) differences in protein content were found between T(3) and T(4), and between T(1), T(2), and T(5). Seeds from T(1) and T(5) ecosystems, with 33.5 and 32.2%, respectively, were the numerically highest oil content producers, but their results were only significantly (P <0.05) higher when compared with the T(2) seeds. Significant (P <0.05) differences in palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic fatty acids between oils from seeds grown in different ecosystems were detected, however. Oil of seeds grown in the T(3) ecosystem had the palmitic, stearic and oleic fatty acids' highest contents. Palmitic and oleic fatty acid levels were significantly (P <0.05) higher when were compared to that of seeds grown in the T(1) ecosystem, and stearic when was compared to that of seeds grown in the T(5) ecosystem; omega-6 linoleic fatty acid content was significantly (P <0.05) lower in oils of seeds produced in T(1), and T(2) than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5) ecosystems; omega-3 alpha-linolenic fatty acid content was significantly (P <0.05) higher in seeds produced in T(1), than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5), but not in those produced in T(2).

Ayerza R

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
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The seed's protein and oil content, fatty acid composition, and growing cycle length of a single genotype of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as affected by environmental factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a botanical source, variability in chia seed composition could be expected between growing locations, and between years within a location, due to genotype and environment effects as well genetic x environment's interactions. The objective of the present study was to determine the location effect on the growing cycle length, and seed's protein content, lipid content, and fatty acid profiles, of a single chia genotype. Seeds of chia genotype Tzotzol grown on eight sites in five different ecosystems were tested. One site was in Argentina, in the Semi-Arid Chaco ecosystem (T(5)); one was in Bolivia, in the Sub-Humid Chaco ecosystem (T(4)); and six in Ecuador, one in the Coastal Desert (T(3)), two on the Tropical Rain Forest (T(2)), and three in the Inter-Andean Dry Valley ecosystem (T(1)). Seeds from plants grown in T(4) and in T(3) contained significantly (P <0.05) more protein percentage than did seeds from the other three ecosystems. No significant (P <0.05) differences in protein content were found between T(3) and T(4), and between T(1), T(2), and T(5). Seeds from T(1) and T(5) ecosystems, with 33.5 and 32.2%, respectively, were the numerically highest oil content producers, but their results were only significantly (P <0.05) higher when compared with the T(2) seeds. Significant (P <0.05) differences in palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic fatty acids between oils from seeds grown in different ecosystems were detected, however. Oil of seeds grown in the T(3) ecosystem had the palmitic, stearic and oleic fatty acids' highest contents. Palmitic and oleic fatty acid levels were significantly (P <0.05) higher when were compared to that of seeds grown in the T(1) ecosystem, and stearic when was compared to that of seeds grown in the T(5) ecosystem; omega-6 linoleic fatty acid content was significantly (P <0.05) lower in oils of seeds produced in T(1), and T(2) than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5) ecosystems; omega-3 alpha-linolenic fatty acid content was significantly (P <0.05) higher in seeds produced in T(1), than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5), but not in those produced in T(2). PMID:19491529

Ayerza, Ricardo

2009-01-01

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Alterations in seed development gene expression affect size and oil content of Arabidopsis seeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds.

Fatihi A; Zbierzak AM; Dörmann P

2013-10-01

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Carbon nanotubes are able to penetrate plant seed coat and dramatically affect seed germination and plant growth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were found to penetrate tomato seeds and affect their germination and growth rates. The germination was found to be dramatically higher for seeds that germinated on medium containing CNTs (10-40 mug/mL) compared to control. Analytical methods indicated that the CNTs are able to penetrate the thick seed coat and support water uptake inside seeds, a process which can affect seed germination and growth of tomato seedlings.

Khodakovskaya M; Dervishi E; Mahmood M; Xu Y; Li Z; Watanabe F; Biris AS

2009-10-01

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Fatores que afetam a germinação de sementes e emergência de plântulas de arruda (Ruta graveolens L.) Factors affecting seed germination and seedling emergence in rue (Ruta graveolens L.)  

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Full Text Available Ruta graveolens L., também conhecida com arruda, é planta originária do sul da Europa, cultivada no Brasil e em outros países como planta medicinal, muito utilizada em rituais religiosos. Tendo em vista que a germinação constitui um fator primordial para que a semente possa gerar uma planta vigorosa e com alto potencial produtivo, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a resposta germinativa de sementes para arruda sob condições de temperatura, luminosidade, estresse hídrico e salino e emergência de plântulas em diferentes profundidades de semeadura. Sementes de Ruta graveolens são indiferentes à luz, germinando melhor em temperatura constante de 25ºC ou alterna (20-30ºC). Os potenciais osmóticos induzidos por manitol a partir de -0,4MPa e por NaCl a partir de -0,8MPa influenciam negativamente o processo germinativo. Maiores percentuais de plântulas são obtidas quando a espécie é semeada na superfície do substrato.Ruta graveolens L., also known as rue, is from the south of Europe, cultivated in Brazil and other countries as a medicinal plant greatly used in religious rituals. Since germination is essential for the seed to generate a vigorous plant of high productive potential, this work aimed to evaluate the germinative response of rue seeds under different temperatures, luminosity conditions, and water and salt stress, besides seedling emergence at different sowing depths. Ruta graveolens L. seeds are indifferent to light, better germinating at constant temperature of 25ºC or alternated temperature (20-30ºC). The osmotic potentials induced by mannitol from -0.4MPa and by NaCl from -0.8MPa negatively influenced the germination process. Higher seedling percentages are obtained when the species is sown on the substratum surface.

O.M. Yamashita; E. Fernandes Neto; O.R. Campos; S.C. Guimarães

2009-01-01

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Quantitative studies on downy mildew (Peronospora destructor Berk. Casp.) affecting onion seed production in southern Uruguay  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Onion downy mildew (Dm) symptoms and damage on seed production fields in southern Uruguay were quantified during two seasons as the progress of incidence, severity, and as the effect of the level of seed-stalks infections on seed yield and quality. In addition, the effects of two plantation dates and two plant densities on Dm were studied in a factorial experiment. Maximum incidence along the season ranged from 15 to 65% in four commercial fields in 2005 and two fields in 2006. Maximum severity ranged from 4.5 to 9.3% of leaf area affected in 2005, and 0.35 to 1.17% in 2006. Whereas Dm incidence varied among studied fields, disease progress as Dm severity varied mainly between studied years. Crop rotation, crop vigour and plant density were identified as major factors affecting Dm variation in the field. Intensive fungicide schedules did not control Dm when other conditions favoured the disease. A high level of Dm severity defined as large necklace spots on seed-stalks significantly reduced seed yield in comparison with healthy seed-stalks in 2005, as well as seed yield and germination in 2006. Weight of 1,000 seeds was not significantly reduced by Dm infections on seed-stalks. Six genera of fungi were recovered from seeds harvested on highly infected seed-stalks (Stemphylium, Fusarium, Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Botrytis), but not Peronospora. Late planting date and low plant density had significantly lower Dm incidence and severity. This finding questioned the early planting dates and high densities previously recommended in order to achieve high yielding crops. The combination of several practices to reduce initial inoculum, susceptibility status of the host, and environmental conditions promoting the disease is discussed as forming a basis for effective disease control.

González PabloH; Colnago Paula; Peluffo Sebastián; González Idiarte Héctor; Zipitría Javier; Galván GuillermoA

2011-02-01

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Soybean Seed Phenol, Lignin, and Isoflavones Partitioning as Affected by Seed Node Position and Genotype Differences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Factors controlling the production and partitioning of seed phenolics within soybean are not understood. Understanding these factors may justify selection for higher levels of seed phenolics because of their beneficial impact on human health and soybean defense mechanism against diseases. The objective of this research was to investigate the partitioning of seed phenolics (phenol, lignin, and isoflavones) along the main stem of soybean genotypes. A repeated green- house experiment was conducted on different soybean genotypes of different maturity and different stem archi-tecture (determinate and indeterminate). Genotypes were DT 97-4290, maturity group (MG) IV; Stressland, MG IV; Hutcheson, MG V; and Tracy-M, MG VI. Seed were harvested from top and bottom nodes at seed-fill stage (R6) and harvest ma- turity stage (R8). At R6, seed phenolic compounds (phenol, lignin, and isoflavones daidzein, genistein, and glycitein) were greater in the bottom seed than the top seed. This trend was observed in DT 97-4290, Tracy-M, and Hutcheson, but not in Stressland. Also, this trend was more obvious with daidzein and genistein isoflavones than glycitein. The maximum phenolic compounds were recorded at R8. The higher phenolic compounds concentration in bottom seed than in top seed was accompanied by higher cell wall boron (B) percentage and lower total B in bottom seed. The current research demonstrated that phenolic compounds partitioned differently between the top and bottom seed nodes. This trend cannot be generalized in soybean genotypes unless enough germplasm is tested. The partitioning of higher phenolic compounds concentration along the main stem would allow for single seed selection in the breeding program for higher levels of phenolic compounds and for accurate measurements of seed phenolics in breeding lines. The associa- tion of B trend with phenolic compound trend may suggest B involvement in phenolic metabolism, and support the structural role of B. Breeding for higher levels of phenolics, especially isoflavones, would benefit human health, pro- vide higher nutritional value of soy meal, and increase plant disease resistance.

Nacer Bellaloui

2012-01-01

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Epidemiological factors affecting "Hepatitis C".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting the liver, caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection is often asymptomatic, but once established, chronic infection can progress to scarring of the liver (fibrosis), and advanced scarring (cirrhosis) which is generally apparent after many years. The main goal of this work is the investigation of the important factors that affect hepatitis C. Epidemiological and Statistical analysis using non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Willis, Mann-Whitney) are considered to present the amount of significant differences between important factors. Proposed model are analyzed when logistic regression is applied.

Diomidous M; Zimeras S; Elefsiniotis IS

2013-01-01

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Seed dimorphism, nutrients and salinity differentially affect seed traits of the desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica via multiple maternal effects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects may influence a range of seed traits simultaneously and are likely to be context-dependent. Disentangling the interactions of plant phenotype and growth environment on various seed traits is important for understanding regeneration and establishment of species in natural environments. Here, we used the seed-dimorphic plant Suaeda aralocaspica to test the hypothesis that seed traits are regulated by multiple maternal effects. Results Plants grown from brown seeds had a higher brown:black seed ratio than plants from black seeds, and germination percentage of brown seeds was higher than that of black seeds under all conditions tested. However, the coefficient of variation (CV) for size of black seeds was higher than that of brown seeds. Seeds had the smallest CV at low nutrient and high salinity for plants from brown seeds and at low nutrient and low salinity for plants from black seeds. Low levels of nutrients increased size and germinability of black seeds but did not change the seed morph ratio or size and germinability of brown seeds. High levels of salinity decreased seed size but did not change the seed morph ratio. Seeds from high-salinity maternal plants had a higher germination percentage regardless of level of germination salinity. Conclusions Our study supports the multiple maternal effects hypothesis. Seed dimorphism, nutrient and salinity interacted in determining a range of seed traits of S. aralocaspica via bet-hedging and anticipatory maternal effects. This study highlights the importance of examining different maternal factors and various offspring traits in studies that estimate maternal effects on regeneration.

Wang Lei; Baskin Jerry M; Baskin Carol C; Cornelissen J Hans C; Dong Ming; Huang Zhenying

2012-01-01

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How does pollen versus seed dispersal affect niche evolution?  

Science.gov (United States)

In heterogeneous landscapes, the genetic and demographic consequences of dispersal influence the evolution of niche width. Unless pollen is limiting, pollen dispersal does not contribute directly to population growth. However, by disrupting local adaptation, it indirectly affects population dynamics. We compare the effect of pollen versus seed dispersal on the evolution of niche width in heterogeneous habitats, explicitly considering the feedback between maladaptation and demography. We consider two scenarios: the secondary contact of two subpopulations, in distinct, formerly isolated habitats, and the colonization of an empty habitat with dispersal between the new and ancestral habitat. With an analytical model, we identify critical levels of genetic variance leading to niche contraction (secondary contact scenario), or expansion (new habitat scenario). We confront these predictions with simulations where the genetic variance freely evolves. Niche contraction occurs when habitats are very different. It is faster as total gene flow increases or as pollen predominates in overall gene flow. Niche expansion occurs when habitat heterogeneity is not too high. Seed dispersal accelerates it, whereas pollen dispersal tends to retard it. In both scenarios very high seed dispersal leads to extinction. Overall, our results predict a wider niche for species dispersing seeds more than pollen. PMID:23461328

Aguilée, Robin; Shaw, Frank H; Rousset, François; Shaw, Ruth G; Ronce, Ophélie

2012-11-04

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How does pollen versus seed dispersal affect niche evolution?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In heterogeneous landscapes, the genetic and demographic consequences of dispersal influence the evolution of niche width. Unless pollen is limiting, pollen dispersal does not contribute directly to population growth. However, by disrupting local adaptation, it indirectly affects population dynamics. We compare the effect of pollen versus seed dispersal on the evolution of niche width in heterogeneous habitats, explicitly considering the feedback between maladaptation and demography. We consider two scenarios: the secondary contact of two subpopulations, in distinct, formerly isolated habitats, and the colonization of an empty habitat with dispersal between the new and ancestral habitat. With an analytical model, we identify critical levels of genetic variance leading to niche contraction (secondary contact scenario), or expansion (new habitat scenario). We confront these predictions with simulations where the genetic variance freely evolves. Niche contraction occurs when habitats are very different. It is faster as total gene flow increases or as pollen predominates in overall gene flow. Niche expansion occurs when habitat heterogeneity is not too high. Seed dispersal accelerates it, whereas pollen dispersal tends to retard it. In both scenarios very high seed dispersal leads to extinction. Overall, our results predict a wider niche for species dispersing seeds more than pollen.

Aguilée R; Shaw FH; Rousset F; Shaw RG; Ronce O

2013-03-01

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PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SORGHUM SEEDS AS AFFECTED BY SIDEDRESSED NITROGEN FERTILIZATION  

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Full Text Available Sorghum has been used as promising specie in dry winter regions at crop rotation systems. Among the factors that interfere on its seed production, the action of the soil environment, due to its management, associated to plant nutrition mainly by nitrogen, can produce seeds of high quality. The present research had the objective to evaluate the effects of side-dressed nitrogen doses on physiological quality of sorghum seeds. The experimental design was the completely randomized block, with five treatments of side-dressed nitrogen, applied at the doses 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1, in the urea form, with four replications. The sorghum seeds were evaluated by protein, germination and vigor tests. The results were submitted to analysis of variance, regression and correlation test. By the results it can be concluded that the physiological quality of sorghum seeds is affected by side-dressed nitrogen application and that the dose of 100 kg ha-1 resulted in higher seed quality.

MARIANA ZAMPAR TOLEDO; CLÁUDIO CAVARIANI; JOÃO NAKAGAWA; ELZA ALVES; GUSTAVO PAVAN MATEUS; CARLOS ALEXANDRE COSTA CRUSCIOL

2007-01-01

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Psychological factors affecting equine performance  

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Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

McBride Sebastian D; Mills Daniel S

2012-01-01

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Disturbance frequency and vertical distribution of seeds affect long-term population dynamics: a mechanistic seed bank model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seed banks are critically important for disturbance specialist plants because seeds of these species germinate only in disturbed soil. Disturbance and seed depth affect the survival and germination probability of seeds in the seed bank, which in turn affect population dynamics. We develop a density-dependent stochastic integral projection model to evaluate the effect of stochastic soil disturbances on plant population dynamics with an emphasis on mimicking how disturbances vertically redistribute seeds within the seed bank. We perform a simulation analysis of the effect of the frequency and mean depth of disturbances on the population's quasi-extinction probability, as well as the long-term mean and variance of the total density of seeds in the seed bank. We show that increasing the frequency of disturbances increases the long-term viability of the population, but the relationship between the mean depth of disturbance and the long-term viability of the population are not necessarily monotonic for all parameter combinations. Specifically, an increase in the probability of disturbance increases the long-term viability of the total seed bank population. However, if the probability of disturbance is too low, a shallower mean depth of disturbance can increase long-term viability, a relationship that switches as the probability of disturbance increases. However, a shallow disturbance depth is beneficial only in scenarios with low survival in the seed bank.

Eager EA; Haridas CV; Pilson D; Rebarber R; Tenhumberg B

2013-08-01

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Radish (Raphanus sativus) seed size affects germination response to coumarin  

Science.gov (United States)

The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. Studies reporting these results used a large number of plant species that varied in seed size, which might have introduced differences in germination characteristics or various parameter...

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Principal Factors Affecting IDBT Evolution  

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Full Text Available Studies on Italian Double-entry Bookkeeping Thought (IDBT) evolution are seldom found in such aspects as accounts with persons (AP), accounts with goods (AG), and accounts equilibria (AE), etc., so we studied IDBT evolution in the aspects stated above and the principal factors for IDBT evolution, including their selection, contribution and sequence in this thesis. By our analysis, IDBT evolved in such aspects as accounts with persons (AP), accounts with goods (AG), loss and net income accounts (LNIA), capital accounts (AC) and accounts equilibria (AE), etc., and ripened in the period of 1430-1482. Principal factors affecting IDBT evolution can be ordered by contribution as follows: social conditions (SCS3) and relationships between supply and demand of accounting thought (RBSDAT2). And our related advice is as follows: governments should adopt appropriate policy, and help to build proper social conditions and strengthen the relationships between supply and demand of accounting thought to promote the evolution of accounting thought. Especially as to social conditions, IDBT evolution is mainly owing to external causes from the outside of Italy. Once the outside motive disappeared, IDBT would lose the strong power of evolution and slow down its pace. So governments should place more emphases on building proper social conditions by encouraging internal powers from the inside of Italy.

Changqing Liu; Haili Yuan

2011-01-01

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Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan  

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Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

Adnan Nazir; Ghulam Ali Jariko; Mumtaz Ali Junejo

2013-01-01

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Conditions Affecting Shelf-Life of Inoculated Legume Seed  

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Full Text Available Microbial inoculants are becoming more available as sustainable alternatives to fertilizers and other agrichemicals in broad-acre cropping. However, with the exception of legume inoculants little is understood about effective delivery and survival of the inoculum. Legume inoculants are applied to both seed and soil but seed inoculation is the most economical technique. Large quantities of pasture seed in Australia are inoculated by commercial seed coating companies, but the long-term survival of seed-applied inoculum is variable and monitoring of viability requires specialist microbiology skills and facilities. The aim of our research was to define optimum storage conditions for survival of rhizobia on legume seed and evaluate water activity as a means of monitoring shelf-life. The relationship between survival and water activity varied according to seed species, inoculum preparation, coating ingredients, initial water activity and time suggesting that storage conditions would need to be defined for each different combination. Although drying seeds after coating significantly reduced viable numbers of rhizobia, survival of rhizobia on dried commercially coated lucerne seed after 11 weeks was less variable than seeds that had not been dried. The highest numbers were maintained when seeds remained dry with water activities of between 0.47 and 0.38. The quality of inoculated seed could be improved by reducing the death rate of inoculum during preparation and providing optimum storage conditions for long-term survival.

Rosalind Deaker; Elizabeth Hartley; Greg Gemell

2012-01-01

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FACTORES ANTINUTRICIONALES EN SEMILLAS ANTINUTRITIONAL FACTORS IN EATABLE SEEDS  

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Full Text Available El presente artículo proporciona una revisión de los conocimientos relacionados con los factores antinutricionales, más comunes, presentes en algunos alimentos, especialmente en semillas comestibles. Además se incluyen datos relacionados con su naturaleza química, efectos sobre los procesos digestivos y aprovechamiento de nutrientes, posibles formas de inactivación, y algunos efectos benéficos para la salud o propiedades terapéuticas.The present article gives a review of knowledge on several aspects, inherent in the factors antinutritionals. There is included the information about biochemical nature, its presence in some foods, especially in eatable seeds. There are analyzed aspects related with its nutritional meaning, as effects over the digestive process and the utilization of nutrients; possible forms of inactivation and some beneficial effects for the health and the therapeutics properties.

ANA DE DIOS ELIZALDE; YAMID PISMAG PORTILLA; DIANA CAROLINA CHAPARRO

2009-01-01

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Sensitivity of Polygonum aviculare Seeds to Light as Affected by Soil Moisture Conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Aims It has been hypothesized that soil moisture conditions could affect the dormancy status of buried weed seeds, and, consequently, their sensitivity to light stimuli. In this study, an investigation is made of the effect of different soil moisture conditions during cold-induced dormancy loss on changes in the sensitivity of Polygonum aviculare seeds to light. Methods Seeds buried in pots were stored under different constant and fluctuating soil moisture environments at dormancy-releasing temperatures. Seeds were exhumed at regular intervals during storage and were exposed to different light treatments. Changes in the germination response of seeds to light treatments during storage under the different moisture environments were compared in order to determine the effect of soil moisture on the sensitivity to light of P. aviculare seeds. Key Results Seed acquisition of low-fluence responses during dormancy release was not affected by either soil moisture fluctuations or different constant soil moisture contents. On the contrary, different soil moisture environments affected seed acquisition of very low fluence responses and the capacity of seeds to germinate in the dark. Conclusions The results indicate that under field conditions, the sensitivity to light of buried weed seeds could be affected by the soil moisture environment experienced during the dormancy release season, and this could affect their emergence pattern.

Batlla, Diego; Nicoletta, Marcelo; Benech-Arnold, Roberto

2007-01-01

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Indirect interactions between browsers and seed predators affect the seed bank dynamics of a chaparral shrub.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Interactions between herbivores and seed predators may have long-term consequences for plant populations that rely on persistent seed banks for recovery after unpredictable fires. We assessed the effects of browsing by deer and seed predation by rodents, ants and birds on the densities of seeds entering the seed bank of Ceanothus cuneatus var. rigidus, a maritime chaparral shrub in coastal California. Ceanothus produced many more seeds when protected from browsers in long-term experimental exclosures than did browsed plants, but the seed densities in the soil beneath browsed and unbrowsed Ceanothus were the same at the start of an intensive one-year study. The density of seeds in the soil initially increased in both treatments following summer seed drop: while densities returned to pre-drop levels within a few weeks under browsed plants, soil seed densities remained high for 5-8 months beneath unbrowsed plants. Rodent abundance (especially deer mice) was higher near unbrowsed plants than >30 m away, and rodents removed Ceanothus seeds from dishes in the experimental plots. At least in the short term, rodent density and rates of seed removal were inversely related to the intensity of browsing. Our data have management implications for maintaining viable Ceanothus populations by regulating the intensity of browsing and the timing, intensity and frequency of fires.

Deveny AJ; Fox LR

2006-11-01

 
 
 
 
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Sexual selection affects lifespan and aging in the seed beetle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual selection in general, and sexual conflict in particular, should affect the evolution of lifespan and aging. Using experimental evolution, we tested whether removal of sexual selection leads to the evolution of accelerated or decelerated senescence. We subjected replicated populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus to either of two selection regimes for 35 generations. These regimes either allowed (polygamy) or removed the potential (monogamy) for sexual selection to operate. To test for the evolution of intrinsic differences between the two selection regimes, we assayed longevity in replicate cohorts of virgin females and males. Virgin females from populations evolving under sexual selection had reduced lifespan as predicted by the sexual conflict theory of aging. However, this reduction was due to increased baseline mortality rather than an increase in age-specific mortality rates with age. We discuss these findings in light of other data from this model system and suggest that system-specific idiosyncrasies may often modulate the general effects of male-female coevolution on the evolution of aging. PMID:17725688

Maklakov, Alexei A; Fricke, Claudia; Arnqvist, Göran

2007-08-24

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Mapping quantitative trait loci affecting Arabidopsis thaliana seed morphology features extracted computationally from images.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seeds are studied to understand dispersal and establishment of the next generation, as units of agricultural yield, and for other important reasons. Thus, elucidating the genetic architecture of seed size and shape traits will benefit basic and applied plant biology research. This study sought quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the size and shape of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds by computational analysis of seed phenotypes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the small-seeded Landsberg erecta × large-seeded Cape Verde Islands accessions. On the order of 10(3) seeds from each recombinant inbred line were automatically measured with flatbed photo scanners and custom image analysis software. The eight significant QTL affecting seed area explained 63% of the variation, and overlapped with five of the six major-axis (length) QTL and three of the five minor-axis (width) QTL, which accounted for 57% and 38% of the variation in those traits, respectively. Because the Arabidopsis seed is exalbuminous, lacking an endosperm at maturity, the results are relatable to embryo length and width. The Cvi allele generally had a positive effect of 2.6-4.0%. Analysis of variance showed heritability of the three traits ranged between 60% and 73%. Repeating the experiment with 2.2 million seeds from a separate harvest of the RIL population and approximately 0.5 million seeds from 92 near-isogenic lines confirmed the aforementioned results. Structured for download are files containing phenotype measurements, all sets of seed images, and the seed trait measuring tool.

Moore CR; Gronwall DS; Miller ND; Spalding EP

2013-01-01

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Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil  

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Full Text Available The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol) contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ended in July 2008. The following 11 factors were taken into consideration during sample collection: olive fly infection, topography, olive storage before pressing, geographical area, effect of olive seeds during oil extraction, effect of pressing temperature, presence of olive leaves during oil extraction, soil type, maturity index of the olive fruit, olive variety and oil preservation and storage in terms of storage container types. The results show that soil type, region, maturity index and olive fly infection are the main factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol. Pressing temperature, olive storage before pressing, olive variety and oil storage showed a moderate effect. Olive seeds, topography and presence of olive leaves had a negligible effect on D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil.

K. Abu-Alruz; I.A. Afaneh; J.M. Quasem; M.A. Hmidat; J. Abbady; A.S. Mazahreh

2011-01-01

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Endozoochorous dispersal of aquatic plants: does seed gut passage affect plant performance?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ingestion of seeds by vertebrates can affect the germinability and/or germination rate of seeds. It is, however, unclear if an earlier germination as a result of ingestion affects later plant performance. For sago pondweed, Potamogeton pectinatus, the effects of seed ingestion by ducks on both germinability and germination rate have been previously reported from laboratory experiments. We performed an experiment to determine the effects of seed ingestion by ducks on germination, seedling survival, plant growth and asexual multiplication. Both at the start and end of the winter, seeds were fed to three captive shovelers (Anas clypeata) and planted outdoors in water-filled containers. Plant biomass and its allocation to vegetative parts (shoot and roots), tubers, and seeds were determined in autumn. More duck-ingested seeds than control (uningested) seeds germinated in early winter, but this difference disappeared for seeds planted in late winter, when the treatments were first stratified for 3 mo. None of the variables for measuring seedling survival and plant performance varied between treatments. Under our experimental conditions (no herbivory or competition), ingestion by ducks in early winter resulted in increased performance for seeds surviving gut passage due to enhanced seed germinability, without other costs or benefits for the seedlings.

Figuerola Jordi; Santamari?a Luis; Green AndyJ; Luque Isabel; Alvarez Raquel; Charalambidou Iris

2005-04-01

45

Endozoochorous dispersal of aquatic plants: does seed gut passage affect plant performance?  

Science.gov (United States)

The ingestion of seeds by vertebrates can affect the germinability and/or germination rate of seeds. It is, however, unclear if an earlier germination as a result of ingestion affects later plant performance. For sago pondweed, Potamogeton pectinatus, the effects of seed ingestion by ducks on both germinability and germination rate have been previously reported from laboratory experiments. We performed an experiment to determine the effects of seed ingestion by ducks on germination, seedling survival, plant growth and asexual multiplication. Both at the start and end of the winter, seeds were fed to three captive shovelers (Anas clypeata) and planted outdoors in water-filled containers. Plant biomass and its allocation to vegetative parts (shoot and roots), tubers, and seeds were determined in autumn. More duck-ingested seeds than control (uningested) seeds germinated in early winter, but this difference disappeared for seeds planted in late winter, when the treatments were first stratified for 3 mo. None of the variables for measuring seedling survival and plant performance varied between treatments. Under our experimental conditions (no herbivory or competition), ingestion by ducks in early winter resulted in increased performance for seeds surviving gut passage due to enhanced seed germinability, without other costs or benefits for the seedlings. PMID:21652448

Figuerola, Jordi; Santamaría, Luis; Green, Andy J; Luque, Isabel; Alvarez, Raquel; Charalambidou, Iris

2005-04-01

46

Factors Affecting Performance of AODV  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) it is hard for a route to sustain for a longer period of time due to the mobility of nodes. High mobility of nodes results in active route failure and re-route discoveries. Such frequent route discoveries result in decreased network performance. In this study we have analyzed in detail the affect of different node mobility parameters on the performance of AODV (Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector) Routing Protocol. Simulation results are provided at the end.

S.A. Hussain; K. Mahmood; E. Garcia

2007-01-01

47

Proteomic insights into seed germination in response to environmental factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seed germination is a critical process in the life cycle of higher plants. During germination, the imbibed mature seed is highly sensitive to different environmental factors.However, knowledge about the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the environmental effects on germination has been lacking. Recent proteomic work has provided invaluable insight into the molecular processes in germinating seeds of Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max), barley (Hordeum vulgare), maize (Zeamays), tea (Camellia sinensis), European beech (Fagus sylvatica), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides) under different treatments including metal ions (e.g. copper and cadmium), drought, low temperature, hormones, and chemicals (gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and ?-amanitin), as well as Fusarium graminearum infection. A total of 561 environmental factor-responsive proteins have been identified with various expression patterns in germinating seeds. The data highlight diverse regulatory and metabolic mechanisms upon seed germination, including induction of environmental factor-responsive signaling pathways, seed storage reserve mobilization and utilization, enhancement of DNA repair and modification, regulation of gene expression and protein synthesis, modulation of cell structure, and cell defense. In this review, we summarize the interesting findings and discuss the relevance and significance for our understanding of environmental regulation of seed germination.

Tan L; Chen S; Wang T; Dai S

2013-06-01

48

Proteomic insights into seed germination in response to environmental factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed germination is a critical process in the life cycle of higher plants. During germination, the imbibed mature seed is highly sensitive to different environmental factors.However, knowledge about the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the environmental effects on germination has been lacking. Recent proteomic work has provided invaluable insight into the molecular processes in germinating seeds of Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max), barley (Hordeum vulgare), maize (Zeamays), tea (Camellia sinensis), European beech (Fagus sylvatica), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides) under different treatments including metal ions (e.g. copper and cadmium), drought, low temperature, hormones, and chemicals (gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and ?-amanitin), as well as Fusarium graminearum infection. A total of 561 environmental factor-responsive proteins have been identified with various expression patterns in germinating seeds. The data highlight diverse regulatory and metabolic mechanisms upon seed germination, including induction of environmental factor-responsive signaling pathways, seed storage reserve mobilization and utilization, enhancement of DNA repair and modification, regulation of gene expression and protein synthesis, modulation of cell structure, and cell defense. In this review, we summarize the interesting findings and discuss the relevance and significance for our understanding of environmental regulation of seed germination. PMID:23986916

Tan, Longyan; Chen, Sixue; Wang, Tai; Dai, Shaojun

2013-06-01

49

MYB56 Encoding a R2R3 MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Seed Size in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant seed size is tightly regulated by the development of seed coat, embryo and endosperm; however, currently its underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we revealed a regulatory role of a R2R3 MYB transcription factor MYB56 in controlling seed size specifically in Arabidopsis thaliana. Loss of function or knock-down of MYB56 yielded smaller seeds as compared with the wild type. Conversely, over-expression of MYB56 produced larger seeds. Further observation using semi-thin sections showed that myb56 developed smaller contracted endothelial cells, and reduced cell number in outer integument layer of seed coat during the seed development, by contrast, MYB56 over-expressing lines had expanded endothelial cells, and increased cell number in outer integument layer of seed coat, suggesting the essential role of MYB56 in regulating seed development. In addition, reciprocal cross analysis showed that MYB56 affected the seed development maternally. MYB56 was shown to be dominantly expressed in developing seeds, consistently with its function in seed development. Moreover, qRT-PCR analysis revealed that MYB56 regulates the expression of genes involved in cell wall metabolism such as cell division and expansion. Altogether, our results demonstrated that MYB56 represents an unknown pathway for positively controlling the seed size.

Zhang Y; Liang W; Shi J; Xu J; Zhang D

2013-08-01

50

Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Productivity and Profitability as Affected by Method of Sowing and Seeding Rate Under Qena Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sowing methods and seeding rate play an important role in the placement of seed at proper depth and stand establishment of the growing crop which ultimately affects crop growth and productivity. This study was conducted for 2 seasons to establish optimal sowing method and seeding rate for bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in sandy-loam soil. The study aimed at achieving high yield and profit. A field experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block in split plot design with three planting techniques (hilling in ridges, drilling in rows and broadcasting) and four seeding rates (100, 125, 150 and 175 kg ha-1) as the main plot and split plot, respectively. Results revealed that all yield and yield parameters were significantly affected by the sowing method and seed rate, while grain protein content was non-significant by these factors. The interaction of sowing method and seed rate significantly affected the number of effective tillers m-2, weight of grains spike-1, grain and straw yields ha-1 and harvest index. Wheat sown by drilling method at the seed rate 150 kg ha-1 gave the highest values of grain and straw yields ha-1 and harvest index and this treatment was found to be most economical. Based on these results, it is recommended to sow 150 kg ha-1 seeds by using drill method for planting bread wheat Giza 168 cv under similar soil and climatic conditions. Correlation coefficients analyses revealed positive significant relationships between grain yield and plant height, effective tillers m-2, grain number spike-1, straw yield and harvest index.

E.A. Abd El-Lattief

2011-01-01

51

Seed Physiological Quality of Three Capsicum Species as Affected by Seed Density and Hydropriming Treatment Durations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seeds uniformity and seedling establishment are major problem in pepper production in developing countries and have great impact on production quality and performance. Seed enhancement technology like hydropriming can be done to address this gap. A study was initiated to determine the physiological quality of three Capsicum species (Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens and Capsicum chinense) in relation to seed density and hydropriming treatment durations. In the first experiment, fresh ungraded seeds were subjected to different hours of hydropriming durations with second experiment light and heavy density seed lots were subjected to the same hydropriming durations. Seedling emergence, energy of emergence, seedling vigour index and emergence rate were evaluated in the experiments. The result revealed that among the ungraded, light and heavy density seed lots, Capsicum chinense had superior seedling emergence, energy of emergence, seedling vigour index and emergence index. Hydropriming for 0 to 12 h resulted in lower days to emergence. Hydropriming of light density seeds gave high seedling emergence in the three Capsicum species compared to hydropriming of heavy density seeds. An increase in hydropriming durations of the light density seeds resulted in an increase in the seedling emergence, energy of emergence, seedling vigour and emergence index. Positive and significant relationships were obtained between seedling emergence or energy of emergence and seedling vigour index in each of the three Capsicum species over the hydropriming durations. Therefore, the study suggests the use of hydropriming as a simple and cost-effective strategy in pepper production especially in developing countries.

M.A. Adebisi; T.O. Kehinde; M.A. Abdul-Rafiu; O.A. Esuruoso; O.D. Oni; O. Ativie

2013-01-01

52

DOF transcription factors in developing peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DNA binding with one finger (DOF) transcription factors play important roles in storage material accumulation and morphogenesis of developing seeds. Oil and protein contents varied in different cultivars in important oil crop peanut. DOF proteins have not been studied in this crop. In this paper, we analyzed all the DOF genes expressed in developing seeds from a cDNA library with 20,000 transcripts, cloned and compared similar genes of GW391729 from eight peanut cultivars, and analyzed similar genes expressed in root and leave with control and inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum. The results indicate that total eight types of DOF genes were expressed in developing seeds of cultivar 063103. Most of DOF transcription factors expressed involved in developmental process in a complicated way. Among them, GW391729 is possible related to the seed number in fruit, and also is possible related to leafspot resistance. Detailed function of these DOF proteins need to be further studied.

Haiyan Yan; Jiaquan Huang; Boshou Liao; Xianqing Lan; Qiuting Luo; Junlong Tang

2011-01-01

53

Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention is finding sufficient time to study. Having personal problems and affordability of the program took second and third place.

Erman YUKSELTURK; Fethi Ahmet INAN

2006-01-01

54

Tillage and residue burning affects weed populations and seed banks.  

Science.gov (United States)

An integrated weed management approach requires alternative management practices to herbicide use such as tillage, crop rotations and cultural controls to reduce soil weed seed banks. The objective of this study was to examine the value of different tillage practices and stubble burning to exhaust the seed bank of common weeds from the northern grain region of Australia. Five tillage and burning treatments were incorporated in a field experiment, at Armidale (30 degrees 30'S, 151 degrees 40'E), New South Wales, Australia in July 2004 in a randomized block design replicated four times. The trial was continued and treatments repeated in July 2005 with all the mature plants from the first year being allowed to shed seed in their respective treatment plots. The treatments were (i) no tillage (NT), (ii) chisel ploughing (CP), (iii) mould board ploughing (MBP), (iv) wheat straw burning with no tillage (SBNT) and (v) wheat straw burning with chisel ploughing (SBC). Soil samples were collected before applying treatments and before the weeds flowered to establish the seed bank status of the various weeds in the soil. Wheat was sown after the tillage treatments. Burning treatments were only initiated in the second year, one month prior to tillage treatments. The major weeds present in the seed bank before initiating the trial were Polygonum aviculare, Sonchus oleraceus and Avena fatua. Tillage promoted the germination of other weeds like Hibiscus trionum, Medicago sativa, Vicia sp. and Phalaris paradoxa later in the season in 2004 and Convolvulus erubescens emerged as a new weed in 2005. The MBP treatment in 2004 reduced the weed biomass to a significantly lower level of 55 g/m2 than the other treatments of CP (118 g/m2) and NT plots (196 g/m2) (P < 0.05). However, in 2005 SBC and MBP treatments were similar in reducing the weed biomass. In 2004, the grain yield trend of wheat was significantly different between CP and NT, and MBP and NT (P < 0.05) with maximum yield of 5898 kg/ha in CP and 5731 kg/ha in MBP. Rainfall before the start of the second trial season promoted the germination of a large numbers of weeds. SBC and MBP treatments reduced the numbers of most of the individual weed species compared with CP, SBNT and NT. SBC was able to destroy a large proportion of seeds most likely through burning and burying some in the soil and was found to be the best treatment in exhausting the seed bank followed closely by MBP which probably buried large number of seeds deep in the soil and promoted others to germinate. CP might have buried some of the seeds in the top 5-10 cm but also promoted parts of the seed bank to germinate. SBNT and NT provided an ideal medium for weeds to germinate and resulted in heavy infestations of weeds. PMID:17390813

Narwal, S; Sindel, B M; Jessop, R S

2006-01-01

55

Optimization of chitosan treatments for managing microflora in lettuce seeds without affecting germination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many studies have focused on seed decontamination but no one has been capable of eliminating all pathogenic bacteria. Two objectives were followed. First, to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of chitosan against: (a) Escherichia coli O157:H7, (b) native microflora of lettuce and (c) native microflora of lettuce seeds. Second, to evaluate the efficiency of chitosan on reducing microflora on lettuce seeds. The overall goal was to find a combination of contact time and chitosan concentration that reduces the microflora of lettuce seeds, without affecting germination. After treatment lettuce seeds presented no detectable microbial counts (<10(2)CFU/50 seeds) for all populations. Moreover, chitosan eliminated E. coli. Regardless of the reduction in the microbial load, a 90% reduction on germination makes imbibition with chitosan, uneconomical. Subsequent treatments identified the optimal treatment as 10 min contact with a 10 g/L chitosan solution, which maintained the highest germination percentage.

Goñi MG; Moreira MR; Viacava GE; Roura SI

2013-01-01

56

Path Coefficient Analysis of Fescue Seed Yield and its Components Affected by Fungal Endophyte  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fescues (Festuca spp) are widely distributed in the temperate regions and are used for turf, forage and soil conservation. Though seed traits are important measures of the effects of endophytic fungi on their host, little information is available in this respect for Festuca. In this study, endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) clones of the six fescue genotypes were used to investigate the effects of endophyte on seed production. The relationships between seed traits plus direct and indirect effects of components on seed yield were also studied. Endophyte infection resulted in 38.1% to 249% more seed yields in some genotypes, though some were not affected by this symbiotic relationship. Correlations between traits and also results of stepwise regression were influenced by the presence of the symbiotic fungi. Path analysis showed that endophytic fungi changed direct and indirect effects of components on seed yield. In endophyte containing clones, panicle fertility had the most direct effects and number of panicle per plant and seed per panicle the most indirect effects on seed yield. In E- clones, panicle fertility had the highest indirect effects and other components had direct effects on seed yield. The results suggested that breeding strategies for increasing seed yield in fescue should consider the presence or absence of endophyte in germplasm.

M. M. Majidi; A.F. Mirlohi; M.R. Sabzalian

2007-01-01

57

Environmental factors affecting autoimmune thyroid disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of environmental factors affect the incidence and progression of autoimmune thyroid disease. Exposure to excess iodine, certain drugs, infectious agents and pollutants, and stress have all been implicated.

Safran, M.; Paul, T.L.; Roti, E.; Braverman, L.E.

1987-06-01

58

Milling Performance and Other Quality Traits Affected by Seed Shape in Isogenic Lines of Desi Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milling of pulses generally involves removal of the seed coat and splitting of the cotyledons to produce splits or ‘dhal’. The aim of this research was to investigate whether seed shape affected seed quality using two sets of near-isogenic lines differing by a single allele at the seed shape locus (Rd/rd). Seed shape had a profound effect on milling quality: rounded seeds produced 7% more dhal than their angular counterparts. There were also significant effects on other quality parameters attributable to seed shape: rounded seeds had less seed coat content because it was thinner, a more intense seed coat colour, faster water absorption but lower hydration capacity and a slightly longer dhal cooking time. This study shows that seed shape is more important than seed coat thickness from a milling perspective and suggests that breeding programs should select for rounder shaped desi chickpeas to maximise dhal yields and profitability for the splitting industry.

Jennifer A. Wood; Edmund J. Knights; Steven Harden; Mingan Choct

2012-01-01

59

EFL Teachers' Factors and Students' Affect  

Science.gov (United States)

Individual learners' affective factors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in the classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence…

Qin, Lei

2007-01-01

60

Primary Factors Affecting Safety of Control System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim of the paper is to point out some of the factors that affect safety of control system. Already in initial stages of the control system life-cycle it is necessary to analyze the effect of each of these factors on safety of a designed control system. Following this analysis, it is possible to prop...

Karol Rastocny; Michal Foltan

 
 
 
 
61

Weed Infestation in Direct Seeded and Transplanted Aus Rice as Affected by Method of Planting and Weeding Regime  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the weed vegetation due to the effect of planting methods and weeding regime. Two factors included in the experiment were: methods of planting and weeding regime. The results revealed that weed vegetation in the two methods of planting varied remarkable. Fifty-five weed species belonging to 17 families infested the crop. Among the weed species, Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl was the principal weed in direct seeded aus rice and Panicum repens L. in the transplanted aus rice. Twenty-four weed species were found to grow only in the direct seeded crop and only eight in the transplanted crop. Weed density and weed dry weight was significantly affected by the method of planting and weeding regime. Weed density and dry weight was significantly higher in direct seeded than in transplanted crop.

M.Y. Sarker; M. Mosaddeque Hossain; M.K. Hasan; M.A.H. Khan; M.R. Amin; F. Begum

2002-01-01

62

Productivity of Egyptian Clover as Affected by Seeding Rates and Cutting Schedules II-Chemical Dry Matter Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two field experiments were conducted at the Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University during the two successive seasons of 2000/2001 and 2001/2002. A split-plot design in four replications was used. This investigation aimed to study the effect of seeding rates and cutting schedules parameters on chemical dry matter analysis of Egyptian clover variety Miskawi Giza 6. Crude protein and fiber, ash content, ether extract and nitrogen free-extract percentages in blades and stems and its yields/fed were significantly affected due to cuttings. Highest percentages of CP and ash in blades and stems were produced from the second cut. While highest percentages of CF and EE in blades and stems were produced from the third cut. The fifth cut achieved the highest percentages of NFE in both blades and stems. Moreover, highest crude protein and ash yields per feddan were produced at the second cut. The third cut produced highest averages of CF, EE and NFE yields per feddan. Seeding rates caused significant differences on Crude protein (CP), Crude fiber (CF), ash content, EE and NFE percentages in blades and stems and its yields/fed were significantly affected due to seeding rates. Highest percentages of CP and EE in stems were resulted from sown with 30 kg seed/fed. While, using 45 kg seed/fed was accompanied with the highest percentages of CF and ash content in both blades and stems as well as NFE % in blades only. Moreover, the highest yields of CP, CF, ash, EE and NFE yields per feddan were produced from the medium seeding rate of 30 kg seed/fed. Percentages of CP, CF, ash content, EE and NFE in blades and stems as well as CP, CF, ash content, EE and NFE yields/fed significantly responded as a result of cutting schedules under study. Highest CP % produced from cutting plants at 30 cm height and after 25 days intervals in both blades and stems, respectively. While, highest percentages of CF, ash content and EE in both blades and stems were produced from cutting at 50 cm height. Cutting Egyptian clover plants at 55 days intervals produced highest NFE %. Moreover, highest of CP, CF, ash content, EE and NFE yields/fed were produced from cutting at 30 cm height. There was non significant interactions between seeding rates and cutting schedules treatments on chemical dry matter analysis, this mean that each factor acted separately. It could be summarized that for maximizing forage quality of Egyptian clover Giza 6 cultivar with sowing at seeding rate of 30 kg seed/fed and cutting plants at 30 cm height under the environmental conditions of Dakahlia Governorate.

A.A. Kandil; A.M. Salama; S.A. El-Moursy; W.A. Abido

2005-01-01

63

Understorey Regeneration of Lophira alata as Affected by Seed Tree Size and Growing Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Demographic pressure and slash and burn practices are two factors which reduce the number of Lophira alata plants in its natural range where it is more represented by young plants. The hypothesis that its understorey regeneration may be affected by seed tree size and growing conditions was investigated in the tropical moist forest in southern Cameroon using mature trees of various diameter classes for a sustainable management of the species. Biomass partitioning was also examined in regenerating seedlings growing in loading bays and forest understorey. Seedling density was highest when seed tree diameter at breast height (dbh) was 100 cm or more. A strong positive correlation was found between seed tree diameter dbh and crown size expressed as mean diameter of projected crown area, but crown size correlated much better with seedling density. Compared with their counterparts of the same height growing in loading bays in full sunlight but devoid of litter and topsoil, seedlings found in understorey exhibited lower root: shoot ratio, indicating that soil-derived resources were more limiting in loading bays than on undisturbed forest floor. Leaf weight per area (leaf dry weight/leaf area) (LWA) and leaf packing (leaf number/cm shoot height) were almost 2-fold greater in loading bays than in understorey. As seedlings seldom grew taller than 50 cm in the latter environment, it may be inferred that root: shoot ratio, LWA, and leaf packing can be used to assess the sustainability of growth and development of this pioneer species at the seedling stage.

Ngono, G.; Bongjoh, CA.

2005-01-01

64

Interaction of factors modifying the radiosensitivity of dormant seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented on modification of radiation-induced effects in dormant plant seeds. Possible sources of discrepancy of data in the earlier literature are analysed. Approaches to the correct experimental study of mechanisms of interaction of environmental factors (water content, temperature, storage conditions) in the modification of radiobiological reactions are discussed. Progress in the radiation biology of plant seeds, achieved by precise control of experimental conditions, is considered. Plant genera used were barley, rice, maize, wheat, lupins, cotton, oats, pine, pea, crepis, brassica, lactuca, lycopersicon, trifohum, festuca, hibiscus. (author)

1987-01-01

65

The homeobox gene GLABRA2 affects seed oil content in Arabidopsis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite a good understanding of genes involved in oil biosynthesis in seed, the mechanism(s) that controls oil accumulation is still not known. To identify genes that control oil accumulation in seed, we have developed a simple screening method to isolate Arabidopsis seed oil mutants. The method includes an initial screen for seed density followed by a seed oil screen using an automated Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Using this method, we isolated ten low oil mutants and one high oil mutant. The high oil mutant, p777, accumulated 8% more oil in seed than did wild type, but it showed no differences in seed size, plant growth or development. The high-oil phenotype is caused by the disruption of the GLABRA2 gene, a previously identified gene that encodes a homeobox protein required for normal trichome and root hair development. Knockout of GLABRA2 did not affect LEAFY COTYLEDON 1 and PICKLE expression in developing embryo. The result indicates that in addition to its known function in trichome and root hair development, GLABRA2 is involved in the control of seed oil accumulation.

Shen B; Sinkevicius KW; Selinger DA; Tarczynski MC

2006-02-01

66

Primary Factors Affecting Safety of Control System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim of the paper is to point out some of the factors that affect safety of control system. Already in initial stages of the control system life-cycle it is necessary to analyze the effect of each of these factors on safety of a designed control system. Following this analysis, it is possible to propose appropriate measures for achieving specified safety goals.

Karol Rastocny; Michal Foltan

2006-01-01

67

Factors that affect toilet training in children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To identify age of initiation of toilet training and affecting factors for children. Material and Methods: 861 children were included in this study. "Chi square test", "Mann-Whitney U Test" and "Kruskall-Wallis Variance Analysis" statistical analysis methods have been applied. Ethical per...

Serdar Önen; ?lknur Aksoy; M. Ay?in Ta?ar; Y?ld?z Dallar Bilge

68

Maturity dates affect soybean seed constituents protein, oil ash and moisture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The quality of soybean seed at harvest is dependent on the field production environment during development and maturation on the plant. These investigations were conducted to evaluate the effect of planting dates on soybean protein, oil, ash and moisture content. Soybean seeds were planted in the spring (January 13, January 16, February 19 and March 1) and in the Fall (July 10, July 20, July 26 and August 25, 1991) at Agriculture Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan. Planting dates were manipulated in such a way that seed developed and matured at high temperature for spring planted crops, while seed development and maturation occurred at low temperature for all planted crops. Mature seeds that developed under these conditions were analyzed for differences in composition. Protein, oil and ash contents were strongly affected by planting date (different temperature at pod fill). Seed that matured at high temperature (spring planting) resulted in higher protein, oil and ash content than the seed that matured at low temperature (fall planting). A positive correlation was found between protein and oil content and protein and ash content. The effect of temperature during pod filling storage was much greater than the temperature during early growth. Protein, oil and ash contents were positively correlated with temperature during pod filling stage and increased with each increment of temperature. Moisture content was unaffected by planting date.

Shad K. Khalil; John G. Mexal; Leigh W. Murray

2000-01-01

69

Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues.

Small, Emma [Forestry Commission Wales, Victoria House, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, SY23 2DQ (United Kingdom); Sadler, Jon P. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.p.sadler@bham.ac.uk; Telfer, Mark [UK Headquarters, The RSPB, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL (United Kingdom)

2006-05-01

70

Forest stand factors affecting precommercial thinning productivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The New Brunswick Dept of Natural Resources uses a density-based productivity model for determining reimbursement rates for precommercial thinning (PCT) on Crown land. In response to concerns that the model makes no provision for non- density related stand conditions and the possibility that the model may be unfair to private woodlot operators or to those working in atypical stands, a study was initiated to identify what factors (in addition to stand density) affect PCT productivity, and to develop a productivity model or models based on these factors. Study methods included observations made of operators performing PCT with spacing saws, with a particular effort to focus on high- and low- density areas and to observe a wide range of stand conditions in order to capture factors other than density that may affect PCT productivity. Field data collection included a pre-thin stand assessment, a time study of operator activities (average observation time about 3.6 hours), and a post-thin assessment. Regression analyses were used to identify stand factors having a significant effect on PCT productivity and to develop suitable models. Ancillary stand factors examined included species composition, tree size, and tree spatial distribution.

Needham, T.D.; Hart, D.

1991-12-31

71

Factors affecting beam shape and quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The beam shape and quality are affected by hash, ripple, ion intensity distribution and geometrical and operational factors. Hash, which was found to be localized mainly at the sides of the beam (parasitic divergence ?), must be stopped by an appropriate diapharam to improve the image quality. The magnitude of ? is strongly dependent on the relative hash. Of all the source parameters, the magnetic field is the dominant factor in determining hash. Ripple in the cathode or arc power supplies of the source leads to a modulation of the beam divergence and consequently to an apparant increase of ?. The main result is an equivalent loss of transmission when ? is eliminated. Installing effective filters in the cathode and arc supplies of the MEIRA separator reduce the ripple by a factor of 10. Other factors found to increase the value of ? for long emission slits were faulty alignment of the electrode with the emission slit and non-uniform current density along this slit. Factors affecting ion current density distribution along the slit are described. Preliminary results are given concerning the variation of features of the divergence curve with operational parameters. (Auth.)

1976-12-01

72

The factors affecting the recarburization process indicators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the factors affecting the carburizing rates obtained (rate and efficiency) during the process of melting cast iron. The analysis includes the recarburizer type (anthracite, natural and synthetic graphite, petroleum coke) and particle size. Further factors considered in work are the methods of recarburization (recarburizer introduction to a solid charge and on the surface of the metal bath) and the parameters of the melt (temperature and chemical composition). The analysis was based on experiments performed, the calculation results of computer simulations and literature data.

K. Janerka; J. Szajnar; J. Jezierski; D. Bartocha

2011-01-01

73

Experimental factors affecting white strobe pulse frequency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Changes made to the standard strobe compositions used as a baseline, and the resultant effects in intensity, duration and pulse frequency are described. The changes involved variations in particle sizes and mix ratios in order to cause performance changes in the original pyrotechnic strobe composition. Several factors, such as binder material, binder percentage, the addition of sulfur or antimony trisulfide and sulfates were found to affect strobe frequency. Technical data, photographic and videotape evidence of burning characteristics are highlighted. 3 refs., 7 figs.

Domanico, J. A. [Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (United States)

2000-04-01

74

Factors affecting air quality in Hong Kong  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hong Kong is a thriving territory of over 6 million people, well known for its manufacturing and trade, and also as a popular city for visitors. However, in common with many Asian cities, it experiences air pollution problems that are potential health risks and that also reduce the quality of life for visitors and residents alike. In this presentation, the factors affecting air quality in populated areas are discussed

Gervat, G.P.; Lee, F.Y.P. [Hong Kong Government, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept., Air Service Group

1995-12-31

75

Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural developmentin Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have abetter insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as alearning forum for bringing about changes for all participants,they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciativeinquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting thefacilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors andpreventing factors. The former are: two-way communication,election of rural eligible facilitators, participation, sense ofresponsibility, and the latter are: cultural and tribal fanaticism,lack of permanent female extension workers and frequentmanagement changes. Appreciative inquiry as a positive modeof action research could facilitate the process of education andcommunication for all stakeholders. We suggested that thereshould be a shift from the extension as a knowledge transfer tofacilitation as people’s own knowledge creation. This studyshowed that appreciative inquiry could facilitate the process ofchange and gender-awareness. This research method couldalso facilitate mutual communication between the rural facilitatorsand extension workers.

Farideh Azimi; Mohammad Bagher Kamali

2011-01-01

76

FACTORS AFFECTING THE SPORT RELATED CONSUMER EXPENDITURES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years there has been a significant change in the importance given to economic and social role of sport related economic activities since sport has changed to a much broader concept involving sport clubs, associations, organizations and businesses where the implementation of carefully designed marketing strategies became vital for success. This study aims to explore the factors affecting the sport related consumer expenditures. Empirical results were obtained by means of a questionnaire survey in Izmir, the third biggest city in Turkey. The results include demographic and socio-economic analysis of respondents, their practices about sport related activities and expenditures associated with these activities. Six factors were obtained from the factor analysis depending on the respondents’ attitudes towards sporting activities were examined for their effects on sport related expenditures of the consumers.

Aykan CANDEM?R; Ali Erhan ZALLUHO?LU

2012-01-01

77

Factors affecting culture fluorescence when monitoring bioreactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the investigation of major factors which affect culture fluorescence signals from bioreactors, in particular, culture fluorescence signals from excited tryptophan, pyridoxine, NADH, and riboflavin. Major facrors chosen for the investigation are as follows; probe position, agitation and aeration rates, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, inner filter effects, and cascade effects. Among these factors, inner filter effects, temperature, probe position, and agitation and aeration rates were found to be most important to quantify the culture fluorescence signals. The effect of pH was especially important to quantify the culture fluorescence signals from tryptophan and pyridoxine. Effects of dissolved oxygen and cascade were not important factors for any of the above four cellular fluorophores dissolved in buffer. Furthermore, mathematical models were derived to explain effects of pH, temperature, and inner filter on the back scattered fluorescence signals. 15 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Li, J. (Merck and Co. Inc., PA (USA)); Humphrey, A. (Lehigh University, PA (United States))

1992-08-25

78

Seed Yield of Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L.) as Affected by Row Distance and Herbicide Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment on the effects of row distances and herbicide applications on the seed yield and some characteristics of Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L.) was conducted in 1998-1999 and 1999-2000 growing seasons in Bornova, Izmir, Turkey. The experimental design was split-plots design with three replications. Row distances were 20, 30 and 40 cm and the herbicides were imazethapyr, imazamox and bentazone. Imazethapyr is not a suitable herbicide for weed control in Persian clover. Bentazone must be used for broad-leaved weeds such as Anagallis caerula, Matricaria chamomilla, Polygonum aviculare, Sinapis arvensis and Stellaria media. It had an effect on Fumaria parviflora in second year, only. In case of presence of wild oat (Avena sterilis) and some broad-leaved weeds such as Sinapis arvensis, Anagallis caerula, Polygonum aviculare and Stellaria media, it is thought that imazamox is useful to achieve a satisfactory seed yield. The row distance had an effect on the number of lateral branches per plant and 1000 seed weight. Herbicide applications affected the number of lateral branches per plant, the number of heads per plant and seed yield. The highest seed yields were obtained from the control, imazamox and bentazone applications and the yields were 799, 733 and 712 kg ha-1, respectively. Although there were no statistical important differences among the row distances, more seed yield (752 kg ha-1) was obtained from the row distance of 40 cm.

Naci Algan; A. Esen Celen; Riza Avcioglu; Hakan Geren; Abdurrahman Uzun

2007-01-01

79

Proximate Composition, Antinutritional Factors and Protein Fractions of Guar Gum Seeds as Influenced by Processing Treatments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The proximate composition, antinutritional factors and protein fractions of guar seeds were studied before and after autoclaving, soaking followed by dehulling and germination treatments. Chemical composition was varied between the treatments. Soaking of seeds followed by dehulling significantl...

Majed B. Ahmed; Rashed A. Hamid; Mohamed E. Ali; Amro B. Hassan; Elfadil E. Babiker

80

Factors affecting ice nucleation in plant tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors affecting the ice nucleation temperature of plants and plant tissues were examined. The mass of a sample had a marked effect on ice nucleation temperature. Small tissue samples supercooled to -10 degrees C and were not accurate predictors of the nucleation temperature of intact plants in either laboratory or field experiments. This effect was not unique to plant tissues and was observed in autoclaved and control soil samples. Ice nucleation temperatures of bean, corn, cotton, and soybean seedlings were influenced by the length of subzero exposure, presence of ice nucleation active bacteria, and leaf surface wetness. The number of factors influencing ice nucleation temperature suggested that predicting the freezing behavior of plants in the field will be complex. PMID:16664524

Ashworth, E N; Davis, G A; Anderson, J A

1985-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Factors affecting ice nucleation in plant tissues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Factors affecting the ice nucleation temperature of plants and plant tissues were examined. The mass of a sample had a marked effect on ice nucleation temperature. Small tissue samples supercooled to -10 degrees C and were not accurate predictors of the nucleation temperature of intact plants in either laboratory or field experiments. This effect was not unique to plant tissues and was observed in autoclaved and control soil samples. Ice nucleation temperatures of bean, corn, cotton, and soybean seedlings were influenced by the length of subzero exposure, presence of ice nucleation active bacteria, and leaf surface wetness. The number of factors influencing ice nucleation temperature suggested that predicting the freezing behavior of plants in the field will be complex.

Ashworth EN; Davis GA; Anderson JA

1985-12-01

82

[Factors that affect inpatients' quality of sleep].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to identify factors that interfere with the sleep quality of patients admitted to a university hospital in a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. This was an exploratory, cross sectional study using non-probability sampling. Participants were 117 patients (59% men, mean age 48.0 years, standard deviation 16.9) hospitalized for at least 72 hours in stable clinical condition. The data were collected with an identification questionnaire and the Factors Affecting Sleep Quality (FASQ) questionnaire. Data processing was performed with descriptive statistics; each item of the FASQ underwent a test and a retest. The factors most often reported were waking up early (55.6%), disrupted sleep (52.1%), excessive lighting (34.2%), receipt of care by nursing staff (33.3%) and organic disorders such as pain and fatigue (26.5%). It is suggested that nurses should plan interventions to modify factors that require intense noise and lighting at night in order to reduce disruption and, consequently, sleep deprivation among patients.

da Costa SV; Ceolim MF

2013-02-01

83

Predictive factors affecting outcome following cervical laminoplasty.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Study Design. Systematic ReviewObjective. To determine whether various preoperative factors affect patient outcome following cervical laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and/or ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL).Summary of Background Data. Cervical laminoplasty is a procedure designed to decompress the spinal cord by enlarging the spinal canal while preserving the lamina. Prior research has identified a variety of potential predictive factors that might affect outcomes following this procedure.Methods. A systematic search of multiple major medical reference databases was conducted to identify studies explicitly designed to evaluate the effect of preoperative factors on patient outcome following cervical laminoplasty for CSM or OPLL. Studies specifically designed to evaluate potential predictive factors and their associations with outcome were included. Only cohort studies that used multivariate analysis, enrolled at least 20 patients, and adjusted for age as a potential confounding variable were included. JOA, modified JOA, and JOACMEQ-L were the main outcome measures. Clinical recommendations and consensus statements were made through a modified Delphi approach by applying the GRADE/AHRQ criteria.Results. The search strategy yielded 433 citations, of which 1 prospective and 11 retrospective cohort studies met our inclusion criteria. Overall, the strength of evidence from the 12 studies is low or insufficient for most of the predictive factors. Increased age was not associated with poorer JOA outcome for CSM patients, but there is insufficient evidence to make a conclusion for OPLL patients. Increased severity of disease and longer duration of symptoms might be associated with JOA outcome for CSM patients. Hill-shaped lesions might be associated with poorer JOA outcomes for OPLL patients. There is insufficient evidence to permit conclusions regarding other predictive factors.Conclusion. Overall, the strength of evidence for all of the predictive factors was insufficient or low. Given that cervical myelopathy due to CSM tends to be progressive and that increased severity of myelopathy and duration of symptoms might be associated with poorer outcomes after cervical laminoplasty for CSM, it is preferable to perform laminoplasty in patients with CSM earlier rather than waiting for symptoms to get worse. Further research is needed to more clearly identify predictive factors that affect outcomes following cervical laminoplasty as there were relatively few studies identified that used multivariate analyses to control for confounding factors and many of these studies did not provide a detailed description of the multivariate analyses or the magnitude of effect estimates.Recommendation #1: For CSM patients, increased age is not a strong predictor of clinical neurological outcomes following laminoplasty, therefore age by itself should not preclude cervical laminoplasty for CSM.Overall Strength of Evidence: LowStrength of Recommendation: StrongRecommendation #2: For CSM patients, increased severity of disease and longer duration of symptoms might be associated with poorer clinical neurological outcomes following laminoplasty, therefore we recommend that patients be informed about this.Overall Strength of Evidence: LowStrength of Recommendation: StrongSummary Statement: For OPLL patients, Hill-shaped lesions might be associated with poorer clinical neurological outcomes following laminoplasty therefore surgeons might consider potential benefits and risks of alternative or additional surgery.

Yoon T; Raich A; Hashimoto R; Riew D; Shaffrey CI; Rhee J; Tetreault LA; Skelly A; Fehlings MG

2013-08-01

84

Prognostic factors in radical cystectomy affecting survival.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic factors in radical cystectomy affecting survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 100 hundred patients were included in the study. Incontinent diversion was applied to 73 of these, and continent diversion to 27. Prospective and retrospective data of the patients were examined. The prognostic value for survival was evaluated for of lymph node involvement, tumor grade (low grade: grade 0-II, high grade: ? III or epidermoid carcinoma), tumor stage (low stage: stage pT0-2, high stage: stage ? 3a pT3a), presence of preoperative unilateral of bilateral hydronephrosis, presence of preoperative uremia (serum urea value: ? 60), and age (> 70 and ? 70 years of age) on survival were investigated. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-Rank statistical methods were used in the study. RESULTS: Grade, stage, uremia, and lymph node involvement had significant effects on survival (p values 0.0002, 0.03, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). Presence of preoperative hydronephrosis and age had no statistically significant effects on survival (p values 0.8 and 0.2, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Tumor grade, tumor stage, preoperative uremia, and lymph node involvement are prognostic factors affecting survival. Advanced age and presence of preoperative hydronephrosis have no prognostic value for survival. The presence of uremia in the preoperative assessment of the patients is more important than hydronephrosis.

Aglamis E; Toktas G; Unluer E; Tasdemir C; Ceylan C

2012-09-01

85

Reproductive development and seed quality of cotton cultivars as affected by nitrogen fertilization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Because they are environmentally sensitive, a study was conducted to evaluate the growth, development and seed quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) as influenced by cultivar maturity, N fertilization, and a nitrification inhibitor. Early-maturing and full-season cultivars were grown in a Bosket fine silt loam (Mollic Hapludalf) supplied with either 50 or 100 kg N/ha as anhydrous ammonia, applied either alone or with 0.56 kg/ha of nitrapyrin [2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)pyridine], a nitrification inhibitor. Seed cotton yields were unaffected by N fertilization at planting, but they were significantly affected by treatments applied 2 to 3 weeks earlier. Slight increases in seedling growth and a more favorable balance between reproductive and vegetative development during July and August were found in the nitrapyrin-treated plots. Both flowering and boll set were significantly increased by nitrapyrin treatment. The full-season cultivar responded favorably to increased preplant N, but the early-maturing cultivar did not. Thus, early-season cultivars may require different fertilization practices than do full-season cultivars. For each cultivar, seeds produced at 50 kg N/ha contained a significantly higher ratio of oil to protein and performed better in the field than those produced at 100 kg N/ha. The physiological interaction between N and nitrapyrin suggests the development of a production protocol to optimize seed yield with planting seed quality.

Leffler HR; Hunter JH

1985-04-01

86

Factors affecting aural detections of songbirds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many factors affect the number of birds detected on point count surveys of breeding songbirds. The magnitude and importance of these factors are not well understood. We used a bird song simulation system to quantify the effects of detection distance, singing rate, species differences, and observer differences on detection probabilities of birds detected by ear. We simulated 40 point counts consisting of 10 birds per count for five primary species (Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia, Black-throated Blue Warbler Dendroica caerulescens, Black-throated Green Warbler Dendroica virens, Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina, and Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapillus) over a range of 15 distances (34-143 m). Songs were played at low (two songs per count) and high (13-21 songs per count) singing rates. Detection probabilities averaged across observers ranged from 0.60 (Black-and-white Warbler) to 0.83 (Hooded Warbler) at the high singing rate and 0.41 (Black-and-white Warbler) to 0.67 (Hooded Warbler) at the low singing rate. Logistic regression analyses indicated that species, singing rate, distance, and observer were all significant factors affecting detection probabilities. Singing rate x species and singing rate X distance interactions were also significant. Simulations of expected counts, based on the best logistic model, indicated that observers detected between 19% (for the worst observer, lowest singing rate, and least detectable species) and 65% (for the best observer, highest singing rate, and most detectable species) of the true population. Detection probabilities on actual point count surveys are likely to vary even more because many sources of variability were controlled in our experiments. These findings strongly support the importance of adjusting measures of avian diversity or abundance from auditory point counts with direct estimates of detection probability.

Alldredge MW; Simons TR; Pollock KH

2007-04-01

87

Seed Transmission Rates of Bean pod mottle virus and Soybean mosaic virus in Soybean May Be Affected by Mixed Infection or Expression of the Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To facilitate their spread, plant viruses have developed several methods for dispersal including insect andseed transmission. While insect transmission requires virus stability against insect digestion, seed-transmittedviruses have to overcome barriers to entry into embryos. Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) is transmittedthrough seed at levels typically below 0.1%, but co-infection with Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) enhanced theseed transmission rate of BPMV in one experiment. In contrast, the rate of SMV seed transmission was notaffected by BPMV co-infection. In a second preliminary study, the rate of SMV transmission was lower in anisoline of Williams 82 that contained a null mutation for the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor gene than in Williams82. In this preliminary study, we observed that factors such as protease inhibitor expression and dualinfection may affect the frequency of seed transmission of BPMV and SMV.

Moon Nam; Hanhong Bae; John Hammond; Leslie L. Domier; Young-Nam Youn; Bong-Choon Lee; Hyoun-Sub Lim

2013-01-01

88

Factors Affecting Electricity Demand in Jordan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 1) The paper examines the relationship between electricity demand and climate/non-climate related factors using statistical regression analysis. 2) It focuses on the environmental, demographic, policy (energy pricing) and technological factors as the main factors affecting the consumption pattern in Jordan. 3) The paper also presents the variations occurred in the electricity demand over the period 1994-2008. The variations that are observed during the period of study are: Shifting of the peak load occurrence from evening to morning period, Modification in the annual daily load curve especially in winter season, Variation in relationship between space temperature and demand especially in winter, and dramatic increase in electric generation after year 2003. The shift in peak load from evening to morning period is mainly due to technological factor as a result of wide use of the air conditions in houses, services and government offices for cooling in summer instead of ordinary air fans. The variations in consumption pattern between 2000 and 2007 are mainly associated with economic, social and demographic factors. The high demand at lower space temperature is governed by introducing new appliances for heating in winter as a result of low electricity pricing comparing with gasoline price. The dramatic increase in electric generation after 2003 is probably due to demographic factors as a result of high growth of population after the Gulf war II. 4) The correlation between the daily maximum loads in morning and evening periods with the differential temperature (?T) above 20?C threshold in summer and below 15?C threshold in winter, shows pronounced changes in 2007 compared with year 2000. The regression tests show that a decrease of 1?C below 15?C threshold in winter 1) increases the morning demand by only 2 MW/?C in 2000 and 16.7 MW/?C in 2007, 2) decreases the evening peak by ?2.6 MW/1?C in 2000 and increases the evening peak by 22.9 MW/1?C in 2007. Results show that the demographic, technological, environmental and national energy pricing factors play a vital rule in consumption pattern in Jordan. Moreover, the paper reveals that planners and decision makers should be careful when applying new tariff in the developing countries such as Jordan.

Mohammad Awad Momani

2013-01-01

89

Factors affecting success of agricultural producers groups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poor organisation of agricultural markets in Poland remains one of the biggest problems for agricultural sector. There are about 510 agricultural producer groups, but only 2% of Polish farmers selling for market are members. Knowledge on cooperation determinants and different aspects of producer groups performance is crucial to build references for policy makers and producer groups’ managers. The aim of the article was to discuss factors affecting success of producers groups understood as a level of members’ satisfaction. Data for 2006 and 2011 from 30 producers groups in fruit and vegetable sector were analysed using logit model. Three determinants occurred to be statistically important: scope of a group functions, informal cooperation with farmers before starting a formal cooperation and homogeneity of farms.

Aleksandra Chlebicka

2011-01-01

90

Factors affecting the quality of bottled water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ever-increasing popularity of bottled water means that it is important to analyze not only its mineral content but also, above all, its content of possible contaminants, especially the organic ones. In this respect, bottled waters are a special case, because apart from organic chemical contaminants derived from the well from which they were acquired, their secondary contamination is always possible, during treatment or storage or transport in unsuitable conditions (sunlight and elevated temperature). This paper describes how various factors, from the area around the well, and the method of drawing and treating water, to the manner in which the finished product is stored and transported may affect the quality of bottled waters. It also summarizes literature information on the levels of organic contaminants in various kinds of bottled water samples.

Diduch M; Polkowska ?; Namie?nik J

2013-03-01

91

Rate factors affecting western railroad coal transportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Events of the mid-1970s have materially affected US coal production and transportation by railroad. Coal, as a replacement or substitute for petroleum fuels, has been hauled in significantly increased tonnages. Concurrent with the new demand, the railroad regulatory environment has undergone major changes, especially in deregulation activity. Those two events have produced considerable litigation regarding coal rates. This paper discusses the factors involved with railroad rates and topics such as revenue adequacy, Ramsey Pricing, stand-alone cost, and differential pricing. In addition, an update on the western railroad merger situation and the implications for coal transportation are presented. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the current regulatory climate and future prospects.

Frank, W.B.

1984-01-01

92

EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

Yu-Jia Hu

2012-01-01

93

Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

1989-01-01

94

Factors Affecting E-Service Satisfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available User satisfaction is an important predictor of online consumer behavior and the success of a web-based system. If customers are satisfied with the services received through the online system, it is likely they will keep using the system. To examine factors affecting user satisfaction with e-services, a questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of (615) students out of (5918) at Petra University in Jordan to explore their perceptions. Regression analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses. The results indicated that website design, navigation, and personalization were found to be predictors of e-service satisfaction. The results of this study provide a comprehensive set of implications for practitioners and researchers. This study shows how the website design, navigation, and personalization play a crucial role in the overall evaluation of e-service satisfaction. Management of universities need to be aware that a bad experience with website design, navigation, and personalization can affect satisfaction, if a student has a bad experience regarding interactivity, customization, or website design, then a student might make an overall e-service judgment even before a transaction can take place. If customers believe that an organization’s website is hard to use, poorly designed, and doesn’t take into consideration distinguished services for each user, then customers are likely to move to other organizations’ websites.

Mohammed Mufaddy Al-Kasasbeh; Subhasish Dasgupta; Abeer Hmoud AL-Faouri

2011-01-01

95

Factors affecting force loss with prolonged stretching.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors underlying the force loss occurring after prolonged, static, passive stretching. Subjects were tested before and 5-10 min following 20 min of static, passive stretching of the quadriceps (N=12) or a similar period of no stretch (control, N=6). Measurements included isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force, surface integrated electromyographic (iEMG) activity of the quadriceps and hamstrings, evoked contractile properties (twitch and tetanic force), and quadriceps inactivation as measured by the interpolated twitch technique (ITT). Following stretching, there was a significant 12% decrement in MVC with no significant changes in the control group. Muscle inactivation as measured by the ITT and iEMG increased by 2.8% and 20.2%, respectively. While twitch forces significantly decreased 11.7%, there was no change in tetanic force post-stretch. Although possible increases in muscle compliance affected twitch force, a lack of tetanic force change would suggest that post-stretch force decrements are more affected by muscle inactivation than changes in muscle elasticity.

Behm DG; Button DC; Butt JC

2001-06-01

96

Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It has been found that milk has the largest share of animal produce values consumed by the household, while particularly processed milk products are sold informally and that the consumption and sales values of animal produce processed in the households are required to be added to the unrecorded value calculation. Consumption of crops varies depending on the type of product. The own consumption ratio of crops is affected by the size of the enterprise, the number of individuals in the households and particularly the access to the markets of the enterprises in each region. An average informal value of 6,400.04 USD has been calculated per household, which is higher than the farm income, accounting for 4/5 of total household income. This can be attributed to the fact that the farms are generally small family enterprises with limited market-access opportunities.

Sertac Gonenc; Harun Tanrivermis

2007-01-01

97

Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

Marius Liutvinavi?ius; Virgilijus Sakalauskas

2011-01-01

98

Factors that affect toilet training in children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To identify age of initiation of toilet training and affecting factors for children. Material and Methods: 861 children were included in this study. "Chi square test", "Mann-Whitney U Test" and "Kruskall-Wallis Variance Analysis" statistical analysis methods have been applied. Ethical permission has been provided by local ethical committee. Results: 861 children under age of five were evaluated in this study (average age was 4±0.9); 433 children were boy (50.3%), 428 children were girl (49.7%). Age of initiation of toilet training was younger than 1 years old for 45 children (5.2%), between 13-18 month for 223 children (25.9%), between 19-24 month for 307 children (35.7%), between 25-30 month for 201 children (23.3%) and older than 30 month for 85 children (9.9%). That families who live below hunger threshold and small families initiate toilet training earlier that other families were determined (p=0.001). Children in 19-24 month have shorter duration of toilet training than other groups (p<0.05). That children who live in shanty have longer duration of toilet training than children who live in apartment were determined (p=0,031). That 219 children (25.4%) who had faced traumatic experiences which may affect training process, recently have longer duration of toilet training than other children (p=0,008). Duration of the training is shorter for f amilies who did not use toilet training methods than families who used methods. Conclusion: In our study, we found that age of initiation of toilet training is smaller for children who belong to family which has low level of income and small families. Duration of training is the longer for children whose initiation of toilet training was earlier than 18 month and later than 30 month, live in shanty, faced traumatic experiences.

Serdar Önen; ?lknur Aksoy; M. Ay?in Ta?ar; Y?ld?z Dallar Bilge

2012-01-01

99

Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150) who applied to the delivery service of the Ba?kent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7%) and were multipara (66.0%). It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05).Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05).

Gül P?nar; Nevin Do?an; Lale Alg?er; Necibe Kaya; Filiz Çakmak

2009-01-01

100

Seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals concentration as affected by foliar K-glyphosate applications in soybean cultivars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous studies showed that glyphosate (Gly) may chelate cation nutrients, including potassium (K), which might affect the nutritional status of soybean seed. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals) as influenced by foliar applications ...

Manju Pande; Mudlagiri B. Goli; Tyneiseca Epps; Nacer Bellaloui

 
 
 
 
101

Factors affecting lactose quantity in raw milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize factors affecting lactose quantities in raw cow's milk. This study combined the survey design with laboratory analysis. Selected farm members of Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives, from Ban Pong and Photharam Districts, Ratchaburi Province, were sampled. From the selected farms, data collected included lactose quantities in the raw milk and dairy farming information. The raw milk of selected farms was sampled at the delivery site of Nong Poh dairy cooperatives in the morning during December 2003 till February 2004. Lactose in the raw milk was then quantified by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR) using the MilkoScan FT6000 at the Department of Livestock Development. The farm owners or managers of selected farms were in-depth interviewed on dairy farming information including cowsí health and cows' diet. The data revealed that all cows from the selected farms were fed with concentrate diet purchased from Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives and grass as high fiber diets. Sample of eighteen farms also fed their cows with one of supplements: corn stem, soybean meal, or rice straw. All cows from these farms were Holstein-Friesian Hybrid. As supplemented high fiber diets, corn stem significantly increased the lactose quantities over soybean meal and rice straw (planned comparison, pvalue = 0.044). The study concluded that some high fiber diets, specifically corn stem, significantly contributed to the lactose quantities in raw milk.

Rubporn Kittivachra; Rommanee Sanguandeekul; Rungpetch Sakulbumrungsil; Penphimon Phongphanphanee

2007-01-01

102

Factors affecting cervical screening among Turkish women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is second most common cancer among women worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To determinate pap smear test rates and affecting factors among Turkish women. METHODS: This descriptive and cross-sectional questionnaire study covered 397 women consulting at Gynecology Outpatient Clinic of Birth and Children's Hospital in Ordu province, enrolled non-consecutively as volunteers after providing informed consent. Data for women who had a history of at least one pap smear in her history were compared with those having none. RESULTS: 24.7% of women had knowledge about the pap smear test and 11.8% of them had undergone at least one pap smear test. Higher mean age (p=0.000), high education level (p=0.013), duration of marriage (p=0.001), working outside home (p=0.000), use of contraceptive method (p=0.000), history of cancer in women's family or relatives (p=0.021), having a sexually transmitted disease history (p=0.042), positive attitude towards gynecologic examination of women (p=0.000) and considering oneself in a cervical cancer risk group (p=0.004) were positively associated with a pap smear test history. CONCLUSION: Since the rate of pap smear testing was very low, education of women about screening and protection against cervical cancer appears a high priority.

Erbil N; Tezcan Y; Gür EN; Yildirim M; Ali? N

2010-01-01

103

Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) were investigated. Types of explants, strains and densities of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and co-culture methods were examined to optimize gene transformation. The results showed that among strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tested, LBA 4404 containing pBI 121 gave the calli with the highest resistance to kanamycin. Kanamycin at the concentration of 50-100 mg/l was the best range for selection of transformants. Higher density of agrobacteria tended to promote higher frequency of transformation. The best co-culture method was dipping the explant in a solution of agrobacteria for 10 minutes, followed by culturing onto co-culture medium without antibiotic for 48 hours. Among the explants used to co- culture with bacteria, half leaf treatment gave the best result for transformation; however, callus proliferation and plantlet regeneration were inferior to whole leaf treatment. Activity of ?-Glucuronidase (GUS) could not be detected, thus resistance to kanamycin was used for detecting transformability. Shoot primordia could be induced from kanamycin-resistant calli grown in regeneration medium. After maintenance by subculturing to the same medium 2 to 3 times in 2-3 months, the developed shoots turned brown and finally died. Hence, the transformed plant of mangosteen was not obtained from this experiment.

Sompong Te-chato; Vitoon Chaipakdee

2003-01-01

104

Factors affecting complications in radiated breast reconstruction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Breast irradiation in combination with breast reconstruction is associated with increased complications. Because of the diminishing threshold for radiotherapy, breast reconstruction irradiation is rising. Our aim was to evaluate factors affecting outcomes in irradiated breast reconstructions. METHODS: A review of consecutive patients who underwent mastectomy, radiation, and breast reconstruction was conducted. Patient demographics, operative procedure, breast irradiation timing, and postoperative complications were collected. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-four patients (157 breast reconstructions) were included with a mean follow-up of 6 years. Average age at reconstruction was 50 years. One hundred nine cases were immediate and 48 cases were delayed. Sixty-eight cases were autologous reconstructions and 89 cases were implant-based. Thirty-seven cases used acellular dermal matrices (ADMs); 60% of cases were radiated before reconstruction and 40% were radiated afterward. Major complications occurred in 43% of patients and minor complications occurred in 17%. The presence of ADM led to an increase in complication rate with a 2.3-fold greater chance of requiring reoperation (P = 0.03). No significant difference in complication rates was associated with presence of hypertension, diabetes, smoking, elevated body mass index, autologous versus implant-based reconstructions, delayed versus immediate reconstructions, and time between radiation and reconstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Radiation after prosthetic reconstruction may produce an increase in failure rates. The use of ADMs in the face of breast irradiation increases the likelihood of a complication requiring reoperation.

Pestana IA; Campbell DC; Bharti G; Thompson JT

2013-05-01

105

[Factors affecting mortality in blunt thoracic trauma].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Blunt thoracic trauma is usually associated with extra-thoracic injuries, but the effect of blunt thoracic trauma on mortality is not known. METHODS: Patients with blunt thoracic trauma were evaluated with regard to clinical findings and factors affecting mortality. RESULTS: There were 76 patients (37.2±15 years) in the study group. Traffic accidents (63%) were the most common cause of trauma. Pneumothorax (54%), rib fracture (42%), hemothorax (22%) and lung contusion (22%) were common thoracic injuries. Extra-thoracic injuries were most commonly seen in the extremities (46%) and abdomen (40%). Glasgow Coma, Injury Severity and Revised Trauma Scores were 14±2.6, 19±13 and 7.4±1.5, respectively. Non-operative management was effective in 37 (48.7%) patients, tube thoracotomy and thoracotomy were performed in 37 (48.7%) and 2 (2.6%) patients, respectively. Mortality rate was 10.5%. Systolic blood pressure lower than 90 mmHg and superficial and apneic respiration at the first admission, and values of trauma scoring systems were significantly associated with mortality (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The effect of thoracic trauma on mortality with regard to thoracic pathology is not shown, although it is usually associated with extra-thoracic injuries. There was a close relationship between the pattern of respiration, values of systolic blood pressure and trauma scoring systems, and mortality. Non-operative management and tube thoracotomy were effective in most of the cases.

Hasbahçeci M; Ozpek A; Ba?ak F; Cal??kan M; Ener BK; Alimo?lu O

2013-03-01

106

Some Environmental Factors Affecting on Growth Characteristics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Live weights, weight gains and some body measurements at different ages of Eastern Anatolian Red Cattle (EAR) were determined and some environmental factors affecting on these traits were investigated. The effect of dam’s age on the birth weight was highly significant (P<0.01). Although the lowest birth weight was obtained from calves of dams at the 3 years of age, the highest birth weight was obtained from calves given birth by cows at the 5 years of age. The males had heavier live weights and weight gains at different ages than the females. The effect of the sex on the live weights except for 9 and 12 months weights was found as highly significant (P<0.01). Feeding of the calves with different amount of milk had significant (P<0.01) influence on the 3, 6 and 9 months weights as well as weight gains. The effect of the years on the daily weight gains in EAR was also highly significant (P<0.01). The results shows the importance of the environmental effects on the traits studied and revealed that there is need for them to be corrected prior to the improvement studies.

A. Ozluturk; O. Guler; M. Yanar; O. Akbulut; N. Tuzemen

2007-01-01

107

Fenugreek seed affects intestinal microbiota and immunological variables in piglets after weaning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fenugreek seed has been shown to affect the intestinal microbiota and immunological responses in animals. A feeding trial with male castrated piglets was performed over 28 d without or with the addition of 1·5 g fenugreek seeds/kg complete diet in ten and eleven piglets, weaned at 21 d. In the intestinal tract, pH, lactate and SCFA were measured as major bacterial metabolites. Immune cell phenotypes, phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferation after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen, concanavalin A and phytohaemagglutinin M were measured by flow cytometry. Health status and performance of the piglets were not affected by fenugreek. The pH in the caecum and colon were reduced compared with the control (Pfenugreek diet had higher Lactobacillus and clostridium cluster I concentrations and lower Escherichia, Hafnia and Shigella concentrations in the small intestine. The addition of fenugreek increased the relative concentration of the ?? T-cell population (TCR1+CD8?-) in the blood with a simultaneous reduction of antigen-presenting cells (MHCII+CD5-) (Pfenugreek seeds might be interesting as a feed ingredient for young piglets due to their effects on the intestinal microbiota and immunological variables. The impact on performance and animal health has to be further evaluated. PMID:22874597

Zentek, Jürgen; Gärtner, Stefanie; Tedin, Lydia; Männer, Klaus; Mader, Anneluise; Vahjen, Wilfried

2012-07-03

108

Perturbing the metabolic dynamics of myo-inositol in developing Brassica napus seeds through in vivo methylation impacts its utilization as phytate precursor and affects downstream metabolic pathways.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: myo-Inositol (Ins) metabolism during early stages of seed development plays an important role in determining the distributional relationships of some seed storage components such as the antinutritional factors, sucrose galactosides (also known as raffinose oligosaccharides) and phytic acid (PhA) (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate). The former is a group of oligosaccharides, which plays a role in desiccation at seed maturation. They are not easily digested by monogastric animals, hence their flatulence-causing properties. Phytic acid is highly negatively charged, which chelates positive ions of essential minerals and decreases their bioavailability. It is also a major cause of phosphate-related water pollution. Our aim was to investigate the influence of competitive diversion of Ins as common substrate on the biosynthesis of phytate and sucrose galactosides. RESULTS: We have studied the initial metabolic patterns of Ins in developing seeds of Brassica napus and determined that early stages of seed development are marked by rapid deployment of Ins into a variety of pathways, dominated by interconversion of polar (Ins phosphates) and non-polar (phospholipids) species. In a time course experiment at early stages of seed development, we show Ins to be a highly significant constituent of the endosperm and seed coat, but with no phytate biosynthesis occurring in either tissue. Phytate accumulation appears to be confined mainly within the embryo throughout seed development and maturation. In our approach, the gene for myo-inositol methyltransferase (IMT), isolated from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (ice plant), was transferred to B. napus under the control of the seed-specific promoters, napin and phaseolin. Introduction of this new metabolic step during seed development prompted Ins conversion to the corresponding monomethyl ether, ononitol, and affected phytate accumulation. We were able to produce homozygous transgenic lines with 19%-35% average phytate reduction. Additionally, changes in the raffinose content and related sugars occurred along with enhanced sucrose levels. Germination rates, viability and other seed parameters were unaffected by the IMT transgene over-expression. CONCLUSIONS: Competitive methylation of Ins during seed development reduces seed antinutritional components and enhances its nutritional characteristics while maintaining adequate phosphate reserves. Such approach should potentially raise the canola market value and likely, that of other crops.

Dong J; Yan W; Bock C; Nokhrina K; Keller W; Georges F

2013-01-01

109

Proximate Composition, Antinutritional Factors and Protein Fractions of Guar Gum Seeds as Influenced by Processing Treatments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The proximate composition, antinutritional factors and protein fractions of guar seeds were studied before and after autoclaving, soaking followed by dehulling and germination treatments. Chemical composition was varied between the treatments. Soaking of seeds followed by dehulling significantly increase protein content to 67.8%. Germination of seeds increased tannin and phytic acid content of the seeds. Polyphenols were fluctuating during processing. Albumin fraction of the seeds was decreased; prolamin and globulin were fluctuated during processing while glutelin was greatly increased.

Majed B. Ahmed; Rashed A. Hamid; Mohamed E. Ali; Amro B. Hassan; Elfadil E. Babiker

2006-01-01

110

Factors affecting liver uptake of gallium-67  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From our clinical experience, we have suggested that the absence of liver uptake during Ga-67 scintigraphy was mainly due to markedly decreased unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC). We have succeeded in producing a rat model of absent liver uptake by administration of iron and vincristine to markedly decrease UIBC. However, the possibility of decreased liver uptake of Ga-67 due to liver dysfunction caused by these drugs can not be denied, so we performed further experiments. The changes of uptake by liver and other tissues, and UIBC induced by administration of apotransferrin (ATF) and deferoxamine (DEF) before the second scan were determined. The abscess uptake of Ga-67 during the absence of liver uptake was also determined. The administration of ATF one day before the second scan made liver uptake recover to almost normal levels and UIBC recover considerably. No recovery was produced by administration of DEF. The mechanism of Ga-67 uptake in various tissues is not completely clear. The theory that the amount of strage iron in the liver affects liver uptake has been proposed. The possibility is also suggested that antineoplastic agents may damage the synthesis of transferrin (TF) and intracellular Ga-67 carrier molecules, and/or block TF receptors in the hepatocyte to decrease liver uptake. The fact that liver uptake recovered rapidly after administration of ATF refutes these hypotheses, at least in vivo, and serum UIBC level is the decisive factor in liver uptake of Ga-67. The lack of significant decrease in abscess uptake of Ga-67 during the absence of liver uptake may suggest that the pathway to the abscesses is different from that to the liver. (author).

Nogami, Makoto; Shinotsuka, Akira; Hirono, Yoshisada; Takenaka, Hiroki (Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

1990-06-01

111

Factors affecting reproductive performance of Holstein heifers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives were to evaluate factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy heifers. Holstein heifers (6389) were housed in a feed lot located in Parma, ID. Each week heifers weighing > or =290 kg were initiated in the reproductive program, which consisted of one injection of PGF(2alpha) and AI on detection of estrus. Heifers not inseminated by 11 days after the initiation of the breeding program received a second injection of PGF(2alpha). Pregnancy was diagnosed at 40+/-3 and 90+/-3 days after AI. Average daily minimum temperature (ADMnT), average daily maximum temperature (ADMxT), and average daily rainfall (ARF) were recorded between 15 days prior to and 15 days after the day of AI or the day of initiation of the breeding program. Exposure to air temperature was classified as: cold stress (CS=ADMnT4 degrees C and ADMxT or =29 degrees C). Exposure to rainfall was classified as above (HRF) or below (LRF) the mean for the period in question. Heifers were classified according to body weight at initiation of the breeding program as thin (TH365 kg). Service sire was associated with conception rate at 40 and 90 days after first AI. Although exposure to air temperature was not correlated with conception rate at 40 days after first AI, heifers exposed to cold stress had smaller conception rates at 90 days after first AI because they were more likely to lose pregnancy between 40 and 90 days of gestation. The proportion of heifers inseminated after initiation of the breeding program was correlated with body weight and exposure to cold stress. Exposure to cold stress was also correlated with the proportion of heifers conceiving within 11 and 22 days after initiation of the breeding program. From this study a correlation was established between body weight and rate of insemination and between the exposure to cold stress and reproductive efficiency of Holstein heifers. PMID:17045427

Chebel, Ricardo C; Braga, Fernando A; Dalton, Joseph C

2006-09-10

112

Factors affecting bone strength other than osteoporosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Osteoporosis is the most common cause of bone fragility, especially in post-menopausal women. Bone strength may be compromised by several other medical conditions and medications, which must be ruled out in the clinical management of patients affected by fragility fractures. Indeed, 20-30 % of women and up to 50 % of men affected by bone fragility are diagnosed with other conditions affecting bone strength other than osteoporosis. These conditions include disorders of bone homeostasis, impaired bone remodeling, collagen disorders, and medications qualitatively and quantitatively affecting bone strength. Proper diagnosis allows correct treatment to prevent the occurrence of fragility fractures.

Ratti C; Vulcano E; Canton G; Marano M; Murena L; Cherubino P

2013-09-01

113

Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) seed size affects germination response to coumarin  

Science.gov (United States)

The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. This response may have significant impact on weed control by allelopathic cover crops where the small-seeded weeds would be more effectively controlled than large-seeded species. The stu...

114

Fenugreek seed affects intestinal microbiota and immunological variables in piglets after weaning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fenugreek seed has been shown to affect the intestinal microbiota and immunological responses in animals. A feeding trial with male castrated piglets was performed over 28 d without or with the addition of 1·5 g fenugreek seeds/kg complete diet in ten and eleven piglets, weaned at 21 d. In the intestinal tract, pH, lactate and SCFA were measured as major bacterial metabolites. Immune cell phenotypes, phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferation after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen, concanavalin A and phytohaemagglutinin M were measured by flow cytometry. Health status and performance of the piglets were not affected by fenugreek. The pH in the caecum and colon were reduced compared with the control (P< 0·05). Higher concentrations of l-lactic acid were recorded in the small-intestinal digesta (average concentrations from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum; P< 0·05), while the concentrations of SCFA remained unchanged except an increase in n-butyric acid in colon contents (P< 0·05). The piglets fed the fenugreek diet had higher Lactobacillus and clostridium cluster I concentrations and lower Escherichia, Hafnia and Shigella concentrations in the small intestine. The addition of fenugreek increased the relative concentration of the ?? T-cell population (TCR1+CD8?-) in the blood with a simultaneous reduction of antigen-presenting cells (MHCII+CD5-) (P< 0·05). Proliferation rate and phagocytosis activity of monocytes were not affected by the additive. In conclusion, fenugreek seeds might be interesting as a feed ingredient for young piglets due to their effects on the intestinal microbiota and immunological variables. The impact on performance and animal health has to be further evaluated.

Zentek J; Gärtner S; Tedin L; Männer K; Mader A; Vahjen W

2013-03-01

115

Factors affecting reproductive performance of Holstein heifers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives were to evaluate factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy heifers. Holstein heifers (6389) were housed in a feed lot located in Parma, ID. Each week heifers weighing > or =290 kg were initiated in the reproductive program, which consisted of one injection of PGF(2alpha) and AI on detection of estrus. Heifers not inseminated by 11 days after the initiation of the breeding program received a second injection of PGF(2alpha). Pregnancy was diagnosed at 40+/-3 and 90+/-3 days after AI. Average daily minimum temperature (ADMnT), average daily maximum temperature (ADMxT), and average daily rainfall (ARF) were recorded between 15 days prior to and 15 days after the day of AI or the day of initiation of the breeding program. Exposure to air temperature was classified as: cold stress (CS=ADMnT< or =4 degrees C), no stress (NS=ADMnT>4 degrees C and ADMxT<29 degrees C), and heat stress (HS=ADMxT> or =29 degrees C). Exposure to rainfall was classified as above (HRF) or below (LRF) the mean for the period in question. Heifers were classified according to body weight at initiation of the breeding program as thin (TH<340 kg); moderate (MD=340-365 kg); and heavy (HY>365 kg). Service sire was associated with conception rate at 40 and 90 days after first AI. Although exposure to air temperature was not correlated with conception rate at 40 days after first AI, heifers exposed to cold stress had smaller conception rates at 90 days after first AI because they were more likely to lose pregnancy between 40 and 90 days of gestation. The proportion of heifers inseminated after initiation of the breeding program was correlated with body weight and exposure to cold stress. Exposure to cold stress was also correlated with the proportion of heifers conceiving within 11 and 22 days after initiation of the breeding program. From this study a correlation was established between body weight and rate of insemination and between the exposure to cold stress and reproductive efficiency of Holstein heifers.

Chebel RC; Braga FA; Dalton JC

2007-10-01

116

Stability in and Correlation between Factors Influencing Genetic Quality of Seed Lots in Seed Orchard of Pinus tabuliformis Carr. over a 12-Year Span  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coniferous seed orchards require a long period from initial seed harvest to stable seed production. Differential reproductive success and asynchrony are among the main factors for orchard crops year-to-year variation in terms of parental gametic contribution and ultimately the genetic gain. It is fu...

Li, Wei; Wang, Xiaoru; Li, Yue

117

Determination of Minerals and Anti-Nutritional Factors of Some Lesser-Known Crop Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cost of raw material needed for the production of animal feed has led to the evaluation and ascertaining the adequacy of some lesser known crop seeds for minerals composition and the possible effects of anti nutritional factors on the availability of the required nutrients. The mineral elements and anti nutritional factors Jatropha curcas, Trichosanthes cucumerina, Citrillius vulgaris, were determined using standard analytical methods. The concentration of copper (16.00 mg/kg-43.00 mg/kg), Zinc [33.00 mg/kg-45.00 mg/kg], Manganese [51.70 mg/kg-63.00 mg/kg], Potassium [8704.15 mg/kg-9246.33 mg/kg], Sodium [170v mg/kg-206. mg/kg], Phosphorus [322.20 mg/kg-411.60 mg/kg], Iron [133 mg/kg-187 mg/kg], Magnesium [1896.00 mg/kg-2394 mg/kg] and Calcium [1534.00 mg/kg-1826.00 mg/kg], varied significantly in the seeds respectively. The content of the minerals in metabolize state were greatly affected by the anti-nutritional factors, tannin [7.50 mg/100 g-25.30 mg/100 g], saponin [1100.00 mg/100 g-2097 mg/100 g], oxalate [17.40 mg/100 g-40.65 mg/100 g], nitrite [50.30 mg/100 g-57.30 mg/100 g], nitrate [9.00 mg/100 g-24.60 mg/100 g] and phytic acid [480.03 mg/100 g-2012.02 mg/100 g]. Concentration of mineral elements in all lesser known crop seeds are below the dietary requirements for animal.

N.O.A. Ilelaboye; O.O. Pikuda

2009-01-01

118

Characterization and Epidemiological Significance of Potato Plants Grown from Seed Tubers Affected by Zebra Chip Disease  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An emerging disease of potato in the United States, known as “Zebra Chip” or “Zebra Complex” (ZC), is increasing in scope and threatens to spread further. Here, we report on studies performed to understand the role of tuberborne ZC in the epidemiology of this disease. Depending on variety, up to 44% of ZC-affected seed tubers (ZCST) were viable, producing hair sprouts and weak plants. Chip discoloration in progeny tubers of ZCST was more severe than those from ZC-asymptomatic seed tubers but varied depending on whether progeny tubers or foliage were positive or negative for ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’. A low percentage of greenhouse-grown plants produced by ZCST tested positive for ‘Ca. Liberibacter’. No adult potato psyllids became infective after feeding upon these plants but they did acquire ‘Ca. Liberibacter’ from field-grown plants produced by ZCST. Plants with new ZC infections near plants produced by ZCST were not significantly different from healthy plants, whereas plants affected with ZC from infectious potato psyllids had significantly more ZC infections near either plants produced by ZCST or healthy plants. We conclude that, in areas where ZC is currently established, plants produced by ZCST do not significantly contribute to ZC incidence and spread within potato fields.

Henne DC; Workneh F; Wen A; Price JA; Pasche JS; Gudmestad NC; Rush CM

2010-06-01

119

Three genotypes of soybean (Glysine max L.) grown under semi-arid conditions of Sudan affected by seed rates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted for two consecutive seasons (2008/09-2009/10) at the Demonstrated Farm, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Sudan, to study the effect of seed rates on growth, and yield, of three genotypes of soybean (Glycine max.L.). Treatments were three genotypes G1 (Egyptian), G2 (1448-2E (M)) andG3 (1905-2E (M) and seed rate were SR1 (48.000seedha-2 , one seed /hole one side), SR2(195.000seedha-2 , two seeds/hole two sides) and SR3 (146.000seedha-2 , three seeds/ hole one side ).The experiment was designed in randomized complete block design, with two factor genotypes arranged in main plot, and seed rate in subplot with four replications. The parameters studied were plant height and number of leaves /plant at (30, 45, 60 and 75days) from sowing, dry weight of plant(g), number of pods/plant, number of seed/pods, weight of pods/plant, weight of seed/plant, and yield( kg/ha) The results of the two seasons, showed significant differences between all treatments. Except the number of seed/plant, and weight of pods/plant. Genotype 1418-2E (M) gave higher yield and fresh weight (forage), compared with Egyptian and 1905-2E (M)

Yagoub S. O. et al.

2013-01-01

120

Does Cold Plasma Affect Breaking Dormancy and Seed Germination? A Study on Seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low-pressure discharge is applied for stimulation of germination of two seed lots of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) with different starting germinations (17%, 8%) and in different stages of dormancy. Different exposition durations with cold plasma treatment were applied. The variable of the ratio cumulative germination was calculated. The Richards' equation was used for curve-fitting and simulation of the growth curves. Population parameters, namely Vi - viability, Me - time, Qu - dispersion, and Sk - skewness, counted from the curves described the germination rate well. Significant differences among Qu confirmed the erratic dormancy and gradual germination of Lamb's Quarters. No difference in the Me parameter was found between two tested seed lots, and no interspecies characteristics were changed using low-pressure discharge. The results suggested that plasma treatment changed seed germination in Lamb's Quarters seeds.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Factors affecting coke-oven productivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors examine the parameters affecting coke-oven productivity. They begin by defining productivity and, having assessed the significance of 400 kg oven tests, they proceed to investigate; (1) The influence of carbonisation parameters which they classify as constitutional parameters and operating parameters. (2) The effect of the charging method. The findings suggest that variations in oven productivity are very much linked to the quality of heat transfer in the charge. Certain parameters were deliberately left aside. (10 refs.) (In French)

Yax, E.; Duchene, S.M.

1984-01-01

122

Factors affecting levodopa effects in Parkinson's disease.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Levodopa is the gold standard for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) because of its outstanding clinical efficacy. However, the majority of patients experience various adverse reactions, including the wearing-off phenomenon, the on-off phenomenon, dyskinesia and psychiatric symptoms. The response to levodopa depends not only on the intrinsic responsiveness of the patients, but also on various other important factors including the type of levodopa preparation, its absorption/metabolism, the blood-brain barrier, age at onset of disease and concomitant use of anti-parkinsonian drugs. This review summarizes factors which influence the effects of levodopa in PD. To minimize levodopa-induced adverse reactions and to relieve long-term parkinsonian symptoms, levodopa therapy should be conducted by taking these factors into consideration.

Ogawa N

2000-01-01

123

Epidemiological Factors Affecting Low Birth Weight  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the epidemiological factors influencing low birthweight. The prominent factors associated with low birth weight (LBW) such as maternal age, parity,obstetric and maternal anthropometry were studied in a rural community of district Dehradun. Theaverage birth weight of all newborns was 2.67± 0.42 kg and 23.84% of newborns were LBW. Thefactors which were significant for LBW were antenatal care, parity, inter-pregnancy interval, gestationalweight, and bad obstetric history. However, the relationship between maternal age and height withlow birth weight was not found to be statistically significant (p>.05).

K.S. Negi, S.D. Kandpal, M. Kukreti

2006-01-01

124

Controlling external factors affecting accounts receivable.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

External factors such as complex billing arrangements, decreasing healthcare benefits, and increasing numbers of uninsured workers contribute to a hospital's outstanding accounts receivable. Instituting measures for getting payment in full and as soon as possible can help control for outside influences and reduce outstanding receivables.

Ramey N; Bradley L

1991-08-01

125

Continuing education: factors which affect cognitive benefits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 16-week continuing education course in clinical chemistry provided for a group of laboratory professionals was evaluated in terms of those factors in the participants' backgrounds which influenced their performance on precourse and postcourse examinations. Work setting, facility size, educational background, and sex influenced precourse scores. Educational background and occupational function influenced postcourse test scores.

Parker SL; Davis SH

1979-01-01

126

Factors Affecting Labour Productivity in Manufacturing Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article presents the results of the analysis of the factors influencing labour productivity in the manufacturing business sector in 2004–2008. Labour productivity was analyzed in the context of the assets productivity, technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, wages, value add...

Zbigniew Go?a?

127

Factors affecting bony impingement in hip arthroplasty.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Computer modeling of 10 patients' computed tomographic scans was used to study the variables affecting hip arthroplasty range of motion before bony impingement (ROMBI) including acetabular offset and height, femoral offset, height and anteversion, and osteophyte removal. The ROMBI was compared with the ROM before component impingement and the native hip ROM. The ROMBI decreased with decreased total offset and limb shortening. Acetabular offset and height had a greater effect on ROMBI than femoral offset and height. The ROMBI lost with decreased acetabular offset was not fully recoverable with an increase in femoral offset or osteophyte removal. Bony impingement increased and component impingement decreased with decreased acetabular offset and increased head diameter.

Kurtz WB; Ecker TM; Reichmann WM; Murphy SB

2010-06-01

128

Internal factors affecting the jury members verdict  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of socio-demographic and individual psychological characteristics that influence the verdict of jury. The study involved 38 men and women aged 25 to 64 years. With the help of a questionnaire, developed on the basis of legal development model by J. Tapp and F. Levine, we revealed levels of jury members’ legal conscience, which, together with socio-demographic characteristics and personality characteristics of the subjects, identified by R. Cattell 16PF Questionnaire, were related to the responses on the Questionnaire while returning verdict on specially selected criminal cases with implicit guilt of the defendant. According to the study, it was determined that the socio-demographic characteristics of the jurors did not significantly affect their verdict, and among the psychological characteristics of the jurors the greatest impact on their verdict has the level of legal development. Thus, depending on the nature of the crime (violent, non-violent or committed through negligence), the same level of legal conscience differently affect the decision of jurors.

Kalashnikova A.S.; Levochkina N.S.

2013-01-01

129

Factors affecting triadimefon degradation in soils.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The degradation of triadimefon [1-(4-chlorophenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butan-2-one] was studied in two soils, mollisol and inseptisol, under varying conditions of moisture and temperature, and the role of cow manure amendment and soil sterilization on fungicide degradation was ascertained. The soil moisture content affected the pathway followed for triadimefon degradation. In nonflooded soils (60% water-holding capacity), triadimefon was reduced to triadimenol, and in flooded soils, it was metabolized to the diol derivative [1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-3,3-dimethylbutan-2-one-1,4-diol]. In nonflooded soils, triadimefon was more persistent in soil having more organic carbon content (mollisol), and the amendment of cow manure (5%) further enhanced its persistence. On the contrary, in flooded soil systems, the higher the soil organic carbon content was, the less persistent was the fungicide, and amendment of cow manure further enhanced its degradation. Triadimefon degradation was faster at 35 degrees C than at 27 degrees C. Triadimefon degradation in soils was mediated by the microorganisms, and no triadimefon degradation was observed in sterile soils. Triadimefon (1 mg/kg) did not affect soil phosphatase activity in either of the soils; however, soil dehydrogenase activity was significantly reduced, especially in mollisol soil.

Singh N

2005-01-01

130

SOME FACTORS AFFECTING UNDERGRADUATE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A related series of studies, most of which have been published previously, is described. These studies form a coherent whole and demonstrate the development of a theme, namely, the identification of factors in the student and the medical school which, in their interaction, influenced undergraduate academic performance at one medical school. In the population concerned no reliable positive or negative correlation could be demonstrated between cognitive ability and academic performance, when the former was measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Medical College Admission Test, and the latter by the current assessment methods of the medical school. Other factors, including socioeconomic and individual personality variables, are at present under investigation as to their effect on academic achievement. It is emphasized that the results of these studies cannot be regarded as valid for all medical schools, but the methods employed can be generalized.

HUNTER RC

1965-04-01

131

Factors which affect fatigue strength of fasteners  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Axial load cycling fatigue tests of threaded fasteners are useful in determining fastener fatigue failure or design properties. By using appropriate design factors between the failure and design fatigue strengths, such tests are used to establish fatigue failure and design parameters of fasteners for axial and bending cyclic load conditions. This paper reviews the factors which influence the fatigue strength of low Alloy steel threaded fasteners, identifies those most significant to fatigue strength, and provides design guidelines based on the direct evaluation of fatigue tests of threaded fasteners. Influences on fatigue strength of thread manufacturing process (machining and rolling of threads), effect of fastener membrane and bending stresses, thread root radii, fastener sizes, fastener tensile strength, stress relaxation, mean stress, and test temperature are discussed.

Skochko, G.W.; Herrmann, T.P.

1992-11-01

132

Factors Affecting Labour Productivity in Manufacturing Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis of the factors influencing labour productivity in the manufacturing business sector in 2004–2008. Labour productivity was analyzed in the context of the assets productivity, technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, wages, value added and depreciation costs, and using linear stepwise regression. The study shows that despite significant progress, the level of labour productivity in domestic manufacturing significantly lower than the average in the European Union. Lower than in Poland, the level of labour productivity gain only companies in Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Estimated parameters of the regression function showed that the most important determinants of labour productivity in manufacturing are technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, assets productivity, level of added value in relation to revenues. These factors explain the variability of labour productivity in 2004–2008 in a high degree.

Zbigniew Go?a?

2010-01-01

133

Factors Affecting Labour Productivity in Manufacturing Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis of the factors influencing labour productivity in the manufacturing business sector in 20042008. Labour productivity was analyzed in the context of the assets productivity, technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, wages, value added and depreciation costs, and using linear stepwise regression. The study shows that despite significant progress, the level of labour productivity in domestic manufacturing significantly lower than the average in the European Union. Lower than in Poland, the level of labour productivity gain only companies in Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Estimated parameters of the regression function showed that the most important determinants of labour productivity in manufacturing are technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, assets productivity, level of added value in relation to revenues. These factors explain the variability of labour productivity in 20042008 in a high degree.

Zbigniew Go?a?

2011-01-01

134

Influence of Nitrogenous Fertilizers, Gypsum and Seed Priming on Wheat Yield under Salt Affected Soil Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field experiment, to evaluate the effect of nitrogenous fertilizers i.e. urea, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate with and without gypsum and seed priming on productivity of wheat, was performed.The field was surveyed by EM-38 at 2x2m grid to identify areas of uniform salinity. The experimental design was factorial randomized, having ECe values of 3.5 to 5.5, 4.0 to 6.9, 5.0 to 9.1 and 6.1 to 10.1 dSm-1 in R1, R2, R3 and R4 respectively. There was no significant effect of fertilizer type, gypsum and seed priming on any yield parameters. However, ammonium nitrate was better over the other two fertilizers in terms of yield. Similar to yield, soil and plant K+, Na+ concentrations and K/Na ratio were not affected significantly with various treatments. Leaf K+ and K/Na ratio was positively correlated with grain yield and Na+ concentration was negatively correlated.

Muhammad Jamal Khan; Mazhar Ali Khan Tanoli; Riaz A. Khattak

2001-01-01

135

Factors affecting the microstructure of porous ceramics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, porous ceramics were produced by using two methods: the polymeric sponge and foam method. Astudy of the effect of viscosity on the characteristics of the final product produced using the polymeric sponge method revealed that the microstructure of porous ceramics is highly affected by the viscosity of the slurry. The optimal ratio between porosity and the strength of the porous material was achieved by subsequently repeating the immersing and drying processes. Astudy of the porous material obtained using the foam method revealed that the pore size and foam volume can be controlled by varying the amounts of anhydride and thermal blowing agent. The problem related to foam collapsing was solved by using a thermal blowing agent. The microstructure of the samples was characterized by SEM.

DUSAN TRIPKOVIC; VESNA RADOJEVIC; RADOSLAV ALEKSIC

2006-01-01

136

Examining Factors Affecting Classroom Attendance and Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: This study examined the relationship between four class attitudinal variables and how it affects class attendance and performance. A questionnaire was administered to 134 undergraduate students at medium sized college in Taiwan. The data included questions about the participant’s rating of the level of difficulty of the course (Difficulty), the topics covered in the course (Topics), their motivation towards attending the course (Motivation), and whether or not the participants felt that the course is practical and useful to their future (Practicality). The results of the Pearson correlation coefficients showed that 4 out of the 15 correlations were statistically significant. The negative correlation found between motivation and topics; and practicality and topics suggest the attitude that when choosing courses, students tend to choose courses that they think would easy to pass. The finding that none of the variables were significantly correlated to course attendance and course performance suggests that the strongest predictor of success of a course is based on the student’s level of attendance. This lead to the discussion in the conclusion about pedagogical implications for what teachers can do in their classrooms.

Peter Tze-Ming Chou; Ya-Hui Kuo

2012-01-01

137

Environmental factors affecting corrosion of munitions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spent small arms munitions have accumulated for years at outdoor firing ranges operated by the DoD and other groups. Used bullets are often subjected to moisture sources. There is increasing concern that accumulations of lead-based munitions represent potential sources of water and soil pollution. To understand both the severity of and solutions to this problem, it is necessary to measure how rapidly bullets corrode and to determine the soil variables affecting the process. In this study M16 bullets were buried in samples of soil taken from Louisiana army firing ranges. Four environmental conditions were simulated; rain water, acid rain, sea water, and 50% sea water/50% acid rain. The three electrode technique was used to measure the bullet corrosion. Graphite rods served as counter electrodes. A saturated calomel reference electrode was used along with a specially constructed salt bridge. Electrochemical measurements were conducted using a computer-controlled potentiostat to determine corrosion potential, soil resistance, and corrosion current. The rate of corrosion was found to markedly increase with decreasing soil pH and increasing chloride and moisture contents, with the chloride content being the most influential variable. High soil resistance and noble corrosion potential were found to be associated with low corrosion rates. This is important since both parameters can be readily measured in the field.

Bundy, K. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States); Bricka, M.; Morales, A. [Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

1995-12-31

138

Exploratory data analysis to identify factors influencing spatial distributions of weed seed banks  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Comparing distributions among fields, species, and management practices will help us understand the spatial dynamics of weed seed banks, but analyzing observational data requires nontraditional statistical methods. We used cluster analysis and classification and regression tree analysis (CART) to investigate factors that influence spatial distributions of seed banks. CART is a method for developing predictive models, but it is also used to explain variation in a response variable from a set of possible explanatory variables. With cluster analysis, we identified patterns of variation with direction of the distance over which seed bank density was correlated (range of spatial dependence) with single-species seed banks in corn. Then we predicted patterns of the seed banks with CART using field and species characteristics and seed bank density as explanatory variables. Patterns differed by magnitude of variation in the range of spatial dependence (strength of anisotropy) and direction of the maximum range. Density and type of irrigation explained the most variation in pattern. Long ranges were associated with large seed banks and stronger anisotropy with furrow than center pivot irrigation. Pattern was also explained by seed size and longevity, characteristics for natural dispersal, species, soil texture, and whether the weed was a grass or broadleaf. Significance of these factors depended on density or type of irrigation, and some patterns were predicted for more than one combination of factors. Dispersal was identified as a primary process of spatial dynamics and pattern varied for seed spread by tillage, wind, or natural dispersal. However, demographic characteristics and density were more important in this research than in previous research. Impact of these factors may have been clearer because interactions were modeled. Lack of data will be the greatest obstacle to using comparative studies and CART to understand the spatial dynamics of weed seed banks.

Wiles L; Brodahl M

2004-11-01

139

Factors affecting radiocaesium transfer to ruminants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The studies performed in the 2 year CEG/DG XII Radiation Protection Programme described here have tried to identify and quantify some of the most important factors influencing the radiocaesium levels in animal food products. The programme involved 9 laboratories in 6 countries: Belgium, Ireland, Greece, Italy, Sweden and the UK. Scientists from Norway and Germany also participated on an informal basis and are formally involved in a subsequent project. Experimental studies have largely been conducted using sheep, although some comparative studies have been performed with dairy cattle. In parallel to the experimental studies, a number of research models have been developed by participants in Greece and the UK to be interactively used with a number of different aspects in the programme. This presentation gives a short overview and discussion of the main findings of this project. (orig./DG)

Voigt, G.; Howard, B.J.; Vandecasteele, C.; Mayes, R.W.; Belli, M.; Sansone, U.; Stakelum, G.; Colgan, P.A.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Crout, N.M.J.; Jones, B.E.V., Hove, K. [GSF-ISS, Neuherberg (Germany)]|[ITE, Merlewood (United Kingdom)]|[CEN, Mol (Belgium)]|[MLURI, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)]|[ENEA-DISP, Rome (Italy)]|[MPRC, Fermoy (Ireland)]|[RPII, Dublin (Ireland)]|[Ioannina Univ., Nuclear Physics (Greece)]|[Nottingham Univ., Dept. of Environmental Sciences (United Kingdom)]|[Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Clinical Chemistry]|[Agricultural Univ., Aas (Norway). Animal Sciences

1993-12-31

140

Factors affecting the MTW zeolite cristallization process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The synthesis mechanism of the high silica zeolite types other than MFI is rarely studied in the open literature. This work is devoted to the role of different parameters governing the zeolite MTW crystallization process. The influence of the most important factors: the nature of the silica and alumina source, the type of the organic cation, the alkalinity of the reaction mixture and the crystallization temperature, was studied. The molar composition of the initial hydrogel was varied in other to determine the crystallization field of the zeolite MTW. The observed morphology and particle size of the crystallites are related to the corresponding reaction conditions. The competitive formation of the other zeolite types (prevalently MFI and BEA) is discussed.

Katovic, A.; Giordano, G. [Universita della Calabria, Rende (Italy)

1995-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do not predict knowledge workers’ proposed future length of service.Factor analysis revealed seven underlying dimensions of retention cognitions. Cluster analysis revealed nine distinct clusters of knowledge workers with regard to their retention cognitions. High levels of individualism, need for challenge and focus on personal development were demonstrated. The implications of these findings are discussed. OpsommingEen van die eienskappe van kenniswerkers is hulle hoë vlak van mobiliteit. Die koste van arbeidsomset van hierdie sleutelbronne is hoog in beide finansiële en nie-finansiële terme. Daar bestaan dus ’n behoefte om die faktore wat onderliggend is aan die retensiekognisies van kenniswerkers te verstaan. Data is ingesamel van 306 kenniswerkers in voltydse diens wat ’n wye reeks demografiese groeperings verteenwoordig. Die resultate dui daarop dat werktevredenheid en organisasieverbondenheid nie die kenniswerkers se verwagte lengte van diens voorspel nie. Faktorontleding het sewe onderliggende dimensies van retensiekognisies blootgelê. ’n Bondelontleding het nege duidelike bondels van kenniswerkers ten opsigte van hulle retensiekognisies onderskei. Hoë vlakke van individualisme, behoefte aan uitdaging en fokus op persoonlike ontwikkeling is aangedui. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

Margie Sutherland; Wilhelm Jordaan

2004-01-01

142

Economic Factors Affecting Diversified Farming Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In response to a shift toward specialization and mechanization during the 20th century, there has been momentum on the part of a vocal contingent of consumers, producers, researchers, and policy makers who call for a transition toward a new model of agriculture. This model employs fewer synthetic inputs, incorporates practices which enhance biodiversity and environmental services at local, regional, and global scales, and takes into account the social implications of production practices, market dynamics, and product mixes. Within this vision, diversified farming systems (DFS) have emerged as a model that incorporates functional biodiversity at multiple temporal and spatial scales to maintain ecosystem services critical to agricultural production. Our aim is to provide an economists' perspective on the factors which make diversified farming systems (DFS) economically attractive, or not-so-attractive, to farmers, and to discuss the potential for and roadblocks to widespread adoption. We focus on how a range of existing and emerging factors drive profitability and adoption of DFS. We believe that, in order for DFS to thrive, a number of structural changes are needed. These include: 1) public and private investment in the development of low-cost, practical technologies that reduce the costs of production in DFS, 2) support for and coordination of evolving markets for ecosystem services and products from DFS and 3) the elimination of subsidies and crop insurance programs that perpetuate the unsustainable production of staple crops. We suggest that subsidies and funding be directed, instead, toward points 1) and 2), as well as toward incentives for consumption of nutritious food.

Maria S. Bowman; David Zilberman

2013-01-01

143

Factors affecting crowded acuity: eccentricity and contrast.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Acuity measurement is a fundamental method to assess visual performance in the clinic. Little is known about how acuity measured in the presence of neighboring letters, as in the case of letter charts, changes with contrast and with nonfoveal viewing. This information is crucial for acuity measurement using low-contrast charts and when patients cannot use their fovea. In this study, we evaluated how optotype acuity, with and without flankers, is affected by contrast and eccentricity. METHODS: Five young adults with normal vision identified the orientation of a Tumbling-E presented alone or in the presence of four flanking Tumbling-Es. Edge-to-edge letter spacing ranged from 1 to 20 bar widths. Stimuli were presented on a white background for 150 ms with Weber contrast ranging from -2.5% to -99%. Flankers had the same size and contrast as the target. Testings were performed at the fovea, 3°, 5°, and 10° in the inferior visual field. RESULTS: When plotted as a function of letter spacing, acuity remains unaffected by the presence of flankers until the flankers are within the critical spacing, which averages an edge-to-edge spacing of 4.4 bar widths at the fovea and approximately 16 bar widths at all three eccentricities. Critical spacing decreases with a reduction in contrast. When plotted as a function of contrast, acuity only worsens when the contrast falls below approximately 24% at the fovea and 17% in the periphery, for flanked and unflanked conditions alike. CONCLUSIONS: The letter spacing on conventional letter charts exceeds the critical spacing for acuity measurement at the fovea, at all contrast levels. Thus, these charts are appropriate for assessing foveal acuity. In the periphery, the critical spacing is larger than the letter spacing on conventional charts. Consequently, these charts may underestimate the acuity measured in the periphery because of the effects of crowding.

Coates DR; Chin JM; Chung ST

2013-07-01

144

Factors affecting participation after traumatic brain injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: The aim of this work was to explore the extent to which social, cognitive, emotional and physical aspects influence participation after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design/subjects: An explorative study of the patient perspective of participation 4 years after TBI. The cohort consisted of all patients (age range 18-65 years), presenting in 1999-2000, admitted to the hospital (n?=?129). Sixty-three patients responded; 46 males and 17 females, mean age 41 (range 19-60) years. Methods: Four years after the injury, the European Brain Injury Questionnaire (EBIQ), EuroQol-5D, Swedish Stroke Register Questionnaire and Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA) questionnaire were sent to the sample. Data were analysed with logistic regression. Results: On the EBIQ, 40% of the sample reported problems in most questions. According to IPA, between 20% and 40% did not perceive that they had a good participation. The analyses gave 5 predictors reflecting emotional and social aspects, which could explain up to 70% of the variation in participation. Conclusion: It is not easy to find single predictors, as there seems to be a close interaction between several aspects. Motor deficits appear to have smaller significance for participation in this late state, while emotional and social factors play a major role.

Larsson J; Björkdahl A; Esbjörnsson E; Sunnerhagen KS

2013-09-01

145

Factors affecting participation after traumatic brain injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The aim of this work was to explore the extent to which social, cognitive, emotional and physical aspects influence participation after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design/subjects: An explorative study of the patient perspective of participation 4 years after TBI. The cohort consisted of all patients (age range 18-65 years), presenting in 1999-2000, admitted to the hospital (n?=?129). Sixty-three patients responded; 46 males and 17 females, mean age 41 (range 19-60) years. Methods: Four years after the injury, the European Brain Injury Questionnaire (EBIQ), EuroQol-5D, Swedish Stroke Register Questionnaire and Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA) questionnaire were sent to the sample. Data were analysed with logistic regression. Results: On the EBIQ, 40% of the sample reported problems in most questions. According to IPA, between 20% and 40% did not perceive that they had a good participation. The analyses gave 5 predictors reflecting emotional and social aspects, which could explain up to 70% of the variation in participation. Conclusion: It is not easy to find single predictors, as there seems to be a close interaction between several aspects. Motor deficits appear to have smaller significance for participation in this late state, while emotional and social factors play a major role. PMID:24002312

Larsson, Jerry; Björkdahl, Ann; Esbjörnsson, Eva; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S

2013-09-01

146

Factors affecting the performance of ultrasonic flowmeters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A programme of work is currently underway at NEL to investigate and characterise the performance of liquid ultrasonic meters over a wide range of conditions. This paper presents the results of laboratory evaluations in addition to the initial results of combined flow and flowmeter modelling. Two-phase, oil/gas performance tests were conducted on commercially available meters of 4-inch nominal bore. Specific results have been selected to illustrate performance variations related to factors in meter design and operation. Two-phase, oil/water performance tests with water-cuts of up to 15 % were also conducted on the above meters. These results are presented in their entirety. The results show deviations from single-phase performance which vary for each meter design. Baseline calibration results for four commercially available clamp-on meters are presented. The results were obtained in good installation conditions on stainless steel pipes of 4-inch and 8-inch nominal bore. The results show different levels of accuracy associated with each meter and a general conformation with predicted behaviour. The final section of the paper presents results obtained by a systematic numerical method of determining the flow profile sensitivity of various meter configurations. The results provide quantitative confirmation of the reduced sensitivity of multipath designs to variations in the velocity profile. (author)

Brown, G.J.

1997-07-01

147

Factors affecting seal life in downhole motors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The life expectancy of rotary seals in downhole motors depends on temperature generated by sliding friction as well as ambient temperature. Heat transfer calculations show that sliding friction can produce a significant rise in temperature across seal assemblies, great enough to deteriorate the seal material and cause premature failure. Thermal conductivities of seal materials and thicknesses of shaft, sleeve, and housing are major design factors influencing steady state temperature profiles across seal assemblies. In general, smaller dimensions and higher thermal conductivities allow the friction generated heat to dissipate at a lower temperature. A parameter study led to an improved rotary seal configuration which will significantly lower peak seal temperatures in downhole motors. The design will channel drilling mud near the sliding friction surface for better dissipation of the friction generated heat. Plans are being made to incorporate this improvement into the bearing seal test assembly. It is doubtful that seals made of Buna-N will perform successfully on downhole motors, even when used in the improved design. On the other hand, calculated maximum temperatures are within material limitations of Grafoil.

Dareing, D.W.

1980-01-01

148

Critical Factors that Affecting Efficiency of Solar Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device which generates electricity directly from visible light. However, their efficiency is fairly low. So, the solar cell costs expensive according to other energy resources products. Several factors affect solar cell efficiency. This paper presents the most important factors that affecting efficiency of solar cells. These effects are cell temperature, MPPT (maximum power point tracking) and energy conversion efficiency. The changing of these factors improves solar cell efficiency for more reliable applications.

Furkan Dincer; Mehmet Emin Meral

2010-01-01

149

Temperature and Moisture Status Affect Afterripening of Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia Esula) Seeds  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increasing the germination potential of dormant seeds in a population over time generally requires afterripening. Research was conducted to study the relationship between temperature and seed moisture content on afterripening of dormant leafy spurge seeds. Germination of nonafterripened seeds was 59 and 36% after 21 d for the Harwood and Fargo populations, respectively. Germination of 85 to 87% and 58 to 62% was obtained for the Harwood and Fargo populations, respectively when afterripened for 12 to 24 wk under the most effective conditions of 30 C and 2.6% seed moisture; increasing the afterripening temperature to 45 C did not increase germination. Germination decreased slightly at 30 C as the seed moisture content increased to 5.6%, but germination still exceeded that of nonafterripened seeds. Afterripening at 30 C with a seed moisture content of 9% greatly decreased germinability due to seed ageing. A temperature of 5 C was effective for afterripening when the moisture content was 3.3%, but germination was still slightly less than for the low moisture content seeds afterripened at 30 C. Afterripening seeds with 6 to 13% moisture at 5 C generally did not increase germination compared with the control, but did not result in seed ageing.

Foley ME

2008-03-01

150

A guide to forest seed handling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guide to forest seed handling focuses on seed quality, i.e., the physiological viability and vigor of the seeds. Seed and fruit development, germination, and dormancy and the fundamentals of planning seed collections are covered. The guide includes discussions on seed collection of fallen fruits or seeds from the forest floor from the crowns of felled trees, and from standing trees with access from the ground and with other means of access. Also considered are precautions to be followed during fruit and seed handling between collection and processing. The different stages in seed processing are detailed, including extraction, depulping, drying, tumbling and threshing, dewinging, cleaning, grading, and mixing. Factors affecting seed longevity in storage and the choice of storage methods are reviewed. Different forms of seed pretreatment and seed testing methods are described.

Willan, R.L.

1986-01-01

151

Factors affecting recurrence of sinonasal inverted papilloma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim is to study clinical characteristics and recurrence rates for sinonasal inverted papilloma (NIP), to evaluate relevant factors for its recurrence, and to compare the curative rates of different surgical approaches. The Krouse classification for the 156 follow-up cases of the patients with NIP was as following: 26 cases in T1, 33 cases in T2, 94 cases in T3, and 3 cases in T4. A total number of 99 cases of endoscopic sinus surgery were included, of which 26 cases of lateral rhinotomy approach were combined with Caldwell Luc approach, and 31 cases of nasal endoscopy combined with traditional surgery, with average postoperative follow-up of 3-11 years. Of the 156 studied patients with NIP, male:female = 1.69:1, age varied from 18 to 77 years, with average of 56 years, 19 cases showed postoperative recurrence, of which 8 cases developed to be squamous cell carcinoma. Among these 8 cases, 3 patients showed no recurrence after treatment in 5 years, and the other 5 patients died in 3-2 years period. Tumor recurrence rates for different surgical approach are: 9.09 % for endoscopic surgical group, 23.08 % for traditional surgical group, and 12.12 % for combined surgical group; tumor malignancy rates for different surgical approach are: 2.02 % for endoscopic surgical group, 11.54 % traditional surgical group, and 9.09 % for combined group, and Chi-square test showed that the differences in recurrence and malignancy rates for NIP patients with different surgical treatments were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Recurrence rates for different stages are: T1 at 3.85 %, T2 at 12.12 %, T3 at 14.89 %, and T4 at 0.00 %, and the differences in the recurrence rates for different stages were not statistically significant (P > 0.05) by Chi-square test. There are clear clinical features for NIP, and the recurrence is related to the thoroughness of the first time surgical removal of lesions and is less relevant with Krouse classification stage and surgical approaches.

Xiao-Ting W; Peng L; Xiu-Qing W; Hai-Bo W; Wen-Hui P; Bing L; Er-Peng Z; Guang-Gang S

2013-03-01

152

Factors affecting recurrence of sinonasal inverted papilloma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim is to study clinical characteristics and recurrence rates for sinonasal inverted papilloma (NIP), to evaluate relevant factors for its recurrence, and to compare the curative rates of different surgical approaches. The Krouse classification for the 156 follow-up cases of the patients with NIP was as following: 26 cases in T1, 33 cases in T2, 94 cases in T3, and 3 cases in T4. A total number of 99 cases of endoscopic sinus surgery were included, of which 26 cases of lateral rhinotomy approach were combined with Caldwell Luc approach, and 31 cases of nasal endoscopy combined with traditional surgery, with average postoperative follow-up of 3-11 years. Of the 156 studied patients with NIP, male:female = 1.69:1, age varied from 18 to 77 years, with average of 56 years, 19 cases showed postoperative recurrence, of which 8 cases developed to be squamous cell carcinoma. Among these 8 cases, 3 patients showed no recurrence after treatment in 5 years, and the other 5 patients died in 3-2 years period. Tumor recurrence rates for different surgical approach are: 9.09 % for endoscopic surgical group, 23.08 % for traditional surgical group, and 12.12 % for combined surgical group; tumor malignancy rates for different surgical approach are: 2.02 % for endoscopic surgical group, 11.54 % traditional surgical group, and 9.09 % for combined group, and Chi-square test showed that the differences in recurrence and malignancy rates for NIP patients with different surgical treatments were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Recurrence rates for different stages are: T1 at 3.85 %, T2 at 12.12 %, T3 at 14.89 %, and T4 at 0.00 %, and the differences in the recurrence rates for different stages were not statistically significant (P > 0.05) by Chi-square test. There are clear clinical features for NIP, and the recurrence is related to the thoroughness of the first time surgical removal of lesions and is less relevant with Krouse classification stage and surgical approaches. PMID:23064461

Xiao-Ting, Wang; Peng, Li; Xiu-Qing, Wei; Hai-Bo, Wang; Wen-Hui, Pang; Bing, Li; Er-Peng, Zhang; Guang-Gang, Shi

2012-10-12

153

Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1) aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 25°C and germination percentage at 17°C. An interaction effect on germination performance between vigor and priming was observed, especially at low temperature. Priming increased germination performance in seeds of low vigor, and the response was cultivar dependent.

Nascimento Warley Marcos; Aragão Fernando Antônio Souza de

2004-01-01

154

Study on Growth and Control of Weeds as Affected by Weeding Methods in Upland Direct Seeded Aus Rice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research work was conducted to observe weed vegetation and to ascertain the comparative control efficiency of weeding methods in upland direct seeded Aus rice. Weed density was affected significantly by weeding methods at 60 days after sowing. The highest weed density (149.14 m?2) was...

M. Robiul Alam; M.S.H. Molla; M. Shahjahan; M.O. Hoque; M. Akhtar Hossain; F. Islam

155

Can salvage logging affect seed dispersal by birds into burned forests?  

Science.gov (United States)

The recovery of vegetation in Mediterranean ecosystems after wildfire is mostly a result of direct regeneration, since the same species existing before the fire regenerate on-site by seeding or resprouting. However, the possibility of plant colonization by dispersal of seeds from unburned areas remains poorly studied. We addressed the role of the frugivorous, bird-dependent seed dispersal (seed rain) of fleshy-fruited plants in a burned and managed forest in the second winter after a fire, before on-site fruit production had begun. We also assessed the effect on seed rain of different microhabitats resulting from salvage logging (erosion barriers, standing snags, open areas), as well as the microhabitats of unlogged patches and an unburned control forest, taking account of the importance of perches as seed rain sites. We found considerable seed rain by birds in the burned area. Seeds, mostly from Olive trees Olea europaea and Evergreen pistaches Pistacia lentiscus, belonged to plants fruiting only in surrounding unburned areas. Seed rain was heterogeneous, and depended on microhabitat, with the highest seed density in the unburned control forest but closely followed by the wood piles of erosion barriers. In contrast, very low densities were found under perches of standing snags. Furthermore, frugivorous bird richness seemed to be higher in the erosion barriers than elsewhere. Our results highlight the importance of this specific post-fire management in bird-dependent seed rain and also may suggest a consequent heterogeneous distribution of fleshy-fruited plants in burned and managed areas. However, there needs to be more study of the establishment success of dispersed seeds before an accurate assessment can be made of the role of bird-mediated seed dispersal in post-fire regeneration.

Rost, J.; Pons, P.; Bas, J. M.

2009-09-01

156

Differential control of seed primary dormancy in Arabidopsis ecotypes by the transcription factor SPATULA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Freshly matured seeds exhibit primary dormancy, which prevents germination until environmental conditions are favorable. The establishment of dormancy occurs during seed development and involves both genetic and environmental factors that impact on the ratio of two antagonistic phytohormones: abscisic acid (ABA), which promotes dormancy, and gibberellic acid, which promotes germination. Although our understanding of dormancy breakage in mature seeds is well advanced, relatively little is known about the mechanisms involved in establishing dormancy during seed maturation. We previously showed that the SPATULA (SPT) transcription factor plays a key role in regulating seed germination. Here we investigate its role during seed development and find that, surprisingly, it has opposite roles in setting dormancy in Landsberg erecta and Columbia Arabidopsis ecotypes. We also find that SPT regulates expression of five transcription factor encoding genes: ABA-INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) and ABI5, which mediate ABA signaling; REPRESSOR-OF-GA (RGA) and RGA-LIKE3 involved in gibberellic acid signaling; and MOTHER-OF-FT-AND-TFL1 (MFT) that we show here promotes Arabidopsis seed dormancy. Although ABI4, RGA, and MFT are repressed by SPT, ABI5 and RGL3 are induced. Furthermore, we show that RGA, MFT, and ABI5 are direct targets of SPT in vivo. We present a model in which SPT drives two antagonistic "dormancy-repressing" and "dormancy-promoting" routes that operate simultaneously in freshly matured seeds. Each of these routes has different impacts and this in turn explains the opposite effect of SPT on seed dormancy of the two ecotypes analyzed here.

Vaistij FE; Gan Y; Penfield S; Gilday AD; Dave A; He Z; Josse EM; Choi G; Halliday KJ; Graham IA

2013-06-01

157

Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

Sven Skjenneberg (ed.)

1984-01-01

158

Factors affecting the internal brain drain of Saudi healthcare professionals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To investigate factors affecting the internal brain drain of healthcare professionals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an anonymous self-administered online questionnaire...

Zuhair T. Bakhsh; Ameerah Y. Mansour; Edward K. Mensah; Kevin G. Croke; James L. Drummond; Anne Koerber

159

DOF transcription factors in developing peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DNA binding with one finger (DOF) transcription factors play important roles in storage material accumulation and morphogenesis of developing seeds. Oil and protein contents varied in different cultivars in important oil crop peanut. DOF proteins have not been studied in this crop. In this paper, we analyzed all the DOF genes expressed in developing seeds from a cDNA library with 20,000 transcripts, cloned and compared similar genes of GW391729 from eight peanut cultivars, and analyzed similar genes expressed in root and leave with control and inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum. The results indicate that total eight types of DOF genes were expressed in developing seeds of cultivar 063103. Most of DOF transcription factors expressed involved in developmental process in a complicated way. Among them, GW391729 is possible related to the seed number in fruit, and also is possible related to leafspot resistance. Detailed function of these DOF proteins need to be further studied.

Haiyan Yan; Jiaquan Huang; Boshou Liao; Xianqing Lan; Qiuting Luo; Junlong Tang

2011-01-01

160

Breeding for Grass Seed Yield  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses.

Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Seed Harvesting Time Affects Seedling Emergence, Vigour and Growth: Case Study of Rumex turcomanicus Czerep. (Polygonaceae)  

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Full Text Available Rumex turcomanicus Czerep., belonging to family Polygonaceae, is one of native green vegetable in Northeast Iran. Despite the high consumption, its seed germination and dormancy aspects is inconsiderable. In order to investigate the effects of seed harvesting date on seedling emergence, vigour and growth traits of R. turcomanicus Czerep., the seeds were harvested at five different times, i.e., two weeks after fruiting (WAF), 6WAF, 8WAF (mature seeds), 2 month after seed ripening (MASR) and 4MASR, and were sowed immediately, at agricultural college of Ferdowsi university of Mashhad, Iran in 2012-2013. The results was showed that the highest and lowest of seedling emergence percentage, seedling emergence rate, seedling vigour index, seedling fresh and dry weight, seedling root and shoot length, total seedling length and %final normal seedling (%FNS) was obtained in the seeds which were sowed 4MASR and 2WAF, respectively. Maximum and minimum of mean emergence time (MET) was observed in the seeds which were sowed 2WAF and 4MASR, respectively. Relationship between %FNS and MET and between %FNS and emergence percentage was highly significantly negative (-0.961) and positive (+0.962), respectively. Based on the results of this experiment, it seems that the problem of germination in most of the Rumex turcomanicus Czerep. seeds, is probably due to a kind of morphological dormancy, which is remained in most of the fresh seeds (collected 2WAF), and eliminated in the mature seeds (collected 2MASR). Also dry seed storage of the mature seeds for two months was improved seedling emergence and vigour, significantly.

Morteza ALIREZAIE NOGHONDAR; Majid AZIZI

2013-01-01

162

Accumulation of functional recombinant human coagulation factor IX in transgenic soybean seeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The seed-based production of recombinant proteins is an efficient strategy to achieve the accumulation, correct folding, and increased stability of these recombinant proteins. Among potential plant molecular farming systems, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is a viable option for the production of recombinant proteins due to its high protein content, known regulatory sequences, efficient gene transfer protocols, and a scalable production system under greenhouse conditions. We report here the expression and stable accumulation of human coagulation factor IX (hFIX) in transgenic soybean seeds. A biolistic process was utilised to co-introduce a plasmid carrying the hFIX gene under the transcriptional control of the ?' subunit of a ?-conglycinin seed-specific promoter and an ?-Coixin signal peptide in soybean embryonic axes from mature seeds. The 56-kDa hFIX protein was expressed in the transgenic seeds at levels of up to 0.23% (0.8 g kg(-1) seed) of the total soluble seed protein as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot. Ultrastructural immunocytochemistry assays indicated that the recombinant hFIX in seed cotyledonary cells was efficiently directed to protein storage vacuoles. Mass spectrometry characterisation confirmed the presence of the hFIX recombinant protein sequence. Protein extracts from transgenic seeds showed a blood-clotting activity of up to 1.4% of normal plasma. Our results demonstrate the correct processing and stable accumulation of functional hFIX in soybean seeds stored for 6 years under room temperature conditions (22 ± 2°C).

Cunha NB; Murad AM; Ramos GL; Maranhão AQ; Brígido MM; Araújo AC; Lacorte C; Aragão FJ; Covas DT; Fontes AM; Souza GH; Vianna GR; Rech EL

2011-08-01

163

Yield component and seed yield of wheat as affected by seed size under the rain-fed condition of Dera Ismail Khan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field experiments on the seed sizes conducted during 1994-95 and 1995-96 to determine its effect on yield component and seed yield of wheat CV. Pirsabak-85. T he treatments consisted of Large and small seed sizes. The data indicated that crop seeded with large seed size significantly produced maximum seed yield by increased number of plant stand/m2 and generally provide the greater seed weight both the years, respectively.

Rahmat Ullah Khan; Abdur Rashid; Ahmad Khan; Noor Alam Khan

2000-01-01

164

Discuss the factors that affect the outcome of endodontic treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Factors affecting the outcome of endodontic treatment are discussed from the theoretical viewpoint (microbes, foreign bodies and epithelium) and from a clinical aspect (preoperative factors, intraoperative factors and miscellaneous factors). The following conditions favour endodontic success significantly: the absence of a periapical infection, a well-condensed root filling, the root filling extending to 2 mm within the radiographic apex and not beyond, a satisfactory coronal restoration, use of a rubber dam during treatment and cases involving primary root canal treatment as opposed to retreatment. Other factors have the potential to affect success rates, but these have not yet been quantified. Although there is an array of potential factors that influence the outcome of endodontic treatment, success is most significantly dependent upon the elimination of root canal infection present when treatment starts and the prevention of contamination during treatment.

Chandra A

2009-08-01

165

Factors Affecting Milk Production in Buffaloes: A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study quantified the effect of major factors affecting the milk production in buffaloes. The important factors considered for the estimation of milk production included the value of dry fodder, the value of green fodder, the value of concentrate, number of lactations and the value of labour hours. A production function for milk was estimated by employing Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression. In the estimated model among all the relevant variables, green fodder, lactation number and labour hours were found to be the influential factors affecting milk production in this species.

Maqsood Hussain*, Abdul Ghafoor1and Abdul Saboor2

2010-01-01

166

Sugar metabolism in developing lupin seeds is affected by a short-term water deficit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A short-term water deficit (WD) imposed during the pre-storage phase of lupin seed development [15-22 d after anthesis (DAA)] accelerated seed maturation and led to smaller and lighter seeds. During seed development, neutral invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) and sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13) have a central role in carbohydrate metabolism. Neutral invertase is predominant during early seed development (up to 40 DAA) and sucrose synthase during the growing and storage phase (40-70 DAA). The contribution of acid invertase is marginal. WD decreased sucrose synthase activity by 2-fold and neutral invertase activity by 5-6-fold. These changes were linked to a large decrease in sucrose ( approximately 60%) and an increase of the hexose:sucrose ratio. Rewatering restored sucrose synthase activity to control levels while neutral invertase activity remained depressed (30-60%). A transient accumulation of starch observed in control seeds was abolished by WD. Despite the several metabolic changes the final seed composition was largely unaltered by WD except for approximately 60% increase in stachyose and raffinose (raffinose family oligosaccharides). This increase in raffinose family oligosaccharides appears as the WD imprinting on mature seeds.

Pinheiro C; Rodrigues AP; de Carvalho IS; Chaves MM; Ricardo CP

2005-10-01

167

Sugar metabolism in developing lupin seeds is affected by a short-term water deficit.  

Science.gov (United States)

A short-term water deficit (WD) imposed during the pre-storage phase of lupin seed development [15-22 d after anthesis (DAA)] accelerated seed maturation and led to smaller and lighter seeds. During seed development, neutral invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) and sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13) have a central role in carbohydrate metabolism. Neutral invertase is predominant during early seed development (up to 40 DAA) and sucrose synthase during the growing and storage phase (40-70 DAA). The contribution of acid invertase is marginal. WD decreased sucrose synthase activity by 2-fold and neutral invertase activity by 5-6-fold. These changes were linked to a large decrease in sucrose ( approximately 60%) and an increase of the hexose:sucrose ratio. Rewatering restored sucrose synthase activity to control levels while neutral invertase activity remained depressed (30-60%). A transient accumulation of starch observed in control seeds was abolished by WD. Despite the several metabolic changes the final seed composition was largely unaltered by WD except for approximately 60% increase in stachyose and raffinose (raffinose family oligosaccharides). This increase in raffinose family oligosaccharides appears as the WD imprinting on mature seeds. PMID:16118256

Pinheiro, Carla; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; de Carvalho, Isabel Saraiva; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto

2005-08-23

168

Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

2013-06-06

169

Removal of antinutritional factors from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phytohemagglutinin and the lectin-related proteins present in bean seeds are toxic to monogastric animals and lower the nutritional value of beans. Since these antimetabolites are present in substantial amounts, a breeding program aimed to the removal ofphytohemagglutinin was developed. The character ""absence of phytohemagglutinin"" was transferred into a bean cultivar by backcrossing. The lines obtained maintained the agronomic performance of the recurrent parent. Preliminary results show that removal of phytohemagglutinin results in a higher true protein digestibility. Further modification in the composition of the lectin-related protein family is now under way.

Bollini R.; Carnovale E.; Campion B.

1999-01-01

170

Nitrogen Fertilizer Affecting Growth, Seed Yield and Active Substances of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ripe fruit of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaerth) contain flavonoids that are used to prepare anti - hepatotoxic drugs. This plant is important to pharmaceutical industries. The main aim of this investigation was to study the influence of nitrogen fertilizer on growth, seed yield and active substances (silymarin and silybin) content of milk thistle. The results showed that nitrogen fertilizer had significant effect on growth (plant height, number of capitula per plant, capitula diameter), seed yield, silymarin and silybin content. The highest seed yield (2.35 kg/plot) was obtained from the plots, receiving 200kg / ha N as top dressing after seed germination. But the highest silymarin (9.25%) and silybin (33. 58%) content was accumulated in the seeds of control treatment plants.

R. Omidbaigi; A. Nobakht

2001-01-01

171

The transcriptomes of dormant leafy spurge seeds under alternating temperature are differentially affected by a germination-enhancing pretreatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed dormancy is an important stage in the life cycle of many non-domesticated plants, often characterized by the temporary failure to germinate under conditions that normally favor the process. Pre-treating dormant imbibed seeds at a constant temperate accelerated germination of leafy spurge seeds under alternating temperatures. However, dormant seeds will also germinate without a pre-treatment, albeit at a much slower rate, which gives rise to longer periods of imbibition before germination. Transcriptome analyses on seeds exposed to prolonged imbibition highlighted pathways associated with phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and interacting networks of genes involved in plant defense. In addition to the many pathways associated with phenylpropanoid biosynthesis enriched with down-regulated genes upon germination, there were also numerous pathways enriched with up-regulated genes associated with energy metabolism, such as glycolysis. Transcriptome data further suggest that metabolism and signaling by the plant hormones ethylene, gibberellin, and abscisic acid are involved in the developmental transition from dormancy to germination. More specifically, sub-network enrichment analysis identified ABI3 as a central hub of a sub-network at germination including several down-regulated genes such as DELLA (i.e., RGL2), which represses gibberellin signaling processes required for germination. The 595-fold increase in the expression of ACC oxidase (ACO4) at germination also suggests an important role for ethylene biosynthesis in germinating leafy surge seeds. Furthermore, the 10-578-fold difference in expression of many genes such as HY5 and Histone H3 between two populations at germination, which were treated with and without a constant temperature germination-enhancing pretreatment, revealed disparate impacts on various biosynthetic, growth, signaling, and response processes. Overall, our results indicate a constant temperature pretreatment (20°C for 21d) is not required for germination of leafy spurge seeds at an alternating temperature. However, the presence or absence of the pretreatment does affect the rate of germination and the germination transcriptional programs. PMID:23261266

Foley, Michael E; Chao, Wun S; Horvath, David P; Do?ramaci, Münevver; Anderson, James V

2012-12-20

172

The transcriptomes of dormant leafy spurge seeds under alternating temperature are differentially affected by a germination-enhancing pretreatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seed dormancy is an important stage in the life cycle of many non-domesticated plants, often characterized by the temporary failure to germinate under conditions that normally favor the process. Pre-treating dormant imbibed seeds at a constant temperate accelerated germination of leafy spurge seeds under alternating temperatures. However, dormant seeds will also germinate without a pre-treatment, albeit at a much slower rate, which gives rise to longer periods of imbibition before germination. Transcriptome analyses on seeds exposed to prolonged imbibition highlighted pathways associated with phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and interacting networks of genes involved in plant defense. In addition to the many pathways associated with phenylpropanoid biosynthesis enriched with down-regulated genes upon germination, there were also numerous pathways enriched with up-regulated genes associated with energy metabolism, such as glycolysis. Transcriptome data further suggest that metabolism and signaling by the plant hormones ethylene, gibberellin, and abscisic acid are involved in the developmental transition from dormancy to germination. More specifically, sub-network enrichment analysis identified ABI3 as a central hub of a sub-network at germination including several down-regulated genes such as DELLA (i.e., RGL2), which represses gibberellin signaling processes required for germination. The 595-fold increase in the expression of ACC oxidase (ACO4) at germination also suggests an important role for ethylene biosynthesis in germinating leafy surge seeds. Furthermore, the 10-578-fold difference in expression of many genes such as HY5 and Histone H3 between two populations at germination, which were treated with and without a constant temperature germination-enhancing pretreatment, revealed disparate impacts on various biosynthetic, growth, signaling, and response processes. Overall, our results indicate a constant temperature pretreatment (20°C for 21d) is not required for germination of leafy spurge seeds at an alternating temperature. However, the presence or absence of the pretreatment does affect the rate of germination and the germination transcriptional programs.

Foley ME; Chao WS; Horvath DP; Do?ramaci M; Anderson JV

2013-04-01

173

The Quality of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas) Seeds Affected by Water Activity and Duration of Storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The quality of physic nut (Jatropha curcas) seeds should be maintained during storage, either as seeds for seedlings or oil production to be used for biodiesel. The effects of water activity and duration of storage on the quality, i.e. fungal population, lipid, fatty acid and free fatty acid contents, and viability of physic nut seeds were investigated. The results showed that the moisture content of seeds and total fungal population decreased at low water activities, and increased at high water activities (aw). At aw 0.64, at the beginning of storage and after 20 weeks of storage, total fungal populations were 5.4 x 103 and 1.8 x 102 cfu g-1 dry basis (db),respectively. At aw 0.93, at the beginning of storage and after 20 weeks of storage, total fungal populations were 5.0 x 103 and 3.3 x 106 cfu g-1 db, respectively. At the beginning of storage fungi infecting seeds were field fungi, i.e. Cladosporium sp., Colletotrichum sp., Fusarium semitectum, and F. verticillioides. The population of field fungi decreased with the increase of storage duration. They were replaced by postharvest fungi, i.e. Aspergillus restrictus, A. penicillioides, Eurotium chevalieri, E. rubrum, Penicillium citrinum, P. implicatum and P. oxalicum. Lipid content and viability of seeds decreased with the increase of water activities and seed moisture contents, while free fatty acid contents increased with the increase of water activities and seed moisture contents during storage. Fatty acids of lipid were dominated by unsaturated fatty acids, i.e. oleic and linoleic acids. Physic nut seeds could be stored at aw 0.64-0.75 up to eight weeks when the seeds will be used for seedling, or up to 16 weeks when they will be used for producing oil.

OKKY SETYAWATI DHARMAPUTRA; RANTJE LILLY WORANG; RIZAL SYARIEF; MIFTAHUDIN

2009-01-01

174

Transcriptional profiling and in silico analysis of Dof transcription factor gene family for understanding their regulation during seed development of rice Oryza sativa L.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seed development is a complex process controlled by temporal and spatial expression of many transcription factors (TF) inside the developing seed. In the present study, transcript profiles of all the 30 members of rice DofTFs from flowering to seed development stages were analyzed. It was found that 16 Dof genes besides a previously characterized Dof gene 'RPBF' are differentially expressed during the seed development and unlike RPBF are not seed specific. Based on the expression patterns, these rice DofTFs were categorized into four groups-6 genes were constitutive while 4 genes were up-regulated and 3 genes were down regulated and four genes were maximally expressed at specific stages of seed development viz. one gene at flowering, two genes at watery ripe and one gene at milky stage. The involvement of more than one gene at different stages of seed development is suggestive of combinatorial regulation of their downstream genes involved in seed development. In silico expression analysis of wheat and Arabidopsis Dof Tfs also revealed that more than 50% of the Dof genes are expressed during the seed development process. Further in silico study of regulatory elements present in the promoters of these genes revealed the presence of some unique and common motifs in the promoters of rice and wheat Dof genes which indicate that Dof genes are possibly involved in ethylene and jasmonate signaling pathways affecting grain filling and grain quality. These Dof genes containing ethylene responsive motifs in their promoter region could possibly be the targets of recently identified Sub1 gene which codes for a ethylene responsive factor.

Gaur VS; Singh US; Kumar A

2011-04-01

175

Effect of environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of invasive Ceratocarpus arenarius  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ebrahimi E & Eslami SV (2011). Effect of environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of invasive Ceratocarpus arenarius. Weed Research 52, 50–59. SUMMARY: Ceratocarpus arenarius is a problematic and noxious weed of dryland farming in North Khorasan, Iran. Experiments were conducted to investigate the mechanism of seed dormancy, as well as the effect of environmental factors on germination and emergence of this species. Results showed that the pericarp is the major obstacle to seed germination; seeds without an intact pericarp had germination rates exceeding 90%. Ceratocarpus arenarius had identical germination rates in either light/dark and continuous dark conditions, indicating that this weed species is non?photoblastic. Germination was >35% over a range of alternating light/dark temperatures (10/5, 20/10, 25/15, 30/20 and 35/25°C), with maximum germination (96%) at 25/15°C. Ceratocarpus arenarius seeds germinated at rates >20% in high levels of salinity (800?mm) and osmotic potential (?1?MPa), indicating that this species is tolerant to saline conditions and drought stress during germination and early seedling growth. Maximum germination of C. arenarius seeds occurred at a pH range of 7–9. Seedlings emerged from burial depths ranging from 0 (without covering with filter paper) to 6?cm, and the maximum emergence (94%) was observed in seeds placed on the soil surface covered with three layers of filter paper. This suggests that minimum? and no?till systems would increase seedling emergence of this species through maintaining crop residues and seeds on the soil surface. These attributes, coupled with tolerance to salinity and drought stress during germination, should be taken into account when managing C. arenarius.

EBRAHIMI E; ESLAMI SV

2012-02-01

176

Lamb meat quality and intramuscular fatty acid composition as affected by concentrates including different legume seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of concentrates including legume seeds (Vicia faba var. minor or Pisum sativum) on lamb performances and on meat quality, with an emphasis on intramuscular fatty acid composition. Thirty lambs (14.5 ± 3.45 kg live weight) were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments: PEA group (concentrate including 400 g/kg of peas); FB group (concentrate including 380 g/kg of faba bean); SBM group (concentrate including 180 g/kg of soybean meal). Growth and slaughter performances were not affected by treatments as well as physical and proximate chemical meat characteristics. FB and SBM meat showed higher (P<0.001) vaccenic acid levels compared to PEA meat. Oleic acid was higher (P<0.05) in PEA meat compared to SBM meat while its level in FB meat was similar to counterparts. Linoleic acid levels tended to increase (P<0.10) in SBM lambs compared to PEA animals. PEA group showed higher (P<0.001) ?-linolenic acid proportions compared to FB and SBM groups and a tendentially higher (P<0.10) eicosapentaenoic acid content compared to SBM meat. As a result, total n-3 fatty acids were higher (P<0.05) in PEA meat compared to SBM one while the proportions in FB meat were at intermediate level. These findings accounted for a lower and more favourable (P<0.001) n-6/n-3 ratio in PEA group compared to counterparts. Peas based-concentrate seemed to be more effective than faba bean- or soybean meal-included concentrates to improve the acidic profile of meat leading to higher ?-linolenic acid levels and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio.

Massimiliano Lanza; Carla Fabro; Manuel Scerra; Marco Bella; Renato Pagano; Daniela Maria Rita Brogna; Pietro Pennisi

2011-01-01

177

Male inbreeding status affects female fitness in a seed-feeding beetle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inbreeding generally reduces male mating activity such that inbred males are less successful in male-male competition. Inbred males can also have smaller accessory glands, transfer less sperm and produce sperm that are less motile, less viable or have a greater frequency of abnormalities, all of which can reduce the fertilization success and fitness of inbred males relative to outbred males. However, few studies have examined how male inbreeding status affects the fitness of females with whom they mate. In this study, we examine the effect of male inbreeding status (inbreeding coefficient f = 0.25 vs. f = 0) on the fecundity, adult longevity and the fate of eggs produced by outbred females in the seed-feeding beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Females mated to inbred males were less likely to lay eggs. Of those that laid eggs, females mated to inbred males laid 6-12% fewer eggs. Females mated to inbred males lived on average 5.4% longer than did females mated to outbred males, but this effect disappeared when lifetime fecundity was used as a covariate in the analysis. There was no effect of male inbreeding status on the proportion of a female's eggs that developed or hatched, and no evidence that inbred males produced smaller nuptial gifts. However, ejaculates of inbred males contained 17-33% fewer sperm, on average, than did ejaculates of outbred males. Our study demonstrates that mating with inbred males has significant direct consequences for the fitness of female C. maculatus, likely mediated by effects of inbreeding status on the number of sperm in male ejaculates. Direct effects of male inbreeding status on female fitness should be more widely considered in theoretical models and empirical studies of mate choice. PMID:21995954

Fox, Charles W; Xu, J; Wallin, W G; Curtis, C L

2011-10-13

178

Statistical analysis of the different factors affecting the diarrhea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diarrhea is a worldwide problem facing both developing countries and developed countries, especially in pediatric population. Because of shortage of health facilities and lack of good food in developing countries, it is known fact that developing countries are facing this death taking problem more. The main purpose of this study was to examine the various factors which affect the recovery time of diarrhea. A multiple linear regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a model. The response variable for the study was the recovery time of diarrhea. The results of the analysis show that the Zinc is the main factor which affect the recovery time in Peshawar.

Zaman Q; Khan I

2011-09-01

179

Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM)  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management) scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response) and environmental (physical environment, social environment, situation) factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management. Low-income African American and white mothers were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in three counties in Michigan. In Phase one, 45 mothers completed individual cognitive interviews. Content analyses were performed. In Phase two, items modified from the cognitive interviews were administered to 216 mothers. Factor analysis and multiple indicators/multiple causes were performed. Results Results of cognitive interviews were used to revise items for the instrument that was tested in Phase two. The factor solution revealed 19 dimensions to measure personal and environmental factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior (three dimensions), physical activity (eight dimensions), and stress management (eight dimensions). Results of multiple indicators/multiple causes model showed scale invariance. Of 19 dimensions, 15 had Cronbach alpha between 0.76 and 0.94 and four were between 0.66 and 0.69. All dimensions had composite construct reliability scores between 0.74 to 0.97 and satisfactory construct and discriminant validities. Conclusion The theory-based FADESM scales have documented good validity and reliability for measuring factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income women. Results of this study support the use of these scales with low-income African American and white mothers in community settings.

Chang, Mei-Wei; Brown, Roger; Nitzke, Susan

2008-01-01

180

Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management) scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response) and environmental (physical environment, social environment, situation) factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management. Low-income African American and white mothers were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in three counties in Michigan. In Phase one, 45 mothers completed individual cognitive interviews. Content analyses were performed. In Phase two, items modified from the cognitive interviews were administered to 216 mothers. Factor analysis and multiple indicators/multiple causes were performed. Results Results of cognitive interviews were used to revise items for the instrument that was tested in Phase two. The factor solution revealed 19 dimensions to measure personal and environmental factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior (three dimensions), physical activity (eight dimensions), and stress management (eight dimensions). Results of multiple indicators/multiple causes model showed scale invariance. Of 19 dimensions, 15 had Cronbach alpha between 0.76 and 0.94 and four were between 0.66 and 0.69. All dimensions had composite construct reliability scores between 0.74 to 0.97 and satisfactory construct and discriminant validities. Conclusion The theory-based FADESM scales have documented good validity and reliability for measuring factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income women. Results of this study support the use of these scales with low-income African American and white mothers in community settings.

Chang Mei-Wei; Brown Roger; Nitzke Susan

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Studies on the dormancy of cereal seeds as affected by gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Effect of gamma radiation (10 kR) was studied on the germination of freshly harvested seeds of several varieties of barley, wheat and triticale. On the basis of the germination in irradiated seeds in comparison to controls, barley varieties may be categorized into three groups: (i) those showing reduction in germination, (ii) those showing stimulation in germination and (iii) those remaining unaffected. The mean germination percentage of the controls was 50.7, 19.4 and 2.1 in group i, ii and iii varieties, respectively. After 6 weeks, varieties in group iii lost seed dormancy. The response of these varieties to irradiation then became similar to group i or ii. Wheat and triticale varieties also could be grouped in similar way. It has been suggested that germination response of seeds of these cereal varieties to relatively 'low doses' of gamma radiation depends on their innate dormancy status and germination could be stimulated by gamma radiation (10 kR) in seeds having low germination due to seed dormancy. (author)

1982-01-01

182

Analysis on Psychological Factors to Affect the Vocal Stage Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The stage performance is an important part of artistic practice for vocal students. To perfectly express the music on stage is the dream of every vocal music performer. This essay is about analysis of the psychological factors to affect the vocal stage performance and to explore the reasons for stage fright and the methods to overcome this, to enable students to further enhance the level of their vocal music.Key words: Vocal music; Stage performance; Psychological factor

Xihong CHEN

2012-01-01

183

Environmental factors affecting monogeneans parasitic on freshwater fishes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The environmental factors that act on fish parasites have received increasing attention in recent years. The effects of changing environmental conditions on parasite communities can provide valuable information on the effects of pollution on the ecosystem as a whole. This, of course, demands that we have a detailed knowledge o f parasite communities and the mechanisms acting upon them in a variety of natural conditions. Here, Mari Koskivaaro looks at those environmental factors that affect monogeneans parasitic on freshwater fishes. PMID:15463531

Koskivaara, M

1992-10-01

184

Environmental factors affecting monogeneans parasitic on freshwater fishes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The environmental factors that act on fish parasites have received increasing attention in recent years. The effects of changing environmental conditions on parasite communities can provide valuable information on the effects of pollution on the ecosystem as a whole. This, of course, demands that we have a detailed knowledge o f parasite communities and the mechanisms acting upon them in a variety of natural conditions. Here, Mari Koskivaaro looks at those environmental factors that affect monogeneans parasitic on freshwater fishes.

Koskivaara M

1992-10-01

185

Factors affecting Iran`s future. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the factors affecting Iran`s future by focusing on the demographic, economic, and military trends in Iran and their impact on the country`s national security objectives in the next decade. The paper also assesses the implications of an economic embargo on Iran and potential Iranian threats to regional and United States national interests.

Sinai, J.

1993-05-28

186

Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

Kwenda, Maxwell

2011-01-01

187

Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

2009-01-01

188

Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The populatio...

Naile Bilgili; Sultan Ayaz

189

Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

Kwan, Eugene E.

2005-01-01

190

Critical Factors that Affecting Efficiency of Solar Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device which generates electricity directly from visible light. However, their efficiency is fairly low. So, the solar cell costs expensive according to other energy resources products. Several factors affect solar cell efficiency. This paper presents the most ...

Furkan Dincer; Mehmet Emin Meral

191

Factors that affect the accuracy of method 21  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the enactment of the HON and the petroleum refinery NESHAP, EPA method 21 will shortly become an enormous fact of life for all petroleum & petrochemical refineries across the United States; and yet, little is known about it. This presentation looks at factors that can affect the accuracy of method 21 when it is used to make precision ppm measurements under actual field conditions. What does method 21 actually measure? Which chemicals are compatible with method 21, and which are not? How does a ppm reading obtained by method 21 correlate to a leak rate? Do variables such as process line pressure, temperature, and weather conditions affect leak measurements? These, along with other factors that affect leak detection, will be discussed.

Dolan, P. [Adsistor Environmental Systems, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

1996-12-31

192

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research. PMID:23718720

Awases, Magdalene H; Bezuidenhout, Marthie C; Roos, Janetta H

2013-04-19

193

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

Magdalene H. Awases; Marthie C. Bezuidenhout; Janetta H. Roos

2013-01-01

194

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

Awases MH; Bezuidenhout MC; Roos JH

2013-01-01

195

Factors affecting farm diversification in rice-wheat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The risk in agriculture sector is due to various factors like weather and market conditions, particularly the demand of the commodities. This uncertainty can result in variable returns (farm income) to the decisions that farmers make in a particular season. Diversification is a frequently used risk management strategy that involves participation in more than one activity. It has the added advantage of mitigating price risk as well as fluctuations in outputs. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the factors affecting crop diversification. For determining the effect of different factors on diversification a multiple regression model was used. The values of Entropy index computed for measuring horizontal diversification were taken as dependent variable and different factors affecting diversification were taken as independent variables. The results showed that the main factors affecting diversification were size of land holding, age of respondent, education level of respondent, farming experience of respondent, off farm income of respondent, distance of farm from main road, distance of farm from main market and farm machinery. (author)

2008-01-01

196

Exploratory Data Analysis to Identify Factors Influencing Spatial Distributions of Weed Seed Banks  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparing distributions of different species in multiple fields will help us understand the spatial dynamics of weed seed banks, but analyzing observational data requires non-traditional statistical methods. We used classification and regression tree analysis (CART) to investigate factors that influ...

197

An experiment on the factors affecting simple reaction time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reaction time is considered as an important measure that affects performance of an individual both in business and private life. Especially, reaction time, which can be defined as a period of time being required for giving appropriate responses to the perceived stimuli, is an important factor in terms of efficiency of organization and also health and safety at work. Moreover, reaction time is regarded as an important factor in product design. In this study, an experiment is designed to reveal the factors that affect simple reaction time and the effects of (discrete / continuous) variables such as age, height, weight, gender, sight defects, smoking and alcohol use, regular habits of sports and academic achievement on reaction time of individuals are investigated, and the findings are interpreted.

Ufuk Türen; Burcu Kaya; Hale Akkocao?lu

2013-01-01

198

Arabidopsis WRKY2 transcription factor mediates seed germination and postgermination arrest of development by abscisic acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant WRKY DNA-binding transcription factors are key regulators in certain developmental programs. A number of studies have suggested that WRKY genes may mediate seed germination and postgermination growth. However, it is unclear whether WRKY genes mediate ABA-dependent seed germination and postgermination growth arrest. Results To determine directly the role of Arabidopsis WRKY2 transcription factor during ABA-dependent seed germination and postgermination growth arrest, we isolated T-DNA insertion mutants. Two independent T-DNA insertion mutants for WRKY2 were hypersensitive to ABA responses only during seed germination and postgermination early growth. wrky2 mutants displayed delayed or decreased expression of ABI5 and ABI3, but increased or prolonged expression of Em1 and Em6. wrky2 mutants and wild type showed similar levels of expression for miR159 and its target genes MYB33 and MYB101. Analysis of WRKY2 expression level in ABA-insensitive and ABA-deficient mutants abi5-1, abi3-1, aba2-3 and aba3-1 further indicated that ABA-induced WRKY2 accumulation during germination and postgermination early growth requires ABI5, ABI3, ABA2 and ABA3. Conclusion ABA hypersensitivity of the wrky2 mutants during seed germination and postgermination early seedling establishment is attributable to elevated mRNA levels of ABI5, ABI3 and ABI5-induced Em1 and Em6 in the mutants. WRKY2-mediated ABA responses are independent of miR159 and its target genes MYB33 and MYB101. ABI5, ABI3, ABA2 and ABA3 are important regulators of the transcripts of WRKY2 by ABA treatment. Our results suggest that WRKY2 transcription factor mediates seed germination and postgermination developmental arrest by ABA.

Jiang Wenbo; Yu Diqiu

2009-01-01

199

myo-Inositol and sucrose concentrations affect the accumulation of raffinose family oligosaccharides in seeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) fulfil multiple functions in plants. In seeds, they possibly protect cellular structures during desiccation and constitute carbon reserves for early germination. Their biosynthesis proceeds by the transfer of galactose units from galactinol to sucrose. Galactinol synthase (GolS), which mediates the synthesis of galactinol from myo-inositol and UDP-galactose, has been proposed to be the key enzyme of the pathway. However, no significant relationship was detected between the extractable GolS activity and the amount of RFOs in seeds from seven pea (Pisum sativum L.) genotypes selected for high variation in RFO content. Instead, a highly significant correlation was found between the levels of myo-inositol and RFOs. Moderately strong relationships were also found between sucrose and RFO content as well as between myo-inositol and galactinol. Further evidence for a key role of myo-inositol for the synthesis of galactinol was obtained by feeding exogenous myo-inositol to intact pea seeds and by the analysis of four barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) low phytic acid mutants. In seeds of three of these mutants, the reduced demand for myo-inositol for the synthesis of phytic acid (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate) was associated with an increased level in myo-inositol. The mutants seeds also contained more galactinol than wild-type seeds. The results suggest that the extent of RFO accumulation is controlled by the levels of the initial substrates, myo-inositol and sucrose, rather than by GolS activity alone.

Karner U; Peterbauer T; Raboy V; Jones DA; Hedley CL; Richter A

2004-09-01

200

myo-Inositol and sucrose concentrations affect the accumulation of raffinose family oligosaccharides in seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) fulfil multiple functions in plants. In seeds, they possibly protect cellular structures during desiccation and constitute carbon reserves for early germination. Their biosynthesis proceeds by the transfer of galactose units from galactinol to sucrose. Galactinol synthase (GolS), which mediates the synthesis of galactinol from myo-inositol and UDP-galactose, has been proposed to be the key enzyme of the pathway. However, no significant relationship was detected between the extractable GolS activity and the amount of RFOs in seeds from seven pea (Pisum sativum L.) genotypes selected for high variation in RFO content. Instead, a highly significant correlation was found between the levels of myo-inositol and RFOs. Moderately strong relationships were also found between sucrose and RFO content as well as between myo-inositol and galactinol. Further evidence for a key role of myo-inositol for the synthesis of galactinol was obtained by feeding exogenous myo-inositol to intact pea seeds and by the analysis of four barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) low phytic acid mutants. In seeds of three of these mutants, the reduced demand for myo-inositol for the synthesis of phytic acid (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate) was associated with an increased level in myo-inositol. The mutants seeds also contained more galactinol than wild-type seeds. The results suggest that the extent of RFO accumulation is controlled by the levels of the initial substrates, myo-inositol and sucrose, rather than by GolS activity alone. PMID:15286144

Karner, Ute; Peterbauer, Thomas; Raboy, Victor; Jones, David A; Hedley, Cliff L; Richter, Andreas

2004-07-30

 
 
 
 
201

Interaction of factors modifying the radiosensitivity of dormant seeds. A review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review is presented on modification of radiation-induced effects in dormant plant seeds. Possible sources of discrepancy of data in the earlier literature are analysed. Approaches to the correct experimental study of mechanisms of interaction of environmental factors (water content, temperature, storage conditions) in the modification of radiobiological reactions are discussed. Progress in the radiation biology of plant seeds, achieved by precise control of experimental conditions, is considered. Plant genera used were barley, rice, maize, wheat, lupins, cotton, oats, pine, pea, crepis, brassica, lactuca, lycopersicon, trifohum, festuca, hibiscus.

Atayan, R.R.

1987-12-01

202

FACTORS AFFECTING INTENT TO PURCHASE VIRTUAL GOODS IN ONLINE GAMES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Online games increasingly sell virtual goods to generate real income. As a result, it isincreasingly important to identify factors and theory of consumption values that affect intent topurchase virtual goods in online games. However, very little research has been devoted to thetopic. This study is an empirical investigation of the factors and theory of consumption valuesthat affect intent to purchase virtual goods in online games. The study determines the effects ofgame type, satisfaction with the game, identification with the character, and theory ofconsumption values on intent to purchase virtual goods. The study used a survey to collectinformation from 523 virtual game users. Study results showed that game type is a moderatingvariable that affects intent to purchase virtual goods. And it demonstrated that role-playing gameusers are affected by theory of consumption values: functional quality, playfulness, and socialrelationship support. Moreover, war-strategy game users are affected by satisfaction with thegame, identification with the character, and theory of consumption values: price, utility, andplayfulness. The study also presents conclusions, proposes applications, and describesopportunities for further research.

Cheng-Hsun Ho; Ting-Yun Wu

2012-01-01

203

Are Affective Factors a Good Predictor of Science Achievement? Examining the Role of Affective Factors Based on PISA 2006  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated how affective factors like attitude and motivation contribute to science achievement in PISA 2006 using linear structural modeling. The data set of PISA 2006 collected from 4942 fifteen-year-old Turkish students (2290 females, 2652 males) was used for the statistical analyses. A total of 42 selected items on a four point…

Ozel, Murat; Caglak, Serdar; Erdogan, Mehmet

2013-01-01

204

Factors affecting receipt of chemotherapy in women with breast cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Libby Morimoto1, Jenna Coalson1, Fionna Mowat1, Cynthia O’Malley21Exponent Health Sciences, Menlo Park, CA, USA; 2Amgen Global Epidemiology, Thousand Oaks, CA, USAAims: To review literature describing factors associated with receipt of chemotherapy for breast cancer, to better understand what factors are most relevant to women’s health and whether health disparities are apparent, and to assess how these factors might affect observational studies and outcomes research. Patterns of care for metastatic breast cancer, for which no standard-of-care exists, were of particular interest.Methods: Relevant studies written in English, Italian, French, or Spanish, published in 2000 or later, were identified through MEDLINE and reviewed. Review articles and clinical trials were excluded; all observational studies and surveys were considered. Articles were reviewed for any discussion of patient characteristics, hospital/physician/insurance characteristics, psychosocial characteristics, and clinical characteristics affecting receipt of chemotherapy by breast cancer patients.Results: In general, factors associated with increased likelihood of receiving chemotherapy included younger age, being Caucasian, having good general health and few co-morbidities, having more severe clinical disease, having responded well to previous treatment, and having breast cancer that is estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-negative. Many of the clinical factors found to increase the likelihood of receiving chemotherapy were consistent with current oncology guidelines. Of the relevant 19 studies identified, only six (32%) reported data specific to metastatic cancer; most studies aggregated women with stage I–IV for purposes of analysis.Conclusion: Studies of patterns of care in breast cancer treatment can help identify challenges in health care provided to particular subgroups of women and can aid researchers in designing studies that account for such factors in clinical and outcomes research. Although scarce, studies evaluating only women with metastatic breast cancer indicate that factors affecting decisions related to receipt of chemotherapy are similar across stage for this disease.Keywords: breast cancer, chemotherapy, metastatic, treatment decisions, health disparities

Libby Morimoto; Jenna Coalson; Fionna Mowat; et al

2010-01-01

205

Which Factors Affect Software Projects Maintenance Cost More?  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction The software industry has had significant progress in recent years. The entire life of software includes two phases: production and maintenance. Software maintenance cost is increasingly growing and estimates showed that about 90% of software life cost is related to its maintenance phase. Extraction and considering the factors affecting the software maintenance cost help to estimate the cost and reduce it by controlling the factors. Methods In this study, the factors affecting software maintenance cost were determined then were ranked based on their priority and after that effective ways to reduce the maintenance costs were presented. This paper is a research study. 15 software related to health care centers information systems in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and hospitals function were studied in the years 2010 to 2011. Results and discussion Among Medical software maintenance team members, 40 were selected as sample. After interviews with experts in this field, factors affecting maintenance cost were determined. In order to prioritize the factors derived by AHP, at first, measurement criteria (factors found) were appointed by members of the maintenance team and eventually were prioritized with the help of EC software. Based on the results of this study, 32 factors were obtained which were classified in six groups. “Project” was ranked the most effective feature in maintenance cost with the highest priority. By taking into account some major elements like careful feasibility of IT projects, full documentation and accompany the designers in the maintenance phase good results can be achieved to reduce maintenance costs and increase longevity of the software.

Dehaghani, Sayed Mehdi Hejazi; Hajrahimi, Nafiseh

2013-01-01

206

Which factors affect software projects maintenance cost more?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The software industry has had significant progress in recent years. The entire life of software includes two phases: production and maintenance. Software maintenance cost is increasingly growing and estimates showed that about 90% of software life cost is related to its maintenance phase. Extraction and considering the factors affecting the software maintenance cost help to estimate the cost and reduce it by controlling the factors. METHODS: In this study, the factors affecting software maintenance cost were determined then were ranked based on their priority and after that effective ways to reduce the maintenance costs were presented. This paper is a research study. 15 software related to health care centers information systems in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and hospitals function were studied in the years 2010 to 2011. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Among Medical software maintenance team members, 40 were selected as sample. After interviews with experts in this field, factors affecting maintenance cost were determined. In order to prioritize the factors derived by AHP, at first, measurement criteria (factors found) were appointed by members of the maintenance team and eventually were prioritized with the help of EC software. Based on the results of this study, 32 factors were obtained which were classified in six groups. "Project" was ranked the most effective feature in maintenance cost with the highest priority. By taking into account some major elements like careful feasibility of IT projects, full documentation and accompany the designers in the maintenance phase good results can be achieved to reduce maintenance costs and increase longevity of the software.

Dehaghani SM; Hajrahimi N

2013-03-01

207

Cabbage seed protease inhibitor: a slow, tight-binding inhibitor of trypsin with activity toward thrombin, activated Stuart factor (factor Xa), activated Hageman factor (factor XIIa), and plasmin.  

Science.gov (United States)

An inhibitor of procoagulant and fibrinolytic enzymes was derived from cabbage seeds by a procedure using acetone precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. The cabbage seed inhibitor was a 10-Kd monomeric protein with intrachain disulfide bonds. This preparation prevented clot formation in whole blood and blocked the ability of thrombin to induce clot formation in plasma and to induce platelet aggregation. A number of proteases were inhibited, as demonstrated by using purified enzymes in amidolytic assays. Tight-binding inhibition was observed for activated Stuart factor (factor Xa) and plasmin. Inhibition of thrombin and activated Hageman factor (factor XIIa) was observed with a molar excess of inhibitor. No inhibition was detected for activated plasma thromboplastin antecedent (factor XIa), plasma kallikrein, or C1 esterase. Reaction progress curves for trypsin indicated slow, tight-binding inhibition, with an apparent inhibition constant in the nanomolar range or less. The electrophoretic mobility of trypsin was altered by the inhibitor in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) but not in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE, indicating noncovalent bonding. Only partial reversal of trypsin inhibition could be demonstrated by washing the inhibitor from enzyme immobilized on solid beads. A dot-blot technique with cabbage seed inhibitor was capable of detecting 10 ng nitrocellulose-bound trypsin. The dot-blot technique also appeared capable of detecting plasmin. These findings demonstrated the potential utility of this inhibitor as a probe for detection of tightly bound proteases. In summary, cabbage seed extracts contain an inhibitor with activity toward a broad range of proteases important to hemostasis. To our knowledge, this agent represents the first inhibitor isolated from a plant source that inhibits thrombin. PMID:2136800

Carter, T H; Everson, B A; Ratnoff, O D

1990-01-01

208

Nurse aide decision making in nursing homes: factors affecting empowerment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate factors affecting structural empowerment among nurse aides in nursing homes. BACKGROUND: Structural empowerment can be defined as the actual rather than perceived ability to make autonomous decisions within an organisation. Given the paucity of research on the subject, this study helps to close the gap by identifying factors that affect nurse aide empowerment, that is, decision-making among nurse aides. METHODS: The data for the study come from self-administered questionnaires distributed to direct-care workers (nurse aides) in 11 nursing homes in a southern state in the USA. Ordinary least square regression models were estimated to analyse the effects of demographic predictors, personal factors (competency, emotional exhaustion and positive attitude) and structural characteristics (coworker and supervisor support, information availability and shared governance) on nurse aide decision-making. RESULTS: Findings suggest race among demographic predictors, emotional exhaustion among personal characteristics, and supervisor support, and shared governance among structural factors, significantly affect nurse aide decision-making. CONCLUSION: It is important to explore race as one of the central determinants of structural empowerment among nurse aides. In addition, the nature and type of emotional exhaustion that propels decision-making needs to be further examined. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The study shows the importance of shared governance and supervisor support for fostering nurse aide empowerment.

Chaudhuri T; Yeatts DE; Cready CM

2013-09-01

209

Factors Affecting Hoteliers’ Decision to Advertise in Travel Magazine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advertising is a paid, mass-mediated attempt to persuade. That mean Advertising is paid communication by a company or organization that wants its information disseminated through a communication medium designed to reach more than one person, typically a large number or mass of people and advertising includes an attempt to persuade consumer to like the brand and because of that liking to eventually buy the brand. Advertising in travel magazine is one of the promotional methods to promote hoteliers products or services to the market place. By advertising in travel magazine, it can reach the target audience, educate them about the products or services, and move them closer to make a purchase. The purpose of the research is to recognize and rank the factors affecting hotelier’s decision to advertise in travel magazine. The respondents for the research are those hoteliers operating in Malaysia. The factors for this research are reached target readers, cost of advertising, contents of the magazine, frequency of advertising and media of advertising. The result of the research shows two of the factors significantly affecting hoteliers advertising decision. Furthermore, cost of advertising ranks the first follow by reach target readers, contents of magazine, media of advertising and frequency of advertising ranks the last. This research will help the publisher of travel magazine to understand and recognize the ranking of factors affecting hoteliers’ decision to advertise in travel magazine.

Mohd Faiz Hilmi; Ah Hwa Ngo

2011-01-01

210

Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5%) such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

Bahieh Moradi; Majid Maleki; Maryam Esmaeilzadeh; Hooman Bakhshandeh Abkenar

2011-01-01

211

Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5%) such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

Moradi, Bahieh; Maleki, Majid; Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Abkenar, Hooman Bakhshandeh

2011-01-01

212

Physician-related factors affecting cardiac rehabilitation referral.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician's attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. RESULTS: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5%) such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians' fee were other factors reported by the physicians. CONCLUSION: Cardiologists' inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

Moradi B; Maleki M; Esmaeilzadeh M; Abkenar HB

2011-11-01

213

Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

Daniel P. Molloy

2004-02-24

214

Agronomic Traits of Mungbean and Subsequent Rice Crop as Affected by Seed Inoculation and Different Fertilizer Level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of seed inoculation and different fertilizer levels on the yield and yield components of mungbean and subsequent rice crop was studied. Results showed that seed inoculation and different fertilizer levels significantly affected yield and yield components of mungbean and rice crops. Treatment (T6) exhibited superior performance for exploiting maximum potential of mungbean crop (954.8 kg ha-1 grains), which was 50% more than that of control. Whereas T7 gave maximum residual effect (4075 kg ha-1 paddy yield), however statistically it was at par with T3, T4, T5 and T6. In conclusion, T6 proved better for getting maximum mungbean yield while T7 produced highest paddy yield.

Aasrar Mahboob; Muhammad Jamil Tahir; Asmat Ali Javed; Tariq Mehmood

2003-01-01

215

Soybean seed yield and its components as affected by different irrigation regimes at different reproductive stages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Development of an efficient and economical irrigation management system for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is essential to apply irrigations at specific stages of reproductive ontogeny. Soybean cultivar, Williams-82 was subjected to a factorial set of irrigated treatments: R1 to R2 flowering (F), R3 to R4 pod elongation (P) and R5 to R6 seed enlargement (S). The experiment was conducted for two years in spring 1986 and 1987 on a clay-loam soil at the National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad. An F-irrigation at flowering sage had great effect on seed yield (2253 kg/ha). Almost similar yield response was observed for an F-S irrigation and F-P-S irrigation, soybean seed yield for S-irrigation, P-irrigation, F-P and P-S irrigations were significantly lower than a single F-irrigation, F-S and F-P-S irrigation. Also a single irrigation at pod elongation stage (P) and seed enlargement stage (S) enhanced more yield than duel irrigations of F-P and P-S.(author)

2002-01-01

216

Influence of Nitrogenous Fertilizers, Gypsum and Seed Priming on Wheat Yield under Salt Affected Soil Conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Field experiment, to evaluate the effect of nitrogenous fertilizers i.e. urea, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate with and without gypsum and seed priming on productivity of wheat, was performed.The field was surveyed by EM-38 at 2x2m grid to identify areas of uniform salinity. The experimenta...

Muhammad Jamal Khan; Mazhar Ali Khan Tanoli; Riaz A. Khattak

217

Confounding factors affect the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis  

Science.gov (United States)

Eosinophilic esophagitis is a newly diagnosed esophageal disease in adult and children. The clinical and pathological characteristics of this disease have been established and were recently summarized in the expert clinical guideline published in 2011. In spite of the wide knowledge accumulated on this disease, there are many areas where scientific data are missing, especially in regard to the disease’s pathophysiology. Recent publications have suggested that other confounding factors modify the disease and may affect its clinical-phenotypic presentation. Those factors may include place of living, air pollution, race, genetic factors and other. In the present report we discussed and review those confounding factors, the new developments, and what direction we should go to further advance our knowledge of this disease.

Elitsur, Yoram

2012-01-01

218

Confounding factors affect the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis is a newly diagnosed esophageal disease in adult and children. The clinical and pathological characteristics of this disease have been established and were recently summarized in the expert clinical guideline published in 2011. In spite of the wide knowledge accumulated on this disease, there are many areas where scientific data are missing, especially in regard to the disease’s pathophysiology. Recent publications have suggested that other confounding factors modify the disease and may affect its clinical-phenotypic presentation. Those factors may include place of living, air pollution, race, genetic factors and other. In the present report we discussed and review those confounding factors, the new developments, and what direction we should go to further advance our knowledge of this disease.

Yoram Elitsur

2012-01-01

219

Factors affecting sleep disturbances in children and adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: To determine factors affecting sleep disturbances in children.Background: Factors affecting sleep disturbances have been studied extensively in adults, but relatively few studies have been done in children.Methods: As part of the twelfth survey of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study of Obstructive Airways Disease (TESOAD, 1991-1992), children, ages 3-14, of adult cohort members were administered a health questionnaire which contained items related to sleep problems as well as items related to respiratory diseases and symptoms. Participants were classified as having sleep disturbances if they reported disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS), excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) or snoring. Potential factors affecting sleep included age, gender, obesity, asthma, other bronchial problems, cough and sputum production, wheezing and rhinitis.Results: The overall prevalence rates were 16.8, 4 and 22.9% for DIMS, EDS, and snoring, respectively. We found a significantly higher prevalence of DIMS in 11-14-year-old girls (30.4%) and snoring (32.3%) in 3-6-year-old boys. Certain respiratory factors were more prevalent in children with sleep disturbances. Multivariate analysis revealed that risk factors for DIMS included female gender, age 11-14 and wheezing. The risk for EDS was increased in those children with cough and sputum production. Cough and sputum production also were risk factors for snoring as was rhinitis and age 3-6.Conclusions: We conclude that in children as in adults, respiratory symptoms are associated with sleep disturbances. Further, the increased insomnia seen in adult women may begin in early adolescence.

Camhi SL; Morgan WJ; Pernisco N; Quan SF

2000-04-01

220

Analysis of Factors that Affect e-Governance .  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available e-Governance is an application of ICT (Information & Communication technology) to provide government services to its citizens and organizations. Punjab is one of the leading states in implementation of e-Governance but still there are some obstacles in its effective implementation at rural level. This research paper highlights the factors that are affecting the implementation of e-Governance. It also includes a survey questionnaire which takes all the factors into account and before starting actual survey a pilot study for this questionnaire was done which confirms its acceptance

Dr. Pardeep Mittal; Amandeep Kaur

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author); Mumtaz Ali Junejo; Muhammad Saleem Rahpoto; Maqsood Zia Shah

2011-01-01

222

Factors affecting the dermal bioavailability of hydrocarbons in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The science of risk assessment has advanced significantly in recent years, in a continuing effort to more accurately represent potential human health effects from exposure to chemicals in the environment. This paper describes some environmental factors that affect the behavior of chemicals in soil and the relationship of this chemical behavior to the prediction of dermal exposures relating to soil contamination. The information presented in this paper suggests that the mass transfer of chemicals from the soil to the skin is as much an issue in dermal exposures to soil-sorbed chemicals as the actual absorption of the chemical through the skin. Relevant factor affecting the sorption, desorption, and mass transfer of hydrocarbon chemicals in soil are discussed. A summary of the scientific literature related to research on chemicals sorbed to soil is also presented.

1991-01-01

223

Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.

M. Ketema; S. Bauer

2012-01-01

224

The quantum walk search algorithm: Factors affecting efficiency  

CERN Document Server

We numerically study the quantum walk search algorithm of Shenvi, Kempe and Whaley [PRA \\textbf{67} 052307] and the factors which affect its efficiency in finding an individual state from an unsorted set. Previous work has focused purely on the effects of the dimensionality of the dataset to be searched. Here, we consider the effects of interpolating between dimensions, connectivity of the dataset, and the possibility of disorder in the underlying substrate: all these factors affect the efficiency of the search algorithm. We show that, as well as the strong dependence on the spatial dimension of the structure to be searched, there are also secondary dependencies on the connectivity and symmetry of the lattice, with greater connectivity providing a more efficient algorithm. In addition, we also show that the algorithm can tolerate a non-trivial level of disorder in the underlying substrate.

Lovett, Neil B; Heath, Robert M; Kendon, Viv

2011-01-01

225

Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations are made for future work to enhance the effectiveness of water jetting as a nuclear decontamination technique and the importance of containment and effluent treatment is outlined. (author)

1990-01-01

226

Legal factors affecting the financing of small scale hydroelectric projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)

Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.

1983-09-01

227

Factors affecting Culicoides species composition and abundance in avian nests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mechanisms affecting patterns of vector distribution among host individuals may influence the population and evolutionary dynamics of vectors, hosts and the parasites transmitted. We studied the role of different factors affecting the species composition and abundance of Culicoides found in nests of the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We identified 1531 females and 2 males of 7 different Culicoides species in nests, with C. simulator being the most abundant species, followed by C. kibunensis, C. festivipennis, C. segnis, C. truncorum, C. pictipennis and C. circumscriptus. We conducted a medicationxfumigation experiment randomly assigning bird's nests to different treatments, thereby generating groups of medicated and control pairs breeding in fumigated and control nests. Medicated pairs were injected with the anti-malarial drug Primaquine diluted in saline solution while control pairs were injected with saline solution. The fumigation treatment was carried out using insecticide solution or water for fumigated and control nests respectively. Brood size was the main factor associated with the abundance of biting midges probably because more nestlings may produce higher quantities of vector attractants. In addition, birds medicated against haemoparasites breeding in non-fumigated nests supported a higher abundance of C. festivipennis than the rest of the groups. Also, we found that the fumigation treatment reduced the abundance of engorged Culicoides in both medicated and control nests, thus indicating a reduction of feeding success produced by the insecticide. These results represent the first evidence for the role of different factors in affecting the Culicoides infracommunity in wild avian nests. PMID:19523254

Martínez-de la Puente, J; Merino, S; Tomás, G; Moreno, J; Morales, J; Lobato, E; Talavera, S; Sarto I Monteys, V

2009-06-15

228

Factors affecting Culicoides species composition and abundance in avian nests.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mechanisms affecting patterns of vector distribution among host individuals may influence the population and evolutionary dynamics of vectors, hosts and the parasites transmitted. We studied the role of different factors affecting the species composition and abundance of Culicoides found in nests of the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We identified 1531 females and 2 males of 7 different Culicoides species in nests, with C. simulator being the most abundant species, followed by C. kibunensis, C. festivipennis, C. segnis, C. truncorum, C. pictipennis and C. circumscriptus. We conducted a medicationxfumigation experiment randomly assigning bird's nests to different treatments, thereby generating groups of medicated and control pairs breeding in fumigated and control nests. Medicated pairs were injected with the anti-malarial drug Primaquine diluted in saline solution while control pairs were injected with saline solution. The fumigation treatment was carried out using insecticide solution or water for fumigated and control nests respectively. Brood size was the main factor associated with the abundance of biting midges probably because more nestlings may produce higher quantities of vector attractants. In addition, birds medicated against haemoparasites breeding in non-fumigated nests supported a higher abundance of C. festivipennis than the rest of the groups. Also, we found that the fumigation treatment reduced the abundance of engorged Culicoides in both medicated and control nests, thus indicating a reduction of feeding success produced by the insecticide. These results represent the first evidence for the role of different factors in affecting the Culicoides infracommunity in wild avian nests.

Martínez-de la Puente J; Merino S; Tomás G; Moreno J; Morales J; Lobato E; Talavera S; Sarto I Monteys V

2009-08-01

229

Factors Affecting the Crevice Corrosion Susceptibility of Alloy 22  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The susceptibility or Alloy 22 (N06022) to crevice corrosion may depend on environmental or external factors and metallurgical or internal factors. Some of the most important environmental factors are chloride concentration, inhibitors, temperature and potential. The presence of a weld seam or second phase precipitation in the alloy are classified as internal factors. The localized corrosion resistance of Alloy 22 has been extensively investigated in the last five years, however not all affecting factors were considered in the studies. This paper discusses the current findings regarding the effect of many of these variables on the susceptibility (or resistance) of Alloy 22 to crevice corrosion. The effect of variables such as temperature, chloride concentration and nitrate are rather well understood. However there are only limited or no data regarding effect of other factors such as pH, other inhibitive or deleterious species and type of crevicing material and crevice geometry. There are contradictory results regarding the effect of metallurgical factors such as solution heat treatment.

Rebak, R B

2004-11-24

230

Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland  

Science.gov (United States)

The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and maintenance; existence of fund for operation and maintenance; willingness to contribute money; existence of a user's committee; participation in the initial planning and design of the water scheme; and coordination between the local leaders and user's committee. The main factors which made the schemes unsustainable were: long fetching time; non-involvement in decision making; lack of willingness to contribute funds; absence of users committee; and lack of cooperation between local leaders and the users committee. Water service providers should address the technical, social, financial and institutional factors identified affecting sustainability in their planning and implementation of rural water schemes.

Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

231

Características agronômicas e rendimento de sementes de soja na semeadura realizada no período de safrinha Agronomic traits and seed parameters of soybean cultivars as affected by delayed sowings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dentre os fatores que afetam o rendimento das sementes de soja, a definição da época de semeadura é fundamental para obter sementes de melhor qualidade e em maiores quantidades. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da semeadura da soja (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) na época denominada "safrinha" nas características agronômicas das plantas e no rendimento de sementes de cinco cultivares. Foram desenvolvidos três experimentos de competição de cultivares em dois anos agrícolas (1998/99 e 1999/00), com delineamento em blocos completos casualizados, instalando-se um experimento em cada época de semeadura (15/11, 15/1 e 15/2). A semeadura realizada em novembro foi utilizada na comparação com os períodos de safrinha. As cultivares estudadas, bem como os respectivos grupos de maturação, foram os seguintes: 'BRS 132' (precoce), 'BRS 133' (semiprecoce), 'BR 16' (semiprecoce), 'BRS 134' (médio) e 'FT-Estrela' (tardio). No campo, foram realizadas as seguintes determinações: números de dias para a emergência, para o florescimento e para a maturação, grau de acamamento das plantas, altura de inserção das primeiras vagens, altura das plantas, número de vagens por planta, massa de mil sementes e rendimento de sementes. A semeadura realizada nos meses de janeiro e fevereiro não é alternativa viável para a produção quantitativa de sementes na Região de Maringá (PR), independentemente da duração de ciclo da cultivar de soja utilizada.Sowing date is one of the most important factors affecting soybean yielding potential. The main aim of this research work was to evaluate the effects of delayed sowings on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) cultivar agronomic traits and seed yields. Experimental trials were carried out during the 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 growing seasons, using three sowing dates (November 15th, January 15th; and February 15th) and five soybean cultivars with different seed maturation periods (BRS-132: very early; BRS-133: early; BR-16: early; BRS-134: intermediate and FT-Estrela: late). A randomized complete block design, with three replications, was set up for each sowing date, the November sowing date considered as the reference. The following agronomic traits were scored: number of days from sowing to seedling emergence, full blooming and seed maturation; first pod insertion height; plant height and degree of laid-down plants as well as the seed parameters overall seed yields, number of pods per plant and mass of thousand seeds. The strong seed yield reductions in delayed sowings for all soybean cultivars (not talking into their flowering and/or seed maturation periods), in both growing seasons, regardless the seed maturation periods of soybean cultivars, as compared to the usual growing season (November), as well as other agronomic traits, clearly indicate the unfeasibility of delayed sowings at the region of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil.

Alessandro de Lucca e Braccini; Ivo de Sá Motta; Carlos Alberto Scapim; Maria do Carmo Lana Braccini; Marizangela Rizzatti Ávila; Dana Kátia Meschede

2004-01-01

232

Factors affecting M13 bacteriophage inactivation by methylene blue photosensitization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have investigated the factors that affect the virucidal activity of methylene blue (MB) photosensitization. The M13 bacteriophage was more rapidly inactivated at higher temperatures (6 degrees C < 24 degrees C < 38 degrees C). Rate constants for inactivation were 0.072, 0.139 and 0.260 (log10 inactivation)/ (J/cm2) at 6 degrees C, 24 degrees C and 38 degrees C, respectively. On the other hand, dye penetration into virus particles, which was monitored by the fluorescence of YOYO-1, was unchanged with incubation temperature. These data suggest that temperature dependency of M13 inactivation was due to factors other than dye permeability. The pH of the virus suspension also affected the rate of M13 inactivation by MB. The M13 bacteriophage was inactivated faster in basic suspensions and slower in acidic suspensions compared with neutral buffers. These results suggest that temperature and pH are factors that influence the extent of MB photosensitization, and hence, the control of these factors will be necessary for MB phototreatment of plasma products in transfusion medicine.

Abe H; Wagner SJ; Kuwabara M; Kamo N; Ikebuchi K; Sekiguchi S

1997-05-01

233

Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market.

2010-01-01

234

How do amino acid substitutions affect the amyloidogenic properties and seeding efficiency of prion peptides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The amino acid sequences in the amyloidogenic region (amino acids 108-144) of several mammalian prion proteins were compared and variations were found to occur at residues 109 (M or L), 112 (M or V), 129 (M, V, or L), 135 (N or S), 138 (M, L, or I), 139 (M or I), and 143 (N or S). Using the bovine PrP peptide (residues 108-144 based on the numbering of the human prion protein sequence) as a control peptide, several peptides with one amino acid differing from that of the bovine PrP peptide at residues 109, 112, 135, 138, 139, or 143 and several mammalian PrP peptides were synthesized, and the effects of these amino acid substitutions on the amyloidogenic properties of these peptides were compared and discussed on the basis of the chemical and structural properties of amino acids. Our results showed that the V112M substitution accelerated nucleation of amyloidogenesis, while the N143S and I139M substitutions retarded nucleation. These effects tended to cancel each other out when two substitutions with opposite effects were present on the same peptide. Moreover, acceleration or inhibition of nucleation was not necessarily correlated with effect on seeding efficiency. Using amyloid fibrils prepared from the bovine PrP peptide as seeds, the seeding efficiency for the monomer peptides with the M129L, S135N, N143S, or I139M substitution was decreased compared to that for bPrP peptide. Of all the mammalian peptides used in this study, the dog, mule deer, and pig PrP peptides had the lowest seeding efficiencies.

Chuang CC; Liao TY; Chen EH; Chen RP

2013-10-01

235

Protein digestibility (in vitro) of chickpea and blackgram seeds as affected by domestic processing and cooking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Protein digestibility (in vitro) of grains of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and blackgram (Vigna mungo) cultivars varied from 48 to 53% and 52 to 58%, respectively. Soaking, cooking (both of unsoaked and soaked seeds), autoclaving and sprouting improved significantly the protein digestibility of all the cultivars of chickpea and blackgram. Autoclaving was found to be most effective followed by cooking and sprouting; cooking of sprouts had only marginal effect. Protein digestibility was higher when soaked instead of unsoaked grains were cooked.

Jood S; Chauhan BM; Kapoor AC

1989-06-01

236

ANTI-NUTRIENT FACTORS, PERFORMANCE AND SERUM BIOCHEMISTRY OF BROILER CHICKS FED RAW AND FERMENTED ALCHORNEA CORDIFOLIA SEEDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine some anti-nutrient factors in differently processed Christmas bush (Alchornea cordifolia) seeds and the effect of the processed seed meals on the performance and blood chemistry of broiler chicks fed from 1 to 35 day of age. Ground and fermented, and dehulled Christmas bush (CB) seed meals were analyzed for their anti-nutrient contents whereas ground and sieved (GS), ground-sieved and fermented (GSF) and non-sieved and fermented (NSF) seed meals were incorporated into starter broiler diets to replace 10% of maize, respectively. Fermented and dehulled CB seed meals contain 574.4 and 21.3mg/100g phytic acid, respectively. Cyanide was not identified in any of the meals. Dehulling eliminated the anthraquinone and tannin contents whereas fermentation only eliminated the tannin content. None of the methods completely eliminated the saponin, cardiac glycoside, flavonoid and alkaloid contents of the seed meals. With GS seed meal, broilers had lower average daily weight gain (P<0.05) than the control group. Feed intake decreased (P<0.05) but feed conversion ratio was not different when compared with control. Inclusion of GSF seed meal improved growth and feed intake when compared with the NSF seed meal and by day 35, growth and feed intake were comparable to those of the control birds. Blood plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphates and aspartate aminotransferase increased with GS CB seed meal diet, while serum calcium decreased. Neither raw nor fermented seed meals altered other measures of the blood chemistry. It is concluded that CB seeds contain toxic anti-nutrient compounds and that sieving out the hulls in the ground raw seed meal before fermentation improved the feeding value of the seeds for broilers at 10% replacement for maize.

O.O. EMENALOM

2012-01-01

237

FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHERS’ USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research studies in the past decade have shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. Studies reveal a number of factors influencing teachers’ decisions to use ICT in the classroom: non-manipulative and manipulative school and teacher factors. These factors are interrelated. The success of the implementation of ICT is not dependent on the availability or absence of one individual factor, but is determined through a dynamic process involving a set of interrelated factors. It is suggested that ongoing professional development must be provided for teachers to model the new pedagogies and tools for learning with the aim of enhancing the teaching-learning process. However, it is important for teacher trainers and policy makers to understand the factors affecting effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different approaches to ICT use in teacher training so training strategies can be appropriately explored to make such changes viable to all.

Mojgan Afshari; Kamariah Abu Bakar; Wong Su Luan; Bahaman Abu Samah; Foo Say Fooi

2009-01-01

238

Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were used to divide the metabolites into the following three groups: 1) correlated to growth, 2) correlated to color formation, and 3) formed at high pH. Subsequently, a full factorial experiment with factors P, Mg and Cu, showed that low P concentrations (2000 mg/kg) induced yellow color formation. Among the factors contributing to yellow color formation, pH and salt concentration are easy to control for the cheesemaker, while the third factor, P-concentration, is not. Naturally occurring variations in the P-concentration in milk delivered to Blue Cheese plants, could be responsible for the yellow discoloration phenomenon observed in the dairy industry.

Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.

2002-01-01

239

An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL) has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs), problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL). Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

Takashi Kuremoto; Tetsuya Tsurusaki; Kunikazu Kobayashi; Shingo Mabu; Masanao Obayashi

2013-01-01

240

Managerial and institutional factors affect prescribed burning costs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prescribed burning costs are extremely variable, even if conditions are similar. This variability complicates planning and evaluation of prescribed burning programs and budgets, resulting in imprecise projections of their economic benefits. Evaluating the worth of prescribed burning efforts in objective terms is difficult, but the continual shrinkage of USDA Forest Service budgets requires an increase in program efficiency and understanding the causes of variability for prescribed burning costs. An analysis of variance model was used to describe and quantify the relative effect of managerial and institutional factors, such as smoke emission limitations or the constraint to control all types of fires, on prescribed burning costs. Data were collected by using a questionnaire to fire and fuel managers in the USDA Forest Service's Northern, Intermountain, and Pacific Northwest Regions. Estimated prescribed burning costs were significantly affected by changes in the managerial and institutional factors, such as minimizing escape potential or complying with smoke emission standards presented to these fire managers. Contrary to our expectations, burn objective (the main reason for conducting the burn) was not a significant cost factor. Unit size of the burned area affected prescribed burning costs more than either change in slope or unit shape, both of which increase the amount of burn perimeter relative to the area burned. Costs per acre demonstrated economies of scale: the larger the unit burned, the lower its per-acre cost.

Gonzalez-Caban A

1997-11-01

 
 
 
 
241

Factors affecting stair-ascent patterns in unilateral transfemoral amputees.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Patterns and ease of stair ambulation influence amputees' level of satisfaction with their rehabilitation, confidence level, and motivation for continued rehabilitation, demonstrating the importance of stair-ascent data for rehabilitation. However, little is known about the determinants of stair-ascent patterns in unilateral transfemoral amputees. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the factors affecting stair-ascent patterns in transfemoral amputees. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: Stair-ascent patterns were evaluated using the Stair Assessment Index. We collected Stair Assessment Index data as well as demographic and clinical data (sex, age, height, mass, amputation side, reason for amputation, time since amputation, and residual limb length) from 25 transfemoral amputees. RESULTS: Statistical analyses revealed that age was negatively correlated and time since amputation was positively correlated with Stair Assessment Index. In contrast, height, body mass, and residual limb lengths were not correlated with Stair Assessment Index. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that in unilateral transfemoral amputee, (1) both age and time since amputation could affect stair-climbing patterns and (2) residual limb length should not be a limiting factor for stair climbing if the transfemoral amputee has a certain minimum residual limb length. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Rehabilitation teams should carefully consider nonmodifiable predisposing factors such as age and time since amputation. However, they may be able to carry on stair-ascent rehabilitation for transfemoral amputees disregarding residual limb length (depending on the length).

Hobara H; Kobayashi Y; Tominaga S; Nakamura T; Yamasaki N; Ogata T

2013-06-01

242

Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect FENO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting FENO in a well characterised adult population. Methods Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at age 32. The effects of sex, height, weight, lung function indices, smoking, atopy, asthma and rhinitis on FENO were explored by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analyses. Results The effect of sex on FENO was both statistically and clinically significant, with FENO levels approximately 25% less in females. Overall, current smoking reduced FENO up to 50%, but this effect occurred predominantly in those who smoked on the day of the FENO measurement. Atopy increased FENO by 60%. The sex-related differences in FENO remained significant (p ENO. Conclusion Even after adjustment, FENO values are significantly different in males and females. The derivation of reference values and the interpretation of FENO in the clinical setting should be stratified by sex. Other common factors such as current smoking and atopy also require to be taken into account.

Taylor D Robin; Mandhane Piush; Greene Justina M; Hancox Robert J; Filsell Sue; McLachlan Christene R; Williamson Avis J; Cowan Jan O; Smith Andrew D; Sears Malcolm R

2007-01-01

243

Factors affecting tube dwelling time after percutaneous nephrolithotomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about the impact of nephrostomy tubes on morbidity and quality of life. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The tube dwelling time and the factors influencing it were determined in 165 patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). RESULTS: The mean tube dwelling time was 21+/-30 days. The duration of tube drainage after PCNL was 13+/-17 days. Most of this time was preoperative when the tube was inserted for urgent reasons--obstruction or sepsis (31+/-33 days). On multivariate analysis, the number of secondary PCNLs and postoperative complications were the most significant factors affecting tube dwelling time. Age correlated with intubation time but did not reach statistical significance (P < 0.09). Neither the stone's side and type nor the patient's sex had a significant influence. CONCLUSIONS: A significant factor affecting the duration of tube drainage is preoperative medical evaluation and patient preparation, and these steps should be completed expeditiously in order to minimize the time to PCNL. Completion of PCNL in one session should shorten the postoperative intubation time.

Kleinmann J; Siegel Y; Cipele H; Goren E; Zisman A; Leibovici D; Lindner A

2001-10-01

244

Hydration properties, soymilk and okara yield of soybean affected by agronomic factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of row space and irrigation on 100-seed weight water uptake, leaching loss, soymilk, and okara yield of soybean were investigated. Row space affected leaching loss, whereas irrigation significantly altered 100-seed weight, water uptake, volume change, leaching loss, and the soymilk yield of soybeans. Irrigation on the third day resulted in desirable hydration properties. The soymilk yield significantly correlated (p < 0.01 or 0.05) to the hydration properties, e.g., 100-seed weight, water uptake, volume change, and leaching loss. A predictive regression model (R = 0.860) has been proposed for the soymilk yield. PMID:12108211

Alpaslan, M; Hayta, M

2002-06-01

245

Hydration properties, soymilk and okara yield of soybean affected by agronomic factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of row space and irrigation on 100-seed weight water uptake, leaching loss, soymilk, and okara yield of soybean were investigated. Row space affected leaching loss, whereas irrigation significantly altered 100-seed weight, water uptake, volume change, leaching loss, and the soymilk yield of soybeans. Irrigation on the third day resulted in desirable hydration properties. The soymilk yield significantly correlated (p < 0.01 or 0.05) to the hydration properties, e.g., 100-seed weight, water uptake, volume change, and leaching loss. A predictive regression model (R = 0.860) has been proposed for the soymilk yield.

Alpaslan M; Hayta M

2002-06-01

246

Recruitment and retention: factors that affect pericyte migration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pericytes are critical for vascular morphogenesis and contribute to several pathologies, including cancer development and progression. The mechanisms governing pericyte migration and differentiation are complex and have not been fully established. Current literature suggests that platelet-derived growth factor/platelet-derived growth factor receptor-?, sphingosine 1-phosphate/endothelial differentiation gene-1, angiopoietin-1/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, angiopoietin-2/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, transforming growth factor ?/activin receptor-like kinase 1, transforming growth factor ?/activin receptor-like kinase 5, Semaphorin-3A/Neuropilin, and matrix metalloproteinase activity regulate the recruitment of pericytes to nascent vessels. Interestingly, many of these pathways are directly affected by secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC). Here, we summarize the function of these factors in pericyte migration and discuss if and how SPARC might influence these activities and thus provide an additional layer of control for the recruitment of vascular support cells. Additionally, the consequences of targeted inhibition of pericytes in tumors and the current understanding of pericyte recruitment in pathological environments are discussed.

Aguilera KY; Brekken RA

2013-08-01

247

Analysis and Measurement of Buildability Factors Affecting Edge Formwork  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Labour productivity is affected by several factors, but buildability is among the most important. Nevertheless, a thoroughexamination of the literature revealed a dearth of research into the influence of buildability factors on labour productivityof in situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the formwork trade level. Although edge formwork is an importantlabour intensive activity, most often, its labour cost is either crudely estimated or lumped within the formwork cost of otheractivities. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate and quantify the effects and relative influence of the followingbuildability factors on its labour productivity: (a) depth of slab being edge-formed; (b) slab geometric factor; and (c)type of formwork material used. To achieve this objective, a sufficiently large volume of productivity data was collected andanalyzed using the multiple categorical-regression method. As a result, the effects and relative influence of the buildabilityfactors investigated are determined. The findings show significant effects of these factors on edge formwork labour productivity,which can be used to provide designers feedback on how well their designs consider the requirements of buildabilityprinciples, and the consequences of their decisions on labour efficiency. On the other hand, the depicted patterns of resultsmay provide guidance to construction managers for effective activity planning and efficient labour utilization.

A. M. Jarkas

2010-01-01

248

Factors affecting surface and release properties of thin PDMS films  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) elastomers are commonly used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP). DEAP films are used in making actuators, generators and sensors. In the large scale manufacture of DEAP films, release of films from the substrate (carrier web) induces some defects and pre-strain in the films which affect the overall performance of the films. The current research is directed towards investigating factors affecting the peel force and release of thin, corrugated polydimethylsiloxane films used in DEAP films. It has been shown that doping the PDMS films with small quantities of perfluoroether allylamide (PFE) lowered the surface energy which could ease the release. This is further investigated together with an evaluation of the resulting change in actuator performance. The relationship between the adhesive energy, surface energy, Young’s modulus and peel force of the films is analyzed.

Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Junker, Michael Daniel

2013-01-01

249

Factors affecting quality of dried low-rank coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chemical and physical properties of coal are strongly affected by the upgrading process employed. For high-moisture coals, upgrading involves thermal dehydration to improve the calorific value of the coal on mass basis. This study evaluates the feasibility of upgrading a low-rank/grade coal using the oven drying method. The objective of this research work is to study the drying characteristics of low-rank coals and to understand the factors affecting the quality of dried low-rank coals. This article describes laboratory experiments conducted on the characterization of the low-rank coals before and after the drying process. The results on drying kinetics, re-absorption of coal samples, and proximate analysis of coal samples before and after drying are discussed. It was found that the upgrading process produced coal with better heating value and combustion characteristics than those of the raw coal samples.

Karthikeyan, M.; Kuma, J.V.M.; Hoe, C.S.; Ngo, D.L.Y. [National University of Singapore, (Singapore)

2007-07-01

250

Factors affecting the interferon sensitivity of human cytomegalovirus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several factors affected the interferon sensitivity of human cytomegalovirus in human foreskin fibroblast cultures. An inoculum of infected cells was up to 300-fold less sensitive than a cell-free inoculum of equivalent input multiplicity. A 10-fold increase in the dose of infectious units of either type of inoculum was associated with a 10-fold or greater decrease in interferon sensitivity. Several aspects of the virus-cell interaction were examined and parameters indicative of cell infection were less inhibited by interferon than were those for virus replication. PMID:202571

Holmes, A R; Rasmussen, L; Merigan, T C

1978-01-01

251

Factors affecting the interferon sensitivity of human cytomegalovirus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several factors affected the interferon sensitivity of human cytomegalovirus in human foreskin fibroblast cultures. An inoculum of infected cells was up to 300-fold less sensitive than a cell-free inoculum of equivalent input multiplicity. A 10-fold increase in the dose of infectious units of either type of inoculum was associated with a 10-fold or greater decrease in interferon sensitivity. Several aspects of the virus-cell interaction were examined and parameters indicative of cell infection were less inhibited by interferon than were those for virus replication.

Holmes AR; Rasmussen L; Merigan TC

1978-01-01

252

Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

1979-06-28

253

Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

1979-06-28

254

Chinese multinationals: how do institutional factors affect their location patterns?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of various host country institutional factors on the location patterns of 29 large Chinese multinationals. From a sample of 127 outward foreign direct investment (FDI) decisions made in 52 countries, our findings suggest that a greater difficulty in doing business and a high political risk in the host country do not discourage Chinese multinationals. However, the presence of overseas Chinese in the host country, a larger absolute host market size and a higher volume of Chinese exports to that country affect positively.

Diego Quer Ramón; Enrique Claver Cortés; Laura Rienda García

2011-01-01

255

Factors Affecting Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Performance and Reproducibility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of fuel cells is often based on small-scale laboratory studies. Due to limited time and budgets, a minimum number of cells are usually prepared and tested, thus, conclusions about improved performance are often drawn from studies of a few cells. Generally, statistics showing the significance of an effect are seldom reported. In this work a simple PEM fuel cell electrode optimization experiment is used as an example to illustrate the importance of statistical evaluation of factors affecting cell performance. The use of fractional factorial design of experiments to reduce the number of cells that have to be studied is also addressed.

Moller-Holst S.

1998-11-01

256

Factors Affecting the End-User Computing Satisfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we investigate factors that are affecting the end-user computing of accounting information system satisfaction from financial managers' point of view. Our sample is selected from companies listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. This research is a descriptive - empirical field study. The required data is collected by sending out questionnaires to the financial managers of the sampled companies. Our findings indicate that, the information content, ease of using accounting information system, accuracy and correctness of information, format of the reports and timeliness of information have an impact on the end-user computing satisfaction.

Mohsen Dastgir; Ahmad S. Mortezaie

2012-01-01

257

Factors affecting public acceptance of wind turbines in Sweden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wind power is growing in Sweden, but the high-level of opposition to turbine proposals has meant that many proposals are never realised. This opposition in a country that has a measured 74% support for wind power leads to questions being raised as to what is causing this opposition. Many have suggested that it is due to prevalent NIMBY attitudes; this, however, is only one factor affecting the public acceptance of turbines. The over-riding factor is the spatial distance between the costs incurred and the benefits derived from wind power. Perceived need for wind power, level of participation, individual considerations of visual impact and the amount to which the local community benefits determine the realisation of turbine proposals. (author)

Devlin, E.

2005-12-15

258

A Study on Factors Affecting Turnover Intention of Hotel Empolyees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available his study used linear structural modeling to explore the factors affecting the turnover intention of hotel employees in Taiwan. A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed to hotel employees. Among these, 350 were valid samples, a valid return rate of 87.50%. The empirical results showed that (1) more harmonious coworker relationships between hotel employees and a higher level of satisfaction regarding their work environment have a significantly positive effect on job satisfaction; (2) a higher level of organizational commitment among hotel employees has a significantly negative effect on turnover intention; (3) the direct effect of employee job satisfaction and salary level on turnover intention has not reached a significant level. Nevertheless, the two factors have indirect negative effects on turnover intention.

Chun-Chang Lee; Sheng-Hsiung Huang; Chen- Yi Zhao

2012-01-01

259

Extrinsic factors affecting accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeters for LMFBRs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Assuming that ultrasonic flowmeters of suitable intrinsic accuracy are feasible, this report explores factors extrinsic to the flowmeter which affect the accuracy such as asymmetric flow profile, regions of high turbulence and thermal stratification. By integrating isovelocity flow profile maps, the predicted performance of various flowmeter configurations may be compared to experimental data. For the two pipe arrangements analyzed, the single diametral path flowmeter results were within 5 percent of true flow rate. Theoretical correction factors could reduce the error for the straight pipe but increased the error for asymmetrical flow. On the same pipe arrangements a four path ultrasonic flowmeter spaced for Gaussian integration gave less than 1 percent error. For more general conclusions a range of flow profiles produced by typical LMFBR piping arrangements must be analyzed

1976-01-01

260

Siliqua and Seed Development in Rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) as Affected by Different Irrigation Levels and Row Spacing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accumulation of dry matter in siliqua, number of siliqua per plant, length of siliqua and seeds per siliqua of rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) plants were studied under three irrigation levels (no irrigation, one irrigation at 30 DAS and two irrigations at 30 and 60 DAS) and three row spacing (20 cm, 30 cm and 40 cm). The experiment was carried out at Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University (SAU) Farm, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh during the period from October, 2005 to January, 2006. The results revealed that the maximum dry matter accumulation in siliquae observed with two irrigations (at 30 DAS and 60 DAS) with 40 cm row spacing. Number of siliquae per plant was affected by different irrigation levels and row spacing and the highest number of silique was produced by two irrigations (at 30 DAS and 60 DAS) with 40 cm row spacing. At harvest, two irrigations produced the highest number of siliquae (120.3) which was statistically different from one irrigation (76.14) and no irrigation (control) treatments (30.99) and the differences were 288.2% and 145.7%, respectively over control. Length of silique as well as number of seeds per siliqua were significantly affected by the combination of irrigation levels and row spacing.

Mirza HASANUZZAMAN

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Molecular insights into how a deficiency of amylose affects carbon allocation – carbohydrate and oil analyses and gene expression profiling in the seeds of a rice waxy mutant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding carbon partitioning in cereal seeds is of critical importance to develop cereal crops with enhanced starch yields for food security and for producing specified end-products high in amylose, ?-glucan, or fructan, such as functional foods or oils for biofuel applications. Waxy mutants of cereals have a high content of amylopectin and have been well characterized. However, the allocation of carbon to other components, such as ?-glucan and oils, and the regulation of the altered carbon distribution to amylopectin in a waxy mutant are poorly understood. In this study, we used a rice mutant, GM077, with a low content of amylose to gain molecular insight into how a deficiency of amylose affects carbon allocation to other end products and to amylopectin. We used carbohydrate analysis, subtractive cDNA libraries, and qPCR to identify candidate genes potentially responsible for the changes in carbon allocation in GM077 seeds. Results Carbohydrate analysis indicated that the content of amylose in GM077 seeds was significantly reduced, while that of amylopectin significantly rose as compared to the wild type BP034. The content of glucose, sucrose, total starch, cell-wall polysaccharides and oil were only slightly affected in the mutant as compared to the wild type. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) experiments generated 116 unigenes in the mutant on the wild-type background. Among the 116 unigenes, three, AGP, ISA1 and SUSIBA2-like, were found to be directly involved in amylopectin synthesis, indicating their possible roles in redirecting carbon flux from amylose to amylopectin. A bioinformatics analysis of the putative SUSIBA2-like binding elements in the promoter regions of the upregulated genes indicated that the SUSIBA2-like transcription factor may be instrumental in promoting the carbon reallocation from amylose to amylopectin. Conclusion Analyses of carbohydrate and oil fractions and gene expression profiling on a global scale in the rice waxy mutant GM077 revealed several candidate genes implicated in the carbon reallocation response to an amylose deficiency, including genes encoding AGPase and SUSIBA2-like. We believe that AGP and SUSIBA2 are two promising targets for classical breeding and/or transgenic plant improvement to control the carbon flux between starch and other components in cereal seeds.

Zhang Ming-Zhou; Fang Jie-Hong; Yan Xia; Liu Jun; Bao Jin-Song; Fransson Gunnel; Andersson Roger; Jansson Christer; Åman Per; Sun Chuanxin

2012-01-01

262

Physiological Responses of West African Dwarf Buck as Affected by Datura Stramonium Linn Seed Extract  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To evaluate the action of aqueous extract of Datura stramonium seeds on the physiological status of West African Dwarf (WAD) -bucks, the effects of aqueous extract of the seed of Datura stramonium Linn was investigated for some physiological parameters in twenty (20) West African Dwarf bucks aged 12- 18 months and averaged 8.76±1.23kg for a period of 2months. The bucks were grouped into five treatments consisting four bucks and using Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The bucks were subcutaneously administered with the plant extract at a dose of 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08ml/kg bodyweight respectively. The results of the study revealed that the treated bucks had higher (p>0.05) body weight than the control but treated had lower rectal temperature than the control (p>0.05). However, the extract produced significant effect (p<0.05) on the pulse and heart rate and this may be as a result of the active principles present in the extract used for the study. Based on the findings of the present study, the aqueous extract of Datura stramonium could serve as a stimulatory agent and if properly screened using additional solvents, pharmacologically active drugs could be obtained. The significant effect produced by the aqueous extract on the animals has provided scientific justification for the ethno medicinal uses of the plant in India and South Africa.

Fatoba, T. A.; Adeloye, A. A.; Soladoye, A. O.

2012-01-01

263

Seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals concentration as affected by foliar K-glyphosate applications in soybean cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous studies showed that glyphosate (Gly) may chelate cation nutrients, including potassium (K), which might affect the nutritional status of soybean seed. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals) as influenced by foliar applications of K + Gly. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at Mississippi Valley State University, using two glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivars DK 4968 and Pioneer 95Y70 grown in a randomized complete block design. The treatments were foliar applications of K alone, Gly alone, K + Gly combined, and nontreated control (C). A single application of potassium (1.75% as K2SO4) was applied, and Gly was applied at a rate of 0.75 ae/ha at V5 stage. Leaf samples were harvested one week after treatment (1WAT) and 3WAT. Mature seeds were collected at harvest maturity (R8). The results showed that K, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) concentrations increased in leaves in K alone and K + Gly treatments at 1WAT, but significantly increased at 3WAT in all treatments. The concentration of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) showed a decrease in leaf concentration in Gly and K + Gly treatments compared to C. Boron (B) concentration increased in Gly treatment. Seed protein percentage was higher in all treatments in cultivar DK 4968, and the increase was about 4.0% in K treatment, 6.9% in Gly treatment, and 3.5% in K + Gly treatment compared to C. The opposite trend was observed in oil concentration, especially in Gly treatment where the percentage decrease was 11.2% compared to C. Stearic fatty acid was significantly higher in K + Gly treatment compared to K treatment for DK 4968. A higher percentage increase in linolenic acid was observed in DK 4968 in K treatment (an increase of 24.5%) and in K + Gly treatment (an increase of 29.5%) compared to C. In Pioneer 95Y70, the decrease in oil was 2.7% in K treatment and 2.3% in K + Gly treatment compared to C. Stearic acid in Pioneer 95Y70 was significantly higher in Gly treatment, an increase of 8.3%, compared to C. Our research demonstrated that foliar application of K and Gly altered mineral concentration in leaves and shifted seed composition towards protein and stearic concentration. Further research under field conditions is needed before final conclusions are made.

Manju Pande; Mudlagiri B. Goli; Tyneiseca Epps; Nacer Bellaloui

2012-01-01

264

Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05) CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000): 497-502

Naile Bilgili; Sultan Ayaz

2009-01-01

265

11-year experience with gastroschisis: factors affecting mortality and morbidity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was the evaluation of patients treated with a diagnosis of gastroschisis and to establish the factors which affected the morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients, managed for gastroschisis during 2000-2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were analysed in respect to gestational age, birth weight, associated anomalies, type of delivery, operative procedures, postoperative complications, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) related complications. The factors affecting mortality and morbidity were determined. FINDINGS: Associated abnormalities were present in 24% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent elective reduction in the incubator (Bianchi procedure) without anesthesia. Eight patients had delayed reduction with silo and ten patients had primary closure. Although the type of delivery had an effect on morbidity but not mortality, gestational age, birth weight, and the operative procedure performed had no effect on morbidity or mortality. Duration until tolerance of oral intake, and of TPN and hospitalization were found to be statistically significantly shorter in the group of babies delivered by cesarean section. CONCLUSION: In our study the most important cause of mortality was the abdominal compartment syndrome and multi-organ failure in the early years. Long hospitalization periods and sepsis were the main causes of mortality in recent years.

Erdo?an D; Az?l? MN; Cavu?o?lu YH; Tuncer IS; Karaman I; Karaman A; Ozgüner IF

2012-09-01

266

Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail.

Francis GA; Gallone A; Nychas GJ; Sofos JN; Colelli G; Amodio ML; Spano G

2012-01-01

267

11-Year Experience with Gastroschisis: Factors Affecting Mortality and Morbidity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was the evaluation of patients treated with a diagnosis of gastroschisis and to establish the factors which affected the morbidity and mortality.Methods: Twenty-nine patients, managed for gastroschisis during 2000-2010 were reviewed retrospectively.Patients were analysed in respect to gestational age, birth weight, associated anomalies, type of delivery,operative procedures, postoperative complications, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) related complications.The factors affecting mortality and morbidity were determined.Findings: Associated abnormalities were present in 24% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent elective reduction in the incubator (Bianchi procedure) without anesthesia. Eight patients had delayed reduction with silo and ten patients had primary closure. Although the type of delivery had an effect on morbidity but notmortality, gestational age, birth weight, and the operative procedure performed had no effect on morbidity or mortality. Duration until tolerance of oral intake, and of TPN and hospitalization were found to be statistically significantly shorter in the group of babies delivered by cesarean section.Conclusion: In our study the most important cause of mortality was the abdominal compartment syndrome and multi-organ failure in the early years. Long hospitalization periods and sepsis were the main causes of mortality in recent years.

Derya Erdo?an; Müjdem Nur Az?l?; Yusuf Hakan Çavu?o?lu; ?lker SaA Tuncer; ?brahim Karaman; Ay?e Karaman; ?smet Faruk Özgüner

2012-01-01

268

11-Year Experience with Gastroschisis: Factors Affecting Mortality and Morbidity  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective The aim of the study was the evaluation of patients treated with a diagnosis of gastroschisis and to establish the factors which affected the morbidity and mortality. Methods Twenty-nine patients, managed for gastroschisis during 2000-2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were analysed in respect to gestational age, birth weight, associated anomalies, type of delivery, operative procedures, postoperative complications, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) related complications. The factors affecting mortality and morbidity were determined. Findings Associated abnormalities were present in 24% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent elective reduction in the incubator (Bianchi procedure) without anesthesia. Eight patients had delayed reduction with silo and ten patients had primary closure. Although the type of delivery had an effect on morbidity but not mortality, gestational age, birth weight, and the operative procedure performed had no effect on morbidity or mortality. Duration until tolerance of oral intake, and of TPN and hospitalization were found to be statistically significantly shorter in the group of babies delivered by cesarean section. Conclusion In our study the most important cause of mortality was the abdominal compartment syndrome and multi-organ failure in the early years. Long hospitalization periods and sepsis were the main causes of mortality in recent years.

Erdogan, Derya; Az?l?, Mujdem Nur; Cavusoglu, Yusuf Hakan; Tuncer, Ilker SaA; Karaman, Ibrahim; Karaman, Ayse; Ozguner, Ismet Faruk

2012-01-01

269

Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for phenotypic and microevolutionary adaptations.

Salewski V; Hochachka WM; Fiedler W

2013-01-01

270

Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for phenotypic and microevolutionary adaptations. PMID:23593131

Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M; Fiedler, Wolfgang

2013-04-08

271

Selenium uptake and its antioxidant role in ryegrass cultivars as affected by selenite seed pelletization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A greenhouse study was carried out to evaluate the effect of seed pelletization with increasing selenite doses (from 0 to 60 g Se ha-1) on the yield, Se uptake and the antioxidant responses of three ryegrass cultivars (Aries, Nui and Quartet) cultivated on an Andisol during two consecutive growth periods. In addition, a second assay was conducted to determine the residual effect of Se in the shoots during four consecutive plant cuts. Results showed that selenite-pelleted seeds at rates up to 60 g Se ha-1 did not influence the yield of shoots and roots of the three ryegrass cultivars. Selenium concentration in shoots and roots steadily increased as a consequence of increased Se supply, and it was accumulated mainly in the roots. Plants of the different cultivars accumulated similar amounts of Se in their shoots, but Quartet roots built up greater Se concentration than those of Aries or Nui at rates of application above 35 g Se ha-1. Whereas Se doses above 10 g ha-1 increased the shoot Se concentration in the two yields of the three ryegrass cultivars to suitable levels according to the minimum dietary requirement of beef and dairy cattle, the residual effect of Se was maintained through four cuts at Se supply of 30 and 60 g ha-1. Likewise, the different cultivars displayed differential patterns of lipid peroxidation in response to the added Se. During the growth period, reductions of the oxidative damage of membranes were accompanied by inhibition of SOD in Aries and Nui and by the activation of GSH-Px antioxidant enzymes in the three ryegrass cultivars. Thus, in our study the benefits of Se on the plant health were closely related to an enhancement of the antioxidant system in the ryegrass cultivars. In summary, our results indicate that selenite-pelleted ryegrass seeds seem to be a promissory tool to increase both the Se content and the antioxidant ability of pastures. Its potential use requires, however, to be evaluated under field conditions in Se deficient soils.

P Cartes; L Gianfreda; C Paredes; M.L Mora

2011-01-01

272

Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

Hill, L.J.

1994-01-01

273

Factors affecting residual platelet aggregation in prasugrel treated patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Identification of factors affecting platelet reactivity (PR) and high PR (HPR) or high platelet inhibition (HPI) rates while on prasugrel maintenance dose (MD) might be helpful in avoiding ischemic or bleeding complications. We retrospectively analyzed all patients (n=233) treated in our institution between April 2010 and November 2012 who had platelet function assessment pre-prasugrel and following prasugrel 10 mg MD for at least 5 days, using the Verify Now P2Y12 platelet function assay. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were applied to identify independent factors affecting post-prasugrel PR level, HPR and HPI status. The amount of variance in PR under prasugrel MD that could be explained by the model was 25.9% (adjusted R(2)), p<0.001. Pre-prasugrel treatment PR, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), prasugrel loading and smoking uniquely accounted for 10.8%, 1.3%, 3.5% and 1.2% of the observed variance, respectively. HPR and HPI were observed in 7.7% and 13.7% of the cases, respectively. On multivariate analysis, pre-prasugrel PR in the upper quartile (>313 PRU) was the only independent factor associated with HPR under prasugrel MD. In contrast, pre-prasugrel PR in the lower quartile (<242 PRU) and prasugrel loading emerged as the only independent predictors of HPI. In patients under different clinical settings receiving prasugrel 10 mg MD a significant amount of the PR variability in response to prasugrel may be explained by pre- treatment PR level, ACS, prasugrel loading and smoking status. A high pre- treatment PR is associated with HPR, while a low pre-treatment PR and prasugrel loading predict HPI.

Alexopoulos D; Xanthopoulou I; Perperis A; Siapika A; Stavrou K; Tsoni E; Davlouros P; Hahalis G

2013-01-01

274

Disentangling factors controlling fruit and seed removal by rodents in temperate forests  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fleshy fruits fall on to the ground together with cleaned seeds previously ingested by primary dispersers, offering a wide range of fruits and seeds to the ground foragers. Although nutritional properties strongly differ between fruits and seeds, this different seed presentation (cleaned seeds versu...

Perea García-Calvo, Ramón; San Miguel Ayanz, Alfonso; Gil Sanchez, Luis

275

Growth of Salmonella on sprouting alfalfa seeds as affected by the inoculum size, native microbial load and Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To investigate the growth of salmonellae on sprouting alfalfa seeds as affected by the inoculum size, microbial load and Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79. METHODS AND RESULTS: Alfalfa seeds pre-inoculated with < or =10(1)-10(3) CFU g(-1) of salmonellae and with or without Ps. fluorescens 2-79 were sprouted in glass jars and the population of salmonellae were determined daily for up to 6 days. The population of salmonellae on germinating seeds reached the maximum 2-3 days after sprouting when total bacterial count reached the maximum (10(9) CFU g(-1)). The population of salmonellae on sprouting seeds not treated with Ps. fluorescens 2-79 showed a net increase of 3-4 log units. However, the population of salmonellae on alfalfa seeds treated with Ps. fluorescens 2-79 showed a net increase of only 1-2 log units. Disinfection of seeds with calcium hypochlorite enhanced the growth of salmonellae. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of seeds with Ps. fluorescens 2-79 reduced the growth of salmonellae by 2-3 log units. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The potential of Ps. fluorescens 2-79 as a biological agent for use in control of salmonellae on sprouting seeds was demonstrated and warrants further investigation.

Liao CH

2008-02-01

276

Geolocation by light: accuracy and precision affected by environmental factors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1. Geolocation by light allows for tracking animal movements, based on measurements of light intensity over time by a data-logging device (‘geolocator’). Recent developments of ultra-light devices (<2 g) broadened the range of target species and boosted the number of studies using geolocators. However, an inherent problem of geolocators is that any factor or process that changes the natural light intensity pattern also affects the positions calculated from these light patterns. Although the most important factors have been identified, estimation of their effect on the accuracy and precision of positions estimated has been lacking but is very important for the analyses and interpretation of geolocator data. 2. The ‘threshold method’ is mainly used to derive positions by defining sunrise and sunset times from the light intensity pattern for each recorded day. This method requires calibration: a predefined sun elevation angle for estimating latitude by fitting the recorded day / night lengthsto theoretical values across latitudes. Therewith, almost constant shading can be corrected for by finding the appropriate sun elevation angle. 3. Weather, topography and vegetation are the most important factors that influence light intensities. We demonstrated their effect on the measurement of day /night length, time of solar midnight /noon and the resulting position estimates using light measurements from stationary geolocators at known places and from geolocators mounted on birds. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of different calibration methods on the accuracy of the latitudinal positions. 4. All three environmental factors can influence the light intensity pattern significantly. Weather and an animal’s behaviour result in increased noise in positioning, whereas topography and vegetation result in systematic shading and biased positions. Calibration can significantly shift the estimated latitudes and potentially increase the accuracy, but detailed knowledge about the particular confounding factors and the behaviour of the studied animal is crucial for the choice of the most appropriate calibration method.

Lisovski, Simeon; Hewson, Chris M.

2012-01-01

277

Factors affecting the infection of alfalfa seedlings by Ditylenchus dipsaci.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of plant confinement, soil type, watering practices, stage of seed germination, inoculum level, and method of applying inoculum on stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci) infection of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seedlings grown in soil. Results indicated that (i) confining seedlings together with the nematodes in small vials offered no advantage over growing plants in large flats, (ii) a very fine sandy-loam soil was superior to a fine sand for stem-nematode penetration, (iii) nematodes penetrated seedlings more readily if the soil was not watered immediately after planting and inoculation, (iv) germinating seeds with a radicle length of 0.6-1.3 cm had the highest nematode penetration, and (v) highest penetration occurred when the nematodes were placed directly upon germinating seeds. The optimum inoculum level was 50 nematodes per seedling.

Elgin JH; Evans DW; Faulkner LR

1975-10-01

278

Chemical composition of tomato seeds affected by conventional and organic production systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tomato is amongst the most consumed vegetables in the world, not only for its culinary versatility but also for its high nutritional value. In the last years, consumers have shown an increased concern regarding food origin and safety. The organic tomato production has been a promising alternative for the consumer offering a safer food in relation to environmental, social and nutritional aspects. This study assessed the chemical composition of tomato seeds produced in both conventional and organic systems by INAA. The results showed significant differences (p?0.05) in the mass fractions of Br, Cs, Eu, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb and Sm between both systems, indicating influence of the crop management adopted in the different tomato production systems. (author)

2008-01-01

279

Pollen and seed flow patterns of Carapa guianensis Aublet. (Meliaceae) in two types of Amazonian forest  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Various factors affect spatial genetic structure in plant populations, including adult density and primary and secondary seed dispersal mechanisms. We evaluated pollen and seed dispersal distances and spatial genetic structure of Carapa guianensis Aublet. (Meliaceae) in occasionally inundated and te...

Martins, Karina; Raposo, Andréa; Klimas, Christie A.; Veasey, Elizabeth A.; Kainer, Karen; Wadt, Lúcia Helena O.

280

Some physicochemical and nutritional studies on Karkade (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seed proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seeds of Karkade (Al-Rahad variety) were obtained from western Sudan, and investigated perliminary for their chemical composition, the oil of the seed also was investigated. The factors affecting protein extractability such as PH, salt type and concentrat...

S. A. B. Ahmed

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Assessing psychological factors affecting medical conditions: comparison between different proposals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We compared the provisional Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for Somatic Symptom Disorders (SSD) and an alternative classification based on the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR) as to prevalence and associations with dimensional measures of psychological distress and functioning in a population of medical patients. METHOD: Seventy consecutive outpatients with congestive heart failure were administered an ad hoc structured clinical interview for the identification of DSM-5 SSD, the section concerning hypochondriasis of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Structured Interview for DCPR and Paykel's Clinical Interview for Depression. Subjects also completed the Symptom Questionnaire and the Psychosocial Index. Global assessment of functioning was performed with the DSM-IV Axis V. RESULTS: A diagnosis within DSM-5 SSD was found in 13 patients (18.5%): 61.5% of them were diagnosed with the Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Condition category. Twenty-nine patients (41.4%) were classified according to the DCPR-based proposal: illness denial, demoralization and irritable mood were the most frequent specifiers. The DCPR-based classification showed a greater number of significant associations with dimensional measures of psychological distress, global functioning and stress. CONCLUSION: Compared to DSM-5 SSD, the DCPR-based proposal was more sensitive in detecting psychological factors relevant to illness course and provided a better characterization of such factors. The DCPR-based proposal was also superior in identifying patients with increased psychological distress and poor psychosocial functioning.

Guidi J; Rafanelli C; Roncuzzi R; Sirri L; Fava GA

2013-03-01

282

Factors and perspectives affecting nursing resource consumption in community hospitals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The consumption of professional and non-professional nursing resources on medical/surgical nursing units varies sharply among community hospitals. In an effort to explain the variation, this study examines several factors: socio-economic characteristics of the population; supply of registered nurses; hospital characteristics such as size, complexity and diversity of services; patient characteristics such as case mix index and nursing care acuity index; and production system characteristics such as efficiency of technical support systems and the structure of nursing care delivery. Nursing skill mix varies more than the staffing levels among hospitals. The research suggests that factors associated with a clinical-rational model such as nursing acuity index and the efficiency of clinical/support systems explains little, whereas factors associated with economic-rational model of hospital revenues--like case mix, number of hospital services, poverty (through Medicaid program) and age distribution (through Medicare program)--do significantly affect nursing resource consumption. The results point to the presence of resource allocation to nursing based on hospital revenues rather than patient care needs. PMID:10122811

Shukla, R K

1992-11-01

283

Factors and perspectives affecting nursing resource consumption in community hospitals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The consumption of professional and non-professional nursing resources on medical/surgical nursing units varies sharply among community hospitals. In an effort to explain the variation, this study examines several factors: socio-economic characteristics of the population; supply of registered nurses; hospital characteristics such as size, complexity and diversity of services; patient characteristics such as case mix index and nursing care acuity index; and production system characteristics such as efficiency of technical support systems and the structure of nursing care delivery. Nursing skill mix varies more than the staffing levels among hospitals. The research suggests that factors associated with a clinical-rational model such as nursing acuity index and the efficiency of clinical/support systems explains little, whereas factors associated with economic-rational model of hospital revenues--like case mix, number of hospital services, poverty (through Medicaid program) and age distribution (through Medicare program)--do significantly affect nursing resource consumption. The results point to the presence of resource allocation to nursing based on hospital revenues rather than patient care needs.

Shukla RK

1992-11-01

284

Statistical appraisal of intrinsic factors affecting spontaneous combustion of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is concerned with the statistical prediction of the liability of coal to spontaneous combustion. The experimental data consisted of adiabatic oxidation test results on 47 different coals, together with the laboratory evaluation of intrinsic properties of individual coal samples. The measures of propensity of coal to spontaneous combustion were based on the initial rate of heating and total temperature rise in an adiabatic oxidation experiment. These parameters were statistically correlated with various intrinsic properties of coal to isolate the most important intrinsic factors affecting the spontaneous heating potential of coal. A multiple regression analysis between initial rate of heating and total temperature rise and thirteen independent variables have generated a set of equations to predict the liability of coal to spontaneous combustion. It is shown that the predictive equations derived by subdividing the data set according to rank classification can permit accurate prediction of temperature rise, thus evaluating the liability of coal to self-heating. The contribution made by various intrinsic factors to the self-heating potential of coal have also been evaluated by using isolated factor analysis techniques. 12 figs., 3 tabs., 4 refs.

Singh, R.N.; Demirbilek, S.

1987-01-01

285

ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING EXCHANGE RATE VARIABILITY IN PAKISTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Paper examines/analyzed the factors contributing exchange rate vitality in Pakistan. The study was conducted on some major factors contributing to exchange rate volatility, and their relative importance. Annual data for the period 1975-2010 is used, taken from Economic Survey of Pakistan (various issues) and International Financial Statistics. The main variables used to check variability are inflation, Growth rate, imports and exports on exchange rate volatility. Simple Linear Regression model with ordinary least method (OLS) is used to analyze the results. The study revealed that inflation is the main factor affecting exchange rate in Pakistan. The study further show that the second important variable which bring more variation in exchange rate is economic growth, while order of export and import in variation lies at third and fourth position. Based on the finding of the study it is recommended to harmonize fiscal policies with monetary policy first and then make effective link of both these policies with trade policy.

ShabanaParveen; Abdul Qayyum Khan; Muammad Ismail

2012-01-01

286

Factors Affecting Software Cost Estimation in Developing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cost is the main driving factor for all projects. When it is done correctly, it helps in the successful completion of the project. In this research we have discussed various factors that affect the estimation procedure. These include team structure, team culture, managerial style, project type (Core application or integrated application), client’s working environment. Accurate estimation is far difficult in developing countries where most of the organizations follow local standards. These inaccurate estimations lead to late delivery, less profit or in worst case complete failure. Software requirement gathering, development, maintenance, quality assurance and cost of poor quality are major groups responsible for overall cost in software production process. The exact proportion among them varies significantly in consecutive software releases, which is caused by many factors. The ever increasing need for the reliability of the software systems, especially mission critical applications in the public safety domain, raises the bar for the accuracy of prediction and estimation techniques. The accuracy of estimations in many areas brings about more concerns regarding techniques already used in the software industry. Widely deployed techniques, such as Wideband Delphi method, stress the engineering and technical aspects of the process of how estimates are prepared.

Ali Javed; Mirza Ahsan Ullah; Aziz-ur-Rehman

2013-01-01

287

Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

Maurer M; Wolfram M; Anja H

2010-01-01

288

Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures. PMID:20595751

Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

2010-01-01

289

[Seed rain, soil seed bank, and natural regeneration of natural Toona ciliata var. pubescens forest].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Taking the natural Toona ciliata var. pubescens forest in the Jiujiangshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province of China as test object, an investigation was conducted on the seed rain, soil seed bank, and seedlings number in 2008-2011. The seed rain of the forest was dispersed from late October to the end of December. In 2010, the seed rain intensity in different sampling plots was in the order of Xiagongtang observatory (320.3 +/- 23.5 seeds x m(-2)) > Xiagongtang protection station (284.7 +/- 24.2 seeds x m(-2)) > Daqiutian protection station (251.6 +/- 24.7 seeds x m(-2)), and the quantity of the intact seeds in soil supplied for seed germination and regeneration was 222.0, 34.3, and 22.6 seeds x m(-2), respectively. The seed bank reserves was affected by the seed production amount, bird feeding, and seed viability, etc., of which, bird feeding was the prime factor for the substantial drop of the seed bank reserves. Due to the low resistance against storage and a large number of rot during storage, the seeds in soil could hardly be effectively stored beyond one month. The seedlings germinated in December were averagely less than 2 stands x m(-2), and the soil seed reserves in the next January was the least (6.7-11.8 seeds x m(-2)), with the germinated seedlings averagely 0.4-0.6 stands x m(-2), which was consistent with the rare distribution of natural seedlings in the forest. It was concluded that the small seed rain reserves, low seed vigor of soil seed bank, and low seedling establishment were the important factors impacting the natural regeneration of T. ciliata var. pubescens.

Huang HL; Zhang L; Liao CK

2012-04-01

290

Comparative effects of sandalwood seed oil on fatty acid profiles and inflammatory factors in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sandalwood seed oil on fatty acid (FA) profiles and inflammatory factors in rats. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five different dietary groups: 10 % soybean oil (SO), 10 % olive oil (OO), 10 % safflower oil (SFO), 10 % linseed oil (LSO) and 8 % sandalwood seed oil blended with 2 % SO (SWSO) for 8 weeks. The SWSO group had a higher total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) levels but lower n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios in both adipose tissue and liver than those in the SO, OO and SFO groups (p < 0.05). Although the SWSO group had a much lower 18:3n-3 level (4.51 %) in their dietary lipids than the LSO group (58.88 %), the levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: 22:6n-3) in liver lipids and phospholipids of the SWSO group (7.52 and 11.77 %) were comparable to those of the LSO group (7.07 and 13.16 %). Ximenynic acid, a predominant acetylenic FA in sandalwood seed oil, was found to be highly incorporated into adipose tissue (13.73 %), but relatively lower in liver (0.51 %) in the SWSO group. The levels of prostaglandin F(2?), prostaglandin E?, thromboxane B?, leukotriene B?, tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? in both liver and plasma were positively correlated with the n-6:n-3 ratios, suggesting that increased n-6 PUFA appear to increase the formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas n-3 PUFA exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. The present results suggest that sandalwood seed oil could increase tissue levels of n-3 PUFA, DHA and reduce the n-6:n-3 ratio, and may increase the anti-inflammatory activity in rats. PMID:23275078

Li, Guipu; Singh, Anish; Liu, Yandi; Sunderland, Bruce; Li, Duo

2012-12-29

291

Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. A surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). In the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survival of seeds of seven species of weeds and non-embryonated eggs of the large roundworm of pigs, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still maintained low levels (~1%) of germination ability after 1 week. Chenopodium album was the only weed species which survived 1 week at substantial levels (7%) although after 11 d germination ability was totally lost. Similarly, at 55°C, no Ascaris eggs survived more than 3h of incubation. Incubation at 37°C did not affect egg survival during the first 48 h and it took up to 10 days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites and weeds so that the digestates can be applied without risking spread of these pests. PMID:23266071

Johansen, Anders; Nielsen, Henrik B; Hansen, Christian M; Andreasen, Christian; Carlsgart, Josefine; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Roepstorff, Allan

2012-12-21

292

Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. A surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). In the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survival of seeds of seven species of weeds and non-embryonated eggs of the large roundworm of pigs, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still maintained low levels (?1%) of germination ability after 1 week. Chenopodium album was the only weed species which survived 1 week at substantial levels (7%) although after 11d germination ability was totally lost. Similarly, at 55°C, no Ascaris eggs survived more than 3h of incubation. Incubation at 37°C did not affect egg survival during the first 48h and it took up to 10days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites and weeds so that the digestates can be applied without risking spread of these pests.

Johansen, Anders; BangsØ Nielsen, Henrik

2013-01-01

293

Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. A surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). In the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survival of seeds of seven species of weeds and non-embryonated eggs of the large roundworm of pigs, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still maintained low levels (~1%) of germination ability after 1 week. Chenopodium album was the only weed species which survived 1 week at substantial levels (7%) although after 11 d germination ability was totally lost. Similarly, at 55°C, no Ascaris eggs survived more than 3h of incubation. Incubation at 37°C did not affect egg survival during the first 48 h and it took up to 10 days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites and weeds so that the digestates can be applied without risking spread of these pests.

Johansen A; Nielsen HB; Hansen CM; Andreasen C; Carlsgart J; Hauggard-Nielsen H; Roepstorff A

2013-04-01

294

Investigating the Diversity and Relationship between Agronomical Traits and Seed Yield in Barley Advanced lines Using Factor Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to investigate the diversity and relationship between agronomical traits with seed yield components in barley, twenty advanced barley lines were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at Research Center of Agriculture in Sistan in 2006. Each plot consisted of six rows spaced 20 cm apart and 5 meters long. In this research, 24 Agronomic traits were measured on five randomly selected plants in the central rows of each plot. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among the lines for most of the traits. Line No.7 had the highest (406 grs/m2) and line No.5 had the lowest (309 grs/m2) seed yield. There were high correlation between seed yield and number of panicle/m2. Factor analysis results indicated that 7 independent factors explained 82 percent of the total variation. The first two factors, namely yield components and tillering capacity, explained 41 percent of the total variation. Therefore, it can be concluded that the traits are related to seed yield and tillering capacity, i.e., number of seed per main panicle. 1000 seed weight, number of seed per plant, number of days to physiological maturity and days to heading are the most important characteristics in selecting lines with high seed yield. Number of fertile tiller, total number of tillers and peduncle length were also next set of important traits. Number of days to emergence, nodule number and number of panicle per m2 were also important as selection criteria. Seed weight per plant, biological yield, awn length and the traits that were related to flag leaf had lower importance for selection of lines with high seed yield.

M. Iravani; M. Solouki; A.M. Rezai; B.A. Siasar; S.A. Kohkan

2008-01-01

295

Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results: Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7%) decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2%) students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%), 17 (11.8%), and 16 (11.1%) students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4%) of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8%) and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3%) were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065) more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002). Conclusion : A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

Rawan Al-Fouzan; Sarah Al-Ajlan; Yousef Marwan; Mervat Al-Saleh

2012-01-01

296

Factors affecting readmission for acute asthmatic attacks in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Readmission following acute asthmatic attack has an impact on children's quality of life and the cost of hospitalization. The objective of this study was to define the risk factors associated with readmission following acute asthmatic attacks in children. METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control study in children who were admitted because of acute asthmatic attacks at the Department of Pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. The admissions were classified into 2 groups, admission and readmission within one-month to one-year after the first admission. The medical records were reviewed and the factors that might affect readmission were evaluated. RESULTS: Seventy six children, 49 males and 27 females, were included. There were 56 children who were admitted only once and 20 children who were readmitted. The 1-year readmission rate for children with asthma was 26.3 %. The risk factors which made readmission more likely were a parental history of allergic disease (Odd Ratio, OR, = 3.17; 95% CI 1.10-9.10), a history of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission (OR 29.62; 95% CI 3.35-262.18), methylprednisolone usage during the 1st admission (OR 8.33; 95% CI 2.46-28.19) and the level of asthma control. Increased risk of readmission was found in partly controlled asthma (OR 4.83; 95% CI 1.24-18.88) and uncontrolled asthma (OR 29; 95% CI 2.25-373.77). The factor that decreased the chances of readmission was a history of influenza vaccination (OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.16-0.36). CONCLUSION: A history of ICU admission at the first admission and the level of asthma control (partly controlled and uncontrolled according to Global of Initiative for Asthma guideline) increased the chances of readmission while influenza vaccination reduced the chances of readmission.

Visitsunthorn N; Lilitwat W; Jirapongsananuruk O; Vichyanond P

2013-06-01

297

FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that salary, efficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The overall job satisfaction of the employees in pharmaceutical sector is at the positive level. The nature of business operation, the work culture and the level of job satisfaction have undergone sea change for the pharmaceutical companies. As a business proposition initiated huge investment whereas majority of their stocks is going down bringing a high level of apprehension related to job security among its employees. This research paper highlights some of these problems and presents a picture of level of job satisfaction among employees of pharmaceutical companies. It also identifies unique issues of job satisfaction in the companies. Pharmaceuticals Companies are selected for the research because they are currently undergoing continued expansion. In order to gain competitive advantage and adapt to the dramatic changing environment, it is important for them to achieve management efficiency by increasing employee satisfaction in the organisation. Hence this research was mainly undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting the job satisfaction. This paper presents a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of pharmaceutical business, the factors causing the dissatisfaction & suggestions to improve them.

Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin; M M Nurul Kabir

2011-01-01

298

Human papillomavirus vaccines: factors that affect vaccine knowledge and delivery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Although both vaccines are designed to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV2 and HPV4 have different indications. This study sought to determine HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge among providers and examine factors affecting HPV vaccine delivery. METHODS: An e-mail survey was sent to adolescent health care providers via listserv. RESULTS: Provider HPV vaccine knowledge level and number of providers offering vaccine to males (84%) were high. The ability of providers to correctly distinguish between the two vaccines was associated with years in practice, proportion of female patients, provider subspecialty status, and practicing in a hospital setting. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that adolescent medicine providers, in particular, are knowledgeable about HPV and HPV vaccines. They reported routinely offering HPV vaccine to male patients during the time before the recent change in recommendation for universal, routine HPV vaccination of males by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.

Holder NA; Katzenellenbogen R; Middleman AB

2013-09-01

299

Developing worksheet based on science process skills: Factors affecting solubility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at Giresun University, Turkey. Action research methodology was used in this study. Thoughts from experts were received during the development of the worksheet. The study had some limitations in providing concrete evidence as to how the WS based on SPS effects the PST SPS, since the paper is a suggestion. For this reason, to investigate its effectiveness in a comparative manner, further research should be undertaken.

Fethiye KARSLI; Çi?dem ?AH?N

2009-01-01

300

Investigation of the Factors Affecting Real Exchange Rate in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available his paper intends to investigate the factors affecting the real exchange rate in Iran in the period of 1978-2008. In this part, the econometric methodology and vector autoregressive model that is known as VAR is used to investigate the effect of proper variables on the real exchange rate. The results of Johansson-Jousilious test confirmed co-integration between variables, and thus long-run equilibrium relationship was confirmed among proper variables. Overall, the impulse and response functions showed that the shocking of variables, oil price and volume of money flows, has a positive impact on the real exchange rate and put it above its permanent level in the whole period of study. The results of variance decomposition showed that the most effects belonged to oil price and then volume of money flow that in fact represents greater relative importance of these variables in comparison with other variables among all model variables.

Komeil Khanarinejad; Mostafa Goudarzi; Zahra Ardakani

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Investigation of the Factors Affecting Real Exchange Rate in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper intends to investigate the factors affecting the real exchange rate in Iran in the period of 1978-2008. In this part, the econometric methodology and vector autoregressive model that is known as VAR is used to investigate the effect of proper variables on the real exchange rate. The results of Johansson-Jousilious test confirmed co-integration between variables, and thus long-run equilibrium relationship was confirmed among proper variables. Overall, the impulse and response functions showed that the shocking of variables, oil price and volume of money flows, has a positive impact on the real exchange rate and put it above its permanent level in the whole period of study. The results of variance decomposition showed that the most effects belonged to oil price and then volume of money flow that in fact represents greater relative importance of these variables in comparison with other variables among all model variables.

Mostafa Goudarzi; Komeil Khanarinejad; Zahra Ardakani

2012-01-01

302

FACTORS AFFECTED DECARBOXYLATION ACTIVITY OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM ISOLATED FROM RABBIT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Biogenic amines (BA) are basic nitrogenous compounds formed mainly by decarboxylation of amino acids. There are generated in course of microbial, vegetable and animal metabolisms. The aim of the study was to monitor factors affected production of biogenic amines by Enterococcus faecium, which is found in rabbit meat. Biogenic amines were analyzed by means of UPLC (ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography) equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. Decarboxylation activity of E. faecium was mainly influenced by the cultivation temperature and the amount of NaCl in this study. E. faecium produced most of the monitored biogenic amines levels: tyramine ?2500 mg.l-1; putrescine ?30 mg.l-1; spermidine ?10 mg.l-1 and cadaverine ?5 mg.l-1.doi:10.5219/182

Pavel Pleva; Leona Bu?ková; Andrea Lauková; Eva Lorencová; Vlastimil Kubá?; František Bu?ka

2012-01-01

303

SOME ENVIRONMENTEAL FACTORS AFFECTING BROILER HOUSING IN WINTER SEASON  

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Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to study some environmental factors affecting broiler housing in winter season. The results showed that, temperature fluctuations between house ceiling and floor ranged between 0.4 to 5.93 ºC during the first two days of age. The average house temperature reduced gradually from 29.7 to 21.3 ºC. The indoor relative humidity ranged between 43.6 to 74.3 %. Specific heating power, specific fuel consumption and heating energy requirements ranged between 3850.2 W/ºC , 0.34 kg /h. ºC and 308.9 kJ/h. kg at the first week of age to 6213.4 W/ºC , 0.36 kg /h. ºC and 19.3 kJ/h. kg at the end of the life respectively

Tarek FOUDA; Assad DERBALA; Mohamed GHONAME

2013-01-01

304

Factors Affecting Linear Type Traits of Valdostana Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four composite and 22 individual linear type traits, measured between 1997 and 2012 on 33,206 Aosta Red Pied (ARP) and 19,551 Aosta Black Pied and Aosta Chestnut (ABP-CN) strains of Valdostana cattle, were used to investigate the non-genetic factors affecting morphological evaluation. Average values for type traits ranged from 2.81 (teat placement rear view and foot angle) to 3.34 (thinness) for ARP, and from 2.48 (teat placement side view) to 3.67 (udder depth) for ABP-CN. Results from the ANOVA showed significant effect of herd-year-classifier on type traits of both ARPand ABP-CN, and of days in milk and age at calving for almost all traits, with few exceptions. The model used in this study is a useful starting point to calculate genetic parameters for Valdostana cattle.

Serena Mazza; Cristina Sartori; Donagh Berry; Roberto Mantovani

2013-01-01

305

Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as...

Sohail, Muhammad

2009-01-01

306

An ABA-regulated putative RNA-binding protein affects seed germination of Arabidopsis under ABA or abiotic stress conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diverse RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have increasingly been determined to perform crucial roles in posttranscriptional regulation of RNA metabolism during plant response to abscisic acid (ABA) or abiotic stresses, but the functional roles of a variety of ABA-responsive RBPs in ABA and stress response remain poorly understood. Here, we characterized an ABA-regulated putative RBP (At3g54770) in Arabidopsis thaliana, designated ARP1, for its role in response to ABA or abiotic stresses. The expression of ARP1 was markedly downregulated by ABA, and ARP1 is localized to the nucleus. Interestingly, both overexpression and knockout of ARP1 resulted in delayed seed germination under ABA, high salt, or dehydration stress conditions. The identical phenotypes of ARP1-overexpressing plants and the arp1 null mutant indicate that a tight regulation of ARP1 transcript is required for normal function. Transcript levels of several germination-responsive genes were modulated by ARP1 under ABA. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that ARP1 affects ABA-regulated seed germination of Arabidopsis, and indicate that the regulation of posttranscriptional RNA metabolism is critical in plant response to ABA or abiotic stresses.

Jung HJ; Kim MK; Kang H

2013-01-01

307

Factors Affecting Mortality in Endosulfan Ingestion With Suicidal Intent  

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Full Text Available Objective: Most pesticides containing Endosulfan have either been restricted or prohibited due to the fact that they remain active longer in nature, and have a long half-life and mid-level toxicity in the body. Acute or chronic exposure to Endosulfan, which may be life-threatening or at times fatal, has rarely been reported. Our aim was to analyze the affective factors of endosulfan toxicity on clinical findings and mortality cases.Materials and Methods: In the study, all patients who called upon the emergency service due to suicidal endosulfan ingestion were retrospectively analyzed. Twenty-seven patients over the age of 15 years with definite proof that they used medicine containing an endosulfan substance were included into the study. Results: The average age of our patients was 26.56±13.6 years (15-68). The number of male patients was 10 (37.1%), while that of female patients was 17 (62.9%). There were 17 patients (62.9%) who presented with nausea and vomiting complaints, 12 (44.4%) patients with seizure, and 15 (55.5%) with loss of consciousness. The 5 patients who died had loss of consciousness and seizure, and required mechanical ventilation support during seizure and follow-up. In the surviving group, however, loss of consciousness was detected in 10 patients, seizure during follow-up in 5, and ventilation support was required in 5 patients. Conclusion: Loss of consciousness following suicidal endosulfan ingestion, seizure on arrival and/or during follow-up and need for mechanical ventilation support were the factors which affected mortality.

Murat Orak; Mehmet Üstünda?; Ayhan Özhasenekler; Yusuf Ali Altunc?; Cahfer Gülo?lu; Yusuf Tamam

2010-01-01

308

Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L) in promoting weight loss and altering disease risk factors in overweight adults. The hypothesis was that the high dietary fiber and alpha-linolenic (ALA) contents of chia seed would induce a small but significant decrease in body weight and fat and improve disease risk factors. Subjects were randomized to chia seed (CS) and placebo (P) groups, and under single-blinded procedures, ingested 25 g CS or P supplements mixed in 0.25 L water twice daily before the first and last meal for 12 weeks. Ninety nondiseased, overweight/obese men and women between the ages of 20 and 70 years were recruited into the study, with 76 subjects (n = 39 CS, n = 37 P) completing all phases of the study. Pre- and poststudy measures included body mass and composition (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), inflammation markers from fasting blood samples (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), oxidative stress markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and plasma nitrite), blood pressure, and a serum lipid profile. Plasma ALA increased 24.4% compared to a 2.8% decrease in CS and P, respectively (interaction effect, P = .012). No group differences were measured for changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (interaction effects, P = .420 and .980, respectively). Pre-to-post measures of body composition, inflammation, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and lipoproteins did not differ between CS and P for both sexes. In conclusion, ingestion of 50 g/d CS vs P for 12 weeks by overweight/obese men and women had no influence on body mass or composition, or various disease risk factor measures. PMID:19628108

Nieman, David C; Cayea, Erin J; Austin, Melanie D; Henson, Dru A; McAnulty, Steven R; Jin, Fuxia

2009-06-01

309

Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L) in promoting weight loss and altering disease risk factors in overweight adults. The hypothesis was that the high dietary fiber and alpha-linolenic (ALA) contents of chia seed would induce a small but significant decrease in body weight and fat and improve disease risk factors. Subjects were randomized to chia seed (CS) and placebo (P) groups, and under single-blinded procedures, ingested 25 g CS or P supplements mixed in 0.25 L water twice daily before the first and last meal for 12 weeks. Ninety nondiseased, overweight/obese men and women between the ages of 20 and 70 years were recruited into the study, with 76 subjects (n = 39 CS, n = 37 P) completing all phases of the study. Pre- and poststudy measures included body mass and composition (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), inflammation markers from fasting blood samples (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), oxidative stress markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and plasma nitrite), blood pressure, and a serum lipid profile. Plasma ALA increased 24.4% compared to a 2.8% decrease in CS and P, respectively (interaction effect, P = .012). No group differences were measured for changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (interaction effects, P = .420 and .980, respectively). Pre-to-post measures of body composition, inflammation, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and lipoproteins did not differ between CS and P for both sexes. In conclusion, ingestion of 50 g/d CS vs P for 12 weeks by overweight/obese men and women had no influence on body mass or composition, or various disease risk factor measures.

Nieman DC; Cayea EJ; Austin MD; Henson DA; McAnulty SR; Jin F

2009-06-01

310

Factors Affecting Treatment Seeking Behaviour of Individuals with Locomotor Disabilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Among the different types of disabilities, the prevalence of locomotor disability is highest in the country. Quality of life and disability limitation is affected by the availability and utility of rehabilitative services. Thus knowledge of the treatment seeking behaviour will help in implementing successful intervention programmes. Materials and Methods: A community based cross-sectional observation study was conducted in an urban slum of Mumbai. Total sample of 3665 individuals were screened. 205 were identified with loco motor disabilities who were subjected to a structured questionnaire. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months. The data was analysed using SPSS software (Version 17). 95 % confidence limits for prevalence was calculated to estimate the prevalence in the general population and Chi-square test was applied to identify the association between two variables. Results: The prevalence of loco motor disabilities is found to be 5.59 %. Females were more affected than the males.75% of the sample was unemployed and 49.3 % was illiterate. Utility of rehabilitative services was found to be poor (35.6%). 50.7 % of these were treated by General practitioners. Very few approached speciality rehabilitative services. Low literacy levels and poor awareness of rehabilitation facilities were the major factors affecting treatment seeking pattern of individuals with locomotor disability (p<0.001) Conclusion: Improving literacy rates, developing community based rehabilitation services and training medical under-graduates, creating awareness regarding the available facilities, will lead to greater utilization of rehabilitative services and thus early diagnosis and disability limitation. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(2.000): 145-148

Padhyegurjar Mansi S; Padhyegurjar Shekhar B

2012-01-01

311

Factors affecting the valve movements in freshwater unionids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to avoid harmful conditions, freshwater unionids are able to close their valves and to resist extended long periods of complete anoxia. Xenobiotics and diverse abiotic and biotic factors can change the rhythm of valve movements and thus affect the accumulation of heavy metals in these bivalves. When bivalves are used a bioindicators in the field and when the accumulation of toxicants are studied under the laboratory conditions, the effects of valve movements and shell closure have to be involved. In this study, the authors have recorded valve movements of two different unionid species (Anodonta anatina, Unio tumidus) in the field and in the laboratory using a digital monitoring system. Several experimental arrangements were compared (caged mussels vs. sediment dwelling mussels, flow-through vials vs. static aquaria with and without sediment). Some parameters of the mussel hemolymph, such as electrolytes, gases and acid base status, were compared with the results on the valve activity (time with valves open, number of adductions). The natural valve activity of the two unionid species differed clearly. In the field, effects of transfer and caging were found, and in the laboratory, sediment and water flow changed their behavior. The level of the blood oxygen was most affected, whereas, the acid-base status and the concentrations of electrolytes were effectively regulated by the unionids. The correlation between valve movements and the hemolymph parameters was weaker than expected.

Pynnoenen, K.S.; Englund, V.P.M. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

1994-12-31

312

Factors affecting the demarketing of breastmilk substitutes in palestine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although medical research has proven that breastfeeding is unparalleled in providing the ideal nutrition for infants, "the demarketing of breastmilk substitutes" is a little-known concept. This empirical study tackled the origin and definition of demarketing, examined the different factors affecting the demarketing of breastmilk substitutes in Palestine from the breastfeeding woman's point of view, and developed an appropriate model for the demarketing of breastmilk substitutes. The article subsequently concludes with recommendations for areas of further academic research in the World Health Assembly, for policy makers in Palestine, and for the breastfeeding women themselves. Subjects and METHODS: An empirical study was conducted to collect the primary data using a questionnaire as a tool in order to test the hypotheses. The questionnaire was distributed to 400 breastfeeding women who were randomly selected from the population. RESULTS: The findings proved that there is a relationship between independent variables (i.e., product, price, place, and promotion) and the dependent variable (i.e., demarketing of breastmilk substitutes) based on several reasons discussed thoroughly in this article. CONCLUSIONS: Product, price, place, and promotion affect the demarketing of breastmilk substitutes in Palestine.

Salem MZ

2013-06-01

313

Institutional factors affecting DOE waste management and environmental restoration planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The magnitude and impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) waste management and environmental restoration program requires a drastic change in DOE's culture to include the participation of all levels of government, public forum representatives, and the public. Early in the process of developing a new, comprehensive five-year plan for environmental restoration and waste management, Secretary Watkins invited affected States, Indian Nations, and organizations of elected officials to form the State and Tribal Government Working Group to comment on two formulative drafts of the plan. Management Systems Laboratories of Virginia Tech was asked to help plan and facilitate two review sessions in the spring and summer of 1989, based on perception of impartiality, experience with similar groups, and active affiliations with State governments. A third session in the fall was devoted to reviewing the draft applied R D plan and guiding institutional factors affecting DOE's future: the need for ongoing, pervasive culture change; the need to display this change through truly cooperative planning; and the need to involve the regulatory community in the process of technology development so innovative solutions can be applied with the least possible delay.

Walker, J. A.; Middleman, L. I.

1990-01-01

314

Environmental factors affecting methyl mercury accumulation in zooplankton  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relationship between environmental factors and methyl mercury accumulation in filter-feeding macrozooplankton was investigated in an effort to obtain an integrated measure of the bioavailability of methyl mercury in the water column. Since macrozooplankton are an important food source for fish, the factors that affect their bioaccumulation of mercury are directly relevant to the contamination of fish. Methyl mercury accumulation in zooplankton collected from 24 lakes in south-central Ontario ranged from 19 to 448 ng.g dry mass{sup -}1{sup ,} and was highest in acidic brown-water lakes. Water color and pH were found to be the best predictors of methyl mercury levels, being positively correlated with water color and inversely correlated with pH. There was a positive correlation with drainage ratio and per cent wetland in the catchment. Zooplankton methyl mercury levels were also well correlated with mercury concentrations in smallmouth bass and largemouth bass, confirming that zooplankton is a good indicator of mercury bioavailability at the base of the food chain. 67 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

Westcott, K.; Kaiff, J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1996-10-01

315

Spatial factors affecting statistical power in testing marine fauna displacement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Impacts of offshore wind farms on marine fauna are largely unknown. Therefore, one commonly adheres to the precautionary principle, which states that one shall take action to avoid potentially damaging impacts on marine ecosystems, even when full scientific certainty is lacking. We implement this principle by means of a statistical power analysis including spatial factors. Implementation is based on geostatistical simulations, accommodating for zero-inflation in species data. We investigate scenarios in which an impact assessment still has to be carried out. Our results show that the environmental conditions at the time of the survey is the most influential factor on power. This is followed by survey effort and species abundance in the reference situation. Spatial dependence in species numbers at local scales affects power, but its effect is smaller for the scenarios investigated. Our findings can be used to improve effectiveness of the economical investment for monitoring surveys. In addition, unnecessary extra survey effort, and related costs, can be avoided when spatial dependence in species abundance is present and no improvement on power is achieved.

Pérez Lapeña B; Wijnberg KM; Stein A; Hulscher SJ

2011-10-01

316

Evaluation of hydraulic factors affecting flow accelerated corrosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) is known as a complex phenomena of hydraulics and electro-chemicals. Essential mechanism of the hydraulic factors affecting FAC is the mass transfer of ferrous ions dissolved from the pipe surface. To predict the FAC rate in susceptible pipe elements, evaluation of the mass transfer in those geometry with eccentric flow is required. For this purpose, new model of mass transfer coefficient was proposed by combining knowledges of previous studies and consideration of local turbulent velocity. In this process, Chilton-Colburn analogy of heat and mass transfer and Blasius' friction factor were referred to. To validate the model, FAC experiment and flow numerical calculation were conducted. In the experiment, carbon steel test specimens were set in the downstream of a flow contraction in small rectangular flow ducts, and FAC rate profiles on the specimens were observed in PWR condensate condition. In the calculation, flow field for the experiment was calculated with the in-house code 'MATIS-I' utilizing LES turbulence model, and mean and turbulent velocity profiles on the specimen's surface were evaluated. By comparing these results, the new mass transfer coefficient showed good correlation with the local FAC rate, and the effect of introducing the turbulent velocity to the model was confirmed. (author)

2009-10-02

317

The exogenous factors affecting the cost efficiency of power generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper employs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to examine cost efficiency and scale economies in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) by using the panel data covering the period of 1995-2006. In most previous studies, the efficiency estimated by the Panel Data without testing the endogeneity may bring about a biased estimator resulting from the correlation between input and individual effect. A Hausman test is conducted in this paper to examine the endogeneity of input variables and thus an appropriate model is selected based on the test result. This study finds that the power generation executes an increasing return to scale across all the power plants based on the pooled data. We also use installed capacity, service years of the power plant, and type of fuel as explanatory variable for accounting for the estimated cost efficiency of each plant by a logistic regression model to examine the factor affecting the individual efficiency estimates. The results demonstrate that the variable of installed capacity keeps a positive relationship with cost efficiency while the factor of working years has a negative relationship. (author)

Chang, Dong-Shang; Chen, Yi-Tui [National Central University, Department of Business Administration 300, Jhongda Road, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Den [Professor of Tunghai University, Department of Economics, No. 181, Section 3, Taichung Harbor Road, Taichung 40704, Taiwan (China)

2009-12-15

318

Factors Affecting Forest Area Changes in Cambodia: An Econometric Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clarifying factors affecting forest area changes is critical to implementing REDD+ scheme properly. We analyzed some socio-economic factors and clarified their relationships with deforestation in Cambodia for the period of 2002 to 2010. A panel data analysis was conducted for 18 provinces, while six other provinces were deleted from the list because only a small amount of their land was forested. Time effects, cross-sectional dependence, serial correlation in idiosyncratic errors, and heteroskedasticity were tested, and robust variance matrix estimations were obtained to solve the problems of heteroskedasticity and serial correlation. The model estimation results showed that population, gross agricultural production and large-scale plantation development have negative impacts on forest area changes. On the other hand, the impacts of rice cultivation, gross industrial production, household income and house floor area by household were found not to be significant. Overall, however, the results indicated that forests in Cambodia still face pressure from the increases in population, agriculture production, and the enlargement of land development. As the increase in productivity of agriculture gives a better use of current agricultural land and lessens the pressure on forest, intensifying agriculture is important. It is also important to develop industry and other economic ventures to grow national economy while not imposing pressure on forest. This research reminds decision makers to use discretion when developing large-scale plantations.

Tetsuya Michinaka; Motoe Miyamoto; Yasuhiro Yokota; Heng Sokh; Sethaphal Lao; Vuthy Ma

2013-01-01

319

[Exploring factors affecting meaning of life perceptions among ESRD elders].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The number of patient with end stage renal disease (ESRD) has been growing in Taiwan. Nearly 50% of ESRD sufferers are 65 years of age or older. The disease as well as issues related to patient physiology, psychology, and spiritual well-being are worth taking seriously. While research into this topic area has been conducted, most studies addressed issues in the physiological and psychological dimensions. Studies addressing the domain of spiritual well-being remain inadequate. The purpose of this study was to explore factors affecting meaning of life perceptions in ESRD elders. METHODS: Using a descriptive-correlation research approach, we employed purposive sampling to collect data from 80 ESRD elders currently under the care of a hemodialysis center in southern Taiwan. Research instruments used included a demographic questionnaire and Meaning in Life Scale. Data were analysed using SPSS 12.0 software. RESULTS: Findings showed that ESRD elders had relatively low meaning in life scores compared to the overall ESRD population in Taiwan. Influencing factors included education level, socio-economic status, and level of participation in leisure activities. CONCLUSION: Study findings may provide health professionals a better understanding of meaning of life perceptions amongst elders with ESRD, and, as a result, help them target better spiritual care and supportive interventions.

Hsieh LY; Lin SY

2009-10-01

320

Factors Affecting Participation in Population-Based Mammography Screening  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to investigate the demographic or risk factors affecting participation in a population-based breast screening with mammography program in a rural area of Turkey.Patients and Methods: This definitive epidemiological study was carried out between December 2002 and August 2003, in a town of Ankara. Of the 784 women, 710 were interviewed and 462 (58.9%) of them participated in the screening. A questionnaire was used for collecting data.Results: The mean age of the women was 50.7±10.0 years. Fifty four percent of the single, widowed or divorced women (p=0.001), 62.5% of those aged 60 years or older (p<0.001), and 42.8% of the illiterate or literate women (p<0.001) did not participate the screening. Women, who were elder had a 1.1-fold greater risk of nonparticipation in mammography screening than younger ones (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.09), and those who were postmenopausal had 1.5-fold greater risk than those who were premenopausal (95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.22).Conclusion: Age, marital, educational and menopausal statuses seem to be effective on participation in the population-based study. Screening programs should be planned considering these factors.

Is?l MARAL

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Multivariate analysis of factors affecting survival in pelvic exenteration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Of 153 patients with primary or recurrent pelvic malignancy referred for consideration of exenteration, only 40.6% (62 patients) were found to be suitable for exenteration after full assessment. Thirty percent (46 patients) were found to be inoperable on examination under anesthesia. Of the remaining 107 patients, 33% (35 patients) were found to be inoperable at laparotomy, 9% (10 patients) underwent radical hysterectomy and 58% (62 patients) had an exenterative procedure. One patient had no active disease found on final histologic review of the exenteration surgical specimen and was excluded, as the aim of this study was to look at the prognostic factors affecting survival. There remained 61 patients in the exenteration group who were analyzed. The 2-year survival rate was less than 2% for patients with inoperable disease, 48% for patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and 54.1% for patients who underwent exenteration. The 5-year survival rate for all patients undergoing exenteration for pelvic malignancies was 44% and that for cervical cancer only was 52%. Multivariate analysis of patients who had undergone exenteration showed four significantly poor prognostic factors influencing survival. They were: (a) aged older than 69 years, (b) recurrence of the tumor within 3 years, (c) persistent recurrence, and (d) positive resection margins.

Shepherd JH; Ngan HY; Neven P; Fryatt I; Woodhouse CR; Hendry WF

1994-11-01

322

Intrinsic factors that affect amino acid geochronology: protein diagenesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Use of alloisoleucine/isoleucine ratios as a geochronological tool has been the basis of many stratigraphic studies of the Quaternary. In a number of these studies, the amino acid dates have been remarkably good, allowing chronologies to be established and sequences checked, at least in limited geographic locations. However, in other studies the variability and scatter of dates have obscured or confounded interpretation of the geochronology. A number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors may contribute to this variability. One intrinsic factor may be the varying rates of epimerization and breakdown of the many proteins within the shell matrix of the organism that is being analyzed; the shell matrix of planktonic foraminifera contains at least two classes, or types, of proteins and up to 40 protein components. Individual proteins differ in stability based on differences of structure. This stability will have direct ramifications on racemization rates. Traditionally, amino acid ratios have been analyzed from the remnants of the total organic material of shells, such as mollusk or planktonic foraminifera. To examine how the diagenetic breakdown of specific proteins may affect allisoleucine/isoleucine ratios of the total organic matrix, different classes of proteins from fossil planktonic foraminifera were analyzed and compared. Although planktonic foraminifera were used as a model system, the molluscan shell is analogous.

Robbins, L.L.

1989-03-01

323

Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future.

Kim, Chang Ho; Jeong, Won Mee [Inha Hospital, Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Seung Hum; Lee Sun Hee [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Tae Yong [Yuhan College, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

1997-02-01

324

Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future.

1997-01-01

325

Study of the factors affecting radon diffusion through building materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following - decay of 226Ra in underground soil and building materials used, in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. The diffusion of radon in dwellings is a process determined by the radon concentration gradient across the building material structure and can be a significant contributor to indoor radon inflow. Radon can originate from the deeply buried deposit beneath homes and can migrate to the surface of earth. Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process and is affected by several factors. It is well known that for building construction materials the porosity, permeability and the diffusion coefficient are the parameters, which can quantify the materials capability to hinder the flow of radon soil gas. An increase in porosity will provide more air space within the material for radon to travel, thus reducing its resistance to radon transport. The permeability of material describes its ability to act as a barrier to gas movement when a pressure gradient exists across it and is closely related to the porosity of material. The radon diffusion coefficient of a material quantifies the ability of radon gas to move through it when a concentration gradient is the driving force. This parameter depends upon the porosity and permeability of the medium. As diffusion process is the major contributor to indoor levels, therefore, the factors affecting the diffusion process need to be kept in consideration. Keeping this in mind the experimental arrangements have been made for control study of radon diffusion through some building materials to observe the effects of different factors viz.; compaction, grain size, temperature, humidity and the mixing of these materials etc. For the present study alpha sensitive LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) have been used for the recording of alpha tracks caused by radon gas after its diffusion through the material. After exposure, the detectors were subjected to a chemical etching process. The detectors were washed, dried and after that, the tracks caused by alpha particle were counted using an optical Olympus microscope at magnification 600X. Using the track density produced the parameters like radon diffusion coefficients and diffusion lengths through these building construction materials have been calculated in each case under study. The results of present investigations provide better insight into the selection of building construction materials capable of controlling the indoor radon levels. (author)

2011-01-01

326

Identifying the Factors Affecting the Participation of Agricultural Cooperatives' Members  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: 40-year history of agricultural production cooperatives in the country shows that this type of exploitation system has faced many ups and downs during this period. First, despite the help and support by the government, the cooperative sector has not been able to play a major role in the development of the country and its share has not exceeded 3% of development program. The main aim of this study is identifying the factors affecting the participation of Shirvan-Chardavol township?s agricultural cooperatives? members. Approach: This casual comparative applied research which uses survey method for data accumulation, is of Quasi-experimental research type because of impossibility of controlling the research variables. A researcher-made questionnair was used as the main tool for gathering data. The face and content validity of the questionnaire were confirmed by a group of university professors and cooperative experts; also the reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed through calculating the Kronbach alfa coefficient (a = 0.80). Results: The statistical society of the research included 751 active members of Shirvan-Chardavol township?s agricultural cooperatives, among which 260 people were selected for the study using classified proportional random sampling method and with the aid of Morgan sample-volume table. Data processing was performed using SPSS estatistial software, as well as descriptive estatistics (central and inferential indexes) and analytical estatistics (correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression analysis). Conclusion: The correlation coefficient results show that there is significant relationship between the variables like age, background history of membership in cooperatives, the members? agricultural land areas, annual income of the members, socio-cultural features, economical features, educational-extensional features, managerial factors, psychological features, political factors and communicational-informational factors from the one hand and the dependent variable of agricultural cooperatives? members? level of participation from the other. The multiple regression analysis results showed that variables like political, economic, managerial and social factors have positive effect on the dependent variable of agricultural cooperatives? members? participation, describing 65% of the changes of the mentioned dependent variable.

Bagher Arayesh

2011-01-01

327

Fragmentation of Atlantic Forest has not affected gene flow of a widespread seed-dispersing bat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Habitat loss and resultant fragmentation are major threats to biodiversity, particularly in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. It is increasingly urgent to understand fragmentation effects, which are often complex and vary across taxa, time and space. We determined whether recent fragmentation of Atlantic forest is causing population subdivision in a widespread and important Neotropical seed disperser: Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). Genetic structure within highly fragmented forest in Paraguay was compared to that in mostly contiguous forest in neighbouring Misiones, Argentina. Further, observed genetic structure across the fragmented landscape was compared with expected levels of structure for similar time spans in realistic simulated landscapes under different degrees of reduction in gene flow. If fragmentation significantly reduced successful dispersal, greater population differentiation and stronger isolation by distance would be expected in the fragmented than in the continuous landscape, and genetic structure in the fragmented landscape should be similar to structure for simulated landscapes where dispersal had been substantially reduced. Instead, little genetic differentiation was observed, and no significant correlation was found between genetic and geographic distance in fragmented or continuous landscapes. Furthermore, comparison of empirical and simulated landscapes indicated empirical results were consistent with regular long-distance dispersal and high migration rates. Our results suggest maintenance of high gene flow for this relatively mobile and generalist species, which could be preventing or significantly delaying reduction in population connectivity in fragmented habitat. Our conclusions apply to A. lituratus in Interior Atlantic Forest, and do not contradict broad evidence that habitat fragmentation is contributing to extinction of populations and species, and poses a threat to biodiversity worldwide.

McCulloch ES; Sebastián Tello J; Whitehead A; Rolón-Mendoza CM; Maldonado-Rodríguez MC; Stevens RD

2013-09-01

328

Fragmentation of Atlantic Forest has not affected gene flow of a widespread seed-dispersing bat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Habitat loss and resultant fragmentation are major threats to biodiversity, particularly in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. It is increasingly urgent to understand fragmentation effects, which are often complex and vary across taxa, time and space. We determined whether recent fragmentation of Atlantic forest is causing population subdivision in a widespread and important Neotropical seed disperser: Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). Genetic structure within highly fragmented forest in Paraguay was compared to that in mostly contiguous forest in neighbouring Misiones, Argentina. Further, observed genetic structure across the fragmented landscape was compared with expected levels of structure for similar time spans in realistic simulated landscapes under different degrees of reduction in gene flow. If fragmentation significantly reduced successful dispersal, greater population differentiation and stronger isolation by distance would be expected in the fragmented than in the continuous landscape, and genetic structure in the fragmented landscape should be similar to structure for simulated landscapes where dispersal had been substantially reduced. Instead, little genetic differentiation was observed, and no significant correlation was found between genetic and geographic distance in fragmented or continuous landscapes. Furthermore, comparison of empirical and simulated landscapes indicated empirical results were consistent with regular long-distance dispersal and high migration rates. Our results suggest maintenance of high gene flow for this relatively mobile and generalist species, which could be preventing or significantly delaying reduction in population connectivity in fragmented habitat. Our conclusions apply to A. lituratus in Interior Atlantic Forest, and do not contradict broad evidence that habitat fragmentation is contributing to extinction of populations and species, and poses a threat to biodiversity worldwide. PMID:23909879

McCulloch, Eve S; Sebastián Tello, J; Whitehead, Andrew; Rolón-Mendoza, Claudia M J; Maldonado-Rodríguez, Mario C D; Stevens, Richard D

2013-08-05

329

Physiology of seed germination and seedling growth in Coccinia indica L. as affected by morphactin and gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with the seed germination and seeding growth in Coccinia indica L. in relation to morphactin and gamma radiation. Morphactin had inhibitory effect on seed germination. Gamma radiation promoted the seed germination. The promotive effective of gamma radiation was suppressed by the inhibitory effect of morphactin on radicle and hypocotyl growth in all treatments of the interaction of gamma radiation and morphactin. (author).

1983-01-01

330

Emission factor of single pellet cake seed Jatropha curcas in a fix bed reactor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the emission factor of oil cake seed Jatropha curcas that was formed into pellets with three parameters: pyrolisis, densification and air flow rate. The effect of pyrolisis was investigated using four samples of pellet: nonpyrolysis pellet, 90 minutes pyrolysis pellet, 120 minutes pyrolysis pellet, 150 minutes pyrolysis pellet. The effect of densification was provided by three samples: 11 mm, 13 mm, and 16 mm diameter. Furthermore, the parameter of air flow rate was varied from 0.1 m/s to 0.4 m/s. The results show that the lowest emission factor occurs in the non-pyrolysis pellet containing 14.3 gram carbon monoxide per kilogram pellet. Meanwhile the best densification was obtained by 13-mm diameter pellet containing 14.8 gram carbon monoxide. Air flow rate of 2.0 m/s was the suitable air flow rate to achieve lowest emission factor.

N. Agung Pambudi; Shuichi Torii; M. Syamsiro; Harwin Saptoadi; Indra Mamad Gandidi

2012-01-01

331

Factors affecting the outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY QUESTION: Which clinical and laboratory factors affect live birth rate (LBR) after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Top quality embryo characteristics, endometrial preparation protocol, number of embryos transferred and BMI affected independently the LBR in FET. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: FET is an important part of present-day IVF/ICSI treatment. There is limited understanding of the factors affecting success rates after FET. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This is a two-centre retrospective cohort study. Analysis was carried out on 1972 consecutive FET cycles in 1998-2007, with embryos frozen on Day 2. The primary outcome was LBR per cycle. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We assessed the independent effect on LBR of the following variables: female age, female age at embryo freezing, BMI, diagnosis, primary versus secondary infertility, fertilization by IVF versus ICSI, pregnancy in the fresh cycle, type (spontaneous, spontaneous with luteal progesterone and estrogen/progesterone substitution) and rank of the FET cycle, as well as number and presence (yes versus no) of top quality embryo(s) at freezing, thawing and transfer, damaged thawed embryos and overnight culture. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: In 78% of the cycles with top quality embryos frozen (n = 1319), at least one embryo still had high-quality morphology after thawing. Top quality embryo morphology observed at any stage of culture improved the outcome even if high-quality characteristics disappeared before transfer. LBRs after the transfer of a top quality embryo were similar in the FET (24.9%) and fresh cycles of the same period (21.9%). The chance of live birth increased significantly if ?1 top quality embryo was present at freezing (odds ratio (OR) 1.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-3.14), at thawing (OR 1.93, CI 1.20-3.11) or at transfer (OR 3.41, CI 2.12-5.48). Compared with spontaneous cycles with luteal support, purely spontaneous cycles (OR 0.58, CI 0.40-0.84) and hormonally substituted FET (OR 0.47, CI 0.32-0.69) diminished the odds of pregnancy. BMI (OR 0.96, CI 0.92-0.99) and transfer of two embryos versus one (OR 1.45, CI 1.08-1.94) were other factors that improved LBR after FET. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The sample sizes available in some subanalyses were small, limiting the power of the study. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The presence of ?1 top quality embryo at any step of the freezing and thawing process increases the chance of pregnancy. The data do not support the freezing of all embryos for transfer in order to improve the outcome. A top quality embryo transferred in FET may even have the same potential as in a fresh cycle. On the contrary, LBR in the group with no top quality embryos frozen was quite low (10.4%), raising the question of whether a re-evaluation of freezing criteria is necessary to avoid costly treatments with a low success rate. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): The Sigrid Jusélius Foundation, the Academy of Finland, Oulu University Hospital. No conflict of interest to declare.

Veleva Z; Orava M; Nuojua-Huttunen S; Tapanainen JS; Martikainen H

2013-09-01

332

Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

Pyo, Katrina A.

333

Analysis of factors affecting ventriculoperitoneal shunt survival in pediatric patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Management of hydrocephalus with insertion of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is associated with significant complications in both adult and pediatric patients. These may be more common in developing countries due to poor economic conditions and a dearth of available resources. We report a 6 years' experience with VP shunt insertion in pediatric patients from a developing country, focusing particularly on factors affecting shunt failure. METHODS: Patients aged below 15 years, who had undergone insertion of VP shunts for hydrocephalus during the years 2006 to 2011, were included. A retrospective analysis of shunt survival was performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Logrank (Cox-Mantel) test. RESULTS: Among the total 113 patients, the most common etiologies of hydrocephalus were congenital hydrocephalus (19.5 %), brain tumors (14.2 %), and postcranial surgery (13.3 %). Overall shunt failure at a mean follow-up of 11 months was 23 % with the median time to first shunt failure being 68 days. Shunt survival was worse in patients with meningitis (p?=?0.024), aqueductal stenosis (p?=?0.008), postcranial surgery hydrocephalus (p?=?0.006), Caesarean mode of delivery (p?=?0.036), congenital abnormalities (p?=?0.031), and a past history of surgical excision of mass lesion (p?=?0.044).Frequency of shunt failure was also significantly affected by the location of brain tumor (p?=?0.015) and prematurity (p?=?0.015). CONCLUSION: Premature infants still have a higher rate of shunt failure. Patients with meningitis, aqueductal stenosis, postcranial surgery hydrocephalus, congenital abnormalities, and a past history of surgical excision of mass lesion may have early shunt failure. However, the frequency of shunt failure that we observed (23 %) was much lower than that quoted earlier in the literature and this may be a consequence of rigorous periodic evaluation of patients with VP shunt in situ.

Khan F; Shamim MS; Rehman A; Bari ME

2013-05-01

334

Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD).Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years) participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29).Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs) pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001), but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL), disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols.

Azin Ayatollahi; Mohammad Reza Mohajeri-Tehrani; Shahriar Nafissi

2013-01-01

335

Current status of seed priming research  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current status of seed priming research is summarised, including important methods and principles of priming, factors affecting priming, and physiological and biochemical mechanisms of priming. In addition, application prospects for seed priming and research issues that should be paid attention to are set forth.

Wang Yanrong

2004-01-01

336

Analysis of Factors Affecting Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) Image Formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factors affecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojection are investigated: (1) image uniformity (flood) corrections, (2) image sampling (pixel size) and (3) count allocation methods. An analytic expression for uniformity correction is developed that incorporates factors for spatial-dependent detector sensitivity and geometric effects from acceptance angle limits on coincidence events. There is good agreement between experimental floods from a PEM system with a pixellated detector and numerical simulations. The analytic uniformity corrections are successfully applied to image reconstruction of compressed breast phantoms and reduce the necessity for flood scans at different image planes. Experimental and simulated compressed breast phantom studies show that lesion contrast is improved when the image pixel size is half of, rather than equal to, the detector pixel size, though this occurs at the expense of some additional image noise. In PEM reconstruction counts usually are allocated to the pixel in the image plane intersected by the line of response (LOR) between the centers of the detection pixels. An alternate count allocation method is investigated that distributes counts to image pixels in proportion to the area of the tube of response (TOR) connecting the detection pixels that they overlay in the image plane. This TOR method eliminates some image artifacts that occur with the LOR method and increases tumor signal-to-noise ratios at the expense of a slight decrease in tumor contrast. Analysis of image uniformity, image sampling and count allocation methods in PEM image reconstruction points to ways of improving image formation. Further work is required to optimize image reconstruction parameters for particular detection or quantitation tasks.

2001-01-01

337

Factors affecting the adoption of quality assurance technologies in healthcare.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: In the light of public concern and of strong policy emphasis on quality and safety in the nursing care of patients in hospital settings, this paper aims to focus on the factors affecting the adoption of innovative quality assurance technologies. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Two sets of complementary literature were mined for key themes. Next, new empirical insights were sought. Data gathering was conducted in three phases. The first involved contact with NHS Technology Hubs and other institutions which had insights into leading centres in quality assurance technologies. The second phase was a series of telephone interviews with lead nurses in those hospitals which were identified in the first phase as comprising the leading centres. The third phase comprised a series of face to face interviews with innovators and adopters of healthcare quality assurance technologies in five hospital trusts. FINDINGS: There were three main sets of findings. First, despite the strong policy push and the templates established at national level, there were significant variations in the nature and robustness of the quality assurance toolkits that were developed, adapted and adopted. Second, in most of the adopting cases there were important obstacles to the full adoption of the toolkits that were designed. Third, the extent and nature of the ambition of the developers varied dramatically - some wished to see their work impacting widely across the health service; others had a number of different reasons for wanting to restrict the impact of their work. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The general concerns about front-line care and the various inquiries into care quality failures emphasise the need for improved and consistent care quality assurance methodologies and practice. The technology adoption literature gives only partial insight into the nature of the challenges; this paper offers specific insights into the factors inhibiting the full adoption of quality assurance technologies in ward-based care.

Storey J

2013-01-01

338

Analysis of Factors Affecting Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) Image Formation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factors affecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojection are investigated: (1) image uniformity (flood) corrections, (2) image sampling (pixel size) and (3) count allocation methods. An analytic expression for uniformity correction is developed that incorporates factors for spatial-dependent detector sensitivity and geometric effects from acceptance angle limits on coincidence events. There is good agreement between experimental floods from a PEM system with a pixellated detector and numerical simulations. The analytic uniformity corrections are successfully applied to image reconstruction of compressed breast phantoms and reduce the necessity for flood scans at different image planes. Experimental and simulated compressed breast phantom studies show that lesion contrast is improved when the image pixel size is half of, rather than equal to, the detector pixel size, though this occurs at the expense of some additional image noise. In PEM reconstruction counts usually are allocated to the pixel in the image plane intersected by the line of response (LOR) between the centers of the detection pixels. An alternate count allocation method is investigated that distributes counts to image pixels in proportion to the area of the tube of response (TOR) connecting the detection pixels that they overlay in the image plane. This TOR method eliminates some image artifacts that occur with the LOR method and increases tumor signal-to-noise ratios at the expense of a slight decrease in tumor contrast. Analysis of image uniformity, image sampling and count allocation methods in PEM image reconstruction points to ways of improving image formation. Further work is required to optimize image reconstruction parameters for particular detection or quantitation tasks.

Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Andrew G. Weisenberger; Douglas A. Kieper; Raymond R. Raylman; Timothy G. Turkington

2001-11-01

339

Factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine in water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the major factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine (SMT), a typical pharmaceutically active compound, in water were evaluated. The factors tested included two operational parameters (i.e. initial SMT concentration and ultrasonic power), three dissolved gases (i.e. Ar, O2 and N2), five most frequently found anions in water (NO3(-),Cl(-),SO4(2-),HCO3(-)andBr(-)), ferrous ion (Fe(2+)), and four alcohols (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol). Typically, the degradation rate was increased with the increasing initial SMT concentration and power. The degradation rate was accelerated in the presence of argon or oxygen, but inhibited by nitrogen. Effects of anions on the ultrasonic treatment were species-dependent. The SMT degradation rate was slightly inhibited by NO3(-),Cl(-),and,SO4(2-) but significantly improved by HCO3(-)andBr(-). The negative effects of alcohols acted as hydroxyl radicals scavengers with the following order: tert-butyl alcohol>isopropyl alcohol>ethanol>methanol. The synergetic effect of ferrous ion was mainly due to production of additional hydroxyl radicals (·OH) through Fenton chemistry. LC/MS/MS analysis indicated that the degradation of SMT by ultrasonic irradiation is mainly ascribed to ·OH oxidation. Of interest, although the SMT could be rapidly degraded by ultrasonic irradiation, the degradation products were rarely mineralized. For example, ~100% of 180 ?M SMT was decomposed, but only 8.31% TOC was reduced, within 2h at an irradiation frequency of 800 kHz and a power of 100 W. However, the products became much biodegradable (BOD5/COD was increased from 0.04 to 0.45). Therefore, an aerobic biological treatment may be an appropriate post-treatment to further decompose the SMT degradation products.

Gao YQ; Gao NY; Deng Y; Gu JS; Gu YL; Zhang D

2013-11-01

340

Factors affecting length of stay in the pediatric emergency department.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A large volume of visits can cause an emergency department (ED) to become overcrowded, resulting in a longer length of stay (LOS). The objective of this study was to analyze factors affecting the LOS in the pediatric ED. METHODS: Records of all visits to the pediatric ED of the study hospital, from July 1, 2006 to June 31, 2007, were retrospectively retrieved. Data were collected from the hospital's computerized records system. Eta-squared correlation ratio and Cramer's V test evaluated the associations between variables. Two-thirds of the database was randomized for the classification and regression tree (CART) model-building dataset, and one-third was used for the validation dataset. RESULTS: A total of 29,035 patients visited the pediatric ED during the evaluation period. Of the total visits, 61.1% were due to complaints of fever. The mean LOS was 2.6 ± 4.67 hours, and 74.3% of visits had an LOS of shorter than 2 hours. The CART analysis selected five factors (waiting time for hospitalization, laboratory tests, door-to-physician time, gastrointestinal symptoms, and patient outcome) to produce a total of nine subgroups of patients. The mean LOS of the model-building dataset closely correlated with that of the validation dataset (r(2) = 0.999). CONCLUSION: Patients who were waiting for hospitalization for less than 8 hours or were not admitted, those without any laboratory tests, those having door-to-physician time less than 60 minutes, and those without any gastrointestinal symptoms had the shortest LOS. Patients who waited for hospitalization for more than 16 hours had the longest LOS.

Li ST; Chiu NC; Kung WC; Chen JC

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
341

The role of the Arabidopsis FUSCA3 transcription factor during inhibition of seed germination at high temperature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Imbibed seeds integrate environmental and endogenous signals to break dormancy and initiate growth under optimal conditions. Seed maturation plays an important role in determining the survival of germinating seeds, for example one of the roles of dormancy is to stagger germination to prevent mass growth under suboptimal conditions. The B3-domain transcription factor FUSCA3 (FUS3) is a master regulator of seed development and an important node in hormonal interaction networks in Arabidopsis thaliana. Its function has been mainly characterized during embryonic development, where FUS3 is highly expressed to promote seed maturation and dormancy by regulating ABA/GA levels. Results In this study, we present evidence for a role of FUS3 in delaying seed germination at supraoptimal temperatures that would be lethal for the developing seedlings. During seed imbibition at supraoptimal temperature, the FUS3 promoter is reactivated and induces de novo synthesis of FUS3 mRNA, followed by FUS3 protein accumulation. Genetic analysis shows that FUS3 contributes to the delay of seed germination at high temperature. Unlike WT, seeds overexpressing FUS3 (ML1:FUS3-GFP) during imbibition are hypersensitive to high temperature and do not germinate, however, they can fully germinate after recovery at control temperature reaching 90% seedling survival. ML1:FUS3-GFP hypersensitivity to high temperature can be partly recovered in the presence of fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, suggesting this hypersensitivity is due in part to higher ABA level in this mutant. Transcriptomic analysis shows that WT seeds imbibed at supraoptimal temperature activate seed-specific genes and ABA biosynthetic and signaling genes, while inhibiting genes that promote germination and growth, such as GA biosynthetic and signaling genes. Conclusion In this study, we have uncovered a novel function for the master regulator of seed maturation, FUS3, in delaying germination at supraoptimal temperature. Physiologically, this is important since delaying germination has a protective role at high temperature. Transcriptomic analysis of seeds imbibed at supraoptimal temperature reveal that a complex program is in place, which involves not only the regulation of heat and dehydration response genes to adjust cellular functions, but also the activation of seed-specific programs and the inhibition of germination-promoting programs to delay germination.

Chiu Rex S; Nahal Hardeep; Provart Nicholas J; Gazzarrini Sonia

2012-01-01

342

The role of the Arabidopsis FUSCA3 transcription factor during inhibition of seed germination at high temperature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Imbibed seeds integrate environmental and endogenous signals to break dormancy and initiate growth under optimal conditions. Seed maturation plays an important role in determining the survival of germinating seeds, for example one of the roles of dormancy is to stagger germination to prevent mass growth under suboptimal conditions. The B3-domain transcription factor FUSCA3 (FUS3) is a master regulator of seed development and an important node in hormonal interaction networks in Arabidopsis thaliana. Its function has been mainly characterized during embryonic development, where FUS3 is highly expressed to promote seed maturation and dormancy by regulating ABA/GA levels. RESULTS: In this study, we present evidence for a role of FUS3 in delaying seed germination at supraoptimal temperatures that would be lethal for the developing seedlings. During seed imbibition at supraoptimal temperature, the FUS3 promoter is reactivated and induces de novo synthesis of FUS3 mRNA, followed by FUS3 protein accumulation. Genetic analysis shows that FUS3 contributes to the delay of seed germination at high temperature. Unlike WT, seeds overexpressing FUS3 (ML1:FUS3-GFP) during imbibition are hypersensitive to high temperature and do not germinate, however, they can fully germinate after recovery at control temperature reaching 90% seedling survival. ML1:FUS3-GFP hypersensitivity to high temperature can be partly recovered in the presence of fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, suggesting this hypersensitivity is due in part to higher ABA level in this mutant. Transcriptomic analysis shows that WT seeds imbibed at supraoptimal temperature activate seed-specific genes and ABA biosynthetic and signaling genes, while inhibiting genes that promote germination and growth, such as GA biosynthetic and signaling genes. CONCLUSION: In this study, we have uncovered a novel function for the master regulator of seed maturation, FUS3, in delaying germination at supraoptimal temperature. Physiologically, this is important since delaying germination has a protective role at high temperature. Transcriptomic analysis of seeds imbibed at supraoptimal temperature reveal that a complex program is in place, which involves not only the regulation of heat and dehydration response genes to adjust cellular functions, but also the activation of seed-specific programs and the inhibition of germination-promoting programs to delay germination.

Chiu RS; Nahal H; Provart NJ; Gazzarrini S

2012-01-01

343

Factors affecting orthodontists' management of the retention phase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: To test the null hypothesis that orthodontist characteristics and factors related to retainer choice do not influence the management of the retention phase with regard to frequency and duration of follow-up care provided. Materials and Methods: Orthodontists (n ?=? 1000) were randomly selected to participate in an online survey divided into three categories: background, retainer choice, and time management. Results: Of the 1000 selected participants, 894 responded. When deciding the type of retainer to use, the following were considered most frequently: pretreatment malocclusion (91%), patient compliance (87%), patient oral hygiene (84%), and patients' desires (81%). Orthodontists who considered the presence of third molars (P ?=? .03) or "special needs" patients (P ?=? .02) had significantly more follow-up visits than those who did not. When vacuum-formed retainers (VFRs) were prescribed, there were significantly fewer visits (P ?=? .02) compared to when other types of retainers were used. As practitioner experience increased, so did the number of visits (P < .0001). Orthodontists who considered the primary responsibility of retention to fall on the patient had significantly fewer follow-up visits (P < .0001) than those who considered it either a joint or orthodontist-only responsibility. Conclusions: The null hypothesis was rejected because the number of follow-up visits during the retention phase was affected by practitioner experience, whether VFRs were used, whether the orthodontist considered the presence of third molars or special-needs patients when choosing the type of retainer, and to whom the orthodontist attributed responsibility during the retention phase.

Bibona K; Shroff B; Best AM; Lindauer SJ

2013-08-01

344

Factors affecting the motivation of smokers to quit smoking  

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Full Text Available smoking. Success of smoking cessation depends mainly on the balance between motivation and the degree of nicotine dependence. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting the motivation of smokers to stop smoking. Method: Data were collected from 139 smokers, aged 18-69 divided in two groups. Questionnaires were completed about the demographic data, smoking history, anthropometric characteristics, degree of nicotine dependence, motivation degree and alcohol consumption. Results: Body Mass Index was positively correlated with the dependence degree and heavy smoking, while those who were overweight in adolescence showed a lower degree of motivation for smoking cessation. Individuals with moderate or heavy alcohol consumption, those who smoked in their working environment and were heavier smokers needed greater motivation. The low degree of dependence was associated with a lower degree of motivation, while those who showed medium dependence were moderately motivated. Conclusions: Health care professionals should take into account all the above components with the aim of motivating smokers to stop smoking.

Mplouchou P.; Goudouva E.; Apostolidou E.; Gourgoulianis K.; Chatzoglou C.

2011-01-01

345

Factors affecting the erosion resistance of weld overlays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research was conducted to study factors affecting the solid particle erosion resistance of weld overlay coatings. Eleven weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process and erosion tested at 400 C. Erosion resistance was evaluated by determining the steady state erosion rate. Ultimet, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings showed the best erosion resistance at 30 and 90{degree} impact angles. Microhardness tests were performed on the eroded samples below the erosion surface to determine the size of the plastically deformed zone and it was found that one group of coatings deformed plastically as a result of the particle impact while the others did not. No correlations were found between average microhardness at 400 C and volumetric erosion rates for plastically deformed weld overlays. For this group of overlays erosion resistance was correlated to the area under the curve of microhardness versus distance from the eroded surface. The physical significance of this parameter is discussed. For coatings that did not deform plastically, an increase in average microhardness at 400 C led to an increase in their volumetric erosion rates. The possible erosion mechanisms for these coating groups are discussed.

Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

1996-12-31

346

Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

2013-10-01

347

Factors affecting oligomerization status of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.  

Science.gov (United States)

UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) is involved in the production of UDP-glucose, a key precursor to polysaccharide synthesis in all organisms. UGPase activity has recently been proposed to be regulated by oligomerization, with monomer as the active species. In the present study, we investigated factors affecting oligomerization status of the enzyme, using purified recombinant barley UGPase. Incubation of wild-type (wt) UGPase with phosphate or Tris buffers promoted oligomerization, whereas Mops and Hepes completely dissociated the oligomers to monomers (the active form). Similar buffer effects were observed for KK127-128LL and C99S mutants of UGPase; however, the buffers had a relatively small effect on the oligomerization status of the LIV135-137NIN mutant, impaired in deoligomerization ability and showing only 6-9% activity of the wt. Buffer composition had no effect on UGPase activity at UGPase protein concentrations below ca. 20 ng/ml. However, at higher protein concentration the activity in Tris, but not Mops nor Hepes, underestimated the amount of the enzyme. The data suggest that oligomerization status of UGPase can be controlled by subtle changes in an immediate environment (buffers) and by protein dilution. The evidence is discussed in relation to our recent model of UGPase structure/function, and with respect to earlier reports on the oligomeric integrity/activity of UGPases from eukaryotic tissues. PMID:16289256

Kleczkowski, Leszek A; Martz, Françoise; Wilczynska, Malgorzata

2005-11-11

348

Factors affecting oligomerization status of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) is involved in the production of UDP-glucose, a key precursor to polysaccharide synthesis in all organisms. UGPase activity has recently been proposed to be regulated by oligomerization, with monomer as the active species. In the present study, we investigated factors affecting oligomerization status of the enzyme, using purified recombinant barley UGPase. Incubation of wild-type (wt) UGPase with phosphate or Tris buffers promoted oligomerization, whereas Mops and Hepes completely dissociated the oligomers to monomers (the active form). Similar buffer effects were observed for KK127-128LL and C99S mutants of UGPase; however, the buffers had a relatively small effect on the oligomerization status of the LIV135-137NIN mutant, impaired in deoligomerization ability and showing only 6-9% activity of the wt. Buffer composition had no effect on UGPase activity at UGPase protein concentrations below ca. 20 ng/ml. However, at higher protein concentration the activity in Tris, but not Mops nor Hepes, underestimated the amount of the enzyme. The data suggest that oligomerization status of UGPase can be controlled by subtle changes in an immediate environment (buffers) and by protein dilution. The evidence is discussed in relation to our recent model of UGPase structure/function, and with respect to earlier reports on the oligomeric integrity/activity of UGPases from eukaryotic tissues.

Kleczkowski LA; Martz F; Wilczynska M

2005-12-01

349

FACTORS AFFECTING THE FORMATION OF COBAMIDE COENZYMES IN CLOSTRIDIUM TETANOMORPHUM.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Toohey, J. I. (University of California, Berkeley), and H. A. Barker. Factors affecting the formation of cobamide coenzymes in Clostridium tetanomorphum. J. Bacteriol. 87:504-509. 1964.-Tests were carried out to determine the optimal culture conditions for the production of cobamide coenzymes in Clostridium tetanomorphum strain H1. A method is described for carrying out coenzyme determinations on the cells from 10-ml cultures of the bacterium. In a basal medium containing magnesium sulfate, ferrous sulfate, manganese sulfate, sodium molybdate, calcium chloride, and potassium phosphate, the optimal concentration of monosodium glutamate was 0.1 m and of yeast extract was 3 g per liter. Addition of glucose at a concentration of 0.05 m was found to double the yield of cells and to increase tenfold the specific coenzyme yield. Addition of cobaltous chloride (2 x 10(-5)m) also increased coenzyme production. Addition of benzimidazole caused an apparent increase in coenzyme production by causing the synthesis of the highly active benzimidazole analogue. Addition of methionine (5 x 10(-6)m) appeared to inhibit coenzyme production.

TOOHEY JI; BARKER HA

1964-03-01

350

Factors affecting precipitation of vancomycin and ceftazidime on intravitreal injection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that affect the precipitation of vancomycin and ceftazidime which are currently used in intravitreal injections for infectious endophthalmitis. METHODS: The minimum concentration required for precipitation of the 2 antibiotics was estimated by 2-fold dilution. In addition, the amount of the precipitate that formed was measured at 4, 3, 2, and 1?mL volumes, temperatures (37°C or 4°C), and in different medias (balanced salt solution plus and normal saline). RESULTS: When 2-fold serial dilutions of vancomycin and ceftazidime were mixed, precipitates started forming at a concentration of 12.5?mg/mL for ceftazidime and 10?mg/mL for vancomycin. The precipitation of vancomycin and ceftazidime increased at lower temperatures (4°C) and lower media volumes (1?mL). However, using a micropipette with a complete mixed media and an antibiotic (vancomycin or ceftazidime) prevented the formation of a precipitate when the other antibiotic was added. CONCLUSION: The formation of a precipitate associated with intravitreal injections was correlated with the diffusion rate of the antibiotics in the media. Precipitation increased at lower temperatures, lower media volumes, and at higher antibiotic concentrations.

Park I; Lee SJ

2013-02-01

351

Factors affecting medication adherence in patients with hypertension.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study descriptive study was to evaluate concordance with medication and those factors that affect the use of medicine in patients with hypertension. Data were collected using a questionnaire completed by 750 patients with hypertension between December 25, 2003, and April 30, 2004, in an outpatient hypertension clinic in Erzincan, Turkey. It was found that 57.9% of the patients did not use their medicines as prescribed. Forgetfulness, aloneness, and negligence were ranked as the top three reasons for this non-concordance, accounting for almost half (49.3%) of all patients with hypertension studied; price (expensive medicines) accounted for another quarter (26.5%). A statistically significant relationship with non-concordance was found for age, education level and profession. Patients' lack of knowledge related to the complications of hypertension was also found to have a statistically significant relationship with not taking medicines as prescribed. Gender, location of residence and salary were not found to be statistically related to concordance. These results indicate the need to educate patients with hypertension on how to use their medicine regularly and indicate also the target populations for this. PMID:23127428

Karakurt, Papatya; Ka?ikçi, Ma?firet

2012-12-01

352

Chordoma: review of clinico radiological features and factors affecting survival  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study reviews the clinico radiological features of cranial and sacrospinal chordomas and identifies factors affecting survival. Nineteen patients seen between January 1980 and December 2000 with histopathological diagnosis of chordomas were retrospectively reviewed with reference to clinical presentation, imaging features, treatment modalities and post-therapy status. Eight had tumours in the skull base while 11 patients had spinal and sacro-coccygeal lesions. Surgical resection was performed in 16 patients whose subsequent natural history was used to identify clinical indicators that may influence survival. Completeness of resection, age, gender and postoperative irradiation were subjected to analysis using the Cox proportional hazard models. Kaplan-Meir survival curves illustrate the survival distributions. Diplopia and facial pain are prime clinical presentations in cranial lesions, while extremity weakness and a sacrogluteal mass are common complaints in the sacrospinal group. Lesional calcifications are present in 40% while an osteolytic soft tissue mass is detectable by CT in all cases. Heterogeneous signals and internal septations on T2-weighted MRI are predominant features. In sacrospinal tumours, complete excision with adjuvant radiotherapy achieves the best results with a disease-free survival of more than 5 years. The clinical and imaging findings in this study are in accordance with those of other series. Except for complete surgical excision followed by radiotherapy in the subset of patients with sacrospinal tumours, none of the other clinical indicators show a statistical significant influence on survival. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

2001-01-01

353

Smoking prevalence in military men, and factors affecting this.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study was to determine smoking prevalence among noncommissioned officers and privates and the factors affecting it. This study was carried out in a division of 20,000 soldiers. One of every 10 names on the roster was chosen at random. Responses were received from 1,822 subjects (91.1%), all male, in the final month of their 18-month military service with a mean age of 20.3 +/- 2.2 years. Individuals performing their military service were surveyed using a self-administered, anonymous, personal, and voluntary questionnaire. It was determined that 1,160 (63.7%) of the participants were smokers: 180 (9.9%) were occasional smokers, and 980 (53.8) were heavy smokers. For the fathers of the participants, these rates were 15.4% and 40.5%, respectively. The frequency of smoking was found to be higher in subjects who had high incomes, who had high levels of education, whose fathers smoked, and who were raised in environments in which there were many smokers. It was determined that 31.4% of subjects had begun smoking within the previous 2 years during their period of military service.

Tekbas F; Vaizo?lu SA; Guleç M; Hasde M; Güler C

2002-09-01

354

Non-auditory factors affecting urban soundscape evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study is to characterize urban spaces, which combine landscape, acoustics, and lighting, and to investigate people's perceptions of urban soundscapes through quantitative and qualitative analyses. A general questionnaire survey and soundwalk were performed to investigate soundscape perception in urban spaces. Non-auditory factors (visual image, day lighting, and olfactory perceptions), as well as acoustic comfort, were selected as the main contexts that affect soundscape perception, and context preferences and overall impressions were evaluated using an 11-point numerical scale. For qualitative analysis, a semantic differential test was performed in the form of a social survey, and subjects were also asked to describe their impressions during a soundwalk. The results showed that urban soundscapes can be characterized by soundmarks, and soundscape perceptions are dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and day lighting, whereas reverberance in urban spaces does not yield consistent preference judgments. It is posited that the subjective evaluation of reverberance can be replaced by physical measurements. The categories extracted from the qualitative analysis revealed that spatial impressions such as openness and density emerged as some of the contexts of soundscape perception.

Jeon JY; Lee PJ; Hong JY; Cabrera D

2011-12-01

355

Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS) on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels), artificial insemination stud (4 levels) and sire of bull (137 levels). All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

Mara Battagin; Mauro Penasa; Martino Cassandro

2012-01-01

356

Conservação de sementes de Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K.) McVaugh Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K.) McVaugh seed storability as affected by temperature and seed moisture content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As sementes de Myrciaria dubia apresentam baixa longevidade e demandam a ampliação do conhecimento sobre fatores interferentes na sua conservação. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar as influências do grau de umidade e da temperatura do ambiente na manutenção da qualidade dessas sementes. Para tanto, sementes com 48%, 43%, 40%, 34%, 30%, 24%, 18% e 14% de água, acondicionadas em sacos de polietileno, foram armazenadas sob temperaturas controladas de 10 ºC, 20 ºC e 30 ºC, durante 280 dias, e submetidas, periodicamente, à avaliação do grau de umidade, da germinação, do vigor e da sanidade. Constatou-se que as sementes têm a conservação favorecida pela associação do grau de umidade de 43% com a temperatura de armazenamento de 10 °C.Myrciaria dubia seeds have a short life span and few informations are available about the factors that determine their storability. The main aim of this research work was to check the effects of three temperatures (10 ºC, 20 ºC and 30 ºC) and eight seed moisture contents (48%, 43%, 40%, 34%, 30%, 24%, 18% and 14%) on seed storability, during a time period of 280 days. Periodic evaluations of seed moisture content, germination, vigor and healthness were carried out throughout the experimental time. The best seed storability conditions were observed at 10 °C and 43% of seed moisture content.

Daniel Felipe de Oliveira Gentil; Walter Rodrigues da Silva; Sidney Alberto do Nascimento Ferreira

2004-01-01

357

Relation between growth stages and synthesis of flavonoids and essential oils affected by irradiation in Ruta graveolens seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ruta graveolens plants are radio-adaptive up to 8 Krad gamma radiation. Flavonoids and essential oils were remarkably increased as function of irradiation doses from 2 up to 8 Krad. Doses of 4 and 8 Krad were the most effective ones. Concerning flavonoids, 4 and 8 Krad treatments exerted the following percent increase over control plants: 76, 77% (leaves), 137, 100% (stems), 153, 80% (flowers) and 77, 61% (fruits). The distribution pattern of flavonoids was in the following order: Leaves > flowers > fruits > stems. Treated plants with 4 or 8 Krad resulted in an increase in essential oil yield by 65-67% over control plants. Chemical constitution of oil: ketones and esters did not seem to be affected by seed irradiation (0-8 Krad). Similarly, physical properties ''refractive index, solubility and specific gravity'' did not materially affect. However, chemical properties ''acid value, ester value and saponification value'' were increased by 24% over control treatment as a function of 4 Krad. Yet higher doses had the capacity of increasing the acid value but not of both ester or saponification value.

1984-01-01

358

Effects of Some Environmental Factors on Seed Germination and Spreading Potentials of Silybum marianum Gaertner  

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Full Text Available Silybum marianum Gaertner is spreading in many crops of Southern Italy, particularly in durum wheat, sugar beet and some vegetable crops. Information about its biology are useful to set up effective control strategies. Four experiments were carried out at the Crop Science Department of the University of Bari (Southern Italy). Two trials were conducted in Petri dishes and evaluated the effects of different light, temperature and osmotic stress conditions on the seed germination. Another trial evaluated the ability of seedlings to emerge from different depths. The effects of eight different sowing periods on the plant growth were assessed in the fourth experiment. The highest germination rate was found with constant temperatures of 25 °C or 30 °C and with alternating temperatures of 25- 15 °C for 8 and 16 hours respectively. Germination was affected by the light and was significantly decreased at 0.2 Mpa and completely inhibited at -0.8 Mpa. Plant emergence was strongly reduced from a depth of more than 3 cm. The plant size at the first bloom was reduced by postponing the sowing period from October to February. The same decreasing trend was observed in the number of flower heads and in the number of days required for the first bloom. Results can suggest some important strategies to manage this species. False sowing, followed by irrigation, can be recommended in summer, in order to obtain the highest seed germination. Since the emergence of this plant is very scarce from a depth of more than 3 cm, ploughing can be effective to bury seeds in case of strong disseminations in order to reduce the infestation in the following crop.

Pasquale Montemurro; Mariano Fracchiolla; Antonio Lonigro

2011-01-01

359

Effects of Some Environmental Factors on Seed Germination and Spreading Potentials of Silybum marianum Gaertner  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Silybum marianum Gaertner is spreading in many crops of Southern Italy, particularly in durum wheat, sugar beet and some vegetable crops. Information about its biology are useful to set up effective control strategies. Four experiments were carried out at the Crop Science Department of the University of Bari (Southern Italy). Two trials were conducted in Petri dishes and evaluated the effects of different light, temperature and osmotic stress conditions on the seed germination. Another trial evaluated the ability of seedlings to emerge from different depths. The effects of eight different sowing periods on the plant growth were assessed in the fourth experiment. The highest germination rate was found with constant temperatures of 25 °C or 30 °C and with alternating temperatures of 25- 15 °C for 8 and 16 hours respectively. Germination was affected by the light and was significantly decreased at 0.2 Mpa and completely inhibited at -0.8 Mpa. Plant emergence was strongly reduced from a depth of more than 3 cm. The plant size at the first bloom was reduced by postponing the sowing period from October to February. The same decreasing trend was observed in the number of flower heads and in the number of days required for the first bloom. Results can suggest some important strategies to manage this species. False sowing, followed by irrigation, can be recommended in summer, in order to obtain the highest seed germination. Since the emergence of this plant is very scarce from a depth of more than 3 cm, ploughing can be effective to bury seeds in case of strong disseminations in order to reduce the infestation in the following crop.

Pasquale Montemurro; Mariano Fracchiolla; Antonio Lonigro

360

Effects of Some Environmental Factors on Seed Germination and Spreading Potentials of Silybum marianum Gaertner  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Silybum marianum Gaertner is spreading in many crops of Southern Italy, particularly in durum wheat, sugar beet and some vegetable crops. Information about its biology are useful to set up effective control strategies. Four experiments were carried out at the Crop Science Department of the University of Bari (Southern Italy). Two trials were conducted in Petri dishes and evaluated the effects of different light, temperature and osmotic stress conditions on the seed germination. Another trial evaluated the ability of seedlings to emerge from different depths. The effects of eight different sowing periods on the plant growth were assessed in the fourth experiment. The highest germination rate was found with constant temperatures of 25 °C or 30 °C and with alternating temperatures of 25- 15 °C for 8 and 16 hours respectively. Germination was affected by the light and was significantly decreased at 0.2 Mpa and completely inhibited at -0.8 Mpa. Plant emergence was strongly reduced from a depth of more than 3 cm. The plant size at the first bloom was reduced by postponing the sowing period from October to February. The same decreasing trend was observed in the number of flower heads and in the number of days required for the first bloom. Results can suggest some important strategies to manage this species. False sowing, followed by irrigation, can be recommended in summer, in order to obtain the highest seed germination. Since the emergence of this plant is very scarce from a depth of more than 3 cm, ploughing can be effective to bury seeds in case of strong disseminations in order to reduce the infestation in the following crop.

Pasquale Montemurro; Mariano Fracchiolla; Antonio Lonigro

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Factores grupales que inciden en la productividad/ Group factors affecting productivity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las organizaciones en la actualidad están sometidas permanentemente a cambios acelerados, obligándolas a incrementar su flexibilidad y adaptabilidad para mantener su posición competitiva, sobrevivir a estas presiones lograr sus objetivos y ser más productivas. Por estas razones, la productividad del factor humano es fundamental, ya que son las personas las que realizan los procesos creativos que generan resultados en las organizaciones. Cuando las personas interactúa (more) n en la organización se generan unos procesos de carácter psicosocial que incide en el desempeño de individuos, grupos y organización y se denominan Factores grupales, porque son producto de la actuación de las personas en grupos de trabajo. Dichos factores tienen impacto en la productividad, por lo que resulta de interés el estudio de estas relaciones. Con el fin de analizar este impacto, se presenta relaciones Factores Grupales-Productividad, mediante un Modelo de Ecuaciones Estructurales (SEM), donde los Factores Grupales y la Productividad son constructos o variables latentes explicadas por variables observables o indicadores. El modelo planteado, es aceptado de acuerdo con los índices globales de ajuste y a las cargas factoriales de las variables del modelo resultante. Se corroboró que los factores grupales, tales como Cohesión, Conflicto, Consenso y Moral, inciden en la productividad. Abstract in english Organizations today are undergoing rapid change permanently, forcing them to increase their flexibility and adaptability to stay competitive, to survive these pressures, achieve their goals and be more productive. For these reasons, the productivity of the human factor is critical because it is the people doing the creative processes those results in organizations. When people interact in the organization are a generated psychosocial process that affects the performance o (more) f individuals, groups and organization and are called group factors, because they are the product of individual behavior in work groups. These factors have an impact on productivity, so it is interesting to study these relationships. To analyze this impact is presented group factors-productivity relationships through a Structural Equation Model (SEM), where the group factors and productivity are constructs or latent variables explained by observable variables or indicators. The proposed model is accepted in accordance with the global fit indices and factor loadings of the variables of the resulting model. It was confirmed that the group factors, such as Cohesion, Conflict, Consensus and Moral affect productivity.

Mirza Marvel, Cequea; Núñez Bottini, Miguel; Rodríguez-Monroy, Carlos

2011-12-01

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